Precision 4” Rotary Table USING THE ROTARY TABLE

Precision 4” Rotary Table USING THE ROTARY TABLE
Precision 4” Rotary Table
USING THE ROTARY TABLE
Compiled by: Cletus L. Berkeley
ISSUED: 5/30/2005 @ 8:37 AM
This is a non-profit document
The information contained herein is presented for intellectual enrichment only and may not change
hands for monetary gain. The Author, Researchers, Contributors, Manufacturers, and Suppliers
assume no liability whatsoever from the use of information contained herein.
The Rotary Table
When a rotary table is put on a vertical mill you end up with a machine that is
theoretically capable of reproducing itself. This means the capabilities of your mill are
governed by the size of the part and the ingenuity of the operator.
The purpose of these instructions is to give an insight into properly using this amazing
accessory.
Equipment used in this discussion:
MODEL: 1810 Rotary Table, 4” Precision
MODEL: 1811 Dividing Plate Set, 15 & 28-Hole
MODEL: 1812 Tailstock
MODEL: 1187 Lathe Chuck, 3-Jaw 3”
As sold by : littlemachineshop.com
Specifications
Diameter of Table:
Center Height (Horizontal Mounting):
Bore Taper:
T-Slot Width:
Locating Key Width:
Angle of T-Slot:
Height to top of table (Vertical Mounting):
Worm Ratio:
Worm Gear Module:
Table Circumference Graduation:
Handwheel Indication:
Min. Vernier Collar Graduation:
Flatness of clamping surface:
Parallelism of clamping surface to base:
Squareness of clamping surface to angle face:
Squareness of clamping surface to center slot:
Concentricity of center bore:
100mm (4”)
73mm (2.874”)
MT2
8mm (0.315”)
8mm and 10mm (0.315” and 0.394”)
90-deg.
68mm (2.677”)
1:72
1
360-deg.
2-minutes each division
10-seconds each division
0.0012".
0.0008".
0.0012".
0.0012".
0.0008" TIR.
Note: STACK-ON Plastic Tool-box, a pine floor and some pine strips make the ideal storage chest for
this set.
Page 2
Using a Rotary Table
A rotary table can be used to machine arcs and circles. For example, the circular
T-slot in the swivel base for a vise can be made using a rotary table.
Rotary tables can also be used for indexing, where a workpiece must be
rotated an exact amount between operations. You can make gears on a milling
machine using a rotary table. Dividing plates make indexing with a rotary table
easier.
Nomenclature
The following illustrations show the various parts and controls of a rotary table and
tailstock.
Worm assembly position indicator
Morse Taper
Center Hole
Handwheel
T-Slot
Horizontal
Mounting Slot
Vertical
Mounting Slot
Degree
Indicator
Table Locking Clamp
Alignment
Blocks
Dead Center
Height adjustment lock
Dead Center
advancement
knob
Dead Center Lock
Height Adjustment Knob
Tailstock
Page 3
Setup and Adjustment
The rotary table is shipped with a protective coating of grease that must be
cleaned off before first use. For removing the grease a rag, small paint brush and WD40, kerosene or mineral spirit is recommended (DO NOT USE GASOLENE).
Oil Orifice
Worm Assembly Lockscrews
10 Second Vernier
2 Minute Scale
Full Degree Number
Zero the table
Its good practice to start out at some calibrated reference before using any precision
instrument and what better point than to establish machine zero.
1. Turn the handwheel clockwise until the graduations around the table indicate
zero.
2. Hold the handwheel steady and rotate the 2-minute scale so that full degree
zero aligns with zero on the 10-second vernier.
Page 4
3. For all intents and purposes you are now set at 0 or 360 degrees (see photo
below).
The table set at 0 or 360 degrees
Disengaging the Worm Drive
On this model Rotary Table, the only way to disengage the worm drive and allow the
table to freewheel is by loosening the two worm assembly lockscrews and completely
removing the worm assembly. The eccentric makeup of the worm assembly only
provides a means of “tuning- out” backlash and this is accomplished by the steps
outlined below. It does not have enough “throw” in the clockwise direction to
disengage the worm completely from the worm-gear.
Eliminating Backlash in the Worm Drive
Normal use of a rotary table does not require all play in the worm
Drive be eliminated. If you always rotate the hand wheel in the same direction, play in
the worm drive will not affect your work.
However, there are some operations where backlash can affect the work. In
these cases, follow this procedure to minimize play in the worm drive.
1. Loosen the worm assembly lock screws.
2. Rotate the vernier color counterclockwise so that the index mark adjacent
to the vernier is slightly to the left of the indicator on the rotary table
body. If you move it too far, the worm drive will bind. Find the point where
there is minimum play yet the worm drive works smoothly and free.
3. Tighten the worm assembly lock screws.
Note: Develop a habit of rotating the handwheel in one direction (clockwise). If you need to turn back
some, to catch a point you may have passed, turn back one full revolution of the handwheel, then
advance clockwise, stopping at your mark. This would negate any backlash issues.
Page 5
Locking the Table in Position
When taking a cut, it is wise to lock the position of the table to ensure that the cutting
forces do not rotate it. Tighten the socket head cap screws in the two table locking
clamps to lock the table in position. Do not forget to loosen the locks before rotating
the table. Note: when the locks are loose and the table rotated, the locks sometimes rotate around
their bolts and may bind against the scale at the side of the table.
Reading the Dials
There are three scales that indicate the position of the table.
a) The scale around the table can be read to one degree.
b) The scale on the hand wheel can be read to two minutes.
c) The vernier scale adjacent to the hand wheel can be read to 10 seconds.
Follow this procedure for reading the position of the rotary table when you are
turning the hand wheel clockwise:
Read the number of full degrees off the scale around the table [a]. Record this value.
The full degree indications on the hand wheel may be used to assist in this reading.
Read the number of minutes on the 2-minute scale [b] by identifying the line closest to
zero on the 10-second vernier scale [c].
Identify the line on the 10-second vernier scale [c] that lines up exactly with a line on
the handwheel 2-minute scale.
This line identifies the number of seconds. If the value is above 60, add
one to the number of minutes and subtract 60 from the number of seconds.
a
40-sec
c
10-deg
20-min
b
A reading of 10° 20’ 40”
Page 6
Mounting the Rotary Table
This rotary table may be mounted horizontally or vertically.
The rotary table mounted vertically
The rotary table setup horizontally with 3-jaw chuck and dividing plate.
Page 7
A Chuck on the Rotary Table
A lathe chuck can be mounted on the rotary table to hold cylindrical objects.
Lathe chuck mounted on a rotary table (mounted vertically)
Chuck Adapter Plate
The chuck adapter plate supplied with the rotary table has on one side a step, turned
to mate perfectly with the Morse #2 taper of the table. This ensures perfect concentric
alignment with the table. The other side is machined with another step that aligns
perfectly with the model: 1187, 3-Jaw 3” Lathe Chuck. No machining is necessary
and this fixture ensures near perfect concentricity between the table and chuck. Three
short allen bolts fasten the adapter plate to the chuck. Four allen bolts and mating Tnuts fasten the adapter plate/chuck to the table. Note: the T-nuts sometimes protrude slightly
from the table and may foul against the table locking nuts, slight filing of the T-nut edges may be in
order.
3-Jaw Chuck
MODEL: 1187 Lathe Chuck, 3-Jaw 3” is a typical self centering 3-Jaw scroll chuck.
When setup on the rotary table and facing upwards, it tends to collect far more crud
than when in its normal position as mounted on a lathe spindle. Therefore, much more
attention needs to be paid to cleaning. Dry lubricants (not oil or grease) is highly
recommended so as not to aid the collection of particulate.
Using the Tailstock
A tailstock helps steady the job when working on relatively long cylindrical objects, you
might need to support the end of the workpiece. A tailstock provides the required
support. Ensure that the deadcenter of the tailstock is in perfect coaxial alignment with
the center of the rotary table. The way I do this is by holding ½” diameter rod which I
know to be true, in the chuck one end of the rod has been turned to a point in a lathe
(like a deadcenter) I ensure that the points of the deadcenter and the rod align
perfectly. Note: The tailstock has a ramp machined into it to provide a height
adjustment when the Allen-bolt on the top is loosened and the lower adjusting knob is
turned.
Page 8
Rotary table set up for indexing with a tailstock
Setting up the job
An inexpensive calculator with trig functions is a must for complex jobs. Standard
milling machine set-ups usually involve aligning the work with the table and then with
the spindle. This is easily accomplished because the table can be accurately moved
with the handwheels. Aligning a part on a rotary table however, can be very trying
because the work has to be clamped into position. When you consider the fact that the
part turns, a .001" (.03mm) error in location gives a .002" True Indicated Run-out
(T.I.R.) when checked with a dial indicator.
A quick way to align the milling spindle with the rotary table is by indicating the hole in
the center of the rotary table. Next, prick punch or spot drill the center on the work you
wish to have line up with the rotary table. Put a pointer in the spindle that runs true.
Set the work under the spindle and lower the head until it engages with the center
mark, then clamp the part down. You now have the work reasonably aligned with the
rotary table and spindle. At this time, rotate the table with the spindle running and the
pointer slightly backed off. If the part is properly aligned, the pointer should always line
up with the center mark, and you should write down your handwheel settings. It is also
advisable to write an "R" or "L" after the handwheel setting to remember which way
the backlash was set. Now, if you have a DRO installed on your milling machine life
becomes considerably easier as the center of the rotary table becomes the X0, Y0
datum and coordinates can be sought directly from the display.
Page 9
Maintenance & Lubrication
Note the lubrication points on the rotary table and inject SAE-20 using an oilcan
before use. The worm may be lubricated with a small amount of white lithium grease.
This is a sterile area, keep debris out. After use clean the rotary table of all debris and
wipe with a rag soaked with oil. Store in a clean dry place.
Things to NOT do:
1. A Rotary table is a heavy hunk of precision crafted, cast iron,
instrumentation. DO NOT DROP IT.
2. Never hammer the table face or a work-piece thereon.
3. Do not run the rotary table without adequate lubrication.
4. Do not allow the ingress of debris into the moving parts especially the
worm assembly.
5. Do not store carelessly or in a damp location, it will rust.
Page 10
Using Dividing Plates with the Rotary Table
Dividing plates permit precise division of a circle into a number of divisions
or degrees. The indexing feature helps prevent errors during the repetitive
adjustments required in indexing work.
Dividing plates can be used to create bolt circles, gears, polygons, and so on.
These instructions are for the 4” Precision Rotary Table part number 1810 and
Dividing Plate Set part number 1811.
Installing the Dividing Plate
The dividing plate mounts in place of the hand wheel on the rotary table.
Follow these steps to mount the dividing plate.
Remove the Hand Wheel
1. Remove the nut and washer from the center of the hand wheel (13mm).
2. Slide the hand wheel and the center indexing ring off the shaft together.
This is to prevent losing the small flat spring that is between these parts.
3. Loosen the setscrew and slide the inner indexing ring off the shaft.
Do not lose the small key that falls out from the shaft.
Note: Looking at the assembly of the handwheel and the smoothness of operation, this Rotary Table
lends itself very suitable for CNC retrofitting.
Page 11
Disassemble the Dividing Plate
1. Remove the retaining nut from the dividing plate.
2. Remove the two sector arms together, being careful to not lose the small
flat spring that falls out or sometimes flies across the shop.
Install the Dividing Plate
1. Slide the dividing plate onto the shaft.
2. Secure it with two socket head cap screws.
3. Place the flat spring in the groove in the dividing plate hub.
4. Put the two sector arms on the dividing plate.
5. Install the retaining nut.
6. Install the crank handle.
7. Reinstall the washer and nut on the end of the shaft.
Page 12
Using the Dividing Plate
Once the dividing plate is in place, the next step is to make the calculations for
the job at hand.
Principle of Operation
Each complete rotation of the crank moves the table 1/72 of a full rotation (5 degrees).
For smaller increments there are two rings of holes on the dividing plate. The outer
ring has 28 equally spaced holes and the inner ring has 15 equally spaced holes.
Advancing the crank using the outer ring rotates the table 1/28 of 1/72 of a rotation
(0.1786 degrees). Advancing the crank using the inner ring rotates the table 1/15 of
1/72 of a rotation (0.3333 degrees). By selecting the appropriate ring of holes and by
counting turns and hole advancement, a large number of equal circle divisions may be
obtained. The various combinations have been tabulated in the chart below for quick
reference.
The sector plates help you count holes. Set them so that they include the starting and
ending holes for each increment of crank advancement. Then, lock the setscrew to
maintain the setting. Between table advancements, rotate the secrors to the next
position. Make sure the indexing pin does not strike the sectors during rotation of the
crank.
Calculate for Degrees
If you want to advance a certain number of degrees between divisions, here is
how to figure out how many turns of the crank handle are needed.
1. Look in the Degrees column in the Indexing Table on page 8 for the number
of degrees you want to advance. If you find the value you want, read across
the line to find the hole circle to use, the number of full turns, and the
number of holes beyond the last full turn. Skip the rest of this procedure.
2. Divide the number of degrees per division by 5. Each full turn of the crank
handle advances the rotary table 5 degrees.
3. The whole number is the number of full turns of the crank handle.
4. If there is a remainder in step 1, multiply the remainder by 15.
5. If the answer to step 3 is a whole number, it is the number of extra holes on
the 15-hole circle to advance the crank handle.
6. If the result of step 3 is not a whole number, multiply the remainder from
step 1 by 28.
7. If the answer to step 5 is a whole number, it is the number of extra holes on
the 28-hole circle to advance the crank handle.
8. If neither step 3 nor step 5 resulted in a whole number, you can’t advance
that number of degrees with this dividing plate.
Page 13
Here is an example: Suppose you want to create a disk with holes that are 7.5
degrees apart.
So to advance 7.5 degrees, you make 1 full turn and then advance an extra 14
holes in the 28-hole circle.
Calculate for Number of Divisions
If you know the number of divisions into which you want to divide a circle,
follow these steps:
9. Find the number of divisions you want in the Divisions column in the table
on page 8.
10. Read across the line to find the hole circle to use, the number of full turns,
and the number of holes beyond the last full turn.
Here is an example. Suppose you want to create a circle with 48 holes. Look in
the Divisions column in the Indexing Table for 48. Here is that row from the
table.
So to create 48 divisions, you make 1 full turn and then advance an extra 14
holes in the 28-hole circle.
Setting up the Dividing Plate
Once the calculations are done, you are ready to adjust the crank handle and
sector arms.
Set the Crank Handle
1. Make sure that the indexing pin assembly is on the correct side of the sector
arms so it will contact a tapered edge of the sector arm.
2. Loosen the nut on the indexing pin assembly.
3. Move the indexing pin assembly in or out until the indexing pin fits in the
holes in the appropriate hole circle.
4. Tighten the nut on the indexing pin assembly.
Page 14
Crank handle set for the
28-hole circle with the
indexing pin between the
sector arms.
Set the Sector Arms
1. Loosen the small setscrew in the outer sector ring.
2. Adjust the sectors until there is the correct number of holes between them.
If you will be advancing 7 full turns, plus 4 holes, then there should be 5
holes between the sector arms. (The starting hole, plus the number of
holes you are advancing.)
If you will be advancing almost the full number of holes in the circle,
then set the sector arms so they enclose the first hole you want and the
last hole you want, but none of the intermediate holes.
Page 15
3. Tighten the small setscrew in the outer sector ring.
Operating the Rotary Table
With the dividing plate installed and set up, mount your work piece on the
rotary table, and the rotary table on the mill.
The position of the crank handle when you start is not important as long as the
indexing pin is in a hole. Make sure it is on the correct side of the sector arms,
so it will contact a tapered edge of the sector arm.
Each time you make a cut, you advance the work piece to the next position.
Advance the Work Piece
1. Pull the handle on the indexing pin assembly to disengage the indexing pin.
Pull it far enough so the indexing pin clears the sector arms.
2. Turn the crank handle the number of full turns required, stopping at the
position from which you started.
3. Release the indexing pin partially so that the end is at the surface of the
dividing plate.
4. Advance the crank handle to the next sector arm. (If you need to pass the
sector arms, you will need to retract the pin more to clear the sector arms
again.)
5. Release the indexing pin so that it engages the correct hole.
6. Rotate the two sector arms to the next starting position.
Page 16
You are now ready to make your next cut. Repeat this process for each
division.
Indexing Table
This indexing table is for a rotary table with a 72-to-1 ratio and a dividing plate
with 15- and 28-hole circles.
Table for a 72-to-1 ratio Rotary Table and a dividing plate with 15- and 28-hole
circles.
Note: It may be useful to keep a laminated copy of the following table with the dividing plate kit, or
posted near the milling machine.
Page 17
Indexing Table
This indexing table is for rotary tables
with a 72-to-1ratio and a dividing plate
with 15- and 28-hole circles.
Divisions Degrees Circle
Turns
Holes
2
180.000
Either
36
3
120.000
Either
24
4
90.000
Either
18
5
72.000
15-Hole
14
6
6
60.000
Either
12
7
51.429
28-Hole
10
8
8
45.000
Either
9
9
40.000
Either
8
10
36.000
15-Hole
7
3
12
30.000
Either
6
14
25.714
28-Hole
5
4
14.4
25.000
Either
5
15
24.000
15-Hole
5
12
16
22.500
28-Hole
5
14
18
20.000
Either
4
20
18.000
15-Hole
4
9
21
17.143
28-Hole
3
12
22.5
16.000
15-Hole
3
3
24
15.000
Either
3
27
13.333
15-Hole
3
10
28
12.857
28-Hole
3
16
30
12.000
15-Hole
2
6
32
11.250
28-Hole
2
7
36
10.000
Either
2
40
9.000
15-Hole
2
12
42
8.571
28-Hole
2
20
45
8.000
15-Hole
2
9
48
7.500
28-Hole
2
14
54
6.667
15-Hole
1
5
56
6.429
28-Hole
1
8
60
6.000
15-Hole
1
3
72
5.000
Either
1
84
4.286
28-Hole
1
24
90
4.000
15-Hole
1
12
96
3.750
28-Hole
1
21
108
3.333
15-Hole
1
10
120
3.000
15-Hole
1
9
135
2.667
15-Hole
1
8
144
2.500
28-Hole
1
17
180
2.000
15-Hole
0
6
216
1.667
15-Hole
0
5
270
1.333
15-Hole
0
4
288
1.250
28-Hole
0
7
360
1.000
15-Hole
0
3
540
0.667
15-Hole
0
2
1080
0.333
15-Hole
0
1
Page 18
Cutting Gears on a rotary table
Machinery's Handbook is one of the best sources for information on gears. Gears are
built to a rigid set of rules, and they are much more complex than you might at first
imagine.
This explanation describes how to cut a simple, low tolerance gear (Meccano gear).
You will also have to determine the blank size, depth of cut, RPM of the spindle and
so on. Gears can be cut using a rotary table with a reasonable amount of precision. In
most cases, gears, even the inexpensive ones, are very precise. Gears are usually
produced by "hobbing". This method uses a cutter that is similar to a worm gear. The
teeth are generated with both the cutter and the blank turning. The process is very
similar to a running worm gear. Hobbing produces perfectly shaped teeth, that are
perfectly spaced. It is theoretically possible to produce a perfect gear one tooth at a
time, But be prepared to screw-up a few times before getting it right.
Note: Next time I make a gear, I would dispense
with the mandrel, if at all possible and make the
stepped backside of the blank longer and hold
this directly in the chuck. The tailstock would then
be employed in steadying the blank directly at the
bore. Should make for a more rigid setup.
Setup for simple gear cutting (Meccano gear).
Cutters can be purchased that will produce a fairly good tooth form, but they are
extremely expensive and have a very limited range. A cutter can be ground that works
like a fly cutter. A 1/4" lathe tool blank fits the pictured homemade (a 9/16 bolt
modifies nicely for this) tool holder. Use the damaged gear you are replacing as a
shape reference to grind the tip of the cutter. At first it may seem almost impossible to
do this, but it is not. Just keep checking the tool to a gear that can be used for a gauge
by holding the two up to a light source. You'll find that the final grinding is done by
"feel". Lathe tool bits are cheap and available, so it is a process worth learning. When
the tool is mounted in the holder, don't allow it to stick out any more than necessary.
The picture above shows a typical setup. A tailstock isn't always necessary but in this
case it was, and very light cutting passes were made and with a very sharp tool,
Page 19
especially because of the “skinny” mandrel used. Remember, the gear blank must run
absolutely true before starting and the tool tip must be dead on centerline.
Calculating Your Cuts
To figure the amount to move between cuts, an electronic pocket calculator can be
very helpful. Simply divide 360° by the number of teeth you wish to cut. This will give
you an answer in degrees and several decimal places of precision. However, this
rotary table is calibrated in degrees, minutes and seconds so some conversion is
necessary. Here’s the theory:
There are several ways to measure the size of an angle. One way is to use units of
degrees. (Radian measure is another way.)
In a complete circle there are three hundred and sixty (360) degrees.
An angle could have a measurement of 35.75 degrees. That is, the size of the angle in
this case would be thirty-five full degrees plus seventy-five hundredths, or three
fourths, of an additional degree. Notice that here we are expressing the measurement
as a decimal number. Using decimal numbers like this one can express angles to any
precision - to hundredths of a degree, to thousandths of a degree, and so on.
There is another way to state the size of an angle, one that subdivides a degree using
a system different than the decimal number example given above. The degree is
divided into sixty parts called minutes. These minutes are further divided into sixty
parts called seconds. The words minute and second used in this context have no
immediate connection to how those words are usually used as amounts of time.
In a full circle there are 360 degrees.
Each degree is split up into 60 parts, each part being 1/60 of a degree. These
parts are called minutes.
Each minute is split up into 60 parts, each part being 1/60 of a minute. These
parts are called seconds.
The size of an angle could be stated this way: 40 degrees, 20 minutes, 50 seconds.
There are symbols that are used when stating angles using degrees, minutes, and
seconds. Those symbols are show in the following table.
Symbol for degree:
Symbol for minute:
Symbol for second:
So, the angle of 40 degrees, 20 minutes, 50 seconds is usually written this way:
Page 20
How could you state the above as an angle using common decimal notation? The
angle would be this many degrees, (* means times.):
40 + (20 * 1/60) + (50 * 1/60 * 1/60)
That is, we have 40 full degrees, 20 minutes - each 1/60 of a degree, and 50 seconds
- each 1/60 of 1/60 of a degree.
Work that out and you will get a decimal number of degrees. It's 40.34722...
Going the other way is a bit more difficult. Suppose we start with 40.3472 degrees.
Can we express that in units of degrees, minutes, and seconds?
Well, first of all there are definitely 40 degrees full degrees. That leaves 0.3472
degrees.
So, how many minutes is 0.3472 degrees? Well, how many times can 1/60 go into
0.3472? Here's the same question: What is 60 times 0.3472? It's 20.832. So, there
are 20 complete minutes with 0.832 of a minute remaining.
How many seconds are in the last 0.832 minutes. Well, how many times can 1/60 go
into 0.832, or what is 60 times 0.832? It's 49.92, or almost 50 seconds.
So, we've figured that 40.3472 degrees is almost exactly equal to 40 degrees, 20
minutes, 50 seconds.
(The only reason we fell a bit short of 50 seconds is that we really used a slightly
smaller angle in this second half of the calculation explanation. In the original angle,
40.34722... degrees, the decimal repeats the last digit of 2 infinitely, so, the original
angle is a bit bigger than 40.3472.)
Further Reading:
Reading Vernier Scales: http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Applets/TaiwanUniv/ruler/vernier.html
http://dl.clackamas.cc.or.us/ch104-01b/vernier.htm
Footnote
This manual started out as my shop notes for my newly acquired Rotary Table, as I
began trying to understand it’s setup, I found that there’s precious little information
relating to the setup and use of the device. I tried to cram as much information into
these few pages so as to give a well rounded perspective on the setup and use of a
Rotary Table System. As with machining in general, proficiency comes with practice.
Be patient, it is not uncommon for >85% of the time taken to do a machining job, to be
spent in setting up. Measure twice and cut once! …as it’s easier to remove metal that
to put it back on.
Thanks to Susan (my wife) for a really neat birthday gift.
Have fun and be safe,
Cletus
Cletus Berkeley is in no way affiliated with Littlemachineshop.com…. just a another satisfied customer.
Page 21
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising