REGENERATIVE BRAKING USING BUCKBOOST CONVERTER

REGENERATIVE BRAKING USING BUCKBOOST CONVERTER
REGENERATIVE BRAKING USING
BUCKBOOST CONVERTER
Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
By
Pragyan Priyanka Satapathy (110EI0256)
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
Rourkela - 769008, Odisha, India
May 2014
REGENERATIVE BRAKING USING
BUCKBOOST CONVERTER
Dissertation submitted in
May 2014
To the department of
Electronics and Communication Engineering
Of
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
In partial fulfillment for the requirements of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
By
Pragyan Priyanka Satapathy (110EI0256)
Under the supervision of
Prof. K.K Mahapatra
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
Rourkela - 769008, Odisha, India
May 2014
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
Rourkela-769008, Odisha, India
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the work on the thesis entitled Regenerative Braking using Buck-Boost
Converter by Pragyan Priyanka Satapathy is a record of original research work carried out
under my supervision and guidance for the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree
of Bachelor in Technology in the department of Electronics and Communication
Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela. Neither this thesis nor any part of
it has been submitted for the award of any degree elsewhere.
Place: NIT Rourkela
Prof. K.K. Mahapatra
Date: May, 2014
Department
Professor, ECE
NIT, Rourkela, Odisha
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are extremely grateful to our project guide, Prof. K.K Mahapatra for the insightful
suggestions on the project work and for guiding us during the project with encouragement,
support and cooperation. We would like to convey our sincerest gratitude and indebtedness to
all our faculty members and staffs of Department of electronics and communication
engineering, NIT Rourkela, who showed their great efforts and guidance during required times
without which it would have been very difficult to carry out our project work. Moreover, an
assemblage of this nature could never have been attempted with our reference to the works of
others. We acknowledge our indebtedness to all of them. Finally, we would also like to extend
our heart- felt thanks to our family for their moral support, love and affection.
Pragyan Priyanka Satapathy
(B.Tech in Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering)
iv
ABSTRACT
A Buck Boost converter circuit has been designed and simulated to drive a dc motor for an
electric vehicle. The design consists of an IGBT Buck-Boost converter, the battery pack in the
Buck side and a capacitor in the Boost side. The main battery has the motor load connected to
it. The design helps in improving the efficiency of the DC motor by using the bidirectional
buck boost converter along with the battery pack and capacitor.It provides energy to the motor
during acceleration and also facilitates the energy regeneration during braking or deceleration.
The incorporation of the regenerative braking can improve the efficiency as much as 25% and
therefore improve the driving range. During boost operation the converter transfers the energy
from the capacitor to the battery(battery gets charged) while during regeneration converter
works in buck mode and transfers energy from battery to capacitor(capacitor is charged).There
are a number of options for DC DC converter such as Boost,Buck converter, Isolated/Non
isolated Half bridge Buck Boost converter,Full Bridge converter and ,Cuk Converter.The
isolated converters are preferred as they don’t include transformers and hence increase the
overall efficiency of the system along with reduction of size and weight of the system.
The converter can be made to operate in two different modes,Discontinuous Conduction Mode
and Continuous Conduction Mode. The CCM is used for better utilization of semiconductor
switches and passive components as well as enhanced efficiency.The DCM is used in
applications with higher control needs because it provides low output current,low switching
frequency and a faster response.But it leads to increased ripples.The converter’s design
parameters were set as per the equations governing its operation in the selected mode.
In the present work the converter switching is implemented by using IGBTs.A controlled PWM
signal is applied to the IGBT switches. Thus the amount of energy transferred in both direction
depends on the controlled duty cycle of the PWM signal.
The PWM signal has been generated by using STM32F107 ARM CORTEX M3
DEVELOPMENT BOARD for varying duty cycles.The ARM Cortex M3 processor is a 32 bit
processor with many features such as RISC Core,operating at 72 MHz maximum frequency,
64 to 256 Kbytes of Flash memory,upto 64 Kbytes of SRAM, Low power– Stop,Sleep and
Standby modes and 1 μs A/D converters (16 channels).
The ARM Cortex Kit is used to drive a DC motor with the help of a Motor driving IC. Varying
duty cycles result in varying speeds of the DC motor.
A controller was designed to generate a controlled PWM signal input to the igbt switches.
The battery voltage is measured and an error signal is generated with respect to a reference
voltage. This error is given as input to a PI controller and the controller generates a PWM
switching pattern by using a comparator. The controller thus controls the amount of energy
transferred to the capacitor.In present work the controller is designed and simulated for both
the operating modes-Buck mode and Boost mode
v
CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
iv
ABSTRACT
v
LIST OF FIGURES
viii
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Background .......................................................................................................................... 2
1.2Motivation… ......................................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Contribution of the thesis ..................................................................................................... 3
1.4Literature Review….............................................................................................................. 3
1.5 Organization of the thesis .................................................................................................... 3
CHAPTER 2
SELECTING OF DC DC CONVERTER TOPOLOGY ................................................................................ 4
2.1DC DC converter .................................................................................................................. 5
2.2Resonant and soft switching converters................................................................................ 5
2.2.1 Zero Voltage switching ........................................................................................... 6
2.2.2 Zero current switching ............................................................................................ 7
2.3Hard switching pulse width modulated(PWM) converters .................................................. 8
2.3.1Step down(Buck)converters ..................................................................................... 8
2.3.2Step up(Boost)converters ....................................................................................... 10
2.3.3Non isolated BuckBoost converter ........................................................................ 12
2.3.4Cuk converter ......................................................................................................... 13
2.3.5Half bridge non isolated BuckBoost converter ...................................................... 15
vi
2.4Converter’s parameters designing....................................................................................... 16
2.4.1System proposed .................................................................................................... 16
2.4.2Calculations ........................................................................................................... 17
CHAPTER 3
CONTROLLER DESIGN............................................................................................................................ 18
3.1Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 19
3.2Control strategy................................................................................................................... 20
3.2.1 Voltage mode control ............................................................................................ 20
3.2.2 Current mode control ............................................................................................ 20
3.3Controller Tuning ............................................................................................................... 21
CHAPTER 4
SIMULATION AND RESULTS ......................................................................................................... 23
4.1Simulation result of a Buck Boost converter ...................................................................... 24
4.2PWM waveform generation using ARM Cortex M3 development board .......................... 25
4.3 Closed loop simulation of a bidirectional Buck Boost converter ...................................... 26
4.4 Closed loop simulation of a bidirectional Buck Boost converter using PI controller ....... 32
4.5Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 34
4.6Future work ......................................................................................................................... 34
REFERENCES
35
vii
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. No
Name of the Figure
Page. No.
2.1
Ideal vs Practical switching waveform
6
2.2
Zero voltage resonant switch
7
2.3
Zero current resonant switch
8
2.4
Buck converter circuit
9
2.5
Output waveforms for the buck converter circuit
10
2.6
Boost converter circuit
11
2.7
Output waveforms for the boost converter circuit
11
2.8
Buck Boost converter circuit
12
2.9
Output waveforms for the buck boost converter circuit
13
2.10
Cuk converter circuit
14
2.11
Output waveforms for the cuk converter circuit
14
2.12
Half bridge non isolated buck boost converter circuit
15
2.13
The designed buck boost circuit
16
3.1
An ideal PI controller circuit
19
3.2
Voltage mode control technique for dc dc converter
20
3.3
Current mode control technique for dc dc converter
21
3.4
Closed loop feedback control for generating controlled PWM
21
4.1
Output voltage waveform for buck mode
24
4.2
Output voltage waveform for boost mode
25
4.3
PWM waveforms for varying duty cycles
26
4.4
PWM waveform for the boost converter
26
4.5
Battery voltage waveform(boost mode)
27
4.6
Battery current waveform(boost mode)
27
4.7
Capacitor voltage waveform(boost mode)
28
4.8
Capacitor current waveform(boost mode)
29
4.9
PWM waveform for the boost converter
29
4.10
Battery voltage waveform(buck mode)
30
4.11
Battery current waveform(buck mode)
30
4.12
Capacitor voltage waveform(buck mode)
31
4.13
Capacitor current waveform(buck mode)
31
viii
4.14
Battery discharging waveform due to applied load
32
4.15
Battery voltage waveform(boost mode)
33
4.16
Capacitor voltage waveform(boost mode)
33
ix
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1
CHAPTER 1
INRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
The gradual rise in demand for energy has led to an increase in fuel burning which in turn
adversely affects the environment. Efficient use of energy and its conservation is highly
essential due to the fact that one unit of energy conserved in the consumption level reduces the
energy demand by 3 to 4 times. Moreover, such conservation through judicious utilization of
energy can be achieved by less than one-fifth the price of fresh capacity formation. Energy
efficiency can considerably contribute to our efforts to meet energy needs as well as decreasing
fuel consumption. In electric vehicles, the regular braking systems convert kinetic energy into
heat, mainly in the form of friction. This causes a huge amount of energy wastage. Regenerative
braking is a mechanism that recovers energy.This energy reduces the speed of an object or
vehicle by transforming its kinetic energy to a different form.But in case of regular braking
systems extra kinetic energy is converted into heat through friction in the braking linings and
wasted. Thus regenerative braking of an electric vehicle implemented with a bidirectional
converter and capacitor can reduce the energy loss and also improve the overall efficiency of
the system.
1.2 MOTIVATION
By using a bidirectional DC DC converter, its possible to enhance the output voltage of the
electrical storage systems to a higher level and hence decreasing the current output.This leads
to power losses. It also provides reverse power flow in regenerative braking and thus efficiency
increases. These characteristics of the DC DC converter make it a preferable choice for power
transfer in electric vehicles and hence reducing the overall cost ,size and weight of the system
along with increasing efficiency and achieving regenerative energy.The practical
implementation of regenerative braking in electric vehicles, requires a battery pack in buck side
and an ultra capacitor bank in the boost side of the Buck Boost converter. Ultracapacitor is a
recent technology that provides 20 times more energy storage than regular electrolytic
capacitors. They show improved performance in specific power than any other battery.They
can be discharged and charged many times without much degradation of performance. These
features when combined with regular electrochemical batteries make the transient performance
of the electric vehicle better by enhancing the lifetime of the batteries. Rapid and abrupt
discharge of battery during acceleration or rapid charge during deceleration can be dealt by
using ultracapacitors.
2
1.3 CONTRIBUTION OF THE THESIS
The main goal of the present work is to design, model and simulate a Bidirectional DC DC
Buck Boost converter with a battery pack at the buck side and a capacitor in the boost side. In
accordance with this objective, the methodology for selecting an appropriate topology of the
bidirectional DC DC converter has been presented and then the controller to generate a
controlled PWM signal has been designed to meet the required specifications.
Some of the salient points of this thesis are:
1. Selection of a DC DC converter as per requirements
2. Determine the converter parameters as per the mode (CCM/DCM)
3. Design of a bidirectional Buck Boost Converter Model.
4. Design of a single controller during both the modes for controlled PWM
1.4 LITERATURE REVIEW
Different dc dc converter topologies have been studied and analysed and the comparison
between them has been presented in [7,8]. The importance of the power electronics and dc dc
converter in the hybrid electric vehicle technology is discussed and presented in [3, 5].The
comparison between the various non isolated Bidirectional DC DC converters on the basis of
their performance has been done in [9].The implementation of regenerative braking in electric
vehicles using dc dc converter along with a control system is discussed in [1,2,6]. Here the
power circuit is having two major components that is the Buck-Boost converter using IGBTs,
and the ultracapacitor bank.The control system is implemented by using a
microcontroller.Different methods of tuning a PID controller are presented in [4].The concepts
of the soft switching techniques for increasing efficiency and reducing stress in devices is
discussed in [11,12]. The single controller for controlled PWM generation in bidirectional DC
DC converter is presented in [10].
1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS
The thesis work has been organized as follows:

Chapter 2: This chapter presents an idea about different DC DC con- verter topologies and the
topology that is best suitable for the present desig

Chapter 3:In this chapter,the circuit operation and the designing issues have been discussed.
According to the given specifications and design objectives,the circuit has been designed.

Chapter 4: In this chapter, a control strategy is discussed and the controller is designed and
modelled for the converter circuit

Chapter 5: This chapter presents the simulation waveforms along with the results and
discussions. Also includes the future work and conclusion.
3
CHAPTER 2
SELECTING OF DC DC
CONVERTER TOPOLOGY
4
CHAPTER 2
SELECTING OF DC DC CONVERTER TOPOLOGY
2.1 DC DC CONVERTER
Today most of the electronic devices require improved quality,low weight,small size, efficient
and reliable power supplies. Energy regulators are based on current and voltage divider
operation principle and hence are inefficient. Thus high power requirements make use of switch
regulators. They use power electronics semiconductor switches like igbts or mosfets for on or
off state. There is little power loss in these states because of low voltage across the switch when
it is turned on and no current through the switch when turned off.Hence, switching regulators
provide improved energy conversion efficiencies. Electronic processors of power of high
frequency are used in dc dc converters. Thus, DC-DC converter can be defined as a circuit that
converts DC voltage from one voltage level to another,that is it converts the unregulated DC
input voltage to a controlled DC output voltage at a desired level.These DC-DC converters are
used extensively today in many electronic gadgets such as laptop, mobile etc.All these devices
have one power supply battery at a fixed level which is to be converted to a different voltage
level.This helps in reducing the space and cost of extra batteries.
The various uses of dc dc converters:

Conversion of the dc voltage input at one level into dc voltage output at another or same level

for dc output voltage regulation against line variations and load disturbances

to minimize dc output voltage ripple below a desired level

to isolate the load from the input voltage

to provide protection to the input voltage and the circuit from electromagnetic interference
(EMI) or noise
The dc-dc converters are of two main types:
2.2 Resonant and soft-switching converters-Here switching transitions(on
and off) occur in favourable conditions, that is, zero voltage or zero device current. This reduces
the loss and stress associated with switching,leading to lower electromagnetic
interference(EMI) and easier thermal management. The value of switching frequency is kept
in the practically acceptable range to achieve high efficiency in the converter and at the same
time limit its cost. These resonant converters have resonant tanks to create oscillatory
sinusoidal current as well as voltage waveforms so that zero-current switching (ZCS) or zerovoltage switching (ZVS) conditions can be generated for the power switches. Decrease in
switching losses leads to higher switching frequency.This increase in the switching frequency
reduces the size and weight of the passive components like capacitors, inductors etc.Soft
switching techniques used in power converters help in increasing energy conversion
efficiency,also enhances the switching frequency and hence reduce the weight ,size and the
cost of the passive components.They also reduce the electrical and thermal stresses in the
5
switching devices.They also help in suppressing the EMI. Thus the power loss during switching
is eliminated from the converter.Soft switching can be achieved by using resonant components
such as snubber capacitor or inductor or by the use of the parasitic component of the converter.
Soft switching is realized in the DC DC converter circuit by the addition of resonant switches
consisting of a controlled semiconductor switch such as power MOSFET or an IGBT, an
antiparallel freewheeling diode and a resonant capacitor or a resonant inductor. The condition
of soft switching can be realized in the converter only if the resonant part of the switch has the
capability to discharge itself at the time of switching. If the resonant capacitor or the inductor
across the switches can reset themselves and acquire zero current or voltage at the time of the
switching, soft switching is established. Thus operation under soft switching condition is
possible by addition of external components. This method is useful particularly in high
frequency operations but it also leads to conduction losses. Figure 2.1 shows the ideal and
practical switching waveforms for switch voltage.
Figure 2.1: Ideal vs Practical switching waveform
Soft switching is of two types-
2.2.1 Zero Voltage Switching
In the Zero Voltage resonant switch, resonant capacitor is connected parallel across a switch
to attain zero-voltage-switching (ZVS).For a unidirectional switch the capacitor voltage
oscillates freely during both the half-cycles(positive as well as negative). This allows the
resonant switch to work in the full wave mode. Connection of a diode anti-parallel to the one
directional switch will cause the voltage of the capacitor to be set to zero by the diode in the
negative halfcycle. The switch then works in halfwave mode.The goal of a Zero Voltage switch
is to shape the switch voltage waveform with the help of resonant switch during off time which
causes the switch to be turned on by creating a zero voltage.
6
Figure 2.2: Zero voltage resonant switch
2.2.2 Zero Current Switching
In Zero Current resonant switch, the power switch S has an inductor connected in series with
it to get zero-current-switching. In case of a unidirectional switch, the switch current can
oscillate only in positive halfcycle and thus resonant switch works in half-wave mode.
Connection of an antiparallel diode with the one directional switch causes switch current to
flow in both the directions and thus the resonant switch will operate in full-wave mode.When
turned on,the current in the switch increases gradually from zero.Oscillation of current occurs
due to the resonance in between capacitor and inductor.The goal of the switch is the shaping
of the waveform of switch current in the conduction period to provide a condition of zero
current which causes the switch to be turned off.
7
Figure 2.3: Zero current resonant switch
2.3 Hard-switching pulse width modulated (PWM) convertersPWM converters have lesser number of components and higher efficiency. The operate at a
constant frequency.They require a relatively simpler control system.Integrated circuit
controllers for hard switching converters are also commercially available.These converters also
allow large conversion ratios for both boost and buck operations.But the major drawback of
PWM controlled dc-dc converters is that PWM rectangular current as well as voltage
waveforms lead to both turn-off and turn-on losses in semiconductor devices.This reduces the
practical operating frequencies by hundreds of kilohertz.Also the PWM rectangular waveforms
produce electromagnetic noise.
2.3.1 Step-Down (Buck) Converter
The buck converter circuit can be seen in Fig 2.4. Output waveforms of the converter can be
seen in Fig2.5. Here it has been assumed that the inductor current is always positive.If switch
is turned on, the diode becomes reverse biased(no current).When switch is turned off, the diode
becomes forward biased and conducts,thus providing uninterrupted current in the inductor.
As per to Faraday’s law, voltage time product of inductor in steady-state is zero. In case of the
buck converter
(Vs-Vo)DT=-Vo(1-D)T
DC Voltage transfer function, Mv=Vo/Vs=D
Filter inductance at the boundary of
DCM(discontinuous conduction mode) and CCM(continuous conduction mode) is given by
Lb=(1-D)R/2f
8
For Inductor value less than above,the converter goes to CCM mode
In CCM mode the inductor current includes a dc current and a triangular ac component
superimposed to it.Most of this ac component flows through the filter capacitor as ac
current,which produces a voltage ripple in the output load voltage. To reduce the ripple voltage
value below a required value called ripple voltage, the filter capacitance C should be more than
the below mentioned value.
Cmin=(1-D)Vo/8VrLf^2
Figure 2.4: Buck Converter circuit
9
Figure 2.5: Output waveforms for the buck converter circuit
2.3.2 Step-Down (Boost) Converter
Fig 2.6 shows a PWM controlled boost converter(step down). It includes a dc input voltage ,
filter inductor, controlled switch,filter capacitor,diode and load resistance . When the switch is
turned on, the diode is reverse biased and the current in the inductor increases linearly.If the
switch is off, the energy is extracted from the inductor and transferred via the diode to the
output RC circuit.
According to Faraday’s law, for inductor in boost mode
VsDT=(Vo-Vs)(1-D)T
DC Voltage transfer function Mv=Vo/Vs=1/(1-D)
Thus the output voltage is higher than the input voltage(boost operation) all the time.The
boundary value of inductor is given by
Lb=(1-D)^2DR/2f
The converter works in CCM mode if inductor value is less than above value.
The current in the output RC circuit is not continuous in this case.Thus, a large filter capacitor
is needed here as compared to that of buck converters in order to limit the output voltage ripple.
10
When diode is reversed biased, the filter capacitor must discharge through the load resistor.
The filter capacitance has the lowest value resulting in voltage ripple Vr which is given by
Cmin=DVo/VrRf
Figure 2.6: Boost Converter circuit
Figure 2.7: Output waveforms for the boost converter circuit
11
2.3.3 Non Isolated Buck Boost Converter
A non isolated or no transformer topology of a dc dc converter can be seen in Fig 2.8.If switch
is turned on,current in inductor rises and the diode becomes reverse biased. If the switch is off,
the diode becomes forward biased and conducts and inductor current flows.
The waveforms for buck-boost converter are shown in Fig 2.9. The steady state zero voltagesecond product for the inductor is given by
VsDT=-Vo(1-D)T
Transfer function for DC voltage,Mv=Vo/Vs=-D/(1-D)
Here with respect to the ground,the output voltage is negative.The converter works in buck
mode when Duty Cycle of the PWM applied to switch is less than 50% and works in boost
mode when Duty Cycle is greater than 50%.
The inductor value at the boundary in between the CCM and DCM is
Lb=(1-D)^2R/2f
Filter Capacitor for Ripple Voltage Vr is given by,
Cmin=DVo/VrRf
Figure 2.8: BuckBoost Converter circuit
12
Figure 2.9: Output waveforms for the buckboost converter circuit
2.3.4 Cuk Converter
The Cuk converter circuit can be seen in Fig 2.10.If switch is on, diode becomes reverse biased
and inductor L2 current discharges the capacitor C1.
If switch is off,diode causes conduction of currents of both inductors L1 and L2.But the
capacitor C1 charges by the inductor current L1 only.
Transfer function for DC voltage,Mv=Vo/Vs=-D/(1-D)
This is equivalent to the voltage transfer function of buck boost converter. Boundaries in
between the DCM and CCM give the following inductor values
For L1-
Lb1=(1-D)R/2Df
For L2-
Lb2=(1-D)R/2f
Filter Capacitance , Cmin =(1-D)Vo/8VrL2f^2
13
Ripple voltage(peak – peak) in the capacitor C1, Vr1=DVo/C1Rf
Figure 2.10: Cuk Converter circuit
Figure 2.11: Output waveforms for the cuk converter circuit
14
2.3.5 Half Bridge Non Isolated Buck Boost Converter
Figure 2.12: Half bridge non isolated buck boost converter circuit
When the Buck and the Boost converters are connected antiparallel across each other , the
resulting circuit is similar to the Boost and Buck discussed.But it also provides bidirectional
current flow as shown in fig 2.12.
Above circuit has two different modes-buck and boost mode.Switching between these two
modes can be done by using the MOSFET switches.The switches Q1 or Q2 along with the antiparallel diodes D1 or D2 ,acting as freewheeling diode,either increases or reduces the voltage
level depending on the mode.The operation of the above circuit can be explained in the given
two modes as follows:
Mode 1 (Boost Mode): In this mode switch Q2 and diode D1 starts conducting depending on
the duty cycle.The switch Q1 and diode D2 are off(reverse biased) throughout.This mode can
further be divided into two stages depending on the conduction of the switch Q2 and diode D1 as shown in the Fig and Fig.
Stage 1 (Q2-on, D2-off ; Q1-off, D2-Off): In this mode Q2 is on and short circuited.Hence,the
lower voltage battery charges the inductor and the inductor current increases linearly until Q2
is off.Also as the diode D1 is reversed biased in this mode and the switch Q1 is off, no current
flows through the switch Q1.
Stage 2 (Q1-off, D1-Off; Q2-off, D2-on): In this mode Q2 and Q1 both
are off and opened circuited. As the current flowing through the inductor cannot change
instantaneously, the polarity of the voltage across it is reversed and thus it acts in series with
the input voltage. Therefore the diode D1 is forward biased and the inductor current charges
the output capacitor C2 to a higher voltage. Thus the output voltage increases.
Mode 2 (Buck Mode): In this mode switch Q1 and diode D2 enters into conduction depending
on the duty cycle.The switch Q2 and diode D1 are off all the time. This mode is divided into
two stages depending on the conduction of the switch Q1 and diode D2 as shown in the Fig
and Fig.
15
Stage 1 (Q2-on, D2-off; Q1-off, D2-Off): In this mode Q1 is on and Q2 is off.The higher
voltage battery will charge the inductor and the output capacitor will get charged by it.
Stage 2 (Q1-off, D1-off; Q2-off, D2-on): In this mode Q2 and Q1 both are off. Again since the
inductor current cannot change instantaneously, it gets discharged through the freewheeling
diode D2. The voltage across the load is stepped down as compared to the input voltage.
2.4 CONVERTER’S PARAMETERS DESIGNING
2.4.1 SYSTEM PROPOSED
In the present design,the non isolated half bridge buck boost converter has been used due to
the following reasons:
 no transformer winding(as its non isolated),hence system is of low weight

it is used for high power applications

reduces the cost as well as size of the system

lower input and output current ripple
Figure 2.13: The designed buckboost circuit
The Bidirectional DC DC converter can operate in the discontinuous as well as continuous
conduction mode as well as at the edge of discontinuous as well as continuous mode. The effect
of converter's work at these three conduction modes affects its efficiency and performance. In
CCM mode the current in inductor is always positive (never zero).If the switching frequency f
is low and average output current is low due to high resistance, the converter operates in the
discontinuous conduction mode (DCM).
16
During acceleration the Boost operation takes place,in which T1 is turned on and off in a
controlled duty ratio to transfer desired energy from the capacitor to the battery pack. When
T1 is ON,energy is stored in the inductor L from the capacitor.During the OFF state of T1, the
energy is transferred to C from the inductor, through the diode D2.This energy then goes into
the battery pack. In order to soften the current pulses of to the battery,the inductor Ls is used.
During deceleration the Buck operation takes place,in which the converter transfers energy to
the capacitor from the battery.This operation is done with a controlled Pulse Width
Modulated(PWM) input signal on T2. If T2 is turned ON, the energy is transferred to the
capacitor from main battery, and inductor L stores some part of this energy. If T2 is turned
OFF, energy is transferred to the capacitor from inductor L.
2.4.2 CALCULATIONSINDUCTOR SELECTIONThe selection criteria is to have the full (rated) load current operating under
DCM/CCM boundary condition.
The equations for inductor current in the buckboost mode and in DCM mode are the following:
The smallest value of inductor required to operate the converter in CCM mode is called as
critical inductance value. For the buck and boost converter the critical inductance value is
dependent on the steady state duty ratio, load resistance and switching value.
The equation for boost mode to determine the critical inductance is given by:
Lcr,boost =(T(1-D)^2DR)/2
And
Vo/Vs=1/(1-D)
The equation for buck mode to determine the critical inductance is given by:
Lcr,buck =(T(1-D)R)/2
And
Vo/Vs=D
Therefore the value of the converter inductor should be less than the value given by:
L=min((Lcr,boost),(Lcr,buck))
Where T=Time Period
D=Duty Cycle
R=Load Resistance
For the simulated circuit ,T=2ms,D=0.6,Vbat=12V,Vcap=5V
With the above values,we get L=1mH
Filter Capacitance C=(DVoT)/Vr
With ripple voltage Vo/Vr=1%,T=2ms,D=0.6,we get C=0.1mF.
In the proposed system,the nominal battery voltage is set at 13V and in boost mode the initial
capacitor voltage is set at 10V.
17
CHAPTER 3
CONTROLLER DESIGN
18
CHAPTER 3
CONTROLLER DESIGN
3.1 INTRODUCTION
PI CONTROLLER
Proportional-integral(PI) controllers are commonly used in industrial control systems because
it has only two tuning parameters that has to be tuned for the desired controlled output.A PI
controller takes the input signal as the error signal. This error signal is difference of desired
external reference signal and measured control variable.
The controller reduces the error by manipulating control inputs.It consists of two constant
parameters that has to be tuned namely KP ,the proportional term and KI the integral term.
Here KP depends on the current value of the error, and KI depends on the accumulation of the
errors in past.
The transfer function for a PI control is given by:
G(s)=M(s)/E(s)=Kp+Ki/Ti(s)
Characteristics of the PI controllers are :

They can remove the steady-state error of the step response (due the presence of the integral
action)

But they have the disadvantage of reset windup
Fig shows an ideal PI controller
Figure 3.1: An ideal PI controller circuit
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3.2 CONTROL STRATEGY
A dc-dc converter should give a regulated dc output voltage irrespective of load variations and
input voltage fluctuations.The parameters of the converter may vary with
time,pressure,temperature etc. Therefore, the control of the output voltage should be done in a
closedloop using negative feedback.The widely used closed-loop control techniques for PWM
dc-dc converters are the current mode and voltage mode control, which are shown in Fig.3.2
and Fig.3.3.
3.2.1 Voltage-mode control
Here the converter output voltage is measured. The difference of measured voltage and external
reference voltage is given as output by the error amplifier. The error amplifier is then given as
input to a controller, which generates a controlled voltage. This voltage is compared to a
constant amplitude sawtooth waveform. The comparator then generates a PWM signal that is
supplied to the gates of controlled switches in the Buck Boost converter. The duty cycle of the
PWM signal is determined by the controlled voltage. The frequency of swatooth waveform is
equal to the frequency of PWM. A major advantage in case of voltage-mode control technique
is that its implementation of harware is not complex and is flexible.In the present
design,Voltage mode control has been used as the control strategy.
Figure 3.2: Voltage mode control technique for dc dc converter
3.2.2 Current-mode control
Here an extra secondary control loop carries the inductor current and this is converted into its
analog voltage and is compared with the controlled voltage.In this case,the sawtooth waveform
is not used.Instead the voltage-mode control technique is used by the converter.This current
considerably affects the dynamic performance of the converter,which shows some features of
the current source. The output current signal of PWM Buck Boost converters is either the
average of the output inductor current like in Cuk and Buck converters or is the product of the
average inductor current and depends on the duty cycle. In actual designing of current-mode
control, it is possible to measure the maximum current in inductor in place of average inductor
current.As the maximum inductor current is same as maximum switching current value, the
switch current is used in the secondary loop.This helps in simplification of the current sensor.
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Also the maximum inductor or switch current depends directly on the input voltage. Therefore,
the secondary loop implements the input voltage feed forward method in case of current mode.
The major advantage of the current mode control is the option of input voltage feed forward.It
also limits the maximum switching current and ensures equal current division in modular
converters.It also causes decrease in the dynamic order of the converter.But the major
drawback of current-mode control technique is its complexity.Also it involves compensation
of voltage that is controlled by ramp signals to prevent the controller from being unstable.
Figure 3.3: Current mode control technique for dc dc converter
3.3 CONTROLLER TUNING
Figure 3.4: Closed loop feedback control for generating controlled PWM signal
In the present design a PI controller has been used to control the output voltage of the
BuckBoost converter and generate a controlled PWM signal input to the igbt switch. Here the
measured voltage is the filter capacitor voltage connected across the battery pack.An error
signal is generated from the measured voltage and reference voltage and fed as input to the
controller.The controller output generates a PWM signal by using a comparator.A controller
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has been designed for the proposed system for boost operation.The initial capacitor voltage is
10V while the nominal battery voltage is set as 8.5V
Gc represents the transfer function of a PI controller.
Gc(s)=Kp+Ki/s
Where Kp=steady state gain for proportional control
Ki= steady state gain for integral control
Gp represents the transfer function of the process during boost mode.In the designed
circuit,during boost mode,the process represents a RL filter.
Hence, Gp(s)=1/(s+R/L)
where L=filter inductance and R=resistance in series with inductance
The equivalent transfer function of the negative feedback system is given by,
G(s)=Gc(s)Gp(s)/(1+Gc(s)Gp(s))
Substituting the transfer function equations for both controller and process in the above
equation,we get
G(s)=(Kps+Ki)/(S^2+(R/L+Kp)s+Ki)
A general second order transfer function is given by,G’(s)=wn^2/(s^2+2Twns+wn^2)
Where wn=natural frequency,T=damping ratio
Comparing the equations for G(s) and G’(s),we get
Ki=wn^2; and Kp+(R/L)=2Twn
Let the Rise Time be set as 0.6s.
Now,rise time Tr=1.8/wn
Putting the value of Tr in the above equation,we get wn=3
Assumin T=.707 and putting the above obtained value of wn,we get the PI tuning parameters
as follows:
Ki=9 and Ki=0.3
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CHAPTER 4
SIMULATION AND RESULTS
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CHAPTER 4
SIMULATION AND RESULTS
4.1 Closed loop Simulation of a Buck Boost converter with the designed values was done in
the Matlab Simulink. The simulation results were found satisfactory and as expected. The
various waveforms are as follows:
1.BUCK OPERATION-Duty cycle of PWM to switch-30% for input voltage 12V
Result:output voltage 5V, Ripple factor=Vr/Vo=1%
R=10ohm,Lb=25H,C=30uF,f=100kHZ
Output voltage(V) vs Time(seconds) waveform
Figure 4.1: Output voltage waveform for buck mode
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2.BOOST OPERATION-Duty Cycle-66% for input voltage 12V
Result-output voltage 24V, Ripple factor=Vr/Vo=1%
R=10ohm,Lb=6uH,C=70uF,f=100kHZ
Output voltage(V) vs Time(seconds) waveform
Figure 4.2: Output voltage waveform for boost mode
4.2 PWM Waveform generation of varying duty cycles using STM32F107 ARM CORTEX
M3 DEVELOPMENT BOARD.
The various waveforms are as follows:
RESULT:INPUT PORT A,PIN 1:DUTY CYCLE -25%
PIN 3:DUTY CYCLE - 50%
PIN 4:DUTY CYCLE – 80%
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Figure 4.3: PWM waveforms for varying duty cycles
4.3 Closed loop Simulation of a Bidirectional Buck Boost converter with Battery pack and
capacitor(without controller) was done in the Matlab Simulink. The simulation results were
found satisfactory and as expected. The various waveforms are as follows:
4.3.1 BOOST MODE1.PWM SIGNAL VS TIME (SECONDS) WAVEFORM-
Figure 4.4: PWM waveform for the boost converter
Amplitude of the signal is 11V
Time period-2ms
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2.BATTERY VOLTAGE(Vbat) vs TIME(SECONDS) WAVEFORM-FOR GIVEN
PWM SIGNAL
Figure 4.5: Battery voltage waveform(boost mode)
The nominal battery voltage is set at 13V.When T2 is on, the battery current is zero, hence
battery voltage remains constant.But when T2 is turned off,the inductor energy is transferred
to the battery pack,hence its voltage increases.
3. BATTERY CURRENT(Ibat) vs TIME(SECONDS) WAVEFORM-FOR GIVEN
PWM SIGNAL
Figure 4.6: Battery current waveform(boost mode)
27
When T2 is on, the battery current is zero, as .But when T2 is turned off,the inductor energy
is transferred to the battery pack,hence current increases.The negative current indicates that
the flow of current is from capacitor towards the battery.
4. CAPACITOR VOLTAGE(Vcap) vs TIME(SECONDS) WAVEFORM-FOR GIVEN
PWM SIGNAL
Figure 4.7: Capacitor voltage waveform(boost mode)
As the energy is transferred from capacitor to battery, the capacitor discharges and its voltage
reduces from 10V(initial value of capacitor voltage) to 5V.
28
5. CAPACITOR CURRENT(Icap) vs TIME(SECONDS) WAVEFORM-FOR GIVEN
PWM SIGNAL
Figure 4.8: Capacitor current waveform(boost mode)
When T2 is on,the inductor current increases.When turned off,the inductor energy is
transferred to the battery,hence its current reduces.
4.3.2 BUCK MODE
1. PWM SIGNAL VS TIME (SECONDS) WAVEFORM-
Figure 4.9: PWM waveform for the buck converter
29
2.BATTERY VOLTAGE(Vbat) vs TIME(SECONDS) WAVEFORM-FOR GIVEN
PWM SIGNAL
Figure 4.10: Battery voltage waveform(buck mode)
3. BATTERY CURRENT(Ibat) vs TIME(SECONDS) WAVEFORM-FOR GIVEN
PWM SIGNAL
Figure 4.11: Battery current waveform(buck mode)
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4. CAPACITOR VOLTAGE(Vcap) vs TIME(SECONDS) WAVEFORM-FOR GIVEN
PWM SIGNAL
Figure 4.12: Capacitor voltage waveform(buck mode)
5. CAPACITOR CURRENT(Icap) vs TIME(SECONDS) WAVEFORM-FOR GIVEN
PWM SIGNAL
Figure 4.13: Capacitor current waveform(buck mode)
31
4.4 Closed loop Simulation of a Bidirectional Buck Boost converter with Battery pack and
capacitor with PI controller was done in the Matlab Simulink. The simulation results were
found satisfactory and as expected. The various waveforms are as follows:
BOOST MODE
1.BATTERY DISCHARGING AFTER 0.5 seconds due to the applied load
BATTERY VOLTAGE(Vbat) vs TIME(SECONDS)
Figure 4.14: Battery discharging waveform due to applied load
The battery voltage reduces from its nominal value of 8.5V to 8.3V after 0.5 seconds due to a
load applied to the battery pack.Hence the battery discharges.
32
2.BATTERY CHARGING(BOOST MODE)BATTERY VOLTAGE(Vbat) vs TIME(S)-
Figure 4.15: Battery voltage waveform(boost mode)
When controlled PWM is applied to T2 (boost mode), the battery charges after 0.5seconds
and its voltage increases due to the transfer of energy from capacitor.
3.CAPACITOR DISCHARGING AFTER 0.5seconds
CAPACITOR VOLTAGE(Vcap) vs TIME(SECONDS)
Figure 4.16: Capacitor voltage waveform(boost mode)
The capacitor discharges after 0.5seconds(hence the decrease in voltage) but again starts
charging due buck mode operation.
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4.5 CONCLUSION
The above design can be used to drive a motor for an electric vehicle. During regenerative
braking,the motor acts as a generator,with current flowing in the opposite direction.This motor
drives the electric vehicles.During braking,the motor operates as a generator and the load
output voltage is the output voltage of the motor.Braking takes place by energy transfer in a
controlled manner to the load .The proposed system when used with motor load provides higher
decelerations and accelerations of the electric vehicle with minimum power losses, and
minimum degradation of battery.The system uses an IGBT Buck-Boost converter,a main
battery pack to drive the motor,a capacitor to store energy and system controller measures the
converter output voltage and generates a controlled PWM. Electrochemical batteries can be
incorporated in the system to improve the overall performance of the electric vehicle during
transient time and also to enhance lifespan of batteries. Thus, fast charging during regenerative
braking or sudden and fast battery discharge during acceleration can be overcome.
4.6 FUTURE WORK
For proper hardware implementation of the proposed design, a good control strategy is required
to measure the battery charge, battery current,speed of the motor, the instantaneous value of
currents in both load and capacitor and original capacitor voltage to generate the PWM signal
for semiconductor switches. If motor speed increases(acceleration),the capacitor is kept
discharged by the control system. If motor is static, the capacitor is charged to its maximum
voltage. If motor speed is medium,the capacitor is kept at medium voltage in order to allow
decelerations or accelerations in the future.When motor accelerates, controller must transfer
energy from capacitor. In the opposite situation (regenerative braking),the controller transfers
energy from battery pack. This control strategy can be implemented using a microcontroller.
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