CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS (CCBs) FOR BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS (CCBs) FOR  BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS (CCBs) FOR
THEIR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION
A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MINING ENGINEERING
By
PATITAPABAN SAHU
10605004
DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ROURKELA, ORISSA - 769008
2009-2010
A
CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS (CCBs) FOR
THEIR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION
A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MINING ENGINEERING
By
PATITAPABAN SAHU
Under the Guidance of
Prof. H.K.NAIK
DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ROURKELA, ORISSA - 769008
2009-2010
i
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled “CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION
BY-PRODUCTS (CCBs) FOR THEIR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION”
submitted by Sri Patitapaban Sahu, Roll No. 10605004 in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree in Mining Engineering at the National Institute
of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is an authentic work carried out by him under my
supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any
other University/Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.
Date:
Prof. H.K.NAIK
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Prof. H.K.NAIK, Department
of Mining Engineering, N.I.T Rourkela, for introducing the present topic and for his inspiring
guidance, constructive criticism and valuable suggestion throughout this project work.
My sincere thank to all my friends who have patiently extended all sorts of help for
accomplishing this undertaking.
DATE:
Patitapaban Sahu
PLACE:
Dept. of Mining engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela – 769008
iii
CONTENTS
SL.NO.
CHAPTER 1
TOPIC
ABSTRACT
1
1. INTRODUCTION
2
1.1 Source and description
CHAPTER 2
PAGE NO.
2-3
1.2 Definitions
4
1.3 Generation of fly ash
5
1.4 Composition of fly ash
6
1.5 Classification of fly ash
7
1.6 Beneficial and uses
8-9
1.7 Environment and Safety
9-11
1.8 Need for utilization of fly ash
11-12
1.9 Objective of the present study
12
1.10 Experimental study plan
12
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
13
2.1 Current Fly ash generation
13-14
2.2 Fly ash transportation
14
2.3 Ash utilization
15-17
2.4 Fly ash management
17-22
2.5 Characterization of fly ash
22-27
2.6 Design considerations
28-30
iv
CHAPTER 3
2.7 Construction procedures
30-32
2.8 Special considerations
32-33
2.9 Slurry flow behavior
33-41
2.10 Transportation process with additive feeding system
41-43
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
44
3.1 Ash sampling
44
3.2 Physicochemical properties
3.3 Settling characteristics of fly ash
3.4 Slump test
CHAPTER 4
52
52-54
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
55
4.1 SEM
55-57
4.2 Specific gravity
57-58
4.3 True density
58
4.4 Moisture Content
59
4.5 Specific surface area (BET)
59
4.6 Particle size analysis
60-61
4.7 Settling characteristics of fly ash
61-63
4.8 Slump test
CHAPTER 5
44-51
63
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
64-65
REFERENCES
66-68
v
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
NO.
TOPICS
NO.
1.1
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF INDIAN FLY ASH
6
1.2
COAL ASH UTILIZATION
8
2.1
COMPARISION OF THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF
24
DIFFERENT COAL FLY ASH
4.1
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FLY ASH
57
4.2
TRUE DENSITY OF FLY ASH
58
4.3
MOISTURE CONTENT OF FLY ASH
59
vi
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
PAGE
NO.
TITLE
NO.
1.1
GENERATION OF ASH AT THE POWER PLANTS
5
2.1
FLOW REGIMES IN SLURRY TRANSPORTATION
34
2.2
SHEAR STRESS VS. RATE OF SHEAR STRAIN
38
2.3
FLOWSHEET OF TRANSPORTATION PROCESS
43
3.1
BET PLOT
49
4.1
SEM
MICROPHOTOGRAPHS
OF
FLY
ASH
UNDER
55-56
DIFFERENT MAGNIFICATION
4.2
PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH
4.3
VARIATION OF SETTLING CHARACTERISTICS OF FLY
ASH WITH DIFFERENT COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH AND
WATER
vii
60
61-62
ABSTRACT
The main use of coal in India is for generation of electricity, both currently and apparently also
in the future. In India approximately 70% of power generation has been through coal-fired
thermal power plants. About 60% of produced coal is used for power generation. The coal which
is used in power plants has an ash content of about 30-50%. The Coal Ash Administration that
was established in 1993 with the objective of coordinating the effort at a national level to solve
the problem of ash accumulation at the power plants, chose to deal with the problem by
advancing the use of coal ash as a resource having economic value, in various sectors, as is done
in most of the developed countries in the world.
This site is intended to provide information regarding coal ash characteristics, beneficial uses of
coal ash, both currently and in the future, in construction, infrastructures, industry and
agriculture in India, to provide information on environmental quality issues, and to describe what
is being done in this area to prevent damage to the environment and to improve it. Since coal fly
ash consists of predominantly silt-sized particles, there is sometimes a concern about the possible
frost susceptibility of fly ash as an embankment or structural backfill material, which can provide
scope for environmentally safe. The major challenge with the introduction of the fly ash is its
generation in unmanageable volumes which creates environmental problems in terms of land
degradation, and degradation of air and water quality. The problem of storage and disposal of the
fly ash creates a considerable pressure on land availability particularly in a densely populated
country like India. Many researchers are working towards the large scale utilization of fly ash.
The approaches include intermixing the fly ash with cement for civil construction work,
manufacture of bricks, and utilization as a road pavement material and application as soil
amendment medium for the plant growth.
1
CHAPTER-1
1. INTRODUCTION
Coal ash is the mineral residue that is obtained as a byproduct of the combustion of coal for the
production of electricity. Two types of coal ash are obtained i.e. fly ash and bottom ash. In each
country utilization of fly ash depends on the local condition and has much to do with the fact that
fly ash is multifunctional material and can be used for various purposes. In the building industry
fly ash can be used in different ways for different products. In concrete fly ash can be used as
partial replacement of cement and/or sand to enhance workability of fresh concrete, to reduce
heat of hydration and to improve concrete impermeability and resistance to sulfate attack.
The properties of fly ash are varying depending on the coal kind and origin and on the power
plant mode of operation. In certain uses some kind of beneficiation is required, either to improve
its properties for the specific use or to achieve homogeneity. In concrete, fly ash can actually be
used also "as is" when its properties fall within certain limits, but classification by particle size
and/or control of the unburned coal greatly enhance the beneficial effects of the fly ash and of
course its commercial value.
1.1 SOURCE AND DESCRIPTION
Coal ash is the mineral residue that is obtained as a byproduct of the combustion of coal for the
production of electricity. Three types of coal ash are obtained:

Fly ash, which constitutes 85% - 90% of the overall ash, is a fine, light gray powder
made up of glassy spheres from sub-micron to more than 100 microns in size, (98%
2
smaller than 75 microns; 70% - 80% smaller than 45 microns). The material has a
specific gravity between 1.9 - 2.4 and bulk density of about 0.8 - 1 ton per cubic meter
and a maximal density (modified) of 1,000 - 1,400 kg per m3. The specific surface area of
fly ash varies between 2,000 to 6,800 cm2 per gram. Fly ash contains cenospheres hollow spherical particles having an especially low bulk density of 0.4 - 0.6 ton per cubic
meter, which constitute up to 5% of the ash weight and are suitable to be utilized for
special industrial applications.

Bottom Ash, which constitutes about 10% - 15% of the overall ash, has an appearance
similar to dark gray coarse sand, and its particles are clusters of micron-sized granules, up
to 10 mm in diameter (60% - 70% smaller than 2 mm. 10% - 20% smaller than 75
microns). It has a bulk density of about 1 ton per cubic meter and a maximal density
(modified) of 1,200 - 1,500 kg per m3.

Pond Ash, Fly ash and bottom ashes are mixed together with water to form slurry which
is pumped to the ash pond area. In the ash pond the, ash gets settled and excess water is
decanted. This deposited ash is called pond ash.
Along with coal ash gypsum (FGD - Flue Gas Desulfurization) is obtained as a result of removal
of sulfur from exhaust gases, it is also one of the group of Coal Combustion Products, CCP's, or
Coal Combustion Byproducts, CCB's.
3
1.2 DEFINITIONS:
1.2.1 FLY ASH
Fly ash is the finest of coal ash particles. It is called "fly" ash because it is transported from the
combustion chamber by exhaust gases. Fly ash is the fine powder formed from the mineral
matter in coal, consisting of the noncombustible matter in coal plus a small amount of carbon
that remains from incomplete combustion. Fly ash is generally light in color and consists mostly
of silt-sized and clay-sized glassy spheres. This gives fly ash a consistency somewhat like talcum
powder. Properties of fly ash vary significantly with coal composition and plant-operating
conditions.
Fly ash can be referred to as either cementitious or pozzolanic. A cementitious material is one
that hardens when mixed with water. A pozzolanic material will also harden with water but only
after activation with an alkaline substance such as lime. These cementitious and pozzolanic
properties are what make some fly ashes useful for cement replacement in concrete and many
other building applications.
1.2.2 BOTTOM ASH
Coal bottom ash and fly ash are quite different physically, mineralogically, and chemically.
Bottom ash is a coarse, granular, incombustible byproduct that is collected from the bottom of
furnaces that burn coal for the generation of steam, the production of electric power, or both.
Bottom ash is coarser than fly ash, with grain sizes spanning from fine sand to fine gravel. The
type of byproduct produced depends on the type of furnace used to burn the coal.
4
1.3 GENERATION OF FLY ASH
Fly ash particles are swept along with the exhaust gases and are collected in electrostatic
precipitators before they reach the stack. The ash is stored in silos in a dry state. From the silos, it
is transferred in trucks to be used in industry as a pozzolanic additive in cement and concrete
batch plants, or as a filler in various products. When the silos are full, it is conditioned by
moistening (to 22% moisture) and sent for intermediate storage in open piles at the power
stations or outside of them until it is utilized as a filler material in roads and infrastructure works.
Transport of the moistened ash is done in semi-trailer trucks that are covered with canvas.
The bottom ash falls into a water pool at the bottom of the boiler and is removed by a conveyor
belt to storage facilities and from there to intermediate storage piles while in a water-saturated
state. In the piles, the water content decreases to about 20%.
(FIGURE 1.1 Generation of ash at the power plants)
5
1.4 COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH
The ash is mainly composed of silica, alumina, and smaller quantities of oxides of iron,
magnesium, calcium and other elements. It practically contains almost all the known elements,
including toxic elements in trace quantities, which, to the extent of the concentration of their
availability, may sometimes demands preventive environmental care. Furthermore, the ash
contains radioactive elements in small quantities, but their concentration in ash is relatively
larger than their concentrations in most natural rocks and soil. The ash also contains unburned
carbon residue that gives it its dark color. The carbon content, as measured by a loss on ignition
test, LOI, is commonly found in Indian coal ash to be in the range of 0.5 to 3.0%.
(TABLE 1.1 Chemical Composition of Indian Fly Ash)
6
1.5 CLASSIFICATION OF FLY ASH
1.5.1 Class F fly ash
The burning of harder, older anthracite and bituminous coal typically produces class F fly ash.
This fly ash is not pozzolanic in nature, and contains less than 10% lime (CaO). Possessing
pozzolanic properties, the glassy silica and alumina of Class F fly ash requires a cementing
agent, such as Portland cement, quicklime, or hydrated lime, with the presence of water in order
to react and produce cementitious compounds. Alternatively, the addition of a chemical activator
such as (water glass) to a Class F ash can lead to the formation of a geopolymer.
1.5.2 Class C fly ash
Fly ash produced from the burning of younger lignite or sub-bituminous coal, in addition to
having pozzolanic properties, also has some self-cementing properties. In the presence of water,
Class C fly ash will harden and gain strength over time. Class C fly ash generally contains more
than 20% lime (CaO). Unlike Class F, self-cementing Class C fly ash does not require an
activator. Alkali and sulfate (SO4) contents are generally higher in Class C fly ashes.
At least one US manufacturer has announced a fly ash brick containing up to 50 percent Class C
fly ash. Testing shows the bricks meet or exceed the performance standards listed in ASTM C
216 for conventional clay brick; it is also within the allowable shrinkage limits for concrete brick
in ASTM C 55, Standard Specification for Concrete Building Brick. It is estimated that the
production method used in fly ash bricks will reduce the embodied energy of masonry
construction by up to 90%. Bricks and pavers are expected to be available in commercial
quantities before the end of 2009
7
1.6 BENEFICIAL USES
From the standpoint of the electricity generation system, ash is a waste product (residue) that
must be disposed of at the lowest possible cost, thus without harming the environment. By
contrast, from a national economic standpoint, ash is a by-product which has an economic value.
Coal ash is a substitute for dwindling natural raw materials (sand, aggregates, tuff, etc.) that are
now in short supply, and whose quarrying harms the environment. The return to coal as an
important energy source for electricity production at the start of the 1970's, on one hand, and the
increasing awareness of environmental protection on the other hand, led to development and
implantation efforts for a variety of ash uses around the world.
(Table 1.2: Coal ash utilization)
In
the
construction
sector
centre
As a Pozolan additive to substitute for clinker and as a raw material to substitute
for clay in the production of cement, as a partial substitute for cement and sand in
concrete, as a fine aggregate in blocks and as a raw material in the production of
lightweight and insulating aggregates.
In Infrastructure Sectors:
As fill material to amend inferior materials for paving roads, marine drying,
landscape repair, stabilizing foothills and preserving soil. In foundations and
filling of spaces. As an impervious layer in the restoration of landfills and the
isolation of contaminated soils.
In Agriculture
As an ingredient in growth bed mixtures for plants and as a soil amendment. As an
amendment for fertilizer made from municipal sewage sludge.
In Industry:
As filler in plastic, paint, asphalt and sealing materials and as a carrier for
controlled - released fertilizers. As a raw material in ceramic glass materials and
refractory materials.
In the Metal Market
As a source for the production of metals.
8
The uses in the construction and infrastructure sectors are the most common and they exploit the
coal ash as is. The other uses require processing of the ash, mainly classification according to
size and purity by physical and/or chemical separation. Their potential use is relatively small;
however the price of processing is compensated for by the prices obtained, from a few dollars up
to hundreds of dollars per ton or even per kilogram, relative to competing materials.
The level of ash utilization and the entire scope of uses in various countries are dependent on the
local characteristics of each country - economic, geological, geographic, environmental, etc.
1.7 ENVIRONMENT AND SAFETY
Since the source of coal is an agglomeration of organisms and minerals accumulated over
extended geological time periods, it contains most of the natural elements at concentrations that
are characteristic of the environment of the deposit from which it was mined, including heavy
metals and radioactive elements. In the combustion of coal, some of the elements evaporate and
others concentrate in the mineral residue in the form of ash. The ash is composed mainly of the
inorganic constituents of the coal: oxides of silicon, aluminum, iron and calcium.
However, in general, the availability of the hazardous materials is quite low, both because of
their level of solubility that is limited as a result of chemical bonds that are created in the ash at
high temperatures of the combustion compartment and the glassy structure of the particles, and
because of their low concentration in the ash as trace elements.
This is the reason that coal ash itself is not defined as a hazardous or toxic material in any
country or by any environmental organization in the world. In India, as in all countries of the
world, coal ash has been defined as "a returnable by-product of the energy production that
9
requires environmental supervision for its uses". This is due to the economic-social justification
for preferring its beneficial utilization over its disposal as waste, and due to its contribution to the
environment as a substitute for quarry materials, which prevents damage caused by quarrying
and the air pollution that is inherent in converting those to industrial materials.
The environmental issues that must be addressed concerning the uses of coal ash concentrate on
the following potential problems:

Leaching of hazardous materials and the concern for pollution of water sources and land.

Nuclear radiation and radon emissions in construction materials.

Dust nuisances and exposure to free crystalline silica.
Under local hydro-geological conditions, the groundwater reservoirs are liable to be exposed to
accumulated pollution of a few toxic elements, e.g. Cr, Se, whose availability in the coal fly ash
is relatively high. However, since the exposure of the ash to the environment causes very rapid
fixation processes to occur, the danger is lessened in a short period of time. Reducing direct
contact of the coal ash with the environment minimizes the risk of pollutant leaching to a low
level.
Nuclear radiation is liable to be a problem in construction materials that contain coal ash at very
high levels (more than 50% by weight). Nevertheless, the physical structure of the raw ash
particles and their being bound to the other construction materials, as well as the contribution of
the ash to the compactness of the construction material, significantly reduce the amount of radon
emission in construction materials, causing a reduction of the overall radiation from the materials
10
to a level that has no risk of overexposure compared to radiation from natural raw materials and
to the background radiation of the environment.
Coal ash dust is defined around the world as a nuisance, but in India it is included in the
regulations concerning harmful dust. Although some of the silica that is in coal ash exists as
Quartz, a crystalline substance that is liable to endanger those who are exposed to it in a
consistent and prolonged manner, nevertheless, the means that are customarily used to prevent
the dispersion of dust and for protection against exposure to the dust completely nullify this risk.
In any case, the presence of hazardous materials in coal ash requires an environmental
examination of the ash itself and its uses. For this purpose, ash control mechanisms and
characterization methods were developed in the developed countries of the world, as well as
conditions and rules for usage that enable to exploit the economic benefits with reasonable
environmental limitations. The Ministry of the Environment adopted the guidelines of the United
States Environmental Protection Agency, which include a method for extraction of pollutants
and a list of values that defines hazardous materials, and established a list of permitted maximum
values in ash as a condition for use.
1.8 NEED FOR UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH
Fly ash can mainly be used for mine void filling which can provide scope for the
environmentally safe and large volume utilization. This is only possible by the availability of fly
ash in the proximity of a mining site and hydraulic conveyance is a potential technology both in
terms of economics and environmental conservation.
11
The by-product applications of fly ash can be classified as high, medium and low technology.
The high technology applications include the recovery of valuable materials, and filler material
for polymer and matrix composites from fly ash. Medium technology includes the use of fly ash
for manufacture of blended cement, light weight aggregates and bricks; blocks etc. Low
technology applications include the use of fly ash for land reclamation.
1.9 OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENT STUDY
1. Investigation into the physical, chemical and engineering properties of fly ash
2. Investigation into settling characteristics of the fly ash samples collected.
3. Investigation into slump test of the fly ash
1.10 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY PLAN
In order to achieve the objectives outlined, the study plan is divided into the following stages.
1. Collection of the fly ash samples from the thermal power plants.
2. For the samples collected, determination of physicochemical properties of relevance using
standard physical and chemical analysis procedures and using of different instruments such as
SEM, XRD, BET, SLUMP TEST.
3. Characterization of the fly ash samples with respect to the engineering properties of composite
material.
12
CHAPTER 2
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CURRENT FLY ASH GENERATION
The current electricity generation in India is about 112,058MW, 65-70% of which is thermal
(mostly coal based). According to an estimate 100,000 MW capacity or more would be required
in the next 10 years due to continually increasing demand for electricity. In India fly ash
generation is around 110 million tones / year and is set to continue at a high rate into the
foreseeable future. Presently majority of the coal ash generated is being handled in wet form and
disposed off in ash ponds which are harmful for the environment and moreover ash remains
unutilized for gainful applications. India has sufficient coal reserves. In India almost 65-70% of
electricity production is dependent on coal which produces a huge quantity of Fly Ash as residue
which is allegedly a waste product in Thermal Power Stations. Fly Ash has a vast potential for
use in High Volume fly ash concrete especially due its physico-chemical properties. A good
amount of research has already been done in India and abroad on its strength and other requisite
parameters.
The thermal power plant ash generation has increased from about 40 million tons during 19931994 to about more than 120million tones during 2008-09 and is expected to be in the range of
175 million tons per year by 2012, on account of the proposal to double the power generation.
Coupled with this, the deteriorating quality (increasing ash quantity) of coal is expected to
aggravate the situation. However the emergence of the clean coal technology may provide some
relief in terms of ash quantity. Till the early 1990s‘ only a very small percentage (3%) of the fly
ash was used productively in India, and the balance material was being dumped in slurry form in
the vast ash ponds close to power plants. The number of governmental and institutional actions
13
taken since then has increased the ash utilization to 43% during 2004-05. Current fly ash
generation and utilization in six major states; Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan,
Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh is presented in the present report.
2.2 FLY ASH TRANSPORTATION
Fly ash can be supplied in four forms:
Dry: This is currently the most commonly used method of supplying fly ash. Dry fly ash is
handled in a similar manner to Portland cement. Storage is in sealed silos with the associated
filtration and desiccation equipment, or in bags.
Conditioned: In this method, water is added to the fly ash to facilitate compaction and handling.
The amount of water added being determined by the end use of the fly ash. Conditioned fly ash
is widely used in aerated concrete blocks, grout and specialist fill applications.
Stockpiled: Conditioned fly ash not sold immediately is stockpiled and used at a later date. The
moisture content of stockpiled ash is typically 10 to 15%. This is used mainly in large fill and
bulk grouting applications.
Lagoon: Some power stations pump fly ash as slurry to large lagoons. These are drained and
when the moisture content of deposited fly ash has reached a safe level may be recovered.
Because of the nature of the disposal technique, the moisture content can vary from around 5%
to over 30%. Lagoon fly ash can be used in similar applications to stockpiled conditioned fly ash.
14
2.3 ASH UTILIZATION
2.3.1 FLY ASH UTILIZATION
Initially, local fly ash was of irregular quality, some of it with high LOI. It was used by the
cement industry mainly as an additive to the ground clinker. The high LOI ash had been utilized
as a structural fill for embankments around the power station and irregularly as a raw material for
the kiln. Later, when the quality of the fly ash was improved and with the increased demand for
cement, due to the construction boom, most of the fly ash was consumed by the cement industry
for inter-grinding and as a raw material. But with the decline in the cement demand and with the
restriction to use fly ash for road construction, due to environmental aspects, the unused fly ash,
caused also by introduction of new power plants, was dumped into the sea. However, from 1997,
when the price of dune sand went up significantly, the "conservative" concrete industry decided
to start using fly ash with the necessary investment in the required additional facilities.
Moreover, the Electric Corporation provided free fly ash, up to ten thousand tons, to the readymix companies for "experiments" with technical consultancy given by the NCAB. At the
beginning fly ash was used only as sand replacement, with economical saving, but after getting
some experience also some replacement of cement was done and fly ash was used for its
technical merits. At first, only one major ready-mix concrete company used fly ash but later,
most of the concrete producers followed.
2.3.1.1 CEMENT
The cement industry found that with this amount they can use the fly ash "as is" without any
beneficiation except for a limit on the maximum LOI. The cement industry can also use high
LOI fly ash but as part of the raw material that goes to the kiln.
15
2.3.1.2 CONCRETE
Concrete is the main structural material; steel and wood are used on very small scale. Most of the
concretes are produced in ready-mix concrete plants and the most common concrete is B-30.
Production is the year-round as the winter in Israel is mild; hence there is no need for extensive
storage facilities. Use of fly ash by ready-mix plant is subjected to permission from the
government environmental authority, and is sometimes precluded due to some other
environmental problems of the concrete plant.
A unique situation exists regarding fly ash as a sand replacement. On the one hand there is a
shortage of sand in close proximity to the center and particularly to the northern region while on
the other, the use of crushed sand (quarry sand), that was allowed just recently, impaired the
workability of the fresh concrete.
The natural sands from the dunes along the coastline were the main supply source until recently.
However, this source was depleted due to the intensive building activity. Hence, as the electrical
power stations are located in the center of Israel utilization of fly ash as sand replacement, with
some cement reduction is economical.
The use of crushed sand instead of natural dune sand presents some disadvantages on the
workability of fresh concrete. In general, the particle shape of crushed sand is more angular with
a rougher surface texture, and usually flakier and more elongated than that of natural sand. By
contrast, the fly ash particle has a spherical shape and a smooth surface. Thus, a combination of
fly ash and crushed sand yield a far superior concrete mix than crushed sand alone and obviates
the disadvantage of partial or total replacement of the natural sand with crushed sand. Moreover,
as sand replacement, the utilization of fly ash can be done without beneficiation, but with limits
on LOI.
16
2.3.2 BOTTOM ASH UTILIZATION
Bottom ash utilization was delayed due to environmental restriction. It's utilization in road
construction, land reclamation and agricultural were done only recently.
2.3.2.1 ROAD CONSTRUCTION
Bottom ash and fly ash, 260 thousand tons, were used in road construction and land reclamation
during 2005. Most of these materials used for the construction which was suffered from lack of
structural material sources. In view of the increased synchronization between fly ash production
and concrete demand, we do not anticipate significant surpluses of fly ash in the near future, so
that less will be available for road construction.
2.3.2.2 AGRICULTURE
Bottom ash is used in small amount, 20 thousand tons, for agricultural applications.
Its coarse fraction, ≥2 mm, serves as substrates for plant growth – a substitute for tuff in
detached beds, and the fine fraction, ≤ 2 mm, for cowshed bedding and in poultry breeding, as a
secretion absorbent.
2.4 FLY ASH MANAGEMENT
2.4.1 Fly Ash Management - Eliminating Waste and Abating CO2 Emissions
Different methods of processing coal, different coal washery systems, clean coal technologies
and particularly the development of ultra clean coal can, and do, have a dramatic effect on the
quality and quantity of fly ash, generated by the combustion of pulverized coal. This type of
solution, while reducing the problem of fly ash disposal, still leaves us with a problem of
disposal of coal washery refuse, or some other form of processed coal waste.
17
There are other potential possibilities for modifying the characteristics of fly ash to advantage,
converting it from waste into a value added product. Two examples are increasing pozzolanicity
and enhancing the cenosphere content of fly ash.
2.4.2 INCREASING POZZOLANICITY
The pozzolanicity of fly ashes can vary widely. This reflects both the amount and nature of the
mineral matter in the pulverized coals being used as fuel and the combustion conditions under
which the fly ash is formed. It is believed that the production of fly ash of very high
pozzolanicity is possible, without compromising the operation of a power station, through the
judicious selection of appropriate coals or through slight modification of the chemical
composition of the mineral matter present in the pulverized coal, and also through controlling the
combustion process.
Much higher Portland cement replacement rates with fly ash in concretes can be achieved using
highly reactive ash, and still comply with the relevant Australian standards.
Pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash is enhanced under steam-curing conditions. If concrete block
manufacturing plants could be located near electric power stations, eliminating the need for
transportation of ash and making full use of the available steam, again there could be a
significant increase in the use of the fly ash.
18
2.4.3 CENOSPHERES
Most fly ashes contain a small proportion of thin-walled hollow spheres which are called
'cenospheres'. Many of these have a specific gravity less than one and when the fly ash is sluiced
to the ash disposal dam they float and can be recovered as a value-added product.
For example, cenospheres have been used as filler in plastic and paint manufacturing and in the
production of insulating refractory, which are known for their excellent strength to density ratios
and for the thermal shock resistance. In Australia cenospheres after appropriate processing can
fetch prices well in excess of $500/t when used in these applications.
The cenosphere content of fly ashes varies from coal to coal and with combustion conditions
(furnace load). If we can understand and control the factors responsible it should be possible to
increase significantly the cenosphere content of selected fly ashes, again without compromising
the operation of a power station for electricity production.
If the amount of cenospheres in fly ash can be increased significantly, and hence become
available in sufficient quantities on a reliable long-term basis, at a reduced unit cost, a range of
excellent lightweight building materials and other products can be manufactured at a competitive
market price.
Ultra lightweight concrete of about 600 kg/ml (as compared with 2300–2400 kg/ml for
conventional concretes), but of very high strength in excess of 40 MPa (the highest commercial
standard Grade is 50 MPa), has been produced from cenospheres under laboratory conditions.
.
19
2.4.4 ASH HANDLING



Delivery silos outside operation / security area

Dense phase conveying

Collection from selective fields to suit end application

– A major industry

2.4.5 SLURRY DISPOSAL

Dense phase conveying

Reduced water requirement

Nil or negligence water discharge

Accelerated decanting

Re-cycling of pond water

Separate handling & transportation of fly ash & bottom ash

Peripheral / garland deposition of bottom ash
2.4.6 ASH PONDS

Impervious strata selection or lining (may be fly ash based)

Faster decantation

Recycling of water, safe and economical design of dykes

Use of fly ash for dyke construction

Dyke-instrumentation & maintenance

Vertical expansion rather than horizontal
20

Periodic / ultimate densification

End use oriented design plan
2.4.7 DRY FLY ASH MOUNDS

Effective filters and collection systems for leaches and runoff water


Separate mounds for fly ash and bottom ash

Design and maintenance suitable for partial excavation

Development as green areas
2.4.8 COMPLETED ASH PONDS / MOUNDS


Development / reclamation for human settlement / agriculture, floriculture /industrial /
entertainment activities


Environment friendly maintenance
2.4.9 ASH UTILIZATION

Dense packing of mine fills

Roller compacted concrete technology for hydraulic structures

Reclamation / structural filling of low lying areas.

Building components-bricks, blocks, cement, concrete, mortar, wood substitute (door
shutters / wall panel etc.), paints and enamels, sintered aggregates, ceramic tiles
pavement blocks etc.

Roads and embankment construction

Dyke raising
21

High value added applications like extraction of alumina, cenospheres etc.
2.4.10 FACILITATION
1. On-line testing of fly ash
2. Control / modify un-burnt carbon percentage
3. Amendment of chemical composition
4. Grinding
5. Proportioning
6. Grading & packaging
7. Granulation / briquetting
8. Crashing of bottom ash for sand substitution
2.5 CHARACTERIZATION OF FLY ASH
The ash is characterized by physical (lightweight, small spherical particles, hardness) and
chemical (cement-like) properties that provide it with an economic value as a raw material in
many applications.
2.5.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Fly ash consists of fine, powdery particles that are predominantly spherical in shape, either solid
or hollow, and mostly glassy (amorphous) in nature. The carbonaceous material in fly ash is
composed of angular particles. The particle size distribution of most bituminous coal fly ashes is
generally similar to that of silt (less than a 0.075 mm or No. 200 sieve). Although subbituminous coal fly ashes are also silt-sized, they are generally slightly coarser than bituminous
coal fly ashes.
22
The specific gravity of fly ash usually ranges from 2.1 to 3.0, while its specific surface area
(measured by the Blaine air permeability method) may range from 170 to 1000 m2/kg.
The color of fly ash can vary from tan to gray to black, depending on the amount of unburned
carbon in the ash. The lighter the color of the fly ash the lower the carbon content. Lignite or
sub-bituminous fly ashes are usually light tan to buff in color, indicating relatively low amounts
of carbon as well as the presence of some lime or calcium. Bituminous fly ashes are usually
some shade of gray, with the lighter shades of gray generally indicating a higher quality of ash.
2.5.2 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
The chemical properties of fly ash are influenced to a great extent by those of the coal burned
and the techniques used for handling and storage. There are basically four types, or ranks, of
coal, each of which varies in terms of its heating value, its chemical composition, ash content,
and geological origin. The four types, or ranks, of coal are anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite. In addition to being handled in a dry, conditioned, or wet form, fly ash is
also sometimes classified according to the type of coal from which the ash was derived.
The principal components of bituminous coal fly ash are silica, alumina, iron oxide, and calcium,
with varying amounts of carbon, as measured by the loss on ignition (LOI). Lignite and subbituminous coal fly ashes are characterized by higher concentrations of calcium and magnesium
oxide and reduced percentages of silica and iron oxide, as well as a lower carbon content,
compared with bituminous coal fly ash. Very little anthracite coal is burned in utility boilers, so
there are only small amounts of anthracite coal fly ash.
23
Table compares the normal range of the chemical constituents of bituminous coal fly ash with
those of lignite coal fly ash and sub-bituminous coal fly ash. From the table, it is evident that
lignite and sub-bituminous coal fly ashes have a higher calcium oxide content and lower loss on
ignition than fly ashes from bituminous coals. Lignite and sub-bituminous coal fly ashes may
have a higher concentration of sulfate compounds than bituminous coal fly ashes.
The chief difference between Class F and Class C fly ash is in the amount of calcium and the
silica, alumina, and iron content in the ash. In Class F fly ash, total calcium typically ranges from
1 to 12 percent, mostly in the form of calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, and glassy
components in combination with silica and alumina. In contrast, Class C fly ash may have
reported calcium oxide contents as high as 30 to 40 percent. Another difference between Class F
and Class C is that the amount of alkalis (combined sodium and potassium) and sulfates (SO 4)
are generally higher in the Class C fly ashes than in the Class F fly ashes.
TABLE 2.1 Comparison of the chemical constituents of different coal fly ash
Component
Bituminous
Sub-bituminous
Lignite
SiO2
20-60
40-60
15-45
Al2O3
5-35
20-30
10-25
Fe2O3
10-40
4-10
4-15
CaO
1-12
5-30
15-40
MgO
0-5
1-6
3-10
SO3
0-4
0-2
0-10
Na2O
0-4
0-2
0-6
K2O
0-3
0-4
0-4
LOI
0-15
0-3
0-5
24
Although the Class F and Class C designations strictly apply only to fly ash meeting the ASTM
C618 specification, these terms are often used more generally to apply to fly ash on the basis of
its original coal type or CaO content. It is important to recognize that not all fly ashes are able to
meet ASTM C618 requirements and that, for applications other than concrete, it may not be
necessary for them to do so.
The loss on ignition (LOI), which is a measurement of the amount of unburned carbon remaining
in the fly ash, is one of the most significant chemical properties of fly ash, especially as an
indicator of suitability for use as a cement replacement in concrete.
2.5.3 COMPACTION BEHAVIOR
The variation of dry density with moisture content for fly ashes is less compared to that for a
well-graded soil, both having the same median grain size. The tendency for fly ash to be less
sensitive to variation in moisture content than for soils could be explained by the higher air void
content of fly ash. Soils normally have air void content ranging between 1 and 5% at maximum
dry density, whereas fly ash contains 5 to 15%. The higher void content could tend to limit the
buildup of pore pressures during compaction, thus allowing the fly ash to be compacted over a
larger range of water content.
2.5.4 LEACHING BEHAVIOR
Permeation of the contaminated pore water out of the porous matrix due to any driving force is
called ―leaching.‖ The contaminated water that is generated as water passes through a porous
matrix is called ―leachate.‖ The capacity of the waste material to leach is called its
―leachability.‖ Depending on the sources of coals used in thermal power plants, fly ash may
25
contain various toxic elements. Due to serious environmental problems involved, the leaching of
these toxic elements from ash ponds is gaining considerable importance. The leachate
characteristics are highly variable and even within a given landfill site, leachate quality varies
over time and space.
2.5.5 PERMEABILITY BEHAVIOR
The permeability of well-compacted fly ash has been found to range from 10 -4 to 10-6 cm/s,
which is roughly equivalent to the normal range of permeability of a silty sand to silty clay soil.
The permeability of a material is affected by its density or degree of compaction, its grain size
distribution, and its internal pore structure. Since fly ash consists almost entirely of spherical
shaped particles, the particles are able to be densely packed during compaction, resulting in
comparatively low permeability values and minimizing seepage of water through a fly ash
embankment.
Permeability is an important parameter in the design of liners to contain leachate migration,
dykes to predict the loss of water as well as the stability of slopes and as a sub-base material. The
coefficient of permeability of ash depends upon the grain size, degree of compaction and
pozzolanic activity. The permeability of fly ashes is in the range of 8 x 10 -6 cm/s to 1.87 x 10–4
cm/s, 5 x 10-5 cm/s to 9.62 x 10-4 cm/s for pond ashes, and 9.9 x 10 -5 cm/s to 7 x 10-4 cm/s for
bottom ashes.
2.5.6 SETTLING PROPERTIES
The separation of solid-liquid in slurries depends on the settling rates. It also determines the
recycled water quality. The settling rates depend much on the fly ash. The rapid of settling rate is
taken as the engineering parameter.
26
2.5.7 SHEAR STRENGTH:
Shear strength tests conducted on freshly compacted fly ash samples show that fly ash derives
most of its shear strength from internal friction, although some apparent cohesion has been
observed in certain bituminous (pozzolanic) fly ashes. The shear strength of fly ash is affected by
the density and moisture content of the test sample, with maximum shear strength exhibited at
the optimum moisture content. Bituminous fly ash has been determined to have a friction angle
that is usually in the range of 26° to 42°. A test program involving shear strength testing for 51
different ash samples resulted in a mean friction angle value of 34°, with a fairly wide range.
2.5.8 CONSOLIDATION CHARACTERISTICS
An embankment or structural backfill should possess low compressibility to minimize roadway
settlements or differential settlements between structures and adjacent approaches. Consolidation
has been shown to occur more rapidly in compacted fly ash than in silty clay soil because the fly
ash has a higher void ratio and greater permeability than the soil. For fly ashes with agehardening properties, including most "high lime" fly ashes from lignite or sub-bituminous coals,
the age-hardening can reduce the time rate of consolidation, as well as the magnitude of the
compressibility.
2.5.9 BEARING STRENGTH
California bearing ratio (CBR) values for "low lime" fly ash from the burning of anthracite or
bituminous coals have been found to range from 6.8 to 13.5 percent in the soaked condition (an
optional procedure in the test method) to 10.8 to 15.4 percent in the un-soaked condition. For
naturally occurring soils, CBR values normally range from 3 to 15 percent for fine-grained
materials (silts and clays), from 10 to 40 percent for sand and sandy soils, and from 20 to 80
percent for gravels and gravelly soils.
27
2.6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Virtually any fly ash can be used as an embankment or structural backfill material, including
pond ash that has been reclaimed from an ash lagoon. The principal technical considerations
related to the design of a fly ash embankment or structural backfill are essentially the same as the
considerations for the design of an earthen embankment or backfill. There are certain special
design considerations, however, that should be considered when fly ash is used in embankment
or fill applications.
2.6.1 SITE DRAINAGE
Fly ash, because of its predominance of silt-size particles, tends to wick water into itself, making
it possible that the lower extremities of a fly ash embankment could become saturated, resulting
in a loss of shear strength. It is, therefore, important that the base of a fly ash embankment not be
exposed to free moisture, wetlands, or the presence of a high water table condition. Adequate
provisions should be made to handle maximum flows anticipated from surface waterways,
swales, or seepage from springs or high water table conditions.
An effective way to prevent capillary rise or the effects of seepage in fly ash embankments and
backfills is the placement of a drainage layer of well-drained granular material at the base of the
embankment. An ASTM recommended practice for the use of fly ash in structural fills
recommends placement of a drainage layer at a height that is at least 5 feet above the historical
high water table.
2.6.2 SLOPE STABILITY
To determine a safe and appropriate design slope ratio (the ratio of vertical to horizontal
distance); an analysis of the slope stability of a design cross-section of the fly ash embankment
must be performed. The basic principle of slope stability analysis is to compare the factors
contributing to instability with those resisting failure. The principal resistance to failure is the
shear strength of the embankment material. For long-term stability of fly ash embankments, a
factor of safety (ratio of the resisting forces to the driving forces along a potential failure surface)
28
of 1.5 is recommended using the Swedish circle method of slope stability analysis. Unless the
fly ash is self-hardening, the cohesion (c) value should be zero for these calculations.
2.6.3 EROSION CONTROL ANALYSIS
The slope ratio described above is also a factor in the potential for erodibility of compacted fly
ash slopes. These slopes must be protected as soon as possible after attaining final grade because
they are subject to severe erosion by runoff, or even high winds, if left unprotected. One way to
prevent such erosion is to construct a fly ash embankment within dikes of granular soil, which
serves to protect the slopes throughout construction. Another way is to cover the slopes with
topsoil as the embankment is being constructed. It is also possible to overfill the slopes and trim
the excess fly ash back to the appropriate slope once the final layer is completed. Finally, shortterm erosion control may be accomplished by stabilizing the surface fly ash on the slopes with a
low percentage of Portland cement or lime, or covering with a blanket of coarse bottom ash.
2.6.4 SOIL BEARING CAPACITY
The ability of the top portion of a fly ash embankment to support a pavement structure can be
predicted by a determination of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) for a flexible asphalt
pavement system or by a determination of the modulus of sub-grade reaction (K-value) for a
rigid or concrete pavement system. These bearing values can then be used to design pavement
layer thicknesses in accordance with the AASHTO Design Guidelines.
2.6.5 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
Although no frost susceptibility criteria have been established in the United States, the British
Road Research Laboratory has developed a test method to evaluate frost susceptibility. The test
method involves subjecting a compacted 150 mm (6 in) high specimen to freezing temperatures
that simulate actual field conditions. The test is run over a 250-hour time period, after which the
total amount of frost heaves of the test specimen, is measured. Frost-susceptible materials heave
18 mm (0.7 in) or more after testing of the top portion of a fly ash embankment to frost heaving
can be substantially increased by the addition of moderate amounts of cement or lime.
29
Objections to the use of compacted fly ash within the frost depth can be overcome by
substituting a soil that is not susceptible to frost for fly ash within the frost zone.
During times of heavy or prolonged precipitation, the delivered moisture content of the fly ash
may have to be reduced to compensate for the effects of the precipitation. Fly ash, unlike most
soils, can usually be compacted throughout much of the winter, although it is recommended that
fly ash not be spread and compacted when the ambient air temperature is below -4°C (25°F).
2.6.6 PROTECTION OF UNDERGROUND PIPES AND ADJACENT CONCRETE
Chemical and/or electrical resistivity tests of some fly ashes have indicated that certain ash
sources may be potentially corrosive to metal pipes placed within an embankment. Each source
of fly ash should be individually evaluated for its corrosivity potential. If protection of metal
pipes is deemed necessary, the exterior of the pipes may be coated with tar or asphalt cement, the
pipes may be wrapped with polyethylene sheeting, or the pipes can be backfilled with sand or an
inert material.
The sulfate content of fly ash, particularly self-cementing ash, has caused some concern about
the possibility of sulfate attack on adjacent concrete foundations or walls. Precautions that can be
taken against potential sulfate attack of concrete include painting concrete faces with tar or an
asphalt cement, using a waterproof membrane (such as polyethylene sheeting or tar paper), or
possibly even using a Type V sulfate-resistant cement in the adjacent concrete.
2.7 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES
2.7.1 MATERIAL HANDLING AND STORAGE
Bituminous (pozzolanic) fly ash is usually conditioned with water at the power plant and hauled
in covered dump trucks with sealed tailgates. Sub-bituminous or lignite (self-cementing) fly ash
may be partially conditioned at the plant and hauled in covered dump trucks to the project site, or
hauled dry in pneumatic tank trucks from the plant to the project site, where it is placed in a silo
and conditioned with water when ready for placement.
30
If a temporary stockpile of fly ash is built at the project site, the surface of the stockpile must be
kept damp enough to prevent dusting. The stockpile should be placed in a well-drained area so
the ash is not inundated with water following a rainfall.
2.7.2 PLACING AND COMPACTING
The minimum amount of construction equipment needed to properly place and compact fly ash
in an embankment or structural backfill includes a bulldozer for spreading the material, a
compactor, either a vibrating or pneumatic tired roller, a water truck to provide water for
compaction (if needed) and to control dusting, and a motor grader, where final grade control is
critical.
The suitability of any proposed construction equipment should be verified by using it on a test
strip prior to its use in actual construction. The test strip may also be used to evaluate the
specified compaction procedure, as well as any proposed modifications to the procedure. If fly
ash from a power plant's landfill or lagoon contains any lumps when spread for compaction, it
may be necessary to break down the lumps using a disk harrow or a rotary tiller as a
supplemental piece of equipment.
Fly ash should be placed in uniform lifts no thicker than 0.3 m (12 in) when loose. Experience
has shown that steel-wheel vibratory compactors and/or pneumatic tired rollers have provided
the best performance. If a vibratory roller is used, the first pass should be made with the roller in
the static mode (without any vibration), followed by two passes with the roller in the vibratory
mode and traveling relatively fast. Additional passes should be in the vibratory mode at slow
speed.
In general, six passes of the roller are usually needed to meet specified compaction requirements.
In most cases, 90 to 95 percent of a standard Proctor maximum dry density is the minimum
specified density to be achieved. This is almost always achievable when the moisture content of
the fly ash is within 2 or 3 percent of optimum, preferably on the dry side of optimum.
For each project, the type of compactor, the moisture content of the fly ash at placement, the lift
thickness, and the number of passes of the compaction equipment should be evaluated using a
31
test strip before the actual construction. If a vibratory compactor is to be used, the test strip can
be used to evaluate the speed at which the compactor should be operated, the static weight,
dynamic force and frequency of vibration of the compactor, and the number of passes required to
achieve the specified density.
During periods of moderate rainfall, construction may proceed by reducing the amount of water
added at the power plant or jobsite to compensate for precipitation. Dry fly ash can also is mixed
into excessively wet fly ash to reduce the moisture content to an acceptable level.
Because fly ash obtained directly from silos or hoppers dissipates heat slowly, fly ash may be
placed during cold weather. If frost does penetrate a few inches into the top surface of the fly
ash, the ash can be removed from the surface by a bulldozer, or re-compacted after thawing and
drying. Construction should be suspended during severe weather conditions, such as heavy
rainfall, snowstorms, or prolonged and/or excessively cold temperatures.
2.7.3 QUALITY CONTROL
Quality control programs for fly ash embankments or structural backfills are similar to such
programs for conventional earthwork projects. These programs typically include visual
observations of lift thickness, number of compactor passes per lift, and behavior of fly ash under
the weight of the compaction equipment, supplemented by laboratory and field testing to confirm
that the compacted fly ash has been constructed in accordance with design specifications.
2.8 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
2.8.1 DUST CONTROL
If allowed to dry out, fly ash surfaces can be susceptible to dusting. Dust control measures that
are routinely used on earthwork projects are effective in minimizing airborne particulates at ash
fill projects. Typical controls include hauling fly ash in covered dump trucks (for "low lime") or
in pneumatic tankers (for "high lime"), moisture conditioning fly ash at the power plant
(especially "low lime"), wetting or covering exposed fly ash surfaces, and sealing the top surface
of compacted fly ash by the compactor at the conclusion of each day's placement.
32
2.8.2 DRAINAGE/EROSION PROTECTION
Fly ash surfaces must be graded or sloped at the end of each working day to provide positive
drainage and prevent the ponding of water or the formation of runoff channels that could erode
slopes and produce sediment in nearby surface waters. Compacted fly ash slopes must be
protected as soon as possible after being finish graded because, if left unprotected, they can be
severely eroded. Erosion control on side slopes is usually provided by placing from 150 mm (6
in) to 600 mm (2 ft) of soil cover on the slopes. An alternative approach is to build outside dikes
of soil to contain the fly ash as the embankment is being constructed.
2.9 SLURRY FLOW BEHAVIOR:
When a solid –liquid mixture is conveyed through a pipe, different conditions of flow may be
encountered depending on the properties of the solids, conveyed liquid, and the characteristics of
the pipeline. The different hydraulic flow conditions of slurry are homogeneous, intermediate
and saltation flow. As the name suggests, the flow is homogeneous if the various properties of
the suspensions (like solid concentration, density, viscosity) do not change across the pipe.
Homogeneous flow of suspension is possible if the following conditions are satisfied (Seshadri
1997):

The solid particles are very finely dispersed and light.

The slurry flow rate is sufficiently high.

The solid concentration is high.
For homogeneous flow it is essential to have the terminal settling velocity of the particles as
small as possible so that the concentration gradients do not exist. Homogeneous suspensions
behave like single component fluids and their flow can be described using a suitable rheological
model. This homogeneous flow can occur either in laminar mode or in turbulent mode. The
33
transition from laminar to turbulent mode is indicated by the change in the slope of the pressure
drop -flow rate relationship.
(FIGURE 2.1 Flow regimes in slurry transportation)
In actual practice, no particulate suspension of practical interest behaves like a homogeneous
mixture at all flow velocities. If the mean flow velocity Vm is high enough then all the particles
are fully suspended and systematically distributed across the section of the pipe. This is called
the‖ symmetric suspension regime‖. At these velocities, the turbulent and the other lifting forces
are sufficient to keep all the particles under suspension and prevent them from sliding over the
pipe wall. As slurry velocity (and hence the intensity of turbulence and lift forces) is decreased,
the settling tendency of the particles causes a distortion of the concentration profile and flow will
become asymmetric. The concentration of solid particles will be more at the bottom of the pipe.
34
This result in the skewness of the velocity profile with mixture velocities being higher at top half
of the pipeline as compared to the bottom half of the pipeline. This skewness in both the
concentration profile as well as in velocity profile will increase with decrease in mixture
velocity. Thus the flow will become more and more heterogeneous.
At the velocities below VM2 particles tends to accumulate at the bottom of the pipe, first in the
form of dunes and then as continuous ‗moving bed‗. The dunes or the bed moves at a
considerably lower velocity as compared to that of liquid or solid particles above it. The particles
at the top of the dunes or bed are made to roll and tumble by the shear stresses caused by the
flow above. It is obvious that the concentration of the particles in the flow above moving bed
will be much lower as compared to the average concentration of solids. The mixture velocities of
these upper regions are high enough to keep the particles in suspension.
As the slurry velocity is further reduced (VM<VM3) the lowermost particles of the bed become
stationary and the bed thickens. The bed motion occurs essentially by the uppermost particles
tumbling over one another (saltation). This region of flow is called stationary bed and flow will
be somewhat unstable. Below a mixture velocity of VM4 the bed up and high pressure gradient
will be required to maintain flow. In fact as soon as the bed starts forming below a velocity, VM 2
the pressure gradient would show a reversal and the pressure increases with decreasing mixture
velocity resulting in the chocking of the pipeline (Seshadri, 1997). Above mentioned flow
behavior would be strictly valid as long as the particles are equal in size. However in
applications such as stowing and filling the particle size in the solids transported varies over a
wide range. Hence, at any given mixture velocity the smallest particles may be homogeneously
distributed across the pipe cross-section, whereas, concentration gradients would be prominent
for the larger particles. Also the largest sized particles would tend to settle first while the other
35
fractions are still under suspension. Thus, for given mixture if all the particles are in suspension
then the concentration profile would be uniform for smallest size from, whereas it tends to
become increasingly, non-uniform as the size of the particles increases. This would make the
Suspension flow near the bottom of the pipe increasingly coarser as compared to that flow at the
top of the pipe. As the mixture velocity is reduced all the particles belonging to larger size
fractions would be traveling in the bottom half the pipe and they tend to settle first. Thus, for
multisided particulate suspensions there will be a combination of homogenous and
heterogeneous flow. Further, the transition velocities (VM1 to VM4) are not clearly defined and
the different flow regions are not clearly distinguishable.
Within the transition zone between heterogeneous and saltation regimes, there is a unique
velocity corresponding to minimum head loss in the pipeline, below which the settling of solids
will occur, but above which, the flow is homogeneous. This velocity is termed the critical
velocity VC. For a given concentration of solids critical velocity for the slurry flow refers to
conditions of least frictional pressure losses. The conveyance of the slurry at this velocity regime
results in decreased power requirements on the transportation system and at the same time
ensures reduced pipe damage due to wear. Further, the addition of polymeric medium such as the
Polyacrylamide and its various graft components, in small quantities, is noted to have an effect
on pressure reduction in slurry transportation.
It is almost impossible to derive general correlations for the estimation of various transition
velocities in slurries of different materials. This is because it is not feasible to take into account
the effect of so many parameters which, differ from the slurry to another. The presence of fine
particles would increase the viscosity of the slurry resulting in increased resistance to settling
behavior of large particles. Thus, the particles in the slurry might be fully suspended even at
36
moderate mixture velocities, whereas in the absence of fine particles the larger particles would
have settled down.
Although several attempts have been made to incorporate the effect of different parameters into
the correlations, the studies have been only partially documented in literature with each study
having its own limitations and range of applications.
Essentially the prediction of critical flow velocity in pipelines carrying solid liquid mixtures with
a sufficient accuracy is of considerable importance to researchers and practicing engineers. On
account of the minimum cost of slurry transportation at this velocity, the work done by Kokpmar
and Gogus (2001) refers extensively to the various empirical expressions that have been
generated by earlier researchers for critical velocity. The terminal settling velocity of the solid
particles is taken into consideration in the proposed model of Kokpmar and Gogus (2001), for
the determination of critical velocity of slurry flow. The approach differs from the earlier
formulations on account of the consideration of the settling velocity of particles. The Kokpmar
and Gogus (2001), model is given by:
where
V = mean critical flow velocity of solid—liquid mixture (m/s);
C = concentration of solid materials by volume;
D = pipe diameter (m);
Ds =mean particle diameter (m);
S = specific gravity,
37
Wm = particle settling velocity in mixture flow (m/s);
uf= dynamic viscosity of fluid (kg/m-s);
pf. =density of fluid (kg/m3); and
g= gravitational acceleration (m/s2).
Depending upon the relationship (rheogram) between shear stress and rate of shear strain, fluids
are classified into different categories as shown in Figure 2.2. The relationship between these
two parameters is linear when the fluids are Newtonian. With respect to this behavior an
upwardly concave curve represents pseudo plastic behavior, whereas a downwardly concave
curve represents dilatants behavior. The fluids which do not exhibit any flow until threshold
shear stress.
(FIGURE 2.2 shear stress vs rate of shear strain)
38
In the Georgia Iron Works (GIW) pipeline design manual Addie (1982 indicated that the flow of
a solid—liquid mixture through a pipe is complex phenomenon with the flow characteristics and
subsequent pipe friction being dependent upon size distribution, shape, density, and
concentration of the solids, pipe diameter, mean velocity, slope of the pipeline and so on. Many
authors have categorized slurries into settling and non-settling types depending on the settling
velocity of the solid particulates in the slurry. Slurries containing particles with settling velocities
higher than 1.5 mm/s are termed as settling slurries, whereas, the slurries with particles having
settling velocities below 1.5 mm/s and termed as slurries of non-settling slurries.
Non-settling slurries flowing in a pipe have a uniform distribution of particles across the flow
section and exhibit axi-symmetric velocity distribution.
It may be generally stated that, no reliable method exists for the estimation of the flow properties
of non-settling slurries based on calculations from the properties of the solids and carrier liquid.
In practice, slurry transport of non-settling slurries in laminar flow regime is avoided primarily
because larger particles may settle to the bottom of the pipe forming a stationary bed. In most
cases, systems are designed to run at velocities slightly in excess of those of the transition point.
Settling slurry in a pipe normally flows as a heterogeneous mixture in which a portion of the
solid particles are carried as suspended load and the remainders are carried as bed load. The bed
load or stratification ratio (R), which is the ratio of the bed load transport to total transport, is a
useful parameter to characterize the flow conditions. Since the mechanism of suspension and
turbulence, is a function of mean velocity in the pipe, the value of R is also a function of Vm. At
a sufficiently high mixture velocity, all of the solid particles will be conveyed as suspended load
or as a pseudo homogeneous suspension for which R=O. At slower velocities the solid particles
39
tends to settle towards the bottom of the pipe with the result that some of the transport is bed
load transport and little additional resistance resulting from suspended—load transport;
therefore, the friction pressure gradient diverges more and more from the water curve as R
increases due to reducing Vm. The lower limit of the heterogeneous suspension occurs when the
velocity is reduced to the deposit velocity and the solids start to form a stationary bed. A small
stationary bed is harmless, but there is no reason to waste a part of the flow cross section with a
stationary bed. In order to preclude a stationary bed, pipelines are designed so that Vm > deposit
velocity. For settling slurries with centrifugal pumps as prime movers, the conveying velocity is
normally well above the deposit velocity in order to operating velocity. The velocity Uu, at the
threshold of turbulent suspension is given by the formula:
Vt = terminal Settling velocity,
ft= friction factor of fluid flowing at velocity Vm,
d = particle diameter,
D = internal pipe diameter.
Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) is the energy required to move one kg of solids in a
horizontal distance of one meter. The most efficient slurry transport is achieved when the SEC is
minimum (Addle, 1982).
Where:
Im= friction pressure gradient in ft of water per ft of pipe,
Ss = specific gravity of the solids and
40
C = delivered volume concentration.
Panda and Singh (2000), described the viscous effects of transportation of fly ash slurries at 3070% solids concentration (by weight) using Hakke rotational viscometer (RV 100). The study
showed that the slurry represented Newtonian behavior up to 50% concentration by weight of
solids in the slurry. Beyond this concentration slurry exhibited pseudo plastic behavior. When
the mixture of fly ash and bottom ash was examined the viscosity was reported to be minimum at
fly ash-bottom ash ratio of 3:2. The study also suggested that slurry transportation was possible
at a higher concentration, i.e., up to 70% by weight by adding small amount (1.2%) of additive
‗SHMP‘.
2.10 TRANSPORTATION PROCESS SYSTEM WITH ADDITIVE FEEDINGSYSTEM
The flow chart of pipeline transportation system is shown in Figure 2.3. It consists of a storage
system, a mixing system, a pumping system, and slurry pipeline, an additive feeding system, and
water return system. A rotary valve supplies fly ash accurately into a slurry blender at a
controlled rate. An impact weigher located under the rotary valve enables fly ash flow metering.
About half of the total water is added into the slurry blender. Conditioned fly ash is fed into the
slurry, and further water is added to bring the slurry up to the desired concentration. A pump
then feeds the slurry into a pipeline for transportation to a controlled deposit site. Before the
pipeline is stopped for an extended period, the stabilizing additives (S-194) and NSF are added
into the slurry mixer and pipeline. Stable fly ash slurry, produced by the mixer and line mixers, is
fed into the pipeline instead of normal slurry. At the deposit site, the water is collected and
returned to the mixing system by a water pump.
If the solid concentration exceeded 60 wt%, highly concentrated fine-grained CWM can be
regarded as homogeneous during the pipeline transportation. The transportation can be carried
41
out in the laminar flow region. Pressure loss can be estimated by using rheological characteristics
of slurry. The concentration of fly ash–water slurry used in this study is more than 68 wt%. The
fly ash density is 2,242 kg/m3. The diameter of typical fly ash particle is smaller than that of the
typical coal particles. Therefore, fly ash–water slurry can also be regarded as homogeneous
during transportation.
The model is combined with maximum packing volume fraction and results in the estimation of
inter-particle bonding energy between primary particles in a cluster. It has been proven that the
viscosity of fly ash–water slurries for different solid concentration and shear rate may be
calculated by using the different values determined for one experimental condition.
We can obtain the relationship
between shear stress and shear rate from the predicted
apparent viscosity of the present model. Then the laminar volumetric flow rate can be calculated
by
where
is the shear stress at the pipe wall, and L,
length, pressure drop, and pipe radius, respectively.
42
, and R are the pipe
(FIGURE 2.3 Flow sheet of the transportation process of fly ash)
43
CHAPTER 3
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study of the physicochemical and engineering properties of fly ash is necessary to
understand the variation in the properties of fly ash In the Indian context, in order to utilize the
same as large volume backfill material. In addition to this the study is required to establish
properties such as permeability, particle size distribution, and morphological characteristics of
the fly ash which influence the settling behavior and flow properties during hydraulic
transportation. In the present context experimental studies are conducted for fly ash samples to
determine the properties of importance for mine void filling and to understand the variability
among these properties.
3.1 ASH SAMPLING
Fly ash samples were directly collected from Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) in gunny bags
from Jindal Power and Steel Company Limited, Raigarh, Chhatishgarh.
3.2 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES.
Collected fly ash samples are examined under the different processes to know the major
physicochemical properties and settling properties of all the samples. The properties studies are
chemical composition, particle size distribution, specific gravity, true density, and morphology.
3.2.1 SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)
The scanning electron microscope (SEM) uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to
generate a variety of signals at the surface of solid specimens. The signals that derive from
electron-sample interactions reveal information about the sample including external morphology
(texture), chemical composition, and crystalline structure and orientation of materials making up
44
the sample. In most applications, data are collected over a selected area of the surface of the
sample, and a 2-dimensional image is generated that displays spatial variations in these
properties. Areas ranging from approximately 1 cm to 5 microns in width can be imaged in a
scanning mode using conventional SEM techniques (magnification ranging from 20x to
approximately 30,000x, spatial resolution of 50 to 100 nm). The SEM is also capable of
performing analyses of selected point locations on the sample; this approach is especially useful
in qualitatively or semi-quantitatively determining chemical compositions (using EDS),
crystalline structure, and crystal orientations (using EBSD). The design and function of the SEM
is very similar to the EPMA and considerable overlap in capabilities exists between the two
instruments.
3.2.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY (ASTM D 854)
Specific gravity is one of the important physical properties needed for the use of coal ashes for
geotechnical and other applications. In general, the specific gravity of coal ashes varies around
2.0 but can vary to a large extent (1.6 to 3.1). Because of the generally low value for the specific
gravity of coal ash compared to soils, ash fills tend to result in low dry densities. The reduction
in unit weight is of advantage in the case of its use as a backfill material for retaining walls since
the pressure exerted on the retaining structure as well as the foundation structure will be less.
This lab test is performed to determine the specific gravity of fly ash by using a pycnometer.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the mass of unit volume of fly ash at a stated temperature to the
mass of the same volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature.
Test Procedure:
(1) Determine and record the weight of the empty clean and dry pycnometer, WP.
(2) Place 10g of a dry fly ash sample (passed through the sieve No. 10) in the pycnometer.
Determine and record the weight of the pycnometer containing the dry fly ash, WPS.
(3) Add distilled water to fill about half to three-fourth of the pycnometer. Soak the sample for
10 minutes.
45
(4) Apply a partial vacuum to the contents for 10 minutes, to remove the entrapped air.
(5) Stop the vacuum and carefully remove the vacuum line from pycnometer.
(6) Fill the pycnometer with distilled (water to the mark); clean the exterior surface of the
pycnometer with a clean, dry cloth. Determine the weight of the pycnometer and contents, WB.
(7) Empty the pycnometer and clean it. Then fill it with distilled water only (to the mark). Clean
the exterior surface of the pycnometer with a clean, dry cloth. Determine the weight of the
pycnometer and distilled water, WA.
(8) Empty the pycnometer and clean it.
Calculate the specific gravity of the fly ash using the following formula:
Where:
W0 = weight of sample of oven-dry fly ash, g = WPS - WP
WA = weight of pycnometer filled with water
WB = weight of pycnometer filled with water and fly ash
3.2.3 TRUE DENSITY
The density of the particles that make up a powder or particulate solid in contrast to bulk density,
which measures the average density of a large volume of the powder in a specific medium.
Take a measuring jar graduated in ml. Clean it thoroughly with pure water. Take water into the
flask up to certain level and note down its level (initial reading).
Drop slowly 20 gms of the supplied fly ash sample into the jar. Shake the jar for some time. Now
note down the level of water in the reading (final reading). Repeat this for 5 samples and tabulate
46
the results. Divide the difference of the final reading and initial reading by weight of the sample
to obtain true density.
3.2.4 MOISTURE CONTENT
About 1 gm of finely powder (-212µ) air dried fly ash sample is weighed in a silica crucible and
then placed inside an electric hot air oven, maintained at 108 ± 20C. The crucible with the fly ash
sample is allowed to remain in the oven for 1.5 hours and is then taken out with a pair of
tongues, cooled in a desicator for about 15 minutes and then weighed. The loss in weight is
reported as moisture (on percentage basis.). The calculation is done as per the following formula:
% Moisture = (Y-Z)/(Y-X)*100
Where X = Weight of empty crucible
Y= weight of crucible + coal (before heating)
Z= weight of crucible + coal (after heating)
3.2.5 SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA (BET METHOD)
The BET method involves the determination of the amount of the adsorbate or adsorptive gas
required to cover the external and the accessible internal pore surfaces of a solid with a complete
monolayer of adsorbate. This monolayer capacity can be calculated from the adsorption isotherm
by means of the BET equation.
The gases used as adsorptives have to be only physically adsorbed by weak bonds at the surface
of the solid (Van der-Waals forces) and can be desorbed by a decrease of pressure at the same
47
temperature. The most common gas is nitrogen at its boiling temperature (77. 3 K). In the case of
a very small surface area (below 1 m2/g), the sensitivity of the instruments using nitrogen is
insufficient and krypton at 77.3 K should be used.
In order to determine the adsorption isotherm volumetrically, known amounts of adsorptive are
admitted stepwise into the sample cell containing the sample previously dried and out gassed by
heating under vacuum. The amount of gas adsorbed is the difference of gas admitted and the
amount of gas filling the dead volume (free space in the sample cell including connections). The
adsorption isotherm is the plot of the amount of gas adsorbed (in mol/g) as a function of the
relative pressure p/p0.
P and P0 are the equilibrium and the saturation pressure of adsorbates at the temperature of
adsorption, v is the adsorbed gas quantity (for example, in volume units), and vm is the monolayer
adsorbed gas quantity. c is the BET constant, which is expressed by (2):
E1 is the heat of adsorption for the first layer, and EL is that for the second and higher layers and
is equal to the heat of liquefaction.
Equation (1) is an adsorption isotherm and can be plotted as a straight line with 1 / v[(P0 / P) − 1]
on the y-axis and φ = P / P0 on the x-axis according to experimental results. This plot is called a
BET plot. The linear relationship of this equation is maintained only in the range of 0.05 < P /
48
P0 < 0.35. The value of the slope A and the y-intercept I of the line are used to calculate the
monolayer adsorbed gas quantity vm and the BET constant c. The following equations can be
used:
(FIGURE 3.1 BET Plot)
49
The specific surface area of a powder is estimated from the amount of nitrogen adsorbed in
relationship with its pressure, at the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen under normal
atmospheric pressure. The observations are interpreted following the model of Brunauer, Emmett
and Teller (BET Method).
The BET method is widely used in surface science for the calculation of surface areas of solids
by physical adsorption of gas molecules. A total surface area Stotal and a specific surface area S
are evaluated by the following equations:
N: Avogadro's number, s: adsorption cross section, V: molar volume of adsorbent gas a: molar
weight of adsorbed species.
3.2.6 PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS
The particle size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in
fluid, is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amounts of particles
present, sorted according to size. PSD is also known as grain size distribution. The coarse size
fraction generally refers to the material from greater than 10 mm to the top size of 100-150 mm.
The fine aggregate is considered to be the material less than 10 mm in size. The fine aggregate
should make up about one quarter to one-third of the total aggregate weight.
50
A suspension of powder in isopropanol is measured with a low angle laser beam, and the particle
size distribution is calculated
Procedure:
1. Look at the particle size in a microscope and choose a lens capable of measuring the largest
particles.
2. Prepare the instrument for measuring in wet mode using IPA as the liquid, as described in the
user manual.
The stirrer regulator should be set at 2000 rpm on the Malvern unit.
3. Measure the background for IPA.
4. Quickly add a sufficient amount of powder and measure as soon as the powder is dispersed
and not later than 20 seconds after addition of the powder. For detailed instructions about
measuring, see the Malvern user manual.
5. Rinse twice with IPA.
All measurements are made in duplicate.
The ideal grading those results from minimizing the void space is given by
P (u) = 100(u/umax) 0.5
where,
P (u) = probability of material finer than sieve opening u
u = opening size, mm
umax = maximum particle size
51
3.3 SETTLING CHARACTERISTICS OF FLY ASH
The tests on settling rates determine the ease with which solid-liquid separation takes place in
slurries during filling activity, and tests also provide a means of determining the clarity of the
supernatant. Clear supernatant solution free of suspended matter can in most circumstances be
readily recycled, thus leading to water conservation. The rapidity with which the separation takes
place is an important engineering parameter. This is because the fill may be required to provide
the bearing strength soon after the deposition either for safety or for machinery deployment. The
ready percolation of water creates safer conditions. However the grain size of the fill, among
other parameters plays a crucial role characterizing the separation process. The introduction of
coagulant or a flocculants is typical industrial and engineering practice to enhance the solidliquid separation process. The generation of larger or macroscopic particulates creates conditions
for increased gravitational forces, and thereby leads to a rapid settling of solid matter of the
medium.
Take a measuring flask graduated in ml. Clean it thoroughly with pure water. Take water into the
beaker up to certain level.
Drop slowly certain weights of supplied fly ash sample into the beaker and then the mixtures are
stirred by stirrer for some time. The mixtures slowly dropped into the flask through the funnel.
Note down the initial upper reading and initial lower reading of the mixtures. Note down the
time at each one ml interval of the lower reading.
3.4 SLUMP TEST
In construction and civil engineering, the slump test (or simply the slump test) is an in situ test
or a laboratory test used to determine and measure how hard and consistent a given sample of
concrete is before curing.
52
The slump test is, in essence, a method of quality control. For a particular mix, the slump should
be consistent. A change in slump height would demonstrate an undesired change in the ratio of
the ingredients; the proportions of the ingredients are then adjusted to keep a batch consistent.
This homogeneity improves the quality and structural integrity of the cured material.
Steps
1. Place the mixing pan on the floor and moisten it with some water. Make sure it is damp
but no free water is left.
2. Place the fly ash in the pan. Add water to it.
3. Add the additives if any and thoroughly mix.
4. Mix the water and dry fly ash ingredients thoroughly using the trowel.
5. Firmly hold the slump cone in place using the 2 foot holds.
6. Fill one-third of the cone with the fly ash mixture. Then tamp the layer 25 times using the
steel rod in a circular motion, making sure not to stir.
7. Add more fly ash mixture to the two-thirds mark. Repeat tamping for 25 times again.
Tamp just barely into the previous layer (1")
8. Fill up the whole cone up to the top with some excess fly ash coming out of top, and then
repeat tamping 25 times. (If there is not enough fly ash from tamping compression, stop
tamping, add more, then continue tamping at previous number)
9. Remove excess fly ash from the opening of the slump cone by using tamping rod in a
rolling motion until flat.
10. Slowly and carefully remove the cone by lifting it vertically (5 seconds +/- 2 seconds),
making sure that the fly ash sample does not move.
53
11. Wait for the fly ash mixture as it slowly slumps.
12. After the mixture stabilizes, measure the slump-height by turning the slump cone upside
down next to the sample, placing the tamping rod on the slump cone and measuring the
distance from the rod to the ORIGINAL DISPLACED CENTER.
54
CHAPTER 4
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)
FIGURE-4.1: (SEM MICROPHOTOGRAPHS OF FLY ASH UNDER DIFFERENT
MAGNIFICATION LEVELS)
(Fly Ash Sample magnified 5,000X under SEM)
55
(Fly Ash Sample magnified 5,000X under SEM)
(Fly Ash Sample magnified 1,000X under SEM)
56
The SEM data indicated intermixing of Fe and Al-Si mineral phases and the predominance of
Ca non-silicate minerals. The fly ash samples consisted mostly of amorphous alumino-silicate
spheres with a lesser number of iron-rich spheres. The majority of the iron-rich spheres consisted
of two phases: an iron oxide mixed with amorphous alumino-silicate. The calcium-rich material
was distinct in both elemental composition and texture from the amorphous alumino-silicate
spheres. It was clearly a non-silicate mineral possibly calcite, lime, gypsum or anhydrite. In spite
of the inherent variability of fly ash samples, this analysis indicated that the primary
mineral/morphological structures are fairly common. Quartz and alumino-silicates are found as
crystals and as amorphous particles. Iron-rich particles typically exist as mixed iron
oxide/alumino-silicate particles. Calcium is associated with sulfur or phosphorus, not with the
alumino -silicates.
4.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY (ASTM D 854)
TABLE 4.1 (SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FLY ASH)
Sl.no.
Mass of empty, clean
Mass of
Mass of
Mass of
Specific
Average
pycnometeter(WP),
empty
pycnometer +
pycnometer
gravity
Specific
(grams)
pycnometer +
dry soil +
+ water(WA),
(GS)
gravity
dry soil
water
(grams)
(WPS),
(WB),(grams)
(grams)
1
41.69
73.42
157.28
139.38
2.294
2
49.93
79.67
157.29
142.40
2.254
57
2.275
The specific gravity of the fly ash collected from Jindal Power and Steel Company Ltd. was
found to be 2.275.
4.3 TRUE DENSITY
TABLE 4.2 (TRUE DENSITY OF FLY ASH)
Sl. No.
Weight
sample
of
Initial
Final
Change
reading(ml)
reading(ml)
volume
in
True density
Average
True density
(gram)
1
20
80
89
9
2.23
2
20
80
90
8
2.5
3
20
81
90
9
2.23
4
20
81
90
9
2.23
2.29
The true density of fly ash collected from Zindal Power and Steel Company Limited was found
to be 2.29.
58
4.4 MOISTURE CONTENT
TABLE 4.3 (MOISTURE CONTENT OF FLY ASH)
Weight of
Weight of
Weight of
Weight of
Moisture
Average
empty
sample(gm)
crucible and
crucible and
content(%)
moisture
sample
sample after
before
heating(gm)
crucible(gm)
content(%)
heating(gm)
15.236
1.001
16.237
16.102
0.135
15.125
1.005
16.130
15.914
0.210
16.856
1.004
16.860
16.679
0.180
0.175
The moisture content of fly ash collected from Jindal Power and Steel Company Ltd. was found
to be 0.175%. The moisture content of the sample were found out to be around 0.175%
indicating that all the moisture have been evacuated and they are suitable for the construction
works etc.
4.5 SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA
The specific BET surface area of the fly ash collected from the Zindal Power and Steel Company
Limited was found to be 0.44 square meter per gram.
59
4.6 PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS
FIGURE:-4.2 (PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF FLY ASH)
Volume (%)
Particle Size Distribution
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
3000
100
1000
3000
Particle Size (µm)
flyash-mining-100, Tuesday, April 13, 2010 3:15:15 PM
Volume (%)
Difference Graph - Ref: None
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.01
0.1
1
10
Particle Size (µm)
flyash-mining-100, Tuesday, April 13, 2010 3:15:15 PM
The following calculations are done automatically:
1. The volume median diameter D (v, 0.5) is the diameter where 50% of the distribution is above
and 50% is below.
2. Two determinations of mean particle size should not differ by more than 5% relative. The
shape of the curves in the two determinations should be the same.
3. D (v, 0.9), 90% of the volume distribution is below this value.
60
4. D (v, 0.1), 10% of the volume distribution is below this value.
5. The span is the width of the distribution based on the 10%, 50% and 90% quantile.
Particle size- min-3.44 µm mean-8.080µm max-18.585 um
The size, density, type of reinforcing particles and its distribution have a pronounced effect on
the properties of particulate composite. Size range of fly ash particles is reported in the below
figure. The size range of the particles is very wide i.e. 0.1 micron to 100 micron. The size ranges
of the fly ash particles indicate that the composite prepared can be considered as dispersion
strengthened as well as particle reinforced composite. As is seen from the particle size
distribution there are very fine particles as well as coarse ones (3.44-18.585μm). Thus the
strengthening of composite can be due to dispersion strengthening as well as due to particle
reinforcement. Dispersion strengthening is due to the incorporation of very fine particles, which
help to restrict the movement of dislocations, whereas in particle strengthening, load sharing is
the mechanism. Strengthening of matrix may occur because of solid solution strengthening.
4.7 SETTLING CHARACTERISTICS OF FLY ASH
settling in ml
FIGURE:-4.3 (VARIATION OF SETTLING CHARACTERISTICS OF FLY ASH WITH
DIFFERENT COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH AND WATER)
F40W60
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Series1
Series2
0
2
4
time in hours
61
6
8
F50W50
80
70
Settling in ml
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
settling in ml
0
time in hrs
4
2
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
6
8
F35W65
0
1
2
3
4
5
Time in hr
90
F25W75
80
Settling in (ml)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
2
4
Time in (hrs)
62
6
8
For fly ash: 40 gm and water: 60ml
Upper reading: 79 ml, lower reading: 78 ml
The total time taken for settling of the mixtures was found to be 2 hours 47 minutes at the
reading 45ml of the mixtures in the flask.
For fly ash: 50 gm and water: 50 ml
Upper reading: 74 ml, lower reading: 72 ml
The total time taken for settling of the mixtures was found to be 3 hours and 15 minutes at the
reading 55ml of mixtures in the flask.
For fly ash: 35 gm and water: 65 ml
Upper reading: 82 ml, lower reading: 80ml
The total time taken for settling of the mixtures was found to be 2 hours 40 minutes at the
reading 39ml of the mixtures in the flask.
For fly ash: 25 gm and water: 75ml
Upper reading: 87 ml, lower reading: 84 ml
The total time taken for settling of the mixtures was found to be 1 hours and 50 minutes at the
reading 31ml of mixtures in the flask. From the above figure, the composition of fly ash: 25 gm
and water: 75ml was found to be the better parameter among the other parameters for the
separation of solid-liquid in slurries during the filling activity.
4.8 SLUMP TEST
The slump-height of the fly ash collected from Jindal Power and Steel Company Ltd. was found
to be 80mm.
63
CHAPTER 5
5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

From the compositions of fly ash sample collected, it can be concluded that the fly ash
sample belongs to ASTM class F.

As the fly ash belongs to Class F category which acts as pozzolanic in nature, so it needs
alkaline substance for becoming the strengthening.
 Visual observations of the SEM images show a distinct spherical nature for the grains for
the fly ash samples.
 The specific gravity attribute to the mineralogical composition i.e presence of silica
content and CaO.
 The moisture content of the samples were found out to be around 0.175% indicating that
all the moisture have been evacuated and they are suitable for the construction works etc.
 Due to the fine grained nature of the solid constituents, the fly ash slurries exhibit marked
sluggishness for settling and also did not provided clear supernatant solutions.
 The composition of fly ash: 25 gm and water: 75ml is the good parameter for the
separation of solid-liquid in slurries during the filling activity.
 Pozzolanic properties of fly ash can be identified by presence/absence of calcium oxide.
So class F fly ash is the weak in pozzolanic as very less amount of calcium oxide present.
 Strengthening of composite is due to dispersion strengthening, particle reinforcement and
solid solution strengthening.
64
 The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of fly ash had appreciable effects on
performance of fly ash in filling low lying and mine void areas.
 Huge amount of fly ash is available for mine void filling and frequently in the vicinity of
mines.
Bituminous (pozzolanic) fly ash is more frequently used to construct embankments and structural
backfills than sub-bituminous or lignite (self-cementing) fly ash. This is due in part to the selfcementing characteristics of the latter type, which hardens almost immediately after the addition
of water.
65
REFERENCES

Kumar, V. (2006): Fly ash- A resource for sustainable development, Proceedings of the
International Coal Congress & Expo-2006, New Delhi, pp.191-199.

Mishra, M.K. and Rao, K.U.M. (2006): Geotechnical characterization of fly ash
composites for backfilling mine voids, Journal of Geotechnical and Geological
Engineering, Vol.24, Issue 6, pp: 1749-1765.

Bunn, T.F. (1989): Dense Phase Hydraulic Conveying of Power Station Fly Ash and
Bottom Ash, Third International Conference on Bulk materials, Storage, Handling and
Transportation, Newcastle 27-29 June, pp. 250-255.

Bunn, T.F. and Chambers, A.J. (1993): Experiences with Dense Phase Hydraulic
Conveying of Vales Point Fly Ash, Intl. Journal of Powder Handling and Processing,
Vol.5, No-1, pp.35-45.

Seshadri, V., Singh, S.N., Jain, K.K., and Verma, A.K. (2005): Rheology of fly ash
slurries at high concentrations and its application to the design of high concentration
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Websites visited:
 http://www.tfhrc.gov/hnr20/recycle/waste/cfa51.htm
 http://www.hvfacprojectindia.com/Summary_Report.pdf
 http://www.coal-ash.co.il/docs/ashtech.pdf
 http://www.coal-ash.co.il/english/index.html
 http://www.rheology.or.kr/pdf/13-1%286%29.pdf
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BET_theory
 http://flyashbricksinfo.com/articles/current-fly-ash-generation-and-utilization-inindia.html
 http://www.tfhrc.gov/hnr20/recycle/waste/cfa54.htm
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