Red mud as a construction material by using bioremediation

Red mud as a construction material by using bioremediation
Red mud as a construction material by
using bioremediation
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for
Degree of
Master of Technology
In
Civil Engineering
By
Surabhi Jain
Under the Guidance of
Dr. Sarat Kumar Das
Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
Rourkela– 769008, India
MAY, 2014
Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology,
Rourkela-76900
CERTIFICATE
Date: 26/05/2014
This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “Red mud as a construction
material by using bioremediation” is submitted by surabhi jain, Roll
No. 212CE1477 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award
of Master of Technology degree in Civil Engineering with
specialization in “Geotechnical Engineering” during 2012-2014
session at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela is an
authentic work carried out by her under my supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has
not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of
any degree or diploma.
Dr. Sarat Kumar Das
I|Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I have immense joy to express my extreme gratitude to my research guide Dr. Sarat Kumar
Das, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Rourkela, from whom I
have received guidance, valuable support and appreciation, constructive criticism and
friendly help during my project work.
I always remain grateful to Dr. Sarat Kumar Das for accepting me as a student. I thank to
my guide for introducing me to the new topic of research. His permanent discussion,
respected recommendation, Nobel ideas and new concepts and regarding my research are
deeply acknowledged.
I profusely thank to Prof. R. Jaybalan Department of life science, NIT Rourkela for his
encouragement and keen interest are deeply acknowledged in my welfare. I am indebted to
him for his valued suggestions and new, permanent ideas for this research.
I take this opportunity to extend my sincere thanks to Indra Dash and other Ph. D Scholar,
department of life science for their continuous help and support in many aspects during the
course of my project work.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank all Laboratories staff of Civil Engineering and
Life science Department for their help. I thank all my friends for motivation and making my
stay at NIT, Rourkela memorable.
I would also like to express my sincere thanks to my parents, brother and sister for their
encouragement and support throughout my life.
Surabhi Jain
II | P a g e
Abstract
Rapid industrialization and faster growth rate are the requirements for leading a proficient life
but a holistic approach with environmental consideration are essential for sustainable
development. These industries are partially fulfilling their tasks since many factors are not
overcome by them successfully and one of that is safe disposal of waste generating at the end.
Red mud is a waste product from the Alumina industry and it creates a lot of health hazards
to the ecology, if it is left disposed without necessary precautions, hence safe disposal
practices and reuse of the product are one of the solutions. Disposal method entails a huge
land area and enormous mass of earth material for construction of embankment. Many
countries are disposing red mud waste directly into the ocean due to shortage of land area and
scarcity of earth material.
Many researches are still being carried out on the neutralisation of red mud in various ways.
This report is one of the parts of utilizing the red mud in a very better and economic manner.
In this paper the red mud is used as an alternative construction material after remediation by
biological process. This gives a cost effective neutralisation method as well as abundant
material which can use in construction.
Research in biology and earth science has enabled important advances in understanding the
crucial involvement of microorganisms in the evolution of the earth, their ubiquitous
presence in near surface soils and rocks, and their participation in mediating and facilitating
most geochemical reactions. Yet, the effect of biological activity on soil mechanical
behaviour remains largely unexplored in the Geotechnical field. This research Provides
examples of how microbiological conditions and processes may influence engineering
III | P a g e
properties and behaviours of earth materials which opens a new biological field in
Geotechnical engineering which is known as Bio-Geotechnics.
.
IV | P a g e
CONTENTS
Page No.
CERTIFICATE
I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
II
ABSTRACT
III-IV
CONTENTS
V
LIST OF TABLES
VI-IX
LIST OF FIGURES
X
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1-5
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1-2
1.2 DEFINITION OF PROBLEM
3
1.3 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH WORK
4
1.4 THESIS OUTLINE
4-5
CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
6-11
6
2.2 DIFFERENT BIOREMEDIATION STUDY ON RED MUD
6-8
2.3 EXPERIMENTS ON GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF RED MUD
9-11
V|Page
CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 MATERIALS
12-29
12
12-14
3.2.1. Red mud
12
3.2.1.1 Collection of red mud sample
14
3.2.2 Dairy waste
14
3.2.1.1 Collection of Dairy waste
14
3.3 METHODS
3.3.1 Bioremediation methods
3.3.1.1 Isolation of microorganisms
15-29
15
15-16
3.3.1.2 Pure culture
17
3.3.1.3 MRS agar
18
3.3.1.4 Bioremediation of red mud
19-23
Nursery trials
19
3.3.1.5 Bio-neutralisation method
20
3.3.1.6 Centrifuge
21-22
3.3.1.7 Staining procedure
22-23
3.3.1.8 Characterisation of Red mud
24-25
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3.3.1.8.1 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
24
3.3.1.8 .2 Study of the Geotechnical Properties
25
3.3.1.9 Characterisation of dairy waste
26-29
3.3.1.9.1 Introduction
26
3.3.1.9.2 Total hydrocarbon content
26-27
3.3.1.9.2 Spectrophotometer
27-28
3.3.1.9.3 Atomic adsorption test
28-29
CHAPTER 4
BIOREMEDIATION AND CHARACTERISATION
4.1 BIOREMEDIATIONOF RED MUD
30-38
30-34
4.1.1 Introduction
30
4.2 Isolation of bacterial culture
30
4.1.2 Pure culture
31
4.1.3Morphology study
31-32
4.1.4Nursery trials
32-33
4.1.5 Bio-neutralisation process
33-34
4.2 CHARACTERISATION OF DAIRY WASTE
35
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION
35
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4.3 RED MUD CHARACTERISATION AND COMPARISON
35
4.3.1 Introduction
35
4.3.2 Mineralogical study
36
4.3.3 Geotechnical Properties
37
4.3.3.1 Specific Gravity
37
4.3.3.2 Atterburg limits
37
4.3.3.3 Compaction Characteristics
37
4.3.3.4 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)
38
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
5.1 SUMMARY
5.2 CONCLUSION
5.3 FUTURE SCOPE
REFERENCE
PUBLICATIONS FROM THIS STUDY
VIII | P a g e
39-41
39
39-40
41
42-44
44
LIST OF TABLES
Page No
Table 4.1 pH monitoring of lactose broth
33
Table 4.2 pH measurement of red mud with different solution
34
Table 4.3 Contents of dairy waste
35
Table 4.4 Geotechnical properties of red mud and bio neutralised red mud
38
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LIST OF FIGURES
Page No
Figure 1.1 Discharge of Red Mud as Slurry into the Pond
2
Figure 1.2 Flow diagrams showing the organization of the thesis
5
Figure 3.1 Red mud pond of NALCO at Damanjodi
13
Figure 3.2 sprinkling system of red mud pond to prevent dust effect at Damanjodi
13
Figure 3.3 Laboratory whey
14
Figure 3.4 Serial dilution methods
16
Figure 3.5 L Shaped bent loop
16
Figure 3.6 Streak plate methods
17
Figure 3.7 Autoclave
18
Figure 3.8 MRS agar preparations
18
Figure 3.9 Inoculation loop
19
Figure 3.10 five different red mud samples
20
Figure 3.11 pH meters
20
Figure 3.12 Centrifuge- 5430R
22
Figure 3.13 Staining Method
23
Figure 3.14 X-Ray Diffract meter Instrument
24
X|Page
Figure 3.15 Unconfined compression test
25
Figure 3.16 Test tubes for blank and dairy waste sample react with anthrone
27
Figure 3.17 Spectrophotometer
28
Figure3.18 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer
29
Figure 4.1 colonies formed in petri plate
30
Figure 4.2 pure culture obtained from red mud
31
Figure 4.3 Bacterial cultures in microscope
32
Figure 4.4 Variation of pH value of red mud under different conditions
34
Figure 4.5 XRD analysis of red mud
36
Figure 4.6 XRD analysis of bio-neutralised red mud
36
XI | P a g e
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
The requirements for leading a proficient life is challenging for the rapid development of
industries and they partially fulfil their tasks since many factors are not overcome by them
successfully and one of that is safe disposal and utilisation of waste generating at the end.
The waste of aluminium industry known as red mud or bauxite residue is discharged when
alumina is coming out from bauxite. During the most feasible Bayer process alumina is
extracted from bauxite at elevated temperature and pressure with the presence of sodium
hydroxide. Red mud generation is depending upon the type of bauxite used in industry. About
1.2-1.4 tons of red mud is generated per each ton of alumina produced. Each year, more or
less 75 million tonnes of red mud is produced worldwide. The iron compounds present in it
confers the red colour to it and hence it is called red mud.
The problem with the red mud is that it is toxic by nature. The chemical analysis conducted
on red mud reveal that it contains silica, aluminium, iron, calcium, titanium, as well as an
array of minor constituents, namely: Na, K, Cr, V, Ni, Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn etc, because of the
harmful chemical composition present in it but the major problem of red mud is it is caustic
in nature as the alkalinity is very high. The pH value of red mud is varies from 10.5 to 13.
This waste is usually managed by discharge into engineered or natural impoundment
reservoirs, with subsequent dewatering by gravity-driven consolidation and sometimes
followed by capping for closure. Due to the alkaline nature it neither is used for construction
material nor for vegetation.
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The environmental trouble linked with the disposal of red mud waste includes:
 The high pH (10.00-13.00).
 Contamination of underground water due to alkali seepage.
 Storage of red mud is not stable.
 Alkaline air effect to plant life.
 Enormous areas of land consumed.
Figure 1.1 Discharge of Red Mud as Slurry into thePond
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1.2 DEFINITION OF PROBLEM
Various researches are going on to utilise the bauxite residue but only 5% is used so different
efforts are going on to neutralise the red mud. Neutralization of red mud will help to lessen
the environmental impact caused due to its storage and also lessen significantly the ongoing
management of the deposits after closure. It will also open opportunities for re-use of the
residue which to date have been prevented because of the high pH. The cost of neutralization
will, to some degree at least, be equalizing by a reduction in the need for long-term
management of the residue deposits. The funds can be used for neutralisation rather than
using for storage of red mud.
The processes already used for neutralisation are sea water neutralisation, acid waste water
neutralisation, carbon dioxide neutralisation. The turbidly of sea is increased and marine
environment get effected due to the sea water neutralisation. Various new as carbonate and
other reagents are coming out due to waste water neutralisation and cannot satisfy the
industrial demand. The carbon dioxide neutralisation is not feasible as red mud cannot be
neutralising up to the mark.
Bioremediation is a technology that utilizes the biological activity to reduce or eliminate
environmental hazards resulting from the accumulation of toxic chemicals and other
hazardous wastes. It is a versatile process because it can be adapted to suit the specific needs
of each site. This process is still considered an innovative technology that has been used in a
limited number of cases with several advantages in spite of certain disadvantages.
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1.3 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH WORK
The disposal of red mud is a threat to the environment due to its high alkalinity. Researchers
are trying to use and neutralize it by physical and chemical method but the limitations faced
with physical and chemical treatment technologies will be overcome with the help of
microbes.
The purpose of this research work will be utilisation of the red mud, an industrial waste in the
construction of embankment and fill which can’t be done due to its high alkalinity. A new
concept will be used to neutralize the red mud by biological activities so that the modified red
mud can be tested in the field and advantageous for construction material which will reduce
the need of borrowed soil.
Biogeotechnics is a new frontier in civil engineering where living organisms are used to
bring desired chemical and physical change in a confined and regulated soil environment so
these can be used in Geotechnical engineering. In this project the alkalinity of red mud will
be trying to reduce by micro-organisms with different novel concepts. All the morphology
and Geotechnical properties as well as chemical characteristics of red mud will be identified.
A good comparison is done before and after bioremediation.
1.4 THESIS OUTLINE
A brief description of red mud and neutralisation of red mud is described in chapter 1 as
Introduction. Different bioremediation procedure and geotechnical experiments which have
been done is presented in chapter 2 as literature review.
The different materials used in the project work are described in chapter 3. The methods
applied for bio-neutralisation, chemical and geotechnical properties of samples are given in
this chapter.
4|Page
Chapter 4presentresults coming out from the methods used for bio-neutralisation, chemical
properties of red mud and properties of red mud and bio-neutralised red mud. It discusses
about the comparison of both red mud and neutralise red mud.In chapter 5 conclusions drawn
from various studies made in this thesis are presented and the scope for the future work is
indicated. The general layout of the thesis work based on each chapter is shown in a flow
diagram (Figure 1.2).
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Chapter 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS
MATERIALS
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
METHODS
RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
& FUTURE SCOPE
Figure 1.2 Flow diagrams showing the organization of the thesis
5|Page
CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Though, various efforts have been made for geotechnical characterization of red mud, but no
attempts have been made in geotechnical characterization of modified/stabilized red mud. But
in other branches of engineering and science, few efforts have been made towards the Bioneutralisation of red mud for reducing the alkalinity of red mud. As discussed in previous
chapter, Bioremediation is a technology that utilizes the biological activity to reduce or
eliminate environmental hazards resulting from the accumulation of toxic chemicals and
other hazardous wastes. This chapter discusses about the different investigation for effective
bioremediation of red mud in different applications in general. Thereafter, specific literature
pertains to bioremediation application is presented. The literature pertaining to geotechnical
investigation on red mud is also presented at the end.
2.2 DIFFERENT BIOREMEDIATION STUDY ON RED MUD
Mussels et al (1993) did a review to assess the feasibility of bioremediation of bauxite residue
by making estimates of the possible substrate and inoculums required to achieve neutrality.
Various possible avenues of microbial neutralization were assessed in terms of the
practicality of application of bauxite residue. These involved the ability of an organism to
survive and grow in red mud and their production of neutralizing agent mainly organic acid
and carbon dioxide.
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Hamdy and Williams (2001) demonstrated that low levels of injured bacterial cells in the
bauxite residue actively grew used various added nutrients and/or hay. The organisms grew
from less than 10 to more than 109 cells g_1 bauxite residue and formed organic acids that
lowered the pH from 13 to about 7.0. A total of 150 cultures was isolated from treated
bauxite residue and included species of Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Micrococcus,
Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Enterobacter. Scanning electron
micrographs demonstrated that untreated particles (control) of the bauxite residue were
clumped together, and in treating bauxite residue these particles were highly dispersed with
micro colonial structures. Furthermore, the treated bauxite residue supported the growth of
several plants and earthworms that survived for over 300 days.
Krishna et al. (2004) gave a report on bioremediation of red mud by using fungus
(Aspergillustubingensis). Aspergillus tubingensis was tested for its ability to grow at different
pH, red mud amended media and tolerance to Na, Al and Fe. Different concentrations of red
mud (0, 1, 2, 5 and 10%) were amended in Czepeck liquid media and the pH was recorded.
The growth of A. Tubingensis was significantly inhibited by Al at 200μg/ml; however at
50μg/ml of Al, the growth was increased when compared to the control. To determine the
maximum concentration of NaCl tolerated by A. tubingensis, different concentrations of Na
were amended and the results showed that up to 50μg/ml of Na, the growth of A.tubingensis
was not affected and at higher concentrations (150 and 200 μg/ml) the growth was
significantly inhibited. The new content increased in the mycelium as the concentration of Na
increases in the growth medium and the maximum accumulation was found at 200 μg/ml.
The red coloration of red mud is due to high iron (Fe3+) levels in the primary ore minerals.
The ability of A. Tubingensisto grow in the presence of different Fe concentrations was
tested and the results indicated that the best growth of A. Tubingensis was achieved at
concentrations of 400μg/ml. At higher Fe concentrations (500 and 600μg/ml) the growth was
7|Page
slightly increased when compared to control. There was a pH reduction of more than two
units in 25% (9.3 to 7.1) and 50% (9.8 to 7.1) and almost three units in 75% (10 to 7.1) of red
mud amended soils when inoculated with A. tubingensis. The present study showed that A.
tubingensis play an important role in reducing the alkalinity of the red mud and also promote
the plant growth, though bauxite residue is a poor substrate for plant growth because of very
high pH, salinity and sodicity.
Das and Dandapat (2011) showed bioleaching of red mud is a major waste in the aluminium
industry obtained by alkaline treatment of bauxite. The waste was used as a media for fungal
growth and maintained in the form of a solution. Red mud was added to the organic solution
to prepare samples of different pulp density (i.e.20%, 40%, 60% and 80% w/v).
The pH for different pulp densities of red mud with the period of incubation was observed
after treatment with the fungal rich organic media. The pH as a function of initial pH,
concentration of red mud and incubation period was modelled using the neural networks. The
pH was observed for 30 different combinations of parameters like initial pH, concentration of
red mud in media and period of incubation. The pH of as a function of initial pH,
concentration and period of incubation has been modelled using the artificial neural network
technique. They took a pure culture of indigenous fungi (Aspergilus niger) for production of
organic acids results in a progressive decrease in the pH of the media which can also be
associated with the fungal growth. The breakdown of glucose by glycolysis reduces the
glucose flux and as a result causes a shift from citrate to oxalate accumulation. The leaching
ability of fungi is due to its acidolysis and complication phenomena.
2.3EXPERIMENTS ON GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF RED MUD
Studies pertaining to geotechnical characterization of red mud are limited and are presented
as follows.
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Miners (1973) observed that red mud consists of sand and silt size particles with clay size up
to 20-30%, with complete absence of quartz minerals and classified coarse grained fraction as
red sand and fine grained fraction as red mud. .
Vogt (1974) described in situ undrained shear strengths are typically very high compared to
uncemented, clayey soils at equivalent liquidity indices. The sensitivities vary from 5 to 15
with very high friction angles (φ) of 38-420 are also found for red mud.
Parekh and Goldberger (1976) observed that red mud is highly alkaline and its mineral
components are generally hematite, goethite, gibbsite, calcite, sodalite.
Somogyi and Gray (1977) described red mud is of highly alkaline, having 20-30% clay sized
particles, with the majority of particles in the silt range. One-dimensional compression tests
indicate values for Cc ranging from 0.27 to 0.39 permeability k from 2 to 20x10-7cm/s and Cv
= 3 – 50 x 103 cm2/s.
Vick (1981) observed that red mud is of low plasticity with liquid limit (LL) of 45% and
plasticity index (PI) of 10% with relatively high specific gravity (GS) of 2.8-3.3. Due to its
lack of clay mineralogy, these wastes show many geotechnical properties similar to clayey
tailings found in other mineral processing [e.g., mineral sands, gold, etc].
Li (1998) found that red mud is highly alkaline (pH = 11-13) waste material, whose mineral
components includes hematite, goethite, gibbsite, calcite, sodality and complex silicates and
some red mud have been found to have greater than 50% of the particles less than 2µm. The
cation exchange capacities of red mud are comparable with kaolin or illite minerals.
Newson et al. (2006) carried out investigations on physiochemical and mechanical properties
of red mud at a site in the United Kingdom. Based on a set of laboratory tests conducted on
the red mud, the compression behaviour found to similar to clayey soils, but frictional
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behaviour closer to sandy soils. The red mud appears to be “structured” and has features
consistent with sensitive, cemented clay soils. Chemical testing suggests that the agent
causing the aggregation of particles is hydroxyl sodalite and that the bonds are reasonably
strong and stable during compressive loading and can be broken down by subjecting the red
mud to an acidic environment.
Exposure of the red mud to acidic conditions causes
dissolution of the hydroxyl sodalite and a loss of particle cementation. Hydration of the
hydroxyl sodalite unit cells is significant, but does not affect the mechanical performance of
the material. The shape, size, and electrically charged properties of the hydroxyl sodalite,
goethite, and hematite in the red mud appear to be causing mechanical behaviour with
features consistent with clay and sand, without the presence of either quartz or clay minerals.
Liu et al. (2006) observed that pH value of red mud decreases with increase in duration of
storage time and Oxygen(O) accounted for about 40% with other major elements included
Calcium(Ca), Iron(Fe), Silicon(Si), Aluminium(Al), Titanium(Ti), Sodium(Na), Carbon,
Magnesium(Mg) and Potassium(K) . XRD analysis shows calcite, perovskite, illite, hematite
and magnetite are present in red mud and the old red mud also contained some kassite and
portlandite. In addition, there are about 20% of amorphous materials in all red mud.
Sundaram and Gupta (2010) have some in-situ investigations on red mud to be used as a
foundation material and they have observed that red mud is highly alkaline (9.3-10.2) with
liquid limit of 39-45 %, plastic limit of 27-29% and shrinkage limit of 19-22%. They also
found that undrained shear strength is 0.4 to 1.4 kg/cm2, specific gravity is 2.85-2.97,
cohesion is 0.1 to 0.2 kg/cm2 and angle of internal friction is 26-280.
Rout et al. (2012) have designed high embankments based on the geotechnical properties of
red mud by doing laboratory experiments. They observed that the maximum dry density
(MDD), specific gravity and angle of internal friction are very high compared to local soil.
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They concluded that red mud can be used as an embankment material by covering it with
local soil.
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CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter discusses about the materials used in the present study. The main materials
characterized in the present study are red mud and diary waste; experimental methodologies
followed for characterization of these materials are discussed. A brief introduction about the
above materials and methodology is presented in the following section in this chapter.
3.2 MATERIALS
3.2.1. Red mud
The red mud used in the research study is collected from NALCO, Damanjodi, Koraput in
state of Odisha, India. About 0.8 to 1.5 tons of red mud is coming out per ton of alumina
produced. The red mud is discharged in a slurry formto red mud pond shown in Figure 3.1.
The area of red mud pond is about 212hectares. Due to environmental contamination water
sprinkling system to arrest dust is shown in Figure 3.2.
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Figure 3.1 Red mud pond of NALCO at Damanjodi
Figure 3.2 sprinkling system of red mud pond to prevent dust effect at Damanjodi
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3.2.1.1 Collection of red mud sample
The red mud is collected from the red mud pond in anair dried state and characterised by
different standard laboratory methods. 100gms. of red mud was kept in freezer for microbial
count and isolation of pure culture.
3.2.2 Dairy waste
The dairy industry is the most polluting among all food industry due to large consumption of
water. Different research was going on for the better utilisation of dairy waste over
worldwide. The waste coming from dairy industry was shown in Figure 3.3.
3.2.1.1 Collection of Dairy waste
The dairy waste known as whey is prepared by taking OMFED milk and boiling it in
induction cooker by addition of few amount of vinegar in saucepan in laboratory shown in
Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3 Laboratory whey
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3.3 METHODS
The research work contain of experimental procedure for bioremediation of red mud and
characterization and comparison of red mud before and after bio-neutralisation. The
experimental methods refers to neutralise the red mud by microorganisms characterise the
bio-neutralised red mud in terms of chemical, mineralogical and geotechnical properties and
compare it with the original red mud. The experimental methods adopted in the present study
are elaborated as follows.
3.3.1 Bioremediation methods
Bioremediation of red mud refers to neutralise the red mud by microorganisms. It contain
isolation of microorganisms from red mud for getting pure culture from it, collect pellets
from centrifuge method, neutralise red mud by using dairy waste. As the procedure are not
familiar to geotechnical engineers so described separately below.
3.3.1.1Isolation of microorganisms
Calculation of bacteria and fungi refers to standard plate count method. The soil sample was
taken and diluted in different dilution factor as shown in Figure 3.4. The liquefied MRS agar
medium was prepared and poured in to petri plates for solidification. The MRS agar and its
preparation are described in the next section. Each diluted sample was spread in to the solid
medium by L-shaped bent loop shown in Figure 3.5 known as spreading plate method. The
levelled petri plates are incubated at 370c for 48 hrs in B.O.D incubator for growth of
microorganisms.
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Figure 3.4 Serial dilution methods
Figure 3.5 L Shaped bent loop
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3.3.1.2 Pure culture
Streak plate method is used for obtaining pure culture from colonies formed in petri plates.
The streak plate method refers to four-quadrant streak pattern which used an inoculation loop
for streaking. All strokes should be done in same direction not in both back and forth as
shown in Figure3.6. The inoculation loop was heated up to red mud for sterilisation. After
cooling the bacterial culture was spread to a large surface area of MRS agar for dilution
process. The nichrome wire of loop are flamed to burn up any organisms and stroked through
first quadrant when cooled.
Microorganism culture was taken to the second quadrant in the same procedure. The loop is
heated after the second sector and the third quadrant is streaked like this the last fourth one.
Figure 3.6 Streak plate methods
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3.3.1.3 MRS agar
The media is so-named by its inventors: de Man, Rogosaand Sharpe. MRS agar typically
contains(w/v)-
1.0 % peptone,
2.0 % glucose,0.5 % sodium
egg
extract
acetate trihydrate,
of
0.8 %,
0.4 % yeast
0.1 % polysorbate,
extract,
0.2 % dipotassium
hydrogen phosphate, 0.2 % triammonium citrate, 0.02 % magnesium sulfate heptahydrate,
0.005 % manganese sulfate tetrahydrate, 1.0 % agar, and pH adjusted to 6.2 at 25°C.
Preparation of agar shown in Figure 3.8 is done by taking 67.15 grams in 1000 ml distilled
water heated to boiling to dissolve the medium completely, autoclaved shown in Figure 3.7 at
15 lbs pressure (121°C) for 20 minutes. This media is designed to abundant growth of lactose
fermenting bacteria. No pathogenic bacteria can survive in this specialised media
Figure 3.7 Autoclave
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Figure 3.8 MRS agar preparations
3.3.1.4 Bioremediation of red mud
Nursery trials
The lactose fermenting pure culture bacteria was inoculated in two samples of lactose broth
by an inoculation loop shown in Figure3.9 in sterilised laminar air flow. The pH was
maintained to 11.04 by adding sodium hydroxide. It was kept in incubator at 370c and pH was
measured after 24, 48, 96 hrs.
The lactose broth is a liquid media for bacteria culture. The main composition of lactose
broth is Peptic digest of animal tissue 5.000gms / Litre, Beef extract 3.000gms / Litre and
Lactose 5.000gms / Litre and Final pH is maintained 6.9±0.2. The media is prepared by
taking 13gms of lactose broth in 1000ml distilled water and autoclaved it at 15 lbs pressure
(121°C) for 20 minutes.
Figure 3.9 Inoculation loop
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3.3.1.5 Bio-neutralisation method
The quantity of bacterial culture is increased by centrifuge method which is described in
section3.3.1.6. The pellet collected from centrifuge method was kept safely in refrigerator.
Five different 100ml sample was prepared for the pH measurement. Two samples were
prepared by taking 50 ml of water and 50gms of red mud. The other two samples were
prepared by taking 50gms Red mud and organic solution of diary waste prepared in lab by
boiled milk. The last sample was prepared by taking 50ml of lactose broth and 50 gm. red
mud.
Samples were sterilized and autoclaved at 121°C and 15lbs pressure to prevent
microorganism growth other than our required species. The flasks were incubated on a shaker
at 150rpm for 5 days at 370c in incubator. The pH of the red mud in the solution was
monitored using a standard pH meter shown in figure 3.11. A large quantity of red mud was
neutralised for the characterisation of geotechnical properties.
Figure 3.10 five different red mud samples
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Figure 3.11 pH meters
3.3.1.6 Centrifuge
Centrifuge equipment is used to get pellets of bacterial culture from lactose broth. The
equipment is driven by an electric motor, which makes rotate the object around a fixed axis.
The principle is based on the sedimentation which causes separation of denser particles along
the radial direction hence the pellet saved in bottom of the tube used. By this machine the
supernatant and pellet can be separate out.
This machine should be carefully handled and balanced in the laboratory. The weights given
in different tubes should be some which prevents force imbalance in centrifuge. Force
imbalance can cause damage to the machine or personal injury when rotor is at high speed.
It should not be touched while rotation. Centrifuge normally identifies the amount
of acceleration given to the sample; rather specify a rotational speed that is revolution per
minute. The acceleration is often taken in multiples of g, refers to the acceleration of
gravity at the Earth's surface. The acceleration is calculated by the product of the radius and
the square of the angular velocity and radius. Due to the centrifugal force the pellets get
separated in the bottom of falcon tubes, further it is taken care in laminar air flow. The
centrifuge used is shown in Figure3.12.
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Figure 3.12 Centrifuge- 5430R
3.3.1.7 Staining procedure
Staining procedure is used to study the morphology of microorganism culture. Staining
techniques used to improve contrast in the microscopic image in laboratory. Stains
and dyes are frequently used in microbiology for highlighting structures in bacterial
culture for viewing, often with the help of different microscopes. The procedure for staining
of the isolated bacterial culture was described in this section.
The dried and cleaned micro slide was flamed for spreading the smear. The inoculation loop
is flamed for red hot. A loop full of autoclaved water is transferred to the flamed slide
surface. The entire nichorme wire is heated to red hot for sterilisation. The cap of tube is
removed for holding the loop. The mouth of tube is flamed. The inoculation loop is touched
to the tube to make sure it is cooled.
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A pin size sample is picked up by loop without digging to the agar plate. The culture is
dispersed on the slide in the drop of water and it is spread over an area in micro slide. The
smear is allowed to dry. Heat-fix the smear is heat-fixed cautiously in the slide through the
burner flame two or three times. The smear is stained by Methylene blue for 1 minute,
Crystal violet for 30 second. The slide is rinsed off with tape water to wash out the excess
stain. The back of slide is wiped by paper towel. The stained smear is placed on the
microscope stage and is focused the smear using the 10X objective. The smear can be
focused with the 100X objective by applying oil. The bacteria culture can be shown in the
microscope shown in Figure 3.13.
Figure 3.13 Staining Method
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3.3.2 Characterisation of Red mud
3.3.2.1 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique is used for the mineral phase’s characterisation for the
collected red mud. X-ray diffraction method refers Rietveld refinement methods which used
to take out on the collected red mud for useful classification of the mineral phases and
quantitative approximation of mineralogical composition. The powdered form of red mud
samples were dried up at 105°C for X-ray diffraction analysis. First the red mud powder is
taken for mineral phase identification.
The powdered sample is characterised by passing all the way through a Philips diffract meter
with a Cu Kα radiation source and a single crystal graphite monochromator. The angular
range is given at 10–70° of 2θ value in 0.1° increments throughout. The XRD instrument
used in the present study is shown in Figure 3.14.
Figure 3.14 X-Ray Diffract meter Instrument
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3.3.1.8.2 Study of the Geotechnical Properties
Several physical and chemical properties that are of particular concern on red mud samples as
a construction material for fill and embankment are particle size distribution, specific gravity,
atterburg’s limit and standard compaction test, unconfined compressive test, direct shear test
etc. Each and every geotechnical properties of red mud have been characterised as per IS2720
and part 1 of SP 36. The pH values of all the samples found out by Electrometric pH meter
and rechecked by pH paper conducted as per SP 36. The different geotechnical instruments
are shown below in Figures3.15.
Figure 3.15 Unconfined compression test
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3.3.1.9 Characterisation of dairy waste
3.3.1.9.1 Introduction
Whey or dairy waste is the remaining liquid coming out from milk when cheese is prepared
or during removal of fat or proteins from milk. Whey is a colloidal solution of small amount
of fatty acid of bacterial solution after removing it; whey contains proteins, carbohydrate
(lactose) and minerals with crystal clear yellowish colour.
3.3.1.9.2 Total hydrocarbon content
The anthrone reaction procedure is the most suitable and reliable method to calculate total
carbohydrate contain in free or in any solution. Due to the use of sulphuric acid
Carbohydrates get hydrolysed in simple sugars. Glucose gets dehydrated to hydroxyl methyl
furfuralin the environment of hot acidic medium. The solution forms a green coloured
solution with anthrone with an absorption maximum at 630 nm. The procedure is described
below. About 16 ml of diluted sulphuric acid is put in freezer before 4 hrs of experiment.
0.2% (32mg) of anthrone is added in the closed container and mixed it carefully. Three
cleaned test tubes is used as one for blank solution, one for standardised solution and last one
for estimation of total carbohydrate of the sample. 0.5ml of distilled water is kept in last two
solution and 0.5ml of standardised and sample for estimation respectively. It is kept in water
bath at 1000c for 10 minutes. The test tubes are kept for cooling and then used to determine
the carbohydrate contain in the sample. The estimation can be done using the formula given
below or with the standardised curve. The test tubes for blank and dairy waste sample, which
produce green colour by reaction in shown in Figure 3.18.
𝐴𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑤𝑛
𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑤𝑛
26 | P a g e
══
𝐴𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑
𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑
Figure 3.16 Test tubes for blank and dairy waste sample react with anthrone
3.3.1.9.2 Spectrophotometer
The instrument is shown in Figure 3.17. This is an instrument for measuring the quantity of
light of a particular wavelength which passes throughout a medium. The instrument is based
on the principle of Beer's law which states that the amount of light absorbed by a medium is
proportional to the concentration of the absorbing solution used. Hence concentration of a
coloured solution may be determined by measure the absorbency of light at a given
wavelength in the laboratory. The solution is marked as B for blank and S for sample as per
convince. The cuvette should be used carefully as it is expensive and basic need of the
instrument.
The cuvette should not be scratched and clean after every use so that no disturbance should
occur when light of 620 nm is passed from the solution.
27 | P a g e
Figure 3.17 Spectrophotometer
3.3.1.9.3 Atomic adsorption test
Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to conclude the quantitative chemical elements using
of the sample. The fundamental ideology of atomic absorption is the electrons of the atoms is
promoted to higher orbital in the atomizer for a few time by absorption of a distinct amount
of energy which come by radiation of wave length. The quantity of energy is particular in a
particular element to a distinct electron transition. This principle based on Beer-Lambert Law
hence the chemicals are measured by detector of the sample. The instrument used is shown in
Figure 3.18.
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Figure3.18 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer
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CHAPTER 4
BIOREMEDIATION AND CHARACTERISATION
4.1 BIOREMEDIATIONOF RED MUD
4.1.1 Introduction
The experiment for isolation, Bio-neutralisation is done as per discussed in chapter 3. The
results coming out are mentioned briefly in this chapter with figures. The bio-neutralised red
mud is further used for geotechnical characterisation of red mud.
4.1.2 Isolation of bacterial culture
Ten different levelled petri plates having agar and different dilution of samples are incubated
for the growth of lactose fermenting microorganism. The result shows four different colonies
are formed in the petri plates after 48 hrs. The colonies formed are used for obtaining pure
culture which is shown in Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1 colonies formed in petri plate
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4.1.2 Pure culture
As Streak plate method, the most reliable method is used for the pure culture. The four
colonies were stroke for pure culture and incubated in incubator. Result shows colonies are
absolutely pure and no need to do more striking. The culture is saved in agar form in freezer.
The culture is used for nursery trials. The pure culture is shown in Figure 4.2.
Figure 4.2 Pure culture obtained from red mud
4.1.3 Morphology study
The pure culture obtained is studied with respect to their structural form. Morphological
study is done of the bacterial culture by staining procedure as described in section3.3.1.7.
The result shows the four pure cultures are same in structure which is used for bioneutralisation. The bacterial structure in 100x microscope is shown in Figure 4.3.
31 | P a g e
Figure 4.3Bacterial cultures in microscope
The morphological study shows in above figure isCoccusin shape. The colour of bacteria
culture is off white in colour which converts purple when bacterial cell absorbed the dye,
which helps in staining process.
4.1.4 Nursery trials
The bacterial culture is tested for reduction of pH of lactose broth in nursery trials. The pH is
shown in Table 4.1, which was monitored while, incubation.
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Table 4.1 pH monitoring of lactose broth
1st sample
Time of incubation
2nd sample
(lactose broth + bacteria)
(lactose broth + bacteria)
0 hour
11.04
7.11
24 hour
8.82
7.11
48 hour
8.43
4.74
96 hour
5.59
4.56
After 7 days of incubation
5.56
4.77
The result shows that the obtained bacterial culture lactose fermenting facultative bacteria
which can convert lactose to lactic acid in their metabolism process. The bacterial culture can
live in the high alkaline environment as well as in the acidic environment.
4.1.5 Bio-neutralisation process
In bioremediation there is no change of pH value of red mud and inoculated cultured with red
mud. There is a reduction of pH of red mud with lactose broth and inoculated culture but it’s
not feasible. The pH value reduced to 8.40 and 7.40 with diluted and non-diluted diary waster
when mixed with red mud with the bacteria culture. The variation of pH was shown in table
4.2 and in Figure 4.4.
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Table 4.2 pH measurement of red mud with different solution
Days of
incubation
Red mud
&
water
0 days
10.06
Red mud,
Water
&
bacteria
10.04
Red mud,
Red mud,
Lactose broth
dil. Diary
&
waste &
bacteria
bacteria
10.04
9.60
2 days
10.06
9.90
9.60
8.67
7.82
4 days
10.06
9.90
9.47
8.40
7.40
6 days
10.06
9.90
9.23
8.40
7.40
8 days
10.06
9.90
9.23
8.40
7.40
12.0
Red mud
Red mud + Bacteria
Red mud + Bacteria + Lactose broth
Red mud + Bacteria + Whey (diluted)
Red mud + Bacteria + Whey
11.5
11.0
10.5
pH
10.0
9.5
9.0
8.5
8.0
7.5
7.0
0 days
2 days
4 days
6 days
8 days
Incubation period (Days)
Figure4.4 Variation of pH value of red mud under different conditions
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Red mud,
diary waste
&
bacteria
9.60
4.2 CHARACTERISATION OF DAIRY WASTE
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION
Crystal clear yellowish colored whey contains carbohydrate, protein and different minerals.
The carbohydrate contains lactose and is calculated in anthrone method. The minerals are
calculated in atomic adsorption machine. The content are presented in the below table 4.3.
Table 4.3 contents of dairy waste
Sl. No
Contents
Amount
1
Lactose
47g/lit
2
Fe ( Iron)
0.455mg/l
3
Chloride
650mg/l
4
K (Potassium)
48.947mg/l
5
Mg(Magnesium)
6.604mg/l
6
Ca(Calcium)
61.865mg/l
7
Na( Sodium)
13.700mg/l
4.3 RED MUD CHARACTERISATION AND COMPARISON
4.3.1 Introduction
The red mud and bio-neutralised red mud material properties is discussed and presented in
this section. The procedure for characterisation is already described in pervious chapters. The
mineralogical and all geotechnical properties are presented and compared with bioneutralised red mud. Hence it can be known that the bio remediated red mud can be used for
construction material as fill and an embankment or not.
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4.3.2 Mineralogical study
The X-Ray Diffraction analysis of red mud is shown in Figure 4.5 and from the analysis it is
observed that Hematite, Boehmite, Gibbsite, Rutile, Goethite and Sodalite are major minerals
present in red mud. The bio-neutralised red mud X-Ray Diffraction analysis is shown in
Figure 4.6 and it was observed that similar types of minerals are observed after
bioremediation qualitatively. However, some quantitative differences were observed, though
it has not been measured.
Q= Quartz (SiO2)
G
300000
G= Gibbsite (Al (OH)3
H= Hematite (Fe2O3)
250000
G1= Goethite (Fe+3O(OH)
Intensity
200000
150000
G
G 1
Q H1HQ
GH
G HG
100000
50000
Q
G1 GG
H
HH H
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Angle (2 theta)
Figure 4.5 XRD analysis of red mud
120000
V
G
Q = Quartz (SiO2)
V = Vanadium phosphate (VPO4.75)
100000
H = Hematite (Fe2O3)
G = Gibbsite [Al(OH)3]
Q
G
Intensity
80000
60000
Q
V HV
Q
G
G
G HG
V G G G G GG
V
40000
GG
20000
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Angle (2 Theta)
Figure 4.6 XRD analysis of bio-neutralised red mud
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4.3.3 Geotechnical Properties
The colour of the red mud is normally brown to reddish brown due to the presence of iron
oxide. There is no distinct colour change in red mud after neutralisation. The basic
geotechnical characterisation are compared and presented below in the table.
4.3.3.1 Specific Gravity
Specific gravity test was done for both the red mud and bio-neutralised red mud. The specific
gravity of red mud varies between 2.8 to 3.3 as per the literature review. Particle
heterogeneity is the main cause of variation of red mud.The specific gravity is reduced from
3.34 to 2.83 when it is bio-neutralised. The main cause of reduction of specific gravity is due
to the presence of organic matter as a lactic acid.
4.3.3.2 Atterburg limits
Liquid limit (LL) and Plasticity index (PI) of red mud and bio-neutralised red mud are
evaluated. As the LL and PI of red mud are found to be 24.75% and 7.25%, respectively, red
mud is found to be Inorganic silts of low plasticity (ML), and inorganic clays of low
plasticity (CL) (ML-CL) as per Indian classification. The bio-neutralised red mud liquid limit
and plasticity are 23.34%, 3.48% respectively. The liquid limit and plasticity index is also
reduced when it got neutralised by using dairy wastes.
4.3.3.3 Compaction Characteristics
The standard Proctor (light compaction) test result for red mud is presented here. The
maximum dry density (MDD) of red mud is found to be 19.8kN/m3 at light compaction with
18% of optimum moisture content. It may be mentioned here that the Gs value of red mud
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vary from 2.99 – 3.43. The MDD and OMC are used for unconfined compressive strength of
red mud.
4.3.3.4 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)
Keeping in mind, use of red mud as an embankment material, the shear strength of the red
was obtained through unconfined compressive strength.
Table 4.4 Geotechnical properties of red mud and bio neutralised red mud
Sl.
Properties
Red mud
No
Neutralised
red mud
1
pH value
10.06
7.40
2
Specific gravity
3.34
2.83
3
Liquid Limit
24.75
23.34
4
Plastic Limit
17.5
19.86
5
Plasticity Index
7.25
3.48
6
Unconfined Compressive Strength 57.6
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41.11
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
5.1 SUMMARY
About 75 million tons of red mud is produced per year in aluminium industry over
worldwide. The red mud should be used in a huge quantity for the construction material as
embankments and fills without any environmental hazard. So the red mud is neutralised and
it can be used in terms of soil in construction material. The present study concludes the
laboratory tests like morphology, chemistry and geotechnical index properties of red mud and
bio-neutralised red mud. The red mud is neutralised by using dairy waste and lactose
fermenting bacteria. A comparison of some properties has been made of red mud and bioneutralised red mud.
5.2 CONCLUSIONS
The following observations can be made based on the above from Chapter 1 to Chapter 4.
Production of red mud is an alarming environmental effect and for storage it needs a vast land
area. The red mud production is 1.2 – 1.4 times the production of alumina which is a big
issue for the world. Though, several labours have been made to use red mud an alternative
material in building and alloy industries, but only 5% of red mud can be used.
1. The toxicity of red mud is the main cause for which it cannot be used. The toxicity is due
to the high alkaline in nature so in this research the red mud is neutralised by microbes so that
it can be used in construction material as well as lessen the environmental effect and cost for
storage of red mud.
39 | P a g e
2. There is a potential to use in huge quantities as a fill and embankment material, but very
little efforts have been made to neutralise and characterize neutralised red mud as a
geotechnical engineering material, particularly the Indian red mud.
3. The alkalinity of red mud is high with a pH value 10.06 due to presence of NaOH and
Na2CO3, these are expressed in terms of Na2O.
4. The isolated bacteria culture can reduce the pH value of red mud to 7.40 from 10.06 when
red mud is mixed with diary waste product.
5. The specific gravity changed to 2.83 from 3.34 due to the presence of organic matter.
6. There is a variation of plasticity index due to slight decrease in liquid limit and increase in
plastic limit.
7. The unconfined compressive strength value is decreasing to 41.11 kPa from 57.6 kPa at
optimum moisture content.
8. High specific gravity of red mud (2.99-3.43) may be attributed to mineral content like
Hematite. The plasticity is low and can be classified as ML-CL. The specific gravity and
plasticity got reduced when red mud is neutralised.
9. There is a reduction of plasticity index and cohesion due to the loss of apparent cohesion
present in red mud.
.
40 | P a g e
5.3 FUTURE SCOPE
There is a vast scope to use red mud as fill and embankment material in huge quantities. The
neutralisation and geotechnical characterization of red mud in this study is limited to a single
source and laboratory investigations. Some of the followings are recognized for future
studies.
(1) In-situ studies and its laboratory validation of properties of red mud from different
sources and different storage times. (2) Application of this procedure in field to neutralise the
red mud and its efficiency (3) Stabilization of neutralised red mud using other industrial
waste and local soil (4) The effect of temperature and humidity of the field in micro
organism(5) Effect of other microorganisms present in red mud (6) Model footing on
foundations, slopes and retaining walls under static and dynamic load using advanced
instrumentation, centrifuge modelling and numerical validation of models using FE analysis.
(7) Importance of microorganism and bio mass in geotechnical engineering.
41 | P a g e
REFERENCE
1. Mussels G., Sparkling G., Summers J (1993). ‘‘Bioremediation of bauxite residue in
Western Australia.’’-An initial feasibility study, No. 26. Alcoa of Australia ISSN
1320-4807.
2. Hamdy M.K. and Williams F.S. (2001). ‘‘Bacterial amelioration of bauxite residue
waste of industrial alumina plants.’’, J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotech. No.27, 228–233.
3. Krishna P., Reddy M. and PatanikS.K. (2005). ‘‘Aspergillus tubingensis reduces the
pH ofthe bauxite residue (red mud) amended soils.”,Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
No. 167, 201–209.
4. Diamond D. and DandapatSnigdha J. (2011). “Artificial Neural Network Modelling
for the Study of pH on the Fungal Treatment of Red mud.”,Res.J.Chem.Sci. ,No.1,
108-112.
5. Vogt, M. F. (1974). “Development studies on dewatering of red mud.” 103rd Annual
Meeting of AIME, Dallas, Tex., 73-91.
6. Somogyi F. and Gray D. (1977). “Engineering properties affecting disposal of red
mud.” Proc., Conf. on Geotechnical Practice for Disposal of Solid Waste Materials,
ACSE, 1-22.
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7. Rout S., Sahoo T. and Das S.K. (2012). “Utility of Red Mud as an Embankment
Material.” Inter National Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering. No.06, 16451651.
8. Rai s., WasewarK.L., Mukhopadhy J., YooC.K. and Uslu H. (2012). “Neutralization
and utilization of red mud for its better waste management” Arch. Environ. Sci. no.06,
13-33.
9. Li, L. Y., Properties of red mud tailings produced under varying process conditions, J.
Environ. Engg. 1998, Vol-124 (3), pp.254-264.
10. Liu, W.; Yang, J. & Xiao, B. (2009), Application of Bayer red mud for iron recovery
and building material production from aluminosilicate residues, Journal of Hazardous
Materials, Vol.161, pp.474-478. ISSN 03043894.
11. Miners, K., Alcan’s experience of the disposal of red mud from the Bayer ore process,
Proc., 1st Int. Tailings Symposium, Miller Freeman, San Francisco, 1973, 553-562.
12. Newson, T., Dyer, T., Adam, C. and Sharp, S., Effect of structure on the
geotechnical properties of bauxite residue, J. Geotech. & Geoenviron. Engg., 2006,
Vol-132:2, pp.143- 151.
13. Parekh, B., and Goldberger, W., An assessment of technology for possible utilization
of Bayer process muds, USEPA, 1976, EPA-600/2-76301.
43 | P a g e
14. Somogyi, F., and Gray, D., Engineering properties affecting disposal of red mud,
Proc., Conf. on Geotech., Practice for Disposal of Solid Waste Materials, ACSE,
1977, 1-22.
15. Sundaram, R. and Gupta, S. Constructing Foundations on Red Mud, 6th International
Congress on Environmental Geotechnics, 2010, New Delhi, India, pp. 1172-1175.
16. Vick, S. G., Planning, design and analysis of tailing dams, Wiley, New York, 1981,
369.
17. Vogt, M. F., Development studies on dewatering of red mud. 103rd Annual Meeting
of AIME, Dallas, Tex., 1974, pp.73-91.
PUBLICATIONS FROM THIS STUDY
Conference
1. Surabhi Jain, S.K.Das, (2014). “Characterization Of Indian red mud as a fill and
embankment material using Bioremediation”, 7th International Congress on
Environmental Geotechnics (ICEG), Malbourne, Austrilla
2. Surabhi Jain, S.K.Das, (2014). “Geotechnical characterisation of bio-modified red
mud”, Innovation in Science & Technology for inclusive Development, REGIONAL
SCIENCE CONGRESS, January 27-28, 2014
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