STATIC AND FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF WITHOUT CUTOUT

STATIC AND FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF WITHOUT CUTOUT
STATIC AND FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF
LAMINATED COMPOSITE SKEW PLATE WITH AND
WITHOUT CUTOUT
A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
(MACHINE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS)
By
GIRISH KUMAR SAHU
(Roll No. - 211ME1178)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROURKELA
ROURKELA - 769008, ODISHA, INDIA
JUNE – 2013
STATIC AND FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF
LAMINATED COMPOSITE SKEW PLATE WITH AND
WITHOUT CUTOUT
A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
(MACHINE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS)
By
GIRISH KUMAR SAHU
(Roll No. - 211ME1178)
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Prof. S. K. PANDA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROURKELA
ROURKELA - 769008, ODISHA, INDIA
JUNE - 2013
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ROURKELA - 769008
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “STATIC AND FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF
LAMINATED COMPOSITE SKEW PLATE WITH AND WITHOUT CUTOUT”, submitted
by Mr. Girish Kumar Sahu in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of
Master of Technology in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Machine Design and
Analysis at National Institute of Technology, Rourkela is an authentic work carried out by him
under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in this
thesis is original and has not been submitted to any other university/institute for the award of
any degree or diploma.
Date: 03rd Jun, 2013
Prof. S. K. Panda
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769008
i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my guide, Prof. S. K. Panda, Assistant Professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela for kindly
providing me an opportunity to work under his supervision and guidance. His encouragement,
advice, help, monitoring of the work, inputs and research support throughout my studies are
embodied in this dissertation. His ability to teach, depth of knowledge and ability to achieve
perfection will always be my inspiration.
I express my sincere thanks to Prof. S. K. Sarangi, Director, National Institute of Technology,
Rourkela and Prof. K. P. Maity, Head of the Department, Mechanical Engineering for their
advice and providing necessary facility for my work.
I am deeply indebted to Mr. Vishesh Ranjan Kar, Mr. Vijay K. Singh and Mr. Pankaj Katariya,
Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering for his valuable suggestion during the
research work.
I would like to thanks my parents for their unconditional support, love and affection. Their
encouragement and never ending kindness made everything easier to achieve.
Finally, I wish to thank many friends for the encouragement during these difficult years,
especially, Gaurav, Ajay, Pradeep, Asif, Rakesh and Aarif.
Girish Kumar Sahu
ii
ABSTRACT
Most of the structures generally under severe static and dynamic loading and different
constrained conditions during their service life. This may lead to bending, buckling and
vibration of the structure. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the static and vibration
responses of laminated composite plates/skew plates precisely with less computational cost
and good accuracy
of these complex structures and. A suitable finite element model is
proposed and developed based on first order shear deformation theory using ANSYS parametric
design language (APDL) code. This is well that, the theory accounts for the linear variation of
shear stresses along the longitudinal and thickness direction of the laminates. The model has
been discretised using an appropriate four noded isoparametric element (SHELL181) from the
ANSYS element library. The free vibration and bending responses are computed using BlockLanczos and Gauss elimination algorithm steps. The responses like, transverse deflections,
normal and shear stresses and natural frequencies of composite laminates are obtained through
batch method of APDL code. The convergence test has been done of the developed model for all
different cases and compared with those available published literature. Parametric effects
(modular ratio, support conditions, ply orientations, number of layers, thickness ratio, geometry
of cutout, cutout side to plate side ratio and skew angle) on the static and free vibration responses
are discussed in detail.
iii
CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE
i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ii
ABSTRACT
iii
LIST OF FIGURES
vi
LIST OF TABLES
ix
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1
Overview
1
1.2
Importance of present study
1
1.3
Objective
3
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1
Historical development
4
2.2
Static analysis of laminated composite structures
4
2.3
Vibration analysis of laminated composite structures
6
2.4
Aim and scope of present study
8
3. THEORETICAL FORMULATION
3.1
Finite element modeling
9
3.2
Plate element formulation
15
3.3
Boundary condition
18
3.4
Solution technique and steps
19
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1
Material properties
20
4.2
Convergence and validation Study
21
4.2.1 Laminated Composite Plate
21
4.2.1.1 Static analysis without cutout
21
4.2.1.2 Static analysis with cutout
22
4.2.1.3 Vibration analysis without cutout
23
4.2.1.4 Vibration analysis with cutout
24
iv
4.2.2 Laminated composite skew plate
4.3
25
4.2.2.1 Static analysis without cutout
25
4.2.2.2 Vibration analysis without cutout
25
4.2.2.3 Vibration analysis with cutout
26
Parametric study
27
4.3.1 Laminated Composite plate
27
4.3.1.1 Static analysis with and without cutout
27
4.3.1.2 Vibration analysis with and without cutout
31
4.3.2 Laminated Composite Skew Plate
35
4.3.2.1 Static analysis with and without cutout
35
4.3.2.2 Vibration analysis with and without cutout
39
5. CONCLUSIONS
44
6. REFERENCES
45
v
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. No.
Caption
Page No.
1.
Geometry of SHELL181 element
10
2.
Typical presentation of general lamina geometry of a laminated
composite plate with an orientation of fibre
10
3.
Laminate geometry with positive set of laminate reference axis
10
4.
Representation of laminated plate and skew plate with and without
cutout
11
5.
Coordinate locations of plies in a laminate
11
6.
Laminated composite plate modeled in ANSYS
12
7.
Isoparametric quadratic shell element
15
8.
Representation of different support condition for the analysis
19
9.
Solution steps in ANSYS
19
10.
Variation of wc with distributed load and mesh density
21
11.
Variation of w with transverse pressure and mesh density
22
12.
Variation of  with stacking sequence and mesh density for a/h=10
23
13.
Variation of  with stacking sequence and mesh density for a/h=100
23
14.
Variation of  with different skew angle and mesh size
26
15.
Variation of ω for anti-symmetric angle ply skew plate with mesh
density
26
16.
Variation of ζx with distributed load and lamination scheme
28
17.
Variation of ζy with distributed load and lamination scheme
28
18.
Variation of ηxy with distributed load and lamination scheme
28
19.
Deformation shape of cross ply (0˚/90˚) laminate.
29
vi
20.
Deformation shape of angle ply (±45˚) laminate
29
21.
Variation of w with transverse pressure and cutout geometry
28
22.
Variation of ζx with transverse pressure and lamination scheme
30
23.
Variation of ζy with transverse pressure and lamination scheme
30
24.
Variation of ηxy with transverse pressure and lamination scheme
30
25.
Variation of w with transverse pressure and cutout shape
30
26.
Variation of  with different mode number and boundary conditions
for (0˚/90˚/0˚) laminates
32
27.
Variation of  with different mode number and boundary conditions
for (0˚/90˚) s laminates
32
28.
Variation of  with different E1/E2 ratios and stacking sequence for
a/h=10
32
29.
Variation of  with different mode number and no. of plies
32
30.
Variation of  with different E1/E2 and a/h ratio
33
31.
Variation of  with different mode number and boundary conditions
33
32.
Variation of  with different a/h ratio and no. of plies
33
33.
Variation of  with different mode number and cutout ratio
33
34.
Variation of  with different mode number and cutout geometry
34
35.
Variation of wc with skew angle and load parameter
36
36.
Variation of wc with skew angle and modular ratio
36
37.
Variation of wc with skew angle and thickness ratio
36
38.
Variation of wc with skew angle and ply orientations
36
39.
Variation of w with skew angle and transverse load
37
40.
Variation of w with skew angle and boundary conditions
37
vii
41.
Variation of w with skew angle and cutout size
37
42.
Variation of w with skew angle and lamination scheme
37
43.
Variation of ζx with skew angle and lamination scheme
38
44.
Variation of ζy with skew angle and lamination scheme
38
45.
Variation of ηxy with transverse pressure and lamination scheme
39
46.
Variation of  with different skew angle and boundary conditions
40
47.
Variation of  with different skew angle and modular ratio
40
48.
Variation of  with different skew angle and thickness ratio
40
49.
Variation of  with different ply orientation and modes
40
50.
Variation of  with different skew angle and modes
41
51.
Variation of  with different skew angle and boundary conditions
41
52.
Variation of  with different skew angle and ply orientation
41
53.
Variation of  with different skew angle and ply cutout size
41
54.
Variation of  with different skew angle and thickness ratio
42
viii
LIST OF TABLES
Table No.
Caption
Page No.
1.
Elastic property for static analysis
20
2.
Elastic properties for free vibration analysis
20
3.
Nondimensional frequency (   a 2  h D ) for square plate
with square central cutout having different thickness ratios
24
4.
Nondimensional deflections for square skew plate (α = 45˚)
having different load parameters
25
5.
Deflection of different lamination scheme in clamped
condition.
29
ix
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview
A composite is a structural material that consists of two or more constituents that are
combined at a macroscopic level which are insoluble in each other and differ in form or chemical
compositions. There are two phases of composite exists namely, reinforcing phase and matrix
phase. The reinforcing phase material may be in the form of fibers, particles or flakes and the
matrix phase materials are generally continuous such as polymer, metal, ceramic and carbon [1].
The properties of the composite material largely depend on the properties of the constituents,
geometry and distribution of the phases. The distribution of the reinforcement determines the
homogeneity or uniformity of the material system. The strength and stiffness of fibre reinforced
composite materials increases in the fibre direction due to the continuity nature of fibre [2].
Some more natural composites are available in the nature say wood, where the lignin matrix is
reinforced with cellulose fibers and bones in which the bone-salt plates made of calcium and
phosphate ions reinforce soft collagen. Composite systems include concrete reinforced with steel
and epoxy reinforced with graphite/carbon/boron fibers etc. Similarly, the properties and
behavior of composite materials are discussed by many authors [3] and [4].
1.2 Importance of present study
Composite laminates are formed by stacking layers of different composite materials
and/or fibre orientation. By construction requirements, composite laminates have their planar
dimension one to two orders of magnitude larger than their thickness. Therefore, composite
laminates are treated as plate elements [5]. Laminated composite plates are being increasingly
used in many engineering applications such as aerospace, marine, automobile, sports,
biomedical, heavy machinery, agricultural equipment and health instrument as well as in the
other field of modern technology due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness to
weight ratio, low weight, high modulus, low specific density, long fatigue life, resistance to
electrochemical corrosion, good electrical and thermal conductivity and other superior material
properties.
1
In many industries as discussed in the aforementioned point stress singular plates are
used depending on the application, these are generally named as, cutouts. Cutouts are necessary
for assembling the components, damage inspection, access ports, electrical lines and fuel lines,
opening in a structure to serve as doors and windows, provide ventilation, to reduce weight and
for accessibility to other parts of the structure. It is needed at the bottom plate for passage of
liquid in liquid retaining structures. It is well known that these structures are exposed to the
undesirable vibration, extra amount of deflection and many more during their service life and
again these plate structures having cutout may change the responses considerably. As discussed
earlier, the plates having the cutouts reduce the total weight which in turn affect the vibration
response similarly it also reduces the total stiffness and the bending behavior changes
automatically.
Many industries uses laminated plate are not square or rectangle, some of the cases skew
plates is also used. In skew plates, the angle between the adjacent sides is not equal to 90˚. It may
refer to oblique, swept or parallelogram. If the opposite sides of the skew plates are parallel, it is
parallelogram and when their lengths are equal, it is called a rhombic plate. It is widely used in
various mechanical, civil and aero structures. These structures can be found easily in modern
construction in the form of reinforced slabs and stiffened plates. Such structures are commonly
used as floors in bridges, ship hulls, buildings and in the construction of wings, tails and fins of
aircrafts and missiles. However, the composite skew laminates may severe static and dynamic
loading during their service life. Hence, for the designer’s quest to model these complex
structural problems precisely and study the effect of cutout on the static and dynamic behavior
of composite skew laminates with less computational effort.
In order to reduce the experimental cost and have clear idea on real life problems
modeling and simulation type of work has got well importance. Some numerical methods
invented time to time for the improvement of numerical approaches, like finite difference method
(FDM), Ritz method and finite element method (FEM) [6]. From last few decades, FEM has got
huge appreciation due to its applicability as well as preciseness. FEM proves to be a more
versatile technique than all the other exiting method.
2
Based on the necessity many theories were developed in past to design and predict the
responses of laminated composite plates [3].
(1) Equivalent single layer theory (2-D)
(a) Classical laminated plate theory
(b) Shear deformation laminated plate theory
(2) Three-dimensional elasticity theory (3-D)
(a) Traditional 3-D elasticity formulation
(b) Layerwise theory
The equivalent single layer (ESL) plate theory is derived from the 3-D elasticity theory by
making suitable assumptions concerning the variation of displacements and stresses through the
thickness of the laminate. These assumptions allow the reduction of a 3-D problem to a 2-D
problem. In the three-dimensional elasticity theory, each layer is modeled as a 3-D solid. The
simplest ESL plate theory is the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT), which is an extension
of Kirchhoff (classical) plate theory to laminated composite plates. The next theory of ESL plate
theory is the shear deformation laminated plate theory. The first order shear deformation theory
(FSDT) extends the kinematics of CLPT by including a transverse shear deformation in its
kinematics assumptions i.e., the transverse shear strain is assumed to be constant with respect to
thickness coordinate. The higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) provides a slight
increase in accuracy relative to FSDT solution, at the expense of an increase in computational
effort.
1.3 Objective
The objective of the present study is to develop a finite element (FE) model of laminated
composite skew plates with and without cutouts (circular, rectangular and square) and analyze
the static and free vibration behavior. The composite laminate was modeled in ANSYS finite
element package and solved using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL) code. Effects of
different elastic, geometric parameters, material properties, cutout geometries and skew angles
on the static and vibration responses are obtained by using the developed FE model.
3
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Historical development
The concept of composite material is very old. The use of reinforcing mud walls in
houses with bamboo shoots glued laminated wood by Egyptians (1500 B.C.) and laminated
metals in forging swords (A.D. 1800). In the 20 th century, modern composites were used in the
1930s when glass fibers reinforced resins. Boats and aircraft were built out of these glass
composites [1]. The pace of composite development was accelerated during World War II. Not
only even more aircraft being developed and therefore, composites were more widely used in
tooling, but the use of composites for structural and semi-structural parts. Since the 1970s,
application of composites has widely increased due to development of new fibers such as carbon,
boron and aramids and new composite systems with matrices made of metals and ceramics.
Concrete is also a composite material and used more than any other man-made materials in the
world. About 7.5 billion cubic meters of concrete are made each year. So, there is a need to study
the static and vibration behavior of laminated composite structure precisely.
In recent years, many adequate theories/formulations have been proposed by the
researchers to overcome the lacuna of the composite structures and advanced structural
materials over conventional materials. The static and vibration responses of laminated
composite plates have been investigated extensively by a number of researchers to fill the gap.
However, the analysis of laminated skew composites considering cutout reported in the open
literature is less in number. Some of the selected research findings are discussed in the following
lines. For the sake of clarity, past work has been subdivided into static and vibration of laminated
composite structures.
2.2 Static analysis of laminated composite structures
A C0 continuous displacement finite element formulation of laminated composite plates
under transverse loads is presented by Pandya and Kant [8] using the HSDT. The static behavior
of laminated composite and sandwich plates are solved analytically using Navier’s technique
based on higher order refined theory by Kant and Swaminathan [9]. Zhang and Kim [10]
4
presented geometrically nonlinear static responses of laminated composite plates by using two
new displacement based quadrilateral plate (RDKQ-NL20 and RDKQ-NL24) elements. Soltani
et al. [11] analyzed nonlinear tensile behavior of glass fibre reinforced aluminium laminates
using finite element modeling approach under in-plane loading. Alibeigloo and Shakeri [12]
reported 3-D solution for static analysis of laminated cylindrical panel using differential
quadrature method (DQM). Akavci et al. [13] investigated the symmetrically laminated
composite plates on elastic foundation in the framework of the FSDT. Attallah et al. [14]
presented 3-D solutions of laminated composite plates by using a combined finite strip and state
space approach. Bhar et al. [15] analyzed the significance of the HSDT over the FSDT for
laminated composite stiffened plates by using FEM. Lu et al. [16] studied the semi analytical
solutions for bending and free vibration of laminated composite plates using three dimensional
elasticity theories, which perfectly combine the state space approach and the technique of
differential quadrature. Moleiro et al. [17] investigated static and free vibration analysis of
laminated composite plates by developing a new mixed least square finite element models in the
framework of the FSDT. Casrellazzi et al. [18] studied nodally integrated plate element
formulation for the analysis of laminated composite plates based on the FSDT. Grover et al. [19]
investigated the static and buckling analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates in the
framework of a new inverse hyperbolic shear deformation theory and this theory is based on
shear strain shape function. Refined laminated composite plate element based on the global local
HSDT is analyzed by wu et al. [20] and this theory satisfies fully the free surface conditions and
the geometries and stress continuity conditions at interfaces. Ren [21] developed a new theory of
laminated plate and the equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are similar to those of the
classical plate theory. Krishna Murty and Vellaichamy [22] studied the suitability of the HSDT
for the stress analysis of laminated composite panels based on cubic in plane displacements and
parabolic normal displacements. Ray [23] developed a zeroth order shear deformation theory for
the static and dynamic analysis of laminated composite plates. Nonlinear static behavior of fibre
reinforced plastic (FRP) laminates with circular cutout on the effect of thickness ratio and skew
angle are analyzed by Raju et al. [24] and [25], respectively. Pradyumna and Bandyopadhyay
[26] investigated the static and free vibration behavior of laminated shells using a higher order
theory and Sander’s approximation considering the effect of rotary inertia and transverse shear.
Kumar et al. [27] studied static analysis of thick skew laminated composite plate with elliptical
5
cutout based on 3-D elasticity theories. Riyah and Ahmed [28] investigated stresses of composite
plates with different types of cutouts. Rezaeepazhand and Jafari [29] analytically analyzed the
stresses of composite plates with a quasi-square cutout subjected to uniaxial tension based on
Lekhnitskii’s theory. Upadhyay and Shukla [30] investigated the large deformation flexural
responses of composite laminated skew plates based on third order shear deformation theory
(TSDT) and von-Karman’s nonlinearity. Static analysis of isotropic rectangular plate with
various support conditions and loads are studied by Vanam et al. [31] using finite element
analysis (FEA).
2.3 Vibration analysis of laminated composite structures
The structures are exposed to dynamic type of loading during their service and which
may in turn the structure to vibrate. Kant and Swaminathan [32] analyzed analytically the free
vibration responses of laminated composite and sandwich plates based on a higher order refined
theory and used Navier’s technique to obtain the solution in closed form. Khdeir and Reddy [33]
studied free vibration behavior of laminated composite plates using second order shear
deformation theory and a generalized Levy type solution in conjunction with the state space
concept. Reddy and Liu [34] presented Navier type exact solutions for bending and natural
vibrations of laminated elastic cylindrical and spherical shells based on the HSDT. Thai and Kim
[35] examined the free vibration responses of laminated composite plates using two variables
refined plate theory. Reddy [36] studied the free vibration of anti-symmetric angle ply laminated
plates including transverse shear deformation using FEM. Ganapathi et al. [37] analyzed the free
vibration analysis of simply supported composite laminated panels in the framework of FSDT
and obtained governing equations using energy method. Swaminathan and Patil [38] analyzed
analytically the free vibration responses of anti-symmetric angle ply plates using a higher order
refined computational model with twelve degree of freedom. Bhimaraddi [39] predicted the
fundamental frequency of laminated rectangular plates using Kirchhoff plate theory and
parabolic shear deformation theory. Chakravorty et al. [40] presented a finite element analysis of
the free vibration behavior of point supported laminated composite doubly curved shells in the
framework of the FSDT. Luccioni and Dong [41] reported Levy type semi analytical solutions of
free vibration and stability behavior of thin and thick laminated composite rectangular plates
based on the CLPT and the FSDT. Xiang et al. [42] reported free vibration behavior of laminated
6
composite plates based on the nth order shear deformation theory and this theory satisfies the zero
transverse shear stress boundary conditions. Putcha and Reddy [43] developed a mixed shear
flexible finite element model to analyze geometrically linear and nonlinear stability and free
vibration behavior of layered anisotropic plates based on the refined higher order theory. Reddy
and Phan [44] reported exact solutions of stability and vibration responses of isotropic and
orthotropic simply supported plates according to the HSDT. Reddy and Kuppusamy [45]
reported 3-D elasticity solutions natural vibrations of laminated anisotropic plates. Liew et al.
[46] employed the moving least squares differential quadrature method for vibration analysis of
symmetrically laminated plates based on FSDT. Khdeir [47] investigated the free vibration of
anti-symmetric angle ply laminated plates based on a generalized Levy type solution. This theory
is a generalization of Mindlin’s theory for isotropic plates to laminated anisotropic plates.
Ferreira et al. [48] employed the FSDT in the multi quadric radial basis function for predicting
the free vibration behavior of moderately thick symmetrically laminated composite plates. Kant
and Swaminathan [49] studied the free vibration behavior of isotropic, orthotropic and multilayer
plates based on higher order refined theory. Srinivas et al. [50] employed a three dimensional
linear, small deformation theory for the free vibration analysis of simply supported homogeneous
and laminated thick rectangular plates. Pandit et al. [51] studied the free undamped vibration of
isotropic and fibre reinforced laminated composite plates in the framework of FSDT and
recommended an effective mass lumping scheme with rotary inertia. Ovesy and Fazilati [52]
employed the third order shear deformation theory for buckling and free vibration finite strip
analysis of composite plates with cutout based on two different modeling approaches (semi
analytical and spline method). Reddy [53] studied the large amplitude flexural vibration of
layered composite plates with cutout based on a Reissner-Mindlin type of a shear deformable
theory and employed the nonlinear strain displacement relations of the von-Karman theory.
Sivakumar et al. [54] investigated the free vibration responses of composite plates with an
elliptical cutout based on FSDT and using a genetic algorithm. Kumar and Shrivastava [55]
employed a finite element formulation based on HSDT and Hamilton’s principle to study the free
vibration responses of thick square composite plates having a central rectangular cutout, with and
without the presence of a delamination around the cutout. Sahu and Datta [56] studied the
dynamic stability of curved panels with cutouts in the framework of FSDT and used the
Bolotin’s method. Ju et al. [57] employed a finite element approach to analyze the free vibration
7
behavior of square and circular composite plates with delaminations around internal cutouts.
Boay [58] analyzed the free vibration responses of laminated composite plates with a central
circular hole. Lee et al. [59] employed a simple numerical method based on the Rayleigh
principle for predicting the natural frequencies of composite rectangular plates with rectangular
cutouts. Liew et al. [60] analyzed the free vibration of rectangular plates with internal
discontinuities due to central cutouts using the discrete Ritz method. Dhanunjaya Rao and Sivaji
Babu [61] studied the modal analysis of thin FRP skew symmetric angle ply laminate with
circular cutout in the framework of CLT. Krishna Reddy and Palaninathan [62] analyzed the free
vibration responses of laminated skew plates using a general high precision triangular plate
bending finite element. Garg et al. [63] employed a simple C0 isoparametric finite element model
to predict the free vibration responses of isotropic, orthotropic and layered anisotropic composite
and sandwich skew laminates based on HSDT. The large amplitude free flexural vibration
behaviors of thin laminated composite skew plates are investigated by Singha and Ganapathi
[64] using finite element approach. Wang [65] employed a B-spline Rayleigh-Ritz method to
predict the free vibration responses of skew isotropic plates and fibre reinforced composite
laminates based on FSDT.
2.4 Aim and scope of present study
Based on the literature review it is seen that the study of skewed plate with cutout using
commercial software are limited in number. Commercial software ANSYS is well accepted in
many industries because of less computational cost with good accuracy. Hence, the aim of
present study is to develop a FEM model using APDL code in ANSYS environment for skewed
laminated plate with cutout. The study is extended to analyze the vibration and bending behavior
of laminated plate. The effect of different geometries of cutout and skew angles on the different
responses will be evaluated based on developed model.
8
3. THEORETICAL FORMULATION
3.1 Finite Element Modeling
The FEM is the preeminent discretization technique in structural mechanics. The basic
concept of the FEM is that, subdivision of the mathematical model into disjoint components
through shape function called finite elements in the physical interpretation. A finite number of
degree of freedom is expressed in terms of an unknown function.
For the modeling purpose, a SHELL181 element is being selected among the available
elements in ANSYS 14.0 element library. Fig. 1 shows solid geometry, node locations and the
element coordinate system of the SHELL181 element. The element is defined by four nodes (I, J,
K and L). This is a 2-D four noded element with six degree of freedom per node and the degree
of freedoms of each node are the translations and rotations in the respective axis. This element
has the capability to analyze layered applications such as composite and sandwich structures. It is
suitable for thin to moderately thick structures and well suited for linear, large rotation and large
strain nonlinear applications.
It is well known that the mathematical model in ANSYS is based on the FSDT as
follows:
u ( x, y, z )  u0 ( x, y )  z x ( x, y )
v( x, y, z )  v0 ( x, y )  z y ( x, y )
(1)
w( x, y, z )  w0 ( x, y )  z z ( x, y )
where, u, v and w represents the displacements of any point along the (x, y, z) coordinates. u0, v0
are the in-plane and w0 is the transverse displacements of the mid-plane and θx, θy are the
rotations of the normal to the mid plane about y and x axes respectively and θz is the higher order
terms in Taylor’s series expansion. The geometry of two dimensional laminated composite plates
with positive set of coordinate axis and the middle plane displacement terms are shown in Fig. 2
and 3, respectively. The schematic diagram of a composite plate and skew plate with and without
cutout is shown in Fig. 4. where, α denotes the skew angle of the laminated plate. Fig. 5
9
z0
2
z
z
5
y
L
K
y0
x
y
x
6
4
x0
I
J
3
1
Fig. 1 Geometry of SHELL181 element
Typical Lamina
z
y
x
Fig. 2 Typical presentation of general lamina geometry of a laminated composite plate with an orientation of fibre
y
v0
z
Laminate mid plane
w0
u0
Fig. 3 Laminate geometry with positive set of laminate reference axis
10
x
Fig. 4 Representation of laminated plate and skew plate with and without cutout
1
2
h0
3
h1
h2
h/2
h3
Mid-plane
hk
hk-1
k-1
tk
k
k+1
hn-1
hn
h/2
n
Fig. 5 Coordinate locations of plies in a laminate
shows a laminate made of n plies and each ply has a thickness of tk. An ANSYS model of the
same plate has been developed and presented in Fig. 6.
11
Fig. 6 Laminated composite plate modeled in ANSYS
Strains are obtained by derivation of displacements as:
 u



x


v




y



w




z


   

 u  v 
 y x 



v

w



 z y 


 w  u 

z 
 x

where,     x
y
z
 xy
 yz
 xz 
T
,
(2)
is the normal and shear strain components of in
plane and out of plane direction.
12
The strain components are now rearranged in the following steps.
The in-plane strain vector:
  x    x0 
x 
 

  
 




z
 y   y0 
 y 
   
 

xy
  
 xy 
 xy0 

(3)
The transverse strain vector:
  z    z0    z 
     
 yz    yz0   z  yz 
     
 xz   xz0   xz 
(4)
where, the deformation components are described as:
 u0 


  x0   x

   v0 
  y0   

   y

 xy0   u0 v0 




y
x 

  x 


x


x 
    y 
 

;  y 
y
  

 xy     
y
 x

x 
 y



z


  z0  


  w0



y 
 yz0   

  y


xz



 0   w0
 x 

 x

;


 0 

z  




 
z
 yz   

   y 
 xz    
z


 x 
(5)
(6)
The strain vector expressed in terms of nodal displacement vector:
{ε} = [B]{δ}
13
(7)
where, [B] is the strain displacement matrix containing interpolation functions and their
derivatives and    u0
v0
w0
x  y
 z  , is the nodal displacement vector.
T
For a laminate, the generalized stress strain relationship with respect to its reference plane
may be expressed as:
{σ} = [D]{ε}
(8)
where, {σ} and {ε} is the stress and strain vector respectively and [D] is the rigidity matrix.
The strain displacement matrix [B] is given by,
 N i
 x


 0


 0

 N i
 y


 0


0
4 

[ B]  

i 1
 0


 0


 0


 0


 0


 0

0
0
0
0
N i
y
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
N i
x
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
N i
y
N i
x
0
0
N i
x
0
0
0
0
N i
y
0
0
0
0
0
0
N i
y
N i
x
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14

0 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 

N i 

y 
N i 

x 
(9)
3.2 Plate Element Formulation
The displacement components of the four noded isoparametric elements are
   u0
v0
w0
x  y
z 
T
(10)
η
(-1, 1)
4
(1, 1)
3
ξ
1
(-1, -1)
2
(1, -1)
Fig. 7 Isoparametric quadratic shell element
The element displacement are expressed in terms of their nodal values by using the
element shape function and is given by,
4
4
4
u   N i ui
v   Ni vi
w   Ni wi
4
 y   Ni y
4
 z   Ni z
i 1
 x   Ni x
i 1
i
i 1
i 1
i 1
4
i
i 1
The shape function at node i shown in Fig. 7 is given by,
1
(1   )(1   )
4
1
N 2  (1   )(1   )
4
1
N 3  (1   )(1   )
4
1
N 4  (1   )(1   )
4
N1 
15
i
The generalized strain components are,
4
     B i  i
i 1
(11)
By using the chain rule,

 x  y

*
 *
 x  y 
(12)

 x  y
 *
 *
 x  y 
(13)
Rewritten these in matrix form,
  

  



  

  

 x
 

 x

 
y    
 x 
  
 

y    
  
 y 

(14)
Here, in the derivatives the left hand side column vector is called local derivative and the
right hand side column vector is called global derivative. The square matrix in this equation is
called the Jacobian matrix for the two dimensional domain and is denoted as
J
 J    J11

21
 x
J12   

J 22   x
 

y 
 

y 
 
(15)
Eq. (14) can be rewritten as
 
  


  


 x 

J






  
 


  

 y 

16
(16)
 
  
 x 


1   
 
   J  

 
  


  

 y 

(17)
The element stiffness matrix is derived using the principle of minimum potential energy.
The potential energy of the plate element is given by,

1
T
T
T
T
   B  D B   dxdy       N  qdxdy


2
(18)
where, q is any discrete loading inside the element.
The principle of minimum potential energy requires,
  



  0








  

T
T


     B   D  B  dxdy       N  qdxdy  0

    

(19)
[ K ]{ }  {P}
where,
[K] =
   B  D B dxdy
{P} =
 N 
T
T
qdxdy
The element stiffness matrix [K] and mass matrix [M] can expressed as:
1
1
T
1
1
T
 K   1 1  B  D B J
d d
(20)
 M   1 1  N   m N  J d d
(21)
17
where, J is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix, [N] is the shape function matrix and [m] is
the inertia matrix. The integration has been carried out using the Gaussian quadrature method.
The static analysis determines the deflections as:
[K] {δ} = {P}
(22)
where, {P} is the static load vector acting at the nodes.
The free vibration analysis involves determination of natural frequencies as:
 K     M   0
2
n
(23)
The above governing Eq. (22) and (23) are solved imposing the boundary condition and
the solution algorithm.
3.3 Boundary condition
The purpose of boundary condition in any solution is to avoid the rigid body motion and
to get the responses by reducing the number of field variables. In order to solve the governing
equations as discussed in the aforementioned line are solved using different support conditions.
The supports conditions are discussed mathematically as well as a schematic presentation have
been given in Fig. 8. where, S and C stand simply supported and clamped condition,
respectively.
Clamped on all edges: BC-I
u = v = w = θx= θy= θz = 0,
at x = 0, a and y = 0, b.
Simply supported on all edges: BC-II
SS1:
SS2:
SS3:
u = w = θx = 0,
at x = 0, a;
v = w = θy = 0,
at y = 0, b.
u = w = θy = 0,
at x = 0, a;
v = w = θx = 0,
at y = 0,b.
v = w = θx = 0,
at x = 0, a;
u = w = θy = 0,
at y = 0, b.
18
Fig. 8 Representation of different support condition for the analysis
3.4 Solution technique and steps
The equations are solved using two different algorithms to obtain the vibration and static
responses such as Block Lanczos and Gauss elimination method, respectively. The solution steps
are given in detail in reference [7]. The steps have been followed for the solutions are given in
the Fig. 9.
GEOMETRY
ELEMENT TYPE
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
MESH DEFINITION
BOUNDARY CONDITION
ANALYSIS
POST PROCESSING
Fig. 9 Solution steps in ANSYS
19
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The composite plates/skew plates with arbitrary geometries and boundary conditions are widely
used as structural elements in aerospace, civil, mechanical and other structures. These structures
generally under severe dynamic loading and different constrained conditions during their
service life. Hence, for the designer’s quest to model these complex structural problems
precisely and predict the deflections, natural frequencies and other responses with less
computational effort.
The proposed model has been developed based on the finite element steps as in ANSYS
and solved using the APDL coding. In order to prove the efficacy of the present model,
convergence test has been done. Based on the convergence, static and vibration responses are
obtained and compared with those published results. The influences of various parameters on the
static and free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates/skew plates are generated by
solving some new examples.
4.1 Material properties
The material properties considered for the present numerical analysis are given in Table 1
and Table 2.
Table 1 Elastic property for static analysis.
Material
E1
E2
E3
ν12
ν23
ν13
G12
G23
G13
1 [10]
12.605
12.628
12.628
0.23949
0.23949
0.23949
2.154
2.154
2.154
2 [25]
3 [30]
141.68
10
12.384
1
12.384
1
0.25772
0.22
0.42057
0.22
0.25772
0.22
3.88
0.33E2
4.36
0.2E2
3.88
0.33E2
The units of E1, E2, E3, G12, G23 and G13 of material 1 and 2 are in GPa and the properties of material 3 are normalized by E2.
Table 2 Elastic properties for free vibration analysis.
Material
E1
E2
ν12
ν23
ν13
G12
G23
G13
ρ(kg/m3)
4 [34]
5 [54]
6 [63]
7 [61]
25
40
40
147
1
1
1
10.3
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.27
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.54
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.27
0.5E2
0.6 E2
0.6 E2
7
0.2 E2
0.5 E2
0.5 E2
3.7
0.5 E2
0.6 E2
0.5 E2
7
1
1500
1
1600
The properties of materials 4, 5 and 6 are normalized by E2 and the units of E1, E2, G12, G23 and G13 of material 7 are in GPa.
20
4.2 Convergence and Validation Study
In this section, the convergence study of static and free vibration analysis of laminated
composite plates/skew plates with and without cutout is computed and the results are compared
with the available published literature obtained using different numerical methods.
4.2.1 Laminated Composite Plate
4.2.1.1 Static analysis without cutout
In this example, a clamped four layers symmetric cross ply (0˚/90˚) s square plate with
length 12 in. and thickness 0.096 in. under uniformly distributed load is considered as in the
reference. The material properties and support condition are taken as Material 1 (Table 1) and
BC-I condition for the numerical analysis. The central deflection obtained using the present
model with different mesh sizes are plotted in Fig. 10 and compared with reference [10]. It can
be seen easily that the results are showing good agreement with the reference with a very small
difference around 2.8%. The present results are showing little bit lower side as compared to the
reference i.e., because of the fact that drilling degree of freedom in transverse direction. It is
Central deflection wc (inch)
0.6
0.5
0.4 psi (wc)present = 0.0819
1.6 psi (wc)present = 0.3276
(wc)Ref.[10]= 0.0842
(wc)Ref.[10]= 0.3367
0.8 psi (wc)present = 0.1638
2.0 psi (wc)present = 0.4095
(wc)Ref.[10]= 0.1684
(wc)Ref.[10]= 0.4209
1.2 psi (wc)present = 0.2457
(wc)Ref.[10]= 0.2525
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
8×8
9×9
10×10
11×11
12×12
Mesh size
Fig.10 Variation of wc with distributed load and mesh density.
21
important that the reference and the present both are based on the FSDT kinematic model and the
latter one is more realistic in nature due to an extra rotational term. A (12 × 12) mesh has been
considered for the further computation of static behavior of laminated structures without cutout.
4.2.1.2 Static analysis with cutout
A clamped four layers symmetric cross ply (0˚/90˚) s square plate with circular cutout at
centre with side length of 20 mm and the total thickness is 0.5 mm. The transverse pressure is
applied on top surface and size of circular cutout is taken as the ratio of diameter to side length is
0.2. To compare the accuracy of the present developed model, numerical results are evaluated
based on the material properties as material 2 (Table 1) and the support is of BC-I type as in the
reference. All the layers are assumed to be same density, thickness and made of same material
properties. The deflections obtained from different transverse pressure and mesh size are plotted
in Fig. 11 and compared with reference [25]. A good convergence rate with mesh refinement can
be seen as well as the difference between results are within 7.5%. The difference between the
results are reduces with increase in load value. Though the reference and present both are solving
using ANSYS, there is a considerable difference exist between this two i.e., because the reference
Deflection w (mm)
0.2
0.1
0.5 MPa (w)present = 0.193
0.4 MPa (w)present = 0.154
(w)Ref.[25]= 0.183
(w)Ref.[25]= 0.165
0.3 MPa (w)
present
= 0.116
(w)Ref.[25]= 0.107
0.0
6×6
8×8
10×10
12×12
Mesh size
Fig.11 Variation of w with transverse pressure and mesh density.
22
used a 3D brick element (SOLID95) whereas the present analysis used a 2D element
(SHELL181). However, the present results are showing a very good convergence and small
difference with the published model, developed mathematically for static analysis with cutout. In
addition to that, the 3D elements need to be volume mesh, model generation is difficult and the
computational time is high as compared to the present. Hence, the present results are well
accepted within the range as both is analyzed using the same tool regarding model development
and computational cost. A
(12 × 12) mesh has been used for further computation results of
laminated composite with cutout.
4.2.1.3 Vibration analysis without cutout
In this problem, simply supported cross ply [(0˚/90˚/0˚) and (0˚/90˚) s] square plate is
being analyzed for two different thickness ratios (a/h) 10 and 100 and the responses are
presented in Fig. 12 and Fig. 13. For the numerical computation the material properties and
boundary condition are taken as material 4 (Table 2) and SS1 type of support from BC-II
condition. The figure shows the rate of convergence and comparison study with the published
reference [34]. It can be seen that the moderately thick plate (a/h=10) results are converging at a
(30 × 30) mesh and for thin plate (a/h=100), a (26 × 26) mesh is giving good convergence rate.
The results are showing negligible difference for thin plates with the analytical solution whereas
for thick plates the difference is not major. In addition to that it will be important to mention the
15.20
11.5
11.4
11.3
11.2
(0/90) s
(0/90/0)
()present =11.547
()present =11.398
()[34]HSDT =11.780
()[34]HSDT =11.790
()[34]FSDT =12.226
()[34]FSDT =12.162
11.1
Nondimensionalized Frequency ()
Nondimensionalized Frequency ()
11.6
15.19
15.18
(0/90) s
(0/90/0)
()present = 15.186
()present = 15.183
()[34]HSDT = 15.170
()[34]HSDT= 15.170
()[34]FSDT = 15.184
()[34]FSDT = 15.183
15.17
25×25
26×26
27×27
28×28
29×29
30×30
21×21
Mesh Density
Fig.12 Variation of  with stacking sequence and
mesh density for a/h=10.
22×22
23×23
24×24
25×25
26×26
Mesh Density
Fig.13 Variation of  with stacking sequence and mesh
density for a/h=100.
23
model has been developed in the framework of HSDT in the reference whereas the present one in
the FSDT. The results show the accuracy of the developed model with little effort, less
computational cost and time with unmatched precision.
If not stated otherwise, the fundamental frequencies are nondimensionalised for vibration
of laminated plate without cutout in throughout analysis as follows:
  a 2 h  E2 .
4.2.1.4 Vibration analysis with cutout
A simply supported cross ply (0˚/90˚) square plate with square cutout at centre for
different thickness ratios (a/h = 5, 10, 20, 25, 100) is taken for the computation purpose. In this
analysis, material properties are takes as material 5 (Table 2) and support condition of SS1 type
from BC-II. The nondimensional frequencies (   a 2  h D ) of laminated plate with square
central cutout, c/a=0.5 (where, c and a are the side length of cutout to plate respectively) having
different thickness ratios are shown in Table 3 and compared with the references [52] and [53]. It
can be seen that the present results are showing negligible difference with former reference as
compared to the latter. This is because of the fact the former model is developed based on the
HSDT and a very recent work whereas the latter is formulated based on the FSDT kinematic
model. We note that the differences are reduces as the thickness ratio increases in most of the
cases. Based on the convergence a (25 × 25) mesh is used for the computation of new results. The
nondimensional fundamental frequencies of laminated composite plate with different cutout sizes
are obtained further using the same mathematical formulae as discussed in the above lines.
Table 3 Nondimensional frequency (   a 2  h D ) for square plate with square central cutout having different
thickness ratios. (App. 1: Longitudinal strip assemble, App. 2: Negative stiffness)
Source
Present
Ref. [52] (App.1)
(App.2)
Ref. [53]
a/h
5
10
20
25
100
33.571
34.682
34.778
36.583
41.351
42.748
42.882
43.728
46.0855
46.580
46.738
46.971
47.133
47.179
47.340
47.464
50.531
48.415
48.587
48.414
24
4.2.2 Laminated Composite Skew Plate
4.2.2.1 Static analysis without cutout
In this problem, a clamped four layers symmetric cross ply (0˚/90˚) s square skew plate (α
= 45˚) is being analyzed for thickness ratio (a/h=20) and subjected to different uniform
transverse pressure (Q = 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500). The material properties are taken as
material 3 (Table 1) and the boundary conditions of BC-I type. The nondimensional deflections
of laminated skew plate having different load parameters are shown in Table 4 and compared
with the reference [30]. It can be seen that the present results are showing negligible difference
with the reference. It is important to mention that the model has been developed based on third
order shear deformation theory (TSDT) in the reference and the present one is the FSDT. A
(4×4) mesh has been considered for the further computation of new results.
Following nondimensional parameters are used in the analysis are:
Q  qa 4 E2 h4 ;
wc  w0 h .
Table 4 Nondimensional deflections for square skew plate (α = 45˚) having different load parameters.
Q
Source
Present
Ref. [30]
100
0.2082
200
0.4166
300
0.6248
400
0.8332
500
1.0414
0.2028
0.4183
0.6329
0.8434
1.0638
4.2.2.2 Vibration analysis without cutout
In this example, a simply supported four layers anti-symmetric angle ply (±45)2 square
laminated skew plate for different skew angle (α = 0˚, 15˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and the thickness ratio
(a/h=10) is considered for the computation purpose. For the numerical analysis, material
properties are taken as material 6 (Table 2) and the support conditions of SS2 type from BC-II.
The nondimensional frequencies (   b2  2 h  E2 ) of laminated skew plate obtained from
different skew angles and mesh size are plotted in Fig. 14 and compared with the reference [63]. It
is clear from the figure that the results are showing good convergence rate with the mesh
refinement. The results are showing negligible difference with the FOST and with the HOST are
25
in the acceptable range. Based on the convergence, a (16 × 16) mesh has been used for the further
computation of new results for vibration analysis of laminated skew plate without cutout.
Nondimensional Frequency ()
2.5
2.0
0
1.5
0
=0
()present = 1.9375
 = 30
()present = 2.1735
()[63] FOST = 1.9171
()[63] FOST = 2.1196
()[63] HOST = 1.7974
()[63] HOST = 2.027
0
1.0
10×10
0
 = 15
()present = 1.9883
 = 45
()[63] FOST = 1.9366
()[63] FOST = 2.6752
()[63] HOST = 1.8313
()[63] HOST = 2.5609
11×11
12×12
()present = 2.6399
13×13
14×14
15×15
16×16
Mesh size
Fig. 14 Variation of
 with different skew angle and mesh size.
4.2.2.3 Vibration analysis with cutout
In this example, a simply supported anti-symmetric angle ply (±45)2 skew plate (α = 20˚)
with circular cutout of diameter 0.2m at center and the thickness ratio (a/h) 50 is considered and
()present = 128.41
140
Natural Frequency  (Hz)
()Ref.[61] = 128.43
135
130
125
6×6
7×7
8×8
9×9
10×10
Mesh Size
Fig. 15 Variation of ω for anti-symmetric angle ply skew plate with mesh density.
26
the responses are plotted in Fig. 15. For the computation purpose, material properties are taken as
material 7 (Table 2) and the boundary conditions of SS3 type from BC-II. The figure shows the
convergence rate with the mesh refinement and compare with the reference [61]. The result
obtained using the present model is showing negligible difference with the reference. It is also to
mention that present and reference both are solving using ANSYS but model is based on
classical lamination theory (CLT) in the reference and the present one is FSDT. For the
computation of new results, a (10 × 10) mesh is used.
4.3 Parametric study
In order to build up the confidence some new results are computed using the developed
model. A set of parametric study and their effects on static and vibration behavior are discussed
in detail. The static and vibration responses of laminated plates/skew plates with and without
cutout are subdivided into two subsections for the sake of clarity. The results are computed for
different parameters such as lamination schemes, thickness ratio, modular ratios, load, support
conditions, cutout geometries, cutout sizes and skew angles.
4.3.1 Laminated Composite Plate
In this section, the static and vibration responses of laminated composite plate with and
without cutout are discussed.
4.3.1.1 Static analysis with and without cutout
This section discusses the static behavior of laminated plate with and without cutout for
different parameters. The first two paragraphs discusses the plate without cutout (effect of load
and lamination schemes) whereas the last three regarding the plate with cutout (effect of load,
cutout geometry, lamination scheme and cutout shape).
A clamped laminated square plate subjected to five uniformly distributed load (50 psi,
100 psi, 150 psi, 200 psi and 250 psi) is analyzed for four lamination schemes [(0˚/90˚), (±45˚),
(15˚/-30˚) and (-30˚/90˚)]. The responses like, stresses, deflection and deformation shapes of the
plate have been presented by taking the plate geometries are12 in. length and 0.096 in. thickness.
27
1000000
1000000
(0/90)
(45/-45)
(15/-30)
(-30/90)
800000
Normal Stress (y )
Normal Stress (x )
800000
(0/90)
(45/-45)
(15/-30)
(-30/90)
600000
400000
600000
400000
200000
200000
50
100
150
200
50
250
100
150
200
250
Load (psi)
Load (psi)
Fig.16 Variation of ζx with distributed load and
lamination scheme.
Fig.17 Variation of ζy with distributed load and
lamination scheme.
250000
(0/90)
(45/-45)
(15/-30)
(-30/90)
200000
d=2 mm
d=4 mm
d=6 mm
d=8 mm
0.25
150000
Deflection (w )
Shear Stress (xy )
0.20
100000
50000
0
0.15
0.10
0.05
50
100
150
200
0.00
250
Load (psi)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Load (MPa)
Fig.18 Variation of ηxy with distributed load and
lamination scheme.
Fig.21 Variation of w with transverse pressure and
cutout geometry.
The normal stress in x and y direction and shear stress in x-y plane for four different
lamination schemes under uniformly distributed load and clamped conditions are plotted in Fig
16-18. It can be conceded from the figure that the cross ply lamination scheme (0˚/90˚) is
showing highest normal stress in x and y direction and the angle ply (±45˚) has the lowest one
but the stress value shows an opposite trend in case of shear. The other two lamination scheme is
showing an intermediate value for both of the stresses. The results are within the expected line
28
Table 5 Deflection of different lamination scheme in clamped condition.
Load (psi)
Ply Orientation
50
100
150
200
250
(±45˚)
10.439
20.878
31.317
41.756
52.195
(15˚/-30˚)
10.394
20.788
31.183
41.576
51.971
(-30˚/90˚)
10.348
20.696
31.044
41.392
51.739
(0˚/90˚)
10.239
20.477
30.716
40.955
51.194
Fig. 19 Deformation shape of cross ply (0˚/90˚)
laminate.
Fig. 20 Deformation shape of angle ply (±45˚)
laminate.
for any composite. The deflections are presented in Table 5 and the values are showing in
descending order. The deformation shapes for maximum load are generated from ANSYS for
two different laminations [(0˚/90˚) and (±45˚)] are shown in Fig. 19 and Fig. 20.
Fig. 21 represent the deflections of a 4 layer clamped symmetric cross ply (0˚/90˚)
s
laminate for five transverse pressures (0.1 MPa, 0.2 MPa, 0.3 MPa, 0.4 MPa and 0.5 MPa) and
four circular cutout diameter (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm). It can be seen that the deflections
decreases as the cutout diameter increases. The normal stress (ζx and ζy) and shear stress (ηxy)
under five different transverse pressures (10 MPa, 20 MPa, 30 MPa, 40 MPa and 50 MPa) and
three lamination schemes [(0˚/90˚) s, (30˚/-50˚)
s
and (±45˚) s] are plotted in Fig. 22-24 for
clamped laminated plate. The geometric parameters of plate are taken as of 20 mm length and
0.5 mm thickness and the diameter of circular cutout is 4 mm for the present computation. The
29
(0/90)s
(0/90)s
30000
(30/-50)s
(30/-50)s
30000
(45)s
25000
(45)s
Normal Stress (y )
Normal Stress (x)
25000
20000
15000
10000
20000
15000
10000
5000
5000
10
20
30
40
50
10
Load (MPa)
40
50
Fig. 23 Variation of ζy with transverse pressure and
lamination scheme.
(45)s
Rectangular cutout
Square cutout
Circular cutout
0.25
(30/-50)s
(0/90)s
12000
0.20
Deflection w (mm)
Shear Stress (xy )
30
Load (MPa)
Fig. 22 Variation of ζx with transverse pressure and
lamination scheme.
15000
20
9000
6000
0.15
0.10
3000
0.05
10
20
30
40
50
0.1
Load (MPa)
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Load (MPa)
Fig. 24 Variation of ηxy with transverse pressure and
lamination scheme.
Fig. 25 Variation of w with transverse pressure and
cutout shape.
stress (normal stress and shear stress) value follows the same trend as discussed in the laminated
plate without cutout.
In addition to the above another problem has been analyzed by considering different
cutout geometries (circular, square, rectangular) and loading conditions (0.1 MPa, 0.2 MPa, 0.3
MPa, 0.4 MPa and 0.5 MPa) on deflection behavior of a symmetric cross ply (0˚/90˚) s clamped
plate is plotted in Fig. 25. The different geometries of the cutout are taken and the geometries are
30
circular cutout of diameter 4 mm, square cutout side of 3.545 mm and rectangular cutout of size
4.189×3 mm. It can be seen that for same cutout area the rectangular cutout and the circular
cutout are showing the highest and lowest deflections, respectively. The square cutout is showing
an intermediate value.
4.3.1.2 Free vibration analysis with and without cutout
In this section, effects of different parameters on the vibration responses of laminated
plate with and without cutout are discussed in detail. The first three paragraphs discusses the
plate without cutout (effect of boundary conditions, lamination schemes, modular ratio and no. of
layers) whereas the last four regarding the plate with cutout (effect of thickness ratio, modular
ratio, boundary condition, no. of layers, cutout ratio, lamination scheme and cutout shape).
The nondimensional frequencies of different mode of a moderately thick laminated plate
(a/h = 10) for two cross ply lamination scheme [(0˚/90˚/0˚) and (0˚/90˚) s] at four different
support conditions (SSSS, SSSC, SSCC and CCCC) are computed and plotted in Fig. 26 and Fig.
27. From this figure, it can be seen that the frequencies are showing higher and lower value at
clamped and simply supported condition, respectively. The other two boundary conditions
(SSSC and SSCC) are showing an intermediate value for both lamination schemes.
A new problem has been solved to show the effect of modular ratios on the free vibration
behavior. In this analysis a simply supported cross ply moderately thick square plate for two
different lamination [(0˚/90˚/0˚) and (0˚/90˚) s] schemes are analyzed and the nondimensional
frequencies with five modular ratio (E1/E2 = 3, 10, 20, 30 and 40) are plotted in Fig. 28. It can be
seen from the figure that the frequencies are increasing as the modular ratio increases but the
difference is very small for E1/E2, 3 to 10 for both laminations.
It is well known that the composites properties are well dependent on the lamination
scheme. Hence, to explore the same an example has been solved here for five anti-symmetric
cross ply laminations [(0˚/90˚), (0˚/90˚) 2, (0˚/90˚)3, (0˚/90˚)4 and (0˚/90˚)5] simply supported
plates. The mode shapes and the nondimensional natural frequencies are plotted in Fig. 29. It can
be seen that the natural frequencies of the plate increases with increase in number of layers.
31
SSSS
SSSC
SSCC
CCCC
30
20
10
1
2
SSSS
SSSC
SSCC
CCCC
40
Nondimensional Frequency ()
Nondimensional Frequency ()
40
3
4
30
20
10
5
1
Mode Number
2
3
4
5
Mode Number
Fig. 26 Variation of  with different mode number
and boundary conditions for (0˚/90˚/0˚) laminates.
Fig. 27 Variation of  with different mode number
and boundary conditions for (0˚/90˚) s laminates.
15
12
9
6
0
10
20
(0/90)
(0/90)2
(0/90)3
40
Nondimensional Frequency ()
Nondimensional Frequency ()
(0/90/0)
(0/90) s
30
40
30
20
10
1
2
3
E1/E2
Fig. 28 Variation of  with different E1/E2 ratios
and stacking sequence for a/h=10.
(0/90)4
(0/90)5
4
5
Mode Number
Fig. 29 Variation of

with different mode number and
no. of plies.
As discussed earlier, cutouts are the structural requirement to meet facilitation as per the
need in different structures. In this study analysis has been done for different parameters of
laminated plates with cutout. Presently, a simply supported cross ply (0˚/90˚) square plate with
square cutout (c/a= 0.5) is analyzed for five different thickness ratio (a/h = 5, 10, 20, 50, 100)
and five modular ratios (E1/E2 = 3, 10, 20, 30 and 40) and plotted in Fig. 30. It is understood
from the figure that the frequency increases for both thickness ratios and the modular ratios. It is
because of the fact that as the thickness ratio increases the plate becomes thinner and the
32
a/h=5
a/h=10
a/h=20
150
a/h=50
a/h=100
Nondimensional Frequency ()
Nondimensional Frequency ()
50
40
30
0
10
20
30
SSSS
SSSC
120
90
60
30
40
1
2
3
E1/E2
(0/90)4
(0/90)2
(0/90)5
45
30
40
60
80
c/a=0.0
c/a=0.2
c/a=0.4
160
Nondimensional Frequency ()
Nondimensional Frequency ()
(0/90)
60
20
5
Fig. 31 Variation of  with different mode number
and boundary conditions.
(0/90)3
0
4
Mode Number
Fig. 30 Variation of  with different E1/E2
and a/h ratio.
75
SSCC
CCCC
100
c/a=0.6
c/a=0.8
120
80
40
0
a/h
1
2
3
4
5
Mode Number
Fig. 32 Variation of  with different a/h ratio and
no. of plies.
Fig. 33 Variation of  with different mode number
and cutout ratio.
frequency increases. Similarly, the frequency increases as the modular ratio increases as the
stiffness is directly proportional to the longitudinal strength.
Effect of different support conditions (SSSS, SSSC, SSCC and CCCC) on the laminated
plate with square cutout is analyzed in this example. The nondimensional frequencies of a cross
ply (0˚/90˚) moderately thick square plate are shown in Fig. 31. The responses are following the
33
same trend as in case of without cutout case i.e., the frequencies are lower and higher for simply
support and clamped case whereas the other two supports are showing the intermediate value.
Another problem of simply supported square plate with cutout has been solved for five
different thickness ratios (a/h = 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100) and five different laminations [(0˚/90˚),
(0˚/90˚) 2, (0˚/90˚)3, (0˚/90˚)4 and (0˚/90˚)5] and the responses are plotted in Fig. 32. The
frequency is showing an increasing trend with the thickness ratios and the number of layers,
which is obvious.
Influence of five cutout sizes (c/a= 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) and three cutout geometries
(square, rectangular and circular) on vibration behavior of laminated plate of simply supported
cross ply (0˚/90˚) square plate is plotted in Fig. 33 and Fig. 34. From the figure it is clear that the
values are decreasing as the cutout size increases and the frequencies are increasing with
increasing in mode number. Similarly, an uneven behavior can be seen for the latter case as well.
Nondimensional Frequency ()
180
Square cutout (0.50.5)
Rectangular cutout (0.6250.4)
Circular cutout (d=0.564)
150
120
90
60
30
1
2
3
4
5
Mode Number
Fig. 34 Variation of

with different mode number and cutout
geometry.
34
4.3.2 Laminated Composite Skew Plate
As discussed earlier that, some industries are not using regular geometry of composite
laminates i.e., the geometry may deviate from basic type (rectangular, square, etc.) and are called
skewed. The following section discusses the static and vibration response of the skewed plate.
4.3.2.1 Static analysis with and without cutout
This section discusses the static behavior of laminated skew plate with and without cutout
for different parameters. The first four paragraphs discusses the skew plate without cutout (effect
of load parameter, modular ratio, thickness ratio, lamination schemes and skew angles) whereas
the last four regarding the skew plate with cutout (effect of load, cutout geometry, boundary
conditions, lamination scheme and skew angles).
In this example, a clamped laminated symmetric cross ply (0˚/90˚)
s
skew plate is
analyzed for thickness ratio (a/h) 20 under four skew angle (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and five
load parameter (Q = 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500) and the nondimensional center deflections are
plotted in Fig. 35. It is clear from the figure that the center deflection increases as the load
parameter increases and the skew angle decreases.
Another new problem has been solved to show the effect of modular ratio on the static
behavior of composite laminated skew plate. In this analysis, a clamped laminated cross ply
(0˚/90˚) s skew plate with thickness ratio (a/h) 20 and load parameter 100 is analyzed for four
skew angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and five modular ratio (E1/E2 = 3, 10, 20, 30 and 40) and
the nondimensional center deflections are plotted in Fig. 36. It can be seen that the center
deflections decreases as the modular ratio and skew angle increases.
The nondimensional center deflections of a clamped laminated cross ply (0˚/90˚) s skew
plate of load parameter 100 at four different skew angle (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and five
thickness ratio (a/h = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50) are computed and plotted in Fig. 37. From the
figure, it can be seen that the center deflections increases as the thickness ratio increases and the
skew angle decreases.
35
1.00
Q = 100
Q = 200
Q = 300
Q = 400
Q = 500
2.0
E1/E2 = 3
Nondimensional center deflection (wc)
Nondimensional center deflection (wc )
2.5
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
15
30
45
E1/E2 = 10
E1/E2 = 30
E1/E2 = 40
0.50
0.25
0.00
60
E1/E2 = 20
0.75
Skew angle
15
30
45
60
Skew angle
Fig. 35 Variation of wc with skew angle and load
parameter.
Fig. 36 Variation of wc with skew angle and modular
ratio.
a/h=10
a/h=20
a/h=30
a/h=40
a/h=50
10
Nondimensional center deflection (wc )
Nondimensional center deflection (wc )
15
5
0
15
30
45
0.6
(0/90)s
0.5
(45)s
(30/-50)s
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
60
Skew angle
15
30
45
60
Skew angle
Fig. 37 Variation of wc with skew angle and thickness
ratio.
Fig. 38 Variation of wc with skew angle and ply
orientations.
An example has been solved for three different laminations [(0˚/90˚), (30˚/-50˚) and
(±45˚)] clamped skew plates for load parameter 100 and thickness ratio 20. The center
deflections are plotted in Fig. 38. It can be seen that the center deflections is lower in the case of
cross ply and higher in angle ply.
It is well known that cutouts are structural requirements in many industries such as
aerospace, civil and mechanical. In this study, a symmetric laminated cross ply (0˚/90˚) s skew
36
plate having plate geometries are 20 mm length, 0.5 mm thickness and the diameter of circular
cutout is 4 mm is analyzed. The deflections of four different skew angle (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and
60˚) and five transverse pressure (0.1 MPa, 0.2 MPa, 0.3 MPa, 0.4 MPa and 0.5 MPa) is
computed and plotted in Fig. 39. It is clear from the figure that the deflection increases as the
load increases and skew angle decreases.
Boundary conditions also affect the static behavior of laminated skew plate. In this
example, a symmetric cross ply (0˚/90˚) s laminated skew plate has been analyzed for four
0.25
0
 = 30
0
 = 45
0
 = 60
0
SSSS
SSSC
SSCC
CCCC
0.9
0.15
Deflection (w )
Deflection (w )
0.20
 = 15
0.10
0.6
0.3
0.05
0.00
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.0
0.5
15
30
Load (MPa)
45
60
Skew angle
Fig. 39 Variation of w with skew angle and transverse
load.
Fig. 40 Variation of w with skew angle and boundary
conditions.
0.25
d=2 mm
d=4 mm
d=6 mm
d=8 mm
0.3
(0/90)s
(30/-50)s
(45)s
0.15
Deflection (w )
Deflection (w )
0.20
0.10
0.2
0.1
0.05
0.00
15
30
45
60
0.0
Skew angle
15
30
45
60
Skew angle
Fig. 41 Variation of w with skew angle and cutout size.
Fig. 42 Variation of w with skew angle and lamination
scheme.
37
(0/90)s
(0/90)s
250
(30/-50)s
300
(30/-50)s
(45)s
(45)s
Normal stress (y )
Normal stress (x )
200
200
100
150
100
50
0
15
30
45
60
15
Skew angle
Fig. 43 Variation of ζx with skew angle and lamination
scheme.
30
45
60
Skew angle
Fig. 44 Variation of ζy with skew angle and lamination
scheme.
different skew angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and four boundary conditions (SSSS, SSSC,
SSCC and CCCC) at transverse pressure 0.5 MPa and plotted in Fig. 40. It can be seen that the
deflections are showing higher and lower values at simply supported and clamped conditions,
respectively. The other two boundary conditions (SSSC and SSCC) are showing an intermediate
value.
Effect of four circular cutout diameters (d =2mm, 4 mm, 6mm and 8 mm) and four skew
angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) on the static behavior of clamped laminated composite cross
ply (0˚/90˚) s skew plate under transverse pressure 0.5 MPa is plotted in Fig. 41. It can be seen
that the deflections are decreasing as the both cutout size and skew angle increases.
Another new problem has been solved for clamped laminated skew plate subjected to
four skew angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) is analyzed for three lamination schemes [(0˚/90˚) s,
(30˚/-50˚)
s
and (±45˚) s] under uniform transverse pressure of 0.5 MPa. The responses like
deflection, normal and shear stresses of the skew plate have been presented by taking the circular
cutout diameter of 4 mm. The deflections, normal stresses in x and y direction and shear stress in
x-y plane for four different skew angles and three lamination schemes are plotted in Fig. 42-45. It
can be concluded that the cross ply lamination (0˚/90˚) s is showing lower deflections whereas
angle ply laminations (±45˚) s have higher for the same geometry, material, load and support.
38
150
(0/90)s
(30/-50)s
(45)s
Shear stress (xy )
100
50
0
15
30
45
60
Skew angle
Fig. 45 Variation of ηxy with transverse pressure and lamination
scheme.
4.3.2.2 Free vibration analysis with and without cutout
In this section, effects of different parameters on the vibration responses of laminated
composite skew plate with and without cutout are discussed in detail. The first four paragraphs
discusses the skew plate without cutout (effect of boundary conditions, modular ratio, thickness
ratio, lamination schemes and skew angles) whereas the last five regarding the skew plate with
cutout (effect of boundary condition, lamination scheme, thickness ratio, cutout geometry and
skew angle).
In this example, the nondimensional frequencies of a moderately thick (a/h = 10) angle
ply (±45˚)2 skew plate at four different support conditions (SSSS, SSSC, SSCC and CCCC) and
four skew angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) are computed and plotted in Fig. 46. From this
figure, it can be seen that the frequencies are showing higher and lower value at clamped and
simply supported condition, respectively. The other two boundary conditions (SSSC and SSCC)
are showing an intermediate value.
Another new problem has been solved to show the effect of modular ratio on the
vibration behavior of laminated skew plate. In this analysis a simply supported angle ply (±45˚) 2
moderately thick skew plate are analyzed for four different skew angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and
60˚) and the nondimensional frequencies with five modular ratio (E1/E2 = 3, 10, 20, 30 and 40)
39
4.5
SSSS
SSSC
4.0
SSCC
CCCC
Nondimensional Frequency ()
Nondimensional Frequency ()
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
15
30
45
3.5
2.0
1.5
30
Fig. 47 Variation of
a/h = 50
a/h = 100
45
60
 with different skew angle and
modular ratio.
(0/90)s
6
Nondimensional Frequency ()
Nondimensional Frequency ()
15
Skew angle
Fig. 46 Variation of  with different skew angle and
boundary conditions.
a/h = 5
a/h = 10
a/h = 20
E1/E2 = 40
E1/E2 = 20
2.5
Skew angle
10
E1/E2 = 30
E1/E2 = 10
3.0
1.0
60
E1/E2 = 3
8
6
4
2
(30/-50)s
(45)s
5
4
3
2
15
30
45
60
Skew angle
1
2
3
4
5
Mode number
Fig. 48 Variation of  with different skew angle and
thickness ratio.
Fig. 49 Variation of

with different ply orientation and
modes.
are plotted in Fig. 47 It can be seen from the figure that the frequencies are increasing as the
modular ratio and skew angle increases.
It is well known that the composite properties are dependent on the thickness ratio.
Hence, an example has been solved for simply supported angle ply (±45˚) 2 skew plate for four
skew angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and five thickness ratios (a/h = 5, 10, 20, 50, 100) and
40
0
 = 30
0
 = 45
0
 = 60
0
1000
500
0
1
2
3
4
400
200
5
15
Mode Number
Fig. 50 Variation of

SSSS
SSSC
SSCC
CCCC
600
Natural Frequency (Hz)
Natural Frequency (Hz)
1500
 = 15
30
(30/-50)s
d=0.1 mm
d=0.2 mm
d=0.3 mm
d=0.4 mm
800
Natural Frequency (Hz)
(45)s
Natural Frequency (Hz)
60
Fig. 51 Variation of  with different skew angle and
boundary conditions.
with different skew angle and
modes.
(0/90)s
800
45
Skew angle
600
400
600
400
200
200
15
30
45
60
15
Skew angle
30
45
60
Skew angle
Fig. 52 Variation of  with different skew angle and
ply orientation.
Fig. 53 Variation of

with different skew angle and ply
cutout size.
the responses are plotted in Fig. 48. It can be seen that the frequencies increases for both
thickness ratio and skew angle.
The nondimensional frequencies of five different mode of a moderately thick angle ply
(±45˚) 2 clamped skew plate (α = 15˚) at three different lamination schemes [(0˚/90˚) s, (30˚/-50˚)s
and (±45˚) s] are computed and plotted in Fig. 49. The frequencies are higher for (±45˚)
s
lamination scheme and lower for (0˚/90˚) s laminates and the (30˚/-50˚) s have the intermediate
value.
41
1500
a/h = 10
a/h = 20
a/h = 50
a/h = 100
Natural Frequency (Hz)
1200
900
600
300
0
15
30
45
60
Skew angle
Fig. 54 Variation of  with different skew angle and
thickness ratio.
A new problem has been solved to show the effect of cutout on the vibration behavior of
laminated composite skew plate. The natural frequencies of different mode of simply supported
anti-symmetric angle ply (±45)2 skew plates with circular cutout of diameter 0.2m and thickness
ratio 50 is analyzed for four different skew angle (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and plotted in Fig.
50. It can be seen that the natural frequencies increases as the skew angle increases.
Effect of different support conditions (SSSS, SSSC, SSCC and CCCC) and four different
skew angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) on the laminated skew plate with circular cutout is
analyzed in this example. The natural frequencies of angle ply (±45)2 skew plates are shown in
Fig. 51. It can be seen from the figure that clamped conditions is showing the highest natural
frequency and simply supported condition is the lowest and the other two boundary conditions
(SSSC and SSCC) has the intermediate value.
A clamped skew plate of thickness ratio 50 and circular cutout diameter 0.2 m is analyzed
for three lamination schemes [(0˚/90˚) s, (30˚/-50˚)s and (±45˚) s] and four different skew angles
(α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and the natural frequencies are plotted in Fig. 52. The cross ply
(0˚/90˚) s is showing the highest and angle ply (±45˚) sis the lowest natural frequency. The (30˚/50˚) s lamination scheme is showing an intermediate value and frequency is increasing as the
skew angle increases.
42
Influence of four cutout sizes (d = 0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.3 mm and 0.4 mm) and four skew
angles (α = 15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) on the vibration behavior of a clamped anti-symmetric angle
ply (±45)2skew plate is plotted in Fig. 53. The frequency is increasing for both skew angle and
cutout size.
A simply supported angle ply (±45)2skew plate with circular cutout (d = 0.2 m) is
analyzed for four different thickness ratio (a/h = 10, 20, 50 and 100) and four skew angles (α =
15˚, 30˚, 45˚ and 60˚) and plotted in Fig. 54. It can be seen that the natural frequency decreases
for moderately thick to thin skew plates.
43
5. CONCLUSIONS
Static and free vibration behavior of laminated composite plate/skew plate with and without
cutouts is carried out using APDL code in ANSYS and validate with the available published
results. From the present parametric analysis following conclusions are made:

A convergence and validation study of the static and free vibration analysis of laminated
composite plate/skew plate has been obtained. It is seen that the present model converging
well with mesh refinement and the differences are within acceptable range.

The normal stress values are higher for cross ply lamination scheme and lower for the angle
ply scheme and the values are showing a reverse trend for shear stress for both (with and
without cutout) the cases.

The effect of cutout size shows that the deflections decreases with increase in size of cutout
and the plate with rectangular cutout showing the maximum deflection as compared to other
(square and circular) cutout.

The frequency increases as number of layers increases and the values are showing higher for
clamped condition and lower for the simply supported for both (with and without cutout) the
conditions.

The frequency increases with increase in the modular ratios and the thickness ratios.

In the case of skew plate, the center deflection increases as the load parameter increases and
the skew angle decreases.

The effect of modular ratio and thickness ratio shows that the center deflection decreases as
the both modular ratio and skew angle increases and it increases for thickness ratio increases
and the skew angle decreases.

The effect of cutout on skew plate shows that deflections are decreasing as the both cutout
size and skew angle increases.

The effect of modular and thickness ratio on the vibration behavior of skew plate is that the
frequencies are increasing as the modular ratio and skew angle increases and it increase for
both thickness ratio and skew angle.

The natural frequency is increasing for both skew angle and cutout size and it decreases for
moderately thick to thin skew plates.
44
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50
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