Global Societies: Fragmenting and Connecting CONTENTS BSA Annual Conference 2016

Global Societies: Fragmenting and Connecting CONTENTS BSA Annual Conference 2016

Global Societies:

Fragmenting and Connecting

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 - Friday 8 April 2016

CONTENTS

Welcome .......................................................................................................................................... 3

Delegate Information ........................................................................................................................ 5

Conference Programme at a Glance ............................................................................................... 9

Conference Programme Grid ......................................................................................................... 14

Plenary – Paula England ............................................................................................................... 21

Plenary – Claire Alexander and Anoop Nayak ............................................................................... 23

Philip Abrams Memorial Prize ........................................................................................................ 24

Plenary – Danny Dorling ................................................................................................................ 27

Stream Plenaries ........................................................................................................................... 29

Special Activities ............................................................................................................................ 39

BSA Annual Members’ Meeting ..................................................................................................... 43

Poster Presentations ...................................................................................................................... 44

Wednesday Paper Sessions – Programme in Detail ..................................................................... 49

Thursday Paper Sessions – Programme in Detail ....................................................................... 121

Friday Paper Sessions – Programme in Detail ............................................................................ 195

Index by First Named Author ....................................................................................................... 263

Maps ............................................................................................................................................ 275

© 2016 BSA Publications Ltd.

BSA Publications Ltd is a subsidiary of the British Sociological Association, registered in England and in Wales.

Company Number: 01245771. Registered Offices: Bailey Suite, Palatine House, Belmont Business Park, Belmont,

Durham, DH1 1TW. VAT Registration Number: 416961243.

Please note that the views expressed and any advertisements are not necessarily those of the British Sociological

Association (BSA) or BSA Publications Ltd. While every care is taken to provide accurate information, neither the

BSA, the Trustees nor the contributors undertake any liability for any error or omission.

The abstracts in this volume are not for reproduction without the prior permission of the author. All rights reserved.

This publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express permission of The British Sociological

Association.

ISBN: 9780904569469

The cover of this document has been printed onto Lumi silk which is accredited to the Forest Stewardship Scheme, manufactured to the international environmental standard from sustained forests. The inner pages are printed onto Explorer paper which is a natural and biodegradable product, produced from renewable resources.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

2

WELCOME

Welcome to the British Sociological Association Annual Conference 2016 at Aston University, Birmingham. The theme of the 2016 conference is ‘Global Societies: Fragmenting and Connecting’. It is a pleasure to announce that Paula

England, Claire Alexander and Anoop Nayak, and Danny Dorling will address the conference in three thoughtprovoking plenaries on this main theme.

In addition to these plenaries, delegates have the opportunity to attend presentations on a wide range of topics. The conference is organised in streams designed to represent the major areas of research with which sociologists are engaged. These streams are open to any topic on which people are currently working, enabling delegates to meet with colleagues in their areas of interest and explore a variety of topics as well. Many of the streams also include a

Stream Plenary, which brings key speakers together to reflect on the conference theme from particular sociological perspectives.

There are also a number of open streams (Frontiers) providing a forum for new, innovative and multidisciplinary work. This year these streams include topics such as psychosocial studies, publishing workshops, disability studies and many more, further enriching the wealth of topics to be explored. This conference format results in a rich and challenging programme and it is hoped that this every delegate will find the same this year.

A conference of this magnitude and breadth is due to the efforts of many committed individuals. Great thanks are due to all those who have helped with the organisation of the conference, particularly the coordinators of the conference streams:

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space (CIT) Robin Smith, Cardiff University

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption (CUL)

Environment and Society (ENV)

Families and Relationships (FAM)

Gaynor Bagnall, University of Salford

Garry Crawford, University of Salford

Tom Roberts, University of Surrey

Kathryn Almack, University of Nottingham

Frontiers (FRO)

Lifecourse (LIF)

Medicine, Health and Illness (MED)

Methodological Innovations (MET)

Race, Ethnicity and Migration (REM)

Jo Woodiwiss, University of Huddersfield

John Bone, University of Aberdeen

Wendy Martin, Brunel University

Julia Twigg, University of Kent

Sally Brown, Edinburgh Napier University

Julia Hiscock, Bangor University

Emma Uprichard, University of Warwick

Ipek Demir, University of Leicester

Rights, Violence and Crime (RIG)

Science and Technology Studies (STS)

Aaron Winter, University of East London

Victoria Canning, The Open University

Michele Grigolo, Nottingham Trent University

Hannah Miller, Kingston University

Alice Nah, University of York

Huw Davies, Oxford Internet Institute, University of

Oxford

Des Fitzgerald, Cardiff University

Social Divisions/Social Identities (DIV)

Sociology of Education (EDU)

Stevienna de Saille, University of Sheffield

Rachel Hale, Cardiff University / University of the West of England, Bristol

Jamie Halsall, University of Huddersfield

Nicola Ingram, Lancaster University

Michael Ward, The Open University

Rachael Shillitoe, University of Worcester

Stephen Kemp, University of Edinburgh

Sociology of Religion (REL)

Theory (THE)

Work, Employment and Economic Life (WOR) Maria Adamson, Middlesex University

Ben Fincham, University of Sussex

Lynne Pettinger, University of Warwick

We would also like to express our appreciation for the support of our sponsors and exhibitors. The Conference Centre

Courtyard Restaurant includes exhibitions from many organisations who offer services and information for conference delegates. Please take some time between sessions to visit these exhibitors.

3 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Welcome

Main Conference Sponsor

SAGE www.sagepub.co.uk

The BSA would like to thank SAGE Publications for supporting the funding for 20 BSA Concessionary Members at this year’s Annual Conference in Aston University.

Look out for the sticky tags in the delegate bags. These may help all delegates mark their favourite sessions.

Exhibitors

• British Sociological Association

• Cambridge University Press

• Combined Academic

• Edwin Mellen Press

• Eurospan Group

• Frontiers

• Gazelle Books

• Lancaster University

• Manchester University Press

• Oxford University Press

• Palgrave Macmillan

• Policy Press

• Polity

• Routledge, Taylor & Francis

• Rowman & Littlefield International

• SAGE

• Wiley Blackwell / Polity

Finally, thanks to everyone for travelling to Birmingham and contributing to a conference we all hope will be enjoyable and stimulating.

John Bone, Rampaul Chamba, Nicola Ingram, Lisa Mckenzie, Linda McKie, Aaron Winter

BSA Annual Conference Organising Committee

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

4

DELEGATE INFORMATION

The BSA Annual Conference 2016 is being hosted by Aston University, Birmingham. Conference registration and exhibition space can be found in the Conference Centre Courtyard Lounge and Restaurant, Aston University, Aston

St, Birmingham, West Midlands, B4 7ET.

Sessions will take place on the Aston University campus in the Conference

Centre and CAMS, Main Building.

R

EGISTRATION

/H

ELP

D

ESK

BSA staff will be available in the Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre to register delegates at the following times:

Wednesday 6 April

Thursday 7 April

Friday 8 April

08:30 - 17:00

08:30 - 17:00

08:30 - 12:30

At registration you will be given your conference pack, including the Conference Programme & Abstract Book and your conference badge.

During the conference your conference badge must be worn at all times for security reasons and meal

provision.

Staff will be available in the Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre ready to answer any delegate queries.

C

ONTACT AT THE

C

ONFERENCE

There will be a message board situated near the registration desk where delegates can leave messages for each other.

Alternatively, urgent messages can be left by telephone to the BSA Events mobile phone: [+44] (0)7825 157 068.

These messages will be displayed on the conference message board.

L

OCAL

I

NFORMATION

Transport to and from the Venue

Taxis should be available to make the short trip between any of the three Birmingham train stations and the

Conference venue. Please note, these may be busy on Friday afternoon. Therefore please book in advance if you need to make a specific train.

Restricted parking is available on campus for delegates travelling by car and parking must be pre-booked before arriving at the Conference.

If you wish to walk from the Conference to the stations Conference Aston has developed interactive Google walking maps, from New Street and Snow Hill train stations, available for download from

www.conferenceaston.co.uk

If you wish to travel by public transport to any of the three Birmingham train stations please take any of the coach numbers listed below, in any direction. A large number of National Express West Midlands coaches stop at

Corporation Street in the city centre which is only a very short walk from Aston University. Alternatively, you can take coaches which stop at the following roads which are also very close to the University.

Lancaster Circus:

65

67

902

905

914

915

Jennens Road:

14

55

James Watt Queensway:

33

51

907

72

94

934

935

952

5 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Delegate Information

Places to Eat

Restaurant Address

Pizza Express

Marco Pierre

White at Hotel La

Tour

San Carlo

Bodega

The Botanist

Buffalo & Rye

Chung Ying

Central

The Cosy Club

The Lost &

Found

The Bureau

Utopia

Level 7 & 9, Bullring

Shopping Centre,

Birmingham, West Midlands

B5 4BU

15 mins walk

Hotel La Tour, Albert Street,

Birmingham, United

Kingdom B5 5JE, United

Kingdom

10 mins walk

Birmingham, 4 Temple

Street, Birmingham B2 5BN,

United Kingdom

15 mins walk

Bodega Bar & Cantina, 12

Bennett's Hill, Birmingham

B2 5RS, United Kingdom

15 min walk

The Botanist, 14-16 Temple

Street, Birmingham B2 5BG,

United Kingdom

15 mins walk

11 Bennett's Hill,

Birmingham B2, United

Kingdom

15 mins walk

126 Colmore Row,

Birmingham B3 3AP, United

Kingdom

15 mins walk

Bennett's Hill, Birmingham

B2 5RE, United Kingdom

15 mins walk

8 Bennett's Hill, Birmingham

B2 5RS, United Kingdom

15 mins walk

The Bureau Bar

Birmingham, 110 Colmore

Row, Birmingham, West

Midlands B3 3AG, United

Kingdom

15 mins walk

Utopia the Country Bar, 16

Church Street, Birmingham

B3 2NP, United Kingdom

15 mins walk

Website

https://www.pizzaexpress.com http://www.mpwrestaurants.co.uk/restaurants/chop house-birmingham http://www.sancarlo.co.uk/birmingham http://www.bodegacantina.co.uk/locations/birmingh am/ http://thebotanist.uk.com/location/birmingham http://www.buffaloandrye.co.uk/ http://www.chungyingcentral.co.uk/ http://www.cosyclub.co.uk/birmingham http://the-lostandfound.co.uk/ http://www.thebureaubar.co.uk/ http://www.bar-utopia.co.uk/

A

CCOMMODATION

Accommodation is not included in your conference registration.

C

ONFERENCE

M

EALS AND

R

EFRESHMENTS

Tea and Coffee

Refreshments will be served in the Courtyard Restaurant and Lounge in Conference Centre and Litchfield Lounge in

CAMS, Main Building. Please make full use of the various service points to avoid queues.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

6

Delegate Information

Wednesday 6 April

Thursday 7 April

Friday 8 April

Lunch

08:30 - 17:00

08:30 - 17:00

08:30 - 17:00

Your conference badge must be worn at all times for security reasons and for meal provision. All registered delegates can collect lunch from the food points in the Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre. To avoid queues delegates are encouraged to make use of the full range of meal times:

Wednesday 6 April

Thursday 7 April

12:30 - 13:30

12:30 - 13:30

Friday 8 April 12:30 - 13:30

Welcome Drinks Reception

Aston University Sociology and Policy Department are hosting a drinks reception from 18:15 - 19:00 followed by a

Drinks Reception by AsSIST-UK from 19:00 - 19:45 in Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building refreshment area on

Wednesday 6 April. The dress code is casual.

Special Dietary Requirements

Special dietary requirements, vegetarian and vegan meals have been pre-booked as on your booking form. If you have requested a special diet, please inform the catering staff when you collect your meals.

Other Meals

No breakfast or evening meals will be provided at the conference. Breakfast will only be provided to delegates who have booked and paid for accommodation directly with Aston Conference. There are a variety of options for evening meals in Birmingham. There are a number of bars and restaurants not far from the university.

L

UGGAGE

S

TORAGE

During the conference, free-of-charge luggage storage is provided in Conference Centre, Room 1B & 1C. The opening times are as follows:

Wednesday 6 April

Thursday 7 April

Friday 8 April

08:30 - 19:00

08:30 - 19:00

08:30 - 17:00

I

NTERNET

A

CCESS

Wireless Internet Connection

Wireless internet is available across the university campus, enabling delegates to use their own laptops to connect to the internet. Please see the following page for details of how to log in.

Please use your own laptop if you wish to use this facility, as neither the venue nor the BSA will provide

laptops or computers.

eduroam

Aston University is an eduroam-enabled institution. eduroam is the roaming infrastructure used by the international research and education community. Being part of eduroam allows users to access a wireless network at a host institution who is also connected to eduroam using the same credentials (i.e. username and password) the users would use if they were at their home institution. As an end-user, you will only be able to use eduroam if your institution provides an electronic identity (e.g. account for network access). If you have not been provided with this information, you will need to contact your home university administrator and ask for an account. You (or your network administrator) will have to configure your computer to enable eduroam access.

7 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Our Free WiFi is provided by The

Cloud.

If you haven’t used The Cloud before, you can create an account by visiting: http://service.thecloud.net/serviceplatform/login/registration/

Complete the registration and you can now use The Cloud.

Why not download ‘The Cloud’ app for instant access at any location offering The Cloud WiFi Service.

Conference Programme at a Glance

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME AT A GLANCE

WEDNESDAY

Wednesday 6 April 2016

08:30 - 17:00 Conference Registration

09:00 - 10:30 Paper Session 1

10:30 - 11:00 Break

Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

11:00 - 12:30

12:30 - 13:30

13:30 - 15:00

15:00 - 15:30

Paper Session 2

Lunch

Welcome to the conference

Plenary: Paula England

Presentation of the BSA’s Distinguished

Service to British Sociology Award

Break

See Programme in Detail – Wednesday

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference

Centre and Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

See Programme in Detail – Wednesday

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference

Centre

Great Hall, Main Building

Great Hall, Main Building

15:30 - 17:00

17:15 - 18:15

18:15 - 19:00

19:00 - 19:45

Paper Session 3

Stream Plenaries / Special Activities

Medicine, Health and Illness

Ian Rees Jones

Theory

Fuyuki Kurasawa and Kate Nash

Sociology of Education

Les Back, John Holmwood, Gurminder K

Bhambra, Kehinde Andrews and Hannah

Jones

BSA Sociology Journal 50 th

Anniversary

Kate Dashper, Paddy Dolan, Louise Ryan and David Skinner

Drinks Reception hosted by Aston

University Sociology and Policy Department

Wine Reception hosted by AsSIST-UK

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference

Centre and Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

See Programme in Detail – Wednesday

Great Hall, Main Building

G63, Main Building

Conference Centre, Room 1A

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

11 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME AT A GLANCE

THURSDAY

Thursday 7 April 2016

08:30 - 17:00

09:30 - 10:30

Conference Registration

Stream Plenaries / Special Activities

Families and Relationships

Jennifer Mason

Sociology of Religion

Grace Davie and Yvette Taylor

Science and Technology Studies

Mike Savage, Susan Halford, William

10:30 - 11:00

Housely, Rebecca Eynon, and Nick

Gibbons

Economic and Social Research Council

Session (ESRC)

Jane Elliott

Break

Paper Session 4 11:00 - 12:30

12:30 - 13:30

12:45 - 13:30

13:30 - 15:00

Lunch

BSA Specialist and Study Group Meetings

HaPS Meeting

Paper Session 5

15:00 - 15:30

Break

Poster Presentations

Paper Session 6 / Pecha Kucha

Presentations

Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

Great Hall, Main Building

G63, Main Building

Conference Centre, Room 1A

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre and Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

See Programme in Detail – Thursday

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

Conference Centre, Room 3

See Programme in Detail – Thursday

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre and Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

See Programme in Detail – Thursday

15:30 - 17:00

17:15 - 18:45 Plenary: Claire Alexander and Anoop

Nayak

Philip Abrams Memorial Prize

Great Hall, Main Building

Great Hall, Main Building

18:45 - 19:15

19:15 - 20:15

BSA Annual Members’ Meeting

Publishers’ Reception

Sociological Futures Book Launch

Poster Prize Presentation

Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area

Courtyard Restaurant

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

12

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME AT A GLANCE

Friday 8 April 2016

08.30 - 12:30

09:00 - 10:30

Conference Registration

Round Table Sessions

FRIDAY

Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

10:30 - 11:00 Break

Paper Session 7

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference

Centre

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference

Centre and Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

See Programme in Detail

– Friday

11:00 - 12:30

12:30 - 13:30

12:45 - 13:30

13:30 - 15:00

15:00 - 15:15

Lunch

Study Group Convenors’ Lunch

Discover Society: Questioning British

Values?

Plenary: Danny Dorling

BBC Ethnography Prize presented by Laurie

Taylor

Break

Paper Session 8

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference

Centre

Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area,

Conference Centre

Conference Centre, Room 3

Great Hall, Main Building

Great Hall, Main Building

Courtyard Restaurant, Conference

Centre and Litchfield Lounge, CAMS

See Programme in Detail – Friday

15:15 - 16:45

17:00 - 18:00

18:00 - 19:00

19:00

Stream Plenaries / Special Activities

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Dave Wright, Laurie Hanquinet and Aaron

Reeves

Environment and Society

Alan Warde

Frontiers

Mark Sherry

Race, Ethnicity and Migration

Bridget Anderson and Nando Sigona

Sociology 50 th

Anniversary Drinks

Reception

Conference Closes

Great Hall, Main Building

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

G63, Main Building

Conference Centre, Room 1A

Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

13 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME GRID - WEDNESDAY

08:30-

17:00

09:00-

10:30

Paper

Session

1

Great

Hall

G63 Room 1A G11 - Byng

Kendrick

Whitehall

1-2

Stafford

1-2

Steelhouse

2

Room

145

Room

123

Steelhouse

3

Registration – Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

REM1-

SE

CIT EDU1 FAM DIV1 FRO1 CUL MED1 WOR ENV

Bassel L Tapini E Abrahams

Khan K

Fortier A

M

Moore

H

J

Morin K

Ebrey J Gamsu S

Wiltshire D

Carter J

Bradshaw

L

Woodin S Paddock J Hiscock

J

Morgan H Barrett M

Beck V Roberts T

Zhao Y Warren T Tyers R Weiner-

Levy N

Roberts S Mladenov

T

Smith D Kucaba

K

Kamerade

D

Tyers R

Byrne B O’Neill R Appleford K

10:30-

11:00

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

2

REM1

Narayan

J

CIT1-

SE

EDU-SE

Lewis C Papafilippou

V

FAM

Falconer E

DIV1

Monro S

FRO

Holmes M

CUL

Horne J

Themen C

MED1-

SE

Lambert

H

Bhambra

G K

Moore

N

Mountford

V

Picker G Miles A Munoz-

Chereau B

De Boise S Bowes-

Catton H

King A Potter W

Theodosius

C

Doidge M

Lewis C Waller R

Simpson

P

Bowness J

WOR

Ditrich H Butler C

Fuertes V Howarth C

Williamson

S

ENV

Fagan-

Watson B

Carvalho A

12:30-

13:30

Lunch – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

13:30-

15:00

Plenary Speech – Great Hall, Main Building

Paula England

Class Gradients on Nonmarital Births, “Blaming Victims”, and the Theoretical Mechanisms

15:00-

15:30

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

REM1 CIT1 EDU1-SE FAM DIV1 FRO1 CUL-SE MED1 WOR -

SE

ENV

15:30-

17:00

Paper

Session

3

17:15-

18:15

Stream

Plenaries

/ Special

Activities

Winter A Allen M Rainford J Charles N Reeves A Henwood K Taylor M

Mondon

A

Medicine

Health and

Illness

Stream

Plenary

Fitzgerald

D

Millington

G

Theory

Stream

Plenary

Hayton A Cudworth E Noonan-

Gunning S

Rori L De

Benedictis S

Till C

Quinlan

M

Taylor R Ozaki R

Leonard

P

Wang X

Ingram N Cudworth E Clarke A Redman P Friedman S Kriznik

N

Harrison N Dashper K Flemmen

M

Silva E Alexander

V

Hope J

Purcell K

Culliney

M

Austin M

Laakso S

Sociology of

Education

Stream

Plenary

BSA

Sociology

Journal 50 th

Anniversary

Hunt W

18:15-

19:00

Aston University Drinks Reception – Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

19:00-

CUL

DIV Social Divisions / Social Identities

EDU

ENV Environment and Society

FAM

Sociology of Education

Families and Relationships

AsSIST-UK Wine Reception – Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

19:45

Key

CIT Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

FRO

LIF Lifecourse

MED

MET Methodological Innovations

REL

Frontiers

Medicine, Health and Illness

Sociology of Religion

REM Race, Ethnicity and Migration

RIG

STS

THE

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Theory

WOR Work, Employment and Economic Life

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

14

08:30-

17:00

09:00-

10:30

Paper

Session

1

RIG

Takhar S

Cauldwell J

Todorova T

Whitehall 3 Steelhouse 1

LIF

MacDonald R

Bristow J

Popov A

Room 3 Room 127 Rooms

135-137

Room 144 Room 139 Room

141

Room

134

Registration – Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

MED2

Gruian A

Jamie K

Belle M J

Tomomatsu I

FRO2

Inckle K

EDU2

Tarabini A

Lohmann-

Hancock C

Sevilla A

Cornish C

REM2

Jha M R

Korkmaz E

E

REM3 REM4 -

SE

DIV2

Sandhu J Nava O Song Y

Keval H

Merz S

Chopra P

17:15-

18:15

Stream

Plenaries

/ Special

Activities

18:15-

19:00

19:00-

19:45

12:30-

13:30

13:30-

15:00

15:00-

15:30

15:30-

17:00

Paper

Session

3

10:30-

11:00

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

2

RIG

D’Souza R

Miller H

Nah A

Miranda D

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

LIF

Thomas M

Rajan-Rankin

S

Caswell G

Mulrine S

MED2

Maguire K

Newton V

MET-SE

Weinel M

O’Mahoney H

O’Mahoney H

Thwaites R Evans R

REM2 REM3

Busher J Munro G

Bailey G

Ryan L

Narkowicz

K

Yoon K

Hashem R

Geciene I

Christoforou

A

Lyttleton-Smith

J

Lunch – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

CIT2

Grazioli

M

Levy G

Koessl G

Fuller M

DIV2-SE

Gamsu S

Worth E

Friedman

S

Gamsu S

Plenary Speech – Great Hall, Main Building

Paula England

Class Gradients on Nonmarital Births, “Blaming Victims”, and the Theoretical Mechanisms

RIG

Skillington T

Tamayo

Gomez C

Waites M

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

LIF

Key W

Locke P

MED2

Hollin G

Whybrow P

Islam S

FRO2

Peer

Reviewing

Insights: Tips from the

Experts

EDU2

Truong F

Castelein L

Waller R

Evans C

REM2

D’Angelo

A

Stella F

Sojka B

Pasquetti

S

REM3 CIT2

Todorova

T

Dee M

Lindley A Paterson

W

Elgenius

G

REL

Tonkiss K Eranti V Ford C

Aston University Drinks Reception – Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

AsSIST-UK Wine Reception – Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

15 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME GRID - THURSDAY

Great Hall G63 Room 1A G11 - Byng

Kendrick

Whitehall

1-2

Stafford

1-2

Steelhouse

2

Room 145 Room 123 Steelhouse

3

15:00-

15:30

15:30-

17:00

Paper

Session 6

/ Pecha

Kucha

Sessions

17:15-

18:45

18:45-

19:15

08:30-

17:00

Registration – Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

09:30-

10:30

Stream

Plenaries

/ Special

Activities

10:30-

11:00

Families and

Relationships

Stream

Plenary

Sociology of

Religion

Stream

Plenary

Science and

Technology

Studies

Stream

Plenary

ESRC

Opportunities for Research

Funding

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

4

12:30-

13:30

13:30-

15:00

Paper

Session

5

REM1

Phillimore J Marinache

Mayblin L

CIT1

R

Tulle E

EDU

Snee H

Hensby A

FAM1

Lloyd S

Azende P

DIV

Urrastabaso

R

Tastan

Tuncel O

FRO1

Pelletier

C

Dobson

R

CUL

Fox K

Kaplan D

MED1

Moullin S

WOR

Reeves A O‘Mahoney

H

Strangleman

T

ENV

Narasimhan K

Gillett J

Darling J Saker M Gagnon J Shipman H McMillan

C

Thumala

Olave M A

Heyes K

Thatcher J Dos Santos

Moraes C M

Lewis H Thurnell-

Read T

Loveday V Cresswell C Cohen R

REM1

James M

Tyler K J

Dawes A L

Lunch – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

Study Group Meetings – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

CIT1 EDU - SE FAM1

Shaw R Waller R Fathi M

Wallace

A

Mogilnicka M Buck-

Matthews

E

Mountford

V

Ward M

Abbas A

Ribe E

Amirmoayed A

DIV

Themelis

S

Jackson

S

Vass J

Mustafa A

FRO1

McKenzie

Ahn J E

CUL

Stankovic T Dumbili E

WOR

Khattab N

J

Sorokin P

Van Hooff J

Marron D Abu-Rabia-

Queder S

Kirton A

Hill R

MED

Bonnington

O

Hennell K

Griffiths H

Timms J

ENV

Blue S

Koehrsen J O

REM1 - PK

Wong W M

Spruyt B

Robinson G

Michael L

Estrada M

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

Poster Presentations – Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

CIT1

Tseng Y F

Devadason

R

EDU1 - PK

Telling K

Loup S

Ayling P

Dytham S

Khattab N

FAM

Hanna E

Macht A

DIV1 -

PK

Pilcher J

Pilcher K

Chung W

Y

FRO-SE

Murji K

CUL - PK

Fletcher D

Law G

MED

Rivas C

Mogaji E

Gladwell D

Allen-

Collinson J

WOR - SE

Waller R

Bradley H

Bentley L

Papafilippou

V

RIG - PK

Bates L

Torbati A

Walby S

Plenary Speech – Great Hall, Main Building

Claire Alexander and Anoop Nayak

Researching Race In and Out of the Academy

BSA Annual Members’ Meeting – Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area, Conference Centre

19:15-

20:15

Publishers’ Reception – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

Key

CIT Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

CUL Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

DIV Social Divisions / Social Identities

EDU Sociology of Education

ENV Environment and Society

FAM Families and Relationships

FRO Frontiers

LIF Lifecourse

MED Medicine, Health and Illness

MET Methodological Innovations

REL Sociology of Religion

REM Race, Ethnicity and Migration

RIG Rights, Violence and Crime

STS Science and Technology Studies

THE Theory

WOR Work, Employment and Economic Life

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

16

Whitehall

3

Steelhouse

1

Room 3 Room 127 Rooms

135-137

Room 144 Room 139 Room 141 Rooms 134

08:30-

17:00

09:30-

10:30

Stream

Plenaries /

Special

Activities

10:30-

11:00

Registration – Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

RIG

Doran S

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session 4

Audu A

Naylor R

Wilson-

Kovacs D

LIF

Moran L

McEwan K

Fenton L

MED2 - SE

Boynton P

FAM2

Liu J

Erdogan E

Kramer A M

MET

Baumann

P

Grant A

Lizama A

REM2

Saini R

Konstantinou I

Meghji A

REM3 - SE CIT2

Garbin D Thomas P

FRO2

Armstrong

V

Millington

G

Wemyss G

Rowell C Qu Y

Clark T

Martin M C McKie L Hill R Ismail K

12:30-

13:30

12:45-

13:30

13:30-

15:00

REL THE

Lunch – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

Study Group Meetings – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

HAPS

Meeting

STS FAM2 MET - SE REM2 REM3 CIT2 FRO2

Paper

Session 5

15:00-

15:30

15:30-

17:00

Paper

Session 6 /

Pecha

Kucha

Sessions

17:15-

18:40

Page S J

Page S J

Hayes G

REL

Reid L

Benoit C

THE

Todorova T Deville J

Hashemi M

Cruickshank

J

STS

De Saille S

EDU2

Song Y

Woodman

S

Neumann

E

REM2

Shah B

Myers M Twigt M

Goktuna

Yaylaci F

DIV2 - SE CIT2

Adams P Wakeling P Kviat A

Blokland T

V

James D

Demirbas

G

Tamari T

Shepherd

A

Roy A

Amakor G Roth S Lewthwaite

S

Ralston K

Gargiulo E Mullen A

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

Poster Presentations – Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

Shillitoe R

Rocquin B

Burton S

Steed C

Kim D N

Davies H

Webster J

Hjorth I

Abrahams

J

Grant A

Head E

Kettle J

MET - SE

Moore N

Stanley L

Tamboukou

M

Salter A

Jamieson

L

Bancroft

A

Cheung S

Y

Yeo R

Lim H J

Oliver C

Scandone B

Song Y

Charles R A

Pospech P

Holdsworth J

Lovin C L

Plenary Speech – Great Hall, Main Building

Claire Alexander and Anoop Nayak

Researching Race In and Out of the Academy

18:45-

19:15

Annual Members’ Meeting – Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area, Conference Centre

19:15-

20:15

Publishers’ Reception – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

17 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME GRID - FRIDAY

Great

Hall

G63 Room 1A G11 - Byng

Kendrick

Whitehall

1-2

Stafford

1-2

Steelhouse

2

Registration – Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

Room

145

Room

123

Steelhouse

3

08:30-

12:30

09:00 -

10:30

10:30-

11:00

Round Table Sessions – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

7

REM1

Siebers H

Bramwell D

Tangen J

Jones H

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

CIT

Koehrsen

J O

EDU1

Dent S

FAM DIV

Nordqvist P Kesimoglu

A

FRO

Laidlaw

M

Rowell C

Mohan J Finn K

Wheatley A

Lamont A

Miao Y

Wilson A

Rae G

Kadayifci

E P

Pieri E Ahn M

CUL1

Whiteside

B

Erkmen T

D

CUL2

Varriale S Kesimoglu

A

Lohman K Beacham

WOR - SE

Parsons J Lyon D

RIG

Conti U

Stewart K Blackledge

A

Ray L

Concha P Ushiyama

R

Lyon D

J

Lunch – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

12:30-

13:30

12:45 -

13:30

Study Group Convenors’ Lunch – Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area, Conference Centre

Discover Society Panel – Questioning British Values?, Conference Centre Room 3

13:30-

15:00

Plenary Speech – Great Hall, Main Building

Danny Dorling

Multicultural Britain – A better politics for a different society

15:00-

15:15

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

15:15-

16:45

Paper

Session

8

REM1 CIT EDU1

Trindade L V Mercea D Hjorth I

Lewicki A

Ålander J

Juhnke S

FAM

Hardy T

Halsall J Raikes B

De Keere

K

Leaton

Gray S

Abass T

DIV

McLaughlin

J

McGovern

P

Mason-

Whitehead

E

Mason-

Whitehead

E

FRO1

Thomas

CUL1 CUL2 WOR

Eilenberg J Tonner A Sadurska-

M

Locke L McDonald

K

Duffy E

Galeazzi G Villares M

RIG

Julios C

Macdonald

G

Fantini J

A

Mahadeo M Leonzi S Marambio-

Tapia A

Duggan M

Evans J Smith S Robinson

K

Pathak P Plugor R

17:00-

18:00

Stream

Plenaries

/ Special

Activities

18:00-

19:00

Culture,

Media, Sport and

Consumption

Stream

Plenary

Frontiers

Stream

Plenary

Race,

Ethnicity and

Migration

Stream

Plenary

BSA Sociology 50 th

Anniversary Drinks Reception – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

19:00

Key

CIT Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

CUL Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

DIV Social Divisions / Social Identities

EDU Sociology of Education

ENV Environment and Society

FAM Families and Relationships

Environment and Society

Stream

Plenary

Conference Closes

FRO Frontiers

LIF Lifecourse

MED Medicine, Health and Illness

MET Methodological Innovations

REL Sociology of Religion

REM Race, Ethnicity and Migration

RIG Rights, Violence and Crime

STS Science and Technology Studies

THE Theory

WOR Work, Employment and Economic Life

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

18

Whitehall 3 Steelhouse

1

08:30-

12:30

09:00-

10:30

10:30-

11:00

11:00-

12:30

Paper

Session

7

REL

Doebler S

Mohd Sidik

S S

Carpenedo

M

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main

THE

Mouzakitis A Williams R

Susen S Stelmach A

Fleetwood J Beltrame L

Bouzanis C

Room 3

STS 1

Meloni M

Room 127 Rooms

135-137

Room 144

Registration – Courtyard Lounge, Conference Centre

Room 139

Round Table Sessions, Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

MET

Silver D

Paton A

Lindsey R

Whiteman N

EDU2

Hu Y

Gurney E Manolova P

Vince M

REM2

Byrne M

Bartram D

Sime D

REM3

Ramos C

Seminario

Luna R A

Kuznetsova I

Rajan-Rankin

S

Room 141

STS 2

Lyle K

Goffey A

Allington

D

Room

134

12:30-

13:30

12:45-

13:30

Lunch – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

Study Group Convenors’ Lunch – Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area, Conference Centre

Discover Society Panel – Questioning British Values?, Conference Centre Room 3

13:30-

15:00

Plenary Speech – Great Hall, Main Building

Danny Dorling

Multicultural Britain – A better politics for a different society

15:00-

15:15

Refreshments – Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre & Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

15:15-

16:45

Paper

Session

8

REL

Jones S

THE1 STS

De Boise S Giraud E

Kremakova M

Koehrsen J O Thorpe C Saez A

FRO2

Getting

Published:

Tips from the

Experts

EDU2

De St Croix

T

REM2

Vickers T

Wainwright

E

Kortdasiewicz

A

Gholami R Henry L

REM3

Choi S Y P

Yu W S

Peng Y

MED

Mladenov

T

THE2

Albrow M

Taylor R Alliyu N

Siebert P Booker M

17:00-

18:00

Stream

Plenaries

/ Special

Activities

18:00-

19:00

BSA Sociology 50 th

Anniversary Drinks Reception - Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

19:00

Conference Closes

19 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Advert Required

SAGE 20% Off

PLENARY

P

AULA

E

NGLAND

Wednesday 6 April, 13:30 - 15:00

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

CLASS GRADIENTS ON NONMARITAL BIRTHS, “BLAMING VICTIMS”, AND THEORETICAL MECHANISMS

In both the US and the UK, nonmarital births are much more common among those from disadvantaged class backgrounds. This talk explores the source of this class gradient in different life chances, different desires for a pregnancy, and in different personal efficacy in the use of contraception when a pregnancy is not wanted. The talk is also a plea for sociologists to be open to theories that see effects of class to operate through affecting personal characteristics, and an argument that such theories need not “blame the victim”.

Paula England is Professor of Sociology at New York University. Her research has focused on gender, families, and sexualities. She is a former editor of the American

Sociological Review and she served as President of the American Sociological

Association in 2014-2015.

Chair: Eileen Green, BSA Chair (University of Teesside)

21 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Advert Required

50 Volumes of Sociology

PLENARY

C

LAIRE

A

LEXANDER AND

A

NOOP

N

AYAK

Thursday 7 April, 17:15 - 18:40

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

RESEARCHING RACE IN AND OUT OF THE ACADEMY

In this panel, Claire Alexander and Anoop Nayak consider the challenges confronting research on race and racism in the contemporary academy. They explore the current ‘state ‘ of research on race, both in the academy itself and in the increasingly hostile climate around issues of race, religion and migration. Drawing on their extensive experience as urban ethnographers, and of researching racialized youth identities in Britain, the panellists will map continuities and change in the field. The aim of the panel is to facilitate a broader discussion around issues of institutionalised racism in the academy and our relationship as researchers to a broader social and political field.

Claire Alexander is Professor of Sociology at The University of Manchester. She has researched and published on race, ethnicity, migration and youth in Britain for 25 years. Her publications include ‘The Art of Being Black’, ‘The Asian Gang’ and ‘The Bengal Diaspora:

Rethinking Muslim Migration’ (with Joya Chatterji and Annu Jalais). Claire is Editor of Identities:

Global Studies in Culture and Power

Anoop Nayak is Head of Department and Professor in Social and Cultural Geography at

Newcastle University. He has published several articles and book chapters and is author of

Race, Place and Globalization: Youth Cultures in a Changing World (2003), Gender, Youth and

Culture: Global Masculinities and Femininities (2013:2 nd

Ed.) with Mary Jane Kehily, and

Geographical Thought (2011) with Alex Jeffrey.

Chair: Aaron Winter, BSA Membership Services Director (University of East London)

23 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

British Sociological Association

Philip Abrams Memorial Prize

Nominees 2016

Tamsin Barber

Oriental Identities in Super-Diverse

Britain

Palgrave Macmillan

Kirsty Finn

Personal Life, Young Women and

Higher Education: A Relational

Approach to Student and Graduate

Experiences

Palgrave Macmillan

Maddie Breeze

Seriousness and Women's Roller

Derby: Gender, Organization and

Ambivalence

Palgrave Macmillan

Alistair Fraser

Urban Legends: Gang Identity In the Post-Industrial City

Oxford University Press

Shamim Miah

Muslims, Schooling and the Question of Self-Segregation

Palgrave Macmillan

Jesse Potter

Crisis At Work: Identity and the End of

Career

Palgrave Macmillan

Ciaran Burke

Culture, Capitals and Graduate

Futures: Degrees of Class

Routledge

Emma Jackson

Young Homeless People and

Urban Space: Fixed in Mobility

Routledge

Joel Busher

The Making of Anti-Muslim Protest:

Grassroots Activism in the English

Defence League

Routledge

Joe Deville

Lived Economies of Default:

Consumer credit, debt collection and the capture of affect

Routledge

Malcolm James

Urban Multiculture: Youth, Politics and Cultural Transformation in a

Global City

Palgrave Macmillan

Lois Lee

Recognizing the Non-Religious:

Reimagining the Secular

Oxford University Press

Christopher Shaw

The Two Degrees Dangerous Limit for

Climate Change: Public understanding and decision making

Routledge

Paul Simpson

Middle-Aged Gay Men, Ageing and

Ageism

Palgrave Macmillan

Anna Strhan

Aliens and Strangers? The Struggle for

Coherence in the Everyday Lives of

Evangelicals

Oxford University Press

Mark Doidge

Football Italia: Italian Football in an

Age of Globalization

Bloomsbury

Nancy Lombard

Young People's Understandings of

Men's Violence Against Women

Ashgate Publishing Limited

Michael Ward

From Labouring to Learning: Working-

Class Masculinities, Education and De-

Industrialization

Palgrave Macmillan

British Sociological Association

Philip Abrams Memorial Prize

Shortlist 2016

Maddie Breeze

Seriousness and Women's Roller Derby: Gender, Organization and Ambivalence

Palgrave Macmillan

Joel Busher

The Making of Anti-Muslim Protest: Grassroots Activism in the

English Defence League

Routledge

Malcolm James

Urban Multiculture: Youth, Politics and Cultural Transformation in a Global City

Palgrave Macmillan

Lois Lee

Recognizing the Non-Religious: Reimagining the Secular

Oxford University Press

Christopher Shaw

The Two Degrees Dangerous Limit for Climate Change: Public understanding and decision making

Routledge

The winner of the prize will be announced Thursday 7 April, 18:40 in the Great Hall Main Building after the Plenary Session with Claire Alexander and Anoop Nayak. Please join us to recognise our shortlisted authors and the winner of the 2016 Philip Abrams Memorial Prize.

Advert Required

SAGE Prize

PLENARY

D

ANNY

D

ORLING

Friday 8 April, 13:30 - 15:00

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

MULTICULTURAL BRITAIN: A BETTER POLITICS FOR A DIFFERENT SOCIETY

Demographically, Britain has changed more in the last 15 years than the previous 50. Economically, the crash of 2008 has changed our society in ways we are still only just coming to recognize. Socially, the gaps between the haves, maybe-haves and have-nots are wide and continue to grow. Politically, the country is more polarized than it has been since the aftermath of any election in the last 120 years. Geographically, the north-south divide continues to deepen as the country splits between a London commuter-belt, and the Northern and Western archipelago of declining cities told to compete with each other, each pretending that they are doing well. This talk will combine maps of changes revealed by the last two censuses and more recent statistics, with new ideas that are emerging for a kinder, more tolerance, more understanding and less divisive politics. A change has happened and we have a choice: between becoming even more unequal, mistrustful and suspicious of each other, or now starting to turn a tide that has only flown one way for over 40 years.

Danny Dorling joined the School of Geography and the Environment in September 2013 to take up the Halford

Mackinder Professorship in Geography. He was previously a professor of Geography at the University of Sheffield. He has also worked in Newcastle, Bristol, Leeds and New Zealand, went to university in Newcastle upon Tyne, and to school in Oxford.

Much of Danny's work is available open access (see www.dannydorling.org

). With a group of colleagues he helped create the website www.worldmapper.org

which shows who has most and least in the world. His work concerns issues of housing, health, employment, education, wealth and poverty. His recent books include co-authored texts The Atlas

of the Real World: Mapping the way we live and Bankrupt Britain: An atlas of social change.

Recent sole authored books include, So you think you know about Britain and Fair Play, both in 2011; in 2012 The No-nonsense Guide to Equality, The Visualization of Social Spatial

Structure and The Population of the UK; Unequal Health, The 32 Stops and Population Ten

Billion in 2013; All That is Solid in and Inequality and the 1% in 2014; and Injustice: Why social

inequalities still persist revised in 2015.

Before a career in academia Danny was employed as a play-worker in children's playschemes and in pre-school education where the underlying rationale was that playing is learning for living. He tries not to forget this. He is an Academician of the Academy of the

Learned Societies in the Social Sciences, Honorary President of the Society of Cartographers and a patron of Roadpeace, the national charity for road crash victims

Chair: John Bone, BSA Membership Services Director (University of Aberdeen)

27 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Advert Required

MedSoc Call for Papers

STREAM PLENARIES

W

EDNESDAY

6 A

PRIL

2016, 17:15 18:15

Medicine, Health and Illness

GREAT HALL, MAIN BUILDING

CIVIL SOCIETY AND HEALTH INEQUALITIES

Jones, I. R.

(Cardiff University)

The role of social determinants in the perpetuation and deepening of health inequalities is now widely recognised.

Research has highlighted the importance of class relations, inequalities in income and wealth, the role of social capital and the deleterious effects of differentials in power and decision making capacity. While there is agreement on the importance of social factors, disagreements remain over causal pathways and the importance of different elements that comprise social determinants, and the balance between norms, values and structural forms. Indeed, researchers have revealed important and nuanced relationships between welfare state forms and levels of health and well-being.

In relation to this latter body of work, differences in Civil Society forms have also been viewed as playing an important role in determining levels of health and wellbeing. Evidence suggests that effective civil society forms at national level have a positive impact on individual health. Moreover, the specific form of interaction between the state, markets and civil society appears to influence levels of health and wellbeing. These research findings, however, need to be seen in the context of our understandings of civil society as a contested term and claims that civil society has undergone radical transformations in recent years. Indeed, some have argued that civil society forms are becoming increasingly focused on ethical and rights based concerns that are expressed through the complex linkages of networked society.

With these changes in mind this plenary will discuss the theoretical and empirical aspects of attempts to make links between civil society forms and health inequalities.

Ian Rees Jones is Professor of Sociological Research at Cardiff University. He is the Director of the Wales Institute of

Social & Economic Research, Data & Methods (WISERD) and leads the ESRC WISERD Civil Society Centre

(http://www.wiserd.ac.uk/). He is also Co-Investigator on a large ESRC funded study of dementia and the Wales

Administrative Data Research Centre. He has published extensively on Inequalities in Health, Ageing and Later Life,

Lifestyles and Social Relations, Class, Community and Social Change and Transparency and Trust in Health and

Welfare. He is a Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales and of the UK Academy of Social Sciences. He is an editor of

'Sociology of Health and Illness' and is Monograph Series editor for the journal.

Chair: Sally Brown, (Edinburgh Napier University)

Theory

G63, MAIN BUILDING

GLOBAL FRAGMENTATION AND THE TRANSNATIONAL PUBLIC SPHERE

Kurasawa, F.

(York University)

Nash, K.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

This year's conference theme invites us to think about fragmentation and connection in global societies. We have asked two speakers to address some of the normative stakes of these global trends through a discussion of the concept of the "transnational public sphere".

The concept of the public sphere allows us to investigate the fallouts from the current financial and geopolitical crisis as a challenge for democratic communication and response. The debate about the "transnational public sphere", prompted by an essay by Nancy Fraser ("Transnationalizing the Public") amongst others, has specifically taken up the conceptual and empirical challenges of analysing political dialogue on the global or transnational scale.

Our speakers have published extensively on related theoretical debates and research and will reflect on conceptual issues, current cases, such as the debates and negotiations surrounding refugees and migrants, the changing role of experts, and the changing media and technological landscape.

29 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Stream Plenaries

W

EDNESDAY

6 A

PRIL

2016, 17:15 18:15

Fuyuki Kurasawa holds a Research Chair in Global Digital Citizenship at York University and is Faculty Fellow at the

Center for Cultural Sociology, Yale University. Kurasawa is the author of "The Ethnological Imagination: A Cross-

Cultural Critique of Modernity" (Missesota 2004) and "The Work of Global Justice: Human Rights as Practices"

(Cambridge: 2007). He is currently researching visual representations of distant suffering.

Kate Nash is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Centre for the Study of Global Media and Democracy at

Goldsmiths, University of London, and Faculty Fellow at the Centre for Cultural Sociology, Yale University. She is the author of "The Cultural Politics of Human Rights: Comparing the US and UK” (Cambridge University Press: 2009) and

"The Political Sociology of Human Rights” (Cambridge University Press. 2015). She edited "Transnationalizing the

Public Sphere" (Polity 2014).

Chair: Steven Kemp, (University of Edinburgh)

Sociology of Education

CONFERENCE CENTRE ROOM 1A

GENERATIVE CRISES AND THE BUILDING OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL FUTURES: COMMITTING SOCIOLOGY IN

THE CONTEMPORARY ACADEMIC TERRAIN?

Sociology as democratic knowledge - a professional obligation

Holmwood, J.

(University of Nottingham)

This short presentation takes issue with the dualism of professionalism and partisanship to argue that sociology as a professional practice derives its meaning from a commitment to egalitarianism and social justice.

Sociological Futures: From Diversity to Justice

Bhambra, G. K.

(University of Warwick)

My brief comments will take issue with weak commitments to diversity in the discipline (both in terms of curriculum and demographics) that do not take into account the broader historical injustices that it is necessary to address if the discipline is to flourish.

Whose sociology is it, anyway?

Andrews, K.

(Birmingham City University)

My comments will address how we rethink the discipline to be more rooted in publics outside of academia. Sociology’s

‘crisis’ is its lack of a foothold and influence outside of the university.

What’s So Special About Sociology?

Jones, H.

(University of Warwick

)

I will suggest that the various ‘crises of sociology’ are in part generational, recurring, and not specific to sociology; that there is a need to recognise that those of us with a voice in sociology (as elsewhere) are implicated in its structuring practices; that there is a need to incorporate the energy, collaborative perspectives and critical thinking of forms of sociology which reach beyond the discipline and the academy not just in our research and teaching, but in our contributions to professional practice and conduct of institutions.

Sharing Sociology: Circulation, Knowledge, Thinking

Back, L.

(

Goldsmiths, University of London)

For all the forces that put pressure on academic sociology (professionalisation, audit, commercialisation, hierarchies, competition, intellectual property) the informational environment we now work in also offers unprecedented possibilities to share and circulate ideas. In my short presentation I want to point to some of these possibilities including the connection between academic sociology and teaching sociology in schools, alt. networks of sociological

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

30

Stream Plenaries

W

EDNESDAY

6 A

PRIL

2016, 17:15 18:15

insight within social media and interest and political movements. Sharing and bootlegging our ideas is another way to think about generating interest in the uses of sociology.

Chaired by the BSA Postgraduate Forum

31 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

STREAM PLENARIES

T

HURSDAY

7 A

PRIL

2016, 09:30 10:30

Families and Relationships

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

LIVING THE WEATHER: A STUDY IN THE SOCIO-ATMOSPHERICS OF EVERYDAY LIVES

Mason, J.

(University of Manchester)

Weather is undoubtedly part of everyday lives, but rarely is it taken by sociologists to be an integral part. In fact, sociologists of almost everything-but-the weather usually ignore the weather, in their work at least. Yet we only have to stop and think for a moment about our own experience of ‘being alive’ to realise that weather and seasons are implicated in so much of what we do and who we are: how we go about living in our more-than-human worlds, how we interact, how we feel, how and what we remember, our sense of self and others, our character, our outlook, our sense of place, our relationship with environments and materialities, our sensations, our journeys and mobilities, where we belong and so on. The list of sociological themes and issues that might be inflected by weather is endless, but creating a list of ‘weather and….’ topics takes us in the wrong direction with its additive logic and its assumption that what weather does it to ‘have effects’ on otherwise hermetically discrete sociological phenomena. Instead, I will argue for a more ecological sensibility that can detect what I call the socio-atmospherics of everyday lives, exploring how weather and season are in the weave. This will involve journeying across a range of disciplines as well as different forms and types of knowledge, including some insights from my recent empirical study of ‘Living the Weather’.

Jennifer Mason is a leading sociologist in the field of families and relationships. She is Professor in Sociology at the

University of Manchester and was founding Co-Director of the Morgan Centre for Research into Everyday Lives for its first decade, from 2005-2015. Between 2005-2011 she also led two ‘nodes’ of the ESRC National Centre for Research

Methods, ‘Real Life Methods’ and ‘Realities’, both of which developed creative and inventive approaches to researching relationalities. With her ‘Realities’ colleagues, she advanced the ‘facet methodology’ approach to research. Jennifer’s recent work, including ‘Living the Weather’ (a Leverhulme Trust Fellowship), has led her into new intellectual terrain, where she has been developing a socio-ecological understanding of everyday lives, connections and atmospherics. This is expounded in her latest book - Affinities: potent connections in everyday lives – which is due to be published by Polity in 2016/7.

Sociology of Religion

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

CONNECTIONS AND DISCONNECTION BETWEEN SOCIOLOGY AND THE SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION

Davie, G.

(University of Exeter)

My work in the sociology of religion has developed along two axes. One goal has been to discern and to explain the patterns of religion across a wide variety of contexts: notably Britain (Davie 1994:2015); Europe, from within and without (Davie 2000:2002) and the US (Berger, Davie and Fokas 2008). At the same time I have looked in detail at the sub-discipline of which I am part (the sociology of religion), noting on the one hand its firm foundations in the discipline of sociology per se, but on the other, its increasingly separate trajectory (Davie 2007:2013). It is important to challenge this drift and to ask what the sociology of religion can bring to its parent discipline and vice versa and what both can bring to the study of religion in the modern world.

I look forward to addressing these questions under the headings outlined in the proposal: i.e. challenges, methods, epistemology, perceptions and assumptions, and impact. Beneath all five lies a common question: can ‘religion’ simply be added to the agenda of sociology as we currently know it, or will the serious study of religion necessarily undermine the markedly secular philosophies of social science that dominate this field?

Grace Davie is professor emeritus in the Sociology of Religion at the University of Exeter UK and a senior adviser to the Impact of Religion Research Programme at Uppsala University. She is a past-president of the American

Association for the Sociology of Religion (2003) and of the Research Committee 22 (Sociology of Religion) of the

International Sociological Association (2002-06).

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

32

Stream Plenaries

T

HURSDAY

7 A

PRIL

2016, 09:30 10:30

In 2000-01 she was the Kerstin-Hesselgren Professor at Uppsala, where she returned for extended visits in 2006-

7:2010 and 2012, receiving an honorary degree in 2008. She has also held visiting appointments at the Ecole

Pratique des Hautes Etudes (1996) and at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (1998 and 2003), both in Paris.

In addition to numerous chapters and articles, she is the author of Religion in Britain since 1945 (Blackwell 1994),

Religion in Modern Europe (OUP 2000), Europe: the Exceptional Case (DLT 2002), The Sociology of Religion (Sage

2007/2013) and Religion in Britain: A Persistent Paradox (Wiley-Blackwell 2015); she is the co-author of Religious

America, Secular Europe (Ashgate 2008), and co-editor of Predicting Religion (Ashgate 2003) and Welfare and

Religion in 21 st

Century Europe (2 vols) (Ashgate 2010 and 2011).

Taylor, Y.

(University of Strathclyde)

I draw upon my recent ESRC funded research Making Space for Queer Identifying Religious Youth (Taylor:2015) to consider the disciplinary dis-ordinations of 'queer research' (and the 'queer researcher'). My own deliberate 'disorientation' began with the intention of stretching - or shattering - disciplinary, policy and public separation of the categories of 'youth', religion' and 'sexuality'. These categories are often seen as in tension, incompatible and variously (un)interesting (Taylor and Snowdon:2014; Shipley:2014): here I want to question the language of 'discipline' and 'sub-discipline' as ordered hierarchical spaces of (not)belonging, asking what happens when research-researcherresearched breach these boundaries? What do we expect of researchers newly entering 'our fields', which arguably have their own disciplining practices? How to make an impact at the inter-discipline or is this always a risk in being sidelined, and seen as 'child' to the 'parent' discipline? How are interdisciplinary conversations and realizations rendered precarious? What of researchers-researched who must insist on 'adding (themselves) on' to disciplinary agendas? While the particular focus is on exchanges between 'religion' and 'sociology', I want to probe at the cohesiveness of these categories, asking questions on disciplinary loyalties, inheritances and dis-orientations.

Yvette Taylor is Professor of Education, University of Strathclyde and was previously Head of the Weeks Centre for

Social and Policy Research at London South Bank University (2011-2014). She received the Lillian Robinson

Fellowship, Concordia University, Canada (2009) and a Fulbright Scholarship, Rutgers University (2010-2011). Yvette has obtained a wide variety of competitive research funding, including from the Economic and Social Research

Council, the British Academy and the Higher Education Academy, including projects on ‘Making Space for Queer

Identifying Religious Youth’ (2011-2013) and the British Academy mid-career fellowship Critical Terrain: Dividing Lines

and Lives (2013-2014). Yvette has published four sole-authored books based on funded research: Working-class

Lesbian Life (2007), Lesbian and Gay Parenting (2009), and Fitting Into Place? Class and Gender Geographies and

Temporalities (2012) and Making Space for Queer Identifying Religious Youth. Other titles include: (ed. 2010) Classed

Intersections: Spaces, Selves, Knowledges Ashgate. Other titles e.g.: Taylor, Y., Hines, S. and Casey, M. (eds) (2010)

Theorizing Intersectionality and Sexuality. Palgrave; (ed) (2012) Educational Diversity: the subject of difference and

different subjects Palgrave; (eds) (2013) Mapping Intimacies: Relations, Exchanges, Affects Palgrave; (ed) (2014) The

Entrepreneurial University. Public Engagements, Intersecting Impacts. Palgrave; (eds) (2014) Queering Religion,

Religious Queers Routledge.

Science and Technology Studies

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1A

T

HE

F

UTURE OF

S

OCIOLOGY IN THE

D

IGITAL AGE

Digital Society, Data Science and Sociology

Housley, W.

(Cardiff University)

Data science has been promoted and heralded by a number of voices as a new paradigm through which the emerging computational age and the associated data deluge can be primarily understood. It has been described as a new scientific revolution but it has its roots in engineering. In an age of disruptive technologies and the alleged emergence of the automated society one of the functional requirements for this new social system, it is argued, is the need to assemble and support the skills and means to analyse and make sense of the big and broad data that is routinely produced by digital devices and networks: in order to inform the refinement of the emerging infrastructure and optimize the integration of human populations and requirements with computerized social systems. These include data generated via Web 2.0, social media, smart sensors in urban space, body proxemic wearable technologies,

Google searches and mobile telephony. Big social data in particular has the potential to provide significant insights

33 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Stream Plenaries

T

HURSDAY

7 A

PRIL

2016, 09:30 10:30

into the nature and character of social life as well as having the capacity to emerge as a social force in its own right wherein the recorded quantification of everyday life radically alters routine decision making by people, communities, organisations and government as well as commercial entities.

These contemporary processes are mirrored by some reconsideration and repositioning in the social sciences. This has been framed as an empirical crisis; though it is now recognized that this early pessimism needs to be balanced with the emerging theoretical, methodological and empirical opportunities for sociology and social science more broadly that are generated by these developments in digitization and data. The real disciplinary threat comes from the fact that the domain of the ‘social’ is becoming a strategic commercial and scientific resource in the digital age thereby attracting competition from established and new forms of occupational and disciplinary practices that are beginning to colonize the subject area of social science.

Two areas of expertise represent a key source for colonizing this domain in the digital age: computer science and advanced statistics; although other allied disciplines are also emerging as key contributors to this emerging field; one example that comes to mind is Physics that can approach the generation and flow of data within systems with radically advanced mathematical explanations.

Why should any of this have anything to do with society, politics or even culture? The simple answer is that the emerging contours of digital society characterized by ‘disruption’ speaks to the core questions of sociological inquiry and raises a raft of issues that are connected to privacy, transparency, citizenship, surveillance and new forms of economic organization and public policy. A key issue here is how new forms of data and technology re-order social and economic relations. Yet, sociology and related social sciences have been slow to respond to the theoretical, empirical and methodological challenges and opportunities presented by significant system transformation. At the same time many have heralded the opportunities presented by new forms of data as the catalyst for the identification of a new interdisciplinary ‘data science’ paradigm. However, this interdisciplinary creature in the data foliage is hard to discern.

If ‘data science’ aims to make claims about social life and social organization then it would seem logical to envisage sociology having some input into this emerging domain. However, things are never so simple within the contested business of making claims about social and economic life. This may well be partly to do with the way in which new disciplines and domains come to be and, as stated earlier, the chatter around ‘data science’ comes at a time where sociology is undergoing a process of re-invigoration and repositioning. To this end if we accept that data science is a tangible interdisciplinary domain; then at this moment it may be useful to remind ourselves that sociology has a number of strategies that are grounded firmly in its theoretical and empirical traditions that might facilitate engagement with this new field of inquiry. During the course of my talk I will try and outline what some of these strategies might look like and why they might be important.

Unicorn or digital sociologist? Developing sociological expertise in the digital age

Eynon, R.

(University of Oxford)

The conceptual and methodological implications of ‘big data’ for Sociology have attracted a great deal of debate. A key focus of this discussion is the methodological expertise sociologists need to study society in the digital era.

Through examples of specific projects, this presentation will explore the kinds of skills and knowledge sociologists are likely to need to lead the way in this emerging area of study. Key areas of strength and weakness in ‘traditional’ sociology will be recognised, alongside a discussion of what data scientists (in their own words) think they can offer the field and what they cannot. Contrary to an assumption that we need to create ‘ideal’ digital sociologists who can do everything (the unicorn) this talk will propose a more realistic approach which recognises that most initiatives in this space will require multi-disciplinary teams, framed by a commitment to certain kinds of questions or areas of study that link multiple data sources together. The presentation will conclude by suggesting ways that certain kinds of computational skills and interdisciplinary working may be fostered, particularly amongst postgraduate programmes in

Sociology.

Speaking Sociologically with Big Data?

Halford, S., Savage, M.

(University of Southampton)

This paper sketches a prospective intervention in the current impasse between critical sociology and the proponents of ‘big data’ in the mathematical and computational sciences. Our starting point is that emergent uncertainties in the original big data paradigm provide an important opportunity, perhaps even a pressing responsibility, for us to engage constructively in this field. There is no doubt that ontological, epistemological and disciplinary tensions will persist.

However, in a lateral move we take inspiration from influential books by Puttnam (2000), Wilkinson and Pickett (2009)

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

34

Stream Plenaries

T

HURSDAY

7 A

PRIL

2016, 09:30 10:30

and Pikkety (2014) to suggest that the modes of sociological modes of argumentation that these pursue might inform a new means of engagement with ‘big data’. Specifically, we argue that their distinctive assemblage of data, visualisation and interpretation might be extended into a fuller sociological engagement with big data that might, in turn, provide the way forward for big data analytics.

Sociology and Computer science: Towards a Mutually Beneficial Relationship

Carr, L.

(University of Southampton)

Computer science is now compulsory in schools; computer-powered data science is rapidly increasing its dominion and influencing policy discourse. In response, it’s relatively easy for sociology to adopt its default critical position and problematise the growing valorisation of computational thinking and a data-driven mind-set. However, while critical engagement is absolutely necessary; in isolation it could be a form of disciplinary self-harm. In this talk, by referring to projects I’ve worked on, I will illustrate what sociology can offer computer science: how and why its practitioners should collaborate.

35 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

STREAM PLENARIES

F

RIDAY

8 A

PRIL

2016, 17:00 18:00

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

QUESTIONING CULTURE TASTE AND ENGAGEMENT

Cultural Consumption and Education

Reeves, A.

(University of Oxford)

Patterns of cultural consumption have a strong social gradient which is primarily driven by education. But what explains these educational differences in cultural preferences remains unclear. Explanations based on information processing capacity have gained widespread currency; the perceived cognitive ‘difficulty’ of both appreciating high culture, and of maintaining broad, omnivorous tastes. If, on average, high culture is more complex than low culture then a higher level of information processing capacity may be required to derive enjoyment from it. In contrast, socialization theories suggest that exposure to ‘high’ culture, may explain this gradient, particularly among university graduates with degrees in the Arts or Humanities. I will argue that degree type explains a substantial proportion of the difference in cultural consumption between graduates and non-graduates and that these differences may also contribute toward future social mobility.

Aaron Reeves is a senior research fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of Oxford. He is a sociologist with interests in public health, culture, and political economy. His work involves examining the causes and consequences of social, economic, and cultural inequity in Europe and North America.

Re-thinking ‘The Problem’ of Taste

Wright, D.

(University of Warwick)

Taste is conceptualised as a particular kind of problem for theoretical, empirical and applied forms of social scientific analysis. Bourdieu’s Distinction defines the parameters of this problem and provides a rich conceptual toolkit through which to solve it. So much so that, in the thirty years since its publication in English, the perspectives that emerge from it have become a kind of received sociological orthodoxy. In this light, what questions about the place of taste in social life are still worth asking? In addressing this question I’ll reflect on the ‘infrastructure’ of taste and how it might have changed in recent decades, on the relations between taste and sociology’s changing methodological imaginary and on the apparent role of taste in the formation of particular kinds of people and in on-going policy debates about the value and utility of cultural engagement.

David Wright teaches in the Centre for Cultural Policy Studies at the University of Warwick. His most recent book is

Understanding Cultural Taste: Sensation, Skill and Sensibility (Palgrave: 2015) and he was a member of the team of researchers that produced Culture, Class, Distinction (Routledge: 2009).

An Aesthetically and Morally Sensitive Approach to Tastes: The Example of Visual Arts

Hanquinet, L.

(University of York)

The sociological study of tastes has for long been dominated by accounts that showed the close relationship between tastes and social stratification. Although these approaches were useful in the understanding of social inequalities, many of them have also overlooked the importance of aesthetics to account for tastes as a key part of people’s lifestyle. I will show how aesthetic values are socially and historically situated and investigate to what extent they encapsulate moral principles. Drawing on my empirical research on art museum visitors and cultural participation, I argue that tastes are influenced by social origin and position, but in a more indirect way that it is often assumed in

‘socially determinist’ approaches to tastes. First, social position and origin condition the set of values people are immersed in – according to the social context they live in – and second, they influence the practical selection of aesthetico-moral principles people operate in the development of their cultural capital.

Laurie is Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of York. Her works focuses on cultural institutions, sociocultural inequalities, cultural participation and more recently on European identity and in urban sociology. She is the author of Du musée aux pratiques culturelles (Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles:2014) and the editor of the Routledge International Handbook of the Sociology of Art and Culture (with Mike Savage:2016).

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

36

Stream Plenaries

F

RIDAY

8 A

PRIL

2016, 17:00 18:00

Environment and Society Stream

G11 B

YNG

K

ENDRICK

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION: PRACTICES, HABITS AND POLITICS

Warde, A.

(University of Manchester)

It is a moot point whether sustainable consumption can thrive in a physically connected but socially fragmented world.

In this talk I briefly note the challenge that contemporary patterns of personal and household consumption pose for mitigation of the effects of climate change, for a substantial proportion of CO2 emissions result from travel, heating and cooling, and eating. I argue that individualistic models of the consumer, the sovereign consumer of economics and the expressive individual of cultural analysis, have left us with a limited and skewed understanding of the habits and routines underpinning differential patterns of consumption. Explanations in terms of individual choice have dominated the intellectual agenda to the neglect of personal habits, social positions and collective institutional arrangements. I review some competing approaches to habit currently circulating in cognitive science, behavioural economics and the sociology of culture. These bring to light an alternative model of action, drawing upon some recent analytical and empirical insights derived from practice theory and pragmatism, to emphasise repetition and routine. In this view, consumption is primarily a matter of the appropriation of goods and services for the maintenance of everyday conventional practices. Some implications are drawn for the sociological analysis of lifestyles and for policies for overcoming barriers to sustainable consumption in contemporary rich societies.

Frontiers Stream

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

DISABILITY AT THE CENTRE OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTS: INEQUALITY, ENTITLEMENT

AND ELIGIBILITY

Sherry, M .

(University of Toledo)

Impairment has a unique, ubiquitous, and constantly troublesome position within disability studies. It informs many discussions of embodiment and identity, greatly influences the political directions of the disability movement, and creates associated theoretical and methodological problems for researchers. This presentation proposes a social model of impairment which might offer a pathway towards a more satisfactory resolution of these problems. Some of the key elements of such a sociology of impairment include: paying careful attention to the role of inequality in the social creation and cultural construction of impairment; examining the political significance of impairment; using a socially-embedded phenomenology to understand the experience of impairment. This social model of impairment may also be helpful in addressing some other limitations in disability studies and disability politics, such as essentialist approaches to identity; economic reductionism; ambivalence and inconsistency regarding the importance of embodiment with regard to disability; and failure to sufficiently theorize and integrate simultaneous matrices of power.

M Sherry is currently Chair of the American Sociological Association’s Disability and Society Section. His books include Disability Hate Crimes: Does Anyone Really Hate Disabled People? (Ashgate:2010) and If I Only Had A Brain:

Deconstructing Brain Injury (Routledge:2006). He is also Series Editor for the Interdisciplinary Disability Studies Series for Ashgate Publishing. His next book is A Sociology of Impairment.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration Stream

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1A

‘UNWANTED’ POPULATIONS AT EUROPE'S BORDERS: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND RESPONSES

“Help them, rescue them, and take care of them, but don’t let them land here”: ‘Slavery’ and The

Mediterranean Crisis

Anderson, B.

(University of Oxford)

37 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Stream Plenaries

F

RIDAY

8 A

PRIL

2016, 17:00 18:00

Citizens may be broadly in agreement with government policy, and acknowledge the consequent logic of immigration controls and border enforcement but its actual practice can be deeply unsettling. There is a growing concern about humanitarian crises at EU borders, including the Mediterranean as the contradiction between the values of democracy and human rights and the structural violence of borders is exposed at the edges of Europe. How can immigration enforcement be reconciled with human rights? In public debate invoking ideas of modern slavery has become a way of managing these tensions. We should not just dismiss this as an unimportant figurative turn of speech. In matters of mobility the figurative and the material are tightly woven together. This paper will examine the ways in which slavery is invoked by state actors and what this reveals about contemporary politics of mobility. In particular it will consider the relevance of the ‘right to locomotion’ that was demanded by former slaves.

Bridget Anderson is a Professor of Migration and Citizenship at the University of Oxford, and Research Director of the Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS). Her interests include citizenship, nationalism, immigration enforcement (including ‘trafficking’), and care labour. Her most recent authored book is Us and Them? The Dangerous

Politics of Immigration Controls (OUP:2013). Care and Migrant Labour: Theory, Policy and Politics, co-edited with

Isabel Shutes, was published by Palgrave in May 2014. Citizenship and its Others co-edited with Vanessa Hughes will be published by Palgrave in November 2015. Although now an academic Bridget started her working life in the voluntary sector working with migrant domestic workers, and she has retained an interest in domestic labour and migration. She has worked closely with migrants' organisations, trades unions and legal practitioners at local, national and international level.

The Dead Sea and the Contested Politics of Mourning in the Mediterranean

Sigona, N.

(

University of Birmingham

)

This paper offers a reading on the Mediterranean migration crisis through the lens of migrant dead bodies and the politics of mourning surrounding the tragic incidents that have caused over 6:000 victims since October 2013. The starting point is two-fold: migrant dead bodies have been cried and decried by a range of institutional and noninstitutional actors to fit different political narratives and agendas, and institutional responses to the so-called

Mediterranean migration crisis in Italy and in Europe alike have been ambivalent and contradictory. The EU, in particular, has struggled to speak with one voice on this issue and its response has been mostly reactive to the tragic incidents that led to thousands of lost lives at sea, deaths that were in many cases preventable. Nonetheless, in foregrounding the politics of mourning, this paper shed light on the complex relationship between the development of the EU migration agenda and migrant dead bodies (or their absence) and shows how it is shaping the emerging post-

Arab Spring migration regime in the Mediterranean.

Nando Sigona is a Senior Lecturer and Deputy Director of the Institute of Research into Superdiversity at the

University of Birmingham. His research interests include: statelessness, diasporas and the state; Romani politics and anti-Gypsyism; ‘illegality’ and the everyday experiences of undocumented migrant children and young people; and crisis, governance and governmentality of forced migration in the EU. His work has appeared in a range of international academic journals, including Sociology, Social Anthropology, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies,

Identities, Citizenship Studies and Ethnic and Racial Studies. He is author or editor of books and journal’s special issues including The Oxford Handbook on Refugee and Forced Migration Studies (with Fiddian Qasmiyeh, Loescher and Long:2014), Sans Papiers. The social and economic lives of undocumented migrants (with Bloch and

Zetter:2014) and Diasporas Reimagined (with Gamlen, Liberatore and Neveu Kringelbach:2015). Nando is also

Associate Editor of the journal Migration Studies.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

38

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES

W

EDNESDAY

6 A

PRIL

2016

14:50 Great Hall, Main Building

PRESENTATION OF THE BSA DISTINGUISHED SERVICE TO BRITISH SOCIOLOGY AWARD

This is a prestigious award presented to an outstanding individual who has contributed greatly to the discipline on an annual basis, at the BSA Annual Conference. The judging panel is the BSA President, Chair and Vice Chair. The award will be presented following the Plenary by Paula England.

17:15 - 18:15 G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

BSA SOCIOLOGY JOURNAL 50TH ANNIVERSARY

The event will be a round table discussion to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the journal and the launch of four especial issues.

The event will be chaired by former journal editor Prof Graham Crow.

Representatives of the four editorial groups from each e-special will be drawing on examples from the four e-specials, to consider how the journal both shaped and is shaped by wider trends across the discipline of sociology.

1. Dr Kate Dashper will speak to Continuity and change over time - using examples from the e-specials to illustrate some of these.

2. Dr Paddy Dolan will consider the relationships between sociology and other disciplines (including philosophy) and the role of theory.

3. Prof Louise Ryan will discuss methods - changing relationship between quantitative and qualitative over time in the journal and as illustrated in the e-specials.

4. Dr David Skinner will discuss why some papers seem to stand the test of time, while other papers perhaps now seem dated or less relevant - reflecting changing trends over time.

18:15 - 19:00 Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

ASTON UNIVERSITY SOCIOLOGY AND POLICY DEPARTMENT WINE RECEPTION

Sociology and Policy staff at Aston University warmly welcomes delegates to join them for a drinks reception to meet colleagues from the department and find out more about their work.

19:00 - 19:45 Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building

LAUNCH AND WINE RECEPTION: ASSIST-UK

This wine reception will publicly launch a new professional body, the Association for Studies in Innovation Science and

Technology. With a strongly interdisciplinary membership already approaching 200, this session will provide an introduction to AsSIST-UK, its aims, intellectual grounding and future plans for public and policy engagement, and news of its first Annual Conference in November 2016.

39 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Special Activities

T

HURSDAY

7 A

PRIL

2016

09:30 - 10:30 G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH FUNDING: THE ESRC IN THE BROADER RESEARCH LANDSCAPE

This presentation will reveal key insights from an independent new report commissioned by ESRC to better understand the experiences of Early Career Researchers (ECRs) within the social sciences. Drawing on a survey and qualitative work, the report raises important considerations about the challenges and opportunities facing today’s

ECRs. The presentation will also provide an overview of the main research funding opportunities open to ECRs in

Sociology from across the research landscape, from the ESRC to the British Academy, Leverhulme Trust and Nuffield

Foundation. The talk will provide plenty of time for questions and discussion, and will offer helpful tips and ideas for

ECRs about how to write high-quality proposals as well as details about ESRC’s Peer Review system.

12:30 - 13:30 Private Dining Area, Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

BSA SPECIALIST AND STUDY GROUP MEETINGS

A number of BSA Specialist and Study Groups will be holding informal meetings during the lunch break on Thursday 7

April 2016 in the Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre (in the Private Dining Area).

All delegates are welcome to attend.

12:45 - 13:30 Conference Centre, Room 3

HAPS MEETING

All members of the Heads and Professors of Sociology are welcome.

18:40 - 18:45 Great Hall, Main Building

PHILIP ABRAMS MEMORIAL PRIZE

The BSA Philip Abrams Memorial Prize is for the best first and sole-authored book within the discipline of sociology.

It was established in the 1980s in honour of the memory of Professor Philip Abrams whose work contributed substantially to sociology and social policy research in Britain. He is remembered for the encouragement and assistance he provided to many young sociologists at the start of their careers. In recognition of his commitment to sociology as a discipline, the British Sociological Association established this prize to stimulate new ideas and fresh research in sociology by encouraging new British authors. The prize will be awarded following the Plenary by Claire

Alexander and Anoop Nayak.

18:45 - 19:15 Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area

BSA ANNUAL MEMBERS’ MEETING

At this year's Annual Members’ Meeting we are exploring feedback from members on issues which raise concern. In response to a survey on governance issues, feedback included the oft raised concerns about, how to become involved with the BSA, the level of subscription and conference fees, the management of finances, and how study groups are financed and appoint convenors, to name a few.

The board are keen to examine how the BSA addresses these issues in comparison to parallel member organisations and to ensure transparency in our organisation. So join us to see and hear the evidence on how we are doing on fees, budgets, engagement and related matters. Your comments and ideas are much appreciated so do join us on this mini

'health check'. Linda McKie - Treasurer

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

40

Special Activities

19:15 - 20:15 Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

POSTER PRIZE PRESENTATION

A prize will be awarded for the poster which best communicates its aims, methods, findings and conclusions. Please vote and join us for the presentation of the award!

SOCIOLOGICAL FUTURES BOOK SERIES LAUNCH

The BSA and Routledge are very pleased to announce the publication of the first three books of our Sociological

Futures book series. This series marks a substantial return to monograph book publishing for the BSA. These three volumes epitomise the aims of the series to publish new and innovative theories, methods and approaches to sociological issues and debates and ‘the social’ in the 21st century.

An End to the Crisis of Empirical Sociology? Trends and Challenges in Social Research edited by Linda McKie and

Louise Ryan. Research data are everywhere. In our everyday interactions, through social media, credit cards and even public transport, we generate and use data. The challenge for sociologists is how to collect, analyse and make best use of these vast arrays of information.

Drinking Dilemmas: Space, culture and identity edited by Thomas Thurnell-Read. Drinking and drunkenness have become a focal point for political and media debates to contest notions of responsibility, discipline and risk; yet, at the same time, academic studies have highlighted the positive aspects of drinking in relation to sociability, belonging and identity. These issues are at the heart of this volume, which brings together the work of academics and researchers exploring social and cultural aspects of contemporary drinking practices.

Bourdieu: The Next Generation: The Development of Bourdieu's Intellectual Heritage in Contemporary UK Sociology edited by Jenny Thatcher, Nicola Ingram, Ciaran Burke, Jessie Abrahams. Throughout Bourdieu’s career, he argued that sociologists need to create an epistemological break, to abandon our common sense – or as much as we can – and to formulate findings from our results. This book gives unique insight into how a new generation of Bourdieusian researchers apply Bourdieu to contemporary issues, providing discussion of the working mechanisms of thinking through and/or with Bourdieu when analysing data. In essence, we are putting Bourdieu to work to provide a structural constructivist approach to social reality anchored through empirical reflexivity.

Browse the books, hear from the Editors and share a glass of wine and cupcakes in celebration of these books and the series!

If you are interested in seeing your volume among the series, speak to the Series Editors about a proposal.

All three titles will be available at a discount for all conference delegates at the Routledge stand.

Series Editors:Professor Eileen Green, Teesside University, Professor John Horne, University of Central Lancashire,

Dr Caroline Oliver, University of Oxford, Professor Louise Ryan, Middlesex University.

PUBLISHERS’ RECEPTION

Wine and non-alcoholic drinks will be available to delegates while you browse the exhibitions.

Everyone welcome.

Throughout the conference, exhibitions will be located in the Courtyard Restaurant. Stand staff will be available to speak to delegates for the duration of the conference as well as during the Publishers’ Reception.

British Sociological

Association

Cambridge University Press

Combined Academic

Edwin Mellen Press

Eurospan Group

Frontiers

Gazelle Books

Lancaster University

Manchester University Press

Oxford University Press

Palgrave Macmillan

Policy Press

Polity

Routledge, Taylor & Francis

Rowman & Littlefield

International

SAGE (Main Conference

Sponsor)

Wiley Blackwell / Polity

41 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Special Activities

F

RIDAY

8 A

PRIL

2016

12:45 - 13:30 Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area, Conference Centre

STUDY GROUP CONVENORS’ LUNCH

All Study Group Convenors are invited to join their colleagues for this lunch as a thank you for their work with the

Study Groups in 2015 and 2016.

12:45 - 13:30 Conference Centre, Room 3

DISCOVER SOCIETY PANEL: QUESTIONING BRITISH VALUES?

This panel brings together some contributors to Discover Society to discuss the question of British values within contemporary social and political debate. It is organised in terms of short interventions and discussions. Bring your lunch to the session.

14:50 Great Hall, Main Building

BBC ETHNOGRAPHY PRIZE PRESENTED BY LAURIE TAYLOR

The BSA and BBC Radio 4’s Thinking Allowed present an annual award for a study that has made a significant contribution to ethnography: the in-depth analysis of the everyday life of a culture or sub-culture. Join Laurie Taylor for the presentation of this year’s prize. The prize will be awarded following the Plenary by Danny Dorling.

18:00 - 19:00 Courtyard Restaurant, Conference Centre

BSA SOCIOLOGY JOURNAL 50TH ANNIVERSARY DRINKS RECEPTION

Sociology has been publishing sociological research for 50 volumes! Join us for wine and a celebration of this significant anniversary.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

42

British Sociological Association

Annual Members’ Meeting

Thursday 7 April 2016

18:45 - 19:15

Courtyard Bar and Coffee Area, Conference

Centre

Chair: Eileen Green, Chair of the BSA Board of Trustees

The Annual Members’ Meeting is the principal mechanism by which members can register their views on services and strategy within the British

Sociological Association (BSA). It is also an opportunity to discuss matters concerning the state of the discipline more widely.

Members of the BSA Board of Trustees will speak to the Annual Review, explaining the current strategy and will invite members’ comments on the ways in which the Association is achieving its objectives.

All members are welcome

43 BSA Annua

Aston University, Birmingham

POSTER PRESENTATIONS

L

ITCHFIELD

L

OUNGE

, CAMS, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Posters will be displayed in the Litchfield Lounge, CAMS, Main Building, for the duration of the conference.

Presenters will be available during the scheduled timeslot on Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:00-15:30 to discuss their work. Additional times may be indicated on individual posters.

POSTER PRESENTATION PRIZE

A prize will be awarded for the poster which best communicates its aims, methods, findings and conclusions. All delegates are encouraged to cast a vote during the Thursday poster session. Voting slips can be found next to the poster presentations. The winners will be announced on Thursday evening at the publishers’ reception.

POSTER 1

The Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study

Doebler, S., Shuttleworth, I.

(Queen's University Belfast)

The poster introduces the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS) and presents its unique historical link to the

1981 – 1991 – 2001 and 2011 Northern Ireland Census. The poster gives examples how the data are can be applied to demographic research in various health-related areas and where researchers can obtain more information on the data and its usage. The poster explains the structure of the data, its elements and possibilities of linkage. This presentation is useful and informative to researchers interested in using British longitudinal data, and Census-based data for population research, research on ageing, particularly studies on health outcomes and inequalities. The large sample size covering c. 28% of the population of Northern Ireland allows researchers to analyse sub-groups of the population. Also, comparisons with the Scottish (SLS)- and the English (ONS) longitudinal studies are possible.

POSTER 2

Relational Fathers; The Fathers we Live With and the Fathers we Live by

Earley, V.

(University of Sheffield)

This paper draw on findings from my PhD research project of ten family case studies, exploring understandings and experiences fathering practices in everyday life.

The findings capture the complex and interconnected ways in which different family members understand and experience fathering practices and the discussion explores the comparisons and continuities that exist both between and within families.

The theoretical approach 'the fathers we live with and the fathers we live by' is used as a starting point from which to conceptualise the findings and is informed by the work of John Gillis, who succinctly explained the premise in saying that, 'we all have two families, one that we live with and one that we live by. We would like the two to be the same, but they are not.' This analytical base is then used to discuss, what is perceived to be, the innate relationality of personal life; demonstrating the embeddedness of individual fathers in the social. It facilitates exploration of how fathering practices and how these are fluidly negotiated over time and between both kin and others; how they are shaped by memory, imagination and biography, and intersected by structural elements.

POSTER 3

Multi-cultural Toys: The Experiences and Views of Children and Practitioners in Early Years Educational

Settings

Harris, D.

(University of Greenwich)

This paper, related to the 'Multi-Cultural Toys' project being conducted at the University of Greenwich, UK will present findings and preliminary conclusions from research conducted with children in a number of settings, triangulated with the views of teachers and practitioners. It thus engages with significant sociological issues relating to the child as consumer, the 'voice of the child' and the impact of the social factors of race, ethnicity, and gender on the lived experience of children in educational settings. Through interviews and observations, the researcher will be

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

44

Poster Presentations

T

HURSDAY

7 A

PRIL

2016, 15:00 15:30

investigating the ways children engage with different types of toys in early years education, and the opportunities provided for this by practitioners. Practitioners' views on the importance of providing toys and play materials which represent a range of cultures and ethnicities will also be explored.

The researcher will contextualise these findings within the history of attempts to raise awareness of the significance of anti-racist and anti-sexist education for young children. Although sociologists (including Stuart Hall) and educators highlighted the importance of such issues from the 1970s at least, and some metropolitan boroughs (such as the

London Borough of Brent) implemented such initiatives from the 1970s and 1980s, in 2015, children's educational play materials are frequently monocultural. The research will provide essential insights into children's responses when presented with culturally diverse artefacts.

POSTER 4

Housing Consumption Practices as a Lens on the Social Trajectories of Chilean Teachers

Lizama, A.

(University of Manchester)

Traditionally, the study of social mobility has attempted to distinguish changes in the structure of inequality from movements within the structure of inequality. Analyses show differences between people's subjective understanding and 'objective' concept of social mobility discussed by class analysts. Individuals would not distinguish between questions of social change, biographical change and social mobility when they talk about their own social trajectories.

Some analysts (Rose:2006; Saunders:2005) have suggested that class subjectivities are strongly affected by the experience of social change, arguing that there significant consequences for how people frame issues of class inequality. In this context, housing consumption practices allow us to explore complex and intertwined processes social change, biographical change and social mobility. Housing has a pivotal role in the subjective experience of social mobility, but, at the same time, housing consumption practices are also affected by historical and biographical changes in resources, taste and lifestyle.

This poster will show an ongoing qualitative research whose purpose is to explore everyday understandings of the social trajectories of Chilean Teachers through their housing consumption practices; analysing whether these teachers distinguish between questions of social change, biographical change and social mobility when they talk about their own social trajectories and identifying if (objectively) socially mobile Chilean teachers talk in different ways about these issues from socially immobile teachers. This research contributes to enlarge the knowledge of social mobility and class analysis from a subjective perspective and also to understand how people experience inequalities as part of their everyday lives.

POSTER 5

Evaluation of an Intervention for Men Experiencing Angry Emotions and Violent Behaviour

Markham, S., White, A.

(Leeds Beckett University)

Men who experience feelings of anger and/or that behave in violent ways are limited in where they can go for support.

This poster will explore a facilitator and group-based peer support programme intervention for men who want to reduce angry emotions and incidence of violent behaviour.

POSTER 6

Visual Representations of Digital Connectivity in Everyday Life

Martin W., Pilcher, K.

(Brunel University London)

This poster draws on data from the empirical study Photographing Everyday Life: Ageing, Lived Experiences, Time and Space funded by the ESRC, UK. The focus of the project was to explore the significance of the ordinary and dayto-day and focus on the everyday meanings, lived experiences, practical activities, and social contexts in which people in mid to later life live their daily lives. The research involved a diverse sample of 62 women and men aged 50 years and over who took photographs of their different daily routines to create a weekly visual diary. This diary was then explored through in-depth photo-elicitation interviews to make visible the rhythms, patterns and meanings that underlie habitual and routinised everyday worlds. The data was analysed using the software Atlas Ti. The analysis highlighted:

(1) the increasing importance of digital connectivity and the ways in which people in mid to later life actively engage

(and resist) technologies of communication in their daily lives; (2) the significance of embodied co-presence and the immediacy of shared space and/or time; and (3) how narratives surrounding engagement (or not) with virtual technologies both challenge and reinforce ideas about ageing (and youth) in complex and, at times, contradictory

45 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Poster Presentations

T

HURSDAY

7 A

PRIL

2016, 15:00 15:30

ways. Exploring the routines, meanings, and patterns that underpin everyday life has therefore enabled us to make visible how people build, maintain and experience their social and virtual connections, and the ways in which digital devices and information technologies are being incorporated into (and resisted) within daily life.

POSTER 7

From Unpaid Wages to Democracy? Mapping Changes in Bulgarian Protest (2000-15)

O'Brien, T.

(Cranfield University at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom)

Bulgaria has experienced significant upheaval in its social and political structure since the removal of the communist regime in 1989. The first post-communist decade saw political and economic instability as the state and its citizens adapted to the new context, graphically illustrated by the collapse of the Bulgarian Socialist Party government in 1997 following nation-wide protests. The period since 2000 appeared to usher in some degree of stability as the country worked towards EU membership. The large-scale protests of 2013 and 2014 that brought down one government and attempted to ouster its replacement disrupt this perception and point to the need to more carefully consider the nature and scale of contentious events since 2000. This paper draws on a catalogue of protest events from 2000 to 2015 to discern the broad pattern of concerns within society. The results suggest that as Bulgaria has made progress in stabilising democratic practices citizen expectations have grown in scale and complexity, moving from particularistic demands to broader programmatic concerns.

POSTER 8

Invisible Parents: An Examination of the Interplay Between Structure and Agency in the Process of Adoption

Ryan, L.

(Lancaster University/University of Salford)

Parenting is more than simply raising a child; it is site of ambivalence where identities and practices are formed and reformed. The process of becoming a mother/father involves transitions, negotiations and resistance as the imagined sense of self as a parent is placed in opposition to the transformations in everyday lives. There has been much sociological interest in this field, which emphasises the relevance of intersectional factors such as gender, class and age. The focus of much of this work, however, has typically been on birth parents, with adoptive parents often rendered invisible from the literature. This paper explores the questions this raises about the transitions in parenting identities and practices of parents who have an adopted child; a child who already has other parents and who may be experiencing trauma of previous abuse or neglect. This paper will draw on narratives generated through in-depth qualitative interviews undertaken with potential adoptive parents and the social workers responsible for assessments.

This is a site where intersectionality has particular relevance and where identities are negotiated in this context.

Studies of parenting identities have demonstrated that choosing to be a particular type of parent carries meaning and esteem. Therefore the role of agency will be considered, particularly the discourse of 'choice', in the process of becoming an adoptive parent.

POSTER 9

‘Moving On’: Exploring The Temporal Process When a Person With a Learning Disability Leaves the Family

Home

Taylor, B.

(University of Sheffield)

Leaving home has not always been regarded as a transition applicable to the life course of a person with a learning disability. Now, due to rising life expectancy and evolving social policy, more families are experiencing this 'moving on' process.

The purpose of this research is to explore, conceptualise and theorise the 'moving on' experiences of adults with a learning disability and their family members, recognising that roles and expectations of relationships fluctuate over the life course and particularly during transition periods. Generally, the available literature has concentrated on the planning phase of 'moving on'. This research, however, aims to capture a sense of temporality by involving families from various stages, spanning the entire process. Multiple narrative interviews are currently being undertaken, simultaneous to some participants co-constructing 'moving on' storybooks. The principles of Constructivist Grounded

Theory by Charmaz (2014) have been applied throughout the research which has embraced a co-constructivist approach.

This presentation will outline the study rationale, aims, methods and draw upon a visual representation of the 'moving on' transition process. The extent to which families' experience this transition as a long term, fluid process as opposed to an inflexible 'event' will be explored. The recurring concepts of temporality and family relationships will provide central themes.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

46

Poster Presentations

T

HURSDAY

7 A

PRIL

2016, 15:00 15:30

POSTER 10

A Long Helpful Hand: Grandparental Role on Grandchildren’s Educational Attainment in Britain

Zhang, M.

(University of Manchester)

Intergenerational educational mobility tends to focus on the parental-children relations. A few recent studies have looked at the grandparents' influences on grandchildren's educational experiences but with mixed results. Based on data from the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society, I investigate the grandparental role, as an additional layer of family origins, on grandchildren's educational and class mobility trajectories. Using ordered logit models, I find a salient and statistically significant association between grandparental class and grandchildren's educational qualifications net of parents' class, education and economic resources. Over and above parental effects, the higher grandparents' class, the higher the grandchildren's qualifications. The association is stronger for granddaughters than for grandsons. This does not mean that grandparents favour granddaughters over grandsons but the help is channelled in other ways. Grandparents' class effects remain significant on grandsons' class attainment net of grandsons' education and parental characteristics but the impact for granddaughters is non-significant. The findings suggest that the usual parents-children measurement may risk an underestimation of the effect of family origins and that taking a holistic paradigm of three generations would contribute to our understanding of how inequalities in educational and occupational attainment persist over generations.

47 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

Room

G63, Main Building

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption Steelhouse 2, CAMS, Main Building

Environment and Society Steelhouse 3, CAMS, Main Building

Families and Relationships

Frontiers 1

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Stafford 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Frontiers 2

Lifecourse

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1 - SE

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 4 - SE

Rights, Violence and Crime

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2

Sociology of Education 1

Sociology of Education 2

Work, Employment and Economic Life

Conference Center Room 127

Steelhouse 1, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Center Room 145

Conference Center Room 3

Great Hall, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 144

Conference Centre Room 139

Conference Centre Room 141

Whitehall 3, CAMS, Main Buiding

Whitehall 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 134

Conference Centre Room 1A

Conference Centre Rooms 135-137

Conference Centre Room 123

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Settling in a Global City: Transnational Practices and Cosmopolitan Openness in Sociality Patterns

Tapini, E.

(Middlesex University)

This study focuses on highly-skilled migrants from other EU countries, who have settled in London. It aims to examine the intersection between transnational practices and cosmopolitan attitudes in their sociality patterns. As a global city,

London provides the grounds for cosmopolitan openness and mixed social networks; nevertheless, not everyone engages with difference beyond casual social interactions. This could be considered as 'ordinary' or banal cosmopolitanism, which does not always translate into long-lasting social bonds. Using a combination of qualitative methods (semi-structured interviewing, focus group interviewing and a visual interactive map), this study explored how skilled migrants negotiate multiple identities whilst interacting with significant others, both in London and abroad.

Participants manifest their embeddedness to the city, referring to themselves as Londoners and by choosing to form close social ties beyond the boundaries of nationality and profession. This is a situated cosmopolitanism that is still bound to other social categories of belonging, such as class, education, sexuality and relationship status.

Transnational bonds are maintained in the form of family ties and pre-migration friendships; nevertheless, these do not translate to transnational economic activity or to homogenous social networks; rather they are relationships that carry strong emotional significance and a sense of life-trajectory continuity. A shared cultural understanding, beyond the boundaries of the nation-state, is also at play; participants find it easier to connect to other migrants from home countries close to their own, as this provides some form or rootedness in the age of mobility, beyond the boundary of national identity.

‘Place images’, East European Migrants & The Terms of Belonging in a Rural English Village

Moore, H.

(University of Northampton)

Findings from my PhD research into the classed and racialised relationships between rural English residents and East

European migrant horticultural workers in the Worcestershire village of 'Mayfield' suggest that English villagers form opinions about migration from Eastern Europe based on their local lived experiences, observations and ideas about the place in which they live, rather than right-wing media discourses about England being 'full up'. The well-rehearsed anti-immigrant narratives perpetuated by the right-wing press did not emerge in my qualitative interviews and ethnographic fieldwork. Rather, I discovered a classed discourse of 'fitting in' where East European seasonal migrants' perceived propensity for working hard at the village's horticultural nurseries means that they adhere to the residents'

'place image' of the 'working village'.

This paper explores how the place image of the working village is mobilised in two ways. Firstly, it relates to the village's horticultural past and present; and secondly, it describes the residents' perception of the village's class identity. Villagers' place image of Mayfield as a working village is central to their (somewhat ambivalent) acceptance of

Eastern European migrants in the locality. I do not suggest that social integration between migrants and villagers has been seamless. Indeed, village residents often make classed and racialised distinctions between the village 'self' and the migrant 'other'. But despite this, place – and more specifically, the place image of the working village – plays an important role in affirming who belongs in Mayfield and the terms upon which that belonging may be secured.

‘Incomers’, ‘Locals’, ‘Teuchters’ and ‘Townies’: Participation, Belonging and Structures of Feeling in a

Scottish Suburban ‘Village’

Ebrey, J., Miles, A.

(University of Manchester)

This paper will draw on research undertaken in Peterculter, Aberdeen during 2014/15, as part of the Understanding

Everyday Participation project (www.everydayparticipation.org). Based on ethnographic work in and around three village institutions, it draws on Savage, Bagnall and Longhurst's (2005) concept of 'elective belonging' and Raymond

Williams' (1977) notion of 'structures of feeling', to examine the relationship between participation and place in the

UK's oil capital.

The industrial history of Culter has positioned it as a node in global commodity flows since the mid-nineteenth century, when Esparto Grass was imported from Spain for use in its paper mill. Nowadays Culter is home to a considerable

51 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

number of globally mobile workers in the oil and gas industry, some of whom previously worked at the mill. Research on the practices and relations of participation in Culter Village Hall, the Mill Social Club and Kippie Lodge leisure club shows how the 'local' may be constitutive of the 'global' and vice versa and indicates that those brought up and still living in the vicinity '…are not necessarily the people who feel they belong there' (Savage et al 2005: 29). We go on to discuss how the idea of 'the village' is mobilised by different groups of 'locals' and 'incomers' as a placeholder for

'community', which simultaneously mediates and masks dynamic tensions of age, wealth, class and gender. Finally, we examine how village associational culture works to generate certain structures of feeling, or as Williams (1977:133-

134) later described it, 'social experiences in solution'.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

S

TEELHOUSE

2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Revisiting 'Problems of Variety' 1995-2015: Social Distinction, Cultural Omnivorousness and Dining Out in

Britain

Paddock, J., Warde, A.

(University of Manchester)

Since Bourdieu's work on 'Distinction' much debate has circulated around the notion that we maintain fixed hierarchies or homologies of taste depending on our position in the social field. One key contentious issue is the degree to which individuals seek knowledge of a wide variety of cultural genres; 'omnivorous' taste (Peterson and Kern). Many studies have deliberated this problem of variety, arriving at the conclusion that there is cultural capital to be gained from possessing openness to a broad range of tastes, for example, in food, in music, and art. In this paper, we present preliminary results from the repeat of the 1995 study 'Eating out in Britain' across three English cities. Reflecting on 20 years of change in the practice of eating meals away from home in London, Preston and Bristol, we analyse the social and symbolic significance of a variety of experience in visiting commercial sources for meals and of familiarity with diverse ethnic cuisine. We explore whether the pursuit of a variety in eating out as a feature of particular social groups, and wherein they represent a means of expressing social distinctions. We report the results of a new survey carried out in the Spring of 2015, supplemented by material from follow-up in-depth interviews with some respondents.

Distinction and theatre: Capitalising on a Working Class Taste?

Barrett, M.

(University of Warwick/ Liverpool Institute for the Performing Arts)

Bourdieu's Distinction examines the relationship between taste and class, and identifies culture as a field of struggle.

Thus theatre venues, their rituals, and paraphernalia, are sites which valorise forms of cultural capital and reinforce audience members' relative positions in the field.

This research uses empirical, ethnographic methods such as thick description, focus groups, depth interviews, and organic digital data analysis to examine theatre as a site for struggle, using Liverpool's Royal Court Theatre as a locus.

It finds that the Royal Court, Liverpool, has cultivated a working class audience by promoting a particular form of theatre repertoire, including content permeated by tropes around nostalgia for a shared class experience. Moreover, the redesign of the theatre's auditorium and its distinctive business model have created a ludic physical space which exploits liminality and encourages participation, capitalising on a class preference for theatre as a social event, and the desire for what John McGrath called 'a good night out'. The result is a physical and notional space that signals ownership by, rather than exclusion of, working class people.

The Branded Gentry: Elite Identity and Sociality in the Era of Global Capitalism

Smith, D.

(Anglia Ruskin University)

Recent social science research has emphasised a paradox in contemporary elite identity and sociality. Elite institutions are increasingly 'majority minority' institutions (Khan) and contemporary elite positions are justified by a form of 'meritocratic extremism' (Piketty). Elites are both engines of extreme inequality and promote a rhetoric of extreme inclusivity. This paradox has a cultural analogue. Elite British culture today embraces a form of cosmopolitan,

'moneyed' distinction alongside attachment to tradition, ritual and restricted social circles. To substantiate this claim this paper presents and builds upon ethnographic research outlined in Elites, Race and Nationhood: The Branded

Gentry (Palgrave:2016), an analysis of the modes of distinction of elite British university students associated with the clothing brand Jack Wills. This paper ethnographically depicts the internal, subtle dynamics of exclusivity, distinction

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

52

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

and privilege making which the Jack Wills brand both fosters, obfuscates and reveals among elite university students.

It outlines how global capital and neo-liberal corporate culture have radically transformed a once parochial, closed elite based around a singular cultural heritage, uniform schooling and shared seasonal sociality into an elite with a global footprint, embracing paradoxically traditional and modern cultural pursuits and practices. It emphasizes that as

British society is becoming increasingly multi-cultural and globally-orientated, the ever more important it is to demonstrate the trappings of traditional privilege for socio-cultural distinction.

Valuing Arts: The Benefits of Art Education

Appleford, K.

(Kingston University, London)

Over the last decade questions have been raised over the status of arts in British society. Arts funding to galleries, theatres, and other arts organisations is in decline and those working in the arts are facing an increasingly precarious situation. At the Frieze Arts Fair, held in London in October, Justine Simons Head of Culture at the GLA questioned whether artists were being slowly eradicated from the city, due to high rents and low wages, whilst academic such as

Ling and Tepper (2013) suggest that are a wide range of challenges face artistic workers, not least the precarious nature of their employment which requires them to work beyond existing markets. In this climate it is unsurprising that parents may be cautious about their children choosing to study arts at university, and the situation certainly is not helped by government ministers encouraging students to focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and maths) subjects, rather than arts and humanities. Yet, arts education clearly offers students much more than simply an ability to produce art and whilst parents may have concerns this is perhaps nothing new. Based on research conducted with individuals who studied art in the 1960s and 1970s, this paper discusses the value of studying art and the transferable skills which art brings. It notes the anxiety expressed by participants' parents and teachers over their desire to pursue an artistic career, but demonstrates the versatility that arts education offers, and the wider social and cultural value that studying art can bring.

Environment and Society

S

TEELHOUSE

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

It’s About More Than Just Attitudes and Perceptions: The Construction of Environmental Values

Roberts, T.

(University of Surrey)

There is a growing list of concerns related to the future health and sustainability of the natural environment, including, climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution, over consumption of resources and food security. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that significant transformations in the relationship between humans and environment will be essential if we are to re- establish an equilibrium between humanity and the natural environment. Publics are fundamental to the transformation of this relationship, without their support and acceptance any attempt to re-configure our impact on the environment will be futile. To date the majority of research into public attitudes to environmental issues has focused on individual elements (e.g. climate change, a specific energy technology, the designation of a protected area) instead of how they manifest in relation to interconnected processes with implications for environmental sustainability.

Furthermore, as Demski et al. (2015) note research in to perceptions or attitudes often fails to capture the complexity and conditionality which underpin reported perspectives.

This paper draws on in-depth qualitative research into the construction of environmental values. It is based on a case study community on the North Norfolk coast where a number of on-shore windfarms have recently been developed.

Instead of focusing solely on the respondents attitudes towards the wind farms, the research explores their attitudes and practices related to a wide range of environmental issues. This data is then used to try and develop a sense of the relationship between their wider environmental values and their specific attitudes towards the wind farm developments.

Can Green Norms Cross Borders? The Durability of Environmental Social Norms Among International

Students in the UK and China

Tyers, R., Berchoux, T., Xiang, K.

(University of Southampton)

This paper examines the logic of the post-materialist thesis; that people in developing countries are usually less concerned about the environment than those in developed countries. The paper also examines how two perspectives on the sources of social norms (including environmental norms) come into conflict in the context of cross-border

53 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

migration. The first perspective is that norms are cultural, durable and are instilled in one's source country; the second is that norms are flexible, experiential, and can therefore be instilled in one's host country.

This paper examines the post-materialist thesis by comparing focus group data obtained from university students in both China and the UK, where participants express their understanding of 'green norms' and 'green consumption' in both abstract terms and in their everyday practices, including recycling, home energy-saving and transport choices.

Particular attention is paid to international students who come to China or the UK from other countries, and how their green norms are affected by this change of location.

On the first issue we find that among this sample of students in China and the UK, the post-materialist thesis remains relevant, with environmental concern much more prominent among students from richer countries. On the second, we find evidence to support the view of social norms being cultural and durable, rather than flexible and experiential.

Thus, the green norms instilled in students' source country invariably triumph over those of the host country, and when norms do change it is usually in the direction of less, not more, environmental concern.

Nudging the Jetset to Offset: Voluntary Carbon Offsetting for Flying, and the Limits of ‘Nudging’

Tyers, R.

(University of Southampton)

Carbon offsetting is a way for people who care about the environment to do something to mitigate the harmful effects of air travel. While there is a growing field of research into encouraging pro-environmental behaviour in areas such as domestic energy use or recycling, little research has been carried out into how carbon offsetting could be extended and encouraged.

Despite research suggesting that many people would be willing to pay to offset the carbon from their flights, take-up of offsets remains low. This paper examined the possibilities of techniques from behavioural economics (so-called

'nudges') in encouraging individuals to incorporate offsetting into the social practices of flying, using a randomised controlled trial on a sample of University students. The results showed that despite a large level of expressed interest in offsetting, very few people actually paid for an offset when offered the opportunity to do so. The results also showed that nudges were not influential in people's expressed interest in offsetting. Follow-up focus groups were used to try and understand the reasons behind these findings.

As nudge becomes a more prominent policy tool for promoting behaviour change, these findings therefore raise issues around the limits to nudging, and whether nudges are appropriate tools for dealing with contentious issues, such as flying and carbon offsetting, around which there is no established consensus.

Families and Relationships

G11 B

YNG

K

ENDRICK

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Examining the Relationship Between Union Dissolution and Women’s Economic Activity in the UK: Some

Data Challenges

Wiltshire, D.

(University of Essex)

Divorce rates in England and Wales rose during the twentieth century with parallel upward trends seen in economic activity among married women. Studies have suggested these trends are associated (Becker:1981). Many studies

(Cooke:2006), however, examine short time spans which is potentially problematic. As female employment becomes commonplace, it is hypothesised that the relationship between employment and union dissolution may change. This study takes a quantitative approach, presenting the challenge of finding many qualities within a single data source.

Specifically the data should cover a long time period and multiple aspects of women's lives. The British Household

Panel Survey and UK Household Longitudinal Survey provide all these.

The UKHLS and BHPS were combined to create a sample of 7671 women who began unions between 1914-2009.

This study found that in earlier cohorts, women spending minimal time in work had the lowest risk of dissolution, but by the latest cohort to women spending maximum time in work had the lowest risk. This study concludes that the association between economic activity and union dissolution has changed across cohorts.

It is hypothesised that rising economic activity among women contributes to wider social change such as their increased status and expectations and changing gender and social norms, leading in turn to rising union dissolution.

One of the limitations of these data is that whilst cohort-driven change can be identified, they do not allow this hypothesis to be investigated further. Hence, sources of qualitative data are sought that allow deeper examination of older cohorts.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

54

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

Troubling Relationships: Towards a New Language of Personal Life

Carter, J., Duncan, S.

(Canterbury Christ Church University)

Despite recent moves in family sociology towards alternative and more inclusive notions of family and family relationships (intimacy, personal life, relationality and so on), there remains a pervasive appeal to the notion of 'family' in public, political and policy discourse. What Gilding (2010) has noted is that the writing out of 'family' has also resulted in a writing out of convention as a central part of relationships and family life. What we hope to demonstrate in this paper is both that family is still an important notion for individuals in varying circumstances, and that notions of convention and tradition are pivotal in the constructions of family life. We demonstrate the pervasiveness of 'family',

'families' and 'tradition' through two examples: LAT (living apart together) and marriage. While LAT relationships have been heralded by some as a mark of individualisation and freedom from convention, what we found instead is that

LAT is often used as a precursor to more traditional cohabitation or marriage or that LAT is used as a defensive relationship state after bad previous experiences. Neither state suggests individualised lives free from constraints and convention. Similar findings were revealed when talking to young women about marriage who were, on the whole, extremely keen to marry and conform to traditional gendered marital roles. What we provide is a new discourse of the nature of family and personal relationships: these are constructed and reconstructed and invented and re-invented through choice, agency, convention and tradition.

Disabled People and Research

Frontiers 1

S

TAFFORD

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Woodin, S.

(University of Leeds)

This paper will consider the progress made by disabled people and people with learning difficulties with regard to emancipatory research and involvement in participatory research. Since the problems with traditional research were first described and challenged (Oliver:1992), there has been patchy progress (Barnes:2003) and a more recent update will be given through a discussion of involvement in two recent research projects, involving co-working with disabled people and people with learning difficulties. It will be argued that there has been real progress in terms of agenda setting, especially in relation to the mainstreaming of disability issues. However, the continued marketisation of research and lack of adjustments to research schedules, methods, analysis and dissemination has proven a more intractable problem that has serious consequences for tokenism. Some ways forward will be discussed.

Barnes, C. (2003) 'What a difference a decade makes: reflections on doing 'emancipatory disability research',

Disability and Society 18(1) 3-17

Oliver, M. (1992) Changing the social relations of research production, Disability, Handicap and Society:7(2) 101–114

Re-Imagining the Unimagined: Making Visible the Stealth Restriction of the Futures of Learning Disabled

Women in Secure Settings

Morgan, H., Fish, R.

(Lancaster University)

Recent research demonstrates that learning disabled people are not expected to follow socially valued life-courses and this is expounded by the lack of available activities post- secondary education. US and UK theorists describe this as largely the result of the lack of 'imagined futures' for disabled people. This uncertainty can cause much distress for disabled people and their families at transition to adulthood and may result in people accessing crisis services. The assumed precarity of disabled bodies and their presumed uncontestable inability to be 'cured' ensures that disability is seen as the sign of no or very limited future. Disability is seen as negative, static and beyond the realm of debate or dissent.

This paper will present data from a recently completed ethnographic study on three NHS locked wards for learning disabled women. The study found that women were situated at the intersection of gender and disability, subject to essentialist ideas about both.' Treatment' programmes focussed on behavioural stability and were not clearly defined in terms of future goals or abilities for return to the community, disconnecting the present from the future. Women were not encouraged to consider personal outcomes from using the service. Despite this, learning disabled women had very clear ideas about what they wanted their futures to look like, and how to advance towards them.

55 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

This research has implications for policy, in particular proposing the incorporation of self-determined goals into treatment pathways. We will recommend a more positive imagined future for intellectually disabled people.

Nancy Fraser’s Theory of Social Justice and Disability Studies

Mladenov, T.

(King's College London)

In this paper, I will provide some reflections on the usefulness of Nancy Fraser's theory of social justice for disability studies.

Nancy Fraser conceptualises justice as 'parity of participation'. This is an inclusive conception – one that encompasses both the more traditional, Marxist concerns of distributive justice that focus on economic issues like poverty, exploitation and inequality; and the newer, post-Marxist concerns of recognitive justice that focus on cultural issues like disrespect and devaluation of difference. Fraser originally developed her theory of social justice in the

1990s and in the 2000s, she added representative justice to the distribution-and-recognition mix in order to account for political issues like democratic deficiencies of public decision-making within and across nation-states produced and/or highlighted by globalisation.

Although developed with analysis and critique of gender (in)justice in mind, this framework is useful for studying disability (in)justice as well, considering that parity of participation has been a central concern of the disabled people's movement since its inception. In her own work, Fraser does not consider disability (with rare exceptions), notwithstanding her extensive discussions of class, 'race' and sexuality (in addition to gender). Putting Fraser's theory of social justice in contact with disability studies will fill this gap, open up new avenues for intersectional analysis, and prevent potential ableist slippages that threaten disability-evading critiques of injustice.

Frontiers 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

127

Learning Through Playing: Creative Pedagogy & Sociological Research

Inckle, K.

(London School of Economics)

This session is an exploration of the ways in which play can be a significant pedagogical tool. During the first part of the session the participants will play a game that I developed based on Snakes and Ladders. The game is designed to teach sociology students about the essential components, and possible challenges, of conducting qualitative research.

I initially designed the game – called Ramps and Elevators to give it a contemporary political twist – to be used when recruiting potential participants for user-led research. The purpose was to provide a fun but informative outline of how the qualitative research process works – or doesn't work in some circumstances. It needed to be accessible as well meaningful and clearly represent how research takes place. A board game format which provokes discussion as well as clear 'winners' and l 'losers' seemed like an effective and fun way to do this.

At the time that I developed the prototype for Ramps and Elevators I was also running small tutor groups with sociology dissertation students who were undertaking qualitative research. In this context, I felt that the original game could be revised to meet the needs of these undergraduates and especially their initial questions about how to undertake a research project. Both versions of the game will be played in the first part of this session which will then be followed by an open discussion about creative pedagogical practice and the potential for developing learning games in a range of sociological fields.

Lifecourse

S

TEELHOUSE

1, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

‘Cycles of Disadvantage’ Revisited: Or, How and Why Some Families Stay Poor and Troubled Across

Generations

MacDonald, R., Shildrick, T., Furlong, A.

(Teesside University)

Sociologists can often easily explain the problems some working-class families face as an outcome of social inequality and immediate and obvious disadvantages. In a minority of cases, however, family problems seem more lasting,

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

56

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

deeply embedded, and recurrent down the generations. This is certainly how families in the UK government's

'Troubled Family Programme' are presented.

Our argument is that problems apparently internal to 'troubled families' (and an outcome of intergenerational social learning) might, in fact, have their provenance in a semi-permanent constellation of external socio-economic pressures experienced by those families, in the places where they live, over generations and over decades. This is what was suggested by our research with young people and older family members in twenty families who lived in very deprived neighbourhoods of Glasgow and Middlesbrough.

On the basis of this research, this shared constellation of forces would appear to be made up of many parts operating together. For instance, we could point to a shared and lasting social context of: restricted – and declining/ degrading – job opportunities; a contracting and increasingly punitive Welfare State; the destructive impact of the local criminaldrug economy; punitive criminal justice systems; the socio-spatial concentration of health inequalities; poor quality schooling and post-school institutions; persistent material poverty; poor quality housing and the decline of workingclass neighbourhoods. Drawing on qualitative case study material, we seek to elucidate some of these processes and to understand better how and why some families stay poor and troubled across generations.

Generational Determinism and Detachment in British Social Policy

Bristow, J.

(Canterbury Christ Church University)

Demographic considerations have always informed the shape and scope of social policy, for example in the design of welfare systems; however, in recent years policy has become more explicit in its focus on the qualitative aspect of relations between the generations. Policy-making in the areas of housing or pensions is discussed in terms of measures designed to promote intergenerational 'fairness', by demanding a resource transfer from the older to the younger generations. Policy increasingly seeks to intervene in the processes of reproduction, education, and childrearing, through the promotion of sex education and birth control in schools, the centralised design and inspection of teaching content and methods, and the development of 'parenting policy' as a new category. One result of this is the creeping bureaucratisation of intergenerational relations, where implicit process of identity-formation, cultural transmission, and affective bonds are disrupted. This relates to deeper existential questions, about the interaction between the individual, family and wider society.

Intergenerational Production of Memory: Mnemonic Socialization or Resocialisation of the Past?

Popov, A.

(Aston University)

The paper aims to further problematise intergenerational transmission of memory as a process of socialisation in mnemonic community by suggesting that it is not just younger generation are socialised into particular discursive representation of the past but the meanings of the past events itself change. The paper draws on interviews with young people and older members of their families conducted in West Midlands. The narrative approach has been applied for analyses of recoded interviews to access different dimensions of mnemonic narrativity. By paying attention to the metanarratives we are able to bring in the analysis a broader socio-cultural context (e.g. social inclusion and human rights in contemporary Britain), public discusses (e.g. debates on Islamophobia, racism; media coverage of historical and recent child (sexual) abuse cases) and national history (e.g. WWII; socio-economic transformations of the 1980s) that shape the individual memories of the respondents. Significantly what remembered and forgotten depends not just upon its relevance to the present but the meaning of past experiences itself might be changed while being discursively re-constructed within new moral orders. The paper argues that such 'resocialisation of the past'

(Farmer 2005) implies a dynamic process of mnemonic socialisation where young people proactively participate in the process of memory transmission rather than being passive recipients of group's mnemonic tradition. Thus intergenerational memory transmission has to be understood as a process of memory production where both a witness (a narrator) and non-witness (a listener) play important roles as co-producers of meanings of the past events and experiences.

From Childhood to Children: Performing Toys in Subaltern Voices

Chopra, P.

(University of Greenwich)

The focus of this paper is to examine intergenerational change in how toys may involve engagement with subaltern narratives and render epistemologically visible the historical, socio-economic and gendered worlds (un)familiar to subaltern children. Through ethnographic vignettes, developed across three generations in two families from different rural/urban contexts and regions in southern and northern India, this paper examines how toys may contribute to a child's awareness of intercultural issues; assist meaningful communication and enhance insights into cultural and

57 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

historical based constructions that connect, in a variety of imagined and real ways, with the present and future in a globalised world. This paper examines and reflects on intergenerational similarities and differences in play processes and artefacts that are inclusive of subaltern children's identities, perspectives and positions. The findings from this paper aim to identify factors that may contribute to strengthening children's agency through their engagement in play creativity and inclusive activities. Toys, in this context, may empower them to construct 'real' narratives that reinforce their sense of self-identification whilst developing their awareness of different caste and class realities that exist in diverse socio-economic, geographical and gendered environments.

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

145

Docile Bodies and Meddlesome Friends: Care as Surveillance?

Hiscock, J.

(Bangor University)

Care and support from friends at times of health problems is loaded with feel-good moral high ground. However, I suggest that we consider it, not as care, but as a tool of surveillance. Taking a Foucauldian perspective, this paper will suggest that people have come to govern not only themselves, but also each other.

This will be illustrated by a qualitative study of interactions about health amongst friends and informal social connections. Purposive sampling included: gender, age, condition, severity of condition, deprivation and urban/rural.

Data were gathered through qualitative interviews. Case study analysis was conducted to inform the development of codes and to identify broad themes which could not be segmented into codes. Transcripts were coded, organised using NVivo and interpreted, guided by the research questions and research team discussion.

The study showed how through observing, monitoring and ‘checking up’, people were exerting a (lay) clinical gaze on their friends’ state of health, which was imbued with judgement on what health promoting behaviour was normal and what was not. Through giving health advice, people were exerting power and control and often assumed a kind of quasi-expert discourse. Through encouraging and motivating their friends to healthier lifestyles they were anticipating a docile body, willing to be ‘trained.’ The paper ends with a discussion of the tension between surveillance and care and an illustration from a study participant. The participant was particularly active in engaging in his neighbours’ health problems and described himself as living in ‘a self-help cul-de-sac’. The circular image of his cul-de-sac conjured up for me an almost perfect panopticon.

Health Inequality in China

Zhao, Y., Li, Y.

(University of Manchester)

Health inequality is both the manifestation and consequence of social inequality. Since China adopted the reform policy in 1978, it has seen fast economic growth as well as increasing social inequality, with the GDP growing at around 10% per annum but the Gini increasing from around 0.3 in the late 1970s to over 0.6 at the current time. China is now ranked as one of the most unequal countries in the world. Existing studies have shown a salient health gradient associated with people's class position, but most studies have overlooked the effect of people's origin class as well as other factors that mediate or moderate the class impacts, such as people's embeddedness in formal and informal social engagement.

This research uses multiple indicators to assess health status, and employs diagonal reference and logit models to examine the effects of origin and current class and social connections on people's health. Drawing on data from the

Chinese General Social Survey of 2005 and 2011, we show significant class-linked health disparities. We also show that origin class provides a buffer zone for the downwardly mobile. Equally importantly, social connectedness, especially that in the informal settings, exerts a powerful safety net for the most disadvantaged. Thus, marketization exacerbates health inequalities which could be much worse without the support gained from embedded social networks.

Life Satisfaction and Income Distress in European Countries Pre- and Post-Recession

Kucaba, K.

(University of Leicester)

This project identified three trends in life satisfaction in Europe which has been the subject of a long- standing debate focused on the relationship between well-being and growing wealth over time. Since economic security is of

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

58

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

paramount importance to human happiness, then measuring life satisfaction before and after current recession informs us about its effect on people and societies. In this study I measured relationship between life satisfaction, income and financial distress in 24 European countries using European Social Survey. As a result, income shows significant correlation with levels of life satisfaction, but only up to a point when financial distress is included in the analysis. Once stress connected with income is taken into account, then the importance of income itself disappears.

And the unhappiness related to unemployment status and economic inactivity diminishes. This relation is mitigated by national wealth and (to an extent) social policy. Hence, I argue that the relationship between wealth and happiness is not of importance once the income distress and national context are taken into account. In practice, these results mean that for life satisfaction it is people's perception of income that matters more than their individual income. In other words, if people feel that it is difficult for them to live on present salary then this will impact their happiness to a much greater degree than the amount of money they actually earn. It is concluded that stressing about money diminishes well-being more than low household income.

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

3

Ova flows in Romania: Temporary Invisibility and Problematic Alliances

Gruian, A.

(University of Leeds)

Romania has become known in the media and in academic research as a site of ova trafficking, in spite of its regulations that forbid any kind of material compensation for gamete provision. In my presentation I intend to offer the first ethographic account of ova provision in this country, exploring both legal and illegal flows of ova in an attempt to illustrate a more complex picture of a phenomenon that has gendered, classed and raced implications. My presentation will illustrate how the interests of clinicians, ova providers and patients intersect and direct the flows of ova, bringing into attention what is (rendered) invisible in the whole process. I will analyse how temporary invisibility of people, actions and things enables the flow of ova, as well as enacts and perpetuates exploitative power relationships. However, I will argue for a more nuanced image of ova providers – the women giving their ova with or without financial gain – one departing from their reified depiction as simply helpless victims. Although I will carve out the peculiarities of the Romanian context of ova provision, what will emerge is a complex network of ova flows stretching globally. I will conclude by arguing that in the Romanian context temporary invisibility is crucial for the forging of problematic alliances between parties and for the circulation of ova, and end by proposing a compensationbased model that would reduce the risk of exploitation.

'I just don't think it's that natural': Young Mothers Experiences and Beliefs about Breastfeeding

Jamie, K., Bows, H., O'Neill, R., Hackshaw-McGeagh, L.

(Durham University)

The UK's Healthy Child Programme recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Despite health professionals encouraging breastfeeding through the pervasive 'breast is best' rhetoric, rates of breastfeeding in the UK fall far below government targets with 17% of babies exclusively breastfed at three months and just 1-2% exclusively breastfed at six months (Department of Health:2010). Within this, young mothers are i) less likely to breastfeed than older mothers, ii) more likely to stop 'early' when they do breastfeed, and iii) less likely to breastfeed exclusively.

Drawing on group interviews with 27 young mothers (under-21) from across the UK, this paper highlights the beliefs and experiences which influence their breastfeeding choices and behaviours. For the participants who opted not to breastfeed, it is argued that the sexualisation of women's bodies is central to a construction of breastfeeding as

'wrong' or 'unnatural'. For other women, not breastfeeding was seen as a way in which to achieve equality in a relationship where responsibility for feeding children could more easily be shared. For those women who opted to breastfeed, breastfeeding was understood as the 'right' thing to do although often painful, inconvenient and

'embarrassing'.

We conclude by suggesting that policy initiatives which assume young mothers' choice not to breastfeed is based on a lack of information or a lack of support risk glossing over the complexities and politics of women's breastfeeding decisions.

Critical Care Nurses' (CCNs') Professional Identity Construction: Multiple Processes of Difference

Belle, M. J.

(University of Tasmania)

59 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

The concepts of boundaries and boundary work are integral to understanding professional identity at the macro and micro level. While these concepts have contributed to understandings of professional identity between different professions, application within professions has been the exemption, rather than the rule. This paper explores the multidimensional processes of difference that inform professional identity at intra-professional level. To achieve this, I draw on data from an Australian ethnographic study that focuses on how Critical Care Nurses (CCNs) construct professional identity in their work environment. Data were generated over an eight month period, involving 92 hours of participant observation of 13 Critical Care Nurses and subsequent semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data were subjected to thematic analysis following the application of Charmaz's principles of constructivist grounded theory. The analysis reveals that professional identity is constructed through intra-professional boundary work by which CCNs engage in relational processes of similarity and difference with other nurses, rather than other health professionals.

These identity processes acknowledge difference with reference to multiple dimensions including spatiality, temporality, gender and ideology. I argue that this intra-professional boundary work offers some explanation of the ambiguity of nursing's professional identity, and conclude that application of boundary work at the intra-professional level extends our knowledge on professional identity generally, and within the profession of nursing specifically. These findings contribute to empirical and theoretical knowledge of boundary work and professional identity at the intraprofessional level, and their expression within nursing.

The Key to Empowering Citizens in an Aging Society

Tomomatsu, I., Honnma, T., Tsumura, I., Yoshimura, S., Ueda, Y.

(Healthcare Research Consultant)

Aim - This study explores how health inequality among the elderly could be minimized in Japan where the aging population is increasing at the highest rate in the world.

The year 2025 will be a turning point for healthcare and social welfare planning in Japan when more than 30 percent of the population will be 65-years-old or older. This generation will require a higher budget for medical care than any other. Therefore, it is important to control health conditions and engage in preventive medicine for this demographic.

The Japanese government has begun to establish community based care by applying the integrated care model used in some European countries. This dynamic change expects people to be empowered to help maintain their own health.

Method - Based on a review of advanced cases of community based care, five municipal corporations and five medical organisations were chosen for interviews. In total:20 people were interviewed using semi-structured face-toface interview techniques. All interviews were recorded and thematically analysed.

Result and discussion - Looking at the geographical conditions and resources for medicine and care, community based care should be established separately for the city and countryside. In both models, public health nurses play important roles . However, since there have not been opportunities for people to get to know public health nurses in the community before their retirement, it is not popular to discuss health issues with them. In order to enhance communication between these nurses and the community, a place such as 'Alzheimer Café' would be effective.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1 - Special Event

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Experiencing Citizenship Tests: Views ‘from below’

Bassel, L., Anderson, B., Byrne, B., Fortier, A. M., Khan, K.

(University of Leicester)

In the last decades, the introduction of ‘citizenship tests’ in European countries has dramatically changed the way migrants can access long-term residence status and/or citizenship. Recent studies show that the requirements related to the knowledge of the language, history and ‘values’ of the host country represent additional barriers to the legal inclusion of migrants, and that they tend to disadvantage some groups of migrants in particular (those with lower socio-economic background and/or computer literacy for example) (Anderson:2013). At a more general level, studies show that the citizenship tests and the ceremonies that follow them are based on new understandings of national membership and of the boundaries between citizens and non-citizens (Walters:2004). Although many studies have analysed the construction and the content of the citizenship tests, few studies have focused on how migrants who have to negotiate the citizenship test and attend the ceremonies experience this process (for exceptions, see Byrne:

2014; Mazouz: 2010; Khan and Blackledge: 2015). In this panel we aim to bring together scholars exploring citizenship tests ‘from below’, with a focus on the experiences of migrants who face these requirements. We would welcome in particular scholars working on international comparisons and/or with multidisciplinary perspectives.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

60

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

Deserving Citizenship? Exploring Migrants' Experiences of the 'Citizenship Test' Process in the United

Kingdom

Khan, K., Bassel, L., Monforte, P.

(University of Leicester)

Since the early 2000s several European countries have introduced language and citizenship tests as new requirements for access to long-term residence or naturalization. The origins and content of 'citizenship tests' has been the object of many studies (Blackledge 2005; Extra et al 2011), and they have been often presented as exclusionary in nature. Citizenship language tests function as a ‘shibboleth’ (McNamara and Roever 2006) that denotes that access to citizenship has to be ‘deserved’. However, there is very little systematic empirical investigation of how migrants experience the citizenship test process.

In this paper we draw on qualitative data collected in an ongoing research project we are conducting on the British case (where the 'Life in the UK' test has been in place since 2005). Through over 70 in-depth interviews with migrants preparing for the test or having taken the test in two different cities (Leicester and London), we analyse their experiences with particular reference to how the idea of ‘deservingness’ is negotiated in the course of the citizenship test process. Exploring citizenship 'from below', we analyse how the rights and practices associated with citizenship are balanced with the cognitive and symbolic demonstrations of knowledge and language competence. Our findings indicate that processes of distinction and interpretations based on the idea of 'deservingness' are at work. Depending on their profiles, migrants negotiate different hierarchies of inclusion into and exclusion from citizenship. This points to the emergence of new interpretations and practices of citizenship in the context of the citizenship tests.

“The Government is Making us Dumb Saying that we don’t Speak English”: On the Fetishisation of English

Proficiency

Fortier, A. M.

(Lancaster University)

Drawing on a multi-sited study of the citizenship attribution process in England involving both applicants and ‘stage agents’ (teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages [ESOL], registrars, and ceremony officials), the paper explores the ways in which English proficiency mediates a range of relationships between applicants, between applicants and ‘state agents’, and between applicants/state agents and the state. From being a moral benchmark in the creation of new hierarchies of citizenship that assess individuals’ worthiness on the basis of their English fluency, to being a bureaucratic tool for the smooth running of citizenship ceremonies, the paper argues that English fluency has become a fetishised commodity in the UK. At the heart of this fetishisation is a complex combination of desires, anxieties and disavowals that by far exceeds the programmatic structure of English fluency as an entry requirement into Britain and Britishness. At a time when 95% of respondent to the British Social Attitudes Survey 2014 consider

English fluency a necessary criteria for determining who is ‘truly British’, it is crucial to show how experiences of learning, teaching and also speaking English are much more complex than this simplistic equation suggests.

Testing Times: Citizenship Testing and Alternative Claims to Citizenship in the UK

Byrne, B.

(University of Manchester)

Citizenship tests are designed to ensure that new citizens have the knowledge required for successful ‘integration’.

This paper explores what those who have taken the test thought about its content. It argues that new citizens had high levels of awareness of debates about immigration and anti-immigration sentiment. Considering new citizens’ views of the test, the article shows how many of them are aware of the role of the test in reassuring existing citizens of their fitness to be citizens. However, some new citizens contest this positioning, in ‘acts of citizenship’ where they assert claims to citizenship which are not necessarily those constructed by the state and implied in the tests. The paper will argue that the tests and the nature of the knowledge required to pass them serve to retain new citizens in a position of less-than-equal citizenship which is at risk of being discursively (if less often legally) revoked.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

144

Beauty Capitalism and Neo-colonial Racial formations

Jha, M. R.

Beauty cultures are capitalist formations which integrate national and transnational characteristics derived from fashion, beauty contests, popular culture, health, advertising and other beauty discourses. Moreover, beauty pageants

61 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

are mass entertainment and media events, situated in global and transnational cultural flows, that often articulate the economic needs of a national community in an effort to harness a global market through media output. Skin-color discrimination or colorism is a global social problem and is related to the role Western-dominated culture and media have played in disseminating the white beauty ideal globally. In India, the valuing of lighter or fairer skin and

Caucasian facial features predates the arrival of European colonialism and imperialism. This paper will explore the history of skin color discrimination in India and in the British South Asian diasporic communities, focusing on gender, caste, and class discriminations.

Drawing on Black feminist thought, 'third world feminist', postcolonial, and transnational feminist theories, this paper investigates how Indian beauty capitalism has consolidated a neo-colonial beauty ideal and highlights the role of mediated beauty pageants in formation of gendered nationalism and neoliberal consumer cultures. This paper will trace the global travel of the 1960s Black power and civil rights 'Black is Beautiful' anti-racist strategy to India by elaborating on the feminist, anti-colorism campaign called 'Dark is Beautiful.' This campaign targets celebrities, media news programs, women's groups, students groups on university campuses, to mobilize a 'Brown pride' social movement to challenge pervasive dark skin discrimination in Indian culture.

Transnational Social Space, Public Sphere and Turkish Immigrant Workers in Germany

Korkmaz, E. E.

(Istanbul Kemerburgaz University)

This paper aims to synthesise 'transnational social space' approach of the migration studies with the 'public sphere' theory and lifeworld-system dichotomy of Habermas in order to have a deeper understanding of the dynamics of immigrant-native and immigrant-immigrant relations. Components of both 'transnational social space' and 'public sphere' shall be witnessed by focusing on workplaces. Workplace level social organizations of workers provide a fertile base to understand daily experiences and relations of workers with and without migration background sharing common public sphere which also includes elements of transnational social spaces of immigrant workers. Evaluating the experiences of Turkish immigrant workers is an important case study as a consequence of Turkish immigrant workers' over 50-year long experience in Europe with their distinctive cultural and religious identities. During the presentation, I will also share the findings of the field study at Ruhr Region (Germany) including survey and in-depth interviews that shed light on participation and representation of Turkish immigrant workers to trade unions and works councils. This paper is a brief summary of my dissertation.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

139

Using Participatory Action Research (PAR) to Understand the Barriers to Bowel Cancer Screening and

Identify Appropriate Interventions to Improved Uptake by BME Communities in Nottingham

Sandhu, J., Pandya-Wood, J., Gibson, L., Flemming, J., Khali, Y.

(Nottingham Trent University)

The reported study helps to facilitate an understanding of how Participatory Action Research (PAR) methods can be used to tackle health inequalities amongst BME communities at a local level. In Nottingham, evidence shows differential rates of health screening uptake with the Black Minority Ethnic (BME) population less likely to engage in bowel cancer screening. The reported study adopted a Participatory Action Research approach to data collection, analysis and verification. It provides an original contribution to knowledge around bowel cancer screening uptake in

Nottingham, both in terms of the methodological approach used and the findings obtained through peer-led research.

Fifteen community researchers, from diverse BME communities were recruited and trained to conduct qualitative interviews with 178 members of the BME community. The peer research team also co-produced research instruments, reviewed data, and identified emerging themes as well as commonalities and differences across datasets. Within a framework of PAR, this paper explores and evaluates the process of BME community researchers participation in the research project. The paper concludes by discussing the value of using BME peer researchers and lessons learned to investigate the barriers to health screening and preferred interventions amongst BME communities.

Risky Cultures to Risky Genes: The Racialised Discursive Construction of South Asian Genetic Diabetes Risk

Keval, H.

(Canterbury Christ Church University)

The relationship between essentialist, biologically reductionist discourse and the racialised health arena are now well established. However, I argue in this paper that over the past few decades there has been a resurgence in recycling

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

62

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

older models of race-thinking through a re-coding of culture within health science and academic discourse. Critical gazes within Medical Sociology as applied to racialised health have been vigilant and mounted strong defences against this cultural racism. However, I argue that there is an additional, institutionally mobilised and insidious component to what I have called the South Asian discursive 'risk package', namely the re-emergence of the 'genetic - predisposition' argument', especially in relation to Type 2 diabetes within UK South Asian populations. This has increasingly become the focus of health science discourse. Growing rates across the globe have been a public health concern for a number of decades. Diabetes discourse has focused on lifestyle and a generalized idea of 'cultural' factors as contributory factors. These have become part of what I identify as a South Asian diabetes 'risk-package.'

This risk formulation is extended to an additional genetic discourse which generates new causal explanations for this heightened 'risk.' South Asian groups are already the subject of discursive, racialized risk constructions, which positions them as active owners of 'risky culture.' The mobilization of genetic arguments repositions them as additionally passive owners of 'risky genes.' The use of racial categories in genetic diabetes science, despite the relative uncertainty and ambiguity of knowledge claims, is problematic and requires critical re-situating.

Is Race a Four-Letter Word? How Bioscientists Work With and Against Race in Contemporary Drug

Development

Merz, S.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

This paper explores how clinical pharmacologists, biomedical researchers and health policy makers understand and use, yet also contest and destabilize racial knowledge about the pharmacogenetics of drug response. As I will show, even though there is no consensus about the meaning of race and ethnicity, scientists largely agree that they are important factors for biomedical research. They thereby employ an 'enlightened racial geneticisation' (Inda:2014) that provides a non-reductionist understanding of race and genetics as an assemblage of biology, environment, socioeconomic factors, standards and practices of medical care, social conventions about the reporting of side effects, and dietary habits. Nonetheless, such complex understandings often get translated into reductionist messages; regulatory requirements, commercial interests and local politics mold these differences into the now socially acceptable language of race and ethnicity. Drawing on interview material for my PhD, this paper thus describes how scientists negotiate the science and politics of racial classificaptions in global drug development.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 4 - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

141

'Everyday Borders' Film Screenping and Discussion

Nava, O., Wemyss,G.

(University of East London)

Increasing numbers of people are becoming border-guards as employers, landlords, health workers and educators are legally required to administer the UK border as part of their everyday lives. As the 2014 Immigration Act pulls more people into border-guard roles, those who are their subjects experience being denied jobs, accommodation, healthcare and education because these border administrators may not be able or willing to understand the complexities of immigration law, may act on racist stereotypes or, threatened by fines and raids, exclude racialised minorities in order to minimize risk to themselves. What are the implications of these developments to all of us in our daily lives?

'Everyday Borders' is a fifty minute documentary produced by the Centre for Research on Migration, Refugees and

Belonging at the University of East London, Southall Black Sisters, Migrants' Rights Network and Refugee and Migrant

Forum of Essex and London that examines the impact of the 2014 immigration act and what a 'hostile environment' for migrants is likely to mean for us all. It can be viewed at https://vimeo.com/126315982

As part of the BSA 2016 Annual Conference I propose a screening of 'Everyday Borders' accompanied by panel discussion that will explore the social and cultural impact of the 2014 immigration act and also the broader uses of film as a tool for research, dissemination and political activism.

Proposed panellists:

Don Flynn, Director, Migrants Rights Network

Pragna Patel, Director, Southall Black Sisters

Georgie Wemyss CMRB

Rita Chadha, CEO, RAMFEL

Orson Nava (Director 'Everyday Borders')

63 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

Rights, Violence and Crime

W

HITEHALL

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Global Gender Equality, Rights and Women’s Activism

Takhar, S.

(London South Bank University)

The paper examines the slow progress made to meet targets set for global gender equality. Set in the context of the foregrounding of gender equality and social justice by the UN, it will show how women's voices have been heard in the face of powerful discourses and ideology, in countries such as India, Egypt and Iran. The much publicised gang rape of a young woman in India in 2012, rape used as a weapon in war and the case of the brutal handling of 'the blue bra woman' by the military in Egypt has resulted in protests by women demanding gender security across the globe. The

Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in conflict, held in June 2014 highlighted that global attitudes need to be changed. The underlying question is how can we generate a fair and inclusive society that takes into account that women make up half the world's population? The answer lies in promoting gender equality and social justice which strike at the heart of policy making. However, what is required to overcome discriminatory practices that 'preserve patriarchy at the expense of women's rights' is the involvement of everyone (Raday:2007:70). Changing attitudes and practices requires raising awareness and has proved to be a difficult task evidenced by the modest achievements of

Millenium Development Goal 3 which seeks to promote gender equality and empower women. This is precisely why the agency and activism of women at micro and macro levels needs to be acknowledged.

The Pride Movement: Configuring Human Rights at EuroPride 2015

Caudwell, J.

(Bournemouth University)

This paper is concerned with EuroPride 2015, which took place in Riga, Latvia from 15th to 22nd June. My aim is to explore the relationships between human rights, LGBTQI activism and the Pride movement.

Pride parades can be viewed as important sites for the advocacy of LGBT human rights claims/ing. There are many

Pride parades that take place around the world. The histories and scale of these events vary enormously. Some adopt en-masse celebration and carnivalesque styles while others face the most severe opposition (e.g. Uganda Pride in

Entebbe:2012-2015). Global manifestations of Pride are uneven, and yet, they are connected. The aim of this paper is to reveal the particularities of the now-global Pride movement and to document the local activities and interactions that served to configure human rights at EuroPride 2015.

Discussion is supported by qualitative research findings, namely observation, four semi-structured interviews and informal conversations; the research methodology can be described as a short-term ethnography. During my time at

EuroPride, I found two aspects striking. First, the volunteers I worked with were aged between 16 and 30 years old and about half of the group identified as heterosexual. Second, the transformative drive of the event rested on an explicit engagement with the universal human right of freedom of assembly. To discuss these features in detail, I focus on the social characteristics of social movements, identity and LGBTQI activism, and on the venacularization of human rights discourses.

Transnationalising Human Rights Advocacy for Political Prisoners in Palestine-Israel

Todorova, T.

(University of Nottingham)

Over 5000 Palestinian political prisoners are currently held in Israeli prisons for 'security' crimes ranging from partaking in unauthorised nonviolent demonstrations to planning armed attacks. On average 40% of the male population in the Occupied Territories spends a period of time in an Israeli prison. Prior to the signing of the Oslo

Accords, the Palestinian prisoner movement was a hallmark of popular resistance against the Occupation. The negotiated release of the majority of the prisoner population during the Oslo period signaled the depoliticisation, and arguably, the disappearance of the Palestinian prisoner movement as a strategic party. Despite this, imprisonment under a security pretext remains a significant aspect of the Israeli Occupation. As a tactic of intimidation and psychological colonisation security imprisonment is characterised by human rights violations ranging from prolonged detention without charge or trial, the use of torture to extract 'guilty' confessions which result in close to 100% conviction rates in the Military Courts of the West Bank (not applicable to Gaza since 2006). In the absence of a formidable prisoner movement, human rights NGOs and 'cause lawyers' have become more prominent in advocating for the rights of Palestinian political prisoners. Based on half a dozen 'scoping' interviews conducted over the summer of 2015 with NGO and legal advocates in Palestine-Israel this paper explores the obstacles and possibilities for

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

64

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

securing the human rights of Palestinian political prisoners under occupation, and begins to map some of the emerging and consolidating (trans)national networks of advocacy between Palestine-Israel, the US, and beyond.

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

W

HITEHALL

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

New Lad or Just Like Dad? Working-Class Masculinities in Young Adulthood

Bradshaw, L.

(University of Hull)

The rebirth of a misogynistic and homophobic laddish culture has reportedly gained momentum. Recently both national press coverage and academic research, for example, have highlighted its pervasiveness on UK university campuses (Phipps:2013). This so-called Loaded and Nuts script of masculinity has tended to be appropriated by the middle-classes. A qualitative mixed-methods analysis was deployed to generate data from 114 participants for exploring laddish performativities of working-class men. Emerging themes of the research suggest that there are multiple ways for participants to perform masculinity. Nevertheless, in a context of high homohysteria an entrenched dichotomy between 'real' versus gay men served as an overarching surveillance or policing regime in the repudiation of or flight from the feminine. Socially constructed performativities were consequently stereotypic in their 'macho' inclinations. Masculine credit was gained through a number of established conduits. Paramount was construction apprenticeships, but these were becoming increasingly elusive both through deindustrialisation and the current economic downturn. As alternatives, engaging in 'macho' sports, excessive alcohol consumption, drug-taking and hyper-masculine honour-based violence were commonalities. Moreover, the 'coinage of women' (i.e. their sexual objectification) functioned to validate sexual prowess. Simultaneously, bragging about sexual conquests provided

'degrading' entertainment- an intrinsic part of male camaraderie and banter. Although sharing similarities with the laddish culture highlighted above, these men were actually performing an intergenerationally transmitted conformist type of masculinity. In other words, they were following their father's (and grandfather's footsteps) in electing both similar occupational choices and leisure pursuits. For these generations of men, 'laddism' never went away.

Patriarchs or Feminists? Men From Patriarchal Society - Modifying Gender Roles

Weiner-Levy, N.

(Mofet Institute, Research, Curriculum and Program Development for Teacher Educators)

This narrative study described the role of men and fathers in the Palestinian (Druze) community who participated in changing the prescribed roles and status of women. 34 Druze women and 12 Men were interviewed.

The findings shed an alternative light on men and fathers in a patriachal community. It explores their role in changing women's position and influencing their daughters and sisters future, as well as the lifestyle of other women from the

Druze community. The men's role is apparent in helping their daughters and other women from the community to break the gender power system, enabling them to live a different lifestyle and undermining the power and authority of the patriarchies themselves. The relationship between fathers and their daughters is explored as well as the role these men played in shattering gender roles and changing the place of women in society.

The study presents men from a patriarchal society in an alternative light. Its findings strongly imply that understanding the complex relationships between power, patriarchy and changing women's gender roles can supply additional insight into feminist transitions. Moreover, the gender role change described differs from the conventional feminist themes, delineating a trailblazing pattern achieved with the assistance of men in the society examined.

Young Working Class Masculinities in Transition

Roberts, S.

(Monash University)

This paper re-considers the construction of masculinity among a group of working class young men from the south east of England, 6 years after they were initially interviewed (written up in Sociology (Roberts 2013)). In the initial qualitative study they had exhibited a more 'inclusive masculinity' (Anderson 2009), characterised by an acceptance of front line service sector employment and an egalitarian attitude in relation to projected household and child related domestic labour. These optimistic ideals and work identities, freed in some respect from the constraints of gender

'appropriateness', are revisited with the young men now in their mid to late 20s. Their construction of masculine identities and their understanding of 'manliness' during the process of their transition toward more traditional markers of adulthood, such as starting a family, and living independently.

65 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

While elements of their more inclusive attitudes remain, these are complicated by the emergence of more complex and multi faceted articulations of identity which develop during the transition to established adulthood. These developments are explained with reference to an intertwining of theories provided by Bourdieu and Goffman.

References:

Anderson, E. (2009). Inclusive masculinity: The changing nature of masculinities. Routledge.

Roberts, S. (2013). Boys will be boys… won't they? Change and continuities in contemporary young working-class masculinities. Sociology, 47(4), 671-686.

The Work of Seduction: Men, Mpasculinities and Mediated Intimacy

O'Neill, R.

(King's College London)

This paper will explore negotiations of masculine sexual subjectivity among men involved in the London 'seduction community', a central locus within what is more properly regarded as a transnational community-industry. Herein, heterosexual men undertake various forms of skills training and personal development in order to gain greater control and choice in their sexual relationships with women. As an entry point to this discussion, I consider the international media event that enveloped American 'pickup artist' Julien Blanc in November 2014. Shifting focus away from the cultural figure of the 'pickup artist' and onto socially located men, I attempt to complicate a dominant narrative that characterises those who participate in this community-industry as pathetic, pathological, or perverse. Drawing on ethnographic research undertaken within the seduction community in London, UK, I examine how men who seek out the forms of expertise elaborated here engage a mode of subjectivity that is highly entrepreneurial, orientated by logics of investment and return, opportunity and outcome. Contending that the seduction community is best understood as a site of mediated intimacy in which masculinities are made, remade and unmade, I argue that this community-industry reflects and reproduces the broader cultural logics of postfeminism and neoliberalism as elaborated in the contemporary British context. To this end, I posit that this highly problematic social formation must be understood not in terms of deviation or departure, but as an extension and acceleration of existing cultural rationalities.

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

134

Dual Education Influences on Chinese Migrpant Children's Urban School Adaptation

Song, Y.

(University of Glasgow)

Under Chinese household registration's segregation on social rights and benefits between rural and urban people, rural workers fail to secure permanent residency on an equal footing with registered urban residents even though they migrant to work in the city for years. The Chinese rural-urban division has consequences beyond access to political and economic rights and resources, and has deepened to shape cultural and ideological perceptions, which continuously influences children of migrant workers moving to study in urban schools. Though nowadays children of migrant workers can study in urban public schools alongside local resident, the rural-urban structural conflict still exists and impedes social relations between rural-urban groups.

The research investigates the difficulties or opportunities encountered by children of migrant workers after entering urban public schools and as the face the realities of contact with city culture, and explains how education affects such children dealing with cultural conflict and constructing transcultural identity.

The discussion on the dual roles of education, as an agent of cultural reproduction and an opportunity for multi-cultural fusion, is based on Pierre Bourdieu's Cultural Reproduction Theory and Inclusive Education Model. These two theoretical starting-points shape and inform the research into how education not only reproduces cultural division but can challenge such tendencies as well. Cultural adaptation survey, including questionnaire, interview and focus group research, and social network analysis are used to clarify the interactions between rural and urban habitus within urban education field and the plight of migrant children marginalized by both rural and urban culture systems.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

66

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

Sociology of Education 1

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1

A

‘Aim Lower’: Exploring the ‘Management of Aspiration’ Within a Disadvantaged Academy in England

Abrahams, J.

(Cardiff University)

In the UK today there exists a large disparity between young people from different social-class backgrounds chances of achieving the benchmark of 5A*-C grades at GCSE. Furthermore young people from disadvantaged backgrounds remain much less likely to progress to university (and in particular elite institutions) than their more advantaged peers.

Political response to this issue has mainly been through a targeting of what is seen as a 'poverty of aspiration'. This discourse renders failure as the fault of the individual and their culture and community. This paper explores the way in which such a focus on aspirations is being managed in one socio-economically disadvantaged Academy in a large city in England. Drawing upon quantitative and qualitative data I will explore the education and career objectives of a group of year 11 students who in the main, already possess high aspirations. I will highlight how despite pressure from teachers to 'raise aspirations', the majority of the pupils were not on track to secure the necessary grades and/or did not possess the additional resources needed to see their expectations come to fruition. In response the careers advisor- contrary to the discourse- works to temper aspirations in line with what he sees as 'the right careers for them'.

Through drawing upon narratives of the professionals and young people themselves, this paper will provide a critique of the political focus on raising aspiration for its lack of provision of the means to achieve such dreams.

'Discipline and Punish': Exploring the Different Ways in Which Two Contrasting Academies 'School the Body'

Morrin, K., Abrahams, J.

(University of Manchester)

Sociological research on schools has often identified these institutions as panoptic spaces. Through modes of surveillance, the creation of 'visibility' and the powerful glare of the panoptic 'gaze', it has been argued that schools are built, physically, symbolically and necessarily, to emplace discipline. This paper draws on comparative data from two academies, one in northern England and one in the south, both in areas of 'socio-economic disadvantage'. Whilst the first academy occupies traditional panoptic architecture and practice, the second appears to display a much more

'flexible' and fluid model of education. For example, one academy has a hexagonal playground surrounded by locked doors at break time, regulating leisure time. Additionally they operate a militarised discipline regime where shouting at children is the norm. In comparison the other academy allows students to sit outside the classrooms in 'break out spaces', even during lesson time. Moreover shouting at pupils is forbidden. In this paper we argue that although surveillance and 'visibility' are performed in polarised ways, discipline and control is realised similarly. In doing so we address conceptual questions on how these similar-distinct spaces fit in relation to 'post-panoptic' theories of education. Further contending that although there are complex and contrasting power relations in the space and pracitices of the academies, 'symbolic' power is central to the ways in which both 'school the body'. Moving beyond explanatory forms of power relation, we conclude that both establishments exert forms of 'symbolic violence' through attempts at managing and reforming the working-class student.

Educating the ‘Crown Heartland’: Understanding London’s Field of Elite Schooling and the Structural

Geography of Educational Power in the UK

Gamsu, S.

(King's College London)

This paper examines the concentration of elite secondary schools in and around London. Nairn's (2011) critique of the

British monarchy described the concentration of ideological and economic power on the South-East as forming a

'Crown Heartland', uniting the cultural vestiges of aristocratic power with the state and the resurgent financial sector.

There are many other accounts of the dominance of the South-East over the rest of England, including most recently an examination of elite clustering in London (Cunningham and Savage:2015). Whilst vague references are often made to the concentration of private schools in South-East England, little work has been done to examine the historical roots or contemporary situation of this geographically concentrated educational infrastructure for elite social reproduction.

This paper attempts to fill this gap by providing a historical and socio-spatial analysis of these elite schools. I first outline how and why a large concentration of private schools developed in and around the capital in the late 19th century and argue that the educational culture within them became nationally dominant. I then map contemporary patterns of entry to Oxbridge by school to reveal how there continues to be a spatial dominance by elite schools in the

South-East. Finally, within London more specifically, I use social network analysis methods to reveal the hierarchy of the field of post-16 education in the capital. This analysis of school to university flows reveals the maintenance of a bipartite divide in access to higher education nested within this broader structural geography of educational power.

67 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

Sociology of Education 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOMS

135-137

School Engagement as a Predictor of Earlyp School Leaving: The Mediating Role of Institutional Habitus

Tarabini, A., Curran, M.

(Autonomous University of Barcelona)

The objective of the communication is to explore the impact of secondary schools, and specifically of the institutional habitus (Reay, et al.:2001; Burke, el al.:2012), on the students' school engagement. School engagement, and more precisely school disengagement, is a key concept in order to capture the process by which students disconnect from school and consequently is a crucial indicator to predict the risks of dropping out (Appleton, et al.:2008; Fredricks, et al.:2004). A systematic study of its dimensions (behavioural, emotional and cognitive) and a proper analysis of the role of contexts in facilitating or inhibiting school engagement it is required as a critical entry point to foster school success for all (Van Houtte & Van Maele:2012). The analysis is based on a qualitative methodology, conducting multiple in depth case studies in five secondary schools in Barcelona, including –among other techniques- 47 interviews with school staff and 53 interviews with students at risk of dropping out. The results point out the relevance of students' engagement in preventing early school leaving, illustrate its different dimensions and identify the most relevant variables related to the 'school effect'.

The Uncertainty of Undertaking an Integrated Master’s Degree and its Potential Impact on a Student’s Identity and Anticipated Life Course Trajectory

Lohmann-Hancock, C., Morgan, P.

(University of Wales Trinity Saint David)

Within a postmodern higher education system there are both opportunities and risks associated with student learning.

The introduction of Integrated Master's degrees beyond engineering and technology affords social sciences students further choice. This paper explores the perceived benefits and risks associated with students undertaking Integrated

Masters' programmes. Students highlighted the potential benefits as: gaining a Master's degree; utilisation of full student loan entitlement; entering employment as managers and the potential of improved career choices as well as higher levels of confidence and self-esteem. Alongside these anticipated benefits learners acknowledged the risks associated with their decision. These negative factors included delay of entering employment, suspension of earned income and carrying forward increased student debt. Students considered that such factors impacted upon both their academic and career decisions and the likelihood of achieving their aspirations. Participatory research methods were used to elicit data from these individual learning journeys ensuring that students were able to 'share knowledge, power and decision-making roles' during the research (Clifford et al:2010, p. 154). Students were encouraged to see themselves as both 'actors' and 'researchers' within an 'authentic' research team. Thus a constructivist approach allowed students to: 'challenge moral authority' through developing 'trust'; explore accountability and relevance when undertaking an Integrated Masters; consider the authenticity of such a degree and finally to reflect upon the potential impact upon anticipated life course trajectory and learner identity (Benneworth: 2009 cited in Munck:2014, p.87).

Through a self-reflexive narrative students explored their futures in an uncertain world.

The Mediating Role of Academic Performance in the Transition to Post-Compulsory Education in Chile

Sevilla, A.

(University of Manchester)

In this paper we investigate the transition to higher education in the Chilean educational system. We test Boudon’s inequality of educational opportunities (IEO) theory by decomposing educational inequality into primary effects, as shown in family background differences in students’ performance; and secondary effects, as demonstrated in the decisions that students make with their families whether to continue in further education conditional on their educational performance. We analyse data from a cohort of students who enrolled in first grade compulsory education in 2002, at age 6, and made the transition to higher education one year after graduation in 2014, at age 18. We assess primary and secondary effects within a mediation-modelling framework. Different measures of family background (social class, parental education or family income) were found to be robust on analysing IEO, but selecting a measure of academic performance appropriate for the educational transition was not an easy task. We address this challenge by exploring both standardised and unstandardised performance measures close to the transition and known to the students, and standardised tests taken at age 13 and unknown to the students. Our findings show a much larger contribution of secondary effects over primary effects. We also correct for sampleselection in the cohort, since students from less advantaged backgrounds are less likely to graduate in the 12-year period of compulsory education. This is a first systematic analysis of educational inequality in Chile using the IEO framework and adds a useful contribution to the knowledge of educational inequalities in developing countries.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

68

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

The Further Education (FE) Lecturers’ Experiences of Teaching Level 1 Skills to Succeed (S2S) Students

Under the Raising of Participation Age (RPA) Policy Reform

Cornish, C.

(University of Essex)

RPA legislation advocates that participation in post-16 education and training serves as the most effective way to reduce youth unemployment and avoid future risks. It therefore constructs this incentivised notion of consequent social mobility and improved life outcomes for RPA youth. To explore this issue, the research critically examines the work practices and teaching experiences of Skills to Succeed practitioners to determine what the RPA agenda means for staff and students on this particular course. This paper draws on data collected between 2013 – 2015, whereby research has been undertaken and is therefore based on various student data, classroom observations and semistructured interviews with eight core staff employed at a large FE college in East Anglia. The staff narratives indicate a critical attitude to education and argue that the RPA naturally leads to poor student behaviour and dire progression outcomes. The main findings highlight a culmination of constraining influences that significantly limit student progression and restrict access to educational and training opportunities. The data illustrates that Level 1 S2S students continue to experience social exclusion and marginalisation in the education and employment sectors, despite the RPA. The paper argues that though structural and institutional factors severely constrain staff practice, concurrently these work conditions also stifle opportunity for practitioners to enact and deliver critical education to improve student progression outcomes and promote social justice.

Work, Employment and Economic Life

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

123

Ageing, Unemployment and Retirement

Beck, V.

(University of Leicester)

The recent economic crisis has increased unemployment rates but has also had effects for those remaining in work: employment relationships are more precarious, working conditions have deteriorated and underemployment has increased. Although older workers have not been affected by unemployment and (enforced) early retirement to the degree that they were targeted in previous recessions (Beck:2013), their position in the labour market has changed considerably.

In the past, older unemployed individuals were more likely to retire (early) than ever work again (Casey and

Laczko:1989) but the options for withdrawal from the labour market have decreased if not disappeared all together.

However, periods spent in unemployment are longer for older individuals than for younger counterparts. How then, is unemployment in later working life dealt with? Are job searches gradually extended to include different, lower status or part-time employment and how long does it take for considerations of retirement to become established?

This paper is based on a comprehensive literature review into unemployment, ageing and retirement; qualitative research into the provision for long-term and vulnerable unemployed individuals (of all ages); and suggests a methodology for researching this important subject matter. It is argued that understanding the coping strategies of older unemployed individuals is not only important to support continued engagement in the labour market but also as a means to prepare for retirement.

Underemployment in the UK Labour Market

Warren, T.

(University of Nottingham)

Developments in the labour market in the UK during and after the 2008-9 recession raised key questions about underemployment and not just unemployment as a consequence of economic crisis. This paper interrogates the concept of underemployment, identifying diversity in its meaning and its deployment. It reviews debates over variation in underemployment cross-nationally; trends over time in underemployment in the UK; its unequal distribution amongst the workforce; and its ramifications for workers and their families. Focusing on the specific type of underemployment that results from being unable to find enough paid work hours, the paper identifies which workers have been most impacted by work-time underemployment, and asks about the outcomes for those workers and their families. The findings are based on analysis of large-scale survey data: including from 'Understanding Society', the

'British Household Panel Survey', and the 'Labour Force Survey'.

69 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

1

Can Voluntary Work and Unemployment Benefits Compensate for the Loss of Manifest and Latent Benefits of

Paid Work and Improve Mental Health and Well-Being?

Kamerade, D., Bennett, M.

(University of Birmingham)

Due to growing labour market flexibilisation more people are likely to experience unemployment. Drawing on the

Latent Deprivation Theory, Agency Restriction Approach and Beck's vision of civil labour in multi-activity society, this study examines the extent to which voluntary work, supported by unemployment benefits, can compensate for the loss in manifest and latent benefits associated with paid work and thus improve unemployed individuals' well-being and mental health.

Using multilevel data from the European Quality of Life Survey for unemployed individuals in 29 European countries and various external sources, this study finds that in countries with more generous unemployment benefits (the proportion of net income in work that is maintained after job loss), all unemployed people, regardless of whether they volunteer, have better mental health and well-being. We also find that regular volunteers are more likely to have better mental health in countries with more generous income replacement rates; at the same time regular volunteering in a country with less generous unemployment benefits is detrimental for mental health. Unemployed people who volunteer frequently also report that their life is more worthwhile than unemployed non-volunteers.

We conclude that although voluntary work constitutes an alternative source of activity which gives people feeling that their lives are worthwhile, the generosity of unemployment benefits is vital for maintaining high levels of mental health and well-being during unemployment. These findings indicate that Beck's vision of civil labour in multi-activity society can only be beneficial for public health if voluntary work is combined with generous welfare benefits.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

70

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

Conference Stream Room

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1 - SE G63, Main Building

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Environment and Society

Families and Relationships

Frontiers

Lifecourse

Medicine, Health and Illness 1 - SE

Conference Centre Room 141

Steelhouse 2, CAMS, Main Building

Steelhouse 3, CAMS, Main Building

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Stafford 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Steelhouse 1, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 145

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

Methodological Innovations - SE

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

Conference Centre Room 3

Conference Centre Room 127

Great Hall, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 144

Conference Centre Room 139

Rights, Violence and Crime

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

Whitehall 3, CAMS, Main Building

Whitehall 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2 - SE Conference Centre Room 134

Sociology of Education 1 - SE Conference Centre Room 1A

Work, Employment and Economic Life Conference Centre Room 123

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1 - Special Event

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

The Times in Places: Ex-pat Cosmobilities and Belonging

Lewis, C., Miles, A., Moore., N.

(University of Manchester)p

This paper explores the narratives of a sub-sample of the Step-Change panel study, who were either born in Britain, or born oversees to British parents, and then moved (back) to Manchester or Leeds after a period spent living abroad.

Their life histories reveal that these types of movements continue to hold great significance and lend a particular perspective to the relationship between mobility and belonging, which is not fully captured in the contemporary literature on globalisation. As Creswell (2004) notes, ‘place is a word that seems to speak for itself’, yet it remains contested and analytically imprecise. Work on globalisation has drawn attention to the troubled relationship between place and identity at the local and global level. For example, Savage et al. (2005) have argued for a more dynamic understanding, where places are not historical residues but sites where identities are performed. In a process of

‘elective belonging’, people consciously seek out places that reflect their identity, situating themselves with ‘people like us’. Our analysis suggests a need to pay more attention to ways in which the contours of class, gender and temporality shape identifications with place. This is especially evident in ‘ex-pat’ narratives on mobility. Reflecting on the movement of ‘return’, individuals reassert a sense of identity in relation to particular narratives about ‘Britain’ in the world, commonly stressing a sense of nostalgia for places in the past. In this situation, individuals attach significance to and, simultaneously, reject particular notions of place as they make sense of both their physical, cultural and social mobility.

Vernacular Temporalities of Everyday Transport, Travel and Mobilities

Moore, N., Miles, A., Lewis, C.

(University of Edinburgh)

Drawing on a qualitative longitudinal panel study on travel and transport this paper develops empirical analysis of the patterning and processes of mobility over time and at different scales. Specifically, it discusses material collected from the life and mobility history narratives of 245 panel members in Leeds and Manchester in northern England (the Step-

Change project http://www.changing-mobilities.org.uk). This panel study explores, amongst other things, changing travel and transport practices in the everyday and over personal and historical time.

This research supports the call for better understandings of the social dynamics and temporalities of demand, over different temporal registers and timescales (Walker 2014) using a variety of methods. It aims to go beyond a focus on conventional life-cycle ‘stages’ favoured by previous attempts at mobility biographies (e.g. Lanzendorf 2003). Instead, we are interested in how a participant’s life may be recalled, recounted and accounted for, in ways that do not always accord with a linear series of causal ‘events’. A number of innovative techniques have been included in the panel study and temporality has been deliberately designed into the research process to make change the focus of analytic attention, drawing attention to the dynamics of mobility in relation to time. In understanding people’s accounts of their lives we develop the idea of ‘vernacular temporalities’and ‘temporal ecologies’ (see Pschetz, MacDonald, Speed,

Bastian: http://www.designinformatics.org/node/396) which demonstrate multiple, overlapping and sometimes conflicting values of time.

The Time of Money: Exploring ‘Vernacular Economies’

Miles, A., Moore, N., Lewis, C.

(University of Manchester)

Transport modelling and planning commonly rests on assumptions about the pre-determined nature and fixity of individual practices, which are often modelled as either the outcomes of rational choices (based, in particular, on the concept of homo economicus,) or as individualised ‘habits’. Our findings, however, reveal that mobility practices in relation to travel and transport are far more complex, based on temporally shifting relations between familiar individuals and relationships to ‘others’, as well as interactions with spaces and things.

Drawing on a qualitative longitudinal panel study on travel, transport and mobility, which is part of the larger multidisciplinary Step-Change project (http://www.changing-mobilities.org.uk), the paper develops empirical analysis of the relationship between travel, transport and mobility. Specifically, it explores the contingencies of everyday

73 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

mobilities as ‘vernacular economies’, where personal histories, household arrangements, cultures of place, and the elasticity or pliability of time and money shape mobility choices and practices. Our findings reveal a flourishing multiplicity of vernacular temporalities and temporal ecologies. Respondents recounted how they stretch, waste, spend and save money – and time; and how they make complex calculations and comparisons of the costs of travel which are not always reducible to economic value. We situate these discussions against the backdrop of austerity and cuts to public services, arguing that more nuanced and situated understandings of the relationships between money and value in relation to transportation is needed to further understand mobility patterns.

The Time of Mobility

Lewis, C., Miles, A., Moore, N.

(University of Manchester)

Drawing on a qualitative longitudinal panel study on travel and transport this paper develops empirical analysis of the patterning and processes of mobility over time and at different scales. Specifically, it discusses material collected from the life and mobility history narratives of 245 panel members in Leeds and Manchester in northern England (the Step-

Change project http://www.changing-mobilities.org.uk). This panel study explores, amongst other things, changing travel and transport practices in the everyday and over personal and historical time.

This research supports the call for better understandings of the social dynamics and temporalities of demand, over different temporal registers and timescales (Walker 2014) using a variety of methods. It aims to go beyond a focus on conventional life-cycle ‘stages’ favoured by previous attempts at mobility biographies (e.g. Lanzendorf 2003). Instead, we are interested in how a participant’s life may be recalled, recounted and accounted for, in ways that do not always accord with a linear series of causal ‘events’. A number of innovative techniques have been included in the panel study and temporality has been deliberately designed into the research process to make change the focus of analytic attention, drawing attention to the dynamics of mobility in relation to time. In understanding people’s accounts of their lives we develop the idea of ‘vernacular temporalities’and ‘temporal ecologies’ (see Pschetz, MacDonald, Speed,

Bastian: http://www.designinformatics.org/node/396) which demonstrate multiple, overlapping and sometimes conflicting values of time.

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

141

The Value of Barricades in Connecting Subjectivities: Anti-Eviction Practices in Rome's Housing Squats

Grazioli, M.

(University of Leicester)

From August 2015 a crackdown on housing squats was announced in Rome as an attempt of normalizing the metropolis before the beginning of the Jubilee, and re-establishing legality in housing practices, regardless their previous recognition as 'containers of housing emergency'. From that moment on, some attempts were made to monitor housing squats and unplug electricity, gas and water in compliance to the national Piano Casa's provisions and the Prefect's public statements, but they all failed due to the resistance of the occupiers and the network of solidarity amongst different occupied spaces. In mid October, a new institutional path towards different housing solutions was re-opened by Prefect, City Council and Region together with housing right movements' representatives in order to avoid forceful evictions and achieving the passing of the more severe stages of the long-standing housing emergency affecting Rome. What this paper advocates is that the barricades and organisational practices of resistance publicly deployed in response to the threat of eviction have produced a subjective recomposition that has forced institutional and political actors to cope with housing movements' demands, despite the criminalizing vulgate surrounding the occupations and their dwellers. Thus it aims at analysing the intertwining of subjective and territorial layers on which these connections have been crafted:

1.Occupations' organisational practices internal level

2. Subjectivation as part of a political organization

3. Subjectivation and sharing of practices on a broader urban level

They will be discussed providing evidences collected during my ethnographic research inside two housing squats in

Rome.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

74

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

The Struggle for Public Housing in Israel and New Trajectories for Citizenship

Levy, G.

(The Open University, Israel)

Popular political participation is undisputedly a major principle in modern democracies. Yet, its specific patterns, and moreover the particular directions it takes amongst non-middle class strata, leaves both liberals and Marxists perplexed. While the former expect disadvantaged groups to follow their universal message, the latter still awaits the working class to awake from its false consciousness. In recent decades, both of these ideological opponents seek to adapt their participatory models to better address the cultural/identity attributes of the marginalised hoping that this will deliver their emancipatory message better.

The social protest since late 2010 has shown a new trajectory in citizen participation that does not register with either tradition. That is, while not organising as a class-for-itself the marginalised also do not subscribe to a universal discourse of rights. By examining the struggle for public housing in Israel, I consider the role of these new forms of political participation and rethink how they challenge the liberal/Marxist dichotomy. The paper thus proposes new conceptual directions for the state-of-the-art theorisation of popular political participation.

From the Construction of Housing to the Construction of Preference – What Bourdieu can Teach us About

Housing in Britain Today

Koessl, G.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

In one of his later works 'The social structures of the economy' Bourdieu develops his critique of economic rationality as envisaged by Neoclassical Economics and he does so specifically by analysing the structure and agents of the

French housing market in the 1970s and 1980s. This paper will revisit Bourdieu's economic anthropology, including some of the arguments that he makes about housing policy and the changes in the French housing market in order to put forward a sociological critique of housing policy in Britain, in particular in relation to housing tenure. By analysing recent housing policy debates, speeches and announcements from Government, this paper will show how homeownership in Britain has been constructed as the preferred tenure of choice by creating narratives that engender home-owners as 'aspiring', self-realising individuals. I will argue that this process of social valuation of homeownership has been performed via narrative of devaluation of social housing (residents). Crucially, these narratives have occurred in a socio-political context of a shift in social welfare, a shift which has made individuals increasingly reliant and dependent on accumulated or inherited property wealth over the course of their lifetime whilst publicly provided forms of welfare are retrenched. The paper concludes that while state actors have increasingly withdrawn from the direct construction of (social or other subsidised) forms of housing, they play a crucial role in the construction of preference for owner-occupation, both at a narrative level but also via specific policy interventions that have favoured home-ownership over other housing tenures.

Bodies Housing Space

Fuller, M.

(Technische Universität Berlin)

This paper explores the ways that bodies, home and space are constituted through housing activities. Here it is argued that between the walls of apartment buildings, actors are engaged in activities of housing that co-constitute their bodies, home and space through seemingly banal, everyday life actions. Drawing upon ethnographic research of housing activities from fieldwork in Berlin in a large housing cooperative (Wohngenossenschaft), this paper explores the ways that housed bodies produce and differentiate the socio-spatialities of home. The physical objects and bodies that populate the apartment are negotiated through socio-spatial arrangements that are stabilized through everyday practices and are contested during life-course events, such as births, aging and deaths as well as moving to a new apartment. By treating housing as a continuous and under-acknowledged array of activities, this paper explores the negotiation of space as it is produced by and produces housed bodies.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

S

TEELHOUSE

2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Sports Mega-Events: Mass Media and Symbolic Contestation

Horne, J.

(University of Central Lancashire)

75 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

The expansion of mega-events has been facilitated by the formation of a sport-media-business alliance that transformed sport generally in the late 20th century. Interest in hosting sports mega-events has proliferated because they have become seen as valuable promotional opportunities for nations, cities and regions (Gruneau & Horne:2016).

In this context, it is valuable to ask what are the possibilities and scope for contestation and resistance to dominant media messages about sports mega-events? How is symbolic contestation played out? What different media are used? What alternative readings of media content are possible? It is beyond the scope of this paper to answer these questions in detail, but it is possible to indicate why such questions are important and some of the ways in which they might be explored in relation to the classic media circuit of institutions/production, content/text, and audiences/reception. The paper will suggest that the work of Stan Cohen and Stuart Hall, two of the most influential

British postwar social scientists, have contributed different ways of understanding the role of the media in constructing social reality. They provide insights into the media's role in both over-reacting to and exaggerating (amplifying) social concerns or social issues and also at times under-reacting and downplaying (denying) others. The paper is constructed in three sections dealing with the mediated social construction of sports mega-events, different decodings

(readings) of sports mega-events, and contesting sports mega-events.

Gruneau, R. & Horne, J. (2016) Mega-Events and Globalization: Capital and Spectacle in a Changing World Order.

Routledge.

Hybridity and Acquisition: Spaces for Developing Women’s Football

Themen, C.

(Manchester Metropolitan University)

Under the theme of acquisition, I look at women's experiences of 'learning' how to play football, and argue that there are apparent anxieties which raise questions regarding development and increasing participation. To 'meet the demands' of femininity, it has been argued that girls may have reservations about taking part in sports and physical activities (Hills:2007: 320). This therefore impacts upon the choices girls make about taking part in physical exercise, specifically traditionally 'masculine' sports such as football. Drawing on Bhabha's concept of hybridity, I look at examples of mixed-football that disrupt a gender binary and instigate debate regarding how gender is constructed in football. I use the method of narrative interviews for data collection. The main findings in this research conclude that in marginal spaces show that there is contestation and complexity that belies customary gender discourse. I argue that there is a tension between the 'objective' construction of gender both materially and symbolically and the subjective experiences of women. By approaching football culture as contested space therefore, I argue that mixed sex football is a context which can test gendered discourse, and have positive consequences for the sustained development of the women's game.

Zero Tolerance for Racism?: A Critique of Collective Punishments in Football

Doidge, M.

(University of Brighton)

European football continues to be plagued by racism amongst fans. Chants, banners and other forms of abuse continue to be directed at players and fans. From Islamophobia in Britain, anti-Semitism in Italy to monkey chants in

Russia, ethnic and racial stereotypes continue to be used to discriminate against players and rival fans. In an attempt to tackle this problem uniformly, the European football federation, UEFA, amended their statutes to impose a 'zero tolerance' approach. Any football club whose fans were found guilty of engaging in racist abuse will now have that section of the stadium closed for the next match. Second offences are met with a full stadium closure and the ultimate sanction is for the football club to be banned from European competition. Whilst it is important that UEFA are taking a moral stand against this continued blight on football, their response has been met with critical resistance from fans, many of whom feel that they are being punished for the actions of a minority. In some countries, fans have deliberately engaged in racist behaviour in order to challenge UEFA. More importantly, it part of a wider reaction 'Against Modern

Football' of commercialism and heavy regulation of fans, which UEFA has come to symbolise. The danger is that fans now feel they are the victims and ignoring the very real victims of racist abuse. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with fan groups and semi-structured interviews, this paper critiques the approach of UEFA noble intentions.

Ageing, Reflexivity and Risk in Masters Highland Games

Bowness, J.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

Discourse around ageing, often informed by a biomedical model of decline, presents the ageing body as problematic, fragile and at heightened risk of infirmity. Participants in the Masters Highland games engage in physically demanding events involving the throwing of up to 42lb weights – a practice in direct opposition to the hegemonic discourse of decline. The competitive nature of the games means that the participants aim to throw as far or as high as possible.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

76

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

Many of the events involve rotational movements which make substantial demand on bodily structures. When in the practice, understandings of risk and modalities to reduce and manage potential dangers are adopted to prolong athletic careers and proceed into the uncertainty of the future. Risking the body in this way is a result of reflexive processes. This reflexivity is present on two levels. Firstly, entrance into the social field of Masters Highland Games is often the result of reflections upon genealogy, which consequently leads to the formation of a Scottish national identity and the performance of traditions. Secondly, when in the games, reflections upon what lies ahead for the ageing body, its sociability and functionality, justifies risk taking behaviours in order to maintain membership of the highland games community. Drawing on participant observation and interview data, this research seeks to understand the relationship between the ageing body, reflexive processes and the conceptualisation and management of risk.

Environment and Society

S

TEELHOUSE

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Welfare, Employment and Energy Demand: The Role of Government Policy in Steering Demand

Butler, C., Parkhill, K.

(University of Exeter)

In order to achieve the UK's carbon targets there is a need to dramatically reduce energy demand. A large body of research argues that to achieve the high levels of demand reduction required, it is necessary to engage with fundamental questions about how our particular requirements for energy are constructed and reproduced. In this regard, several analyses demonstrate the role of government objectives, investments and ways of working in shaping social practice and in doing so constituting the need for energy in the home, at work and in moving around. At the same time, another line of research highlights the role of policy in steering practice in ways that result in the 'underuse' of energy, exacerbating problems relating to a wide range of other social issues, such as health, social participation and poverty. This brings into view the significance of multiple policy areas in steering energy demand, highlighting challenges associated with tensions that exist between policies and the wider social goals to which they relate. With this as the backdrop, the paper presents insights from a detailed analysis of UK welfare and employment policies, focusing on the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) as the main policy body with responsibilities in this area. The analysis will draw on interviews and documentary analysis to show how welfare and employment policy has implications for energy demand, and give insight into how policy could be re-imagined to engender different patterns of energy-use commensurate with meeting key social challenges.

Co-producing Local Responses to Climate Change: Reducing Fragmentation and Disconnection from the

IPCC Process

Howarth, C.

(Anglia Ruskin University)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is widely regarded as the most important and authoritative voice on a global scale of the state of knowledge about climate science, its real and potential impacts, and the possibilities of mitigation. Its communication strategy launched in 2012 established that the primary target audiences of its communications efforts are governments and policy-makers at all levels. However, few studies have been published offering detailed qualitative research on how these sectors view and use the AR reports.

Local policy makers are crucial audiences for the IPCC to consider, as users and producers of local knowledge on climate change. They contribute to developing locally based nationally-impactful solutions to climate change (Argyriou et al.:2012) and have a deep understanding of the local impacts of climate change, including how local stakeholders, communities and structures respond (Vogel and Henstra:2015). However their needs are sparsely reflected in the vast substance of the IPCC ARs which do not provide a synthesis of the science of a sufficiently granular nature to adequately inform local decision-making.

Data from three workshops with UK academics, practitioners and local decision makers are presented and assess the extent to which the ARs are a useful tool through which scientific advice informs local decision making on climate change in the UK. The paper outlines key recommendations on how the IPCC ARs can be better utilized as a form of scientific advice to inform local decision making on climate change.

Local Connections: Community Action and the Governance of Climate Adaptation in an Age of Austerity

Fagan-Watson, B., Burchell, K., Watson, T.

(University of Westminster)

In the context of adaptation to heatwaves, governance remains a statutory endeavour and 'community resilience' is

77 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

bestowed on passive communities by active local authorities and emergency services. Within this context, drawing on the principles of community action and action research, the objective of Urban Heat is to examine the ways in which community groups can contribute to the governance and implementation of adaptation and resilience. In summary, the

Urban Heat action relied upon three London case studies and three work packages:1. Developing ideas with community groups; 2. Relationship building with local statutory bodies; 3. Bringing these groups together. The project action suggests that community groups are able to rapidly engage with a novel issue and – on the basis of deep local knowledge, experience and relationships –develop meaningful ideas for the local governance and implementation of adaptation. In particular, these focussed on: ongoing bridges between community groups and statutory bodies; the ways in which community groups can reach many people that it is not easy for statutory bodies to reach; and, the provision of appropriate resources and infrastructure. With variation, the project action also suggests that local statutory bodies are keen to work with and learn from community groups. Throughout the project action, austerity loomed large, sowing uncertainty and anxiety, and severely impinging on the capacity of statutory bodies and community groups to participate in the project. It is ironic that austerity further emphasise the value of the kinds of local connections that were developed in Urban Heat.

Is the Environment Becoming "Too Human"? A Sociological Reflection on the Anthropocene

Carvalho, A.

(University of Coimbra)

The Anthropocene is a concept which suggests that the current geological epoch is shaped by human activities, illustrated by climate change and various socio-technical risks. It questions the traditional divide between nature and culture, and its theoretical, institutional and cultural pervasiveness has transformed the ways in which we make sense of ourselves; how technologies are designed and disseminated and how governments manage their territories and populations.

This presentation will focus on a number of case studies which encapsulate the cultural ubiquity of the Anthropocene.

It will explore the ecological turn within Science and Technology Studies and post-humanist literature, understood as the theoretical framework of the Anthropocene. It will delve into the institutional significance of the Anthropocene, analyzing the dissemination of "Low-Carbon Societies" - I will explore the European case (specifically the Roadmap

2050) as well as the Portuguese Low-Carbon Roadmap. I will also tackle the proliferation of "ecological" lifestyles which aim at reducing negative impacts on the environment, focusing on the local branch of the Transition Network in

Coimbra, Portugal.

I will draw upon a number of qualitative methods, such as semi-structured interviews with members of the Transition

Network; discourse analysis of policy documents and an extensive literature review. This presentation will shed light on the ways in which the Anthropocene is shaping contemporary governmentality devices, inviting us to critically reflect on the "environmentalization" of human cultures and on the "humanization" of nature, showing how it operates as a moral dispositif to reconfigure policies, social movements, technologies and lifestyles.

Families and Relationships

G11 B

YNG

K

ENDRICK

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

‘Learning to be Zen’: Women Travellers and the Imperative to Happy

Falconer, E.

(University of Westminster)

This paper follows the emotional management of lone, independent women travellers as they move through tourist spaces, based on my doctoral research Embodiment and Emotion in the experiences of independent women tourists.

Specifically, this paper will focus on 'gendering happiness' by arguing that women travellers are significantly compelled to feel and display characteristics of happiness, humour and 'learning to be Zen' in order to be successful travellers. The imperative to become, and remain, happy and humorous in the face of embodied, emotional and gendered constraints is a key feature of women's reflections of their travelling experience. This mirrors the recent emergence of literature into happiness and positive thinking within feminist theory as well as wider critiques into the mainstreaming of the mindfulness movement of self-development. This analysis begins with influence of women's guidebooks and travel literature on particular discourses of emotion, before providing rich, original narrative data from field research. Negotiating 'bad' emotions provides a powerful insight into the perceptions of women travellers, yet the imperative to remain happy can mask problematic power relations and other forms of resistance. This is not to say that emotional negotiation is not partly a form of effective resistance in itself which enables women to experience a greater degree of stress-free travelling mobility, rather, as Ahmed (2010) suggests, I wish to make room for the freedom to be unhappy and angry in travelling without feeling failure for not achieving a successful travelling identity.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

78

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

The Personal is Political… just not always Progressive: Thinking and Rethinking Men and Emotions

De Boise, S.

(Örebro University)

There is a widespread belief that a majority of men, in the US, the UK and Western Europe, are getting 'more in touch' with their emotions, leading to a 'softening' of masculinity. Feminist and profeminist campaigners have (rightly) cited an increasing understanding of men's emotional lives, and getting men to understand their own emotions, as central to any project addressing gender inequality. Psychologists have also linked greater emotional self-attunement as key to tackling men's underreporting of depression and (both separately and in connection with) high suicide rates. In short: men being 'more emotional' is almost always seen as progressive.

There is a problem, however, with narratives around increasingly 'more emotional' men. Not only do these fail to engage with historical precedents, they divide 'progressive' from 'regressive' men without accounting for structural power relations impacting on ideas around progress and regression. Furthermore, assuming that men's emotions are inherently gender-progressive, ignores more sinister examples of antifeminist rage, easily identifiable through men's rights activism and online misogyny.

This paper argues that we need to engage critically with how we think about both emotions and a history of emotions in relation to gender equality. Considering how emotions are put into language as well as the mechanisms by which societies are expected to articulate and measure certain emotions have an impact on how we characterize emotions and 'emotional' behaviour. In focusing on these areas, this paper aims to contribute a critical analysis on a developing and much-needed area of sociological research on men and emotions.

Bonds, Bridges and Ties: Social Capital Theory and LGBT People’s Housing Concerns Later in Life

King, A.

(University of Surrey)

The aim of this paper is to provide a critical, theoretical, intervention and discussion regarding housing concerns for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people as they get older. Specifically, the paper assesses the usefulness, or otherwise, of applying social capital theory (SCT) in this debate. Studies consistently suggest that older

LGBT people have a series of concerns about housing later in life, whether related to their existing home or entering specialist sheltered housing or residential care. In this paper I will argue that these concerns are not simply practical issues, important as they might be, but can be related to ideas about social connectedness, networks, trust and above all social divisions and power relations; in short, they are concerns that involve elements of social capital and its interrelationship with other forms of capital. The paper draws on data from a range of studies of older LGBT housing, including a survey I co-conducted in London and Shropshire, which is presented here for the first time.

Frontiers

S

TAFFORD

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Emotion in the Intimate Lives of Internally Displaced Children in Bogota

Holmes, M., Anderson, D., Baxter, K., Darkessian, A., Hamel, M. E., Langer, J., Riga, L.

(University of Edinburgh)

Despite the shifting of debates that has occurred due to the so-called 'refugee crisis' of the summer of 2015, UNHCR and other international humanitarian organizations serving the displaced have increasingly become what one scholar calls 'permanent crisis bureaucracies', with policy practices designed to sustain populations in moments of intense crisis becoming routinized and embedded as permanent 'protracted situations'. And these practices are replicated globally across numerous displacement contexts. Moreover, policy innovations developed to address the needs of protracted displacements tend to be top-down initiatives, so the very real diversities of lived experiences are compressed and homogenized. This paper draws on a small pilot study exploring the situated and emotional experiences of internally displaced children living in a settlement on the outskirts of Bogota, and in particular on their reactions to watching a documentary made by a small registered charity, LIVED, on Syrian refugee children in and around Za'atari refugee camp in Jordan. Using the Colombian children's drawings and the Syrian documentary, it will critically interrogate how displaced children are intimately connected to others present in the camp and far away. On this basis the emotionology of refugee 'crisis' can be challenged and questions asked about the role of mutual emotional support in sustaining displaced children in what are increasingly situations of entire childhoods in displacement.

79 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

The Internalisation of Futility in the Development and Consolidation of Professional Identity Nurses

Transitioning from Student to Qualified Staff

Theodosius, C., Hudson, C.

(Brighton University)

This paper explores the relationship between the development of professional identity and the internalisation of social norms, beliefs and attitudes around futility in nurses as they transition from student to newly qualified staff. Given the high levels of attrition, stress and role adjustment during the transition from student to newly qualified staff (Duchscher and Myrick:2008; Ferguson:2011) many NHS Trusts now offer support through preceptorship programmes. Emotional labour, the way in which professionals manage their own emotion in order to support the emotions of those they care for, has clearly been linked to compassion fatigue, stress and burnout in healthcare professionals (Erikson 2009;

Schauffeli et al 2009; Todaro-Franeschi 2013). Identifying how newly qualified nurses professional identity is consolidated and performed during this critical period is essential to understanding how they manage stress and protect themselves against compassion fatigue. From research carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on emotional wellbeing and resilience for novice nurses on a preceptorship programme, the internalisation of futility has been a surprising finding. Drawing on the work of Goffman (1959), Archer (2000) and

Theodosius (2008), this paper examines how over an 18-month period social norms, beliefs and attitudes around common frustrations in nursing practice become internalised in novice nurses as futility. The paper considers the impact of futility on professional identity and the impact this has on their collegial emotional labour and professional resilience strategies.

Lifecourse

S

TEELHOUSE

1, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

'You don't want to talk about it, and you certainly wouldn't want to go to a university and tell other people about it': Investigating the Challenges of Qualitative Research on Loneliness

Thomas, M., Sullivan, M.P.

(University of Kent)

This paper draws on methodological insights generated during the qualitative stage of a mixed methods research study in England on temporal variations in loneliness as experienced by older people. Data analysis highlighted discrepancies in the reporting of loneliness between survey responses and follow-up interviews with the same participants. The paper acknowledges the potential for discrepant or under-reporting of loneliness in face-to-face research encounters. This can be understood in the context of commonsense ideas about loneliness as betraying an individual and social deficit. Therefore, avoidance and digression are likely to be aspects of qualitative interviews on loneliness and other topics where interviewees may prefer not to ground opinion in their own lived experience.

Although loneliness is of increasing policy interest internationally, research in this field has been dominated by quantitative studies. The challenges facing qualitative researchers in this area of social inquiry need to be understood and managed so that qualitative research can make a fuller contribution to our understanding of loneliness in later life and other phenomena that may be difficult to disclose in person

'Bodies of Colour': The Missing Landscape of Ageing and Embodiment in Cultural Gerontology

Rajan-Rankin, S.

(Brunel University London)

Ageing research has increasingly become embodied, providing a contextualised and corporeal understanding of ageing within and outside the body (Gilleard & Higgs:2000; Ward & Holland:2011). The cultural turn in gerontology has provided an important analytical lens to understand cultural practices and social identities that influence and are shaped by the ageing process (Twigg & Martin:2015). With globalization and the reconstitution of global communities, ageing research must now contend with multiculturalism and supradiversity as central aspects of embodied ageing, and not just as contextual background to an ageing population. In this sense, globalization can be viewed fundamentally, as the movement of and between ethnic groups who are themselves shaped by global change.

Despite some encouraging movement in ageing and ethnicity studies (see Zubair & Norris:2015); it is argued that an embodied study of ethnicity and ageing is a neglected area in cultural gerontology. This missing landscape in the cultural ageing scene, is reinforced by the treatment of ethnicity and race as categories of social research, rather than situated discourses of decolonized meaning and identity formation. This paper presents a critical analysis of cultural theory and post-colonial writings including Frantz Fanon, Homi Bhabha, bell hooks and Gayatri Chakrovorty Spivak; to examine why politics of race and colour, have failed to take centre-stage in ageing research. Avenues for future research are discussed, including the importance of locating the sociology of race within the study of ageing.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

80

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

Dying Alone: Exploring Meanings and Questioning Assumptions

Caswell, G.

(University of Nottingham)

This paper seeks to unpack the taken for granted notion that no one should die alone. In the UK this idea is embedded in policy, which assumes a good death is one where the dying person is surrounded by family and friends. In healthcare practice the view that no one should die alone is voiced by workers from a range of countries, and families do their best to accompany dying relatives. The sentiment is found in popular culture such as television shows, novels and films, and the news media publish negative stories of extreme cases where a person has died alone and not been found for an extended period of time. Nurses, however, often tell stories about patients whose families maintain lengthy vigils but who die when family members leave the room. The intention of this paper is to take a critical stance in examining the idea that no one should die alone. It will explore what it means to say that someone has died alone and consider whose interests may be best served by providing company for dying people. In doing so it will draw upon findings from a pilot study which used the sociological autopsy to examine cases of people who died alone and also explored the possibility of dying alone from the perspectives of people who live alone and professionals who work with dying people.

Death and Grief in Working-Class Communities: Narratives of Recently Bereaved Carers

Mulrine, S.

(Teesside University)

The sociology of death, dying and bereavement has sought to understand how social divisions, including gender and ethnicity, impact at the end-of-life and into subsequent bereavement. Despite the prevalence of epidemiological evidence indicating continuing health inequalities and a higher mortality rate for those from working class communities this area has hitherto received little attention. The lack of qualitative understanding can lead to assumptions of experience that may not be occurring for those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This research seeks to address the dearth in understanding of the experience of end-of-life and bereavement in disadvantaged and working-class communities.

Using longitudinal data from in-depth interviews with 13 bereaved carers, this paper aims to illustrate the differences for those from disadvantaged communities and backgrounds, in their experience of end-of-life and their bereavement.

Conducted in the North East of England the research suggests that those from working-class backgrounds encounter death, dying and bereavement often from a complicated set of circumstances. The effects on end-of-life care, grief and emotion work of familial break down, multiple bereavements, violence, substance misuse, and socio-economic constraints can lead to complications of making meaningful their role and loss. Themes from the research will be explored, using the concepts of Bourdieu, highlighting distinction of knowledge and taste can have limiting and destabilising consequences for those from working-class backgrounds in their grief, loss and bereavement for an extended period after the death.

Medicine, Health and Illness 1 - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

145

ESRC Open Forum: Championing Sociological Research on Antimicrobial Resistance

Lambert, H., Cabral, C., Raman, S.

(School of Social & Community Medicine)

The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) regards social scientists as crucial to tackling the growing challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and is committed to funding more social science research in this field.

This Open Forum, led by medical anthropologist and ESRC AMR Research Champion Helen Lambert, invites sociologists from a wide range of backgrounds – including those not currently working on health-related issues - to consider research and funding opportunities in this area.

Proposed solutions to tackling the rise of infections that are unresponsive to existing antibiotics have mainly been biomedical or technological: new drugs, better genotyping of resistant strains, new diagnostic tests. Yet antimicrobial resistance is largely a consequence of human action and its drivers and consequences are socially patterned. For instance, public understandings of science and trust in expertise shape responses to health communication; migration drives global transmission of infections and AMR; values, norms and expectations influence antibiotic consumption; farming practices and food preferences influence AMR transmission through livestock and the environment; and pharmaceutical markets and changes in state provision of healthcare affect demand for antimicrobials.

81 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

This forum will provide opportunities for sociologists with diverse interests - risk and society, environment, migration, ethnicity, STS, social network analysis, medicine, animal-human interactions, social policy, and methodology, among others – to consider opportunities for involvement in AMR-related research. Helen Lambert, Christie Cabral and sociology colleagues will present case studies of current work, outline funding opportunities and highlight research questions requiring sociological attention, followed by questions and discussion with participants

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

3

The Role of Patient and Public Involvement in Narrative Reconstruction and Identity Building

Maguire, K., Britten, N.

(University of Exeter Medical School)

In this paper we draw on Bury's work on the disruption chronic illness can cause to a sense of biographical continuity, and Williams' insights about how narratives are used to repair these, to explore the experiences of patient and public involvement representatives in health research. When asked how they became involved as lay representatives our study participants often told stories of personal transformation; the re-orientation of individual identity following lifechanging events. This led to reflections on the importance of creating meaning for these participants following a range of transformations, not only the development of a chronic illness but also following retirement, bereavement, medical harm, healing or transformative surgery. Each of these may require an adjustment to a new and very different understanding of what is 'normal'. This discussion enables us to put a more positive spin on Arnstein's concept of participation as 'therapy' by looking at how working with researchers has helped some participants find an effective voice. Yet it is also clear that involvement is not a positive experience for everyone, sometimes people feel tokenised, and sometimes focusing on health concerns can have a negative impact on their wellbeing. There is also a danger that people who rest the rebuilding of their sense of self on their involvement will face criticism as 'the usual suspects' or be again bereft when researchers no longer require their input. These concerns lead us to consider the ethical responsibility of researchers and research institutions who invite people into these roles.

Women’s Everyday Imaginings of Contraceptive ‘Coils’

Newton, V., Hoggart, L., Walker, S.

(The Open University)

To explore the acceptability of intrauterine contraception (IUC) in a General Practice setting, we interviewed 30 women (aged 18-49), who had never used IUC, to gain insight into their beliefs about and attitudes towards IUC.

Interviews were analysed thematically initially and then re-examined to explore discursive construction and phenomenological imagining of the body in relation to IUC. In the context of sociological theories of the body, we identified three main themes:

Concerns about bodily boundaries and control. Women were concerned about the procedures for insertion and removal of intrauterine devices: 'I don't know how you get it in and out'.

Concerns about Pollution of the body. Women were concerned about the long-term effect of the device in their body and its impact on reproductive functions: 'I feel like if you had a period and you've got a bit of metal shoved inside you or whatever it is, that's got to hurt when you're shedding, when you're having the period'.

Gendered Bodily shame & distaste. There was an emotional response of distaste: 'I hate internal exams, [...] to have somebody rooting around in your cervix, I don't want to do it!'

Another strong theme was the importance of social networks in contraceptive choice.

We develop a framework reflecting the discursive and phenomenological framing of IUC in women's everyday discourse and compare this with available biomedical discourse in contraceptive leaflets and guidelines. We suggest that clinician-client communication could be improved by consideration of the framing of IUC in both discourses.

Care, Violence, and Emotion in the Health Research Interview: Caring for the Interviewee and the Interviewer

Thwaites, R.

(University of Birmingham)

Interviewing is an emotional business, and never more so when hearing sensitive stories. As a researcher on a project exploring older people's experiences of emergency admission to hospital, the emotion can be heightened both for interviewee and interviewer, as they explore ill health, loneliness, loss of independence, bewilderment at the

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

82

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

system, worry and strain over dealing with a very sick family member, or concern over long-term prognosis. The interview can be therapeutic for the interviewee; a space to air some of their feelings and feel 'heard' in what can feel like an overwhelmingly large medical system. For interviewers though it may be stressful, with a myriad of complex emotional and ethical concerns crossing their mind as they listen and take on board these stories of ill-health and strain. They may also encounter difficult and unpleasant stories, which include gender discrimination, racism, or ageism (by the patient or against the patient) and can experience this as a form of violence (in its broadest sense) against their own selves, sense of safety, and integrity. Caring for oneself in these situations can be difficult, when there are pressures to 'get the data' and when in the home environment of the patient. This presentation therefore will explore the interview as a moment of care for patients and their families, using experience from recent interviews, but it will also examine the emotional labour of the interviewer in this situation and ask who should be caring for the interviewer in health research.

Researching the Reproductive Body: Power and Reflexivity During Data Production, Analysis and

Interpretation

Christoforou, A.

(European University Cyprus)

The increasing sociological interest in human reproduction is resulting in remarkable work concerning the construction, representation, and experiencing of the reproductive body across diverse geographical, socio-cultural, and historical contexts. In this paper, I discuss the politics of researching the menstruating body, drawing on my experience in studying Greek Cypriot women's interpretations and experiences through semi-structured in-depth interviews. I argue that the process of reflexivity – a critical reflection on the power relations as they develop during the research process – is necessary when researching the lived experience of the reproductive body. Giving concrete examples from my research, I focus on power dynamics both during the data production and during the data analysis and interpretation. Specifically, I engage with issues such as the disclosure of the researcher's status, the reciprocal sharing of experiences, and the shifting power during the interviews, while I reflect on the decisions I made and the strategies I employed to foster the development of trust, openness, and flexibility in the encounters with respondents. I then proceed to discuss the ways in which the researcher's personal ideas, values, and emotions might influence the direction of analysis and interpretation, emphasizing the ethical responsibility of continuously reflecting upon and acknowledging the parameters that shape our claims. Last, but not least, I discuss the benefits and the challenges associated with researching reproduction in one's own culture based on my experience as a Greek Cypriot woman researching the menstruating body in the contemporary Greek Cypriot context.

Methodological Innovations - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

127

Shifting East German Identities

Weinel, M.

(Cardiff University)

The presentation reports the findings of a multi-generational Imitation Game designed to investigate shifting identities of East Germans. Changes in themes and topics in questions asked during a series of five Imitation Games involving

East and West Germans of different ages have been analysed Germany. The analysis suggests that those born after

1985 display a predominantly ‘regional identity’, whereas those born before 1985 display a predominantly ‘cultural identity’.

More than a Mixed Method: Using the Imitation Game to Research Knowledge, Identity and Integration

O'Mahoney, H., Lyttleton-Smith, J., Evans, R., Weinel, M.

(Cardiff University)

The Imitation Game is an innovative research method that meshes qualitative and quantitative data production in unique ways. Drawing on ideas from science and technology studies (STS), particularly ‘interactional expertise’, the

Imitation Game explores the extent to which members of different social groups can take the perspective of the other.

To the extent that they are able to do so, we argue that this linguistic fluency can be seen as a proxy for social interaction and integration between members of the two groups. In this panel, we report on a number of case studies that develop the Imitation Game as a research method and provide an empirical test of these claims.

The four presentations, which are all based on research funded by an ERC Advanced Research Grant highlight the flexibility of the Imitation Game as a research method and the variety of academic debates and fields to which it can

83 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

contribute. The first presentation outlines foundations of the method and uses findings from a comparative study of

English and Scottish identities to illustrate some ways in which the quantitative data can be analysed. The other three contributors report on three different empirical applications of the Imitation Game; a single-site study of gender run in

Cardiff; a cross-cultural study of sexuality in Cardiff and Wroclaw (Poland); and a multi-generational study of (East)

German identities conducted in Berlin. Each of these studies inspired significant methodological innovation and provoked new and distinctive ideas for future data analysis and theoretical exploration.

Group Play Versus Individual-Play in Gender Imitation Games: Boundary Work and the (Co-)Construction of

Gender in a New Research Method

O'Mahoney, H., Lyttleton-Smith, J., Weinel, M., Evans, R., Leonard-Clark, W., Collins, H.

(Cardiff University)

As with many research methods, there are a number of different ways in which the Imitation Game method can be implemented. For example, the parameters that can be varied include whether or not Imitation Games are played in

‘real time’ or asynchronously, and whether participants are observed or play anonymously. This paper reports on an experimental shift in the protocol of Imitation Games, and explores the data produced in games played between male and female participants, with some playing the game individually and others participating in small teams. This has a significant influence on both qualitative and quantitative data generated and resonates with wider debates in the research methods literature about the costs and benefits of working with groups when conducting social research.

As well as reporting on the results and implications of one innovation to the Imitation Game method, this presentation also highlights some interesting findings relating to the ways in which masculinities and femininities, as well as social groups more generally, are (re)produced in this research method. In this paper, the thematic content of Imitation

Game data is summarised and transcriptions of video-recorded interactions of small teams playing Imitation Games are used to explore the processes through which these groups formulate the data produced by this game.

Burns’ Night and Bonfire Night: Using the Imitation Game to Explore National Identities within the UK

Evans, R., O’Mahoney, H., Weinel, M.

(Cardiff University)

Developed at the Cardiff School of Social Sciences, and currently funded by an ERC Advanced Research Grant

(269463 IMGAME), the Imitation Game measures the distribution of knowledge about a social group by exploring how well its experiences can be described by others. The method is innovative in several ways: it generates qualitative and quantitative data simultaneously; it uses research participants as ‘proxy researchers’ and, by mapping how well members of one social group can imitate (pretend to be) members of another social group, it creates new topologies of social interactions and integration.

In this presentation we will explain the theory of interactional expertise that underpins the Imitation Game and outline the main features of the method. Drawing on data collected in England and Scotland, we show how the data generated during the Imitation Game can be analysed to test hypotheses about cultural integration and segregation.

We also illustrate how content analysis can be used to explore how participants construct their group identities and the potential for linking this data to other socio-demographic characteristics.

The presentation will conclude highlighting the potential of the Imitation Game to complement existing data sets such as the Eurobarometer and Mass Observation Archive as well as providing a new way of training in professions such as medicine and the voluntary sector where achieving an understanding of the ‘other’ is known to improve performance and outcomes.

Local Sexuality: Comparing how Young British and Polish Gay Men Construct Sexual Subjectivity within

Imitation Games

Lyttleton-Smith, J.

(Cardiff University)

In the early 21st Century, the UK and Poland hold considerably different social attitudes towards homosexuality: in

2013 the Pew Research Centre found that 42% of Polish people surveyed believed that homosexuality should be tolerated in society, compared with 76% in the UK (Pew Research Centre:2014). These contrasting attitudes are reflected in the legal status of homosexual relationships and related issues, as well as through the modes of communication and organisation of the LGBTQ+ communities in each country. In this presentation I share data concerning young gay male identities produced using the Imitation Game research method, and explore how these local social attitudes are also reflected in the way that the participants constructed, shared, and analysed their subjective experiences and views on their sexuality. We have run Imitation Game studies on homosexuality in the UK and in Poland and in this paper I explore the qualitative data produced during four Imitation Games: two held in Cardiff

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

84

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

in 2013, and two held in Wroclaw in 2013 and 2014. This data consists of questions about aspects of gay experience, the ‘real’ and ‘imitation’ answers to those questions, and reasons that gay judges gave for deciding which answers were from real gay men. In order to interpret the data, I draw on feminist and queer theoretical perspectives to consider sexuality as fluid, contingent, and performative; in doing so I explain some of the strengths and challenges of using the Imitation Game research method within these theoretical frameworks.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Cosmopolitan Europe and Austerity: Methodological Eurocentrism and the Spectre of Coloured

Cosmopolitanism

Narayan, J.

(University of Warwick)

The on-going Eurozone crisis has garnered distinct cosmopolitan responses, such as those offered by Ulrich Beck and Jurgen Habermas. Within these responses the problems of the Eurozone and the rise of austerity are seen as a crisis of politics rather than economics. The solution to the Eurozone crisis is thus said to hinge on the reaffirmation of a more integrated and socially democratic 'Cosmopolitan Europe'. This paper will endeavour to highlight, however, that cosmopolitan accounts of the Eurozone crisis are inherently Eurocentric. This Eurocentrism stems from how cosmopolitan narratives of the Eurozone crisis start in Europe and predominantly end in Europe and have very little to say about anything else but Europe. As such, the idea that the Eurozone crisis is symptomatic of a crisis of global capitalism and democracy is seemingly lost in translation. To push beyond these limitations the paper will present an alternative 'Coloured Cosmopolitanism' offered by post-colonial writers such as Frantz Fanon and Aime Cesaire, which not only offered a new vision for the post-colonial world but the whole of humanity; Europe included. The paper will conclude by suggesting that such Coloured Cosmopolitanism offers both a better assessment of the Eurozone crisis as a global crisis, and a far more radical democratic agenda for the future of Europe as a Cosmopolitan project.

Citizens, Migrants, Refugees: Contesting the Political Implications of Conceptual Distinctions

Bhambra, G. K.

(University of Warwick)

The crisis – or tragedy – currently playing out on, and within, the borders of Europe cannot have escaped anyone's attention. The crisis is not new, but is newly gaining traction within European news media and wider political and public opinion. It is confused with ongoing debates on immigration, the free movement of people within the EU, and the nature of our obligations within international refugee law. Attempts to address the situation frequently seek to make distinctions between 'refugees' and 'migrants' but it is these distinctions, I suggest, that are part of the problem.

Maintaining a distinction between migrant / refugee, on the one hand, and citizen, on the other, is based on an erroneous understanding that separates the histories of states and colonies. In contrast, I argue, we need to understand the contemporary crisis in the context of the connected histories that bring states and colonies within a single political and analytical frame. The question of boundaries – both historical and contemporary and between migrant/refugee and citizen – is precisely what has been at issue within the postcolonial historiographical turn. I will use the lens of 'connected sociologies' to offer a different account.

Race and the Urban Fabric: A Global Perspective on Continental Europe

Picker, G.

(European University Viadrina)

A large body of research in both the Global South and North has shown how racist assumptions and thinking behind policy and public discourse contribute to keep 'others' on worse socio-economic conditions than the (white) majority.

From such a global perspective, this paper aims to bring together two streams of literature that to date have been very little intersecting. On the one hand, the Ethnic and Racial Studies literature addressing the widespread neglect of

Europe's own colonial past, and relatedly, of the racial foundations of European societies. On the other hand, the

Urban Studies literature on 'the European city', i.e. a distinct urban formation, characterized by a relatively strong state and participatory democratic processes. Drawing on my long-term ethnography (2007-2013) of the housing conditions of Roma in Italian and Romania cities, the paper discusses the pivotal role of racial imaginaries of blackness, dirtiness and pollution behind state policy and civil society discourses and actions relating to Roma. It historically and ethnographically shows how the political economy of social housing (in Pescara, Italy) and land (in Cluj-Napoca,

Romania) combine with electoral interests, capitalising on everyday and local media discourses on Roma that are

85 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

largely predicated upon racialist assumptions and worldviews. These urban dynamics, I argue, contribute to perpetuate conditions of spatial segregation under which several Romani collectives are forced to live. The paper concludes by underlining the importance of bringing together Ethnic and Racial Studies and Urban Studies, toward uncovering the largely neglected racial structures of European urban societies.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

144

Chicken Suits and Credibility Contests: How Anti-Muslim Activism Failed to Gain More Significant Traction in a Northern English Town

Busher, J., Harris, G., Macklin, G.

(Coventry University)

When the English Defence League (EDL), an anti-Muslim protest movement, emerged in 2009, there was good reason to think that Blackburn with Darwen was likely to be one of the focal points of the movement's activities. The town is one of the most segregated in the country with an unenviable record of extreme right mobilisations – in 1976 the National Party, a splinter group from the National Front, won two seats on Blackburn Council, and in the 2000s both the British National Party and the England First Party have won council seats. Yet in spite of the efforts of a cadre of activists in and around the Blackburn area, the EDL never did gain the kind of traction in the town that might have been expected. Based on a mixed-methods comparative analysis of the evolution of anti-Muslim protest in Luton and in Blackburn with Darwen, and drawing on contemporary social movement theory, in this paper we detail how this contemporary wave of anti-minority politics largely fell flat in the town. In doing so, we provide insight for practitioner and policymakers about the management of anti-minority activism and develop an explanatory framework that offers policymakers, practitioners and academics a flexible way of conceptualising and explaining where and when such mobilisations do and do not take root.

Beyond Grievance and Integration, Ideology and Grooming: A Psychosocial Reading of the Biographies of

British Jihadis

Bailey, G.

(Manchester Metropolitan University)

In explaining radicalisation in the West, political debate and subsequent academic analysis has considered the factors of individual and collective grievances, ideology and indoctrination, the role of the wider community as a form of tacit support and small group dynamics. These factors can be seen in arguments around the role of integration and community relations, foreign policy, and charismatic and brainwashing leaders. Much debate is therefore focused on the relative impact of each factor, ignoring both their interaction with each other, and their interaction with wider societal currents. This, I believe, is due to a lack of in-depth documentation of the life-courses of radicalised individuals and groups.

This paper is centred upon a case-study of a group of British-born-and-bred jihadis conducted for the author's doctoral research. Data for this case study includes that generated in participant observation, biographical-narrative interviews, video and audio propaganda, as well as media reports of police investigations and terrorism prosecutions. It argues that paths to violence are part of the complex interaction between family and community dynamics, experiences in school, on the street and elsewhere, the reception of local national, and international culture and ideologies, including the opposing forces of the far-right and mainstream Islamophobia. Importantly, such explanations can identify potential 'turning points' where a different reaction may have created better outcomes. They also shift the explanation away from an homogenised and stereotyped as unintegrated 'community' towards integrated subcultures, created in the manner of Phil Cohen's 'solution' to contradictory social positions.

Depriving the Right to Have Rights: Race, Citizenship and Removal in Terrorising Times

Narkowicz, K., Kapoor, N.

(University of York)

This paper looks at state practices of expulsion, focusing on deprivation of citizenship, employed by the British state in the context of the War on Terror. It examines the consequences of recent changes to British law that broaden the

Home Secretary's power to permanently exclude British citizens from the UK. Disproportionally targeting Muslims, these measures have escalated recently, making citizenship removal part of the governments national security strategy aimed at removing 'the home-grown terrorist' (Kapoor et al 2013).

We focus on the racial/racist and Islamophobic dimensions of these expulsions and examine the discourses that

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

86

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

justify such operations. Drawing on case studies of individuals who have been subject to these new forms of removal, the paper sheds light on the increasing precariousness of rights to citizenship where the boundaries between the threat from within and from without are increasingly blurred.

This paper presents initial findings from the 'Deport Deprive Extradite' project based at University of York which examines race and citizenship in the current context of the War on Terror through working collaboratively with affected communities, activists, lawyers and policy makers.

The Korean 1.5 Generation in Digital Diasporas

Yoon, K.

(University of British Columbia)

Drawing on a qualitative study of young Korean migrants in their twenties in Canada, this paper discusses how the young adult children of immigrants access and appropriate different digital media forms to explore and negotiate their subject positions in migration contexts. In particular, the study focuses on the Korean "1.5 generation" youth who landed in Canada in their childhood and are largely bilingual and bicultural. While this demographic is technically first generation immigrants, their cultural identity appears to be more flexible than their parents'. The present study explores how 1.5 generation immigrants are subject to multiple modes of belonging and thus negotiate their hyphenated identities as they utilize different media resources from their homeland, diasporic community, and/or host society. This study demonstrates that, while the young people's bilingual and bicultural capacities might allow them to access various digital media outlets without any barrier, their bicultural subjectivities are not immune from ongoing, subtle, racial conflicts in Canada. In the study, the young 1.5 generation immigrants' appropriation of digital media was highly ethnicized and racialized, due to the fragmented nature of mediascape of the host society. Young migrants' bicultural appropriation of digital media forms illustrates how mediascape is divided in terms of race and ethnicity and how the pervasive national discourse of multiculturalism and cultural diversity conceal ongoing power relations.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

139

Transnational Dreaming: Desire for a New Life or Reflections on Lives Lost?

Munro, G.

(The Salvation Army)

This paper, based on doctoral research at University College London (awarded March 2015), discusses the emotional transnationalisms of migrants from the former Yugoslavia to the UK through the motif of dreams. The allegory of dream is one which runs through much of the discourse on migration, both academic and more popular narratives.

The focus is often on unrealised dreams, the fracture between imaginings of a better life elsewhere and the reality of the migration experience. However, the dreams of migrants do not always refer to the waking imaginings of future lives in the metaphorical, aspirational sense. For some migrants it is the echoes of past lives and lives lost which permeate their dreams. Such dreams are made more vivid by the sad reality that these are not wholly imagined lives, but represent lives that once were and imaginings of lives which could have been had their trajectories not been knocked off course by the experience of (forced) migration. This paper calls for a refocus of the transnational optic to encompass not only quantifiable economic and political ties of (voluntary and forced) migrants but to also consider the experiences of those migrants who may not hold such tangible ties to the homeland. Through the dream narrative as articulated by migrants from the former Yugoslavia we can see how complex emotional connections which merge and collide in the transnational space relate both to the experience of migration itself and to social, cultural and political dynamics in both the host and home countries.

Using Mixed Methods to Capture Dynamic: Social Network Analysis and the Challenges of Migrant

Longitudinal Research

Ryan, L., D'Angelo, A.

(Middlesex University)

In researching social networks, one of the most enduring challenges remains how to capture the temporal dynamism of inter-personal relationships (Conway:2014; Bidart and Lavenu 2005). There have been calls to find innovative ways of revealing the dynamism over time of social ties (Conway:2014). In this paper, we consider how adopting a mixed methods approach to Social Network Analysis may address some of the challenges of capturing temporal dynamics.

We draw upon examples from our longitudinal research projects with migrants to consider opportunities but also challenges of researching changes in migrant social networks over time. Alessio mapped the structures and practices

87 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

networking practices and relational structures of Kurdish community organisations in London between 2007-2013, using a combination of methods including formal SNA, as well as in-depth interviews and observations. He shows how organisational networks change over time reflecting dynamics in local opportunity structures and transnationally in the political landscape of the country countries of origin, as well as changes in the lifecourse of individual actors. Louise combines qualitative methods - interviews and sociograms – to explore changes in the meaning, content and structure of Polish migrants networks (2006-2014). She examines how migrants talk about and reflect upon changing social connections as some relationships endure but others fade over time. She argues that the changing composition of networks both reflect but also reinforce migrant trajectories through the interaction of temporal and spatial dimensions.

(Re-)Constructing Refugee Voices Through the Preservation of 'Moving Memories': Undertaking Civic

Engagement with Refugees and Migrants in London

Hashem, R., Dudman, P.V.

(University of East London)

Archives have had a long and close working relationship with the production of historical narratives, which have traditionally helped to formulate conceptualizations around notions of belonging and otherness and the formation of both national and local identities. It could be argued that Refugees have been an under-documented and underrepresented group within traditional archives, and this has been reflected in the underrepresentation of the refugee narrative within established historical discourse.

In 2015, a collaborative civic engagement project was undertaken by the Refugee Council Archive at the University of

East London, in conjunction with academic staff from the UEL Centre for Refugees, Migration and Belonging. The project sought to utilise existing archival collections as a basis to forge new partnerships between students, academics, activists and community groups. The project aimed to engage with local communities in an attempt to create a Living Refugee Archive to promote and enable accessibility and engagement with our archival collections.

The aim of this paper will therefore be to reflect upon how archives can be used to document, preserve and make accessible testimonies from migrants and refugees. It will consider the role of oral history in helping to supplement traditional narratives and investigate the ethical considerations that we had to consider when looking to collect these oral histories and to make them accessible. This paper will focus on how archives and oral histories can contribute to documenting, preserving and making accessible the genuine voices and testimonies of refugees.

Cooperation of Diaspora Professionals with the Country of Origin: Lithuanian Case

Geciene, I.

(Lithuanian Social Research Center)

Lithuania faces highest emigration scale in EU: due to emigration it has lost 1/3 of its population during the 25 years after the regaining of independence. Such high emigration scale causes significant loss of work power, brain drain and ageing society. One of the ways to reduce the damage of emigration is the involvement of diaspora into the development of the wellbeing of the home country. Kuznetsov and Sabel (2006), Plaza and Ratha (2011), Levitt

(1998:2011), Kuznetsov (2013), Omelaniuk (2013) and many other authors argue that diaspora, especially its highly skilled members, can facilitate flows of trade and investment, transfer of technology and skills, strengthening of democratic values and civic participation, as well as cultural linkages between different countries, which are important factors of development. Besides, as Kuznetsov points out, the subtler the contribution, the more likely it is to become a vehicle for transformation and, in that sense, knowledge and skills of diaspora members are more valuable than financial remittances (Kuznetsov 2013). This presentation aims to examine of the scope and forms of cooperation of

Lithuanian diaspora with the home country, its potential of contributing to the well-being of the home country, selfreported motivations and obstacles to cooperate. The data analysis revealed the main factors connected to more intensive ties and motivation of cooperation: duration of emigration, degree of association with home country and degree of integration into the host country' society.

Rights, Violence and Crime

W

HITEHALL

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

From Right to Self-determination to Right to Free and Fair Elections: Rights-talk, IEMs and Re-colonisation

D'Souza, R.

(University of Westminster)

This paper examines the emergence of the right to free and fair elections in international law. Rights are conceptual devices used in establishing and sustaining institutions. Rights have been associated with institutionalisation

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

88

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

therefore. During and after the end of World War 2 national liberation struggles in the Third World demanded the right of nations to self-determination. That right was incorporated in the UN Charter. The right of nations to selfdetermination had a profound influence on the architecture of the UN and international organisations and international law more generally. Since the end of the Cold War democracy promotion policies by Western countries have used

International Election Monitoring (IEM) to oversee national elections in Third World countries. IEMs are now a global phenomenon. IEMs claim to give effect to the 'right to free and fair elections'. The right to free and fair elections in international law fits uneasily with the right to self-determination. IEMs, purporting to enforce right to free and fair elections have frequently intervened in political contexts where states face strong anti-imperialist movements and left insurgences. IEMs have frequently been the beginning of neoliberal reforms of state institutions. What are we to make of the right to free and fair elections? Is rights talk complicit in undermining national sovereignty and self-determination of peoples in the Third World? This paper addresses the tension between right to self-determination and the emerging discourse of the right to free and fair elections.

Human Rights-based Approaches: Shortcomings and Rejections

Miller, H.

(Kingston University)

Despite the sustained dominance of 'human rights-based approaches' (in both theory and practice), firm rejections of such approaches are increasingly emerging. In particular, activists campaigning on areas that focus on rights issues are expressing growing frustrations towards NGOs whose mandates are centered on the formal adoption of a rightsbased approach. Drawing on empirical data from a current sociological study, this paper provides a comparative and qualitative analysis of campaigners working within the field, examining responses offered pertaining to the premise for rejecting rights-based approaches.

It especially questions why and how activist working within NGOs are able to (and, moreover, feel the need to) make statements to the effect of 'yes we invoke ideas of rights, but we hate rights-based approaches'. Central to this analysis is the identification of two new human rights approaches (both of which are not based on human rights per se). As the data will demonstrate, a number of critical shortcomings appear to have led to an influx in the rejection of rights-based approaches.

Navigating Risk, Managing Security, and Receiving Support: A Study of Human Rights Defenders in

Colombia, Mexico, Egypt, Kenya, and Indonesia

Nah, A.

(University of York)

While it is well established that human rights defenders around the world face risks because of their work (Landman

2006, Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders 2013, Front Line Defenders 2014), there has been little systematic evaluation of how they manage their personal security (Nah et al. 2013). Based on their experiences, practitioners and human rights defenders emphasise that the security strategies and tactics that human rights defenders use are contextually driven and that it is important for protection initiatives to complement rather than undermine such strategies. They also observe that a complex relationship exists between human rights defenders and risk. On one hand, defenders voluntarily engage in risky activities (what Lyng (1990:2005) refers to as 'edgework'); on the other, they are sometimes not aware of the risks involved in their work. Experiences of security and risk amongst defenders are also gendered (Barry and Ðordevic 2007, Barry and Nainar 2008). This paper draws upon interviews with human rights defenders at risk in Colombia, Mexico, Egypt, Kenya, and Indonesia to analyse how variables such as gender, type of human rights work, strength of social support, and access to resources shape the way defenders navigate risk, manage personal security, and receive support. This research has the potential to contribute to existing debates in the sociology of risk, the sociology of rights, and the sociology of security.

Criminal Identification Practices, Power Relations and Rights

Miranda, D.

(University of Minho)

This presentation explores the meanings attributed to the application of biometric methods in criminal identification practices by Polícia Judiciária's inspectors (responsible for these proceedings during the criminal investigation) and by convicted offenders (the main target of these practices). Through a qualitative theoretical-methodological perspective and based on a set of semi-structured interviews and informal conversations, we analyse the social representations of these actors regarding these techno-scientific methods. In particular, we will focus on fingerprint and DNA technology, since these are considered the most useful and efficient identification methods in criminal investigation. We explore the collecting procedures of fingerprints and biological samples and consider the social and ethical implications that these procedures create. There are relations of power that should be seen as a strategic game where the dynamics of domination, submission and resistance endure. Despite the different reactions from the individuals subjected to these

89 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

practices, they can be aggregated in situations of embarrassment, consensus and rejection according with the dynamics of the game.

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

W

HITEHALL

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Bisexuality: Issues of Identity, Inequality, and Citizenship

Monro, S.

(University of Huddersfield)

Bisexuality has been largely ignored by sociologists in recent years. The sociological elision of bisexuality is problematic, as it contributes to the social erasure of bisexuals. A sociological reclamation of bisexual ontologies supports a broader movement within the discipline towards critical and nuanced analysis of multifaceted, fragmented, hybridised, and changing sexed and gendered identities. This reclamation is aligned with broader movements aiming to shift sociological thought beyond a Eurocentric and USA-centric sexuality/gender studies that relies on unitary and binary notions of 'male/female', and 'lesbian, gay, heterosexual' (LGH). This paper showcases innovative analysis of bisexuality along the key trajectories of identities, commodification, inequalities, activism, and citizenship. It provides a snapshot of some of the arguments developed in Monros' monograph Bisexuality: Identities, Politics, and Theories

(Palgrave MacMillan 2015). The book takes an international approach, using the UK, India, Colombia, and the USA as case study countries, and it utilises original empirical research with bisexual people and others who do not identify as

LGH (based in Colombia and the UK). The book draws on, and contributes to, critical intersectional and materialist sexuality/gender studies, and queer studies. The paper will include material provided by research contributors regarding their experiences of identities, sexualities and relationships, and biphobia. It will outline their citizenship claims, and some of the divergences amongst bisexual people regarding these. Bisexual people, and others who do not identify as LGH, are highly diverse in terms of identities, and experiences of equalities/inequalities.

'There are Neds and Chavs out there': Classed and Racialised Others in Articulations of Bisexual Subjectivity

Bowes-Catton, H.

(The Open University)

'There are neds and chavs and people out there': Classed and racialized Others in articulations of bisexual subjectivity

Bisexuality occupies a paradoxical position within minority world/'Western' understandings of sexuality as fixed and dichotomous, simultaneously undermining and reinforcing the gay/straight binary. In this context, bisexual subjectivities are structurally fractured and unintelligible.

In this paper, drawing on my recent doctoral thesis, I argue that the mythological archetype of the Trickster provides a new and useful theoretical framing for understanding why and how the spectre of the bisexual is repeatedly summoned up in popular culture, only to be immediately dismissed as excessive, unstable, immature and inauthentic.

Furthermore, drawing on Serano's work on the dynamics of exclusion at work in many feminist and queer spaces, I argue that such a framing facilitates an analysis of the ways in which these tropes are redeployed by bisexuals themselves in order to construct a classed and racialized Other against which the 'complex, enlightened' bisexual subject can be defined.

Havens in a Heteronormative World? The Appeal of Retreats for Gay Men

Potter, W.

This paper explores the appeal to gay men of participating in largely secular and non-commercial retreats, specifically those arranged principally by and for gay men. Such retreats comprise liminal group-settings of fixed duration, in which individuals spend time away from their everyday lives. They have been little researched. In examining why participants choose to attend these events, the paper relates the experience they provide to both participants' life histories and the challenges they face as gay men in late modernity, employing insights from Giddens, Beck and

Foucault. The study draws on a detailed analysis of the experience of attending two retreats, organised by the

Eurofaeries in the Netherlands and the Edward Carpenter Community in the UK, with data being gathered through participant observation and biographical-narrative interviewing. An analysis is presented regarding the appeal of these retreats detailing several principal themes, including amongst others, the opportunity they offer to develop personal relationships, and the 'safe' environment they provide in which it is possible to play as an adult. The research also underlines the continuing importance of notions of community and collective experience for gay men who attend retreats.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

90

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

At Home with Significant Others or Risky Domestic Space? Middle-aged Gay Men’s Stories of Kinship and

Un/Belonging

Simpson, P.

(Edge Hill University)

Despite scholarly focus on LGBT 'friendship families' (Weeks et al:2001), the narrative means through which middleaged/older gay men differentiate themselves from younger gay men via forms of intimacy and relating in domestic spaces has been comparatively neglected. To address this knowledge gap, this paper applies elements of

Bourdieusian and Foucauldian theorizing to extend understanding of a domestically-oriented gay field of existence.

Based on interviews with 26 middle-aged gay men living in Manchester, two major shifts occur in midlife away from the family of origin and the commercial scene of Manchester's 'gay village' towards 'friendship family.' The latter represents creative extension of the gay scene/kinship. Participation in this form of kinship helps maintain a sense of identity, self-worth and inclusion in one aspect of gay culture. It was narrated as a space that encouraged mobilization of 'ageing capital' – age-inflected emotional, cognitive and political resources – that helps men withstand/contest homophobia and gay ageism. Subjects also used ageing capital to question heteronormative notions of family and non-monogamy. Following Cook (2011), I present gay men's stories of homes/neighbourhoods as about belonging and alienation. Whilst men's experiences of homes and neighbourhoods were generally affirmative, some informants experienced exclusion from friendship family for socio-economic and cultural reasons - gay ageism online and homophobia in neighbourhoods which rendered the home a site of risk, compromising its status as space of ontological security.

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2 - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

134

The Mystifying Attraction of Social Mobility in the 21st Century: Contesting Paradigms and Renewing

Agendas

Gamsu, S., Worth E., Laurison, D., Friedman, S., Miles, A.

(King's College London)

The new Conservative government has made tackling ‘stalled social mobility’ central to their political programme. This apparent continuation of the Coalition’s social mobility agenda is, however, occurring in a context of a deeply regressive summer budget, which cut incomes for the lowest earners (IFS:2015). Labour’s position under Jeremy

Corbyn seems to offer the opportunity to take a more critical stance on the contradictions between policy and rhetoric on social mobility.

Two recent symposia on social mobility have called for and brought together new academic approaches to social mobility in response to its growing profile in political debate. Moreover, resurgent academic interest in elites underlines the need to understand how social mobility is implicated in the deepening and transformation of historical inequalities.

This session is an attempt to continue and extend this re-framing of social mobility research in British social science.

To this effect the papers in this session will combine approaches from historical, spatial and social perspectives to illuminate the ‘mystifying power’ of social mobility. They draw together analyses of regional differences in elite pay, historical perspectives on gendered experiences of social mobility, and an analysis of the role of widening participation in renewing the folk norm of sponsored mobility. These different approaches all seek to challenge the straight-forward discourse of social mobility assumed by recent governments. Applying new analytical frameworks and methodological tools in this way, they thus seek to place the sociology of mobility on a more critical footing in relation to widening inequalities in contemporary Britain.

‘I’ll Never Have the Same Confidence or Feeling of Entitlement’: Women’s Experiences of Social Mobility in

Postwar Britain

Worth, E.

(University of Oxford)

The historian Helen McCarthy has recently referred to the postwar period as often being ‘complacently lauded as the

‘golden age’ of…social mobility’’. This paper uses oral history testimony to complicate our understanding of social mobility in this period by focusing on the life stories of postwar women. Centring women is especially important as the years following the Second World War were such a crucial time in the history of women yet it is the figure of the

‘grammar school boy’ which dominates the scholarship on social mobility. The paper draws together the themes of the panel by considering how specific historical configurations of spatial relations and education systems impacted on women’s experiences of social mobility and their implications across the telling of the life story.

91 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

Mind The Gap: London and the Inter-Regional Class Pay Gap in Britain

Friedman, S., Laurison, D.

(London School of Economics)

The hidden barriers, or ‘gender pay gap’, preventing women from earning equivalent incomes to men is well documented. Yet recent research has uncovered that, in Britain, there is also a comparable ‘class origin pay gap’ in higher professional and managerial occupations. So far this analysis has only been conducted at the national level, implicitly assuming that class pay disadvantage is occurring equally throughout the UK. This paper uses data from the

2014 Labour Force Survey to stage a more spatially-sensitive analysis that examines inter-regional differences in the class pay gap. We find that the ‘class ceiling’ is not at all evenly spatially distributed. Instead it is particularly marked in metropolitan work contexts and especially Inner London, where those in high-status occupations who are not from privileged backgrounds earn, on average, £9000 less per year than those whose parents were in higher professional and managerial employment. Moreover, while observed differences between the socially mobile and the stable account some of this gap at the national level, in London the gap remains essentially unexplained. Finally, we inspect the capital further to reveal that the class pay gap is particularly marked within London’s large private sector firms.

Challenging policy conceptions of London as the ‘engine room’ of social mobility, these findings suggest that class disadvantage within high-status occupations is particularly acute in the capital. The findings also underline the value of investigating inter-regional differences in social mobility, and demonstrate how such analysis can unravel important and previously unrecognized spatial dimensions of class inequality.

Reinventing the Logic of the Ladder: Big Capital, Widening Participation and Contesting Social Mobility

Gamsu, S.

(King’s College London)

The Coalition government’s Commission on Child Poverty and Social Mobility produced an incisive empirical critique of the continued homogeneity of British elites on almost every measure of difference. Politically, this agenda built on

New Labour’s legacy of widening participation in education, with its focus on broadening recruitment processes to elite universities and on entry to prestige forms of employment. Drawing on interviews with widening participation advisers working in and around sixth forms in London I examine the contradictory requirements of many of the schemes on offer to 16-18 year olds. I argue that these widening participation programmes represent a renewal of the old ‘logic of the ladder’, that form of sponsored mobility which is deeply rooted within the British education system. I draw historical parallels with earlier forms of selection within the grammar school to examine how organizational forms of sponsored mobility have mutated. In the contemporary context, I also examine how the third sector organizations responsible for many of these initiatives have developed close links with large corporate companies. The role of capital in these initiatives has accelerated over the last decade; major investment banks, consultancies and City legal firms are now both directly funding these educational initiatives and developing deliberately targeted forms of recruitment which again serve to legitimize their role. The political implications of these combined processes are to neutralize a political language of class around collective improvement by focusing on individual aspiration and diversifying elites. This paper attempts to puncture and challenge this discourse.

Sociology of Education - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1

A

A Tale of Two Cities: Constructing the Student and Graduate Identity at Universities of Different Status in Two

Cities

Papafilippou, V.

(University of the West of England)

This symposium involves four papers from three different projects: the Paired Peers project, a large longitudinal study examining the impact of social class on university and post-graduation experiences of students at the two universities in Bristol (University of Bristol and the University of the West of England), funded by the Leverhulme Trust; the Digital

Diversity-Learning and Belonging (DD-lab) project, a 2-year project which is investigating how digital technologies are impacting on the successful engagement of diverse and under-represented students whilst studying at the university, funded by the University of Bristol's Widening Participation Research Fund; and the ESRC-funded PhD Everyday

Class Distinctions in Higher Education which focused on student experience and the nuances of social inequalities in the everyday between different status HEIs and their students.

The symposium analyses how the 'student' and 'graduate' identity is being constructed through discourse and everyday experiences –real or virtual- and how these identities are experienced by students and recent graduates from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. To be more specific, the four papers, through adopting different theoretical

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

92

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

(e.g., Bourdieu's theory of social capital, critical theory, organizational identity, Holland's 'figured worlds') and methodological approaches (e.g., interviews, Critical Discourse Analysis), aim to problematise not only the – neoliberal- discourses but also the various 'identities', such as the 'Russell Group university student/graduate', the

'local student', the 'post-1992 university student/graduate' and explore how these are experienced at two universities of different status in two different cities.

Authenticity and the Construction of 'Student' Identities

Mountford, V.

(Newcastle University)

Whilst the terms 'student experience' and 'student engagement' litter the landscape, permeating all facets of contemporary higher education it is necessary to pause and consider the multitude of experiences and levels of engagement in our universities to better understand the reality of student lives. For instance, the identity category of

'student' involves claiming membership and therefore a sense of belonging to the collective. However, different relationships to student normativity suggest such identification is problematic and often only attainable for certain classed actors. In this paper I focus on the ways in which university students manage and perceive difference through interpretations of their experiences in and beyond higher education; in particular the many ways in which the identity category 'student' and student normativity and authenticity is interpreted and differentially claimed and assigned.

Based on ESRC-funded qualitative research data with undergraduate students from two closely positioned institutions of different status, this paper highlights the means and (often imagined) 'others', by which students construct their student identities in their everyday experiences and through which claims to ordinariness and authenticity are positioned. The distinction-making inherent in these student dialogues rely, in part, on a discourse of meritocracy that circulates in (higher) education; yet often interspersed with the economic and sociocultural realities of what full participation in university life often means. The realities of this classed system, whilst not always directly positioned as such, affect the quality and level of student experience and engagement.

The More Local, the More Distant: Conflicting Identities and Improvisations in Under-Represented

Munoz-Chereau, B., Timmis S.

(University of Bristol)

This paper is about how under-represented students experience the participation dimension of 'widening participation' in a Russell group university. Drawing on Holland (1998)'s work on agency and identity in 'figured worlds' as social encounters (e.g universities or connected networks) where the positions of those taking part matter, we problematise the notion of 'local' students. We explore their 'invisibility' and the limitations of university definitions of 'local' and

'mature', while research tends to focus on younger direct entrants living in parental homes. The Digital diversity, learning and belonging study investigated under-represented students (first generation at university, state school, mature, black and minority ethnic background and local) over eighteen months at one university. Local students were living in one place, often near the university, however many were mature students commuting daily at some distance.

The constraints of travelling and being more established at home led to feelings of disconnection. This made peer social activities difficult and integration harder. Yet, using digital technologies to work across boundaries, they mitigated some of these challenges, for example by using digital networks on the train. We show how despite cultural and historical constraints and conflicts, students developed figured social-academic identities, by expanding their agency through improvisation in digital spaces. Whilst there is a need for universities to rethink how they construct the higher education student and address the issue of invisibility, we argue that students also need to be empowered. The changing socio-digital landscape offers opportunities for academic and social identities formation and possibilities for agency.

Who are WE?: Exploring the Construction of the Student Identity at a Post-1992 Institution

Waller, R., Papafilippou, V.

(University of the West of England)

Organisational identity is believed to be key to corporate branding in general, and in university branding in particular

(Waeraas and Solbakk:2009). As Steiner and his colleagues (2012, p. 402) argue '(f)or newer universities in particular, it has become all the more important to build distinct identity profiles and reputations' in order to recruit students, highcalibre faculty members and administrators as well as to differentiate themselves from rival institutions (Bennett and

Ali-Choudhury:2009). Post-1992 institutions generally attract a significantly larger proportion of 'non-traditional' students in terms of class, ethnic background and maturity (Read et al.:2003) than older institutions. For this reason, post-1992 universities seem to target the 'non-traditional' student market by transmitting 'strong brand images, which alleged that their universities were ideal places for people with characteristics of this type' (Ali-Choudhury et al.:2009, p. 28). However, the projection of such brand images might deter other groups from applying to these institutions (Ali-

Choudhury et al., ibid.)

93 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

In this paper we explore how the 'organisational identity' of the University of the West of England (UWE) is experienced by 'traditional' and 'non-traditional' students and recent graduates (what do they perceive, feel and think about their university?). The data come from the examination of material from the current UWE marketing campaign

('WE are…') and from the Paired Peers study, a qualitative longitudinal study of a cohort of students at Bristol's two universities from the start of their university careers to their first steps into the labour market.

Constructing the Russell Group Student and Graduate

Papafilippou, V., Waller, R.

(University of the West of England)

Prestigious institutions such as the Russell Group of universities have long been seen as conferring significant future employment benefits on their graduates (Sutton Trust 2005; 2006; 2010). The Russell Group invite school students to

'think about what sort of graduate (they) may become', as '(b)eing a graduate no longer makes you part of a small elite' (http://www.russellgroup.ac.uk/informed-choices, p. 47). However, what does it mean to be a Russell Group student and/or graduate, how they positioned in discourse, and how their identities are managed and experienced?

In order to explore how the identity of a Russell Group university student and graduate is constructed through discourse as well as the meanings, ideological and cultural assumptions attached to it, we employed Fairclough's

(2003) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) approach. The data come from a corpus of texts (mission statements, policies and content from the Russell Group universities) and from the Paired Peers project, a qualitative longitudinal study of a cohort of students at Bristol's two universities from the start of their undergraduate careers to their first steps into the labour market. The CDA indicates that the dominant discourse operating is unmistakably that of the knowledge economy, and that Russell Group students and graduates are depicted as excellent academically, entrepreneurial and internationally competitive; that is, the perfect neo-liberal subject. The interview data confirm that

Russell Group students and graduates often feel as such, although those coming from working-class backgrounds might sometimes feel uncomfortable with this newly-assumed identity.

Work, Employment and Economic Life

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

123

Mental Health and Unemployment Experience in the Youth Age and Labour Market Outcome

Dietrich, H.

(Institute for Employment Research)

The paper addresses the mutual relation between unemployment and mental health and its effects on the labour market outcome of young people. Survey data covering 1.918 individuals, collected over three panel waves between

2000 and 2004 are combined with the 'Integrated Labour Market Biographies' (IEB), covering individuals' life course from school time up to the labour market activities in 2013.

The analytical data combine both data gained by retrospective and prospective survey techniques and register data.

The data contain daily precise information on unemployment, employment and wages from the register data and a rich set of information on mental health (subjective health, HSCL 10 mental health indicators and HSCL 5 somatic health indicators) work commitment (Warr et al 1979), social background (EGP class scheme and parental education), migration background, household composition etc. from the individuals.

All individuals included in the data experienced a minimum of 92 days of continuous unemployment in the youth age, however both the total duration of aggregated unemployment duration and the mental health status measured at three points of time is varying over individuals.

The design allows addressing both the effects of mental health and unemployment experience and their interaction on individuals' later labour market outcome up to 15 years after the observed unemployment event.

As depending variables both the social class position and individual's income in 2013 are included. Linear and categorical regression models will be employed addressing the scarring hypothesis of mental health and unemployment experience.

Is a Career-First Approach the Path Towards Sustainable Labour Market Integration?

Fuertes, V., McQuaid, R.

(Edinburgh Napier University)

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

94

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

2

UK labour market activation policy in recent decades has been largely driven by 'work-first' approaches

(McQuaid/Lindsay 2005, Lindsay/McQuaid 2009, HM Government 2010) concerned with rapid labour market entry

(Bivand et al. 2006) and with limited consideration given to the quality or suitability of paid employment (Daguerre

2007). While moving into paid employment is seen as the main way out of poverty for working-aged unemployed people (Browne/Paull 2010), some individuals experience, for a number of reasons, a low-pay no-pay cycle instead

(Shildrick et al. 2012, McQuaid et al. 2010). However, the Work Programme launched in 2011 in place of previous welfare-to-work programmes, represents arguably an attempt at achieving job sustainability for the long-term unemployed.

This paper reviews existing research on sustainability, quality, and progression in low-skill low-paid jobs and, through qualitative interviews with Work Programme providers and service users, analyses to what extend is job sustainability embedded and achievable in the current activation programme for the long-term unemployed. Consideration is also given to the likely effect of the Universal Credit and the Living Wage on job sustainability.

The paper argues that while activation success measures include job sustainability indicators, there is a need for policy to embrace a wider framework of demand- and supply-side sustainability factors, including consideration of the capability approach (Sen 2009, Lindsay/McQuaid 2010) and effective support from agencies. It is argued that a move from a work-first policy orientation towards a career-first approach is required to achieve sustainable labour market integration for the long-term unemployed.

Precarious Youth?: Inequalities in Employment Trajectories Following the 2008 Recession

Williamson, S.

(University of Nottingham)

The increased levels of youth unemployment following the global recession of 2008 in numerous European countries exacerbated, and brought into sharp focus, problems which had been transforming the youth labour market since the late 1970s. However, it is not just the quantity of employment which has been approached as problematic but also the quality of available employment. Much sociological focus has been given to the emergence of 'precarious' and

'insecure' employment, particularly following Standing's (2011) work on the 'Precariat'. This presentation seeks to feed in to these broader debates. It will consider the transformations of youth employment in the United Kingdom in the context of the global recession of 2008 and its aftermath. Building on a quantitative longitudinal analysis of two cohorts of 16-24 year olds over a period of three years, it will explore how the precariousness and insecurity perceived in contemporary employment relations manifested itself in the early labour market experiences of young people and how this differed before and after the recession. This will allow for the subject of precarity to be approached in dynamic terms, acknowledging how young people may move in and out of precarious, marginalised positions. Moreover, it will discuss how manifestations of precarity are permeated with issues of inequality, exploring the prevailing class and gender inequalities in experiences of precarity and discussing how the shape of inequality altered (and did not alter) in the context of recession.

95 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption -

SE

Environment and Society

Room

G63, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 141

Steelhouse 2, CAMS, Main Building

Families and Relationships

Frontiers 1

Frontiers 2

Lifecourse

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

Rights, Violence and Crime

Social Divisions / Social Identities

Sociology of Education 1 - SE

Steelhouse 3, CAMS, Main Building

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Stafford 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 127

Steelhouse 1, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 145

Conference Centre Room 3

Great Hall, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 144

Conference Centre Room 139

Whitehall 3, CAMS, Main Building

Whitehall 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 1A

Sociology of Education 2

Sociology of Religion

Conference Centre Rooms 135-137

Conference Centre Room 134

Work, Employment and Economic Life - SE Conference Centre Room 123

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Memorial Meshwork: The Making of the Commemorative Space of the Hyde Park 7/7 Memorial

Allen, M., Brown, S. D.

(University of Leicester)

How do memorials act to transmit memory through the organization of space? In this article, we contrast a

'preservation' model of the endurance of encoded memory with a 'meshwork' model which treats memory as emergent on the perdurance of the memorial site. Developing a theoretical framework from Tim Ingold's work, we describe how memorialization receives its spatial form through a collective work of braiding together multiple threads of activities and material flows. To illustrate, we examine the spatial and temporal organization of the Hyde Park 7/7 memorial from its initial designs, through to installation and contemporary use. We draw on interview data featuring various stakeholders in the 7/7 memorial project to analyse the relationship between memorial space and material relations.

We develop an approach to organizational space as an unfinished meshwork that folds together wanted and unwanted memory, making the historical a matter of ongoing live concern but with the absence of a permanent guiding narrative.

Mental Life and the Migrant Megacity: Stressed Out in Shanghai

Fitzgerald, D., Rose, N., Manning, N.

(Cardiff University)

Since the nineteenth century, urbanization has been associated with problems in mental health. The specificities of that relationship remain unresolved, but a series of developments have nonetheless shifted it onto new territory: (1)

Once associated with a racialized 'deterioration,' urban mental health is today identified with the experience of urban stress; (2) Dense living and migration have emerged as the most prominent demographic predictors of stressful cities;

(3) Where once these questions were rooted in Europe and North America, today it is the cities of the 'global south' where the effects of urban living on mental health are most pressing; (4) If urban mental health was previously a sociological and (at worst) epidemiological question –it is today a neurobiological, even an epigenetic, concern.

In this paper, we report from the early stages of a Joint UK-China research project on mental health and urban-to-rural migration in Shanghai, sitting at the intersection of these themes. The paper sets out an initial analysis of the social and political economy of urbanisation processes in Shanghai, and – via early-stage sociological, epidemiological and ethnographic synthesis – begins the elaboration of a specifically Shanghai mental health geography. Beyond this empirical contribution, the paper asks how we are to understand the biopolitics of stress in migrant megacities –and how the wider trajectory of urban sociology might (or should) encounter the biological experience of stress on migrant streets. The paper asks: what does a biological geography of Shanghai stress look like? What might we gain from its description?

‘Horizontal Distributions’: Urbanization and the Migrant in British Cinema

Millington, G.

(University of York)

With few exceptions urban sociology has yet to respond to diagnoses of 'planetary urbanization', a process that challenges established visions of urban life and calls into question the conceptual vocabulary used to understand it.

This paper considers the subjective and/ or embodied dimension of contemporary urbanization by analysing a run of

British films from the 1990s and 2000s that depict the migrant experience as it intersects with processes of urbanization. These films include The Last Resort (Pawel Pawlikowski:2000), Dirty Pretty Things (Stephen

Frears:2002), It's a Free World (Ken Loach:2007), Ghosts (Nick Broomfield:2006) and Somers Town (Shane

Meadows:2008). This analysis considers how urbanization is experienced by those caught up within the turmoil and churn of a planetary process. The paper argues that contemporary urbanization is not simply a technological development, but a human one too. The phenomenon of diverse peoples congregating in unlikely sites away from the central city—traditionally the fulcrum of social life for the migrant—is making more and more sites urban, at least in terms of their diverse human texture. As depicted in cinema this is a frail, experimental urbanism where the metropolitan landmarks that configured and even gave prestige to the migrant experience of Twentieth-century are absent or out-of-bounds. Drawing on Rancière's work on aesthetics and politics, this paper argues that taken together as a coherent set of meditations on the contemporary urban condition these films virtualise some of the public and private issues of planetary urbanization.

99 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

141

Re-visiting NIMBY as Conflict of Valuations and Interests

Eranti, V.

(Queensland University of Technology)

This paper re-visits the concept of Not In my Backyard (NIMBY) from the perspective of democracy and participation.

NIMBY conflicts are shown to be as much about different modes of valuation as they are of conflicting interests. A new definition and a way of understanding NIMBY conflicts is presented in the paper. Empirically, two planning changes in

Helsinki, Finland are used to show the variety of argumentation used by residents acting against planning changes.

NIMBY discussion is related to the key concepts of French pragmatist theory, justification and counter-democracy.

NIMBY movements work in parallel with official planning processes. Their opposition is sometimes based on liberal notion of private interest, but nearly as often on some notion of common good. The competition of these different modes of valuing plans and common goods is shown to be of central importance to these movements.

Reclaiming Urban Citizenship in a Global Society

Dee, M.

(Queensland University of Technology)

Cities and urban spaces around the world are changing rapidly from their origins in the industrialising world to a postindustrial, hard wired landscape. A further embellishment is the advent of mobile media technologies supported by both existing and new communications and computing technology which claim to put the urban dweller at the heart of a new, informed and 'liberated' seat of participatory urban governance. This networked, sensor enabled society permits flows of information in a multitude of directions ostensibly empowering the citizenry through 'smart' installations such as 'talking bus stops' detailing services, delays, transport interconnections and even weather conditions along desired routes.

However, while there is considerable potential for creative and transformative kinds of citizen participation, there is also the momentum for 'function-creep', whereby vast amounts of data are garnered in a broad application of urban surveillance. This kind of monitoring and capacity for surveillance connects with attempts by civic authorities to regulate, restrict, rebrand and reframe urban public spaces into governable and predictable arenas of consumption and compliance.

This paper considers questions around the possibilities for retaining and revitalising forms of urban citizenship, set in the context of Marshall's original premise of civil, social and political citizenship(s) in the middle of the last century, following World War Two and the coming of the modern welfare state. Cities, places and spaces and those who seek to use them, can be resilient in working to maintain and extend democratic freedoms and human rights.

Planning for the Urban Region under Neoliberalism

Paterson, W.

(University of York)

In the context of political narratives that seek to emphasise localism, devolution and decentralisation as both policy goal and delivery mechanism, this paper explores planning policy processes in a contemporary second tier English city as expressions of power over urban space. Following on from scholars who draw on habitus as a means to understand expressions of affiliation or disaffiliation from place within urban spaces, I draw on Bourdieu's concept of field to demonstrate the linkages between the power dynamics present in formulating local planning policy and in the wider context of state planning policy. Harvey's characterisation of the neoliberal state as preoccupied with the defence of capital interests over democratic accountability is key here.

The observational data drawn on originates from a series of public meetings that sought to shape the regulatory framework for planning and development over the short to medium term in the city region. Meetings attended by commercial groups, residents associations, local politicians, third sector groups and other formal or informal groups of actors. The paper seeks to demonstrate the ways in which different institutional actors worked to secure or advance their aims and to understand this highly localised and constrained context as a manifestation of the wider field of power. In doing so, this serves to demonstrate the salience of field as an explanatory framework for contemporary neoliberal governance and to highlight the role of strategic decision making at a sub-national level in the control of urban space.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

100

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption - Special Event

S

TEELHOUSE

2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Producing and Consuming Inequalities in Cultural and Creative Industries

Taylor, M., O’Brien, D., De Benedictis, S., Alexander. V.

(University of Sheffield)

This panel considers the issue of inequality, from the point of view of cultural production and cultural consumption.

The first paper, by Taylor and O’Brien, will introduce findings from the Panic! survey of people working in the cultural and creative industries, reporting attitudes towards inequality and its causes within these industries and how these vary. This presentation will be in dialogue with other current research projects: Jensen, de Benedictis, and Allen will address issues of inequality in television – how inequality is both represented in television broadcasts, and how inequality is experienced by those working in the television industry. Friedman and O’Brien will present findings on their study of British actors, around embodied aesthetics and how the extents and impacts of typecasting differ across groups. These diverse findings will be contextualised by Alexander, who focus on how cultural consumption, in the form of TripAdvisor ratings and reviews of cultural organisations, relates to existing social hierarchies.

TV Production, Poverty Porn and the Crafting of a New Anti-welfare ‘Commonsense’

De Benedictis, S., Allen, K., Jensen, T.

(King's College London)

Public and political debate about poverty, inequality and the future of the welfare state are intensifying in the UK and beyond. A new anti-welfare ‘commonsense’ (Hall and O’Shea 2013) has been hardening, namely that poverty and social immobility is the result of an individual’s irresponsibility and unwillingness to work – and this ‘deficit’ model has been enthusiastically drawn upon to justify a more punitive welfare state. Locating media as a crucial constituent in the crafting of neoliberal forms of commonsense, sociologists have begun to attend to the emergence and significance of the highly profitable reality television sub-genre of ‘poverty porn’ (Allen et al 2014; Jensen 2014; Tyler 2014;

MacDonald and Shildrick 2014). Thus far enquiries into poverty porn programmes such as Benefits Street (Channel

4:2014- ) have focused on audience reception or representations of social class. However the cultures of television production and the broader political economy of the media within this have been left unexplored. Attempting to address this gap, this paper will draw on contemporary media discourses circulating in the wake of poverty porn broadcasts, including debate within and about television production, alongside industry-level ‘diversity’ policies. This paper will begin to sketch how market logics governing television broadcasting, conditions of precarious media work and forms of social closure and inequality within the television industry workforce contribute to the production of hegemonic, reductive and stigmatising representations of class and poverty.

'You just weren’t the right flavour’: Embodied Aesthetics, Typecasting and Cultural Labour in the UK Acting

Industry

O'Brien, D.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

This paper directly engages with the question of how people comply with professional aesthetic standards and integrate aesthetic practices into their everyday lives. It does this by focusing on one part of contemporary cultural production, acting, and one aspect of getting work in acting, typecasting. British acting is a good case study of wider issues in cultural and creative industries for several reasons. It is precarious, dependent on networks, places the responsibility for risk onto the individual and is demanding of both personality and body. It also presents the opportunity for high financial and social rewards and is buttressed by broader aesthetic hierarchies. It is a good example of the ‘complicated’ version of freedom offered by cultural work. Typecasting, as this paper shows, is crucial to how the industry creates and replicates particular representations of social groups. For some this can be a benign or event empowering process. For others it is much more pernicious and problematic, whereby typecasting merely mirrors stereotypes of women, BAME and working class individuals and communities prevalent in society. In order to understand the function of typecasting this paper outlines the way actors understand this activity. Moreover, the article probes the subjective experiences of typecasting, illustrating the experience of subjective symbolic violence at the hands of a system that is both essential and exploitative in actors’ lives

Hive Mind Meets Distinction: Using Digital Trace Data to Examine Cultural Hierarchies in TripAdvisor Reviews of London Cultural Attractions

Alexander, V., Blank, G., Hale, S.A.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

101 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Inequality is perpetuated through myriad forms, including the institutionalised hierarchies found in the cultural sector.

High culture is privileged over popular culture, and non-profit cultural organisations are often viewed as loftier than profit-seeking cultural businesses. Distinction approaches suggest that that high-status cultural entrepreneurs have acted to institutionalise their forms of culture as more prestigious, and as a consequence, people with high cultural capital feel more comfortable in high culture settings than people with less cultural capital and vice-versa. This suggests that people may evaluate different types of cultural organisations with different criteria. However, as cultural boundaries blur, people’s experiences of cultural organisations, and therefore their evaluations of them, might no longer conform to previously established hierarchies. In this paper, we look at user-generated reviews of cultural

‘attractions’ in London, as found on TripAdvisor. Reviewers give a ranking (one to five stars), and provide a narrative of their experience, and TripAdvisor creates hierarchies of ranked attractions.

This paper draws on a new type of data, digital trace data collected through crawling an online user-generated content platform (TripAdvisor). We have focused on reviews of cultural organisations, categorised into a 2x2 table: high culture/popular culture and commercial/non-commercial. Preliminary analysis shows that the theoretical categories of commercial/non-commercial and high/low culture do not fit the way that people actually experience or evaluate attractions, and that evaluative criteria are more uniform across reviews than expected. The paper presents quantitative findings and considers their implications for the understanding of hierarchies in cultural organisations.

Environment and Society

S

TEELHOUSE

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Do People Change their Household Routines to Use Cheaper Electricity?

Ozaki, R.

(Imperial College London)

In the UK, a number of coal- and oil-fired power stations are due to close by the end of 2015 as they are old, inefficient and polluting (Energy UK:2010). Also, meeting the climate change targets requires radical changes in electricity generation (DECC:2014). The country is therefore facing the 'energy trilemma' of 'keeping the lights on, at an affordable price, while decarbonising our power system' (DECC:2014, p.4). To increase lower-carbon energy sources, the UK has a target of 15 percent of energy supply from renewable sources by 2020, and more than 30 percent of electricity demand will be met by renewable generation, largely through increasing installed wind capacity

(DECC:2013). However, matching the residential electricity demand to the variable and irregular supply of wind power is a major challenge. This paper reports on the findings of a wind-twinning dynamic time-of-use tariffs trial in London,

UK, and explores how householders responded to such tariffs. Dynamic tariffs are irregular and unpredictable. A study of time-of-use tariffs found that people dislike the unpredictability of tariffs and that dynamic tariffs are the least popular option (Fell et al.:2015). Another study identified a number of issues that limit people's abilities to change their routines in the household (Hargreaves et al.:2010). We found, however, some trial participants enjoyed the dynamic tariff and changed their routines accordingly. This paper investigates: to what extent people shift their routine activities; and how socio-cultural shifts towards more sustainable ways of living can be facilitated.

High-Energy Consuming Practices at Home- An Empirical Study of Households in the Northwest of England

Wang, X.

(University of Manchester)

Energy usage at home varies significantly among different households, even within households of similar compositions. The paper explores high-energy using practices in heating, lighting, cooking, cleaning, and other practices in households' daily routines. It aims to identify typical energy using practices among high-energy users, and further understand the forming and performance of these practices. 25 interviews were conducted in the UK, surrounding the Greater Manchester area. The interview sample covers various types of households, income, job status, and energy using levels. The themes of cost, convenience and comfort emerge from the data. Another issue is what is explained as practical and discursive consciousness that informs peoples' decisions. Besides, most householders highlighted 'control' during the interviews, which includes control with timers on ventilation, washing and drying, showering, lighting, cooking, central heating and water heating. Householders also emphasize the inside and outside space, gas accessibility, effectiveness of insulation, appliances availability and efficiency, which all influence their energy use at home. The meaning of home, which differs widely, is an important factor affecting time spent at home and the activities taking place there. For some people, home is a simple place to sleep, eat and shower; while for others, it's a space for family get-togethers, or with continuous projects to work on. Because high-energy consuming practices have more potential to reduce energy compared to less energy-intensive ones, understanding the factors that shape the performance of high-energy consuming practices is useful to facilitate energy reduction in the domestic sector more efficiently and effectively.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

102

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Development of a Taste for Sustainable Homes: Cultural Capital of Green Technologies

Austin, M., Linares Gonzalez, E.E.

(Oxford Brookes University)

In addressing the issue of climate change, successive governments have set out ambitious plans for the reduction of our national carbon footprint. Within this context, buildings are responsible for 35% of UK's greenhouse emissions and in particular domestic energy consumption accounts for 12%. Along with the rest of Europe, the UK has been actively developing policies for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, and the past 10 years has seen a marked growth in the uptake of green technologies within the domestic sector catalysed by our governments' mostly economic motivations such as Feed in Tariffs (FiT) and the Green Deal. However, government policy has been the object of criticism due to abrupt changes in tariffs and now the closure of the green deal to new applications.

This paper looks within the domestic market at the practises and lifestyles of early adopters of green technology in order to determine the existence and nature of a Cultural Capital being ascribed to green goods. Analysis of interviews indicates that early adopters give greater importance to their environmental beliefs and concerns rather than economical gain from financial incentives. Moreover, evidence suggests that there is already a degree of objective orchestration in place that is developing a taste for systems of green technologies. Thus in the long run, rather than focusing on the financial argument, understanding the social and cultural influences of the climate change debate is key to understanding and promoting the low carbon lifestyle.

Understanding the Emergence of Low-Carbon Futures: The Role of Experiments and Interventions in

Facilitating Development of Sustainable Everyday Practices

Laakso, S.

(University of Helsinki)

In order to tackle climate change in urban areas in time, we need to focus not only on planning new transport networks and energy-efficient buildings, but also on how to make everyday living more sustainable in existing structures. To facilitate sustainability transition of the area, the City of Jyväskylä in Central Finland conducted several small-scale experiment projects. This on-going study focuses on mobility-related intervention experiments, in which households focused at altering their everyday mobility in different ways, from testing new transport services to temporarily giving up cars. Participating households were followed during these experiments that lasted from one to six months, and follow-up was done twelve months later. This way the study aims at understanding the process of de- and reroutinization in mobility due interventions and at evaluating the impact of the experiments in everyday practices of the households in the longer term. In addition, questionnaires were sent to city officials, politicians and NGO's to estimate whether these kinds of short-term projects have an effect on sustainability transitions of the area, and how these projects could be improved. The theoretical framework of the study ascends from practice theories. The preliminary results show that despite some conflicts, households were able to adapt their everyday practices to new circumstances. However, the loss of perceived well-being might result in returning back to old routines after the experiment. In other words, integrating perspective of social sustainability to environmentally oriented experiments is crucial for achieving long-term changes.

Families and Relationships

G11 B

YNG

K

ENDRICK

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

The Animal Challenge to Sociology

Charles, N., Carter, B.

(University of Warwick)

Sociology, unlike other disciplines, has been slow to take up the animal challenge. In this paper, we explore why it is that sociology has not looked at animals and ask what would happen if it did. We argue that sociology has had a fraught relationship with biology, that it is based on assumptions about human exceptionalism and that its emergence as a discipline was closely related to the emergence of industrialisation and urbanisation where human and animal lives are not so obviously interdependent as in rural societies. As well as asking why sociology is reluctant to incorporate animals into the sociological enterprise we also ask why it is important to do so and how such an incorporation contributes to sociology as a discipline and to the understanding of society which is at its heart. The answer to this question involves a recognition that 'any adequate specification of societies as structures of social relationship or interaction must include reference to non-human animals as occupants of social positions and as terms in social relationships' (Benton:1993:68 our emphasis). We suggest that reconceptualising society in this way involves a redefinition of the social and of what it means to be human; a revision of notions of agency, subjectivity and

103 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

reflexivity; and a rejection of the speciesism and anthropocentrism on which sociology is based. Finally we contend that a full understanding of society is not possible if we continue to direct the sociological gaze only at humans.

Posthuman Community in the Edgelands

Cudworth, E.

(University of East London)

This paper draws on a study of companion animals in human households and public spaces and deploys material gained by ethnographic observation and interviews with dog walkers mainly in urban but also, for comparison, in rural contexts. The paper argues that the relationships between cross-species 'packs' of people and dogs develop over time in the routine practices of walking in particular public spaces. This does not just contribute to the well-being of individual humans or the dogs they live with, rather, it enables the emergence of a particular kind of community that benefits the dogs and humans within it, and the broader community more widely. Communities of people and dogs, generated through walking together have particular characteristics, this research finds. These 'posthuman communities' of dogs and dog walkers are characterised by social inclusivity, a tolerance of diversity and openness to others. Human members of such communities are also invested in, and defensive, of public spaces and are engaged in various practices of care for humans, dogs, other species and the places through which they walk. These eclectic and dynamic networks of people and dogs are something that might be drawn on in developing new ways of sharing space in our more-than-human world.

Dogs on TV: Class, Gender and the Disruptive Potential of the ‘mongrel domestic’

Cudworth, E., Jensen, T.

(University of East London)

What we call in this paper, the 'Disney media animal' and the 'killer in the home' are tropes of the representation of dogs in the media. In recent decades in Anglo-American culture, certain breeds of dogs have often been associated with 'Disney' or 'killer' types. While working dogs such as Golden and Labrador retrievers have been seen as 'good' family dogs, bull-breeds such as mastiffs, pit-bulls and Staffordshire terriers have been associated with violence, both as trophy fighting dogs in street gang culture, and in terms of attacks in the home. We suggest here, that negative images of dog companions are often also embedded in a context of dysfunctionality of families and of individuals which are classed.

There are disruptions to this representational matrix however, and in the second half of this paper we focus on a recent British example, the comedy drama Puppy Love, which plays with stereotypes of 'good' and less good dogs, their humans and their domestic arrangements, and muddies the performative conventions of human-dog drama. It tells us something about cultures of animal guardianship and the ways in which these reflect relations of social inclusion/exclusion and difference and formations and practices of power. In tracing the emergence of a 'mongrel domestic' through some of the scenes of Puppy Love, we suggest that this is disruptive to dominant regimes of representation in which humans and dogs share the screen.

‘Do horses cause divorces?’ The Role of Women’s Equestrian Leisure within Family Relationships.

Dashper, K., McKeown J., Wallace, C.

(Leeds Beckett University)

Leisure research spanning the last fifty years shows that the idea of women's leisure is itself problematic. Women's leisure time is far more fragmented, limited and confined than that of men, and women often feel guilt when they spend time on personal leisure rather than family activities. This paper focuses on women's leisure based around horse riding – itself a hugely resource heavy activity in terms of time, money and emotional commitment. Using collaborative autoethnographic methods we explore the role of equestrian leisure in our own family lives. We consider how caring for and riding horses impacts on family life, everyday interactions and the construction and negotiation of familial relationships. Reconciling our commitment to horses with family life highlights the persistence of traditional gender power relations within different family structures. We also reflect on the ways in which our research approach, which involved interviews with each other and our partners, exacerbated many of the tensions between our passion for equestrianism and family commitments and priorities. Women may have increasing access to leisure opportunities and enjoy fun, friendship, fitness and achievement in ways similar to men in many sport and leisure spaces, however, our paper shows that women's leisure often remains problematic within the context of family relationships.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

104

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Frontiers 1

S

TAFFORD

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Energy Biographies, Psychosocial Research and Sustainable Living

Henwood, K., Groves, C., Pidgeon, N.

(Cardiff University)

Arguments for how we should be changing how we live today in order to address intractable climate and related risk issues are not uncontroversial: it is not so obvious how to take forward our individual and collective efforts to live more sustainably. The position we have adopted on the energy biographies research project is that any such change needs to be livable change for the humans currently alive on this planet. Our ways of working toward this is by seeking to generate understanding of difficulties in changing our everyday energy practices –as well as opening up reflective spaces for thinking about possibilities for change. Drawing directly on our published papers, the presentation will show how patterns of practices in and of themselves cannot be viewed as responsible for the continuance of unsustainability, and that there is a need to go deeper and broader in thinking about how people become participants in such practices. A psychosocial perspective can offer more complex views than is commonly of the various other elements that lock in, or fail to lock in, subjects as carriers of particular practices – and opens up possibilities of change in environmental subjectivities in and through time.

The Emotional Stock of Right-Wing Extremism: The Case of Golden Dawn

Rori, L., Richards, B.

(University of Bournemouth)

For over five years now, news stories in printed and electronic Greek media have been dominated by negative and emotional terms, whilst the protest cycle – massive, frequently violent and anti-systemic - has been monopolized by emotional discourses and signals. Among tectonic changes in the party system, the rise of Golden Dawn figures as the most alarming evolution during the financial crisis. In the recent election, the Greek right-wing extremists secured third place among parliamentary parties, despite the fact that the most prominent cadres and activists of the party, as well as their leader, are standing trial, being accused of running a criminal organization. In this paper, we propose to identify the emotional content of the ideology of right-wing political extremists in Greece. In order to do so we will use qualitative and quantitative content analysis of a series of primary documents (party manifesto, party press, interviews in the media) of the Golden Dawn and of other groups of the right-wing milieu. This will help us configure the emotional background which surrounds the extremist ideology and their emotional identity in public discourse. Our research protocol proposes a combined approach, which brings together the political sociology of emotions and the psychosocial study of emotions into political research, with a focus on extremist politics.

Through Thick and Thin: Accounts of Personhood in Psychoanalytic, Foucauldian and ‘Socio-Technical’

Sociologies

Redman, P.

(The Open University)

Over the last few decades socio-technical arguments found in S&TS and ANT, together with ideas from governmentality theory, have been highly productive in generating what has been referred to as a 'thin' account of the individual. From these points of view, we are equipped with specific qualities, capacities and attributes through social practices, forms of training and the socio-technical arrangements in which we participate.

Such arguments seem to have little to do with – indeed to be antithetical to – many of the ideas that inform psychoanalytic sociology, particularly versions of it influenced by Klein and object relations theory. For this kind of sociology, our encounters with other people and things are profoundly mediated by unconscious psychic life – a lively

'internal' world of drives, object-related phantasy, transference, projective identification and introjection. In contrast to governmentality and socio-technical arguments, Kleinian and object relations ideas suggest a 'thick' individual: one already endowed with qualities, capacities and attributes by virtue of being human.

In this paper in progress, I will be asking what is it at stake in these contrasting positions and considering if there is more room for dialogue between them than might first appear to be the case. Do relational and more process-based psychoanalytic ideas bring psychoanalytic sociology any closer to governmental and socio-technical thinking? Do socio-technical arguments really abandon the notion of internal properties?

Habitus: Beyond Sociology

Silva, E.

(The Open University)

105 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

This paper presents a contribution of a set of interrelated innovative thinking to revitalise the sociological understanding of the notion of the habitus. It discusses contributions by sociologists exploring the sources of

Bourdieu's inspiration from psychology and psychoanalysis to the development of the concept, and brings in new thinking inspired by authors and frameworks that branch out of sociology to bring into sociology fresher thinking. Three areas of concern about habitus are focused on: firstly, the objectivism and subjectivism dichotomy; secondly, the plasticity or rigidity of the concept; and thirdly, the implications of intangibles attached to the notion.

Frontiers 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

127

Peer Review Insights: Tips from the Experts

Beck, V., Danford, A.

(University of Leicester)

The peer review process lies at the heart of academic activity – playing a key role in the evaluation and dissemination of research findings. Learning how to review is therefore an important element of being an academic. Join Work, employment, and society (WES) Editors, Andy Danford and Vanessa Beck who will lead this session, exploring the process of peer reviewing articles submitted for publication in journals.

WES is one of the BSA’s most successful journals and has a sterling reputation for the quality of peer review comments. Publishing high quality research depends on an equally high quality peer review process and peer reviewers are an essential part of the journal ecology and the advancement of research. As Editors of WES, Andy and Vanessa have a wealth of knowledge about what makes a good review and how it is used to develop research publications. The session will cover how to become a reviewer and/or develop reviewing practices. Scholars of all ages and stages make great reviewers so we encourage all delegates to attend and find out more about contributing to the discipline through peer review.

Lifecourse

S

TEELHOUSE

1, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Four Score and Ten – The Risk of Difficulties with Mobility, Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental

Activities of Daily Living Beyond the Age of Ninety

Key, W.

(University of Lincoln)

This paper will add to the emerging body of research on the 'Fourth Age' of the life-course and to debates about the

'oldest old', terms usually applied to people aged 75, or 85, years and above. It will suggest that, due to the sharp rise in the number of people aged 90-and-over in the U.K. and beyond, it is now necessary to focus more research attention on this 90-and-over age group, as physical and cognitive deterioration appear to be delayed until progressively older ages.

It will utilise data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) to examine the extent of the increase in the risk of experiencing difficulties with mobility, activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond the age of 90.

It will compare the responses of ELSA participants aged 75-89 to those aged 90-plus to questions about whether they have difficulty conducting: a) Ten mobility-related tasks b) Six ADLs c) Nine IADLs

The paper will conclude by arguing that the significantly higher risk of physical and mental frailty evident at age 90plus places members of this age group at high risk of being housebound, being socially excluded, and requiring hospital in-patient treatment and/or residential care, and it advocates increased focus on the 90-and-over age group in future research and policy debates about the nature of the life-course.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

106

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Exploring the Role of Relationships in Older People's Choices of Informal and Formal Care

Locke, P.

(Aston University)

This paper argues that binary divisions between older people actively making choices and being passive recipients are not appropriate to understandings of care in later life. The social policy emphasis on the personalisation of care through a choice of service providers reflects neoliberal ideas of individual responsibility. The language of personalisation assumes that opportunities for choice by care recipients will lead to improved care for the individual.

This paper explores the experiences of arranging care for older people through analysis of narratives by older people and informal carers. The journey into care in later life begins with the recognition that a need for care exists. This need is often initially met through negotiations with families and significant others. This may not involve explicitly articulated choices but rather an understanding that draws on existing knowledge of the older person's preferences and habits. The physical and logistical limits of informal care may lead to a need to 'choose' formal care. Rather than impacting solely on the care recipient, formal care is shown as an experience that is shared with others. Adding to discussions of care as an activity that requires constant re-configuring, the narratives show that attempts to frame care as a single 'choice' by an individual bear little semblance to the everyday experiences of older care recipients.

Instead, it is important to allow for, and acknowledge, situations of 'no choice' that come about through the compassion for, and 'feeling with', the care recipient that underpin caring relationships.

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE ROOM

145

The Rise of Digital Philanthrocapitalism and the Construction of Productive Bodies Through Digital Self-

Tracking Devices and Corporate Wellness Programs

Till, C.

(Leeds Beckett University)

This paper will address the question: why do companies and organisations want us to be healthy? It will be argued that there is an increasing incitement to healthiness from companies and organisations. It will be proposed that companies have taken a new kind of biopolitical interest in the health of the population which is leading to a convergence between work and health, particularly in relation to exercise. Commercially available digital self-tracking devices (DST) and corporate wellness (CW) programmes using DST both represent a desire of corporations to produce 'productive bodies'. DST form a socio-technical assemblage which enables companies to be seen to be improving the health of the population through encouraging higher levels of activity at the same time that they improve productivity. It will be argued that the commercial sale of DST and CW are brought together through their ethical concern for the health of the population. While both have commercial, economic interests in the incitement to health

(the generation of data or a more productive workforce) this is merged with an ethical concern for the health of the population and a drive to 'do good' as part of social responsibility. The ethic of philanthrocapitalism is that capitalist mechanisms are the best way to achieve positive social outcomes. This dual concern with commerce and the improvement of health, enabled by the development of new digital tracking technologies is causing healthiness (and virtuousness) to become increasingly associated with 'activity' which is becoming the 'general equivalent' against which everything is judged.

Patient Empowerment as a Driver of a Connected Healthcare Eco-System – Realistic or Not?

Quinlan, M.

(University College Dublin)

Connected Health is a conceptual model for healthcare delivery where devices, services or interventions are designed around the patient's needs, and where health-related data is shared to allow the patient to receive the most proactive and efficient care possible (Caulfield and Donnelly:2013). This 'connected' model of healthcare has the potential to empower patients, healthcare providers, commissioners and payers.

The discourse of patient empowerment is one which is widespread when discussing how technology can transform a person's healthcare experience. From mobile applications which help with fitness and weight-loss, through to large- scale deployment of telehealth solutions across entire healthcare systems – technology is transforming healthcare.

However, issues of empowerment within healthcare are problematic. This paper seeks to explore how access to care, and technology; and issues of gender, age, race, and class are mediating factors which can impact on a person's ability to access these new healthcare options, and to feel fully-empowered by them. From an organisational perspective, the issue of empowering one stakeholder within the system may also have knock-on effects regarding issues of power within the health-care profession.

107 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Drawing on research carried out within the Irish, UK and US healthcare systems, this paper will explore the issues of power, empowerment, and dis-empowerment that accompany large-scale shifts in how we provide care. Via a mixed methodology of participant observation, interviews, focus-groups and questionnaires, we have gathered data from professionals in the US and Irish systems regarding their attitudes towards patient empowerment, and towards healthcare innovation and transformation.

Social Capital, Biological Capital and Health Inequalities: Bourdieu Meets Developmental Programming

Kriznik, N., Kelly, M.

(University of Cambridge)

In the context of health inequalities this paper examines the linkages between social capital and the well-established biological and emerging evidence from epigenetics and developmental programming about the impact of social disadvantage on health. The idea of biological capital considers the potential biological mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of poor health and the linkages of those mechanisms to exposure to social disadvantage. We consider the ways in which social capital helps elucidate the ways that the social may play a role interactively with the biological mechanisms. The implications of this in terms of the reproduction historically of patterns of inequality in health are potentially profound. The integrated understanding of mechanisms may offer a more focussed way of developing policies and interventions to 'tackle' health inequalities than current approaches which are grounded in highly individualistic and non-social accounts of the actions of the so called social determinants of health. While the role and importance of social capital in improving and maintaining health are well documented both in the academic and policy literature, there seems to be little attempt to fully understand the links between the social and the biological; in particular the impact that the social has on foetal and early life biological development.

We suggest that the transmission of biological capital is intimately tied to the transmission of social capital.

Fortuitously Among Like Others? Making Better Use of Bourdieu's Work in Conceptualising Online Health

Practices

Hope, J.

(University of Southampton)

Research into the use of the Internet in health practices is fragmented, often failing to reconcile macro and micro explanations. While Bourdieu's work would seem an ideal theoretical framework for exploring the interplay between structure and agency online, his concepts are currently used in a piecemeal fashion. This paper argues for the more coherent use of his repertoire of theoretical resources to explore the role of the Internet in everyday caring practices. I used a mixed method, mixed mode approach to explore the everyday use of the Internet among parents of people with a rare syndrome, recruited through both online and offline sources. A survey (n=190) and interviews (n=20) were used. The utility and limitations of using Bourdieu's concepts of capitals, fields, subfields, habitus, taste and practices are explored in relation to four key areas. Firstly, the social differentiation of access to and engagement with different forms of online support and information. Secondly, how macro and micro processes impact upon the use of online subfields. Thirdly, how wider symbolic struggles within medical and related fields are reflected online. Finally, how the changing use of the Internet, research and technology need to be interpreted within a rapidly changing socio-historical background. It is argued that the use of a wider range of Bourdieu's theoretical resources can enable us to explore and theorise online health practices as they relate to a wider social context, allowing greater exploration of the influence of both structural and agentic processes.

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

3

Diagnostic Resistance and Autism

Hollin, G., Pilnick, A.

(University of Nottingham)

It is well recognised that individuals undergoing diagnosis may resist clinical interpretations of their behaviours. One well documented form of resistance is passive resistance wherein individuals decline opportunities to affirm diagnosticians' utterances and/or limit their use of physical gestures. Such acts of passive resistance during the diagnosis of autism could, however, prove problematic as they are interpretable as forms of social abnormality and, therefore, demonstrative of autism. It is possible, we suggest, that acts of resistance during the diagnosis of autism actually contribute to the likelihood of a positive diagnosis. In this paper, and drawing upon an ethnomethodological framework, we examine video transcripts of a number of Autism Diagnosis Observation Schedule (ADOS) examinations in order to ask, firstly, should resistance during autism diagnosis be treated as an interactional

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

108

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

phenomenon or a clinical one and, secondly, how are such decisions made. We show that several, and quite varied, forms of resistance occur during diagnostic testing for autism. We further demonstrate that all parties respond to these instances of resistance in a nuanced, locally specific manner. Nonetheless, various forms of resistance are understood by diagnosticians as pathological rather than designedly resistant and, given this finding, we are argue that the ADOS involves the causal attribution of various behaviours to autism (rather than the individual). Such attribution is both complicated and, potentially, problematic in as much as it may deny individuals the mundane, ordinarily available opportunities to resist diagnostic procedures.

Patient-Professional Interaction and Decision-Making in Weight-Loss Surgery

Whybrow, P.

(University of Bristol)

Obesity is an increasing health problem in the UK. Current national guidelines recommend that surgery is considered for people with severe and complex obesity. The treatment requires careful consideration because of the serious commitment needed. As part of large surgical trial of weight-loss surgery, over 600 consultations between patients, surgeons, dietitians and nurses have been audio-recorded to support recruitment practices. We present findings from a secondary analysis of a selection of these data, focusing on the relative roles and narrative positioning of these encounters.

Weight-loss surgery consultations are the result of a lengthy patient pathway in which patients have had to lose sufficient weight to demonstrate capability to adhere to post-operative dietary restrictions. Many patients have become highly informed, drawing information from online forums and patient groups. As ‘experts’ (Fox et al. 2004) patients’ accounts of weight-loss history can be understood as tactically employed to demonstrate the status of ‘complex obesity’ necessary for the desired surgical intervention. We demonstrate how patients and surgeon interactions coconstruct multiple patient selves: the obese (sick/afflicted) self and the postoperative (healthy/normal) self.

Fox, N.J., Ward, K.J., O’Rourke, A.J. 'The ‘expert patient’: empowerment or medical dominance? The case of weight loss, pharmaceutical drugs and the Internet.' Social Science & Medicine 60.6 (2005):1299-1309

Bio/Medicalization of Death: The Social Impact of Life Support Technology in Bangladesh

Islam, S.

(Lancaster University)

Biomedical technology has made new heights in shaping life, culture and the future. By the expanding nature of technology, Bangladesh has also witnessed a new form of death administered by the biomedical technologies in increasing numbers in recent decades. The rapid growths of privatized medical hospitals equipped with modern technologies have made this phenomenon more wide spreading. The biomedical technology exists by definition to meet basic human health-related needs such as reducing suffering, restoring health, preventing premature death, and prolonging life. At the same time the advent of new biomedical technology has also made the determination and definition of death difficult in Bangladesh where influence of practices of biomedical knowledge, religion and culturally informed beliefs clearly exist. It is very challenging for any social scientists to understand this interplay, the contested areas of biotechnological interventions of life and death and how technology shapes the discourse of life and death in any particular society. Here I intend to explore the issues relating to the intervention of medical knowledge and practices over death through my ethnographic investigation. I want to engage with the debates between the theories of medicalization and biomedicalization in this connection and explore how these two trends as analytical terms identify and describe a specific set of phenomena of death embracing by technology. This paper also seeks to sketch the possibilities and shortcomings of these theories applying in a culturally specific society like Bangladesh which anticipates a new theoretical position to understand the social impact of technological interventions.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

The Klan is History: A Historical Perspective on the Revival of the Ku Klux Klan and ‘White Terror’ in ‘Post-

Race’ America

Winter, A.

(University of East London)

Following Obama's election in 2008, discussion focused on the possibility of a post-racial America. Images of Obama and African-American supporters were often juxtaposed with images of Klansmen burning crosses and police using dogs and water hoses against African-Americans who crossed the colour line and fought for civil and voting rights.

109 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Such images obscured not only continuing systemic racism and inequality, but also the revival of violent organised racism. In 2009, Homeland Security issued the report Right-wing Extremism: Current Economic and Political Climate

Fuelling Resurgence in Radicalization and Recruitment and the Southern Poverty Law Center cited an increase in hate groups. More recently, we have seen a pattern of police violence against African-Americans and a revival of the

Klan in response to the 2014 Ferguson protests and the June 2015 Charleston church shooting, all of which challenge the post-race thesis. This paper will examine how the Klan has been used to signify the history of racism in America, previously acceptable and mainstream, and at the same time extremist, not just in the current context, but throughout history. It look at three periods of Klan history in which their rise and mainstream power was ended by processes of political delegitimisation and criminalisation, often based on their use of terrorism, when they posed threat to the enforcement of federal laws and racism needed to be symbolically exorcised. The paper will also look at this history as a way of interrogating claims following Charleston that terrorism committed by whites is rarely acknowledged as such.

Populism, the Racialisation of Class and the Hatred of Democracy

Mondon, A.

(University of Bath)

In recent years, the term 'populism' has become increasingly linked to reconstructed far right parties such as the

French Front National and UKIP. Through its many uses and misuses, this association has created a mythology around such parties and their appeal to the 'people'. This development has facilitated the return of racism to the forefront of mainstream political discourse and simultaneously obscured the deeper causes for such a revival.

This paper will explore the ways in which populist hype, based on a skewed understanding of democracy as majority, has divided the 'people' along arbitrary lines, tearing communities apart at the expense of more emancipatory actions.

Focusing on elite discourse analysis, the aim will be to examine the process in which, through its involuntary and constructed association with the far right, the 'people' has become essentialised as the white working class, thus not only separating but antagonising class and race struggles. Using the psychoanalytic concept of the 'theft of enjoyment, this paper will argue that through this narrow understanding and the subsequent stigmatisation of the white working class as responsible for reprehensible illiberal actions, albeit well within the liberal democratic order (i.e. voting for the far right), upper classes in society have felt justified in their position as righteous and progressive political adjudicators, and in turn, have further entrenched both class and race stigma as inescapable democratic dilemmas.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

144

Refugee Crisis or Reception Crisis? A Critical Map of Migrants’ Reception Systems in the Mediterranean

D'Angelo, A.

(Middlesex University)

The recent surge of migrants crossing the Mediterranean in search of protection has presented a major challenge for the European Union and its Member States. What has been often labelled as a 'refugee crisis' is first and foremost a crisis of international politics and the result of inadequate response mechanisms at national and local level.

This paper is informed by emerging findings from a broad-ranging ESRC-funded research project ('EVI-MED'). It presents an analysis of local systems of arrivals management and of the complex interaction between state-actors, local NGOs and social enterprises, focussing in particular on the case of Sicily.

The Italian island has been – together with Greece - the main area of arrival for those crossing the sea heading to

Northern Europe. Its recent history has been marked by dramatic shipwrecks, reported violations of human rights, and scandals concerning the management of some reception centres. Most recently, Sicily was identified to host the regional office of Frontex (the European borders management agency) and a number of newly branded 'hot-spots', which are already attracting criticism for potentially creating more problems than they solve. However Sicily presents also many examples of good practice of reception, front-line support and human rights monitoring, particularly thanks to the work of independent organisations and local volunteers, an aspect very often under-represented in media discourses and research. This paper aims to provide a 'critical map' of Sicily, discussing and visualising a rapidly evolving scenario and raising questions about the near future and lessons to be learned.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

110

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

‘A Normal Life’: Unpacking the Meanings of ‘Normality’ Among Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Eastern Europeans in Scotland

Stella, F., Flynn, M., Gawlewicz, A.

(University of Glasgow)

Despite a growing body of research on migration and same-sex sexualities, this work has mainly focussed on North

America. Much less attention has been paid to intra-European queer migration, despite very uneven levels of recognition of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) rights across Europe. This raises questions as to whether transnational migration can be a strategy for enabling non-heteronormative practices and identities, and for accessing sexual citizenship rights. This paper discusses the findings of an ESRC-funded project exploring the experiences of LGB migrants from Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union in Scotland (Jan 2015-Dec 2016). Adopting an intersectional approach, the project explores how sexuality interplays with other factors in shaping decisions to migrate, lived experiences of transnational migration and settlement, networks of sociability and sense of belonging.

Methodologically, it combines biographical interviews and sociograms with photo diaries and follow-up interviews. The paper focuses on the construction of a 'normal life' in the narratives of LGB migrants. It explores how understandings of 'normality' are shaped against the backdrop of East-West migration in Europe, and unpacks both material and emotional meanings attached to 'normality' and 'security'. Notions of 'normality' as a discourse and aspiration have emerged very prominently both in research on post-socialist societies (Kennedy 1994; Rausing 2002) and in research on post-accession 'East-West' migration (Galasinska and Koslowska 2009; McGhee et al 2013) . The paper contributes new perspectives to these debates by exploring the perspective of LGB migrants and by situating them within the specific setting of Scotland.

Regulating Social Rights and Mobility in Europe: A Transnational Comparison

Sojka, B., Carmel, E.

(University of Bath)

There has been growing recognition that portability of social security rights is the central element of transnational welfare in the enlarged European Union, and is defined as a form of government because it regulates the transfer of vested social security rights of mobile individuals. However, little there is known about how and whether different regulations have systematic logics of inclusion or exclusion for particular migrant type.This paper is based on a transnational comparison of portability regimes of social security rights [such as the right to health insurance and to unemployment, retirement, child or maternity benefits] between the old and the new EU member states. The empirical analyses explores the portability of welfare between four pairs of European countries: Hungary–Austria, Bulgaria–

Germany, Poland–United Kingdom and Estonia–Sweden. The selection of emigration countries is justified by the fact that their migrant populations in the receiving countries have increased since the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007 and by the long historical relationships between the sending and the receiving countries.Based on the empirical analysis of the portability regimes of social security rights this paper exposes:1) how different regulations have systematic logics of inclusion or exclusion for particular migrant type, and how these vary by country and policy area and 2) how this selectivity is achieved across cases and policy areas. This paper also indicates the possible implications of the regulatory pathways of portability and their underpinning logics in the production and reproduction and subversion of inequalities, exclusion and hierarchies, requires an exploration.

In Search of Hospitality: Asylum, Mobility, and Inequality in Europe

Pasquetti, S.

(Newcastle University)

Drawing on eight months of ethnographic fieldwork in two refugee centers in Italy, one in Sicily and the other in

Northern city of Parma, this paper explores how asylum seekers relate to mobility as a material and symbolic resource. Specifically, it examines how, in their relentless search for hospitable areas, asylum seekers acquire a practical knowledge about the unequal Italian and European context. How does the socioeconomic and symbolic marginality of Italy, especially but not only its Southern regions, shape arriving asylum seekers' hierarchies of desirable final destinations? How do they evaluate whether or not Italy—Sicily, Parma or another place—is the hospitable place they are looking for? How do their imaginaries of what Europe is interact with their lived experiences of Italian society? By addressing these questions, the paper seeks to explain how for some refugees mobility becomes the primary way to deal with the precariousness of their lives despite the repeated disappointments connected to their movements within and beyond Italy. By contrast, for other refugees, mobility loses its attraction despite the uncertainty that these refugees continue to experience in the place where they have settled. By focusing on how refugees look for and identify hospitable areas within Europe, this paper connects migrant mobilities and socioeconomic and symbolic inequalities within Europe. While discussing the role of Northern European destinations as a 'pull factor,' the paper also offers counterintuitive findings about cases in which refugees have come to imagine themselves as future citizens within relatively marginal Southern European areas.

111 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

139

Post-Nationalism and the Sociology of Solidarity: Contesting Migration Rights in the UK and Australia

Tonkiss, K.

(Aston University)

The basis of solidarity in contexts of high immigration is the subject of robust academic debate. While some commentators have sought to imagine 'post-national' alternatives to the dominant national model which can better accommodate the increasingly diverse, transient and fluid character of membership, others have argued that the binding sentiment of national identity is fundamentally important to the functioning of a liberal democratic society.

Others still have suggested that recent surges in nationalist and anti-immigrant sentiment highlight that postnationalism is not a relevant or feasible model of political integration. This paper seeks to problematise the notion that post-nationalism is irrelevant to the contemporary theorisation, and experience, of membership. The paper draws on research undertaken with migration rights organisations in the UK and Australia to examine how solidarity is being reconfigured in contexts of high immigration, and what these insights can contribute to both the conceptualisation of post-nationalism and debates over its salience in contemporary societies. In analysing alternative narratives which challenge what membership and belonging mean in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, the paper suggests that new forms of post-national solidarity are forming despite - and in response to - overtly nationalistic policies and public opinion, and proposes the conceptualisation of post-nationalism as rooted in practices of contestation within the state.

Crossing Colonial Borders: Internationalising the De-Colonial Struggle in Palestine-Israel

Todorova, T.

(University of Nottingham)

This paper critically examines the impact of inter and transnational border regimes on mobilization and inter-cultural solidarity activism in Palestine-Israel. In particular, the paper examines how 'privileged' post/colonial and settler colonial citizenship allows greater international mobility and access to a wider international audience for international solidarity activists and Israeli settler colonial citizens, inadvertently displacing the centrality of the occupied and besieged Palestinians whose struggle they seek to support. The paper further problematises the straightforward link between ownership of a 'privileged' passport and having rights to move freely across national and international borders, foregrounding the significance of ethnicity, nationality, and government policy in enabling or preventing citizens' exercise of freedom of movement and protection from state violence. The paper draws on informal interviews with international, Palestinian, and Israeli activists, as well as fieldwork notes produced during participant observation in Palestine-Israel between 2009 and 2011, and further utilises analysis of the high profile murder cases of international activists Tom Hurndall, and Rachael Corrie.

Building Bridges: Understanding Volunteer and Activist Engagements with Immigration Detention

Lindley, A.

(SOAS, University of London)

Immigration detention is a key element in the 'hostile environment' that the British government attempts to promote regarding migration. Typically research has approached immigration detention from 'top-down' perspectives, focusing on how it is used by the state to control and set people apart from British society. More recently, 'bottom-up' perspectives have emerged through ethnographic studies, NGO initiatives, social media and press coverage, opening up everyday life inside detention centres. However, immigration detention is also the focus of diverse – and barely researched - voluntary sector activity. Many people work to build bridges between those detained and the rest of society, offering emotional and practical support and pushing for policy change, and these efforts are beginning to make a mark on mainstream political debates. This paper explores findings from recently conducted qualitative interviews with volunteers and activists working on immigration detention, examining participants' motivations, experiences of organising and views on migration. The findings are examined in light of debates about social movements and active citizenship.

Ethnic Bonding vs. Ethnic Solidarity: The Polish Diaspora and Civil Society Making in the United Kingdom

Elgenius, G.

(University of Gothenburg)

This study analyses diaspora activity manifested in the civic sphere with regards to memory, home and homing

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

112

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

desires – notions analysed by exploring contestations within groups, here with specific focus on the increasingly diversified civic space of Polish migrants. The Polish, as a group, demonstrate a unique migratory experience with the steady increase of migrants since EU-enlargement of 2004, and constitute today the second largest foreign-born group in the UK. In this analysis, the civic space of Polish migrants – growing alongside other spaces within the migrant civic sphere – is considered with reference to different generations of Polish migrants associated with the

Second World War, the Solidarity period and post-EU expansion. The puzzling relationship between ethnic bonding in the civic space alongside display of lack of ethnic solidarity will be analysed. Significantly, internal critique and the uneasy coexistence of the different generations does not seemingly undermine civil society building along ethnic lines.

On the contrary, internal contestation seems to fuel civic activism and has rejuvenated original exile associations and increased the diversity of the contemporary Polish civic space, including unprecedented production of Polish supplementary schools and recent campaigns to 'save Polish A-Level' and donate 'Polish blood'. This study draws on research from two funded projects on Diaspora and Civil Society and builds on over 100 in-depth interviews with members, representatives, volunteers, chairs and trustees. The interview phases (including different Diaspora groups,

N=200) stretch over several years.

Rights, Violence and Crime

W

HITEHALL

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Defending the Rights of Future Peoples

Skillington, T.

(University College Cork)

The type of temporal frameworks that have traditionally guided our thinking on human rights eligibility are currently subject to challenge, especially the notion that legally recognized human rights obligations only make sense (in justice terms) when their violation is linked to the harming of specific persons. Because the hypothetical human being of the future lacks a concrete social and political presence or financial power and, in that, cannot challenge decisions being made today, the general assumption has been that their relevance to current human rights debates is limited.

However, given the present reckless borrowing of future generations' environmental capital, such peoples, however hypothetical, have become deeply implicated in contemporary climate justice debates. Attention now shifts to our performance as guardians of the environmental commons and as protectors of the rights of subjects of justice who currently lack a distinct identity. Climate justice campaigners point to the fundamental rights of such peoples to development, life, and liberty. This paper assesses how these campaigners contribute to a new critical social imagination of justice, one that radically extends the radius of human rights eligibility by making concrete the 'distant suffering' of unborn peoples whose resource needs are unjustly served by inter-generational relations of domination and non recognition.

Extrajudicial Executions, Human Rights and Social Solidarity: the case of the Social Movement of Victims of

'False Positives´ (Falsos Positivos) of Colombia from a Communicative Citizenship Perspective

Tamayo Gomez, C., Navarro, D.

(University of Huddersfield and EAFIT University)

In this paper we would like to present the experience of two social movements of victims of extrajudicial executions in

Colombia from a Communicative Citizenship theoretical perspective. Specifically, we will focus on the experience of

The Mothers of Soacha (Cundinamarca) and The Centre to Approach Reconciliation and Reparation (CARE) of San

Carlos town (Eastern Antioquia). We will analyse how these two groups of victims have been addressing expressive and communicative dimensions of collective action to develop processes of social solidarity in the midst of the

Colombian armed conflict.

The principal argument in this paper is that these two groups of victims are memory communities, putting distance between their personal experience and official narratives regarding the causes of the war through creating another version of what happened in this territory since 1995. Furthermore, those victims' groups are involved in helping the future establishment of commissions of truth and reconciliation for the country, and through their memory narratives and collective communicative citizenship actions they are contesting power relations in the collective construction and

(re)construction of the horrors of the armed conflict.

The conclusions presented in this paper are based on results of a narrative analysis of 76 interviews conducted with different members of The Mothers of Soacha and The Centre to Approach Reconciliation and Reparation from

October 2012 to September 2015.

113 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

The Sociology of Genocide Encounters Anti-Homosexuality Acts in Africa

Waites, M.

(University of Glasgow)

Genocide studies has increasingly extended definitions of genocide beyond mass killing to refer to processes destroying group identity. Yet with the UN Genocide Convention of 1948 referring only to racial, ethnic, national and religious groups, issues of gender and sexuality were historically outside genocide discourse. Even analyses of the use of the pink triangle by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust have often not invoked the concept. However recent developments in some sub-saharan African states have clearly shown threats to destroy homosexuals as a group of people: most notably in Uganda with the Anti-Homosexuality Act briefly passed then ruled invalid; also in The

Gambia's new legislation against 'aggravated homosexuality' (both 2014). Meanwhile the International Criminal

Tribunal in Rwanda has extended interpretation of genocide to include sexual violence. This paper will analyse the relationship between genocide discourse, including attempts to articulate this with homosexuality or sexual orientation, to African contexts where evidence of clear intent to threaten eradication of homosexuals as a social group seems manifest. We will consider how African lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) activists such as the

Sexual Minorities Uganda coalition have begun invoking signs of genocide, notably in legal action against US evangelical pastor Scott Lively - data including online NGO and government sources and an audio interview with Dr.

Frank Mugisha (SMUG). Following this it becomes possible to consider what the sociology of genocide might contribute to interpreting contemporary political debates in national and transnational LGBTI movements, and more widely.

Social Divisions / Social Identities

W

HITEHALL

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Why is Cultural Consumption Correlated with Income? Exploring the Process of Cultural Matching

Reeves, A., De Vries, R.

(University of Oxford)

Why is cultural activity correlated with income? People who move into privileged social positions alter their cultural consumption, becoming more similar to their new peer group. But, cultural consumption may also increase the likelihood of moving into privileged social positions, a process called cultural matching. While cultural matching has been demonstrated in hiring decisions among some elite U.S. firms, we argue that these processes will remain important for hiring in professional service firms more generally and will also apply to promotions. Cultural matching will also vary across social class, suggesting that the breadth of cultural activity will matter more for people who are highly skilled and for people in occupations with higher barriers to entry. To test this theory of cultural matching, we use data from the British Household Panel Survey, an individual-level longitudinal survey conducted in the UK, to examine whether cultural consumption in the present predicts future income, upward social mobility, and promotions.

People who consume a broader range of cultural activities are more likely to earn higher wages in the future; but this association is strongest among those who have university degrees and those who are employed in the professional service class. This relationship remains stable even after controlling for family background, cognitive ability, personality, and a range of other socio-demographic controls. We also find that broader cultural consumption increases the likelihood of upward social mobility and the likelihood of being promoted. Cultural matching may play an important role in the reproduction of income inequality between generations.

Nutrition Justice: Policy, Parents and Child Fatness

Noonan-Gunning, S.

(City University)

Child obesity in contemporary times is argued a product of modern capitalism. It is a multifactorial problem including social gradient in England. With background concern for child health, individualising and responsibilising policy discourses place greatest burden on poorest parents. This is bound within deficit model. Whilst food practices of parents are under the microscope there is little research about their policy experiences and solutions.

Drawn from my PhD, this paper focuses on the views of predominantly working class parents, mothers, with children medically described as obese. The PhD, a critical policy analysis, within the local state, explores the meanings of social class in context of food-related obesity policy. Theoretically it draws on Critical Theory and Marxism.

Drawing on the parental experiences this paper explores responsibilising processes that produce stigma and division.

In the context of health anxiety and financial struggle parents take 'ultimate responsibility'. Whilst 'getting the message' they practice middle class food practices on which policy is based. Government gives the 'impression' of

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

114

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

helping. There is awareness of food industry profit motives, the power of the state, and futility of local state in

'allowing' unhealthy foods to saturate poor communities. There is strong sense of injustice about poor nutritional quality of children's foods. Anger is exemplified through NCMP letters, seen as unhelpful, divisive and stigmatising. In the context of 'democracy deficit' parents believe they should inform policy. Parents articulate policy changes to include universalism in child heath, collectivism at community level, broad reforms of food system and employment rights.

‘They're a bit Essex-y some of them’: Middle-class Discourses of Class, Taste and ‘People Like Them’ in

London’s North Eastern Suburbs

Clarke, A.

(University of Sussex)

Lying slightly north of the 'white autochthony' of East London the London/Essex border connects the historically romanticised home of the white working-class (James:2014:656) and Essex, 'heartland of the working class manmade-good' (Richards:2014). Despite these connections, however, the area is now a predominantly middle-class stretch of suburbia, home to city commuters, high-achieving schools, cafés, salons and boutique shops.

Based on ethnographic and interview and data collected during eleven months of field research in the suburbs of north east London and west Essex, this paper explores the classed (and often raced) divisions between those middle-class people who think of themselves as cosmopolitans, Londoners and educated – traditional middle-classes – and the newer or 'emergent' middle-classes – the working-class Essex girl/boy made good, represented in programs like The

Only Way is Essex. Everyday negotiations of classed difference, observed ethnographically, will be discussed alongside interview narratives of self, other and community to reveal the role that taste, consumption and comportment play in contemporary understanding of social class across the London/Essex border.

I will argue that in this area the wealthy and successful Essex girl/boy can be understood as having reached a point where despite their upwardly mobile socioeconomic positioning they remain in-authentically middle-class in the eyes of more established middle-class people. This does not, however, constitute a glass ceiling of opportunity; rather, the different 'types' of middle-class person are living, mostly harmoniously, alongside one another, sharing public spaces but often partaking in different activities and frequenting different places.

Class and Status: The Homology of Social Divisions and Life-Styles

Flemmen, M., Jarness, V., Rosenlund, L.

(University of Oslo)

Do social class divisions overlap with lifestyle differences? This has been a hotly contested issue in sociology for decades, and since the 1980s the focal point of these debates has been Bourdieu's Distinction. Bourdieu argued that a structural correspondence, or homology pertains to the relationship between class and status. Chan and Goldthorpe claims Bourdieu conflate class and status, reducing the latter to a reflection of the former. In their view, it is only status groups – not classes – that have distinct life-styles. We reject these claims and show that the Distinction model allows for a more sophisticated analysis of class and status, as well as their interrelationship – while also being more in line with Weber's views.

We demonstrate this by investigating the homology between class and status divisions. We do this by following

Bourdieu's claim rather closely: The homology thesis posits a similar structure in the 'universe of conditions of existence' as in 'the symbolic universe of lifestyles'. This means that both 'universes' are regarded as relatively autonomous spheres of social life, but that they are structured in a similar way. In accordance with this view, we model each of these universes separately – the social space of positions and the space of life-styles – by way of two independent Multiple Correspondence Analysis procedures. We then demonstrate that, despite their independence, the spaces are indeed homologous. Our results support the homology thesis and its correlate claim that social classes tend to take on the form of status groups.

Sociology of Education 1 - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1

A

The Same but Different: Institutional Variations on Widening Participation Policy

Rainford, J.

(Staffordshire University)

The goals of widening participation (WP) work are framed by a single national policy: the National Strategy for Access and Student Success (OFFA & HEFCE:2014). Each institution is asked to base its work to address issues of access to and success in HE using the guidance set out in this policy. These plans and targets are then set out in a document

115 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

called an access agreement. These access agreements are then approved by the Office for Fair Access however there is still a diverse range of approaches to how this policy is locally translated and enacted in individual institutions despite 103 of the 183 submitted agreements for 2016/7 being improved before approval (OFFA:2015).

This paper will explore the similarities and differences between institutional approaches through the data emerging from a Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough:2003) of the 2016/7 access agreements produced by ten institutions.

These sites are drawn from 5 major cities across England and include 5 elite institutions and 5 institutions that have less selective recruitment criteria with each city containing one institutional pair. It will explore the ways in which the institutional habitus can shape the goals of these access agreements and in some cases shift the policy intention from one of increased access to one of reproduction of current inequalities (Bourdieu & Passeron:1977). Furthermore, it will suggest why, despite this variation, a critical discourse analysis of policy can only offer a partial picture and will discuss further planned work to explore these issues further.

Higher Education Study Skills (HESS): Pre-sessional Residential for Mature Students

Hayton, A.

(University of Bath)

Since university fees were increased in 2012, application rates from mature students have fallen by nearly 25%

(OFFA, HEFCE:2013). Data also shows that mature students are more likely to leave higher education during the first year, and their non-continuation rates are almost double those of younger students (HEFCE:2013). A growing body of literature has highlighted the cultural challenges that mature students face when making the transition to Bowl 2010,

Reay:1998; Thomas:2002). This situation is reflected at the University of Bath where only 6% of home undergraduates are over 21 on entry and more mature students are likely to withdraw from their courses.

Working in a cross-departmental team including academic, widening participation and study skills staff we analysed the areas where students needed support using a Bourdieusian theoretical framework. As a result we developed the

HESS pre-sessional, a residential which combined practical sessions on academic study skills with reflective sessions in which students explored the cultural experience of entering higher education and the factors shaping their student identities. Evaluation, research and reflexivity were embedded into the initiative and provided a rich source of data for developing our future practice.

This HESS workshop was developed within the context of the NERUPI Evaluation Framework which informs the design, delivery and evaluation of Widening Participation activities and interventions provided at the University of

Bath.

The Myth of the Level Playing Field: The Reassertion of Inequalities Through the University Experience

Ingram, N.

(Lancaster University)

This paper considers the experiences of ‘Widening Participation’ students from working-class backgrounds attending the two universities in the city of Bristol. The data is from the Paired Peers project and collected over a five year period from undergraduate induction to post graduation. It is argued that at university young people are caught up in the employability discourse of the ‘degree generation’, which asserts that ‘a degree is not enough’. Within this framework the non-academic experience of university becomes a formalised process of capital accumulation and the means to maintain differentiation. The analysis shows that despite similar academic achievements across our sample of working and middle class students (which may be misread as a leveling of the playing field through increased access to higher education) inequalities are reasserted through the university experience. In other words, the privileged manage to

‘unlevel’ the playing field to gain favourable positions in a congested graduate employment market through building upon and mobilizing their stocks of social and cultural capital. This ‘unleveling’ can be seen as a response that both constitutes and is constituted by the forces of neoliberalism, where the cycle of ever-increasing competition creates the need for equality interventions which then feed back into the need for the middle-classes to differentiate themselves through further deployment of capitals. Through drawing on the ways in which students compete in the university game it is argued that equality cannot be achieved in a marketised education system.

The Aspirations-Expectations-Attainment Nexus in Widening Participation

Harrison, N., Waller, R.

(University of the West of England)

It is now well-established (e.g. Crawford 2014) that the accumulation of qualifications at 16 is the principal determinant of progression to university. Despite years of concern that low aspirations limit young people’s decisions, evidence is mounting that aspirations are higher than generally assumed and not strongly related to social class (Whitty et al

2015) – many more young people want to go to university than are ultimately qualified to do so. One of the founding

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

116

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

tenets of the widening participation movement (e.g. DFEE 2000) was that raising aspirations was key to achieving social justice, but this conjecture is increasingly on shaky ground.

This paper will report findings from the “Assessing Impact and Measuring Success” (AIMS) project which has been exploring concepts of ‘success’ and ‘proof’ in widening participation activities. The data derive from interviews with former directors of the national Aimhigher programme and an online survey of 57 current senior outreach/recruitment managers within English universities.

The paper will explore the conceptualisations of aspiration-raising and attainment-raising as understood by these policymakers and practitioners. In particular, it will contrast individualised aspirations with more socially-constructed notions of expectation. It will also problematise the presumed ‘virtuous circle’ between aspiration and attainment, which is held to operate despite little supporting evidence or theory, while reflecting on the finding that universities are very unsure that their outreach programmes are (or should be) influencing young people’s attainment. It will conclude by linking these findings to wider concerns about credentialism, qualification reform and the societal pressures on young people.

Sociology of Education 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOMS

135-137

The Cunning of Cultural Capital Reasoning. The Case of Banlieue Students in French Business Schools

Truong, F.

(University of Paris 8)

This paper is part of an extensive ethnographical survey ranging between 5 and 7 years, of 20 students from working class and immigrant backgrounds living in the northern suburbs of Paris, recently published in French (Jeunesses francaises. Bac+ 5 made in banlieue, La Decouverte, Paris:2015). The study as a whole analyses social structural constraints as well as oppositional relationships and processes through the lenses of individual cases, plurality of social scenes and temporality. This paper particularly focuses on students taking the paths of private business schools. The new contradictions of 'school massification' appear. The Key to success lies in the ability to face territorial stigma, class ostracism, cultural illegitimacy, racism and islamophobia more than 'pure' academic skills.

These social ordeals reinforce the fragmentation of an unequal system. The desire for outcast students to find an

'appropriate' curriculum participates in remapping the inner frontiers of legitimacy and commodification of the cultural capital. This shift goes against the sense of dignity and singularity that is acquired through school acculturation, displaying a tension inbetween reproduction and emancipation. This urges reconsideration of pedagogy as a rapport and of the performativity of knowledge.

The Relationship Between Social Capital and Civic Knowledge Among Youth in 25 European Countries

Castelein, L., Hagenaars, J., Lomos, C.

(Luxembourg Instiute of Socio-Economic Research)

Although social capital research is popular, little is understood about the relationship between social capital and civic knowledge in Europe among youth. Drawing on the basic assumption of social capital theory, that social interactions with people and participation in groups can have positive consequences for an individual and the community as a whole, positive relationships between the three dimensions of social capital (social norms, social networks and social trust) and civic knowledge were expected. Multilevel analysis was used with data from the ICCS 2009 survey to test these hypotheses in 25 European countries. Results suggested rather opposite results, because the relationship between two dimensions (social networks and social trust) of social capital and civic knowledge were negative, even after controlling for socio-demographic control variables and civic related variables. Additional research on the mechanism in the 25 European countries and among groups with different socio-economic backgrounds did not explain why these results remained negative. Suggestions for future research consider a further understanding about the mechanisms behind the potential confounding variables and possible variables on other levels, than the individual level in order to explain these contradictory relationships.

Connecting with and Engaging Sociology Students: Reporting and Evaluating a Tutoring and Mentoring

Outreach Project with 2nd Year Undergraduates

Waller, R., Savidge P., Mathers, A.

(University of the West of England)

This paper reports the process and the outcomes of a project to engage second year undergraduate sociology

117 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

students in a tutoring and mentoring scheme with sixth form students in local schools and colleges. It evaluates the benefits of involvement in such a scheme for all concerned, and suggests lessons for those considering developing similar programmes.

As part of the University of the West of England's wider civic mission to reach out to the local community, a scheme was established in 2012 whereby selected second year undergraduates engaged in outreach activity to help AS Level

Sociology students in schools and colleges locally, and this paper is reporting on the impact of the ongoing scheme across the four years of its duration.

The paper will address several key questions: What was the impact on the school and college students? How did the undergraduates benefit from their participation? What did it do for any of the staff involved? How did it affect relationships between the participants and the organisations they work for or study at? And what, if anything, would the organisers advise others thinking of a similar scheme?

This paper is an update of one presented at the 2013 conference after the first year of the scheme, and is now drawing upon data from the four years of its life.

Higher Education and Civil Society: An Exploration of Graduates' Engagment in Civil Society

Evans, C.

(Cardiff University)

The expansion of higher education (HE) has been one of the most profound institutional changes in the UK of the past few decades. Its consequences for patterns of entry to HE and graduate employment have been well rehearsed. Yet, to date, there has been little exploration of the relationship between HE and the structuring of specifically social relations. The paper will discuss the emerging findings of a project which examines the relationship between HE participation and engagement in local civil society. Drawing upon data derived from qualitative interviews conducted with 50 'Welsh' respondents, aged 50, this study compares HE graduates with non-graduates in terms of their engagement in civil society organisations, including clubs and associations outside the home and family. The analysis found striking differences between graduates and non-graduates in terms of the intensity as well as the nature and form of their social engagement. The implications of these findings for our understandings about the role of HE in the structuring of social life are discussed, as well as the study's contribution to sociological debates about the relationship between different forms of capital (human and social) and how these can be conceptualised and measured.

Sociology of Religion

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

134

A Garden Ornament on the Thames: The Greater London Council and the Creation of a Consecrated Buddhist

Stupa

Ford, C.

(University College London)

Current academic work on the politics of contested religious buildings has focused on contemporary struggles over recognition and representation. Often the local authority is perceived as hostile, the guardian of a town planning system which struggles to accommodate new religious needs and manage the symbolic and other battles over the contested uses of public space.

This paper examines the role of the Labour controlled Greater London Council in the early 1980s in the championing of the Peace Pagoda in Battersea Park, a sacred building built by Japanese Nichiren Buddhists Nipponzan Myohoji.

Using archival materials I examine how politicians such as Ken Livingstone steered the project through the political and planning systems despite the lack of legal powers to do so. In this process this contested site was depoliticised and secularised, contextualised by politicised landscaping, and used in local, national and international battles.

Peace is political but also religious. The function of the pagoda in creating peace was not considered, the sacred symbolism is an anti-NATO gesture and part of the GLC's last stand against abolition by the conservative government.

Orientalist history and imagery is used in a piece of cold war theatre.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

118

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

Work, Employment and Economic Life - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

123

Internships: Privilege or Exploitation in a Changing Labour Market

Taylor, R.

(University of Southampton)

Internships are an increasingly ubiquitous feature of graduate transitions to employment. However despite political and academic interest there is a surprising lack of empirical research on these unpaid or low paid work placements aimed at Higher Education students. The dearth of robust large-scale survey data means we know little about the broad parameters and characteristics of internships - who does them, for whom and under what conditions? The few ethnographic studies of the internship experience suggest issues of exploitation and inequality and they have been conceptualised as another form of precarious low paid work emerging from labour market restructuring. Yet at the same time they are seen to create unequal access to paid employment, structured by the social divisions of class, place, gender and ethnicity. Studies also suggest differences in the organisation of internships by industry and sector but, again, evidence is patchy. In research on the creative industries the blurred boundaries between paid and unpaid work are well rehearsed but for professions such as accountancy, politics and law far less is known about the way internships are embedded, or not, in internal career structures and cultural expectations. The gaps in our knowledge of internships at all levels raises a broad range of questions about scope, location, conditions and outcomes as well as the inequalities that shape them. This panel aims to bring together current knowledge, evidence and conceptual work to explore these questions and extend our understanding.

'I'll get a job soon..' Experiences of Internships within the UK

Leonard, P., Wilde, R.

(University of Southampton)

As young people’s transitions into work become increasingly protracted, the number of ways of ‘getting in’ to work

(internships, voluntary work placements, entry tournaments) across the public, private and voluntary sectors is expanding. However, these often require young people to spend extended periods preparing for employment and developing their “employability”, before they are considered ready by employers to embark on proper (paid) employment. Internships are one of the most controversial forms of preparing for employment, with the media citing the potential for exploitation (e,g, Penny 2011) and pressure groups advocating loudly for better compliance with employment laws. As internships are often unpaid or low-paid, the potential for unequal access is high, with many unable to afford to do them. Class, gender and ethnicity intersect to produce multiple barriers, with further inequalities produced between occupational sectors. In accountancy and professional services, interns tend to be well paid, receiving high quality support and practical work experience. Instead of a precarious form of work, these ‘good’ internships actually offer security in the form of an early job offer. In other sectors, such as media and leisure industries, internships deliver little in terms of practical skills and experience. This paper considers the different capacities in different sectors and explores why some employers are willing to invest significant amounts in employment preparation to mould model employees, while other sectors rely on churn and turnover to furnish them with a regular supply of youth talent.

Assessing the Impact of Unpaid Work, Work Experience and Precarious Employment on Early Graduate

Careers

Purcell, K., Atfield, G., Tzanakou, C.

(University of Warwick)

Young people are encouraged by careers advisers, academic staff and policymakers to seek work experience and internships during higher education, to provide the ‘employability skills’ and ‘experience of the real world’ sought by employers, to facilitate their access to appropriate employment and successful career development. What exactly are internships and where do they fit on the spectrum of student and graduate work experience and other precarious employment experienced by young people between secondary education and graduate labour market integration?

While many employers provide unwaged positions as learning opportunities for young or unemployed people or to improve the match between their labour requirements and the available supply, these initiatives are also, for most, a form of pre-recruitment selection.

This paper, drawing on data collected in the Futuretrack Longitudinal Study and subsequent interviews with Midlands’ graduate respondents from a current ESRC-funded Paths2Work project, presents detailed evidence of such experiences, particularly of unwaged work among undergraduate students and new graduates: a major, scarcelydocumented and largely hidden component of contemporary labour markets. We explore the incidence of such work

119 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Wednesday 6 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

3

experience among recent full-time UK undergraduate students and graduates, the extent to which it was undertaken by respondents with different characteristics and career aspirations, and its impact on access to opportunity in their transition from higher education to employment. In a context where access to information and networks have become increasingly important in a crowded graduate labour market, when, where and how far does such work experience widen access to opportunities or reinforce existing inequalities?

Internships in the UK Labour Market: The Employers’ Perspective

Culliney, M., Taylor, R., McKay, S.

(University of Lincoln)

Internships have become a well-publicised feature of an increasingly insecure and flexible labour market. We present novel evidence on the scope, sector and outcomes of internships in the UK. Analysis of firm-level data (Employer

Perspectives Survey) finds that whilst the number of internships is rising, only a small minority of employers offer such arrangements and these are disproportionately located in the third sector. Importantly, only one in four employers offers long-term or permanent work to any of their interns after the initial placement. This research provides an original contribution to the literature by using a large-scale representative dataset to examine internships in the UK from the position of employers for the first time. The findings raise questions about how internships are understood, and highlight the need for further empirical research.

Internships and the Graduate Labour Market: Participation, Access, Perceptions, and Outcomes

Hunt, W.

(University of Portsmouth)

Internships are seen as a way for individuals to gain experience, develop industry specific skills and knowledge, and for employers to test potential recruits, whilst the practice of unpaid internships is sometimes seen as exploitative and exclusive. Although some qualitative studies have been quite illuminating on the topic the extent of the practice and the degree to which the above views of internships apply in practice, or to which internships lead to improved labour market outcomes, has so far not been demonstrated empirically. Through secondary analysis of data from the

2011/12 Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education Survey (DLHE) along with a primary quantitative survey of creative arts, media and communications graduates, the current research explores these competing views and finds that: internships are indeed a significant feature of the graduate labour market (particularly in some industries and subject areas); access to opportunities is unequal with those with the right cultural and social capital more able to access opportunities. However, there is little evidence to support the claim that internships lead to better labour market outcomes in the short to medium term. Regression analyses from the survey of creative arts, media and communications graduates revealed that graduates with internship experience were no more likely than those without to earn more or have a graduate or creative job two to six years after graduation, and those with experience of unpaid internships actually earned less, as found in other research where unpaid work led to less favourable outcomes

(Futuretrack:2009).

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

120

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Environment and Society

Families and Relationships 1

Families and Relationships 2

Frontiers 1

Frontiers 2

Lifecourse

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

Medicine, Health and Illness 2 - SE

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3 - SE

Rights, Violence and Crime

Social Divisions / Social Identities

Sociology of Education

Work, Employment and Economic Life

Room

G63, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 141

Steelhouse 2, CAMS, Main Building

Steelhouse 3, CAMS, Main Building

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 127

Stafford 1-2, CAMS. Main Building

Conference Centre Rooms 134

Steelhouse 1, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 145

Conference Centre Room 3

Conference Centre Rooms 135-137

Great Hall, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 144

Conference Centre Room 139

Whitehall 3, CAMS, Main Building

Whitehall 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 1A

Conference Centre Room 123

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Motorcycles as Dream Catchers - Towards a Sociology of Reverie

Marinache, R.

(University of Bucharest)

In this paper I present a sociological approach of motorcyclists' daydreams. 'How does a person become a motorcyclist?' is a central question in the fast growing literature on motorcycles and motorcycling. Some scholars say motorcycles offer near death experiences, and that its life lived on the wires, others that it's a way to live ones dream and that it gives a path for perpetual daydreaming. In this paper I focus on this last perspective, motorcycles as day dreaming machines, I focus on mapping motorcyclists' dreams in search of an answer to the questions: what could daydreams tell us about riders and their community? How does the motorcyclist body project get constructed and reconstructed in the state of daydreaming? Thus, to answer to the research questions, I conducted a qualitative research, based on the analyses of social documents such as travel books and diaries written by motorcyclists. The data collected suggest the existence of three types of day dreamed bodies: the natural body, the social body and the emotional body. (This paper is a result of a research made possible by the financial support of the Sectoral

Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, co-financed by the European Social Fund, under the project POSDRU/159/1.5/S/132400 - 'Young successful researchers – professional development in an international and interdisciplinary environment'.)

Ageing in the Great Outdoors: An Auto-Ethnography of Hillwalking in Scotland

Tulle, E.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

New narratives and practices have emerged which appear to challenge the decline narrative. However they are largely driven by experts and they are informed by a public health narrative which gives primacy to behaviour change, the scapegoating of the long lived for the crisis in health care provision and proselytises the need to engage in active lives. These I would argue represent a new politics of living which is underpinned by a neoliberal agenda.

I have been searching for forms of agency which offer opportunities for meaningful resistance to neoliberalism. Most physical activity interventions occlude the political and discursive constraints which provide the conditions in which people live their lives. By the same token, at the individual level, the complexities, vagaries of living life, making decision and, within the sport and physical activity context, of building a sporting/physical activity career, are ignored and people's reluctance to engage in active leisure is constructed almost exclusively as a motivation deficit.

Using critical auto-ethnography I use my own experience as a starting point, to identify the complex interplay of personal, discursive, historical, cultural and social processes (otherwise understood as the weight of history) which have shaped my ability to call myself a woman mountaineer. In doing so, I am hoping to discern the potential for alternate and richer understandings of how we become active and most importantly how we can maintain this over time and into the later years.

Locative Media and Identity: Presenting the Self Through Location

Saker, M.

(Southampton Solent University)

Smartphones and location-based social networks (LBSNs) provide people with new tools to mediate their identity. The mobile web is important here, overlaying the physical world with digital information, while enabling a different relationship between location and self-presentation in the process. Foursquare, a popular and prominent LBSN is a good example of this, allowing people to share their location with friends by 'checking-in' at a given place using their smartphone, as well as access location-based recommendations left by other users. Significantly, while a body of research has explored locative media in relation to space and place, and social networking sites (SNS) have been examined in relation to self-presentation, there is a lack of scholarly circumspection in the area of locative media and the presentation of identity. Drawing on original qualitative research with a range of Foursquare users, as well as

Schwartz and Halegoua's (2015, p.5) 'spatial self' as 'theoretical framework that explores the presentation of the self, based on geographic traces of physical activity', the paper sets out to investigate Foursquare and its impact on identity in three ways. Firstly the paper examines whether participants understand check-ins as mediating their identity.

Secondly, the paper explores whether the act alone of using Foursquare can be seen as continuing a certain identity.

123 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Finally, the paper examines the extent to which the use of location-based recommendations subsequently affects how participants experience themselves. In so doing this paper both supports and expands upon the spatial self as a framework for approaching locative media and identity.

‘What’s On Your Bucket List?’: Tourism, Identity and Imperative Experiential Discourses

Thurnell-Read, T.

(Coventry University)

Since its introduction into the public imagination by the 2007 Hollywood film of the same name, the concept of 'the bucket list', a written or mental inventory of thing to do before you die, has become an increasingly common means of framing tourist and leisure experiences. Analysing the diverse ways in which the term has been deployed across both conventional and social media, this paper presents both an optimistic and pessimistic reading of how the imperative to accumulate experiences as a means to perform identity and construct self-worth might be understood in relation to contemporary sociological theories of consumption, cultural capital and selfhood. Thus, in one assessment, the cultural prominence of the term could be read in relation to the rejection of materialism in favour of experientialist understandings of authenticity, happiness and the life course. Indeed, such a reading aligns well with established conceptions of how tourism and touristic experiences are used 'in the narration of identity' (Desforges:1998:176).

Alternatively, it is the very imperative to experience something that is readily co-opted by tourism marketing and destination branding that means the bucket list discourse has been stretched beyond its original usage by becoming a commercially driven technique of marketising personal experience as prescriptive commoditised artefact. By developing this latter analysis in relation to the growing literature on the sociology of happiness, we might consider the potentially negative impacts of such imperative experiential discourses in imposing expectation and aspirations many may struggle to meet.

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

141

Perceptions of Class in a Northern City

Thomas, P., Jeffery, R.

(Sheffield Hallam University)

This paper seeks to critically engage with the emergent Bourdieusian form of class analysis by enquiring into contemporary class identities and their links to political behaviour and attitudes in two neighbourhoods of a representative northern city. Research following the onset of recession in the UK in 2007/2008 suggests that distinctions of social class are as significant as ever, and even that class may be becoming more significant. Yet at the same time there also exists a significant literature on the increasing levels of stigmatisation associated with devalued class identities which leads a majority of people to reject the label 'working class' as a 'spoiled identity'. Recent claims that class as measured by occupation are of declining explanatory value have resulted in attempts to develop a multidimensional approach to measuring social class based upon Bourdieu's concept of 'capitals'. Our main criticisms of the approach developed thus far are: that while providing an interesting way of differentiating lifestyle pursuits there has been insufficient work to link a Bourdieusian measure of social class to political behaviour and attitudes (the 'class consciousness' that is the counterpart to 'class position');that it tends to assume an equal weighting or direct equivalence to the possession of economic, cultural and social capitals; that this 'new model of class' is insensitive to role of geography in shaping class identities; and that it suggests class only matters at the extremes.

'Your not a Benefit Streeter - Your Hardworking and that': How Working-Class Students Experience the

Spatial Transition of Moving Between a 'Sink Estate' and Elite UK University

Rowell, C.

(University of Warwick)

Within the UK, the contemporary media landscape is one marked by the proliferation of what has come to be termed

'poverty porn'. Poverty porn, typically 'documents' the experiences of the poor exploring the life's of families and individuals as they attempt to get by on welfare. Typically, such programs are set on 'sink council estates' with a stark visual imagery of architectural decay, vandalism and environmental degradation accompanied by a narrative of intergenerational worklessness, petty criminality and anti-social behaviour, the participants of such programs are portrayed as being work shy, morally lax and lacking aspirations or the desire to 'do well'. Thus, council estates and welfare recipients are no longer, within the public imagination the utopian vision of post war equality but instead the symbolic and ideological marker of spatialised 'dsyfunctionality' and all that is wrong with the welfare state.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

124

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Drawing on a small sub set of participants from an ESRC funded ethnographic study of working-class students at an elite UK University I explore, through photo elicitation and walking interviews the way in which now spatially mobile students (whom of which all were born to, lived and grew up on 'sink estates') experience the constant transition from a vilified council estate to the geographical site of the elite UK university. In doing so, I attend to the way in which the physical, material and architecture of both the estate and university works to include or exclude participants in both an actual, embodied, emotional and metaphorical sense.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

S

TEELHOUSE

2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Stand Up and be (En)Countered

Fox, K.

(University of Leeds)

Using the theoretical underpinning of Bourdieu's 'Distinction' and Sam Friedman's application of it to stand up comedy,

I am exploring ways that Northern English stand up performers (of both comedy and poetry) express elements of their classed and gendered identities and use them to resist dominant conceptions of Northern England.

Using content analysis, semi structured interviews with contemporary performers and auto ethnography (as a stand up performer myself) I am in my second year of a full time PhD and will be sharing research and practice in progress.

Early findings include ways that Northern stand up performers challenge the socio-economic inequality between the

North and London/South East in their work and in creating 'imagined' communities with audiences. Also the ways both are 'haunted' by Working Man's Club comedian stereotypes whose perpetuations form a means of symbolic violence enacted by Metropolitan media outlets.

Beautiful Girls: Aesthetic Labour and the Logic of Visibility between Nation-Building, Politics of Identity and

Neoliberalism

Kaplan, D.

(The Open University of Israel and City University London)

The scholarship on neoliberal postfeminism foregrounds young women and girls as the model 'affiliated', aspirational, self-branding subject of contemporary capitalism. A main strand of research focuses on the promotional aesthetic labour women are now required to perform in their everyday and working life, either through consumption and leisure practices, or, to a lesser degree, as part of the highly presentable nature of various cultural and interactive service occupations. Yet this scholarly interest in gendered aesthetic labour as neoliberal subjectivization lacks a historical depth. Using textual and visual media articulations on beautiful women, taken from popular media and culture in Israel in three historical moments, I demonstrate how cultural assumptions regarding women's beauty-work and concomitant regimes of visibilty in the media have transformed. From representing the modernizing nation in the early 1960s, feminine beauty became the hallmark of identitarian struggles for recognition during the 1980s. Currently, I propose, beauty has become a labour power, not only because beautiful people attract attention, but mainly because beauty became what I term a presence, a heuristic of neoliberal employability more broadly. The paper explains how, and concludes by arguing that the neoliberal regime of visibility is no longer based on a representational logic but on presence.

Novels and the Art of Living. Women readers in Edinburgh

Thumala Olave, M. A.

(University of Edinburgh)

The definition of reading as a social practice is expanded beyond collective (Long 2003) and situated reading

(Barton&Hamilton 1998) to include the idea that reading, fiction in particular, opens up for the reader three realms of experience: i. exposure to a 'world' (Ricoeur 1986), ii. self-understanding (Taylor 1989), and iii. ethical reflection

(Nussbaum 1990). The existential and ethical dimensions of reading have been approached by textual and philosophical analyses. This article provides a sociological account that focuses on actual readers. It is based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with women readers in Edinburgh with various levels of education, and archival material from the UK's Mass Observation project. Valuations of reading books as an activity and as a medium range between pleasure, escape, coping with illness, establishing and maintaining social bonds, and learning from others' lives and points of view. Two cases are used to illustrate how reading mediates self-understanding and the relationship with others. In the first case experiences of child abuse are made sense of by reference to fairy tales, novels and memoirs with similar accounts. In the second case choices about marriage are interpreted using repeated

125 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

readings of 19th century novels. Unlike Radway (1983) the analysis does not frame these readings as responses to unconscious 'dissatisfaction and disaffection'(68) but as deliberate and many times successful attempts at controlling personal time and emotions, handling relationships and fashioning a meaningful life. Reading in this mode appears to cut across class boundaries (Griswold et al 2005).

Environment and Society

S

TEELHOUSE

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Modelling Trajectories of Domestic Social Practices

Narasimhan, K., Roberts, T., Xenitidou, M., Gilbert, N.

(University of Surrey)

In this paper, we will present our agent-based model called Households and Practices in Energy Consumption

Scenarios (HOPES), as a methodological tool for investigating the performance and spread of energy consuming social practices among households. Adopting the view of Shove et al. (2012), we consider the drawing together of meaning, material and skill elements by individuals to denote the performance of practices in the service of normal everyday life. For instance, electronic communication is a social practice, which involves the drawing together of ICT equipment (material) and the ability to use that equipment (skill) for enabling remote communication (meaning). Using the HOPES model, we aim to understand (1) how the drawing together of elements influences the performance of day-to-day household routines, and in turn, (2) how these contribute to the adaptation of practices at a societal level.

HOPES is developed based on insights from the social practice theory literature, and empirical evidence drawn from walking interviews and web surveys conducted in real households. The HOPES model allows us to unpack the dynamics of households to develop a systematic understanding of the trajectories of domestic social practices through the dimensions of space and time. The model demonstrates various scenarios under which the coming together of elements influences the day-to-day performances of practices, as well as demonstrating the relatively stable adaptation over time of practices at a societal level.

Leisure and Energy Use: The Spaces and Times of Everyday Running and Swimming

Gillett, J.

(Lancaster University)

Studies concerned with understanding society's use of resource-intensive energy rarely focus on the part of everyday life that may broadly be categorised as 'leisure'. Amongst the things people do within this, running and swimming currently stand as the two most popular exercise activities in the country (Sport England 2015). While there may be endless possibilities for where these land and water-based activities can be done, indoor sites (on treadmills in gyms, in pools) and outdoor sites represent qualitatively different 'material environments', and this distinction has consequences for understanding how space and resource-intensive energy is implicated in them.

In seeking to better understand how running and swimming end up taking place where and when they do, the paper draws on conceptual resources from theories of practice (Shove et al. 2012; Reckwitz 2002) and an in-progress project which explores both how the different material environments of 'everyday' indoor and outdoor running and swimming are experienced by a selection of people who do them in Bristol, Lancaster and their surrounding areas, and how these activities have fit into their lives over time. The view is taken that broader histories and the future trends of running and swimming in the UK might be conceptualised as an aggregate of many such trajectories.

The paper ends by reflecting on what this approach and method has to offer in understanding sustainability in everyday life.

Ecological Slums? Environment and Tourism in Favelas of Rio De Janeiro

Dos Santos Moraes, C. M.

(Federal State University of Rio de Janeiro, Getúlio Vargas Foundation and Lancaster University)

In the past 20 years, important theorists have discussed 'green movements' in rich societies, those societies that have already surpassed the basic struggles for rights, but it is important to study how environmental questions are being debated in emerging countries amongst the poor and their effects. In this paper, I present some favelas (shanty towns) in Rio de Janeiro which have been turned into eco-tourist attractions mainly due to the fact that they are located within environmental preservation areas where local residents are leading ecological projects. This is rather peculiar if one notes that in Brazil favelas are usually classified as risk areas and/or environmental problems. The main objective of this paper is to understand why favela dwellers, living in precarious territories which are often considered as ecological problems by society at large, are devoting material and symbolic resources to environmental

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

126

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

issues, raising a 'green flag' in those areas. The work that follows is the result of the analysis of the literature as well as official documents produced by government agencies and community associations, other than fieldwork conducted in Rio de Janeiro. It is important to note that in some favelas, the ecological projects started because of problems such as fires, landslides and trash dumps in the communities. These problems are now being overcome to some measure, making life more amendable for residents and generating a new flow of tourists in these favelas.

Families and Relationships 1

G11 B

YNG

K

ENDRICK

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

'She Doesn't Have to get in the Car...': Exploring Social Workers' Understandings of Sexually Exploited Girls'

Agency and Choice-Making

Lloyd, S.

(University of Huddersfield)

This paper examines how social workers understand sexually exploited girls with particular focus on their constructions of agency, choice-making and blame.

Social workers' construct girls who are sexually exploited outside the home, by extra-familial persons, as having more agency and choices available to them. They are understood as being (at least in part) to blame for being sexually exploited. However, the social workers 'know' they should not blame girls for being sexually exploited and how they reconcile this tension is of particular significance.

This research finds that social workers construct the agency and choice-making of sexually exploited girls in a multifacetted and complex manner. Girls are constructed as having agency and making choices, and as needing to demonstrate agency in order to achieve certain things. However, agency the social workers understand girls to demonstrate that (they understand) 'results' in her being sexually exploited such as, for example, 'getting in the car', is invalidated. She is understood to make those choices because she is misguided and as a result of her sociallyeconomically deprived background. Therefore, if her agency and choice-making is not real or valid she can be (re) understood as a victim and not blamed.

This research suggests the need to develop a third discourse in and around social work which separates out agency and choice-making from blame; recognising that sexually exploited girls may be acting with agency within certain contexts and situations, but they should never be blamed for what happens to them.

Reflections on the Sexual Agency of Young Women in North Central Nigeria

Azende, P.

(University of Huddersfield)

Given the unacceptably high rate of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among teenagers in

Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers have focused on adolescents' sexuality as dangerous and pathological. Moving beyond this 'sex-as-risk' perspective, this paper seeks to understand how young Tiv women have constructed and currently demonstrate their sense of agency as sexual decision makers. This work was conducted in a traditional

African milieu with particular reference to the Tiv of Central Nigeria. Tiv is the name of an ethnic group; it also refers to their language. This paper draws attention to the sexual experiences of young women which are inherently embedded within a wider social, cultural and normative context. This paper will discuss findings from an ongoing qualitative doctoral study, which explores female adolescents' sexuality development among the Tiv people of Central Nigeria. In particular, the focus is on young women's struggle for sexual agency within a patriarchal society. Young women between the ages of 14-19 years were recruited to participate in focus group discussions. Purposive sampling ensured that female adolescents from different parts of the study area were recruited. Data were analyzed and this paper reports on the emergent themes. These include agentic approach/practice, emotional fallout, suppression, societal stance. Following a social constructionist perspective, I view female adolescence sexuality among the Tiv as a social and cultural construct interrelated with power relations, structures of domination, and practices of accommodation and contestations.

Locating the Perpetrator in Perceptions of Transactional Child Sexual Abuse in an Informal Settlement in

Nairobi, Kenya

Shipman, H.

(University of Huddersfield)

Whilst there is growing research interest in transactional sex involving children in Sub-Saharan Africa, little attention has been paid to how individuals procuring sex with children are perceived within their communities. This paper draws

127 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

on findings from a study exploring understandings of child sexual abuse (CSA) within an informal settlement in Nairobi to examine how residents perceived individuals who engaged in transactional sex with children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 adult residents and 11 local child protection actors, alongside focus groups with 26 child residents (13-17 years), and the data was thematically analysed.

Three forms of potentially abusive transactional sex involving children were identified: subsistence sex, sugar mammy and daddy relationships and child prostitution. This paper focuses on subsistence sex, understood as abusive by participants of all ages, where girls engage in transactional sexual relations with men to fulfil unmet needs. However, despite being constructed as CSA, men engaging in subsistence sex with children were frequently allocated limited responsibility for the abuse. Four factors sustained this: weak protective systems for supporting economically vulnerable children, thus transforming the man from exploiter to helper; a culture of explicit exchange within romantic relationships that normalized the male provider role; condemnation of caregivers who exploited children's dependency; and community-level understandings of CSA that emphasized how structural factors, such as poverty, impede children's ability to refuse participation in potentially abusive sexual acts. I conclude that greater responsibility must be allocated to men engaging in subsistence sex with children during local CSA prevention programmes.

'I Now Have My Family and my Future': The Significance of a Relational-Biographic Understanding of Youth

Transition

Cresswell, C.

(University of Birmingham)

Life stories evoke a portrayal of rich accounts of individual experience. These stories shape representations, and act as a touchstone to our pasts, present and future orientation. For care-experienced young people, the life script is malleable to stereotypical representations relative to those of 'mainstream' youth. Current conceptions of 'youth' and the 'transition to independence' compound these issues. Youth is highlighted to be a distinct phase of the life course ascribed to normative age categories when young people transition to independence. The concept of 'transition' is understood to reflect planned steps towards adult status highlighting young peoples' decision making. The meanings young people ascribe to their transition experiences are silenced, as is the importance of their sense making of family and kin.

The paper draws upon empirical research that derived young peoples' life story accounts through a facet methodology

(Mason:2011), this was underpinned by ethnographic practice that sought to derive the facets ascribed to transition.

The findings traced how this process of recalibration of what represents 'family' may influence independent sense making. In doing so, the research contests the contemporary relevance of persistent sociological debates on

'structure' and 'agency' as representing sole mediators of young peoples' futures, and the linked notion that these futures can be neatly planned through policy imperatives. So to unravel these theoretical and policy themes, the paper will discuss how a relational-biographic framework for understanding transition holds significance to youth study.

Families and Relationships 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

127

Intimacy and Inter-Generational Relations in Rural China

Liu, J.

(SOAS University of London)

This article argues for the necessity to apply the concept of intimacy (Jamieson 2011) to examine relationships between adult children and their ageing parents, particularly in terms of the support arrangement for the latter in old age. Drawing upon an ethnographic study of rural families in China, I show that greater attention to intimacy can empower both generations, whereas a focus upon obligation alone can strip individuals of their agency. Further, the interaction between intimacy and obligation is deeply intertwined with gender norms and expectations and shaped by particular socio-economic-cultural configurations. I argue that intimacy with family members is becoming critical to well-being in later life, particularly in societies in which the family remains the main unit of funding and support.

When Tomatoes Change, Families Change

Erdogan, E.

(University of Warwick)

This paper argues that kinship relations and production relations in tomato production and processing are interlinked with each other. It draws on participant observation situated on the tomato lands, one of the biggest tomato processing factories in Turkey and women workers' homes, as well as in-depth interviews with the landowners of

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

128

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

tomato lands and the general manager of the factory in which I worked. Through looking at the organisation and transformation of different family structures –a four generational extended family, a three generational extended family, a nuclear family and a 'trying to be nuclear' family- of different social actors of tomato production -members of landowner family, rural Kurdish seasonal migrant workers, a factory general manager and women factory workers, the paper suggests that kinship relations shape and are shaped by production relations. It believes that demonstrating the overlapping relation of kinship relations and production relations can enable us to have 'more complete' understanding of both the world of family and of work.

The Generational Transmission of Memory and Identity Through ‘Family Heritage’: ‘Remembering’ and

Commemorating World War 1

Kramer, A. M.

(University of Nottingham)

This paper will explore the generational transmission of of memory and identity through a focus on the role of 'family heritage' in the commemorative activities around World War 1. Analysing media coverage, community projects, as well as crowdsourced family history archives on World War 1, it will analyse what form remembrance practices take, map and problematise the relationship between the family and public archive/history in understanding and interpreting the legacy of the past, and begin to tease out some consequences of these acts of 'remembrance'. It will therefore ask a number of related questions. First, what forms of 'value' accrue to family history and heritage? Second, what does performing 'remembrance' mean in this context, and what role are texts and material objects expected to play in

'remembering'? Third, who and what is remembered, to what ends, and with what effects? Fourth, what role does family history and heritage play in reproducing and/or challenging official histories, and how do such projects imagine the relationship between individual, family, community and 'nation'? Lastly, how are these practices of remembrance used to re/construct relationships and connectedness in the past/present/future, between and among the generations?

Veterans' Families on the Frontline: Family Stories of Resettlement from 1945 to 2010

McKie, L., Raw, A., Alstead, A., Cooper, M., King L., McKay, M.

(Durham University)

In this paper we explore issues raised in historical, social science and arts literatures, together with our pilot work, on the transition from service to civilian life, focusing on the experiences of families c.1940s-2000s. Our research offers a contribution to documented social histories of family resilience and adaptability, by giving voice to the overshadowed resettlement histories of the families of military veterans, set against the contemporary context of support and services at the time of resettlement. At a heightened moment of visibility yet vulnerability for veterans transitioning from military to civilian life, our work seeks to document, examine and develop original resettlement narratives, by focussing our attention on the experiences of the 'minor' characters in these stories: veterans' close family members. Working closely with an established stage and radio drama writer, our goal is to engage diverse audiences with these alternative stories of veteran reintegration, and to focus attention on the new insights this approach will produce.

Frontiers 1

S

TAFFORD

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Using Psychodynamic Practice to Investigate the Affective Experience of Contemporary Medical Work

Pelletier, C.

(University College London)

The concept of 'resilience' is increasingly recruited in the NHS to manage risk and safety. It is supplanting the concept of 'human factors', drawn on over the last twenty years to explain why patients die 'unnecessarily' as a result of medical treatment. Both concepts are drawn from engineering as a way of understanding medical error whilst removing its affect, so as to make learning from error and failure possible – by posited contrast to blaming individuals.

However, the concept of resilience introduces new concerns, notably the mental health of individual doctors and/or the organizational desire to feel (and not simply be) safe.

This presentation will focus on presenting data from a one-year action research study which was intended to work through the implications of the concept of resilience for work-based learning, and specifically simulation-based provision. It will describe how a concept from engineering was made sense of to construct a social, educational practice; and how this sense-making was informed by the sociological study of medical error and failure, as well as literature on the psychodynamics of work, which analyse the affective dimensions of collective activity. The argument contributes to the literature on the psychosocial dimensions of organizations, and highlights relationships between its

129 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

concerns and the relatively new field of the psychodynamics of work. It also demonstrates the value of bringing sociological and psychosocial insights to primarily cognitive and engineering definitions of safety in the NHS.

Support(ing), Vulnerability and Practice: Psycho-Social Interventions

Dobson, R.

(Kingston University)

Psycho-social scholars, drawing on critical feminist, queer and critical race theory, have used the relationship between the individual and the social to think about human experience and subjectivity, policy, welfare and politics (Hunter

2015, Roseneil 2013). Specific works have contributed to our understanding of what it means to support people who are positioned as both vulnerable and transgressive, in practice (Scanlon and Adlam 2008). Those works have enabled a realistic understanding of day-to-day actions and experiences of welfare workers and users, while maintaining a critical analysis of what it means to 'do' support in contemporary western contexts in the global north

(Hoggett et al 2008). More recently, this is extended through work on the racial politics and day to-day practices and experiences of services and institutional spaces, through focus on power relations, white supremacy and Black feminist theory (Nayak 2015).

Psycho-social scholarship enables an approach to practice life that allows for, and welcomes complexity, in order to make sense of the affecting, challenging and sometimes oppressive experiences of what it means to 'do' support, and be on the receiving end of it, in professionalized, institutionalised and organised spaces. This presentation maps this psycho-social scholarship and uses original empirical data from practice research to think about how it intervenes in questions like:

What does it mean to provide and experience 'meaningful' support?

How far and in what ways might this involve shame and shaming, of disregarding and silencing?

What is the potential for psycho-social scholarship to support progressive visions of support?

Evoking the Real: Žižek, Migration and the Lacanian Real

McMillan, C.

(Arcadia University)

Irregular immigration is at the forefront of global struggles for economic opportunity, for political rights and for security.

Pressed by the increasing influence of both global governing institutions and transnational corporations, along with rising cultural diversity, anxiety about the coherence of the imagined national community within Western nations has increased. This anxiety, along with the global economic downturn and concurrent rises in unemployment, is contributing to the sharpening of ideological policing of national borders and an increasingly apparent 'surplus humanity'. This surplus has been most traumatically visible on the maritime borders of Europe, but has an equally troubling presence off the coast of Australia and the Southern border of the United States.

For Slavoj Žižek, the presence of this surplus on the borders of the Western world are 'new forms of apartheid' that are the 'crucial geo-political event of our times'. Arguing that this surplus is not an aberration in the development of global capitalism, but represents its 'universal singular' moment, Žižek suggests that as the 'part with no part' of the nation political community, irregular immigrants hold a uniquely disruptive presence. In this presentation I evaluate

Žižek's reading of surplus humanity through an analysis of contemporary representations of irregular migration, considering those fantasies that dominate media coverage and the traumatic moments that disrupt them.

Frontiers 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

134

Mad Studies and Disability Studies: Collaborations and Complications

Armstrong, V.

(Durham University and Northumbria University)

Mad Studies is an emerging field of scholarship and activism seeking to form alliances and challenge repressive policies, practices, and welfare reform. Prompted by the publication of Mad Matters in 2013, Mad Studies draws from the knowledge and experience of people who variously identify as psychiatric survivors, mental health service-users, consumers, neurodivergent (to name a few identity labels), as well as mad-positive scholars from fields such as sociology, critical disability studies, social work, and social policy. The debt Mad Studies owes disability studies is widely recognised and this paper considers the opportunities for collaboration along with the complications this brings.

In doing so, I consider what Mad Studies is doing, and can do, both in and beyond the academy, to interrogate

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

130

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

powerful political discourses and explore more democratic alternatives. To do this I draw on empirical examples and experiences of 'teaching' both Mad Studies and Disability Studies in a University, along with 'doing' Mad Studies in a non-academic community as a form of activism.

Disability Activism in the Digital Era: Experiences from Disabled Netizens in China

Qu, Y.

(University of Glasgow)

This paper examines the emergence of disability activism through the rise of internet use in China. Over the last few decades, disability activism has been organised around the world to challenge discrimination and oppression. The movement, however, has not been found in China for the lack of 'Disability Public sphere'. Based on interviews with disabled internet users in today's digitized, globalized China, this research suggests that:

1) Disabled people have used the internet politically in four types, including individual unintended complaining, individual intended claiming, unrecognized networking, and, collective targeted protesting.

2) These types, from other aspects, constitute four stages of China's disability activism development, while disability consciousness and organisations have emerged from gathering and interaction on the internet, and have extended to the reality.

3) Such a process has been influenced by both traditional Chinese political ideologies and inputting western values. A special activism pattern has been constructed, targeted at seeking for cooperation with the government.

By arguing that, I conclude that political use of the internet in China has to some extent empowered disabled people, and, promoted the development of disability organisations and the social movement. However, after emerging online, disability activism are limited by the lack of resources. The position of disabled people can hardly be changed by leveraging the internet only.

Why Have Sociologists Ignored Evil?

Clark, T.

(University of Sheffield)

Within the newspapers that we read and the private and public spheres we inhabit, there is still much 'talk' of evil.

Indeed, for all the ontological gerrymandering that could propel it toward being a relativistic anachronism, evil had never really gone away: people can, and do, use evil within the (dis)course of everyday life and civil society. However, if evil is so interwoven within our social and cultural fabric, why has sociology been largely silent on the subject? This presentation will to examine the relationship between sociology and evil and attempt to answer the question of why sociology has neglected the topic when other secular disciplines have engaged with the topic much more successfully.

It will first discuss the origins of sociology, before going on to examine the substantive preoccupations of sociologists - and the public - in more detail. Finally, and drawing on the seminal work of Kurt Wolff, Jeffrey Alexander, and Michel

Wievorkia it will re-state the case for the sociology of evil and continue to sketch what this might actually mean.

Lifecourse

S

TEELHOUSE

1, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

‘Individual but connected’: An Exploration of Young People’s Experiences and Discourses about Youth Cafes in Ireland

Moran, L., Bernadine Brady, B., Forkan, C.

(UNESCO Child and Family Research Centre)

Youth cafes as a model of working with young people and as distinctive youth spaces attracts attention in research and policy. In the literature, youth cafes are defined as safe spaces where young people make new friends and take part in a range of activities (Forkan et al. 2015). The YC model fosters deeper levels of engagement in decisionmaking, planning and management than other types of youth work facilitating the development of critical thinking skills and civic engagement.

Drawing on mixed-method fieldwork collected as part of a national study of youth cafes in Ireland (2012-2014), this paper argues that youth cafes promote two competing discourses linked to concepts of 'individuality' and

'connectedness'. Qualitative evidence illustrates that young people (re)-create discourses about individuality which shape and reflect young people's participation in youth cafes in Ireland. A 'counter' discourse about 'connectedness' to others also operates in these arenas, emphasising shared identities and cultural rootedness to place. Significantly

131 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

'connectedness' concepts are also linked to shared discourses operating in these spaces about working for the 'good' of society.

Applying social constructivist models to understand youth participation in youth cafes, we argue that young people conceptualise 'connectedness' and 'individuality' as emotive, discursive and sensory experiences. 'Felt connectedness' and 'felt individuality' concepts are applied to show that young people's reactions to youth cafes is embedded in their relationships with each other and how they express their identities in physical space.

Youth, Precarity and Class in the ‘Missing Middle’

McEwan, K.

(Teesside University)

Uncertainty appears to be escalating, reaching into the lives of families in the UK who maybe felt themselves above, and protected from, insecurity. Recent economic changes, which include: stagnant real wages; high prices for services and consumables; increasing house prices; and high youth un- and under-employment rates, all reduce the means available for social (re)production. This research asks how this is experienced by those who inhabit the unclear classed space between the traditional working and middle class (the, so -called 'missing middle' of youth).

Byrne (2005: 808) in a special edition of Sociology on Class, Culture & Identity, discusses visiting an owner-occupied

Teesside estate where class status appears unclear; 'are these people working class? By the brands of their tongues they are'. Possibly the 'aspirational' working class, or the 'new middle', residents here are those who perhaps experienced generational upward social mobility but whose children, in the poor local labour market, may now face downward mobility. Although Byrne does not mention it by name, the estate is recognisable to locals as Ingleby

Barwick. Using in-depth inter-generational interviews with families on Ingleby this research then seeks to understand:

• What continuities and changes in mobility, security and class (dis)identity can be observed across generations?

• What are the politics and wider social-psychological responses of young people in the face of precarity?

This research forms part of a PhD which is in the early stages of data collection and analysis; this paper will cover some of the emergent findings and discussion.

Learning to Drink? A Lifecourse Perspective On Women’s Day-To-Day Alcohol Use

Fenton, L.

(University of Manchester)

Sociological research on alcohol tends to adopt a static view of the lifecourse, focussing on the drinking practices of people of a particular age group, often if not exclusively on young adults in the night time economy. Moreover, though young people's alcohol consumption is of perennial interest to scholars, policymakers and the wider public, relatively few studies have examined in detail historical changes in how young people gain access to alcohol, or historical shifts in the personal and sociocultural meanings young people attach to their drinking. This paper draws on interview data from my doctoral research on three generations of women's 'drinking biographies' to consider key changes in how women access, use and make sense of their experiences with alcohol both over the lifecourse and historically. In addition to highlighting striking generational differences, I argue that a lifecourse perspective directs our attention to not only how people 'learn to drink' in adolescence or early adulthood, but also to how negotiating a relationship to drinking alcohol may be re-learned and potentially un-learned at later points in time.

Multi-Cultural Toys

Martin, M. C.

(University of Greenwich)

Despite the ethnic diversity of contemporary Britain, as well as an increasingly globalised world, most children have little access to toys which reflect cultural diversity. Instead, retail outlets focus on brands linked to the mass media, reflecting the global dominance of a tiny number of toy companies. This paper reports on the initial findings of a project to investigate children's experiences of and attitudes to multi-cultural toys. Children of different ages were interviewed and filmed in three different settings, a nursery school, a primary and a secondary school, all in urban environments with a high proportion of ethnic minority populations. They had the opportunity to view and handle toys and objects representing a wide range of cultures, as well as materials, and to draw and describe their favourite toys.

This project thus raises significant issues about the child as consumer, and intergenerational change in relation to play and games in a global context. The paper will discuss the fragmentation across generations caused by the disjunctures in children's play experiences, but also the continuities with family experience in different global contexts which the research uncovered.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

132

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

145

Reductions in Housing Benefit Increases Depression Risk in Low-Income UK Households

Reeves, A., Clair, A., McKee, M., Stuckler, D.

(University of Oxford)

Housing security is an important determinant of mental ill health. We use a quasi-natural experiment to evaluate the mental health effects of the UK government's April 2011 reduction in financial support to help low-income persons rent private-sector housing (mean reduction ~ £1:220 per year ($2:315)) to compare the prevalence of mental ill health before and after these changes. Data come from the UK Annual Population Survey, a repeated quarterly crosssectional survey, and we focus our analysis on renters in the private sector, disaggregating between an intervention group receiving housing benefit (n = 36:859) and control group not receiving housing benefit (n = 142:205). The main outcome was a binary measure of self-reported mental health problems. After controlling for pre-existing time trends, we observed that, between April 2011 and March 2013, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in private renters receiving housing benefit increased by 1.8 percentage points (95% CI:1.0 to 2.7) compared with those not receiving housing benefit. Our models estimate approximately 26:000 (95% CI:14:000 to 38:000) people newly experiencing depressive symptoms in association with the cuts to housing benefit. Reducing housing support to low-income persons in the private rental sector increases the prevalence of depressive symptoms.

Mental Health and the Reproduction of Social Class

Moullin, S.

(Princeton University)

A compelling new literature in economics and psychology suggests that individual psychological traits interrupt the intergenerational transmission of socio-economic status. Yet social theory questions the assumption that poor mental health, especially that manifest in externalized problem behaviour, is independent of social class origins. The British

Cohort Study uniquely enables analysis of the role in social mobility of validated measures of emotional distress, low self-esteem and low self-efficacy, as well as low self-control and behaviour problems. Together, these aspects of child mental health account for over two-fifths of the intergenerational correlation between parent and child class.

Multinomial logistic models find that low subjective self-efficacy, as well as externalized poor mental health, decreases the probability of attaining or maintaining a higher social class. Poor mental health is significantly associated with a reduction in the probability of upward mobility 1.5 times its increase in the probability of downward mobility. The results suggest mental health works to reproduce, more than to disrupt, class inequality.

Socialisation or Social Isolation? Mental Health Community Support in the Digital Age

Heyes, K.

(Manchester Metropolitan University)

One positive response to mental health issues has been an increase in various forms of mental health service user support groups. The central aim of these groups is to bring service users together for mutual support and to reduce isolation. However there is a lack of insight into who accesses these support mechanisms. Therefore, there is a need to examine user-led social support, to understand who is benefitting from current provision.

There is a substantial amount of research regarding virtual systems, however the growth of online service user chat rooms and cyber-groups have become part of a wider social change towards self-help in many areas globally. The research aims to help fill the gap around how these virtual communities are utilised as support mechanisms by identifying how online forums are used, what benefits they bring to the lives of people with MHI's, and if there are any negatives associated with them.

By asking users of mental health forums a series of open questions, the answers were analysed to establish the overall effectiveness of this type of self-help. Early findings indicate that some users put a great deal of trust into other members of forums and therefore benefit from the support, however those who have had a negative experience previously tend to not participate as freely as they would like. Despite being a global community, it does not appear that broken English or location is a barrier to creating trust, friendship or support.

Medicine, Health and Illness 2 - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

3

133 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Miscarriage in a Global Context: Methods and Interventions for Reconnection

Boynton, P., MacLennan, C., Wilson, A.

(Freelance researcher The Research Companion Project Sussex)

An estimated 20-25% of pregnancies end in miscarriage. Pregnancy loss remains a commonplace event causing grief, trauma, anger, or relief. Research within this area has noted the impact of pregnancy loss on women and their partners. Online communities, charities and events such as Babyloss Awareness Week have begun to raise the profile of miscarriage. However LGBTQI parents, teenagers, those from low-income countries, plus BAME and Traveller communities are underrepresented within research and care. Evidenced-based healthcare provision is patchy and poorly delivered care remains a problem. This symposium draws upon a range of empirical and creative approaches to consider how we deal with the miscarriage experience. Catherine MacLennan, The Pinks and Blues Charity,

Birmingham will reflect on offering a caring and compassionate service to those who have experienced 1st and/or 2nd trimester losses. She will discuss the role of craft and keepsakes, giving audience members the opportunity to make an item for a grieving parent. Petra Boynton, The Research Companion, East Sussex will review the evidence base around miscarriage. Noting the role of cartooning, film, drama and personal storytelling within public awareness campaigns, mainstream media and peer-led support. And how this can inform clinical practice and social care. Amie

Wilson, The AIMS trial, University of Birmingham will be discussing miscarriage research from an international perspective. This will be informed by research ongoing in Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Pakistan. It will include healthcare provider's knowledge on miscarriage, the availability of facilities for miscarriage care and women's perspective on research.

Methodological Innovations

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOMS

135-137

'Cutting Corners. Can We Afford it, Methodologically?' A Simulation Study of Sociological Challenges in

Multilevel Modelling

Baumann, P.

(University of Graz)

Quantitative sociologists frequently deal with the fact that statistical methods have to fulfil many assumptions to yield valid (inferential) results. The most prominent assumptions are normality, random sampling, or independence of observations. Multilevel modelling (MLM) can be useful when data exhibit violations of such assumptions, for example, when data are hierarchically structured – and thus not independent – which is often the case in sociology (think of individuals who belong to different social networks).

However, MLM is a computationally and conceptually demanding method and is based on several assumptions of its own. Moreover, MLM is usually not taught within the sociology curriculum which is why sociologists often have to acquire the necessary skills at their own expense. The proposed paper therefore seeks to provide sociologists with some guidance for when they want to apply MLM modelling but are uncertain which model and degree of complexity to use.

For that purpose, a simulation study will be conducted to discover when the mathematical rules have to be followed and when cutting corners, for instance by selecting a simpler model regardless of its assumptions, might be an option.

The study will focus on 'unruly' data, that is non-continuous, non-normal, or non-linear cases etc. The benefit of a simulations study is that the true measures of the simulated data are known and the performance of different models can evaluated against them.

Sociologists will benefit from either result of the study as they will be provided with scientifically sound backing for their choice of model.

Big Data and Qualitative Analysis: An Exploration of Practicalities, Ethics and Representations of Self in

Tweets (Twitter Microblogs)

Grant, A., O'Mahoney, H.

(Cardiff University)

This paper explores one potential sociological application for the use of data generated through the micro blogging site 'Twitter'. Through the empirical study of the online (Twitter) representations of waterpipe smoking, we offer practical advice to researchers concerning the collection and analysis of these data. Particular methodological challenges we encountered included data collection 'time outs', resulting in a small amount of data loss, and when

'tweets' originated from other social media platforms, and thus showed only partial accounts of the authors' original narratives. This highlighted the importance of analysing the text in tweets in relation to any hyperlinks or images

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

134

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

contained within the tweet, rather than in isolation from them. In critically describing our approach, we seek to stimulate methodological discussion among social researchers and aid future research involving Twitter and other social media. In particular, we consider the how, when and why of appropriate use of social media as data within qualitative research. The paper also seeks to explore some of the issues of presentation of self, including the potential anonymity of online activity and the need or desire of users to maintain a positive self-identity. These issues take on a particular relevance in data generated in online spaces, and these cannot be neglected in analyses. Issues surrounding the ethics and epistemological implications of engaging qualitatively with 'big data' are also discussed.

The use of Individual Timelines to Explore Connections between Residential and Social Trajectories of

Chilean Teachers

Lizama, A.

(University of Manchester)

This presentation is based on data that I have collected for an ongoing study whose purpose is to explore everyday understandings of the social trajectories of Chilean Teachers through their housing consumption practices. This study analyses how teachers perceive changes in their trajectories in terms of social change, biographical change and social mobility when they think about their residential trajectories. This study proposes qualitative design research;

Interviewing and timelining were the main research techniques. Forty teachers -who work for private, public and private subsidised schools- were interviewed as part of this research. Interviewees were also asked to draw a timeline to represent the main changes in their residential trajectories and the main changes experienced in their lives

This presentation discusses about how were timelines were used by interviewees as a guide to explore around the main changes in their own lives, especially in their residential and social trajectories. Timelining as method allow interviewees elicit their memories and reflections around their past and present lives, in terms of housing experience and see some sensitive episodes of changes and thinks about how these episodes affect their trajectories. Specifically by drawing timelines interviewees make sense of possible connections between residential and social trajectories, exploring how elements related to class position, life-course and social changes appear when teachers reflect on their residential changes. From a theoretical perspective, by using timelines is possible to develop a subjective concept of social mobility, distinguishing social mobility from other experiences of biographical and historical changes.

‘As you can see from the graph …’: Data Visualisation in the Social Sciences

Hill, R., Kennedy, H.

(University of Leeds)

Social scientists are increasingly exposed to data visualisations, in books, journal articles and conference presentations, as the gathering, mining and analysing of big data becomes more widespread. As social scientists we sometimes find ourselves struggling to make sense of visualisations which conference presenters whizz through with a quick 'as you can see from the graph…'. In this paper, we argue that this is an important phenomenon, reflecting both the problematic character of the 'data delirium' (van Zoonen 2014) and the 'hidden injuries of neo-liberal academia' (Gill:2009). In our progressively datafied world (Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier:2013), institutional giddiness about big data translates into pressure on social scientists to engage with them and their visualisation, despite not having the requisite skills or time to acquire them. At the same time, neoliberal working conditions (as documented by Sennett:1999, for example) mean that social scientists individually shoulder the responsibility of struggling to adapt to ever-changing pressures, of which becoming a data visualiser is just one example. In the context of data visualisation in the social scientists, this results in a lack of understanding of what constitutes good visualisation, of how people engage with visualisations, and of the ideological work that visualisations do to make and shape the data they are assumed merely to represent. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of these phenomena for the quality of social science research and how we might break the silence around these hidden injuries, as Gill suggests we should.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

From Asylum to Refugee: The Influence of the UK Asylum Seeker Support System on Refugee Vulnerability

Phillimore, J., Cheung, S. Y.

(University of Birmingham)

In the current refugee crisis with many EU countries accommodating arrivals from Syria and other war-torn areas the question of 'what works in refugee settlement?' is likely to gain increased importance. Having undertaken a longitudinal survey of new refugees, the UK is in a position to examine the extent to which some aspects of the

135 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

asylum determination and support process: in particular accommodation and determination experiences combine with socio demographic characteristics to influence their integration outcomes. Using the Survey for New Refugees 2005-

2009 and panel data analysis we examine the factors which influence refugee integration for a period of 21 months after they gain leave to remain in the UK. We examine the relationship between dispersal and the types of social networks that individuals are able to form and different kinds of vulnerability: economic (unemployment and financial vulnerability), and mental and physical health. Our findings suggest that asylum seeker dispersal shapes refugee outcomes across a number of Ager & Strang's (2008) integration domains and that outcomes are gendered. While the

UK and many other EU Governments have argued that integration can only commence once individuals receive leave to remain, we argue that asylum seeker reception and initial support have far-reaching influence on long term integration outcomes. Thus to reduce the vulnerablisation of the vulnerable and to optimise integration opportunities asylum seeker reception and support must address the potential for the asylum system to undermine refugee integration processes and provide options that are supportive of long term integration.

How the Ban on Asylum Seekers Working Became Common Sense: A Cultural Political Economy of Policy

Making in the UK

Mayblin, L.

(University of Sheffield)

It is illegal for the vast majority of asylum seekers in the UK to work. There has been much criticism of this policy approach but no in depth analysis of how policy makers understand the political economy of asylum and immigration, and how these understandings lead them to maintain the ban on working. This paper will present early findings from the first phase of a three year project on the politics of asylum, welfare and work in the UK. Drawing on a large corpus of discourse data and interviews with policy makers, and using Jessop's cultural political economy framework, the paper will discuss the means by which debates around asylum and work are curtailed, focusing specifically on

'complexity reduction' and policy 'imaginaries'.

Privatising Asylum: Neoliberalisation, Depoliticisation, and the Governance of Forced Migration

Darling, J.

(University of Manchester)

This paper critically examines the politics of asylum accommodation in the UK, arguing that in the regulation of housing and support services we witness the depoliticisation of asylum. In 2010, the UK Home Office announced that it would be passing contracts to provide accommodation and reception services for asylum seekers to a series of private providers, meaning the end of local authority control over asylum housing. This paper critically explores the impact of this shift and argues that the result is the production of an 'asylum market', in which neoliberal norms of market competition, economic efficiency and dispersed responsibility are central. In drawing on interviews with local authorities, politicians, and asylum support services in four cities, the paper argues that the privatisation of accommodation has seen the emergence of new assemblages of authority. When combined with a market-oriented transfer of responsibilities, depoliticisation acts to constrain the possibilities of political debate and to predetermine the contours of those policy discussions which do take place. In making this case, the paper argues for an exploration of the situated modalities of practice through which forms of depoliticisation interact with processes of neoliberalisation.

In this context, the framing of asylum seekers as a 'burden' emerges as a discursive and symbolic achievement of the neoliberal politics of asylum accommodation. Framing asylum seekers as a 'burden' represents a move to position asylum as a managerial issue, and at the same time reiterates an economic account of asylum as a question of resource allocation, cost and productivity.

Transaction or Exploitation? Sharing and Coercion Among Precarious Asylum Seeking Migrants

Lewis, H., Waite, L.

(University of Sheffield)

There is growing interest in the 'sharing economy' as a different way of living, but this discussion is heavily classed and the ethos rests on excess capacity (of goods and services). Sharing and exchange that is survival-compelled among those with precarious livelihoods has been less discussed. Precarious migrants are a group facing significant livelihood pressures, and this article is concerned with a particular category of insecure migrants? irregular and refused asylum seekers in the UK. Such migrants are especially subjectified by their socio-legal status, and without rights to work or welfare they are susceptible to exploitation in their survival-oriented labouring. Existing literature has not generally focused on the experiences of these migrants as house guests not has it thoroughly explored their transactional labour. As such, this paper explores the transactional labour and sharing activities of irregular migrants and associated social relationships that can move along a spectrum of relative freedom and mutual benefits to servility, unfreedom and entrapment.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

136

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

144

Negotiating ‘Middle Class’ and Minority Ethnic Identities: The Experiences of Professional British South

Asians

Saini, R.

(City University London)

My doctoral research constitutes a three-part study in the negotiation of social identities across and between British

South Asian Professionals. It will employ thematic analysis of interviews and statistical analysis of large-scale secondary data to analyse 1) Perceptions towards and experiences of 'middle-classness' among South Asian ethnoreligious sub-groups:2) Discrepancies between objective social location and subjective class identity and 3) The effect of class, minority ethnic and religious identification on political efficacy and identification.

The aim is to gauge the extent to which extent class, 'race' and ethnic consciousness provide insight into the lived experiences of those in relatively privileged occupational locations. The theory of intersectionality and its specific application to the class-ethnicity intersection forms the conceptual framework within which I hypothesise how minority ethnic identities are implicated in perceptions of class, i.e. that identification with a minority identity will noticeably affect the extent to which one identifies with their place in the social hierarchy and engages with society.

This oral presentation will focus on perceptions of class awareness and 'middle classness' contingent on levels of minority identification among ethno-religious sub-group combinations of British South Asian Professionals. As the data collection and analysis portion of the research is still in its early stages, results will consist of early findings from pilot interviews and preliminary quantitative analyses. The efficacy of the latter - of survey data and quantitative methods - for addressing issues as multifarious as class and ethnic identity will be a key area of discussion following from this.

Privileged Identities - Towards a National-Cultural Engagement

Konstantinou, I.

(University of Warwick)

Khan (2011) has argued that 'new' elites no longer rely on family heritage and wealth for their advancement in society as they realise that these are no longer enough to secure them a position at the top of the social hierarchy. The notion of entitlement has been replaced by the word 'privilege' – the perception that the opportunities are there, but hard work and talent are equally necessary. Class hierarchies are still prevalent but are performed in a more subtle way – allowing for meritocracy to ensure that everyone, including elite groups, will find their way to the top through talent and ability. It could be argued that meritocracy has been in place to secure the success of elite groups, where talent and aptitude are nourished and allowed to flourish from a young age.

This paper aims to analyse data from an ethnographic project at an independent school in London. Emphasising its open and welcoming nature, its lack of prejudice against race, class or gender, the school has been transforming in the past decade – consisting now by a largely white middle class cohort. By analysing interviews with staff and students the paper will try to show that the new young British elite, those that will form the new professional elite, are getting ready for life in the 21st century Western world, they are welcoming and tolerant, and they redefine their national identity through a multicultural lens, showing cultural, social and political engagement.

Black Middle-Class Identities Beyond Strategic Assimilation: Culture, Power and Capital

Meghji, A.

(University of Cambridge)

Drawing upon 72 qualitative interviews, my presentation explores the cultural eclecticism within Britain's Black middleclass. Although studies of Britain's Black middle-class are in an embryonic stage, much of the research hitherto has focused on 'strategic assimilation'. Strategic assimilation refers to the process whereby Black middle-class individuals switch between middle-class and Black spheres of social action, using identity clues such as accents (linguistic capital) and clothes to demonstrate their middle-classness, also using signals to demonstrate their ethnoracial affinity

(for example, speaking in patois). Although strategic assimilation characterises the lives of many Black middle-class individuals, my presentation argues that it is only one mode of experience.

Focusing on performative identities, and racialised forms of symbolic capitals, my presentation introduces two further modes of experience that characterise Black middle-class identity construction. Firstly, there is the class-minded mode of experience whereby individuals seek to become (using a respondent's phrase) 'inconspicuous in a White environment'. This involves a phenomenological shift whereby individuals give eminence to class rather than race in understanding and constructing their identities. Secondly, there is the ethnoracial autonomous mode of experience,

137 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

whereby individuals are aware of the pressures to assimilate with White norms, but actively resist such assimilation.

The identities of ethnoracial autonomous individuals challenge the tacit conflation between 'middle-classness' and

'Whiteness' as they seek out forms of high culture that are free from White influence - for instance, Black theatre plays and African art exhibitions and literature.

‘We are Malays, they are Chinese, but we all are Malaysian’: A label that is Beyond Identity

Ismail, K.

(University of Glasgow)

Malaysia is a multi-ethnic society. Throughout the years, debates over what really represents Malaysian identity – either they should maintain their ethnic identity separately or identify themselves as Malaysian based on national identity is like never ending debates. This paper offers an explorative study on ethnic and national identities formation among Malaysian Malays and Chinese.

Malays and Chinese are chosen as main subjects due to their majority-majority relationship in Malaysia. The data was drawn from 55 in-depth interviews conducted in Penang, Malaysia and Glasgow, Scotland. A comparative study was selected due to a possibility that variations might take place across Malaysia boundary.

The findings show that the 'identity' itself is far more complicated than expected. Based on my analysis, high or low level of identity manifestation depend on actors' location, while identity oscillation; between ethnic and national identities, usually takes place based on situational contexts. Therein Malaysia boundary, ethnic identity is highly preferable compared to national identity where the latter is frequently chosen as main identity among Malaysian abroad. Identity oscillation on the hand is stimulated by economic and political interest. Both identity manifestation level and oscillation indicate the fluidity of identity. Its fluidity shows that identity is not merely a label or a simple choice, yet involves several overlapping concerns particularly on actors' surrounding, contribution and outcome from their decisions.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3 - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

139

Diaspora Space and the Politics of Absence/Presence: The (Post)Colonial Museum and Beyond (Short Film

Screening and Discussion)

Garbin, D., Millington, G., Wemyss, G.

(University of Kent)

The aim of this session is to critically explore the interplay of diaspora space, representations and the politics of presence/absence in the (post)colonial museification of history, heritage and imperial power. The session will feature a short film: ‘This is how we see you’ (16 minutes:2015, directed by Garbin, Wazaki & Pambu) which documents a visit to the Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren in Brussels by young second-generation Congolese from London. Q

& A and short presentations by 3 discussants (Dr Georgie Wemyss, UEL, Dr Gareth Millington, York, + 1 TBC) will follow.

DISCUSSANT 1 - Diaspora Space and the Politics of Absence/Presence: The (Post)Colonial Museum and

Beyond (Short Film Screening And Discussion)

Millington, G.

(University of York)

Discussant’s presentation of the film ‘This how we see you’ as part of the session organised by Dr David. Diaspora space and the politics of absence/presence: the (post)colonial museum and beyond (short film screening and discussion). This presentation will draw upon my recent work on urban space, and representations of race/migration in films.

DISCUSSANT 2 - Diaspora Space and the Politics of Absence/Presence: The (Post)Colonial Museum and

Beyond (Short Film Screening And Discussion)

Wemyss, G.

(University of East London)

Discussant’s presentation of the film ‘This how we see you’ as part of the session organised by Dr David. Diaspora space and the politics of absence/presence: the (post)colonial museum and beyond (short film screening and discussion). This presentation will draw upon my recent work on migration, ‘borderscapes’ and postcolonial memory.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

138

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Rights, Violence and Crime

W

HITEHALL

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

'32 people die from guns in the United States every day': Framing Solutions to a National Problem

Doran, S.

(Glasgow Caledonian University)

The quote in the title elucidates the amount of violent deaths caused by firearms in the United States, where the 'right to bear arms' allows citizens to possess firearms. Although the gun-related death toll is higher than any other developed nation in the world, gun violence does not always receive attention in the social arena and political agenda.

Given frames are an effective means of persuasion and attitude change, this paper will explore how interest groups frame the issue of gun violence to allow change in policy that still adheres to the 'right to bear arms' component of the

American constitution.

For this paper, qualitative interviews were conducted with presidents and communication directors from five interest groups dedicated to the singular focus of preventing gun violence in the United States. It could be said that interest groups in the United States act as a conduit between the public and legislators, supplying information about policies and legislation being considered. Moreover, they can engage with political actors to draft bills or attempt to gain support for a particular bill; hence, making interest groups pertinent in the process of formulating legislative solutions to a problem. The way in which interest groups frame issues can influence whether it receives attention from policymakers and citizens. One of the suggested ways to frame gun violence is via a 'rights and responsibilities' prism, where restrictions are made on who can procure firearms and where these can be taken.

Globalisation of Community Policing: The Impact of Corruption in Nigeria

Audu, A.

(University of Liverpool)

Community policing in terms of policy and practice started in the early 70s in the US and UK as well as other developed parts of the world. In less than a decade later, the policy which tends to foster collaboration and mutual engagement between the police and community, has witnessed dramatic effect of globalisation and its subsequent transfer to the third world countries. In 2003, Nigeria being the most populous nation in Africa has officially adopted this community policing policy in order to reduce crime problem and to promote community safety in the country. The reality of crime problems such as the Boko Haram insurgency, kidnapping, armed robbery and corruption has suggested that the desire of the government and stakeholders to achieve security has not been achieved in Nigeria.

As a consequence, the citizens have been subjected to some forms of tribulation, insecurity of life and property, fear and under-development in Nigeria. In the context of my doctoral study, this paper has adopted a qualitative method and with the focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews approach to collect empirical data in Nigeria.

Findings from these empirical data have indicated that these persistent crime problems in Nigeria were partly as a result of the negative impact of perceptions corruption on the police and community. This paper therefore recommends that the efficacy of community policing in Nigeria is determined among others, by a sufficient advocacy to check excesses of corruption by the government and stakeholders.

Globalising Crime and Transnational Policing in West Africa: The Case of the Benin-Nigeria Frontier

Naylor, R., Folami, O. M.

(Ulster University)

West Africa is a region characterised by instability, a recent history of armed conflict and increasing transnational crime. Yet, sub-regional government in the form of the Economic Community of West African States advocates free movement of people, goods and services, in line with neoliberal discourses about how to 'do' development. Building on discussions about the globalisation of crime and transnational policing, this paper aims to ascertain the reasons for, extent and nature of this transnational crime and the challenges faced by police in carrying out border-related duties in this context.

The paper focuses on the Nigeria-Benin frontier as a case study as it is one of the busiest in the region in terms of both licit and illicit trade in goods and arms as well as movement of people. The case study also enables us to look at the implications of the two contrasting dominant modes of policing in the region, influenced by British and French colonial heritages. The paper is based on secondary data, media and official reports and on interviews with 260 police officers in Nigeria and Benin.

Building on discussions of 'glocalisation', the paper supports Findlay's argument that globalisation is crimogenic and that globalisation and crime are mutually constituting but shows that outcomes are subject to localised factors as well.

139 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Suggestions are made for improving policing to enhance security, and to boost legitimate trading now caught up in border-related problems, in order to advance sub-regional development.

Rapid DNA: Challenges and Opportunities in the UK Forensics Provision

Wilson-Kovacs, D.

(University of Exeter)

This paper examines the envisaged introduction of rapid DNA in police practice in the UK. Rapid DNA refers to the fully automated extraction, amplification, separation and detection of DNA material from swabs taken at crime scenes or in custody. Providing test results in under two hours, the technology has implications for both the speed of DNA processing and the potential saving costs to forces. The development of rapid DNA solutions has been supported by the Home Office since 2011 and different products trial-tested with forces. Based on document analysis and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders including Home Office representatives and police and scientific unit support personnel, the analysis focuses on the expectations surrounding rapid DNA in terms of the benefits it offers to policing, the operational problems it raises and the challenges it foretells. The argument examines the vocabularies of motives offered to support or question the use of rapid DNA and the organisational and occupational demands engendered by its adoption. The conclusion discusses rapid DNA as a further step in the rationalisation of forensic science use in British policing and reflects on its place and role in the current forensic provision.

Social Divisions / Social Identities

W

HITEHALL

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Modern Societies and National Identities: Exploring the Influence Of Law in The Emergence of Social

Divisions in the State of Spain

Urrastabaso, R.

(University of Edinburgh)

Modern industrial states are generally thought to have produced urban and secular contexts within which populations have developed new forms of identities. These have been articulated in relation to different features and activities, including sports, culture, sexuality or politics, resulting in different degrees of fraternity, indifference or aggressiveness between groups.

Law can be seen to have influenced these processes in a variety of ways, including the development of a legal order in which citizens have encountered degrees of liberties, which enabled them to nurture a perception of individual freedom that has been translated into social movements seeking to obtain different degrees of social recognition.

I want to bring to the fore a generally overlooked way in which law has contributed to the formation of nationalist conflicts in the context of the state of Spain. Clashes between people defending different conceptions of the state, and justifying them differently, existed before nationalism. Generally, the meaning of such legal disputes has been interpreted in relation to a concept of law conceiving it to be intertwined with the figure of the state, and which can be related to perspectives such as Legal Positivism. This reduces excessively the meanings that can be granted to political action.

Adding into sociological analysis approaches to understand law such as Legal Realism and Legal Pluralism, produces a broader interpretative framework within which legal disputes can be analysed. This can contribute towards resolving some of the puzzles that the study of the history of the state of Spain often produces.

The Rise and Transformation of Social Assistance in Turkey in the 2000s: A Case of the Evolution of Poverty

Policy Over the Neoliberal Era

Tastan Tuncel, O.

(University of Lancaster)

In this presentation, I explore the rise and transformation of public social assistance during the 2000s in Turkey. I investigate what forms of government of poverty, insecurity and distributional inequality the emergent system involves; how and why they have developed, and with what implications. Around these questions, I critically examine the policymeasures, discourse and governance structures of the emergent poverty policy. Also, I put the new policy in perspective by overviewing the state's assistance practices in the earlier decades of the neoliberal period (1980s and

1990s), and the preceding developmentalist-populist welfare policy (1960-1980) in Turkey.

I argue that the emergent poverty policy frames social assistance as a state intervention that must target the population below a poverty line, and aims at alleviating poverty rather than providing basic income security. Through a

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

140

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

set of discursive strategies, institutional technologies and practices, the new system responsibilizes beneficiaries in a two-fold manner: First, it promotes a rationality of individualized responsibility for management and termination of poverty by inducing beneficiaries to employment. Second, in extreme poverty, it also feminizes the onus of coping with household deprivation and childcare (framed as 'investment in human capital'), by laying it exclusively on women through traditional gender roles. As such, it re-articulates the conservative idea of 'male breadwinner-female homemaker family', which used to characterize the previous developmentalist social policy, to the neoliberal governmentality.

Sociology of Education

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1A

Research, Resistance and Sisterhood: Early Career Feminists Take on the Neoliberal Academy

Snee, H., The Res-Sisters

(Manchester Metropolitan University)

With the increasing marketisation of higher education and the entrenchment of audit and accountability cultures,

'neoliberal' imperatives permeate the academy. Such transformations demand a particular kind of academic subject: highly productive, individualised, enterprising, un-attached, and able to withstand precarity. But who is s/he? Who can play this game? In the spirt of feminist politics and tradition of feminist consciousness-raising, this paper is presented as a collective endeavor of 'The Res-Sisters', a group of nine early career feminists who occupy a range of positions in relation to social class, race, ethnicity and sexuality as well as institutional location and contract type.

We seek to offer accounts of both the pains and the pleasures of our work, and share these professional-personal reflections on academia as a political and pedagogic imperative. Thus, we move beyond identifying and critiquing the forms of exclusion we encounter to offer suggestions for how early career academics may challenge the neoliberal university and occupy academia 'differently', adding to the voices of other academics endorsing collective strategies of resistance. These are summarised in a concluding 'Manifesta' that is both a call to arms, and a resource to counter the pervasive logic of neoliberalism to bring us together for positive change.

The Res-Sisters are: Jessie Abrahams, Cardiff University; Kim Allen, University of Leeds; Victoria Cann, University of

East Anglia; Laura Harvey, University of Surrey; Sumi Hollingworth, London South Bank University; Nicola Ingram,

University of Bath; Kirsty Morrin, University of Manchester; Helene Snee, Manchester Metropolitan University;

Annabel Wilson, Cardiff University.

The Endurance of Academic Capital in Higher Education: How Cultural and Institutional Factors Maintain the

White-BME Attainment Gap

Hensby, A., Mitton, L.

(University of Kent)

Since the Government introduced changes to the cost and terms of tuition fees, English universities have faced renewed challenges to understand the relationship between students' learner characteristics and differentials in academic attainment. Of particular concern is the attainment gap between white and BME students, with statistics from HESA (2013) showing that the former are consistently more likely to convert their entry qualifications into a 2:1 or above. This trend, which is reproduced throughout the sector, indicates that this gap is not only maintained but exacerbated at HE level.

Drawing on original survey and interview data, this paper examines differences in the student experience for white and

BME undergraduates at an English university. Although there is no single explanation for the attainment gap, results suggest that BME students have higher expectations of their academic success than their white counterparts, a difference that is partly attributable to differences in family background. In cases where these expectations are not initially met, our research finds that students typically display greater confidence in using the university's support systems to their advantage. Following the work of Watson (2013), the paper concludes by highlighting the endurance of academic capital in higher education, and how universities need to pay closer attention to ensuring that universities avoid privileging the educational development of predominantly white, middle-class students.

'Bastard' Daughters in the Ivory Tower: Illegitimacy and the Higher Education Experiences of the Daughters of

Single Mothers in the UK

Gagnon, J.

(University of Sussex)

141 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

I am a bastard, a child born out of wedlock. Synonyms for 'bastard' include scoundrel, villain, and wretch. I am illegitimate. It is not only my status as the daughter of an unwed mother but it is how I feel within academia. My higher education experiences have made me feel like my presence, as a first generation student from a working-class, single mother family, bastardises academia itself. Underrepresented students are scapegoated as the reason higher education is deteriorating. We are blamed for 'lowering the bar' and 'dumbing down' the academy (Burke:2012).

Within the dominant neoliberal fantasy, the only possible obstacle for success in higher education is the student herself. It is this myth that perpetuates the belief that if an underrepresented student is ambitious, aspirational, hardworking, determined, and resilient, then she will surely be successful. If she is not successful, then it is proof of a personal failing and not of a system that is built to exclude her. It is proof of her illegitimacy.

This presentation explores notions of legitimacy within the identities and university experiences of the daughters of single mothers who are first generation students through a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with and reflective writings from 26 undergraduate students in the United Kingdom. Data was collected during spring and summer of 2013. This doctoral research examines intersections of gender, socio-economic class, race, and family status. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks upon which this study is built include feminist theory, intersectionality theory, and social exclusion.

Luck, Chance, and Happenstance: Exploring Diminished Agency Amongst Fixed-Term Academic Staff in the

UK's Higher Education Sector

Loveday, V.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

What does it mean to attribute success to 'luck', but failure to personal deficiency? In 2013/14, more than 35% of academic employees in UK higher education institutions were employed on temporary contracts, and the sector itself has undergone a substantial transformation in recent years in terms of expansion, measurement, and marketisation.

Based on two 'waves' of interviews conducted with more than forty fixed-term academic employees at different career stages, the paper explores the narrativisation of luck, chance and happenstance for staff working at the 'sharp end' of the so-called neo-liberal academy. Arguing that precarious employment situations precipitate the feeling of being 'out of control', the majority of the participants' narratives were characterised by a distinct lack of agency. The paper explores one particular facet of this narrativisation: recourse to notions of chance and the consolidation of 'luck' as an explanatory factor in accounting for why good things happen to the self; however, in tandem with this inclination is the tendency to individualise failure when expectations have been thwarted. While accounts of fixed-term work are suffused with notions of chance and fortune, 'luck' remains an under-theorised concept within sociology. The paper thus concludes by considering what 'luck' might offer for a fuller understanding of processes of subjectification in the contemporary academy.

Work, Employment and Economic Life

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

123

Sea Turtle Conservation: The Work Ethic and the 'Learning Ethic' in Volunteer Tourism

O'Mahoney, H.

(Cardiff University)

Drawing on ethnographic immersion in a small community of volunteer sea-turtle conservationists in Greece, this presentation explores the types of work volunteers perform within these environments, and frames these experiences in relation to broader sociological perspectives on education, work and employment, and leisure. This investigation combines fieldwork and qualitative interviews to develop an empirical understanding of the everyday life of volunteering and how the participants' experiences and accounts contrast to but are also framed by dominant discourses such as personal growth, employability, and instrumentalism. These discourses are prominent in advanced neo-liberal capitalism; the ethic of work has seeped into a corresponding 'learning ethic', in which formative experiences such as education, gap-years and work placements are inextricable from discourses of 'self-work' and ultimate employability. This is in part a consequence of an ongoing shift towards a conceptualisation of 'education' and self-development or improvement as essential and never-ending. Whilst volunteer tourists employ these discourses when asked why they volunteer, the actual experiences of volunteering provide less tangible rewards. It is argued that conservation work can allow individuals to flourish in an environment in which work and leisure are more hybridised than oppositional, and personal self-interest is subordinated to more communitarian ideals and environmental concerns.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

142

Thursday 7 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

4

Images of workers and Photographing Work: Changing Visions of Work and Class in Post War England

Strangleman, T.

(University of Kent)

The dominant images of the 1970s and 1980s of work in the UK are those of conflict, strikes and industrial unrest.

However, by contrast in the post war period from the 1940s through to the 1960s industrial photography had often been more benign, celebrating even mundane work by constructing it as dignified, or even heroic. Although there are important exceptions to this trend I want to argue in this paper that through this shift we can read an ideological moment where the working class begins to be framed differently, more negatively that in the era of the long boom.

This is a process by which working class work starts to become decentred, marginal or even disappears altogether.

The paper draws particularly of a set of images taken by a production worker at the Park Royal Brewery of Guinness interviewed by the author. It explores the ideas and assumptions behind the images and compares and contrasts these with contemporary images of labour from the era. The paper seeks a greater understanding of the relationship between work and image making and how this historically shifts over time.

This paper emerges from a long term project on the Guinness Brewery and its image making over a seven decade period, and forms part of the author's book Imagining Work in the Twentieth Century.

‘Don’t Tell the Bride’: The Experiences of a Bridal Shop Worker

Thatcher, J.

(University of East London)

For many, walking down the aisle in the 'perfect' wedding dress is considered 'one of the most exposed parts of the wedding day'. It is imperative that a bride 'gets it right'. Anxiety about finding 'the one' – the dress, not the partner – can exemplify how, predominantly women brides, are responsible for aesthetic decisions that reinforce the association between consumption choices and class performances.

There has been a succession of reality television series centering on the brides' experiences of finding the wedding dress – but what happens behind the scenes? Is the bridal shop worker simply a passive assistant who is there to serve, or do they play a role in negotiating and even modifying consumer desires? Bourdieu (1984) argued that workers in certain occupations are directly involved in the production and legitimation of class aesthetics. Drawing on ethnographic observations made while working in an exclusive bridal boutique, I will argue that the bridal shop is a site of reproduction that legitimates class taste and establishes gender roles and identities. The paper will illustrate how as a sociologists, I began to consciously observe 'hierarchies' of aesthetic class preferences in wedding dresses, and how this subsequently guided me – as a sales person – to reproduce and even constitute certain kinds of tastes. I will reflect on the insights my sociological training endowed me with while performing a role as a taste broker and how this led me to become a 'top achieving' sales person in a bridal shop.

Making Meaning Across Love and Money: Materiality, Skills and Careers in Classic Car Restoration

Cohen, R., Bozkurt, Ö.

(City University London)

This paper explores the meanings attached to the objects, experience and future possibilities of work by trainees on a full-time classic car restoration course. Specifically, we explore how trainees use the nexus of love vs. money to construct meanings around the domains of materiality, skills, and careers. We draw on interviews with five instructors and 16 trainees of diverse age, class and nationality (from an all-male cohort of 20) studying at a Further Education college in the North of England.

Car repair has been characterised as 'dirty work' (Dant & Bowles 2003), involving a socially spoiled identity (Goffman

2009) and associated with duplicity (Cohen forthcoming). By contrast, classic car restoration is often represented as a labour of love (Delyser & Greenstein 2014) wherein the 'material mystique of the motorcar' (Urry 2006) associated with male privilege and luxury (Whiting 2007) is intensified by aesthetic and historical distinctions emphasising the authenticity and 'character' of classic cars. The meanings attached to classic car repair may therefore be particularly charged.

We find that trainees' accounts regularly involve juxtapositions of love and money, but these occur in varied ways, usually emphasising one of the three domains (materiality, skills or career), with differences rooted in different material, embodied and cultural relationships to classic cars, including experiences as owners/consumers. We highlight that while instructors focus on instrumentalist orientations for training in the sector, trainees rarely make these explicit. Rather, even in the face of immediate financial imperatives, many draw upon a love discourse to rationalise pragmatic choices.

143 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

Environment and Society

Families and Relationships 1

Families and Relationships 2

Frontiers 1

Frontiers 2

Medicine, Health and Illness

Methodological Innovations - SE

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities

Sociology of Education - SE

Sociology of Religion - SE

Theory

Work, Employment and Economic Life

Room

G63, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 141

Steelhouse 2, CAMS, Main Building

Steelhouse 3. CAMS, Main Building

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 127

Stafford 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Rooms 134

Conference Centre Room 145

Conference Centre Room 135-137

Great Hall, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 144

Conference Centre Room 139

Conference Centre Room 3

Whitehall 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 1A

Whitehall 3, CAMS, Main Building

Steelhouse 1, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 123

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Night as Fragmenting Frontier: Understanding the Night that Remains in an Era of 24/7

Shaw, R.

(Newcastle University)

Social scientists and historians have used the framework of 'frontier' as a way of understanding the social night. This has pitched night as an empty or lightly-inhabited space into which the urban, capitalist day has been expanding.

Contemporary nocturnal research has however complicated this picture, showing a increasing of complexly to nocturnal social life across the globe.

This paper, however, looks to rescue the conceptualization of night as frontier through two steps. First, by drawing from a more nuanced understanding of frontier, we can retain understandings of night as time inhabited by marginalized groups into which dominant 'daytime' culture is expanding. Second, I draw on my own and others' research to argue that this frontier is now 'fragmenting', with the features that once defined night being shifted by the increased push of capital and day. As nocturnal social science starts to mature, these moves will help produce a more critical understanding of the shifting power relations and identities which define the public night, noting that as the night increasingly becomes subject to governance, modes of resistance outside of or peripheral to power will also continue to evolve.

Crafting the city? Micro-brewing, class and culture

Wallace, A.

(University of Leeds)

Commentary on the explosion of 'craft' beer and micro-brewing across much of the Global North has often been simplistically bound up with debates about 'hipsterfication' or been empirically focused on US cities (e.g. Zukin 2010).

In the UK, little or no empirical research has addressed the sociological significance of this booming industry. This

'ignificance' is multifaceted. It includes conceptual linkages with understandings of: the 'creative' class and entrepreneurial city (e.g. Florida:2002; Zimmerman:2008), neighbourhood gentrification (e.g. Smith:2002), young people and 'cultural work' (Gill:2008), cultural inequality and class distinctions (e.g. Savage et al 2015), the impact of

(quasi) 'tactical' urban innovations (e.g. Mould:2014). Using the explosion of micro-brewing in the cities of London and

Leeds as a case study, this paper presents research which is beginning to provide an account of the sociology of the

'craft' city. It focuses on understanding the 'new artisanal' class establishing this industry, the socio-spatial practices it/they operate through and the implications of their emergence.

Festivals: Spaces of Exception. Reframing and Re-presenting Young People in the UK

Buck-Matthews, E.

(Coventry University)

Based on empirical fieldwork undertaken in summer 2014 and 2015 this paper discusses the lack of awareness about the ways young people are excluded from society, in relation to their perceived apathy about political process in the

UK. Despite this young people still enact politics in alternative ways through their everyday and leisure practices.

Following de Certaeu's concept of 'everyday politics' (de Certeau:1984. Riley et al:2010), this paper takes a broad understanding of politics to acknowledge the alternative ways in which young people currently participate.

Using a grounded theory approach and utilising music festivals as case study sites, this research examines how young people are building community and enacting civil participation in alternative spaces. This study involved following several young people into festivals in order to explore their social, political and civil engagement in the space through ethnographic and qualitative methods.

By combining multiple research approaches including qualitative mapping of festival spaces, ethnographic techniques, walking interviews and 133 questionnaires in festivals, I created a thick description of festival spaces and identified the everyday ways young people engage, participate and act politically at music festivals. In unpacking these findings I'll discuss themes of shared experiences of nature, sacredness of space, the reconceptualization of time and how these construct a group sense of unity, solidarity and community with its own responsibilities and rituals. I argue that these findings represent an alternative form of active citizenship amongst young people today, and I consider the possible implications of this beyond festival spaces.

147 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

141

Discourses of Incivility and Legal Regulation of Public Space in the Czech Republic

Pospech, P.

(Masaryk University)

The paper focuses on the problem of incivility and disorder in the urban public space of the Czech Republic. It studies disorderly conduct associated with specific groups, such as the homeless people and the Roma minority, and its framing in the national media. The paper builds on an extensive qualitative content analysis of the country's media coverage of disorder in public space from 1990 to the present. The analysis observes the changing notions of what constitutes a 'disorderly conduct' and the gradual establishment of a national discourse on incivility and disorder in public space. The development of the incivility discourse is presented together with the rapid development of legal regulation of public space. Since 2000, Czech municipalities are allowed to impose bans on 'disorderly' conduct in public space: these began with bans on alcohol consumption, begging and prostitution in the early 2000s but went on to include activities such as picnicking, sitting on waste bins, sitting on stairs etc. This restrictive development is analysed in relation to the development of the discourse on incivility and to changing public attitudes towards disadvantaged groups in public space, such as the Roma minority.

Caught between… Disruption, Dispossession and the Search for Normal in the Donbas

Holdsworth, J.

(University of Hull)

Common representations of the conflict in eastern Ukraine that focus on geopolitics and nationalist struggles have limited capacity to explain why Ukraine is now in the grip of civil conflict and war. This paper offers an alternative perspective, informed by ethnographic fieldwork, drawing on narratives of dispossession in the post-soviet era to offer an understanding of the conflict in the Donbas that builds on exploration of the histories, daily experiences, and imagined futures of people in the eastern regions of Ukraine. This attention to individual and local experiences shows the centrality of loss and dispossession for many in the Donbas region since Ukrainian independence and the importance of the concomitant longing for a 'normal life' in a context of prolonged decline, marginalisation and uncertainty.

Crucial to developing a better understanding of this conflict are a number of question including: What have been the experiences of 'transition' after the Soviet Union for people living in the east of Ukraine? How do interpretations of the past affect understandings of social, political, economic and cultural changes? How have nation and state building strategies been devised and interpreted by different parts of Ukrainian society? Exploration of these questions through the lens of dispossession means we can better understand how divisions between those in the west and east of Ukraine have been sustained and deepened and led, ultimately to violence and war.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption

S

TEELHOUSE

2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

The Democratisation of Expertise

Stankovic, T., Wilson, A., Tonner, A.

(University of Strathclyde Business School)

As individuals engage in new activities and social collectives they begin the journey from novice to expert (Leder et al:2004). In pursuits such as wine, gourmet food, and art it has been argued that the oenophile, gourmand, and aficionado can more fully appreciate their respective experiences (Clarkson et al:2013). However such experiences have historically been regarded as high threshold and as such expertise has been available to few, guarded by gatekeepers and as such difficult for the lay individual to achieve. Based upon a qualitative study with art buyers and gallery owners this paper suggests that the contemporary art buyer challenges these assumption. It argues that, with the increase in a 'social media savvy society', individuals can develop their expertise using a new range of tools which speed their advancement to expert status and indeed alter the meaning of expertise. No longer is expertise the preserve of the critic or art seller with vested interests in desirable taste rather it becomes democratised as novices use online resources to quickly increase the breadth of their consumption knowledge; develop requisite vocabulary to differentiate stimulus properties, finely tune preferences and explore their refinement; and build relationships with artists directly enhancing their in-group status. Online art communities therefore come to represent a distributed form

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

148

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

of cultural authority. One can now demonstrate taste without acquisition but rather by association and simultaneously claim of authority and expertise about what constitutes good taste.

Swipe-Right? Heterosexual Men’s Consumption of Dating Apps

Van Hooff, J., Miles, S.

(Manchester Metropolitan University)

This paper interrogates the ways in which individuals construct and maintain intimate relationships through digitally mediated interactions. We discuss the findings emerging from a qualitative study of heterosexual men's use of dating apps, focusing in particular on participants' online representation of self, their motivations for using the apps, and experiences so far. We posit that while dating apps have provided new platforms for finding a 'date', arguments that they have destabilised commitment or reduced intimacy to a commodity (Kaufmann:2012) are premature. However, the self-promotion encouraged by digital culture appears to undermine authenticity in romantic encounters, often leading to disappointment in our participants' experiences. The dominant heteronormative script remains in place in participants' interactions and expectations, although they are loosened for more casual sexual encounters. Early conclusions about the use of dating apps by heterosexual men suggest that there is limited evidence that are representative of the emancipatory potential of the Internet (McGlotten 2013), with online interactions operating within the context of wider structural gender inequalities (Jamieson:2013).

'Sharing': Re-Examining a Contemporary Buzzword and Condition

Kirton, A.

(University of Liverpool)

'Sharing' quickly became a buzzword of digital culture and society as Social Media platforms began encouraging us to

'share' our lives and applications were developed allowing us to 'share' our files. Networks of information and data sharing likewise became a key organisational feature of contemporary society. Sharing, it seems, has become a condition of our times. Practices of digital sharing have also been the source of discontent, debate, and concern of course. Debates over privacy and property emerged and rumble on, pointing to one of the central tensions of our digital society – whilst sharing in some forms and contexts is celebrated, encouraged, and enabled, in others it is feared, lambasted, and restricted. Furthermore, cultural conventions, limits, and rules around digital sharing seem to be constantly changing. Examinations of sharing practice in this context have tended to focus on specific instances and forms. In an attempt to better understand these tensions around digital sharing practices and cultures, this paper firstly encourages a re-examination the concept of sharing, which leads to a questioning of the terms appropriation and use in particular contexts. It then seeks to place a broad range of contemporary 'sharing' practices within a wider historical and political economic context to show how current tensions relate to the much broader social conditions and arrangements of our time.

Visualising ‘Junk’: The Gendered Derision of a Data Visualisation

Hill, R., Kennedy, H., Gerrard, Y.

(University of Leeds)

The datafication and visualisation of culture (Beer and Burrows:2013) is leading to increased use of data visualisations in the media and elsewhere. In their production, visualisers draw historical antecedents to define conventions and what constitutes a good – or bad – visualisation. In their reception, users of visualisations similarly draw on formal and informal training and on experience with other visualisations and visual forms, in order to assess and make sense of visualisations. Whilst there are often sound reasons for such classifications and assessments, the gendered dimensions of normative judgements about the quality and professionalism of cultural artefacts like data visualisations cannot be ignored (Baym:2000; Petersen:2012). In this paper, we use the reception of one data visualisation from the

UK free tabloid newspaper The Metro as a case study to examine how gendered discourses shape reception, specifically those relating to the derision of femininity. The visualisation, called 'The Clicks Don't Lie,' shows data about the social media followers of Rihanna and Shakira, two contemporary pop music artists. In focus groups exploring engagement with a range of visualisations, it was widely derided for a variety of reasons, amongst which the gendering of particular conventions and other aspects of the visualisation played a significant role. Here, we unpack the gendered character of this derision, and argue that the professional standards and conventions which are mobilised in order to judge this visualisation as 'bad' cannot be separated from the gendered context in which such judgements take place.

Environment and Society

S

TEELHOUSE

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

149 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Institutional Rhythms: How Energy Demanding Practices are Ordered in Space and Time

Blue, S.

(Lancaster University)

Theories of practice have recently had a good deal of success in reframing debates within the sociology of consumption about consumer culture. They challenge understandings of unsustainable patterns of living and consuming, which are major causes of environmental degradation, as the outcomes of the social organisation of economic production, or the individual pursuit and display of distinct lifestyles. Instead they recognise consumption as an outcome of them many and integrated practices that make up everyday life. A range of studies have demonstrated the importance of understanding the spatio-temporal arrangements of activity of which everyday life is constituted, for understanding the effective reproduction of practices associated with high levels of consumption.

However, up to this point, much of this work has focussed on practices in the domestic sphere. This has led some commentators to argue that this analytical approach is only able to account for the 'micro' or the minutiae of daily activity and not more 'macro' phenomena, such as social institutions. Drawing on detailed empirical work of working and mobility practices at two large hospitals, I provide a first study of the institutional rhythms and practices that make up hospital life. This work demonstrates that the spatio-temporal relations that organise activity within the hospital are multiple and that they exist across different scales. As such, I argue that any account that seeks to shift patterns of unsustainable consumption, needs to engage with the socio-temporal organisation of everyday life at different scales, from the home, to the institution and beyond.

Insurmountable Boundaries? Conceptualizing the Interplay of Different Actors in Local Low Carbon

Transitions as Inter-System Boundary Work

Koehrsen, J. O.

(University of Basel)

Cities and towns are hotbeds of low carbon transitions (Bulkeley and Kern 2006; Hodson and Marvin 2010; Hodson and Marvin 2012; Maassen 2012; McCauley and Stephens 2012; Schönberger 2013; Späth and Rohracher 2012). As the transition processes span different social spheres (politics, science, economy etc.), they involve a substantial variety of activities and actors – such as policy makers, scientists, entrepreneurs, intermediaries, public administrators, and consumers (Geels, Hekkert and Jacobsson 2008) – and create high demands on the interaction and coordination between them. Difficulties in collaboration arise from the fact that the actors involved are related to social spheres (=social systems) that differ in their overall objectives, incorporate unlike values, interpret their environment in a dissimilar manner, communicate in distinct professional jargons, and organize their activities along different structures (Clark et al. 2011; McGreavy et al. 2013): in the end, the boundaries between the social systems risk deterring the required collaboration. The paper posits that in order to tackle the challenges of inter-system interaction, different forms of boundary arrangements (e.g. boundary objects, boundary concepts, boundary settings, boundary spanners, and boundary organizations) evolve in the course of local low carbon transitions, facilitating communication across system boundaries while simultaneously maintaining the boundaries. The approach is illustrated with by empirically exploring the boundary arrangements that have evolved in the German cities of Bottrop and Emden during the transition processes.

Families and Relationships 1

G11 B

YNG

K

ENDRICK

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Islamic Parenting Models: An Analysis of Parenting Guidebooks

Fathi, M.

(Bournemouth University)

Gaining knowledge about how to parent has become popular among Muslim communities in Britain in recent years.

This paper is based on content and discourse analysis of 32 Islamic parenting guidebooks published in English.

Muslim parents from both within and outside communities are seen as in need of an expert figure or expert knowledge to guide them through their everyday life. Taking into account the parenting culture discussions around parents' perceived lack of knowledge of raising their children, this paper characterises four models of parenting styles promoted in these books: ideal parenting, community parenting, sceptical parenting and fluid parenting. These models are devised on the basis of the advice given to parents in relation to the communities they live in, level of engagement, degree of religiosity, authoritarian practices and the community's relationship with the non-Muslim individuals to name a few. The paper concludes with three points: An underlying assumption for all these books is that Muslim communities are struggling to keep the balance between living in the west and keeping the ties of the community.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

150

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Fluid parenting which is a mixture of child psychology with light touch of Quranic texts (different to other models) is gaining momentum among all other models. Fluid parenting, used by younger parents is an instrumental way of keeping Muslim communities together although it is the least religious model of parenting.

Grandparents-Grandchildren Everyday Intimate Practices in Scotland: Making Sense of Doing and Being

Emotionally Close and Intimate

Ribe, E.

(University of Edinburgh)

Significant and far-reaching demographic and social trends have contributed to transforming family structures over the last century. Three and even four generations of the same family are more likely to share a larger proportion of their lives together. Amid these changes, there is growing evidence on the involvement of grandparents in family life, particularly providing aid and support through material and non-material transfers to children and grandchildren.

Concurrently, normative expectations of family life and pervasive discourses of emotional reciprocity are moulding an idealisation of patterned grandparent-grandchildren relationships by which affection and support are structuring principles of these relationships. However, grandparents' experiences and relationships with their grandchildren are far from homogenous and are often embedded in complex relational and emotional processes shaped by life course events in the individual and family time. Despite the emergence of studies on intimate life, grandparent-grandchild experiences and practices of intimacy are little explored, particularly in relation to the differences in these practices between grandparents in the same family. This research draws on quantitative research of the Growing Up in

Scotland (GUS) survey to investigate individual and family factors shaping the differences in emotional closeness patternings between grandparents and grandchildren. Also, drawing on new qualitative research collected utilising interview data, the research will explore the relentless mundane practices of the everyday life as a lens through which grandparents enact, sustain and afford meanings of closeness and intimacy with their grandchildren. This research aims to contribute to a growing body of sociological work on intimacy and emotions.

Intergenerational Positioning in Persian Intercultural Partnering Practices in the UK

Amirmoayed, A.

(University of Birmingham)

Based on a qualitative study on Persian intercultural partnering practices in the UK, this paper considers how a person's intergenerational position in her/his web of 'familial' relationships shapes partnering practices, and vice versa.

Despite, recent discussions positing that some forms of close social relationships, such as friendships, have become central in people's lives in contemporary societies, this paper shows the extent to which familial relationships are still of significance, not only in parallel with other close relationships, but on their own merits. This paper explores how the couples under observation pass down their cultural heritages to their intercultural children. This process depends on their positions on the continuum of cultural identities, and the strictness with which they passed down their culture of origin. Moreover, this paper argues that relationships with other blood-relatives had a defining role in constructing the research participants' partnering relationships. In particular, negotiating and managing relationships with parents was vital for the Persians involved in these relationships, in order to sustain their partnering relationships. This paper argues that 'familial' ties and relationships still have considerable meaning and distinctive value in contemporary societies, and they should not be conflated with other close social relationships. The intergenerational practices documented in this study confirm the importance of retaining the concept of family, despite the newly proposed conception of 'personal life', because there is still much content in the concept of 'family' that cannot be divorced from the field.

Families and Relationships 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

127

Surveillance and Stigma During Pregnancy and Early Motherhood: The Changing Experiences of Mothers and

Grandmothers

Grant, A., Mannay, D., Marzella, R.

(Cardiff University)

Pregnancy and motherhood have come to be increasingly subjected to surveillance, by medical professionals, kin and also strangers. Rates of breastfeeding in developed countries vary significantly but research with mothers in countries with low breastfeeding rates has highlighted that public breastfeeding is difficult to navigate within existing constructs of acceptable femininity, due to the sexualisation of the breast in contemporary society. This paper draws on indepth qualitative reserach with six mother/grandmother pairs, where the mothers' infants were aged under 25 months. Data

151 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

production involved eliciation interviews around the everyday artefacts that participants presented to symbolise their experiences of motherhood and infant care. Participants who were new mothers described the ways in which their behaviours were monitored by those around them, including service-sector employees, friends, family and, to a lesser extent, health professionals. The intergenerational nature of the study allowed a focus on the ways in which surveillance of infant feeding, and mothering more generally, has changed over time, and grandmothers reported considerably lower levels of scrutiny. Drawing on Foucauldian concepts of surveilance, the paper examines the negotiation of acceptable motherhood in relation to the intrusive policing of lifestyle choices, consumption and infant feeding. The paper argues that the moral maze of surveyed motherhood acts to close down mothers agency and situate them in a psychological impasse where ideas of choice and ownership become restricted.

Happy Mummies and Oxygen Masks: The Interlinking of Maternal and Child Well-Being

Head, E.

(Keele University)

This paper explores contemporary articulations of maternal well-being. Drawing on examples from online parenting forums and parenting advice books, I show that maternal well-being is usually constructed primarily in terms of the benefits this has for children. This fits with the wider cultural, and policy and political discourses of parenting which stress the individual responsibility parents bear for the life chances of their children. The inter-linked nature of maternal and child well-being are being intensified as scientific and psychological research into pregnancy and early motherhood tries to capture the impact of stress or negative maternal mood on infants. This intensification of the significance of maternal well-being works in tandem with a political climate where the impact of social inequalities on women's and children's lives is being downplayed and where parenting is being cast as an individual choice and responsibility. This works to place the responsibility for both maternal and child well-being with mothers. The individualising of these concerns means the commonalities between mothers and the role of the wider social conditions in which motherhood takes place become obscured from view. I argue that a feminist analysis of the relationship between women and children needs to encompass the cultural construction of motherhood in order to suggest alternative visions including ones where commonalities between mothers can be recognised and the possibilities of less intensive ways of doing motherhood are imagined.

Displaying Multiple Families: Considering the Temporal Context of Family Display

Kettle, J.

(University of Sheffield)

Building on Finch's (2007) concept of 'displaying family', this paper argues for the relevance of considering the temporal context in which multiple families are displayed as a useful approach in future research. Drawing on a smallscale qualitative research project exploring two generations of White British mothers' narratives of household work, this paper will show how recognising the simultaneous displaying of different families in which one is multiply positioned (for example as wife and mother, a daughter, and a daughter-in-law) suggests that comparisons between families can involve both the positive, and more problematic, displaying of one's own families. What is key to these comparisons is the temporal context, in that family can be displayed in the past, present and future. In discussing this approach, I will focus on three particular examples from my research: emphasis on continued family practices between one's current family and the family one grew up in as doing family things properly (in comparison to the families of one's partner); idealised constructions of one's mother including evidence of self-criticism, in which the past is displayed more positively than the present; and accounts which establish the family-like qualities of particular relationships and practices in the past, while reflecting on these in the context of a shifting understanding of family and longer-term implications; to alter Finch's phrasing: 'that was my family and it didn't always work'.

Finch, J. (2007) 'Displaying Families', Sociology:41:1, pp. 65-81

Frontiers 1

S

TAFFORD

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Understanding Food Choices: A Bourdieusian Approach

McKenzie, J., Watts, D.

(University of Aberdeen)

Issues surrounding food is of global concern, with high levels of malnutrition in third world countries and the obesity epidemic in the West. With respect to the latter, nutritional research has commonly underpinned healthy eating messages and campaigns. Most social research into eating behaviour has been informed by the premise that eating behaviour is learned during childhood, resulting in habituated eating patterns that are resistant to change. This paper

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

152

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

argues that this dichotomous approach is both inadequate - most healthy eating campaigns have little impact - and based on outmoded assumptions about the fixity of food consumption habits. It does so by paying close attention to the importance of social and cultural factors for understanding food choices and eating behaviours and by demonstrating that these can be subject to change throughout the lifecourse.

Based on thirty-one interviews across Scotland, and drawing on Bourdieu's methodological relationalism and his concepts of field, doxa and habitus, this paper aims to demonstrate the range of social and individual factors that influence food choices and eating patterns across the lifecourse. It will also argue that, for most participants, food choices and eating practices can change on both a temporary and long-term basis. In conclusion it will be argued that

Bourdieu's concepts provide an useful framework for understanding food choices by providing insight into the interrelationship between the individuals and social structures and for presenting research findings that could more readily be understood and used by policy-makers in their attempt to promote healthy eating.

Fragmented Sociologies Facing the Challenges of Global World: Path Dependence and Perspectives for the

Novel Disciplinary Mode

Sorokin, P.

(National Research University Higher School of Economics)

The continuing academic debates about theoretical and practical issues regarding the current economic, environmental, cultural and political crises are hampered dramatically by the contradiction between the nature of the discussed challenges and the institutional dynamics of the sociological communities. The current challenges are strongly interconnected being a product of the global world with its special hierarchy, system of discrimination, the dominant ideology and control mechanisms (Burawoy 2005). At the same time, the disciplinary development in the

XXI century is seriously hindered by the powerful 'path dependence' effect, manifested, at least, in the three aspects.

1) Maintaining Eurocentric standards in the perception of history and sociology itself, as well as the corresponding system of basic cognitive categories (Bhambra 2015).

2) The dynamics of the relationships between sociology and other social disciplines (and, above all, with mainstream economics), traced since the 1930s (Brown and Spencer:2014). The central point here is the continuing retreat of sociology in many fields of study under the onslaught of 'economic imperialism'.

3) The institutional development of the contemporary university, since the 1970s (Dos Santos 2012). The key problem here is the growing marketization and the continuing decline in the 'public value' of social science.

This leads to discussion of the possible new disciplinary mode in sociology stepping out of the university shell and challenging the existing dominance. One of the possible solutions could be the 'solidarity global sociology' aimed at interaction with the extra-academic audiences about key social problems, but avoiding politicization and marginalization.

The Hope Bus: 'Humans Come First!'

Ahn, J. E.

This paper explores how the Hope Bus movement mobilised vast amount of participants including ordinary citizens as well as workers in South Korea and what it implies in terms of social movement perspective. Although Korean labour movements had been broadly understood as one of the strongest trade union movements in the world, the IMF crisis and a massive neoliberal attack on labour gradually undermined the solidarity of labour movements both within workers themselves and with civil society. The Hope Bus movement in 2011, however, was a milestone showing a new type of solidarity bridging the labour movement at workplace and the civic movement outside the union in South

Korea. 'Hope Bus' refers to the bus which ran toward Busan for supporters of Jin-Sook Kim who was holding a 'highaltitude-sit-in' at the top of a crane against redundancies of Hanjin Heavy Industries and Construction (HHIC). The movement is notable not only in that it led to a settlement promising to rehire laid-off workers, but also in that it caused people to pay more attention to labour issues and even to support the labour widely by getting involved in the labour protest. This study illustrates a framing process of the Hope Bus movement, especially focusing on its resonance.

While conventional labour movements are mainly based on the labour sharing the same identity and interest, the

Hope Bus movement was fundamentally a movement beyond the labour and therefore necessarily entailed discursive processes amongst adherents with various backgrounds.

153 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Frontiers 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

134

Personal Recovery and Personality Disorder within Forensic Institutions

Shepherd, A., Sanders, C., Shaw, J.

(GMW Mental Health and University of Manchester)

Mental health services currently emphasise the importance of 'personal recovery', but this is a complex notion that can be seen as a form of identity work; wherein an individual works to construct a narrative account of their experience.

Recovery is seen as distinct from traditional care paradigms and may involve rejection of professionally led ideas of

'cure'. Greater difficulty emerges when this experience is considered within forensic institutions, such as prisons or secure hospitals - where an individual has been divorced from their home networks and must develop a novel form of projective identity, in keeping with the host institution's demands for control and curtailment of liberty.

The current research project seeks to use a psychoanalytically informed approach to narrative interviews to explore

'recovery' as developed by individuals receiving a personality disorder diagnosis accessing care within forensic institutions. Clinical staff focus groups are utilised as a means of capturing professional perspectives.

Through the use of a psychoanalytical framework personal recovery is revealed as a contested process of identity work wherein participants seek to construct illness narratives that make sense of concepts of self, mental disorder and offending behaviour; while minimising personal distress. Discrepancies between parties in understanding regarding the nature of 'personality disorder' lead to a conflicting process between clinicians and 'patients' that risks degrading the individual's sense of moral autonomy and increasing tension within the, potentially, therapeutic relationship. Such tensions adversely impact on both parties risking leading to rejection of care, or a punitive approach to therapy and diagnosis.

Walking Tour Interviews as a Psychosocial Method

Roy, A., Froggett, L.

(University of Central Lancashire)

Walking as an ethnographic method has been adopted in several areas of qualitative social science including anthropology, cultural geography and applied fields including social work. Its use has been driven by the idea that identities, experiences and behaviours are embedded in the places a person inhabits and that walking with research participants offers a naturalistic way of accessing places together. It is also argued that getting mobile with research participants helps rebalance unequal power relations inherent in research interviews. This paper examines these propositions from a psychosocial perspective drawing on a project conducted in Manchester, England, that explored the lives of vulnerable young men surviving in the city. In this research walking tour interviews offered insight into the routines, habits and everyday practices of young men, in relation to city centre sites including car parks, public parks, statues, canal sides and services. We discuss how the act of walking together afforded a fluid relation to space as young men escorted us imaginatively and physically through the scenes and settings of their lives. Drawing on the work of Wilfred Bion, Christopher Bollas and Alfred Lorenzer we show how the kinetic affordances of walking help produce an associative form of thinking in the interview situation, which is also dense with scenic and visual references. The paper argues mobile methods are a valuable addition to psychosocial research because, by harnessing the multi-sensory relationship between humans, movement and place, they offer insight into the intertwined spatial and kinetic dimensions of subjective and cultural experience

Medicine, Health and Illness

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

145

'If she refuses to have sex with you, just make her tipsy': Gendering of Alcoholic Beverages and Date Rape

Amongst University Students

Dumbili, E., Williams, C.

(Brunel University)

Most research on gendering of alcohol or sexual violence focuses on Western societies. This article contributes to the culturally specific understanding of how Nigerian socio-cultural constructions of alcohol consumption facilitate sexual violence. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 male and 9 female undergraduate students (aged 19-23 years) to explore how the gendering of alcoholic beverages facilitates sexual violence against women on a Nigerian university.

Men were found to exclude women from consuming beer which they described as an 'inappropriate' feminine

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

154

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

behaviour, and confined them to using sweetened alcoholic beverages. In order to maintain the notion of 'respectable' femininity, women consume sweetened alcoholic beverages but this creates gender-specific risks. Compared with beer brands that men drink, sweetened alcoholic beverages have a higher alcohol content, which many men were aware of, unlike the women interviewed. Some men were found to buy sweetened drinks for women, pressurising them to drink above their limits and raping them when they are inebriated. Health intervention that focuses on the embodied gendered consumption rituals (that are anchored to patriarchal beliefs), the commodification of women's bodies, and the stigmatization of rape victims should be pursued in non-Western societies.

Everybody Likes a Quitter: Smoking, Self-Help Guides and the Governmentality of Cessation

Marron, D.

(Abertay University)

Within contemporary public health discourse, cigarette smoking is framed as a harmful practice, bearing upon illness, disease and premature mortality. Explanations for its persistence emphasize, in various ways, the impaired and deficient rationality of smokers, the physiological and psychological addictiveness of nicotine and the coalescing of epidemiological risk factors. To counter, authorities deploy a range of governing strategies, including health awareness campaigns, restrictions on permissible smoking space and the application of high rates of taxation.

Specifically for existing smokers, targeted interventions are aimed at assisting and supporting individuals to cease smoking permanently; these include practical advice and guidance from healthcare professionals, subsidized nicotinereplacement therapies and peer-group support. This exploratory paper examines one prominent strand of contemporary government – the self-help book – and its application to the problem of smoking cessation. The paper identifies the ways in which claims to knowledge and expertise are channeled in order to equip individuals-as-smokers to institute transformative changes in the self. It examines how smokers are invited to this project of transformation, how their dispositions and embodiment as smokers are drawn into the scope of self-analysis, how self-interrogation and reflexivity are systematically elicited and the means by which such smokers are taught to evaluate and act upon their everyday embodied selves and practices in light of this understanding. What this paper ultimately seeks to understand and resolve are the paradoxes by which autonomous, willful subjects are governed to contain, repair and transcend their perceived loss of autonomy in smoking.

From Structural Stigma to Stigma-In-Practice: Illicit Drug Use and Hepatitis C

Bonnington, O.

(London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine)

Despite calls for a turn to the study of structural stigma fifteen years ago, few studies have focused on it during the intervening period, especially in respect of hepatitis C. This paper questions why this might be the case and addresses it by looking at the multiple ways in which structural stigma is emergent in relation to hepatitis C. Empirical data drawn from research looking at a peer support intervention for hepatitis C in two UK drug treatment settings is used to flesh-out these theoretical arguments. The paper uses qualitative data, analysed thematically, from four focus groups and nine interviews with people who inject drugs, and two focus groups and nine interviews with drug services and intervention providers. The different situated experiences of these participants show that the dynamics of structural stigma in relation to hepatitis C play out between, and affect, numerous contexts including healthcare, friendship, community drug services, homeless shelters, and prison services. Further, by using elements of posthumanist thought, the ontology of hepatitis C is seen within this analysis to be multiplied and enacted through various relations between human and non-human forms. This means that a different hepatitis c and hence a different form of stigma is enacted in different structured situations. Moreover, as the contexts of structural stigma are shown to be imbricated, it is argued that a turn towards a new type of 'stigma-in-practice' might be a fruitful avenue for future research.

‘I Drink as Much as I Can': Young People, Drinking to Intoxication and Risk

Hennell, K.

(Lancaster University)

Younger drinkers' alcohol consumption in recent decades has become a matter of social, media and political concern.

Within the principal discourse of health epidemiology and Government policy the focus is on individual lifestyles and changing health related risk behaviours rather than reducing gaps in social inequalities and tackling the broader social determinants of health (Marmot:1997). This is largely the result of a dominant paradigm that frames health as an individual responsibility (Williams:2003).

My study uses social practice theory (Shove et al.:2012) to explore concepts and understandings of 'risk' and 'risk behaviours' which underpin alcohol policy and strategy discourses and alcohol harm minimisation strategies. This enables a move away from an epidemiology where individuals have the sole responsibility for their own risk status and supports a nuanced social and cultural exploration of risk. Exploring young people's alcohol consumption through the

155 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

lens of social practice theory enables an exploration of conscious and habitual risk taking practices and explores them in relation to performances of youth, masculinities/femininities and social class.

This paper draws on data from group interviews, Facebook, Instagram and Twitter from three friendship groups of young people who have participated in the study for 12 months.

The paper presents findings from the study which demonstrate that young people employ risk management rituals

(Moore and Burgess:2011) to manage their performances of drinking alcohol and that risky practices are habitual and routinized.

Methodological Innovations - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOMS

135-137

Teaching Research Methods in Sociology

Jamieson, L.

(University of Edinburgh)

Come and discuss teaching research methods in Sociology and hear about research on the pedagogy of teaching methods. Do you try to teach methodology as an integral aspect of doing sociology rather than ‘methods’ as a separate box of tricks? Dr Angus Bancroft convenes such a research methods course at the University of Edinburgh and was the winner of that university’s Chancellor’s Award for Teaching in 2015 in recognition of ‘improving and invigorating student learning’. Dr Sin Yi Cheung at the Cardiff University combines teaching quantitative skills with demonstrating the essential relevance of quantitative data to understanding sociological questions. Dr Bancroft and

Dr Cheung will be joined by researchers reporting on two projects on pedagogical aspects of teaching research methods under the umbrella of the National Centre for Research Method: (Sarah Lewthwaite and Melanie Nind) and

(John MacInnes and Kevin Ralston). Lynn Jamieson will chair as BSA president and ask whether we underemphasise the added value sociology brings to our generic research skills and underplay the theoretical substance of sociology in how we teach research methods.

Teaching Designing and Doing Research

Bancroft, A.

(University of Edinburgh)

Will briefly introduce his experience convening the course Designing and Doing Research which describes itself as ‘The course is designed to mimic a real world research scenario, in which a multi-disciplinary research team takes varying approaches to a topic but works together towards the same goal. The emphasis is on learning while doing, and giving you a structured environment where you can learn how to reflect on your research while you are doing it. Many of the skills you learn on the course will be relevant to your honours project or dissertation, and to your future career. ‘

Teaching Quantitative Research Methodology

Cheung, S. Y.

(Cardiff University)

Uses quantitative data in her research to address different forms of social inequalities in Britain and in comparative perspectives -changing inequalities in higher education, ethnic penalties in the labour market, lone parents on benefits, claimants, children in care, and refugee integration. She will describe how she brings this to her teaching of

Quantitative Research Methodology at the University of Cardiff.

The Interconnectedness of Methodological and Pedagogical Innovation

Lewthwaite S., Nind, M.

(University of Southampton)

There are increasingly well-understood incentives to innovate in social science research methods: the affordances of new technologies, a pluralistic methods culture, and the value research councils place on innovation and interdisciplinarity. This research explores the nature of innovation in methods and the sometimes-interconnected innovation in the teaching and learning of those methods. Using interviews with leaders in the teaching and learning of advanced research methods, the researchers ask whether new research methods demand new pedagogies and look at the role data play in the interplay of methods for research and methods for teaching.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

156

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Students’ Perspectives on the Value of Quantitative Methods

Ralston, K., MacInnes, J.

(University of Edinburgh)

The NCRM research project Quantitative Methods Pedagogy focuses on what motivates students to understand the value of quantitative methods, what influences student recruitment and retention, and on what determines whether high performing UG students to continue to postgraduate study using a quantitative approach.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Diaspora as an Ethnographic Method: Reflections on Researching Urban Multiculture in Outer East London

James, M.

(University of Sussex)

This paper reflects on diaspora as an ethnographic method. Grounded in a decolonial critique of colonial methodologies (including an evaluation of transnational scholarship), it discusses how diaspora provides intellectual and practical tools for decolonial ethnography; tools grounded in the appreciation for the relational, dialogical and poetic qualities of social and cultural life and invested in decolonial approaches to knowledge and power. This paper is not a call for another one-size-fits-all approach to ethnographic methods, but instead reflects on the knots of ethnographic enquiry around three outer East London youth clubs, between 2008 and 2012. In so doing, it highlights a number of debates pertinent to this Special Issue: how to think and do ethnography with young people in a changing migratory and racialised landscape; how to engage transformations in youth culture; and how to address digital technologies.

Multicultural, Convivial and Affective Relations in a Suburban Town

Tyler, K. J.

(University of Exeter)

Taking my cue from sociological work on affect and conviviality, my focus in this paper is upon everyday manifestations of multiculturalism in a suburban town situated in one of the wealthiest regions of the South East of

England. I draw upon interview material that formed part of an ethnographic project that set out to explore how residents of this town identified with each other across ethnic and racial identities. I analyse the lasting consequences of convivial interactions that become imprinted on, carried and sit within the body as well as linger within the atmosphere of place. I also take seriously the critique that sociological accounts of multicultural conviviality have 'gone soft on racism'.

Seeing Super Diversity Through a Migrants' Lens - How is Conviviality Achieved in Multicultural Societies?

Mogilnicka, M.

(University of Bristol)

A recent scholarship on conviviality tends to envisage super-diverse cities as cosmopolitan spaces of connection and belonging (Wessendorf:2015; Husband, Alam, J., & Fomina:2014; Wise:2006; Noble:2009; Glick Schiller &

Ayse:2015). The growing interest in 'urban sociabilities' (Glick Schiller & Ayse:2015) has shifted the focus in the literature towards those everyday practices that contribute to successful living together without valorising racial or ethnic identities. However, seeing Western multicultural societies in terms of spaces of togetherness risks romanticizing urban relations (Valentine:2008). Moreover, the focus in current literature on researching multi-ethnic neighbourhoods contributes to the reinforcement of a notion of 'imagined communities', where residents are thought to willingly maintain them through ongoing positive interactions.

This paper investigates everyday lived diversities from the perspective of Polish migrants to the UK. By using an example of a particular migrants' group, I suggest that conviviality in Western societies is achieved through a learning process of living with diversity rather than it is something that simply happens as a result of peoples'

'throwntogetherness' (Massey:2005). I also argue that it is not useful to limit the scope of studies to multi-ethnic neighbourhoods as it restricts peoples' everyday practices within one area and does little to explain how conviviality is accomplished by those who live in less diverse parts of cities. In order to have a better understanding of social relations in super-diverse society, we need to turn our attention from geographically bounded diverse areas to interactions across spatially dispersed settings.

157 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Contesting Disposability Across Transcultural Boundaries in Naples Italy

Dawes, A. L.

(London School of Economics)

This paper is based on nine months of ethnographic research carried out on licensed and unlicensed market stalls in

Naples (southern Italy) with Neapolitan and migrant street vendors. Street markets are an important part of the informal economy in Naples. High levels of unemployment and strict EU immigration rules have made market vending into a vital survival strategy for both Italian citizens and newcomers. Markets are thus a key site of encounter across racialised boundaries. The street markets I worked on were under threat of closure during my time in the field and the concatenation of economic stagnation, restrictive immigration laws, and municipal repression affected my research participants in different ways. Through an examination of the protest marches I attended with the street vendors, I will reveal the different political discourses though which they contested and negotiated the threat against their livelihood.

As such I will consider the models of collective organisation and resistance that come about across racialised and linguistic boundaries amongst people subjected to informal, unstable and differential legal statuses and labour conditions.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

144

The Existence, Rights and Entitlements of Disabled Asylum Seekers in the UK

Yeo, R.

(University of Bath)

'Disabled asylum seekers?...They don't really exist', claimed the receptionist of a major UK charity (Yeo and Bolton

2013). She believed disabled people would not manage the journey to this country. Freedom of Information requests indicate that no official data is gathered, with which the receptionist's supposition could be confirmed or disputed

(ibid). However, in 2001 academic researchers estimated that there were up to 26:000 disabled people seeking asylum in the UK (Harris and Roberts 2001).

The lack of recognition of the existence of this group is reflected in stark inequality of entitlement. When the British government ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Disabled People in 2009, it added a reservation excluding immigration policy from its enshrined obligations. Such institutionalised hierarchy of entitlement is not an abstract principle. A three year study working with disabled asylum seekers in the UK found routine deprivation from basic human needs, including food, housing and social contact (Yeo and Bolton 2013). This paper is informed by the above study in conjunction with more recent work with employees in the asylum sector, considering the causes of such deprivation.

It is argued that systemic change is needed to address the deprivation of this group. The neoliberal orthodoxy results in disabled people and asylum seekers being constructed as burdens on the state, with resultant lack of entitlement. In the context of the rapid increase in numbers of forced migrants, it is timely to consider the needs and rights of people whose very existence is routinely ignored.

Voices of the Secret State: Human Rights Activism among North Korean Defectors in the UK

Lim, H.J.

(Bournemouth University)

My paper aims to highlight the lived experiences and identity formation of North Korean defectors settled in the UK who are involved in human rights activism. Whilst violations of human rights in North Korea are well documented, human rights activism by its defectors is less well known. Since 2004, approximately 600 North Koreans have settled in the UK. Free NK, a human rights organisation born out of this settlement, has been active in illuminating the reality of North Korea whilst also working towards subverting the regime by informing its fellow remainders about the outside world through the distribution of newspapers. This paper is drawn from ongoing research on North Korean defectors living in the UK. The data is collected using life history interviews to capture their lived experiences and to identify a range of factors which have influenced their involvement in the activism whilst also seeking to find better ways of improving the wellbeing and quality of life for those activists. The paper concludes that human rights activism for those individuals plays a vital role in the construction of their new identity as refugees as well as giving a salient meaning to their life. Therefore, the paper argues that there is much room to help the settlement processes and better adjustment of refugees and defectors to a new country by supporting their active citizenship.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

158

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

How Do Rights Matter for Migrants’ ‘Integration’? A Sociological Study of the Impacts of Rights and

Restrictions on Experiences of Family Migrants

Oliver, C., Spencer, S.

(University of Oxford)

Within Europe, Member States have developed a range of policies addressing the inclusion of immigrants from outside Europe, responding to concern about integration outcomes. While ostensibly the emphasis has been on

'integration' as a 'two way process' involving both receiving societies and immigrants, in reality the onus is being placed more and more on immigrants to demonstrate their capacities for integration. Yet at the same time, governments increasingly impose restrictions on migrants' entitlements to public services and welfare support as a condition attached to their immigration status, which may act as a barrier in integration processes. This paper calls for more attention to the role of state-imposed rights and restrictions (to access welfare, health, education etc.) in integration processes, since these are likely to shape migrants' ability to participate economically, socially and in civic life. While often understood as a foundation in integration processes, the relationship between restrictions and entitlements on one hand, and integration on the other, is still only poorly understood in existing scholarship. There is little knowledge about the impact of restrictions, nor understanding of the extent to which the restrictions are proportional (in degree and length of time imposed) to the intention cited by the government. This paper offers an examination of these questions through examining the experience of Family Migrants in the UK. It draws on qualitative and quantitative evidence drawn from research in two British cities and shares insights from comparative research generated in a four country cross-national European project conducted in 2012-13

(compas.ox.ac.uk/research/welfare/impacim).

Present yet not Recognised: Symbolic and Material Bordering at the Local Level in Italy

Gargiulo, E.

(University of Eastern Piedmont)

In the past few years, several Italian local authorities have (illegally) narrowed the national requirements for obtaining the enrolment at the municipal registry office. To this end, they have used administrative provisions as well as informal practices, accounting for their decisions with the need to protect the security of their citizens and public decorum.

This way, these Municipalities have clearly accomplished an act of discrimination, denying a legal status – which can be called residency – that, according to national laws, they should recognize to legal migrants. Within the Italian legal system, residency is really important, given that its denial can prevent the actual enjoyment of many welfare provisions.

Narrowing the access to the status of local resident, many local authorities have tried to draw the line between

'legitimate' local citizens – people who are formally recognized as residents – and 'illegitimate' local citizens – people who are denied of the status of residents, although allowed by the national laws to legally reside within the Italian territory. In other words, these municipalities have erected a sort of bureaucratic boundary, an 'administrative wall', against some immigrants.

The paper aims to analyze legal mechanisms and institutional discourses through which the exclusion from residency is achieved, showing how these mechanisms strengthen the system of civic stratification. To this end, it employs a varied set of methodological strategies and data: critical discourse analysis; in-depth analysis of the mechanisms of exclusion from residency; analysis of quantitative data from fifty municipalities.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

139

Class, Ethnicity and Religion in British-Born Bangladeshi Women’s Experiences of Higher Education

Scandone, B.

(University of Bath)

In this presentation, I will look at how class, ethnicity and religion contribute to shape, and are in turn shaped by, the experiences of higher education of young British-born Bangladeshi women. While women of Bangladeshi origins living in the UK have long been the focus of concern due to their especially low levels of participation in education and the labour market, their numbers in universities have been increasing substantially in the last 20 years. Here, I will draw on the stories of 21 young women, attending a range of differently ranked universities, to highlight the interplay among these dimensions of social identity in providing both opportunities and constraints. In particular, I will consider how these girls' strong drive for social mobility, and their value for education as key to this pursuit, can be linked to their parents' experiences of migration and settlement. Islam also appears to provide in this respect a range of discourses

159 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

on which to draw, which allow to sustain participation in education whilst contextually challenging 'mainstream' assimilation. On the other hand, the ways in which ethnic and religious identities are perceived and received by others can lead to exclusion from 'dominant' social fields, and these girls' capacity to actualise their drive for mobility is still largely dependent on the relative availability of different forms of capitals. Furthermore, while higher education is generally seen as a vehicle for upward mobility, middle-class status is often associated with white British values and privileges, and thus considered as never fully attainable.

Transcultural Identities and Urban School Experiences of Migrant Youth in China

Song, Y.

(University of Glasgow)

Under Chinese household registration's segregation on social rights and benefits between rural and urban people, rural workers fail to secure permanent residency on an equal footing with registered urban residents even though they migrant to work in the city for years. The Chinese rural-urban division has consequences beyond access to political and economic rights and resources, and has deepened to shape cultural and ideological perceptions, which continuously influences children of migrant workers moving to study in urban schools. Though nowadays children of migrant workers can study in urban public schools alongside local resident, the rural-urban structural conflict still exists and impedes social relations between rural-urban groups.

The research investigates the difficulties or opportunities encountered by children of migrant workers after entering urban public schools and as the face the realities of contact with city culture, and explains how education affects such children dealing with cultural conflict and constructing transcultural identity.

The discussion on the dual roles of education, as an agent of cultural reproduction and an opportunity for multi-cultural fusion, is based on Pierre Bourdieu's Cultural Reproduction Theory and Inclusive Education Model. These two theoretical starting-points shape and inform the research into how education not only reproduces cultural division but can challenge such tendencies as well. Cultural adaptation survey, including questionnaire, interview and focus group research, and social network analysis are used to clarify the interactions between rural and urban habitus within urban education field and the plight of migrant children marginalized by both rural and urban culture systems.

The Struggle for my Caribbean Identity During my British University Experience

Charles, R. A.

(Birmingham City University)

American scholar DuBois (1903, p. XX) asserts that in the 20th century black people would encounter the issue of the colour line, while British theorist Halls (1993, p. 361) purports that in the 21st century the question becomes one of living with difference. In the 20th and 21st centuries both of these assertions have been realised and remain issues, especially for people of colour. In this paper I talk about the preconceptions of my British university experience as a typical point of colour, which instead became a deeper struggle for identity. Two areas that are key to my discussions are issues of colourblindness and pigmentocracy. In my presentation I also discuss some other fields such as privilege and inequality as they are also important aspects of this conversation.

For this study I utilised a reflexive methodological approach in documenting and analysing my experiences during my

Masters and PhD program at UK-based universities. As a citizen of a former British colony (Trinidad and Tobago), I also incorporate some secondary data and reflection on my country's colonial history. This connection to my postgraduate experience is significant because issues surrounding race and colour are central to the narratives and socio-economic structure of the Caribbean (Reddock:2007). Overall, I argue that there remains a continuous struggle for an identity as a Black Caribbean individual versus an identity as a member of the African diaspora. I intend on using these findings to inform public discussions and increase scholarship in this area.

The 'Gypsy Childsnatcher': An Intersectional Analysis of the Racialisation of Romani People via the Case of

Maria

Mullen, A.

(University of Glasgow)

In 2013, three Romani children were illegitimately taken from their families in Greece and Ireland, provoking extraordinary levels of international media attention. The forced removals of these children were based upon assumptions of a seeming incongruity between their pale skin and blonde hair and their 'darker' parents, whilst the explanations offered for their alleged abduction by way of motivation were centred around imagined social relations of exploitation: as 'begging tools'. The resultant representations drew heavily upon the historical 'Gypsy Childsnatcher' trope, originating in medieval myth and cemented in the popular imagination in the Victorian period (Epstein-

Nord:2006). Popularity derived from its use as an antithetical literary device to express anxieties and to reaffirm order

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

160

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

and boundaries by their temporary disruption (Matthews:2010). Yet its contemporary resonance demands further interrogation.

Based upon exhaustive qualitative empirical analysis of 339 UK newspaper articles and informed by an intersectional framework which seeks to reveal the relationality of social divisions as realised within particular representations

(Anthias:1998), this paper will analyse how the construction and reproduction of these highly racialised stereotypes was also reliant upon classed and gendered discursive repertoires. I will argue that as Romani people in Britain are discursively constituted as an underclass, insofar as the stereotypical representations produced draw upon the same language, discursive strategies, imagery, and modes of articulation, the historical Gypsy Childsnatcher trope is imbued with its contemporary resonance due to the connection forged between Roma and the politics of welfare at the level of the British national imaginary.

Science and Technology Studies

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

3

Levelling the Playing Field? Tackling Digital Inequality of Young People Through a Home Internet Access

Scheme

Davies, H., Eynon, R.

(Oxford Internet Institute)

Technological solutionist discourses that are shaping public policy suggest digitised public services are cheaper and more efficient, the future of education is digital, and digital entrepreneurialism and silicon zones are a fast track to prosperity. Online social networks are said to enhance our wellbeing, increase our civic and political engagement, and improve our job prospects. Yet, many young people are unable to access these benefits. This study, over a period of two years, has mobilised academics, three secondary schools, an ISP, and a city council to provide a selected group of thirty digitally excluded young people with a free laptop, free access to the Internet at home, and support with developing their digital skills. We used data collected during visits to family homes, workshops and tutorials in schools, and interviews with stakeholders to critically evaluate the scheme’s efficacy and outcomes. Where good intentions have met messy reality the project has opened a portal into these young people’s complicated lives. There are successes; the scheme has changed some families’ lives. Simultaneously, however, the way the project is implemented, funded, and managed; the way structural inequality produces competing priorities and exigencies for the schools and families involved; the young people’s shifting needs and investments in the project; norms and anxieties about youth and technology, and wider attitudes to poverty have all combined here to show the digital revolution is generating new exclusionary mechanisms that are amplifying rather than alleviating the effects of inequality.

Digital Music Consumption in the era of Big Data & Data Analytics: A Theoretical Approach for Examining

Music Recommender Systems as Sociotechnical Cultural Intermediaries

Webster, J., Halford, S., Gibbins, N., Hracs, B.

(University of Southampton)

As the rate and scale of digital data accumulation continue to outstrip all expectations so too we come to depend increasingly on a variety of technical tools to interrogate these data and to render them as an intelligible source of information. In response, on the one hand, a great deal of attention has been paid to the design of efficient and reliable mechanisms for big data analytics whilst, on the other hand, concerns are expressed about the rise of

'algorithmic society' whereby important decisions are made by computational agents of which the majority of the population has little control. This paper aims to bridge these two debates working through the case of music recommender systems. Whilst not conventionally regarded as 'big data,' the enormous volume, variety and velocity of digital music has seen the growth of recommender systems, which are increasingly embedded in the everyday music consumption of individuals. These systems help consumers navigate the expanding cultural field in order to discover interesting and relevant music, whilst enabling content providers to market goods more intimately. Combining

Bourdieu's theoretical perspectives with Actor Network Theory's insistence on the relational ontology of human and non-human actors, we draw on empirical evidence from the social science and computational literature on recommender systems to argue that music recommender systems should be understood as a new form of sociotechnical cultural intermediary. In doing so, we aim to define a broader agenda for better understanding the social role of the computational tools designed to manage big data.

Divisions of Labour in Crowdsourced Films

Hjorth, I.

(University of Oxford)

161 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

The production of culture in the creative industries is enabled by conventions guiding all aspects of the artistic production from the division of labour to audience and genre expectations (Becker:2008 [1982]). Over the past decade, new production models have begun emerging vis-à-vis networked technologies, harnessing global online networks of volunteer contributors (Benkler:2006). The rise of these participatory cultures and peer production models has led scholars grounded in critical traditions to call for increased attention to questions of exploitation of digital labour in the cultural domain (e.g. Arvidsson & Colleoni:2012; Banks & Deuze:2009; Fuchs:2010; Kleemann et al.:2008; Terranova:2000:2004).

Drawing on a multiyear digital ethnography of an online filmmaking community, this paper accounts for the realisation of four crowdsourced films produced by geographically dispersed volunteers (professionals and amateurs) collaborating without established conventions to guide the cultural production. Specifically, the paper demonstrates that the divisions of labour underpinning these productions are constituted by a typology of five distinct participant orientations, and subsequently account for the implications of these on the circulation and generation of value (incl. social and symbolic capital). In doing so, the presentation contributes to our understanding of contemporary networked production, while providing further nuance to debates on what constitutes exploitation in crowdsourced culture.

Digital Humanitarianism - 'Big Data' and Knowledge Politics in Aid Contexts

Roth, S., Luczak-Roesch, M.

(University of Southampton)

Our paper considers the promises and perils of 'Big Data' in humanitarian contexts. 2012 has been labelled the 'year of Big Data', reflecting that crowd-sourcing, social and other digitally available data find increasing use in a broad range of diverse fields. One of these emerging fields is 'digital humanitarianism' which connects populations in regions affected by humanitarian disasters with spatially and socially distanced humanitarians. The Haiti Earthquake of 2010 is one of the prime examples of such collaboration. Digital humanitarianism has been adopted by various aid agencies and promises to improve humanitarian interventions through availability of information and quick deployment of aid.

However, critical disaster studies identify a number of risks putting too much trust in data produced through new information technologies. These include ontological and epistemological limitations as well as ethical issues. It is important to consider how these data are produced, for example who is using social media and how the use of social media reflects cultural contexts and changes during events. Furthermore, crowd-sourced data on platforms such as

Ushahidi might no longer be accessible to those who provided initially information in local languages once it has been translated into English, the lingua franca of humanitarianism. Storing tweets containing personal information provided in a situation of need in data bases raises questions concerning ethical issues and meaningful informed consent.

Thus, our paper addresses how and what kind of knowledge is produced and privileged by using 'Big Data' in humanitarian contexts and how it shapes aid relationships.

Social Divisions / Social Identities

W

HITEHALL

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Activist, Radical, Public: Sociology’s Alternative Futures?

Themelis, S., Vickers, T., Canaan J., Cowden S.

(University of East Anglia)

This panel brings together academics who theorise about action and/or actively pursue changes in academia and society. The aim of the panel is to create a forum for the discussion of the role of sociology in responding both to the economic and social crisis and the crisis of sociology itself. In tandem with the fringe event also organised by the

Activism in Sociology Forum, the panel will explore the meaning and purpose of activism and the tensions between

‘activist’, ‘radical’ and ‘public’ understandings of sociology. It will ask whether an ‘activist turn’ in sociology could offer a progressive alternative future to the discipline. These concerns about the future of sociology are raised against the backdrop of the marketisation of education and attendant neoliberal narratives and policies that focus on individual choice and responsibility, which hamper sociology's attention to social structures and blunt its radical edge. The panel seeks to engage both with the responses to the purportedly necessary but socially and economically catastrophic austerity and reform agendas necessitated by neoliberal capitalism but also with the drawbacks and criticisms against activism-driven sociology.

The structure of the session is as follows: presentation of the key themes (activist, radical, public); presentation of accounts informed by action by activist sociologists; discussion of the social and other benefits of activism; discussion of the political limits of activism and localised interventions; discussion of the role of sociology in fostering social change.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

162

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

The panel will consist of six speakers: Themelis, S. (organiser); Vickers, T. (organiser); (invited discussant 1) Canaan

J.; (invited discussant 2) Cowden S.; (invited discussants 3&4) 2 student activists from Birmingham University – awaiting confirmation from discussants 2:3 and 4.

The Politics of the Personal or the Personal Consequences of Politics: Stories of Self and Relationship

Transformation after Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement

Jackson, S., Petula, S. Y. H.

(University of York)

This paper presents data from focus group discussions with participants in and observers of the Umbrella Movement's

79 day occupation of central areas of Hong Kong. These discussions took place nearly six months after the end of the occupation and included both supporters and opponents of the movement, people of different ages and backgrounds.

We focus here on those who participated in or supported the occupation. The movement is conventionally represented as a failure in that it did not achieve its aim of fully democratic elections and caused fragmentation and polarization in

Hong Kong Society. A very different picture emerges from the stories told by our pro-democracy participants – one of personal transformation and changes in relationships with others. Here the success of the movement (or lack of it) is not measured in terms of concrete political gains but in terms of its consequences for personal life. Not all the stories told were positive, but all add to a more nuanced understanding of the aftermath the movement.

Mapping and Understanding Online Social Networking in the Development of Ethnic Political Re-Alignments:

Recognition and Identity in the Sikh Division of the English Defence League (EDL)

Vass, J., Whitmarsh, A.

(University of Southampton)

Following Honneth's work on 'recognition', recent theoretical studies of interaction between otherwise non-aligned groups in multicultural polities, in the European context, have begun to emphasise the problems of the 'misrecognition' between mainstream and ethnic minority groups (e.g. Dobbernack, Meer and Modood:2015). These concerns have raised questions about the the dynamics of social exchange and the roles of recognition and responsivity (Vass:2015) in managing non-aligned identities in otherwise aligned political groups. The insights gained from from this debate are developed in this paper drawing on our empirical research into the online formation of the

Sikh division of the English Defence League (EDL) on the social networking site Facebook: the latter is typically seen as an anti-integrationist, far right group and traditionally at odds with Sikhism as an integrated faith community. We report on the use of new techniques at the intersection of Digital Sociology and Web Science (Halford, Pope and

Weal:2013) to examine the status and dynamism of Sikh EDL in developing its unique identity in the context of a larger political group. Specifically, we deploy the Facebook Graph Application Program Interface (API) and Web scraping methods to explore the connectivity and the dynamics of exchange between mainstream EDL members and the political, faith and identity concerns of Sikh members. An analysis of key events which generate mutual engagement, responsivity and interest between the two groups is undertaken showing the central role of history and identity management in the development of mutual recognition.

Reclaiming Politics: Young Adult Muslim Demands for the Politics of Presence in a Democratic Deficit

Mustafa, A.

(University of Nottingham)

This paper presents the perspectives of young adult Muslim activists on mainstream politics to reveal how a strained relationship with the state structures the adoption of alternative and sub-political forms of participation. Based on a study of political and civic activism by young adult British Muslims, this paper highlights their shared concerns with other contemporary social movements that are seeking more direct and socially just forms of democracy. Participants' express demands for the kind of descriptive representation advocated by feminist and multicultural theorists to address their persistent marginalisation from British politics. These Muslim activists not only eschew mainstream political channels but are equally dismissive of more contentious and dissent-based forms of activism. This is not only due to fears of criminalisation and Islamophobia, which make the costs of expressing dissent much higher for young

Muslims post 9/11, but also due to the endemic failure of politics itself. Invoking crisis narratives of a democratic deficit and a legitimacy crisis of politics, young Muslims relate the failure of politics at the current time to the actions of immoral and self-interested politicians, as well as the power of the state to dominate and control both physical and mental aspects of citizen's lives. This creates conditions in which mainstream politics is seen as undermining political agency, creating a strong incentive to engage in alternative modes of action through cultural politics oriented towards reshaping society from below, by deploying persuasive strategies to re-engage passive citizens and reclaim politics for the people.

163 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Sociology of Education - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1A

Degrees of Gendered Distinction: Working Class Male Under-Graduates and their Complex Negotiations of

Masculinity

Waller, R.

(University of the West of England)

Against the backdrop of a perceived 'crisis of masculinity', this paper explores how working-class male undergraduates maintained, enhanced, and on occasion distanced themselves from hegemonic gendered-class identities. These gendered-classed identities include those aligned with the apparently contradictory behaviours associated with academic success and with 'laddism'. The continued maintenance of these identities were often against dominant social pressures, and at some personal and social cost to themselves. I show how their

'performance' of gender varied according to social contexts, notably between older pre-university friendships and newer 'student' and subsequent post-graduation relationships. The former sometimes involved the conscious policing of what Skeggs, Lawler and Waller have all called 'bourgeois pretentions', either by the student themselves or by others within their social milieu. Meanwhile the latter at times involved a dis-identification with longer established friendship ties and family networks. I also explore how these processes of gendered-classed identity and gender specific capital acquisition and mobilisation have altered since the completion of these young men's undergraduate studies in 2014, and their subsequent movement into and through the competitive graduate careers market. The paper concludes with reflections on the utility of current theories of masculinity in understanding the experiences of these young men. The data employed comes from focus group and one-to-one interviews on a Leverhulme Trustfunded longitudinal study of working- and middle-class undergraduates at Bristol's two universities (the Paired Peers study), which is following the same cohort of young people from when they entered university in 2010 until 2017.

Insiders on the Outside, Outsiders in the Inside: Performing Masculine Identities in Higher Education

Mountford, V.

(Newcastle University)

Whilst the Widening Participation agenda was premised on dramatically increasing the amount and range of individuals from different socio-economic backgrounds accessing university, this research sought to investigate what

'participation' entailed and what 'student experience' involved from the undergraduate perspective. This ESRCfunded, qualitative (PhD) research is equally relevant in the contemporary fixation on student engagement and what that means; how students embodying and performing different identities negotiate feelings of 'fitting in' and how this impacts on the nature and extent of such engagement. In this paper my focus is turned towards the performance of classed, male identities in two closely-situated institutions of different status in which different histories and connections to the locale (re)position these identities as differently fragmenting and connecting; as lives inside and outside the campus and student spaces counter/interact . Within these two sites, complex sociocultural codes operate to map distinctions within and between the sites and their students. Focusing on the dialogues of male students about their relative struggles to identify with the collective 'student' identity or feel 'part of the same boat' I highlight the way the economic, spatial, embodied and other sociocultural codes operate and are (re)activated and complexly negotiated provoking diverse engagements and student experiences.

The Performance of a Studious Working Masculinity in Higher Education

Ward, M.

(The Open University)

While there has been a significant debate around boys' educational 'underachievement' across the global north since the 1990s, very little work has been conducted around the difficulties and challenges facing white and BME young men who come from working-class backgrounds who display alternative performances of masculinity through academic success and become 'achieving boys'. Given the growth of the higher educational sector, and the widening participation agenda, this qualitative study sought to explore these issues in more detail. The paper reports on a study which was conducted at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada. Taking an intersectional approach to class, race and gender, this paper illustrates how these young men's masculinities were shaped and reshaped in the university context. The study also highlighted how these young men negotiated their masculinities in these spaces and then beyond them when they return to their home communities. For some young men their studious form of masculinity based on academic pursuits, was not seen as an essence of 'real' masculinity and reports of conflict and misunderstandings occurred between them and their parents and other family members around their qualifications.

For other young men who engaged with other pursuits at university beyond purely academic subjects, such as church

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

164

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

groups, fraternities and sports teams, a more flexible form of masculinity was displayed. . I argue that these studious, performances of young working-class masculinity offer a different way in which to view the university experience.

'You know I live in a council house and then other people say ‘oh some people on the other side of the borough live in a council house and we find it very novel’': Understanding Working-Class Men's Engagement with Undergraduate Sociology

Abbas, A., Ashwin P., McLean, M.

(University of Bath)

In this paper we explore longitudinal and mixed-method case-study data relating to three working-class men who have undertaken first degrees in four differently ranked sociology departments. Our aim is to demonstrate how sociology curricula, pedagogies and the wider university environment are incorporated into these students developing sense of identity during the three years of their studies. The case study data incorporates biographical and educational interviews carried out with the undergraduates over a period of 3 years and samples of their assessed work. There is also some video footage of seminars that they participated in. This close-up analysis of working-class men from different ethnic backgrounds, who are differently aged and have different (dis)abilities allows us insight into how they do\do not manage to integrate their wider personal experiences and identities into their understanding of sociology and their undergraduate and graduate identities. We also draw lessons from comparing them with the wider group of

31 case study students and consider their comparative empowerment in this discipline which is primarily studied by women. We also apply and develop the conceptual framework of the sociologist Basil Bernstein. The data for this paper is drawn from a research council funded study (ESRC grant no RES-062-23-1438).

Sociology of Religion - Special Event

W

HITEHALL

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Religious Identity, Sexual and Reproductive Norms and Practices

Page, S. J., Hayes, G., Lowe, P., Amakor, G.

(Aston University)

The three papers comprising this panel are concerned with how religion shapes specific choices over reproduction and intimacy, considering both private and public spheres. All papers assess the relationships between attitudes and behaviours, and how choices are made in diverse religious contexts.

Hayes and Lowe’s paper, ‘Religious Identity, Tactical Choice, and Inter-faith Boundary Marking in Current UK Anti-

Abortion Clinic Campaigns’ explores the relationship between participants’ confessional Catholic identity and the manifestation of very conservative religious attitudes to abortion in the public sphere. Of interest is the ways public activism is constructed, regulated and policed, and how identity is formulated through boundary-marking between groups.

Page’s paper, ‘Reproductive Choices and Religion: Views and Experiences of Religious Young Adults’ focuses on how participants negotiate the public and the private in making reproductive choices, in religious contexts that are often broadly perceived in prescriptive terms. However, participants’ choice-making cannot be directly read off from prescriptive religious edicts, but are instead negotiated in broader contexts.

Amakor’s paper, ‘Contraceptive Use by Unmarried Young Women in South-eastern Nigeria’ explores the relationship between religious norms and private behaviours regarding reproduction. Contraceptive use operates as a boundarymarker between different religious traditions, and this impacts on the possible choices open to participants, with potentially constraining outcomes when individuals lack access to the information and technology necessary to make certain reproductive choices.

Overall, this panel will contribute to crucial debates about the management of religion, sexuality and reproduction in public and private spaces.

Reproductive Choices and Religion: Views and Experiences of Religious Young Adults

Page, S. J.

(Aston University)

Religious institutions are often constructed as constraining spaces within which young adults make choices about their reproductive lives. Religious traditions with edicts around issues such as contraception, abortion and the impermissibility of sex before marriage are used as examples to perpetuate the idea that religious young people are bound by traditional codes, unable to exercise their free sexual expression. But religious young adults themselves

165 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

construct their values and experiences in a more complex and multi-layered manner, with much diversity regarding how they manage their reproductive choices. This paper will be based on multi-method research (questionnaires, interviews and video diaries) conducted with 18-25 year olds living in the UK who identified with various religious traditions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Sikhism). The findings highlight that religion is one factor that intersects with many others when reproductive choices are made - although religion can be a significant influence, this varies depending on the specific issue in hand. Here, focus will be given to two issues: the factors influencing the decision over whether to have sex or not, and the factors influencing plans for parenthood. Around half of the sample was committed to virginity until marriage, and this stance was often religiously motivated, but those who were sexually active and unmarried did not necessarily view this as incompatible with their religious views. Meanwhile, decisions around parenthood were much less tied to religion per se, with other factors (e.g. the status given to education and employability) playing a much larger role.

Religious Identity, Tactical Choice, and Inter-faith Boundary Marking in Current UK Anti-Abortion Clinic

Campaigns

Hayes, G.

(Aston University)

In England, although anti-abortion campaigns often claim to be multi-or non-faith based, activists are largely drawn from specific Christian groups, and organised in campaigns reflecting particular confessional identities. Previous work on anti-abortion activism has highlighted the use of highly-charged condensing symbols (such as graphic images of foetuses) to create strong emotional responses in non-engaged publics and recruit strangers into campaigns to limit abortion rights. In Britain, the use of such 'invasive' tactics outside clinics has often drawn media attention, but has been explicitly rejected by the predominantly Catholic 40 Days for Life campaigners, raising questions of the relationship between religious identity, tactical choice, and campaign impact.

Focusing on the 2015 March for Life and 40 Days for Life clinic campaigns, we argue that, in the British socio-cultural context, the tactical use or rejection of graphic condensing symbols is less a function of an externally-oriented public engagement strategy than of inter-faith boundary marking between Catholic and non-Catholic groups. We draw on participant observation of and interviews with participants in the 40 Days campaign, as well as content analysis of evaluation forms about encountering clinic actions completed by bpas service users. Here, the evidence suggests that for women entering abortion clinics, it is the presence of activists outside clinics, rather than their precise conduct, which produces strong emotional reactions. Perhaps ironically therefore, tactical choice may therefore be relatively unimportant in attempts to persuade women entering clinics to defect from their course of action.

Contraceptive Use by Unmarried Young Women in South-eastern Nigeria: Views of Church Members and

Experiences of Unmarried Young Mothers

Amakor, G.

(Aston University)

Many churches in South-eastern Nigeria do not support the use of contraceptives, particularly for unmarried young women, and this has been seen as a reason for low levels of contraceptive knowledge, access and use among this cohort. As elsewhere, Christianity in South-eastern Nigeria is multi-faceted; hence there are similarities and differences in the views of members of various church denominations on contraceptive use. This research has sought to investigate the extent to which religious conservative norms are important in the decisions about contraception and to examine the different positions of Catholic, Anglican and Pentecostal churches on the use of contraceptives.

Using data from qualitative interviews and focus group discussions, this presentation will look at commentaries from unmarried young mothers as well as church members. It will highlight religious and socio-cultural reasons regarding the extent to which church members such as the clergy, church workers, and laity supports the use of contraceptives by unmarried young women. From the commentaries of unmarried young mothers, this presentation will also emphasise how the teachings of their various churches on contraceptives impacted participants sexual decision making.

This paper will argue that unmarried young women face unequal outcomes regarding their knowledge, access and use of contraceptive as a result of variable views of different church denominations.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

166

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

Theory

S

TEELHOUSE

1, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

'The battle for society': The Durkheimian reception of British sociology in l'Année Sociologique (1898-1942)

Rocquin, B.

(University of Strasburg)

This paper deals with the reception of British sociology in France (exclusively within the Durkheimian school) in the

Année sociologique journal, the main publication of the Durkheimians.

Through the use of 20 volumes, which represent about 10:000 pages of original articles and recensions of books published across the world in sociology, published between 1898 and 1942, we show that 1) the Durkheimians were very critical of British sociologists because they were inspired by biology, psychology and idealism, which were precisely what the French were opposed to. 2) The reception of Durkheimian sociology in Britain was subject to domestic and strategic considerations: the will to establish a properly British version of sociology against the French.

3) Through an empirical study of the journal's content, it appears that British sociology was largely present in the

Année sociologique and far from being disregarded, contrary to what the Durkheimians themselves held.

We conclude that British sociology was far from being acknowledged as 'a failure' as still largely done in its text-book presentation, but that it lost the battle for society at the time, i.e. the battle for the world definition of sociology. This had long-term intellectual consequences that can still be felt today.

Symbolic Violence and Legitimate Knowledge Production: How to Mention the Unmentionable?

Burton, S., Turbine, V.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

Canonized social theory is frequently understood as that which is the most universal or generalizable – its value is often located in the way it works outside of 'identity politics' or particular specialisms. This position, however, tacitly implies thinking – and being able to think – from positions of hegemonic power. Owing to this, the epistemological and ontological foundations of critical theoretical knowledge production rest on very particular ideas of legitimacy, value, and the ensuing relationship with structural social positions and identities.

This paper brings together methodological reflections on writing about experiences of sexism in academia with ethnographic research on the production of legitimate knowledge. During the course of both projects the weight of

(il)legitimate theoretical positions became fiercely apparent, and proved forceful in demarcating the possibilities of writing about/as risky subjects.

The paper begins with reflections on the relationship between (subjective) position, value, and theoretical knowledgemaking, before considering the methodological issues invoked by the privileged, and ultimately patriarchal, ontological foundations of social theory knowledge. We conclude by drawing out how attempting to make these problems visible does not necessarily lead to recognition, but rather the workings of the neoliberal academy exacerbate and escalate the problems of existing structural hierarchies.

The Quantification of Human Value

Steed, C.

(University of Southampton)

THIS ABSTRACT TIES IN WITH A BOOK LAUNCH.

'The Quantification of Human Value' shows how our economic and social arrangements damage our sense of self and the value and worth of the human.

The great questions of the day are questions of value. Our value and worth are contingent upon what we earn, what we own and upon the construction of our identity in the pecking order of contemporary society.

Amidst the astounding technology, niche consumption and financialisation that characterises much of the globe, the prevailing mood music is that the only values we can only usefully measure are expressed in terms of economics. The near vacuum of ideals means that constantly, incessantly, we are back to numbers, back to the balance sheet.

How, to invoke Oscar Wilde, did we end up knowing the price of everything but the value of nothing? A steady stream of theorists from Hegel and Marx argued that the contractual model is not appropriate for thinking about human relationships.

The book summarised here considers three main channels through which human value is embedded and reproduced.

167 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

How did we end up with a market society and not just a market economy? There is an intriguing resonance between economic value and the value of the human. Global economic downturn was a crisis for both. We note battlefield casualties of our economic and social order. The rhetorical device is to put capitalism on the couch to probe it's dysfunctionalities. Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital is noted and problematised.

Work, Employment and Economic Life

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

123

The Rocky Road of First and Second-generation Muslim Women into the British Labour Market

Khattab, N., Hussein, S.

(Doha Institute for Graduate Studies and University of Bristol)

This paper contributes to the growing literature on Muslim women in Western labour markets by utilizing recent data obtained from the British Labour Force Survey (LFS 2002-2013) to analyse economic activity, obtaining professional and managerial jobs (salariat jobs) and earnings from work among Muslim women in Britain. The paper draws on theories of human capital and acculturation, but also on theories of colour and cultural racism to demonstrate how race, religion and migration status are likely to create a hierarchy of disadvantage. The analysis confirms that Muslim women face various penalties when joining the UK labour market. It shows that such penalties are significantly different according to both sub-ethnic groups and generation. The case of Muslim-Black women demonstrates the multiple disadvantages these women face when gender, race and religious affiliation interact regardless of generation or presumed level of integration in the host society. This conforms how different social markers have contingent relationships to multiple determinants and outcomes.

Understanding Unequal Labor Market Participation among Bedouin-Muslim Professional Women in Israel

Abu-Rabia-Queder, S.

(Ben-Gurion University)

Unequal labor market participation of Muslim minority women is subject to intersecting barriers referred to in the literature as 'ethnic penalty,' 'gender penalty' and 'Muslim penalty'.

The current study based on semi-structured interviews with 50 college-educated Bedouin women, employed in both

Arab/Muslim-Bedouin and Jewish-Israeli labor markets, reveals a fourth barrier -'tribal penalty'. I argue that this 'tribal penalty' intersects with class, gender and ethno-colonial penalties to create 'tribal contracts', often reinforced by oppressive Jewish-Israeli power structures.

The 'tribal contracts' reinforced by ethno-colonized power structures, reproduce the marginalization of Bedouin women as both professionals and as clients; as professionals, Bedouin women, are trapped between their professional and tribal codes, thus preventing their clients from receiving full and equal treatment and thereby placing the most vulnerable population (mainly at-risk Bedouin women and children) at further risk.

As educated-professional women, these intersecting oppressive powers deny them equal participation in public employment; thus continue to reproduce the marginalization and exclusion of the highest status women in Bedouin society in Israel.

Employment inequality and labor discrimination in this context, is manifested in the intersection of Israeli society's colonialist - racialized practices and use of Bedouin women's cultural representation to preserve power relations between the Arab minority and the Jewish majority in the public sphere, as well as in the tribal system's attempts to reproduce patriarchal power relations and hegemonic rule over Arab women in the public sphere.

Can Work-Life Balance Policies Challenge Cultural Norms and Gender Roles? Initial Exploration of Flexibility in the Financial Sector

Griffiths, H.

(University of Warwick)

Flexible working is still highly gendered and constructed as a women's issue, with policies generally designed to facilitate the work-life balance of those with children. The Children and Families Act 2014 departs from this, offering all employees the right to request flexible working.

However, this renewed work-life balance agenda conflicts with the 'ideal worker model' valued in many workplaces, particularly within the finance sector, and traditional gender roles at work and in the home are continually reconstructed because of inflexible working practices.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

168

Thursday 7 April 2016, 13:30 - 15:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

5

The government believes that the right to request flexible working will change entrenched gender norms around paid and unpaid labour, but if organisational cultures resist, wider social changes could falter. This research aims to understand how masculinised working cultures influence employees' work-life balance choices and opportunities to work flexibly.

Using mixed methods, the study will explore how cultural values in the finance industry impact the shift toward flexible working and gender equality.

This paper will discuss the initial findings of quantitative data analysis which explore the current landscape of flexibility and work-life balance within the finance sector. Analysis will identify relationships between flexible arrangements and variables such as gender, education, occupation, and social attitudes. This data will then be used to structure the qualitative data collection by informing sample selection and formulating interview questions.

As well as adding to the academic debate around work-life balance policy and practice, this research will guide and inform organisations who are transitioning toward flexible working, within the finance industry and more widely.

The Use of Mega-Events to Improve Working Conditions in Supply Chains: An Analysis of Responsible

Employment Policies and their Critics at the London 2012 and Rio 2016 Olympic Games

Timms, J.

(Coventry University)

This paper focuses on the developing ethical profile of mega-events. The global exposure and prestige involved in events such as the Olympics and World Cup, create a high value brand that nations and companies compete to invest in. Two less researched aspects of this are firstly, the opportunities mega-events present for raising standards of employment, and secondly, the use of mega-events by campaigners attempting to draw attention to exploitative conditions. The governance and organisational structures of mega-events, as well as the competition to be involved, create the possibility of selecting partners, sponsors and suppliers according to ethical criteria. For example, at the

London 2012 Olympics only companies signed up to the Ethical Trading Initiative Base Code on labour were able to supply the Games. Activists see value in targeting mega-events as a platform for protest to both highlight bad practice and to promote good practice, with some campaigners working with event authorities. This paper presents analysis of the gains made at London 2012 and whether these have transferred to Rio 2016, based on documentary analysis of standards, policies and reports, as well as interviews with officials, activists and labour representatives. It is argued that unless change is instigated by global organising bodies, gains will need to be fought for again from each host nation. I assess whether the Olympic Agenda 2020 indicates a move towards this and consider the challenges of creating an employment legacy from mega-events which raises expectations of labour standards, as well as positively impacts worker experience.

169 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA KUCHA SESSIONS

Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption - PK

Families and Relationships

Frontiers 1 - SE

Medicine, Health and Illness

Methodological Innovations - SE

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1 - PK

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2 - SE

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1 - PK

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2 - SE

Sociology of Education 1 - PK

Sociology of Education 2

Sociology of Religion

Theory

Work, Employment and Economic Life - SE

Room

G63, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 141

Steelhouse 2, CAMS, Main Building

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Stafford 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 145

Conference Centre Room 127

Great Hall, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 144

Steelhouse 3, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 3

Whitehall 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 139

Conference Centre Room 1A

Conference Centre Rooms 135 -137

Whitehall 3, CAMS, Main Building

Steelhouse 1, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 123

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 1

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Opening up the 'Forbidden City': Taiwanese Cultural Workers in Beijing

Tseng, Y. F.

(National Taiwan University)

This paper presents a study on Taiwanese migrants working in cultural industry in Beijing, China, focusing on how they are engaged in self-appointed missions to 'open-up' the industrial cultures in their trade . After years of closing its door to outside world during Mao's years, Beijing became more open to cultural influences from abroad especially during the years preceding Olympic Games of 2008. Such changes in culture mindset have attracted 'creative class' from all over the world. Taiwanese is part of this talent flow.

Cultural workers, being engaged in producing semiotic and aesthetic contents, often involve attempts to influence social values. Taking the perspective proposed by Allen Scott (2010:119), I investigate cultural workers' in their

'reflexive interactions between individual expressions of creativity and social milieu'. I argue that what matters the most in social milieu is Beijing's being both a traditional political capital and a rebranded cultural capital of China.

The research for this article is based on 22 interviews with film producers, artists, writers, architects, publishers, fashion media, and journalists. This paper presents findings to show how Taiwanese cultural workers interpret their dual role as 'advanced' outsiders and cultural insiders, and their struggle in bringing 'modernities' into this forbidden city. The findings of this research confirm an argument put forward by Harvey Molotch (2002) that place plays a significant role in cultural workers' imaginations for a fit between themselves and cultural products they produce, and as a consequence, cultural workers move to places where they can find such fit.

Up in the Air? Transnational Repertoires, Routines and Reflexivity of Hypermobile Professionals

Devadason, R., McKechnie, R.

(Bath Spa University)

In this paper, we examine how people with intensive work-travel regimes, who are required to relocate frequently for work, manage their heightened mobility. The strategies they develop to negotiate interactions and encounters in unfamiliar contexts (within and beyond the workplace) are analysed here to explore how they adapt to new settings.

Crossing borders routinely and relocating for work appear to accentuate reflexive thinking amongst these women and men about fundamental questions about how to live and work. We explore the experiences of these actors and their accounts of how their lives have unfolded or will unfold. How do they manage the practical and emotional aspects of constant mobility? How do they create homes, families and relationships, and establish routines that constitute their day-to-day lives? This study draws on survey data and interviews with executives and professionals employed by two case study organisations – a multinational corporation and a UN agency – in order to address these themes. The analysis illustrates how these employees develop - what we call - transnational repertoires, which are shaped by their institutional contexts, the specific places that they find themselves living and working, as well as their own aspirations and values. These repertoires become orienting features of everyday life that enable professionals and executives to create coherence amidst the otherwise disconcerting consequences of (hyper)mobility. The personal dilemmas and choices facing these actors are an important part of the crucible forging new practices, emerging forms of sociality, family and relationships in an increasingly mobile world.

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

141

Anti-Café, Pay-Per-Minute Café, or Post-Café? A New Type of Urban Public Space in Russia and the UK

Kviat, A.

(University of Warwick)

In January 2014, top media outlets across the globe have reported on London's first pay-per-minute café called

Ziferblat. It was the first British branch of the international chain originating from Russia, where the flagship Ziferblat venue was founded in 2011. Aspiring to create 'a space of freedom', young Moscowite Ivan Mitin came up with an

173 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

idea of a gathering place where people pay only for the time they spend there on various social and cultural activities, with free drinks and nibbles. Since 2012, Ziferblat's look-alikes have been proliferating in Russia and other post-soviet countries. Shortly after the Ziferblat's opening, one of Mitin's successors coined the term 'anti-café' that has become the most common designation of such venues in Russian-speaking countries. Meanwhile, by the end of 2015 Ziferblat has opened fifteen more branches, including three in the UK as the London locale was afterwards followed by

Manchester and Liverpool.

I undertake a case study of Ziferblat to explore how such places both reflect and challenge existing social research on urban public space and café culture. Starting from the historical background of anti- (or pay-per-minute) cafés' appearance, I will then present the results of a three-level socio-spatial analysis of British and Russian Ziferblat venues, considering their representations, physical environment, and social practices. Finally, after putting this case in a wider context of current debates on sociability, community, and commodification in urban public space, I will discuss what is sociologically new in these places and whether they can be regarded as 'post-cafes'.

The Role of Neighbourhood in Mothers’ Everyday Leisure Practices: An Ethnographic Study on Two

Neighbourhoods of Bursa/Turkey

Demirbas, G.

(University of Glasgow)

This paper is based upon the qualitative research conducted in two neighbourhoods (a relatively deprived neighbourhood and a gated enclave) in Bursa, Turkey and it focused on the role of neighbourhood in mothers' everyday leisure practices. The neighbourhood is understood as an urban spatiality that is composed of socioeconomic and cultural features of its residents and physical amenities of the built environment. It has an essential role in mothers' lives in a society where motherhood is defined with altruism and dedication of a mother's own life to her child/ren.

The ethnographic data used in this paper is gathered for my PhD project and it consists of 20 walk and talk interviews:9 focus group meetings, and participant observations on various leisure locations such as walking trails, playgrounds and home gatherings. The preliminary findings of the research show that while the gender roles and enshrined motherhood in society draw a parallel between the leisure experiences of mothers from different socioeconomic backgrounds, the neighbourhood capabilities they live in tend to be affective up to a certain extent in variation of dedicating time and energy to certain activities around children and thereby mothers' and children's leisure and well-being.

Star Architects and the Global City: Exploring the Case of the Tokyo Olympics 2020

Tamari, T.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

Landmark architecture has often been discussed in terms of reflecting national identity and symbolizing historical narratives and memories. Architecture therefore plays an important role in realizing such complex notions in the very materiality of the building design. Hence, architects could be seen as identifying themselves as not just interpreters of social narratives, but as social engineers too. Yet, since the great successes of the highly artistic spectacular buildings

(e.g. Bilbao Guggenheim Museum), such iconic architecture has come to be acknowledged as a global cultural art form, these successful architects have become identified as iconic artists. This type of architect has become in strong demand to produce 'signature' buildings for global mega events – such as the Olympics. The aim of the paper is to examine the negative socio-cultural implications of Olympic city design by analyzing how the increasing power and prestige of star architects could be seen as a consequence of global capitalism. In addition I explore how global mega events (in this case the Olympics) are driven by increasingly competitive national branding and the flow of dominant financial power at the expense of fragmented space-specific histories and destabilized local communities. The paper takes Zaha Hadid's controversial architectural design of the main Olympic stadium for the Tokyo Olympics 2020, in order to explore the complex political relationship between the power of the star architect as 'an artist' and the recreation of Tokyo as a global city, as part of the national branding project.

Making Transnational Workers, from Restrictive Policies to Affective Politics: The Case of Work Migration from Romania in the City of London

Lovin, C. L.

(University of Strathclyde)

Contemporary work migration from Romania is a phenomenon rooted in a complex history of shifting geopolitical borders. Romania's pre-1989 policy of closed borders to out-migration was dropped, only to be replaced with a diverse nation-state specific mozaic of selective restrictions targeting the in-migration of Romanians. This paper traces the effects of out- and in-migration policies on the experiences of settlement of professional and low-skilled workers in

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

174

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

the city of London, UK. Whereas global cities thrive on transnational labor, London offers an interesting case-study due to UK's particular positionality to Schengen space, as well as to UK's recent orientation toward the most restrictive immigration policies in Europe. This paper combines policy analysis with interviews and media analysis. First I outline the UK immigration policy environment that has shaped the patterns of work migration from Romania over the past two decades. Notably, the articulation of such policy frameworks and the repeated delay in lifting immigration restrictions, was enabled by strong affective politics that front-staged fear and loss of control over the nation's body politics, simultaneously legitimizing the racialization and the gendering of labor markets via xeno-racist arguments.

The second part of the paper engages with the voices of Romanian workers as well as with the work of Romanian journalists publishing in online and print newspapers servicing London's diasporic Romanian community, in an effort to analyze the impact of these policies on their professional, political, social and cultural integration.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption - Pecha Kucha

S

TEELHOUSE

2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Men's Roller Derby as a Transformative Practice

Fletcher, D.

(University of Sheffield)

The grassroots sport of roller derby has been theorised as a women-only space, which enables female athletes to experiment with their gendered identities and subvert gender norms. Although studies have included male audiences' responses, no data yet exists on men's experiences of playing the sport. In light of the growing popularity of co-ed

(mixed gender) play, in the wake of the fourth Men's European Championships, and in anticipation of the second

Men's World Cup, it is increasingly important to also foreground men's experiences, and begin to explore how roller derby offers similar opportunities for men. Using data collected from an initial pilot survey into attitudes to men's roller derby boutfits (outfits worn for bouts), and ongoing ESRC-funded participant observation of a UK men's roller derby team, this paper explores the possibilities for roller derby to offer a transformatory, liberatory experience for men: within the traditional context of sport, which defines athletic identities and performance very narrowly, roller derby offers men significantly more freedom to succeed in different ways, develop positive relationships with athletic

(feminist) women, and to express emotion without fear. This suggests that potential exists for more egalitarian sporting practices.

'Gambling is rife in football': A Sociological Analysis of the Leisure Lives of Professional Football Players

Law, G.

(University of Chester)

Drawing upon the concepts of figurational sociology, this paper examines issues of money that are central to professional footballers' workplace experiences. Based on semi-structured interviews with 34 current and former professional football players, from international and Premiership levels through to conference national division, results indicate that gambling plays an important role in the leisure time of a professional footballer. Players gamble on different activities as a way of relieving the boredom on journeys to away games and after training on pre-season tours. Footballers use this as a 'quest for excitement' (Elias & Dunning:1986) in an environment where, contrary to popular opinion, they get easily bored because many of their actions are heavily regulated and constrained. In addition, gambling is one way of demonstrating wealth and power in an environment where wages are rarely discussed – they are, in fact a taboo subject. Gambling has been a constant feature in interviews with players from different eras and is part of their social habitus, but the nature of the gambling has changed related to the development of technology. An unintended outcome of this development has been that significant others have a lack of awareness of potential gambling problems that can arise for players within the figuration of a football club.

Families and Relationships

G11 B

YNG

K

ENDRICK

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

The Use and Value of Group Support for Young Fathers

Hanna, E.

(Leeds Beckett University)

This paper will explore the use and value of group based support for young fathers. Young men who are fathers often have a strong desire to be 'good dads' but often find accessing appropriate support for their parenting endeavours

175 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

challenging, with parent and child activities often being marketed for mother and child. Young men may also not have peers who have children, thus may also lack this dimension of support within their lives as young parents. This paper then explores qualitative research about two group based support projects for young dads. These groups are substantively different, with one group offering more intensive individual support from a young dads worker as well as group based activities for dads and their children, the other offers a practical project (build a bike) for young men to work on together. The paper will then present findings from this research, detailing both the perspectives of key stakeholders about the use and value that they perceive young men find in these projects, and crucially exploring the perspectives of young fathers themselves about 'what works' in these projects. The secondary impacts on young men's wellbeing and parenting approaches will also be explored. This paper then argues that group support for young fathers is a valuable way to bring young men together, foster peer support and that tailoring support to young men who are fathers can have wider social benefits in terms of their, and their children's, wellbeing.

Intimate Fatherhood and The Social Construction of Love

Macht, A.

(The University of Edinburgh and The Centre for Research for Families and Relationships)

In the current sociological literature, the subject of the love shared between parents and children has not yet been addressed, mostly because of the scientifically daunting task of discussing a subjective emotional experience.

However, according to the emotional reflexivity theory (Burkitt:2014) far from being solitary inner experiences, emotions are socially constructed between people.

In particular, the relationship between fathers and children considered from the point of view of father's involvement in care (Miller:2010), and reframed according to intimacy theory (Dermott:2008) has ignored the social construction of fathers' emotionality. Thus, the current research looked into father's conceptions regarding the love they feel for their children and how they think about parenting and expressing love in the family.

Presenting results from my research of 47 qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sample of middle- and workingclass Romanian and Scottish fathers, I will discuss how father's embeddedness in a particular class, culture and family configuration guides them to adopt certain forms of emotionality. This entails not necessarily the verity of father's accounts of loving, or the actual emotion they might feel towards their children, but how they choose to describe the emotions they experience, and what social resources they draw from. Fathers seem to adopt the desirable 'intimate fathering' discourse in maintaining close relationships with their children, even if over-invested in their breadwinner roles. I argue that investigating love from the perspective of fathers, gives researchers a new way of exploring intimate inequalities.

Frontiers - Special Event

S

TAFFORD

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

An Editor’s Eye: Sociology and 50 Years of Editing Sociology

Murji, K.

(The Open University)

This session is the current Sociology Editors main contribution to the 50th anniversary events of the journal at the

Annual Conference. The session draws on our own and previous Editors’ experiences to reflect on the ways in which the content of Sociology, across several decades, works as an index of the state of sociology, and anticipates some of the future turns in the discipline.

The speakers are as follows:

Liz Stanley [Co-editor of Sociology: 1991-94]

Maggie O’Neill [Co-editor of Sociology: 2000-02]

Graham Crow [Co-editor of Sociology: 2006-08]

Chairs/Discussants: Karim Murji and Sarah Neal [Current co-Editors of Sociology]

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

176

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

Medicine, Health and Illness

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

145

'I'm seeing the quack to have some jungle juice for my morbid growth': How Different Stakeholders Talk

About Cancer Care

Rivas, C.

(University of Southampton)

Background - There is increasing recognition of the importance of patient experience surveys (PES) in informing the delivery of good healthcare. Within these, PES freetext comments are a rich resource, but underused because they are traditionally processed using conventional thematic content analysis which is resource hungry and time consuming. We are developing a way of rapidly processing freetext comments that maintains the richness of the raw data.

Method - We are using 'text engineering' to processes the text using natural language processing (NLP) rules, modifying the software so it recognises the mixed grammatical constructions of survey freetext comments. We have also developed a lexicon for the software based on the vocabulary and metaphors used by the different stakeholders in the patient experience journey. To find these out we developed a paper and web-based directed freetext survey using healthcare sites and networks, as a form of focussed crowd-sourcing. As well as providing us with information on how to modify the software, these data are a rich resource in themselves.

Findings - Our paper considers these data as a global whole and in terms of similarities and differences in metaphors for and conceptualisations of cancer and cancer care between the different stakeholder groups of patients, carers, healthcare clinicians and NHS managers. Our consequent recommendations aim to reduce the social distance between patients and their carers and healthcare professionals and lead to better care.

Reaching out to African Caribbeans about Cancer: Content Analysis of UK Cancer Charity Advertisement

Mogaji, E., Aririguzoh, S. A.

(University of Bedfordshire)

Recent research shows that African Caribbeans are less aware of the warning signs of cancer than their white counterpart, highlighting the importance of creating awareness and publicity in reaching out to the public. This research aims to examine the extent to which African Caribbeans are being portrayed and featured in advertisements creating awareness about cancer in the UK. 189 television advertisements of top 10 cancer charity organisations in

UK between January and July 2015 were content analysed to get insight to the level of portrayal. The coding systems observe the content of advertisement, identifying the presence of African Caribbeans used as models in creating awareness about cancer or survivors sharing their experiences. To guarantee the objectivity and reliability of the results, two individuals served as coders and were independent of each other. The result shows that the presence of

African Caribbean characters in advertisement and cancer survivors sharing their experiences was insignificant, creating the impression that either African Caribbeans are not being affected by cancer or that they need not be informed about it. An example is melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer which is often considered a white person's disease. Dark people as well can get cancer. This study makes an important contribution to the study of health promotions, especially within a diversified country. Characters from the African Caribbean ethnic group should be incorporated into marketing communication materials and allowed to share their stories and experience to reach out to individuals from such ethnic background.

Health and the Journey to Adulthood: A Narrative Analysis of Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis, Asthma and

No Chronic Condition

Gladwell, D., Owen, J., West, N.

(University of Sheffield)

Adolescence is a period of intense change; individuals experience rapid physical, psychological and social development. Despite the substantial transitions involved during this period, studies focussing on the illness experience of adolescents typically conceptualise the impact of chronic health in a static manner. Drawing on sociological theory of the body this study empirically investigates how a chronic health condition impacts the individual's biography; dynamically disrupting their journey from childhood to adulthood. The article draws on biographical narrative interviews with 23 young people, aged 13-15, who had cystic fibrosis, severe asthma or no chronic condition. To enable a fuller analysis of the dynamics between health difficulties and the individuals' lived experiences 12 of the participants were re-interviewed. The participants' biographies challenged current static conceptualisations of the impact health in adolescence - supporting the importance of conceptualising the lived life in

177 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

a dynamic manner. The research indicated that an individual's health, body, self-identity, relationships, and aspirations are all dynamically entwined. The impact of a chronic health condition on the body's capacities makes it harder to increasingly time spent with friends, renegotiate relationships with parents and pursue aspirations. Nevertheless, the young people interviewed continued to exert their agency; many of those with chronic conditions managed to gradually surmount the limitations imposed on their bodies by their health difficulties. Growing up is complicated, a health condition makes the same journey harder. The implications of the study are that individuals with chronic conditions may require increased psychosocial support to equip them as they make this journey.

Losing Touch: The Haptic in the Lived Experience of Motor Neurone Disease

Allen-Collinson, J., Pavey, A.

(University of Lincoln)

Currently, there is somewhat of a research lacuna with regard to sociological phenomenological research into the lived-experience of motor neurone disease (MND), a terminal, neurodegenerative disease where the motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord gradually diminish in number until lost entirely. Based on data from a three-year qualitative research project undertaken in the UK and Australia, involving interviews and email correspondence with

42 participants clinically diagnosed with MND, in this paper we explore from a sociological-phenomenological perspective our participants' in-depth accounts of their own lived-body experiences of this disease. Calls have been made for sociological researchers to examine and analyse more fully and deeply the sensory dimension of the livedbody, including within health and illness studies, and this paper contributes to this newly developing corpus. As sociology – and the social sciences in general - has been accused of a high degree of ocularcentrism, in this paper we explore the haptic dimension of the illness experience. Touch, and particularly the loss of key elements of the haptic, emerged clearly in participants' narratives. Here we focus on two key themes identified by participants as salient in their changed mode of being-in-the-world with MND: (i) losing touch: the loss of certain forms of touch within MND; and (ii) unwelcome touch by medical staff.

Methodological Innovations - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

127

The Archive Project: Archival Research in the Social Sciences

Moore, N.

(University of Edinburgh)

This panel introduces a new book, The Archive Project: Archival Research in the Social Sciences (in press:2016;

Ashgate), which originated from a 2013 BSA panel. The Archive Project is concerned with the methodology of archival research in the social sciences. It has been written in the context of the ‘archival turn’, the vast surge of interest in archives, memory and traces of the past that has occurred among both popular and academic audiences over the last few decades. ‘Methodology’ includes method in the sense of techniques of investigation (although it is by no means confined to this), theory of both a middle-range and a more abstract social theory kind, and an over-arching framework organised around some key principles. The panel consists of the four co-authors briefly outlining the contributions of different chapters, as well as providing an introduction to the principles underpinning The Archive Project which are at once political, ethical and intellectual, and in the context of the book’s contents we present and discuss them under the broad heading of a feminist archival sensibility. Starting with the core idea of ‘the trace’, they will concern noise and having fun in archival research, narratives of archival entanglements, doing things with time, and boundary objects in community archive projects.

Weaving Archival Imaginaries: Researching Community Archives

Moore, N.

(University of Edinburgh)

This presentation turns attention to the process of making an archive as itself a site of research. The aim is to expand ideas about what an archive is and who archivists can be by exploring the sometimes blurry line between archival research processes and products in relation to the formation of a contemporary archive. I approach these matters through a particular community archive I have been involved in, Feminist Webs, an archive of feminist youth work in the north-west of England. In writing about a grassroots community archive, I seek to extend archival research encounters beyond formal and official archives, and to encourage more engagement with the extensive and wideranging domain of community archives, which offer a rich seam of valuable resources for researchers. In particular I offer a range of concepts for archival research, drawing in particular from Susan Leigh Star’s work, on ‘boundary

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

178

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

objects’ and ‘boundary infrastructures’. To these concepts, I add ‘archival webs’, ‘archival times’ and ‘archival imaginaries’. For me tracing how archives have traversed the boundaries of academia and communities, tracing the genealogies of archives, can help expand our archival imaginaries and thus multiply the possible sites of knowledge production.

Noise in the Archive! Having Fun Doing Archival Research

Stanley, L., Moore, N., Salter, A., Tamboukou, M.

(University of Edinburgh)

Archival research has been seen largely in ‘black box’ terms – something happens, but what this is isn’t specified or even detailed. In the social sciences, a ton of methods books appear on the same old tired topics year after year – but in spite of the considerable amount of archival research that social scientists do, there is generally little to nothing published on archives and archival research. The absence of appropriate guides, however, had mystified and terrified many beginning archival researchers, faced with the prevailing rule of ‘silence in the archives’. Against this, my presentation – and also my chapter in the book – is concerned with the noise of doing archival research, with the fun as well as hard work involved, and with exploring some working practices that are helpful in getting to grips with the vast plenitude that is archival data. What I am proposing, and will sketch out in the presentation, is not a recipe for

‘how to do it’, not another set of rules, but some practical things for researchers to try out and which can be bent and or broken, supplemented or even abandoned. They provide a handy way into some specifics of what can be done, at what stage, and with what kinds of results, and involve some hard, focused but also very productive ways of working.

Welcome to the world of extreme archiving – it’s more adrenalin-rushing than abseiling, snow-boarding or deep-sea diving AND you get publications out of it!

Narrative Sensibility in Archival Research: Genealogies and Rhythmanalysis

Tamboukou, M.

(University of East London)

In this presentation I highlight the importance of narrative sensibility in archival research by configuring the archive as a process and as an event. In doing so I make a synthesis of Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis with Foucault’s genealogical analytics and Arendt’s take on narratives. My approach draws on archival research at the New York Public Library with the papers of two women garment workers active in the American labour movement in the first half of the twentieth century. What I argue is that space, time and matter are crucial not only in our understanding of how an archive becomes, but also in how the researcher and the archive create an assemblage that fuses divisions and separations between the subjects and objects of the research and further problematises a range of dualisms, such as mind/body, texts/readers, reason/experience, memory/imagination, reality/representation, in short, the world as it is and the world as we perceive it.

Reading Time Backwards? Archival Research and Temporal Order

Salter, A., Moore, N., Stanley, L., Tamboukou, M.

(University of Cambridge)

Temporality is foundational to archives, their histories, contents and carrying out archival research. But should archival researchers always engage with the complexities of the temporal order, with how events, experiences and theirrepresentations are arranged in time? Drawing on my chapter in The Archive Project (soon to be published with

Ashgate), in my presentation I overview why is it important and what is involved in using temporality in a methodological way to ‘read the archive’. I draw on Paul Ricoeur’s writings around narrativity and temporality to conceptually anchor the discussion of two archival projects: my doctoral research working on the Mass Observation

Archive’s (MOA) collections, and my role as postdoctoral Research Associate on the Olive Schreiner Letters Project, working collaboratively on collections worldwide. I used these examples to show how a focused attention to temporal order can provide an organising structure for archival research; how it can shape the conduct of such research from its inception, and also frame the archival research process when looking back from the viewpoint of the ‘products’ – a thesis, article and so on – that a project has produced. Intending archival researchers may wish to ask whether times and temporalities operate in the archival ‘Wonderland’ they are scrutinising as elsewhere and to what interpretive effect; my presentation will provide some useful tips for operationalising these concerns.

Chair: Rosalind Edwards (University of Southampton)

179 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1 - Pecha Kucha

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Understanding Marriage-Related Migration among Mainland Chinese Migrants in England

Wong, W. M.

(University of Oxford)

While there are many research addressing marriage-related migration pertaining to East Asian migrants elsewhere, there is a lack of research concentrating on Mainland Chinese's marriage-related migration, particularly in England.

Most available researches regarding marriage-related migration in this region is devoted to South Asian populations.

However Charsley et al. (2012) postulated that Chinese in Britain might represent the most diverse constitution of marriage-related migration in comparison with other East Asian migrants. Thus, this article attempts to uncover the various ways marriage-related migration manifest, unique to Mainland Chinese migrants in England.

Meaning Matters: An Empirical Analysis Into Public Denotations of the Label ‘Strangers’ and their

Relationship with General Ethnic Prejudice

Spruyt, B.

(Vrije Universiteit Brussel)

Survey research on ethnic prejudice often relies on statements focusing on generic labels such as 'immigrants',

'strangers' or 'foreigners'. In this paper we first argue that there are good reasons to expect certain heterogeneity in the denotations people assign to these labels, and that the specific group people think of when asked about these labels matters with respect to their response. Subsequently, we use survey data from Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium, N=1:577) that include an open-ended question asking respondents which groups they associate with the label 'strangers' (Dutch: 'vreemdelingen'). Content analysis revealed that the different meanings people give to this label can be organized into four main groups concerning the content of the criterion (nationality, culture, race, no answer/refusal) and two ways concerning how the criterion is used ('them' versus 'not us'). Regression analyses subsequently showed that these meanings are associated with systematic differences in general ethnic prejudice, with people who associate strangers with Muslims or immigrants from predominantly Muslim countries reporting the highest level of prejudice. Finally, we found that the group people associate with the label stranger varies according to respondents' demographic background. Our data suggest that not taking into account these different meanings might lead to an underestimation of the social differences in ethnic prejudice.

An Examination of how the Conflation of Race and Ethnicity Undermines Women’s Identities

Robinson, G., Alex-Hart, B.

(University of East London)

This paper addresses how the lack of clarity in distinguishing race from ethnicity in organisational studies obscures the subjectivities of ethnic minority and majority women. The epistemology of race and since its inception, theoretical development and research in intersectionality and black feminist scholarship has continued to conflate race and ethnicity. Intersectionality lumps all black women into the same category and assumes that they have similar experiences regardless of their origin, ethnic or nationality identity. Its focused on class, gender and race as mutually reinforcing levels of inequality in organisations ignores the ethnic diversity existent within race. It is imperative that race and ethnicity be distinguished despite their associated meanings and implications for organizational life. This paper presents findings from a critical analysis of the literature on how race and ethnicity is conflated in theorising and in the researching of race, feminism and intersectionality. It takes the view that without a dedicated and critical investigation of ethnicity in feminist and intersectionality theories and research, gender may not be fully understood.

The aim is to contribute to the advancement in feminist and intersectionality theoretical perspectives by suggesting a deeper dimension for the examination of gender subjectivities through ethnicity.

Afrophobia in an Irish dialect

Michael, L.

(Ulster University)

Since 2013, people of African descent have constituted the highest number of any single group targeted in independently reported racist incidents in Ireland, including African migrants, their children, Black Europeans, and mixed race Irish. Incidents have included political hate speech, racist crimes, racist violence, intimidation, racist bullying, illegal practices and discriminatory treatment in housing, education and service provision, poor policing practices and poor responses by Gardaí to racist crimes, lack of access to healthcare and employment and persistent

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

180

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

and repeated racial harassment. Remarkable about Afrophobia in Ireland is the public shaming of people of African descent, which is both frequent and highly visible, and operates simultaneously with overt surveillance of Blackness in public spaces. The construction of Blackness as out-of-place is used to justify the exclusion of Black citizens from the public sphere in general, commit violence upon people of African descent in everyday public spaces and create an in terrorem effect for people of African descent in Ireland. This paper interrogates the distinctions with Afrophobia in the rest of Europe and utilises Mohanram's Black Body to understand the way in which people of African descent are racialised and excluded through the ongoing positioning of the African body in Irish discourses.

Outcomes of the Transnationalism Across Brazil and Paraguay: The Formation and (Re)Negotiation of the

Brasiguaio Identity(Ies)

Estrada, M.

(University of Warwick)

This paper examines the role of transnational processes in the formation of the Brasiguaio identity. The term

Brasiguaio is widely used to refer to Brazilians and their descendants living in Paraguay. Especially between the

1960s and 1970s, Paraguay was an important migrant destination for Brazilians. The mass migration of Brazilians to

Paraguay was largely influenced by land policies in both countries. Although Paraguay is a small South American country of approximately 7 million people, it accounts for a large number of Brazilian living outside Brazil. Unofficial figures estimate that up to 1 million Brazilians live in Paraguay, most of them in the eastern region of the country on the border with Brazil.

The short distance between their place of origin and settlement, I argue, is a salient feature in their form of transnationalism; it is what I define as 'Proximal Transnationalism'. My empirical evidence suggests that the formation of the Brasiguaios identity results from migrants' experiences in Proximal Transnationalism. I present in this paper my ethnographic data gathered between 2013 and 2015 in the Brazilian Workers' Landless Movements (Movimento dos

Trabalhadores Sem-terra - MST) landless camp 'Antonio Irmão', popularly known as the 'Brasiguaio landless camp'. I present how individuals uphold their status as Brasiguaios to differentiate themselves as a distinct group from

Brazilians and Paraguayans seeking to engage in the social life in both countries. This transnational identity group demonstrates how, sometimes, diverging transnational practices and identities can be found in existence across communities in Brazil and Paraguay.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

144

Migration and the Media: A Analysis of Migration Issues in the British Press Across Four Timeframes

Between 2004 and 2014

Adams, P.

(University of Greenwich)

This paper explores media coverage of migration to the UK in the British press across four timeframes between 2004 and 2014. The aims of the paper are (1) to identify the most frequently used words in coverage of migration in the print media; (2) discover the main themes and issues in that coverage; and (3) to explore what this says about representations of race and nation in relation to migration to the UK. The first timeframe in this study is two months either side of the 1 May 2004, the date on which the European Union expanded to include much of eastern Europe.

The second timeframe is two months either side of the 2009 European election. The third timeframe is two months either side of 1 January 2014, the date on which labour market restrictions on Romanian and Bulgarian citizens were removed. The fourth timeframe is two months either side of the 2014 European election. Media coverage of migration to the UK in these timeframes is explored through a content analysis which identifies the most frequently used words in the specified timeframes. These words are grouped into four themes, 'crime and control', 'welfare and services',

'jobs and economics' and 'culture and identity'. It is argued that media coverage of migration issues reflects a level of anxiety in relation to national identity, sovereignty and belonging which manifests itself in concerns regarding a range of economic, political and cultural issues.

Everyday Nationhood on the Web: An Analysis of Discourses Surrounding Romanian and Bulgarian Migration to the UK Using Twitter Data

Shah, B., Murphy, J., Ogden, J.

(University of Southampton)

On 1st January 2014 restrictions were lifted on the migration of Romanians and Bulgarians to the UK. Leading up to

181 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

this date and since then, heated debate has ensued about the impact of this migration. Discourses and images of the country being swamped by this new 'other' have proliferated. We employ a mixed-methods approach to investigate how these debates were discursively constructed over the micro-blogging platform Twitter in December 2013. Using a novel combination of quantitative and network-analytic techniques with qualitative discourse analysis, we first explore differences among users with a high degree of network centrality (mostly but not only popular British media outlets) and the far more numerous users with low network centrality. Drawing on Billig's (1995) notion of banal nationalism and Hobsbawm's (1991) assertion that nationalism cannot be understood unless also analysed from below, we then conduct discourse analysis to better understand how the discursive contructions of the nation differ among influential

Twitter users and typical users with little influence in response to the imminent rise in immigration of new migrant groups. We end with a reflection on whether micro-blogging platforms enable heightened nationalism and antiimmigrant discourses or whether it also provides a platform for challenging such discourses.

Billig, M. 1995. Banal Nationalism. London: SAGE

Hobsbawm, E. 1991. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

British National Discourse and Policy Versus Local Actions in the 2015 Refugee Crisis

Twigt, M., Tacchetti, M., Musiyiwa,. A., Kaulfuss, S.

(University of Leicester)

The discourse and actions of the British national government seem to promote an inadequate response to what is now called by many a 'refugee crisis'. David Cameron has referred to the people who have made the crossing to Europe and are currently in Calais as a 'swarm' and other government representatives have used language that is similarly marginalising and criminalising people looking for refuge in the UK.

Yet, at a local level, in towns and cities across Britain, British citizens and residents alike are reaching out to the people who are either travelling to or are stuck in Europe. They are promoting counter-discourses aimed at rehumanising and integrating this group of migrants.

In this paper we suggest that there might be a discrepancy between the highly mediated national discursive representations and local circulating discourses and practices that do not receive a similar media coverage. We consider whether there is empirical evidence to suggest that, at a local level, more residents are concerned about the plight of refugees in response to an inadequate government language and policy. As a case study, we look at initiatives promoted by volunteers (including refugees and asylum seekers) that have taken place in Leicester over the last six months and were aimed at supporting migrants and refugees in Calais, around the Mediterranean and elsewhere in Europe. We also explore the durability of these expressions of solidarity and whether they could have a long-term impact on British policies on migration.

The Tragedies on the Roads to Europe: Analysing the News on Syrian Refugee Crisis

Goktuna Yaylaci, F., Yetkin, M. K.

(Anadolu University)

The massive migratory waves that Turkey is confronting for the past years are caused by the Syrian inter war.

Regardless of their statuses, the new migrant groups because of their precarious and ambiguous conditions are subject to several problems. Aside from the problems in the host countries, a significant number of Syrians who flee from their war town homeland to find shelter in European countries pass through Turkey, take part in the irregular movement and become victims of human trafficking. As reflected in the national and international media, human trafficking from the Aegean coasts of Turkey to Europe reached its peak for the past decade in the summer of 2015:

'nearly 300.000 migrants and refugees have crossed the Mediterranean this year with at least 2:373 'migrants and refugees' dying in a bid to reach Europe, nearly 300 more than the same period last year, according to the

International Organization for Migration (IOM)' . The media is considered as a tool that reflect the social realities.

Therefore the main aim of this paper is to unravel the mounting tragic incidents of human trafficking in Syria as they are reflected on the coverage of the newspapers. For that purpose, the news published on the Hurriyet newspaper in

2015 on the Syrian victims of human trafficking and their tragedies are analysed. Hurriyet newspaper is selected as the sample because it has the highest circulation rate among the mainstream printed media.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

182

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

Rights, Violence and Crime

S

TEELHOUSE

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Honour-Based Abuse in the UK: What Does it Really Involve?

Bates, L.

(University of Bristol)

Honour-based abuse is a collection of practices used to control behaviour within families or social groups, to protect perceived cultural/religious beliefs. It is commonly gendered, with women victims. In the UK it is often defined as involving forced marriage and/or FGM.

This study used police case files in England to investigate the nature of cases of honour-based abuse. It looked at who were the victims and perpetrators, what abuse involved, and how the criminal justice system responded. Files relating to 125 unique cases over a 12-month period were extracted from a police database, cleaned and coded using analysis grids. Thematic analysis was used to explore the key features of each case, and descriptive statistics to identify patterns.

This study found evidence that distinct, different groups of cases are being identified as honour-based abuse. These range from cases which involve single-perpetrator intimate partner domestic abuse within families from particular nationalities, to cases which involve distinct threats from multiple perpetrators. The profiles of, and risks to, the victims in these groups differ, as do the criminal justice outcomes.

These findings raise questions about the public definition and understanding of what honour-based abuse is. They suggest that police and other agencies need to understand the range of victim profiles and types of incident involved, and the associated risk and protective factors. This paper will situate the findings within the wider public policy and practice context, and make some suggestions about appropriate responses.

Intersectional Analysis of Perception of Iranian Men Towards Sexual Violence

Torbati, A.

(University of Bristol)

Sexual violence is one form of violence against women, which is likely to result in a range of negative impacts on those who experience it. The definition of activities and behaviours that constitute sexual violence differs in various cultures and legal jurisdictions. Therefore many victims of sexual violence might be unsure of whether the definition would lead them to qualify as a victim or not. It has been suggested that individuals' perceptions are affected by their identity categories such as gender, culture, religion, class, ethnicity age and race (Nayak et al.:2003, Aghtaie 2011,

Haj-Yahia:2000). This paper seeks to examine the differences on the perceptions of Iranian men living in London towards sexual violence with intersection of religion/culture, class and gender. It will explore how individuals understand sexual violence as a form of violence against women and how religion/culture, class and gender intersect with their perceptions and have an impact on it.

Theorising Trafficking

Walby, S.

(Lancaster University)

The analysis of trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation tends to divide into polarised positions ostensibly centred on the criminal regulation of selling or buying sex. This is a mistake. Rather, the central issue at stake concerns the exploitation of the prostitution of others. This concerns the regulation of the profit-taking from sex work/prostitution by third parties. The de-criminalisation of profit taking from sex work/prostitution (a new development in parts of Europe) is not the same the decriminalisation of the sale of sex (widespread in most of Europe); while the criminalisation of the purchase of sex (in some parts of Europe) is not the same as the criminalisation of selling of sex

(now rare in Europe). There has been much innovation and experimentation in the regulation of sex work/prostitution in order to reduce the risk of women being trafficked into this activity – to prevent trafficking. However, there are challenges in the data needed to assess the implications of these changes. The paper addresses these innovations and their implications for the theorisation of prostitution regimes, gender regimes and trafficking in human beings. It argues for a new approach to the theorisation of trafficking with implications for its prevention.

183 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

Science and Technology Studies

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

3

Nudging Nudge. Or, What Might Behavioural Economists and Economisers Learn from Science and

Technology Studies?

Deville, J.

(Lancaster University)

Behavioural economics has changed how many economists understand the drivers of economic action. It has also created a range of 'behavioural economisers' – a mixed group of academics and practitioners, drawn to the promise of behavioural economics as an interventionist science. But is there potential for dialogue between behavioural economics and Science and Technology Studies (STS) – and, in particular, an STS-informed economic sociology?

Despite the manifest differences between the two (e.g. theory and method, the political assumptions being made and contested, their hold over the public imagination), there are nonetheless areas of apparent crossover. Notably, both sets of approaches have observed that a route towards understanding, and potentially modifying, the behaviour of people in markets lies in the subtle adjustment of the socio-material settings through which they pass. This paper argues that, on the one hand, it is important to understand the ways in which behavioural economics draws on affordances provided by a range of practices that existed well before its popularisation. It argues, on the other, that

STS could contribute more actively to understanding the minutiae of how people behave in market situations.

However, to do so it needs to achieve something that neither it nor behavioural economics has yet to adequately do: account for the variety of forms of participation that become associated with markets. In making this argument, the paper draws on empirical work across a variety of fields, ranging from the world of debt collection, to gambling, the data-driven management of online consumer behaviour.

Monstrous Regiment Vs Monsters Inc: Competing Imaginaries of Science and Social Order in Responsible

(Research and) Innovation

De Saille, S., Martin, P.

(University of Sheffield)

This paper considers the ways in which new policies for Responsible (Research and) Innovation (RRI) are being constructed as a means of involving the public in shaping innovation towards socially beneficially goods. Whereas some see 'the public good' as increasingly subservient to the needs of neoliberal capitalism (Monsters Inc), others see the public as simultaneously the eager beneficiary of science and innovation, and a Monstrous Regiment whose potential disapproval must be contained. Despite professed commitment to greater public participation in decisionmaking as part of new moves towards transparency and inclusion in UK and EU governance, reasoned argument against technological innovation still tends to be dismissed as irrational, ill-informed, anti-science, even 'wicked' - particularly if accompanied by 'unruly' public engagement such as direct action campaigns. At the same time, almost thirty years of fragmentation on the political left has led some activists to look for new ways of connecting various campaigns through theorising the politics of technology, often drawing upon key literature from STS.

We discuss findings from a project we are currently undertaking as part of the Leverhulme Trust Research

Programme 'Making Science Public'. Drawing from documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with researchers, policy-makers and industry stakeholders, and participant observation and interviews with a group of

British knowledge-based activists, we will examine these two seemingly oppositional socio-technical imaginaries of

'responsible innovation', revealing the ways in which technological controversy may be rooted not only in differing concepts of responsibility, but also of the meaning and purpose of innovation.

Pharmaceuticals, Cancer and Society: Politics of Carcinogenicity Evaluation

Abrahams, J.

(King's College London)

In recent years, there has been an increased investment by pharmaceutical companies in research and development on pharmaceuticals to treat cancer. New drugs for the treatment of cancer and associated controversies about their cost have attracted considerable media and public attention. However, much less discussed is the potential carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic insult of pharmaceuticals to patients and public health. A pre-requisite for such a discussion is an understanding of how knowledge is produced and interpreted to decide whether or not a pharmaceutical is to be defined as a carcinogen. Drawing on years of fieldwork in Europe and the US, this paper provides a sociological analysis of the cognitive, institutional, economic and political factors that have driven the trajectory of carcinogenicity definition and evaluation over the last 25 years. It will be argued that the changes to modelling carcinogenic risk in this period have lowered detection standards, contrary to the interests of public health.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

184

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

Moreover, evidence will be presented to demonstrate that such lowering of standards cannot be justified by technoscientific advances (such as genetics and molecularization), but rather they were instigated to align future policy and standards with permissive practices of the past by regulators and industry. Finally, the paper will discuss the sociological explanations for this new type of knowledge production in terms of economic power of industry, the neoliberal state, scientist activism, and regulatory capture.

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1 - Pecha Kucha

W

HITEHALL

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Naming Practices and the (Re)Doing of Gender

Pilcher, J.

(University of Leicester)

Forenames and surnames are nuclei of individual identity, social affiliation, and civil-legal identities. Yet these personal naming practices remain underexplored, including by sociologists of gender. In this article, I examine the important cultural work forenames and surnames do in relation to the categorisation of sex and to gender as the management of conduct appropriate to sex category. I focus on the forenaming of new-born babies, forenaming by transpeople, marital surnaming and the surnaming of children to show that personal naming is a cultural practice integral to the social construction of bodies as either female or male, and to the routine accomplishment of gender differences in everyday, ongoing social interactions. I argue that names are important tools in the (re)doing of gender, including in social practices of categorisation, negation, authentication and attribution, in compliance with and resistance to sex and gender differentiation, and in 'doing difference' by minority ethnic groups.

The Full Monty? Representations of Gender, Sexualities and Subversive Possibilities in Media Depictions of the Male Strip Show

Pilcher, K.

(Aston University)

This paper analyses a range of different meanings which can be drawn from media representations of male strip shows. These media depictions are analysed in relation to my own ethnographic fieldwork conducted within two male strip shows in the UK, which utilised a combination of observation, interviews and visual data, to examine experiences of male dancers, management, and women customers. Drawing upon a critical discourse analysis of different media sources (e.g. film, documentaries, print media), combined with a comparative examination alongside my ethnographic findings, I seek to ascertain what is missing, troubling or potentially 'progressive' about media depictions of male strippers and their interactions with women customers. In doing so, I examine issues relating to: readings of naked male bodies as 'sex objects'; the potential for women customers to exercise, or be represented as exercising, a female

'gaze'; and women's friendships and communications within these shows. Theorising from a feminist and queer perspective, I argue that both media depictions of strip shows, and the shows themselves, are premised upon a notion of faux female 'empowerment' in which women are seen as a collective group - 'the girls', united by their

(hetero)femininity, at the same time as the shows shape, construct and regulate women's experiences in a particular heteronormative way. Within this construction, women are required to adopt 'post-feminist' subjectivities, and to be seen to perform an 'active' (hetero)feminine expression of sexual desire, and yet very often it is an active male

(hetero)sexuality which is valorised and privileged in such constructions.

The Gender Relations in the Taiwanese Public Sector Workplace

Chung, W.Y.

(University of Cambridge)

This research examines how structural opportunities influence the employment of Taiwanese female and male civil servants in terms of recruitment, job transfers and career advancement. It is based on analysis of governmental statistical data and the interviews of 93 civil servants working in three regional governments.

The Taiwanese government has applied many gender mainstreaming employment policies in the public sector.

However, my research finds that in general civil servants' career trajectories vary according to their gender, especially after marriage. Private network and locality affect the career moves of men and women.

In urban settings, parents are encouraged to outsource their family duties, so married women are more easily detached from their family responsibilities and spend more time at work and on the cultivation of their human capital and social networks. Therefore, they have more chances to be promoted. But in rural areas, networking is more

185 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

important to career development, and people's social network of professional groupings is intertwined with that of friends and relatives. This network formation potentially disadvantages women because their eligibility for senior positions is determined by both their performance at work and domestic duties. Gender stereotyping is also observed.

In men-dominated agencies, men are preferred because they are believed to be able to work overtime and travel frequently. Some female-majority professions also require long working hours and frequent business trips. However, their requirements are downplayed; instead, the feminine nature of such jobs is emphasized.

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2 - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

139

Social Capital Goes to School: Sociology SAGE Prize Winners' Event

Wakeling, P.

(University of York)

This event celebrates the success and impact of research published in Sociology, the flagship journal of the BSA.

Continuing the tradition of previous events, the event will showcase the 2015 prize winning paper by Julia Nast and

Talja Blokland (Humboldt University, Berlin) which investigates parents’ social mixing in a Berlin school, presenting findings which challenge and extend previous work on social capital in education and urban inequality. We have also invited the author of a previous highly-cited paper from Sociology on ‘counter-intuitive’ white middle-class school choices where findings both overlap and contrast. Both presenters will reflect on how the institution of the school acts as a focal point for the mobilisation of capitals and for boundary-setting and boundary-breaking activity. The studies suggest ways in which ‘mixing’ can challenge or reinscribe social inequalities.

The event will give delegates an opportunity to meet with Sociology authors, members of the Editorial Board and to hear the announcement of the 2016 SAGE Prize for Sociology.

Social Mix Revisited: Neighbourhood Institutions as Setting for Boundary Work and Social Capital

Blokland, T. V.

(Humboldt University of Berlin)

makers tend to think that residential ‘mixing’ of classes and ethnic groups will enhance social capital. Scholars criticize such ‘mixing’ on empirical and theoretical grounds. This article argues that the critics may focus too much on neighbourhoods. Mixing within neighbourhood institutions might work differently, we argue, drawing on data from a mixed school in Berlin, Germany. While class boundaries are constructed, we also find class-crossing identifications based on setting-specific characteristics, highlighting the setting’s importance and the agency of lower/working and middle-class parents. Parents create ties for exchanging setting-specific resources: child-related social capital.

Institutional neighbourhood settings can hence be important for boundary work and social capital. Criticism of social capital and social mix should not overlook the role of networks for urban inequality.

Social Mix, Misrecognition and Acquisition: The Outcomes of White Middle Class ‘Against The Grain’ School

Choices

James, D.

(Cardiff University)

This presentation revisits a large-scale study of middle-class families in three cities in England who deliberately chose schools ‘against the grain’, opting for ‘ordinary’ or even ‘low performing’ secondary schools for their children. These parents typically rejected both assumptions and practices associated with mainstream choosing: they saw dominant conceptions of school quality (e.g. league tables) as lacking validity and they turned their backs on the policy-driven imperative to see education as a site for competition and the securing and reproduction of advantage. The chosen schools were mainly socially and ethnically diverse and in inner-city locations.

The analysis showed that political and community-oriented motivations were in a small minority, and that the educational project around the child had many individually instrumental features. Most importantly, far from avoiding the reproduction of social advantage, the families’ educational projects and the nature of their interaction with the schools produced both actual and potential social advantages. Parents were highly interventionist and schooling was valued for exposing young people to social and ethic diversity which was itself seen as a crucial form of capital for globalised and multicultural futures. For their part, schools were especially responsive to the wishes of these parents.

The findings show the intractability of certain inequality-generating processes, and illustrate the dilemmas faced by those parents seeking to ‘do the right thing’, to act ethically in an unethical context .

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

186

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

Sociology of Education 1 - Pecha Kucha

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1

A

Elitism and the New College of the Humanities: A Historical Comparison With the ‘Great Books’ Debate

Telling, K.

(University of Manchester)

This conceptual paper examines the ways in which the New College of the Humanities (NCH), one of England's newest private higher education institutions, has modelled itself on (a particular conception of) the American liberal arts tradition. Discourse analysis of NCH's publicity materials and the broader media debate around the college, along with a brief literature review and discussion of US debates about liberal arts, form the basis of the paper. It will be argued that an understanding of the American debate can illuminate the controversy around NCH and new private provision in England in general. In particular, the paper will focus on the question of elitism: the ways in which NCH has been accused of elitism, and also how the institution has sought to deflect or negotiate that accusation. It will compare the NCH debate with one which emerged in mid-twentieth century America around the so-called 'Great

Books' approach to the liberal arts (eg Adler 1940:1952; Hook 1946; Macdonald 1952): a debate which again revolved around the question of elitism. I will argue that the relation between private higher education and elitism is a complex one, and that looking to other national contexts in which similar questions have been raised will allow us to move beyond mere condemnation of private provision, to ask how intellectual values come to be so closely intertwined with particular economic models.

'If you work hard and you try, it's not that impossible': How Elite Students Use Merit to Explain their

Achievements and Inequalities an Access to Education

Loup, S.

(London School of Economics)

Education is dominated by the more privileged classes (Boliver:2013), and therefore can serve to convert privilege into 'merit (Bourdieu and Passeron:1964). In fact, students at elite institutions explain their educational trajectory and future class position by their merit (Khan:2011). However, it is unclear whether they approach merit differently depending on their class background. It is also unclear how students in these institutions reconcile their professed dislike of inequalities in access to education with their own actions perpetuating them, such private school attendance

(Warikoo and Fuhr:2014).

This paper studies the narratives undergraduates at LSE have of their educational trajectory, to focus on what Reay calls 'class thinking' (2005). As students occupy an unclear class position, the paper uses their family background, assessed through questionnaires (Bathmaker et al.:2011).

The students who participated highlighted the importance of hard work and aspiration for their trajectory. However, students from an elite background talked more about their merit and less about the strategies they had to employ to achieve educational success. As Ben, a student from a wealthy family, says about getting into LSE: 'If you work hard and you try, it's not that impossible'. These students managed to give themselves merit and at the same time acknowledged disadvantage by presenting their privilege as ordinary. They failed to recognise that others being disadvantaged means they themselves are advantaged in comparison. This allowed students from an elite background to both deplore inequalities, and perpetuate them through their actions, without facing cognitive dissonance.

Embodying 'Britishness': The (re)making of the Contemporary Nigerian Elite Child

Ayling, P.

(University Campus Suffolk)

Existing studies on the role of schooling in the formation and (re)production of elite identity have focused almost entirely on the reproduction strategies of Western elites. Consequently, the distinction strategies employed by nonwestern elite parents to maintain and/or advance their class positioning –via their children- have remained largely unexamined. Using rare qualitative data from a broader study of the educational preferences of elite Nigerian families, this article critically examines the key processes involved in Nigerian elites' attempts to protect and/or enhance their children's future elite status. Combining the theoretical frameworks of Bourdieu and Fanon, the paper argues that a significant proportion of elite Nigerian parents opt for UK-based private boarding schools because they believe that these schools will bestow their children with 'attributes of excellence' through a highly selective exposure to elite White

British lifestyles and practices. These parents believe that placing their children in White (elitist) spaces would allow them to acquire the right dispositions and deportment such as 'respectability' and a 'refined accent', essential for the

(re)production and/or formation of 'genuine' elite identity in modern-day Nigerian.

187 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

'God here we go, a big emotional story' 'Popular' and 'Geek' Positionings in Student Interactions and The

Challenges of 'Popular' Students

Dytham, S.

(University of Warwick)

The friendship groups formed in schools and the power plays within them are of high importance to the pupils experiencing them and can have both positive and negative effects on their emotional wellbeing and mental health, as well as their education. This ethnographic study took place in a secondary school in central England. The study primarily involved seventeen year 9 (age 13-14) students. Drawing on recorded group discussions with students selfselected friendship groups, this research considers social status, and demonstrates that 'popular' and 'geek' positionings take place in interactions. Furthermore, although popular students are often considered to be the

'winners' of student relations, and in the most dominant and powerful positions, this research highlights the vulnerabilities and precarious positions of popular students. Despite being described by all as 'popular', these students were not free from being labelled 'geeks', being bullied, or being excluded from their social groups. However, 'popular' students are often denied the space to talk about these issues with their friends or teachers, whether because they are perceived negatively by teachers and therefore receive little sympathy, or because they are considered 'popular' and not vulnerable. This paper demonstrates the strength of group interaction data to understand social positionings.

It also highlights complexities and difficulties experienced by 'popular' students, and concludes that more could be done in schools to support students as they negotiate 'popular' and 'geek' identities.

Are Muslim Students Moving Up the Ladder? A Longitudinal Study of the Effect of Student’s and Parents’

Expectations on Educational Success Among Muslim’s Britain

Khattab, N.

(Doha Institute for Graduate Studies and University of Bristol)

A growing literature on the performance of Muslims in the British labour market suggests that they face various penalties and disadvantages and lagging behind most of the other groups, especially in relation to the majority group of British-White Christians. Moreover, it has been pointed out that Muslim women are less advantaged than Muslim men. Literature on the school performance (or educational attainment) of British Muslims compared to majority group barely exists. Although we know relatively a lot on the school performance of some Muslim ethnic groups, e.g.

Pakistanis or Bangladeshis, we know very little about the performance of Muslims as a group in the British educational system. For example, are Muslims young boys and girls disadvantaged compared to their British-White Christian counterparts? How does the educational gap between Muslims and Christians change over time? To what extent does the school performance of Muslim girls lag behind their male counterparts? To what extent does the impact of factors such as educational expectations, parental involvement and student's effort vary by religion?

This study focuses on the performance of Muslims within the British educational system. It utilises the Longitudinal

Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) to analyses the educational attainment of Muslims at the following junctions: KS2, KS3, GCSE, getting into universities and in particular into Russell Group universities.

Sociology of Education 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOMS

135 -137

Inclusive Education for Migrant Youth in China

Song, Y.

(University of Glasgow)

Under Chinese household registration's segregation on social rights and benefits between rural and urban people, rural workers fail to secure permanent residency on an equal footing with registered urban residents even though they migrant to work in the city for years. The Chinese rural-urban division has consequences beyond access to political and economic rights and resources, and has deepened to shape cultural and ideological perceptions, which continuously influences children of migrant workers moving to study in urban schools. Though nowadays children of migrant workers can study in urban public schools alongside local resident, the rural-urban structural conflict still exists and impedes social relations between rural-urban groups.

The research investigates the difficulties or opportunities encountered by children of migrant workers after entering urban public schools and as the face the realities of contact with city culture, and explains how education affects such children dealing with cultural conflict and constructing trans-cultural identity.

The discussion on the dual roles of education, as an agent of cultural reproduction and an opportunity for multi-cultural

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

188

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

fusion, is based on Pierre Bourdieu's Cultural Reproduction Theory and Inclusive Education Model. These two theoretical starting-points shape and inform the research into how education not only reproduces cultural division but can challenge such tendencies as well. Cultural adaptation survey, including questionnaire, interview and focus group research, and social network analysis are used to clarify the interactions between rural and urban habitus within urban education field and the plight of migrant children marginalized by both rural and urban culture systems.

Connecting Home and Abroad: The Motivations, Expectations and Aspirations of Chinese International

Students at UK Universities

Woodman, S.

(University of Edinburgh)

International students from mainland China are now the largest group of non-EU domiciled students studying in the

UK from any one country, and the largest group for whom English is not a first language. Their experience is thus central in the internationalisation of UK higher education. Based on data from focus groups and individual interviews with upper level UG and PGT students in diverse disciplines at two UK universities, this paper explores three intertwined areas: factors influencing students' decision to study in the UK, and their choice of university and subject; their experience in UK HEIs and how this fits with their original expectations; and how international education relates to their long-term goals and life-plans. Previous research on Chinese international students in the UK has concentrated on pedagogical issues, cultural adaptation and overall statistics, mostly focused on students studying business related subjects. By contrast, this paper connects students' decision-making processes, expectations and experiences with their overall goals and long-term motivation. As well as challenging the assumption that these students are all instrumentally motivated, the paper aims to present a rounded picture of Chinese students as a heterogeneous group. It seeks to go beyond the 'problem student' approach that has often characterized research on this student group to understand the experience of international education as part of a set of life choices for differentlysituated students. The paper draws on research from a larger transnational collaborative project on Chinese students' migration for higher education within China and to the UK and Germany.

Mobility, Citizens and Education: Gypsy Students in the UK

Myers, M.

This paper argues that Gypsy students in the UK are marginalised because of ambiguous understandings of their

'mobility'.

Recent policy from The Department for Communities and Local Government defines Gypsy ethnicity in direct relation to living a mobile or nomadic way of life (DCLG:2015). This is problematic on at least two counts. Firstly the association between Gypsy ethnicity and nomadism is itself questionable (Bhopal and Myers:2008). Secondly, mobility may be better understood in terms of an axis between sedentary and nomadic lifestyles in which more complex understandings are codified (Cresswell:2006).

Drawing on research that examined Gypsy families' experiences of schooling and education, it argues that the impact of 'mobility' is regularly cited in relation to how education should be delivered to Gypsy students. Teachers and educational professionals explicitly distinguished between 'sedentary' and 'mobile' education. However, this distinction was only made in relation to Gypsy education; the same professionals when discussing non-Gypsy education never qualified this as being a 'sedentary' education. Furthermore student's mobility was rarely characterised by actual movement or nomadic lifestyles; though it was often cited in terms of family's identity characteristics.

This paper argues that policy that defines Gypsy ethnicity in terms of mobility and local practice that distinguishes

'mobile' and 'sedentary' education excludes Gypsy students. In particular there is a failure to engage Gypsy students in education that promote values around citizenship in part because student 'mobility' identifies Gypsies as noncitizens both locally and nationally.

'They are Evil': Middle Class Normativity and the Discursive Links Between Behaviour, Morality and Social

Difference in a Hungarian School

Neumann, E.

(King’s College London)

The presentation will be the basis of a chapter in my future PhD dissertation titled 'Soft and Hard processes of Student

Streaming: Categorization and marginalization in English and Hungarian schools'. I will concentrate on how the school discourse in a Hungarian primary establishes links between classroom conduct, discipline, morality and social difference. Relying on ethnographic observations, individual teacher interviews and focus group interviews with year 8 students, the case study closely examines the enactment of normalizing discourse (Foucault 1977) in relation to two year 8 classes of the same cohort. Due to external policy-decisions, the school has undergone significant changes in its social intake, thus the possible ways to manage the new influx of Roma and low social status students and to

189 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

maintain the status and recognition of the school have been a central concern for the teachers. The studied yeargroup was clearly sorted into classes along social class lines. The analysis centres on how the difference between the two classes is interpreted and experienced by the teachers and the students and how the working class majority group becomes perceived as dysfunctional, deviant and educationally failing. In conclusion, I will discuss the possible social mechanisms behind the tensions, fears and frustrations generated by social mixing and how the normalizing discourse in the school reinforces and legitimises normalizing practices, especially ability setting and temporary exclusions.

Sociology of Religion

W

HITEHALL

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

'Negotiating the 'Secular'?' How Religious Students View their Faith in a University Context

Reid, L.

(Durham University)

Universities have traditionally been thought of as 'secular enclaves' (Bryant:2006:2) that have the capacity to liberalise or even eradicate personal religious beliefs. Despite this assumption, religious activity on campuses shows no sign of declining, due in part to the failings of the secularisation thesis and the rise of religious pluralism. The aim of this presentation is to explore how Christian, Jewish and Muslim students navigate the terrain of the university and whether such an environment is challenging or conducive to their faith in terms of degree content, interactions with peers and involvement in relevant societies and/or chaplaincies.

The research was carried out as part of my doctoral research during 2011-2013 and involved utilising semi-structured interviews with over 30 students based at Manchester University. The findings of this research project are multilayered and complex. Religious students differed in terms of their expectations of higher education institutions: some students viewed the university in purely educational terms (and as having no religious function), while others saw the university as a place for both educational and spiritual development and where personal faith could be integrated with their academic studies and social life. The experience of religious students in using chaplaincies and societies was also mixed, with some students reporting fears of being 'judged' by other members of the same faith group. All of these findings point to an increasing need to understand the needs of religious students as well as recognising the multi-faceted nature of university life.

The Construction of Liberal Christian Discourses in Primary School Life

Benoit, C.

(Aston University)

Religious Education (RE) and daily acts of collective worship have been compulsory in all state-maintained schools since the 1944 Education Act. In this paper, I will examine the place that religion occupies in non-denominational state primary school life. I will base this presentation on data collected throughout 2014-2015 in a community primary school in Birmingham and will argue that state schools can contribute to particular conceptualisations of Englishness tied to Christianity, reproducing liberal Christian social practices. Liberal Christianity, as a particular theological interpretation of Christianity, is a movement that seeks to reconcile Christianity with secular science and modernity, and results in a 'strongly humanistic reading of Christianity' (Woodhead:2002). In this presentation, I will examine how by engaging in broadly Christian acts of collective worship on a regular basis – a legal requirement – and celebrating

Christian festivals, the school contributes to the reproduction of a liberal Christian discourse, embodied through social practices and rituals. I will then examine how religion is constructed in the school life, and argue that Christianity is constructed as a neutral vehicle to promote particular values and morals. Meanwhile other religions are presented as reified and undiverse sets of traditions, which are simplistically understood as sharing the same values. Through such constructions, the liberal Christian discourse is able to reproduce itself. Finally, I will reflect on the possibility that the school contributes to the construction of liberal Christianity as English civil religion.

Rethinking Boundaries in Collective Worship

Shillitoe, R.

(Worcester University)

As part of a wider Leverhulme Trust-funded project, this research focuses on collective worship as experienced by primary school children. Collective worship, a legal requirement of maintained schools in England and Wales, has caused decades of confusion and controversy, with many questioning its educational suitability and appropriateness within an increasingly diverse society (Hull:1975; Cheetham:2000). With organisations and policymakers calling for collective worship to be abolished in schools, coupled with the wider place of religion in schools coming under

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

190

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

increasing media and political scrutiny, attention to this under researched topic is timely. Drawing on theoretical approaches from the sociology of childhood, this paper will focus on the perspectives of children, whose experiences are often disconnected and marginalised from such discussions.

Relying heavily on adult-generated conceptualisations of religion, much of the discussion on collective worship fails to understand everyday school life and the experiences of children (Clarke and Woodhead:2015). Using ethnographic research from a range of primary schools which foregrounds the agency of children, this paper will highlight the various ways children reimagine and negotiate boundaries, such as religion/secular in collective worship. This research will draw attention to the strategies used by schools during collective worship and the tactics that are then developed by pupils during this part of the school day (De Certeau:1984). Ultimately, this paper will challenge some of the adult-centric assumptions which dominate this discourse and reveal how children's own experiences do not always fit so neatly into the analytical categories constructed by adults.

Theory

S

TEELHOUSE

1, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Ethical (ir)responsibility and the Politics of Denial: The Case of Breaking the Silence

Todorova, T.

(University of Nottingham)

This paper interrogates the limits of Levinasian ethics for a politics of justice and recognition via a reading of the discourses of Breaking the Silence, an Israeli NGO which collects soldiers' testimonies of human rights violations carried out by the IDF (Israeli Defence Forces) in the Occupied Palestinian Territories of the West Bank and Gaza

Strip. The paper argues that ethical recognition of and responsibility for the Other is a political act. The Israeli-

Palestinian context is a prime example in which the political recognition of the Palestinian people as subjects of justice remains subordinated to an a-political understanding of ethics which places the dominant ethno-national collectivity always in relation to itself, while the Palestinian other, in Levinasian terms, is never clearly delineated as either the

'neighbour' for which one bears responsibility, or as a faceless 'enemy' for which one can be irresponsible. A critical discourse analysis of soldiers' testimonies and advocacy literature produced by Breaking the Silence over the past five years serves to illustrate a consistent emphasis on Israeli social responsibility for the damage done to the soldier who has acted unethically, as opposed to the testimonies serving to indict soldiers for unethical acts they have done against the Palestinian civilian population, in effect reproducing a politics of ethical irresponsibility. The paper concludes that only a decolonial politics of acknowledgement, and active refusal to re-enact sovereign violence can serve to institute an ethico-political relation of responsibility and justice in Palestine-Israel.

The Primacy of Training over Truth: Sloterdijk Approaches American Neo-Pragmatism

Hashemi, M.

(University of Warwick)

In this paper, I will try to put Sloterdijk's idea of giving priority to the Nietzschean perfection against the neo-pragmatist thesis of the priority of democracy to philosophy. Rorty in his thesis supported the idea of exclusion of philosophical as well as religious truth-claims from the public sphere. I instead would argue for a thesis inspired by Sloterdijk's philosophy which I would call the primacy of training over truth. Concomitantly, I will argue that unlike Rorty's scheme,

'the primacy of training' is not based on the outright exclusion and privatisation of religion. Thus can be a way of real dialogue between the religious believers and non-believers in the society. Like Rorty's Jeffersonian compromise the primacy of training to truth proposes that no one either secular or religious can enter the public sphere only with his or her truth-claims. The difference between these two theses is that the latter sees democracy founded on (not a mere static trade of truth with freedom) but a dynamic educational, co-working and co-training process through all the religious and irreligious exercises.

Memories of Historical Wounds and Historical Reconciliation in East Asia

Kim, D.N.

(Yonsei University)

Although seventy years have passed since the end of Japanese colonialism and the Pacific War in East Asia, the historical damages Japan has done in this region still continue to accumulate. Why do forgiveness and reconciliation continue to elude us so long? Unlike many current studies that focus on the distortions of historical, this study introduces a new perspective to this question by paying attention to different conception of justice in Japan and Korea.

From a comparative perspective, I argue that Korea's conception approximates to 'substantive justice,' while Japan's

191 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

perception hews close to 'formal justice' in Max Weber's terminology. Japan believes that its wrongs during wartime were officially absolved through the legal proceedings in the Tokyo Tribunal and the San Francisco Peace Treaty, while any restitution to the colonial rule in Korea is not necessary since the annexation treaty was concluded by two

'formally free' nations. However, Korea, blaming for Japan's 'shamelessness,' considers the damage inflicted by Japan includes moral and ethical issues, which requires first of all a 'genuine' and 'sincere' apology, besides formal legal processes. Furthermore, since Korea considers Japan is culpable not only for its actions during wartime, but more fundamentally for the entirety of its colonial occupation, the history of Japanese colonialism is grounds for apology. As such, Japan and Korea reveal disparities in the definition of justice, which lead to fundamentally different perspectives on historic memories. It is thus necessary to relativize historical awareness to overcome the stalemate between the two countries.

Art, Aporia and Post-Secularism: From Habermas to Gadamer

Cruickshank, J.

(University of Birmingham)

Religion is often presented as a problem for western democracies. There is talk of a post-secular condition although there is confusion about how to define this condition. However, the problem of having now to deal with religion in the public sphere is something of a pseudo-problem because putatively secular societies always entailed compromises with religion. Habermas responds to the post-secular condition by arguing for religious discourse to be translated into secular discourse to facilitate a more inclusive dialogue. To explore why this is problematic the arguments of Rowan

Williams and Gadamer will be drawn upon. Williams argues that religious fundamentalism and 'programmatic secularism', which is based on a purely instrumentally rational secular public sphere, are akin, in that both seek a narrow certainty which is antithetical to the imagination and creativity. By contrast, art shows us the aporetic nature of the human condition and the need for imagination. This leads Williams to argue that religious traditions, which he defines as the antithesis of fundamentalism, embody this and represent a superior epistemic position because secularist positions are always influenced ultimately by a lack of imagination. Drawing on Gadamer it is argued that the case Williams makes for religious traditions is actually applicable to traditions in general. The task therefore is that of recognising our location in traditions to overcome instrumentalism rather than juxtapose religious and secular discourse. Habermas, it is argued, unwittingly ends up replicating an instrumental approach to public dialogue.

Work, Employment and Economic Life - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

123

Classed and Gendered Graduate Transitions Into Work: Evidence from the Paired Peers 2 Project

Waller, R., Nicola., N., Bradley, H., Bentley, L., Abrahams, J., Hoare, T., Papafilippou, V., Bathmaker, A. M.

(University of the West of England)

This symposium draws upon data from the Leverhulme Trust funded Paired Peers longitudinal study. The study began in 2010 and has followed a cohort of 90 young people from their first week of university, through their degree studies and into graduate employment or training programmes. The project is looking at the impact of their social class on how they acquire, augment and mobilise various forms of capital to enhance their experience of university, and to position themselves within the competitive graduate careers market. Strategies employed include the strategic development of social networks and the conscious cultivation of CVs through extra-curricular activities and working on internship schemes.

This symposium considers early data from phase two of the project (2014-2017), as the young people make the transition into work through the analysis of narrative accounts from those following a number of discrete career pathways. The four papers focus respectively on the finance sector, engineering, teaching and those opting to ‘choose otherwise’ and pursue career paths in line with broader ethical, moral and political beliefs, rather than those centrally focused on economic returns.

We considered the classed and gendered dimensions of their choices and actions, and also the impact of both social structures and individual agency in framing and determining their aspirations and understanding of what career possibilities might be feasible. We consider the impact of their background on the career choices, routes and pathways they opt to follow or to ignore.

Show me the Money: Classed and Gendered Success in the City

Waller, R., Ingram, N.

(University of the West England)

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

192

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

This paper considers a small cohort of young men now developing lucrative careers in the finance and law sectors within the City of London, where success is narrowly defined by financial reward and status. Several young women in our project had also hoped for similar careers, but generally ‘cooled out’ their aspirations upon graduation, ending up in lower paid and lower status roles. We consider how the young men orient their futures, and analyse this in relation to their classed backgrounds and current lifestyles, comparing instrumental career planners with those enjoying immediate material gratification and conspicuous consumption. We argue that highly aspirational young men are particularly drawn to these industries as they valorize a hegemonic form of masculinity equating manhood with aggressively achieved financial success. Within this frame we consider the construction and maintenance of gendered spaces within Canary Wharf where ‘the only women in the room are the waitresses and the women from HR’. These young men have developed their aspirations within an education system subjected to capitalist structures and neoliberal discourses. This paper contends that a socially just education system cannot be created from a capitalist foundation. The shift towards commodification (enhanced by a fee-paying model), increased stratification, and league table obsession, aids the development of individualism, where students seek to extract the best value from their degrees so that they in turn can trade it, and themselves, in the graduate market-place, even if it means ‘selling their youth and their souls’ to achieve their dream job.

Teaching: An Ideal Job for a Woman?

Bradley, H., Bentley, L., Abrahams, J.

(University of the West of England)

Teaching, especially at primary level, has long been viewed as a desirable profession for women (Bradley 1989), in part because, historically, the association with children and caring chimed with prevailing cultural definitions of femininity. Teaching was linked to mothering and considered useful training for motherhood. More pragmatically, teaching has remained a popular choice for young women because its hours and holiday periods are reasonably compatible with looking after small children.

However, in 2015, the teaching profession appears to be in crisis: many trainee teachers leave during or shortly after training, and older teachers are taking early retirement. It was recently reported that half of the teaching body was contemplating leaving the profession within a couple of years, a trend explained by children's author Michael Rosen in terms of the government imposed regime of testing and audit eroding professional autonomy.

Using data from Paired Peers Phase 2, which is studying graduate entry into the labour market, we explore how these two trends collide in the current conjuncture. We noted in the early phase of our study a tendency for young women undergraduates to gravitate towards teaching, including the government backed Teach First programme which sponsors high-achieving graduates and places them in low-achieving schools. However, our current research shows that some of the young teachers are already becoming disillusioned and considering leaving the profession. Data from our in-depth interviews will explore why the female graduates were drawn to teaching, how they experience their jobs, and why they may be driven to quit.

Engineering Graduates: Gendered Transitions into the Workplace

Bentley, L., Papafilippou, V.

(University of the West England)

In this paper, we try to understand how the journey of young engineers unfolds in gendered ways. To be more specific, by examining the narratives of seven young male and female engineers, from their first year at the university until their first steps in their careers, we aim to offer an insight into how young men and women from different socioeconomic backgrounds (i) conceptualise and construct their graduate identities and project themselves into the future with respect to employment and personal life; (ii) experience the transition from student to working life and how their gender impacted on their careers and choices. In order to explore these young engineers’ orientation towards the future as well as to draw a link between future goals and outcomes, we make use of the theory of “possible selves”

(Markus and Nurius:1986).

It is quite clear form our data that the ‘possible’ selves available to the young engineers (and not only) are definitely embedded with specific sociocultural values: men aspired for managerial jobs and expected to be the main providers while women saw themselves as those who would be responsible for the raising of the children and had less focused career attitudes, possibly due to the lack of female role models (Dasgupta & Stout:2014) in the industry & academia.

Choosing Otherwise

Papafilippou, V., Bathmaker, A. M.

(University of Birmingham)

Treanor (2001) argues that success in the labour market is defined as a ‘moral duty’ within neoliberalism, stating that

193 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Thursday 7 April 2016, 15:30 - 17:00

P

APER

S

ESSION

6 / P

ECHA

K

UCHA

S

ESSIONS

‘neoliberals see it as a moral duty of human beings, to arrange their lives to maximise their advantage on the labour market’. A concerted emphasis in policy on the economic returns to higher education encourages the view that undergraduate students will conform to such a ‘moral duty’ as they move on to pursue graduate careers. Yet there are also graduates across different social class backgrounds, who choose otherwise: that is, who pursue career paths that are in line with broader ethical, moral and political beliefs, which are not centrally focused on economic returns. In this paper we examine the experience of a number of graduates who ‘choose otherwise’, and consider the possible classed dimensions of these alternative choices.

The data are drawn from a longitudinal, qualitative study of a cohort of students who attended Bristol’s two universities, which followed them through their undergraduate study and into the labour market (the Paired Peers study). The paper examines the processes involved in making decisions about future careers during undergraduate study, how participants relate these decisions to ethical, moral and political beliefs, and the experience of moving on to their chosen career destinations following a degree. In particular, the analysis aims to draw out the ways in which class works in ‘choosing otherwise’.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

194

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

C

OURTYARD

R

ESTAURANT

, C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 1

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 2

Environment and Society

Families and Relationships

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2

Sociology of Education

Theory

Work, Employment and Economic Life

Table Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

C

OURTYARD

R

ESTAURANT

, C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

TABLE NUMBER 1

The Voice without a Body: The Interpretive Autoethnography of a Medical Interpreter

Manea Hauskeller, E.T.

(University of Exeter)

Background of Medical Interpreting: In the last decade the number of non-English speaking patients that access the

NHS has increased considerably. Medical interpreters facilitate the non-English speakers' access to health care. They are bridges between English and minorities' languages and cultures. But the role of medical interpreters – stipulated into codes of practice of the UK interpreting agencies – is mostly constructed on the assumption of an invisible interpreter, a language switcher, conveying the 'message only' between a client and a service provider. This reductionist approach to the interpreter's role makes them replaceable with voice convertors via telephone. Their physical presence during the medical consultation is diminished by the defined role of invisibility.

Aim: To understand what being present at medical consultations means for a party who is not a patient or a health professional.

To understand the relationships that form during medical and linguistic interactions.

Methodology: I will present an interpretive autoethnographical approach based on my personal and professional experience as medical interpreter. Drawing on N. Denzin's methodology I will insist on:1. The existence of the others:2. The importance of gender, race, class:3. Family beginnings, and 4. Turning points.

The Contestation of a Linear Model of Health and Psychiatric Service Provision for a Polyvocal Trans*

Community

Davy, Z.

(University of Lincoln)

The clinical teams treating trans*people in primary care and transitioning health services are often influenced by a trans* narrative of moving from one gender to another. This 'journey' often implies a linear health provision model from psychiatric assessment through to hormone therapy and then on to surgical reassignment of secondary sex characteristics. Psychiatrists are gatekeepers for this linear process. The World Professional Association of

Transgender Health's (WPATH) Standards of Care: Version 7 has attempted to shift healthcare provision for trans*people from a gatekeeper model to a patient-centered model. The SOC7 stipulates that it is important for healthcare professionals to recognize that trans*people's health interventions are first and foremost a patient's decision. In this policy, clinical responsibility is to encourage, guide, and assist patients with making fully informed decisions. Advocates for trans* patients are utilizing science and knowledge to engender novel discourses about the multiplicity of trans* embodiment and critique and contest contemporary psychiatric and healthcare practices. I will pay close attention WPATH's and advocates' contestations around the psychiatric and health services offered within a linear model of healthcare and argue that linear healthcare reduces equitable and patient-centered provision of care.

As such, policies surrounding transitioning services should not be offered through a linear model, according to my analysis. Equitable transitioning health service provision is required, but should be offered within a wider, pluralistic approach to treatments. The paper develops some approaches that would allow access to more patient-centered and self-determined healthcare services by the polyvocal 'members' of trans* communities.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 1

TABLE NUMBER 2

The Shadow of Communism Over the Journalistic Field: Empirical Study of the Economic Beliefs Among

Leading Polish Journalists

Wozniak, W.

(University of Lodz)

197 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

The level of inequality in Poland has grown substantially in a course of post-communism transition, yet it was rarely challenged by media and politicians. The paper continues previous studies aimed at analyzing ideological context of how the inequality was approached in political and media debates (Wozniak 2012:2014a:2014b).

Most of the studies on public discourse use secondary data analysis of media content. The present research project, inspired by the Bourdieusian approach to the journalistic field (Benson, Neveu 2005) attempts to gather new firsthand data on the attitudes of journalists towards the economic and social issues with particular attention paid to the way they perceived, explained and justified growing inequalities. The leading journalists of all Polish major broadsheet newspapers were interviewed for the purpose of the study. The research seeks to analyze the ideological and biographical foundations of socio-economic beliefs among the influential figures responsible for agenda-setting and for the trajectories of the dominant discourses. The mainstream media in Poland were for many years unanimous in uncritical support for the neoliberal pathway of economic transformation neglecting the social consequences as unavoidable costs of economic progress equated with GDP growth and pro-market policies. The ideological and biographical premises for the uncritical support for neoliberalism are reconstructed in the paper. More pluralist perspectives are present in media debates since the eruption of economic crisis in 2008 which is also a result of the decline of newspapers' industry and the decreasing status of journalists. These tendencies are also scrutinized in the proposed paper.

Social Media, Social Mobilization and Protest: The Case of Gezi Park Demonstrations in Turkey

Tastan Tuncel, O.

(Lancaster University)

The police crackdown on an urban rights group resisting demolition of Gezi Park in Istanbul ignited social protests across Turkey lasting over a month in 2013. Marking social history in Turkey with a series of unprecedented features, these protests involved the social media as an integral component. In this paper, I will reflect on the role of social media in the Gezi Demonstrations, discussing its potential implications for social organization and protest. I will focus on two aspects.

First, the Gezi protest witnessed appropriation of the social media as a platform to subvert the mainstream forms of both mass media and parliamentary politics, and to roll out alternative ones. The persistent mass media blackout of the events led to participatory and creative forms of communication and information practices via social media and internet tools. Critically, these have lasted in the media after the events.

Second, the use of social media as such proved quite influential in challenging both the hegemonic and oppositional political discourse. The protests witnessed dramatic erosion of dichotomies the hegemonic discourse used to draw out, such as 'secular vs. pious', 'Kemalists vs. Kurdish politics'. The key to this, I will argue, was the 'logics of aggregation' social media contributed to, 'by assembling of masses of individuals from diverse backgrounds within physical spaces', as Juris (2012) suggested in his discussion on the recent social movements.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 2

TABLE NUMBER 3

From Omnivorousness to Status Negotiation: How 'Omnivores' Negotiate the Status of Their Practice

Through Boundary Work

Koehrsen, J. O.

(University of Basel)

A rising corpus of scholarship contends that high status individuals act omnivorously, appreciating and choosing options beyond exclusive highbrow tastes. So far, however, little is known about how high status actors engage in lowbrow practices. Employing the notion of boundary work, this article suggests that these actors employ different boundary strategies to deal with their involvement in lowbrow practices: namely, boundary repositioning, boundary camouflaging, and boundary conversion. This framework is applied to the empirical case of Argentinean middle class actors engaging in Pentecostalism. Deviating with their religious affiliation from predominant middle class narratives, the studied middle class Pentecostals seek to convert existing boundaries between the Argentinean middle class and

Pentecostalism into internal boundaries within Pentecostalism. Boundaries that usually separate the middle class from

Pentecostalism are on the one hand deconstructed, and, on the other, reconstructed to create trenches between

'highbrow' middle class and 'lowbrow' mass Pentecostalism. The efforts of 'omnivorous' actors to negotiate social status through boundary processes show that they behave rather un-omnivorously and underpin the need to investigate not only what apparently omnivorous and culturally diverse actors like and practice, but equally the boundaries that they draw, blur, or shift when conducting these practices

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

198

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

The Social Process of Creating Household Food Waste in Taiwan

Cheng, Y. P.

(National Changhua University of Education)

In this research, I aim to focus on the footage of food to food waste. By tracing the material paths of food in the household, it reveals that food can turn into waste through several stages of washing, preparing, cooking and eating.

Leafs, root vegetable's skin, fruit skin, eggshell, leftover, and expired food etc., these enormous variety of food waste are produced from the most ordinary domestic practice. They are all produced in the household yet are dealt in various ways. The process of turning food into food waste has its social and cultural context, such as which part of food could be treated as waste; in what status of food could be considered as perished. Further, who is the person to define and produce the food waste at home? What kind of labour division in the household could possibly affect the practice of producing food waste? Additionally, what is the connection between domestic food waste to the broader cultural and environmental issues.

Therefore, in this research, I firstly examine relevant literature and studies about domestic food waste in Taiwan and

Europe. Secondly, I conduct a small scale qualitative study that combines household interviews and food waste diary.

By doing so, I aim to illustrate that producing food waste is a process which embedded in the household everyday practice and coordinated with the rapidly changing food cultures.

Aesthetic Decision Making in the Recording Studio

Waldecker, D.

(Technische Universität Darmstadt)

In the few papers on the recording studio that exist within sociology, a lot of attention has been given to the roles and conflicts of technicians and engineers, producers, and musicians. However, a thing central to most recording studio work has been left out: musical recordings are not only interesting as a site due to its unique division of labour and different forms of knowledge used, but because one can witness the collaborative making of an aesthetic object.

This paper examines how aesthetic decisions regarding music making in every aspect – set-up, microphoning, performing, recording and mixing – are made in a recording studio. It details how actors deal with opportunities and constraints of individual studios and how they verbalize and discuss their decisions. Thus, the question is not only who decides what the music should sound like, but how this decision is made and what it is based on. To a certain degree, the genre standards are embodied in the actors as well as materialized in the studio space, instruments, effect racks, and computer programs. However, these standards have to be enacted and measured against concrete sounds and recordings in the process. It is this relation of aesthetic structure and action that the paper will try to elucidate.

Based on ethnographic research conducted during jazz and hardcore punk recordings in Germany, it elaborates processes that are relevant to a sociology of justification and critique as well as the renewed interest in the sociology of creativity and aesthetics.

Environment and Society

TABLE NUMBER 4

Charismatic Megafauna and Beyond: How Cultural Schemas and Organisational Routines Shape

Conservation

Robinson, K., Krause, M.

(Goldsmiths, University of London)

It has long been suggested that charismatic species attract a disproportionate amount of attention and resources in the global battle to protect biodiversity. We follow up on this finding to investigate how cultural schemas and organizational routines shape resource allocation and conservation more broadly. Based on 44 in-depth interviews with programme managers in international conservation NGOs and in zoos with conservation programmes, we discuss the ways in which national boundaries, charismatic landscapes, and charismatic solutions influence what organisations do and don't do in this field. Political boundaries shape the conditions under which NGOs can do their work and they shape NGOs' work via donor priorities. Some types of landscapes, such as forests, attract more attention in conservation than others, such as grasslands. Some courses of action, such as monitoring and fencing off land, can be chosen over others due to routines and taken-for-granted assumptions.Our research design directly targets a key site of resource allocation and provides some insight into possible mechanisms that affect the distribution of resources.

199 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

Emerging Ecological Subjectivities? An Investigation on the Opportunities of the Economic Crisis

Dal Gobbo, A.

(Cardiff University)

The ecologic crisis is posing serious questions to global capitalism. Being a system of infinite growth, capitalism has exploited the earth in the interests of accumulation, favoured by Western constructions of nature as inert matter in contrast with conscious human beings. The 2008 financial crisis constitutes a second challenge to this system.

Together, they call for a redefinition of social priorities and lifestyles, to bring to the forefront the interests of the living

(human and non-human) over those of dead capital. Reduced affluence could help this transition. I propose a reflection on data from ethnographic work in a town in the North-East of Italy in light of vitalist and new materialist contributions. Thinking of matter as endowed with creative capacity for change, these approaches defy human-nature dualisms; think about the agency of embodied human beings; introduce questions of desire, affects and libidinal investments. I draw especially on Deleuze and Guattari's 'assemblage theory' in order to investigate whether trajectories of change are arising within the sphere of the everyday. On the premise that flows of desire are in flux through matter, but shaped by power relations and wider economic flows, I look at everyday energy use in the context of the ecologic and financial crises. Are the unsustainable desiring assemblages that capitalism induces being deterritorialised and re-shaped towards non-dualistic, more sustainable, ways of being? If not, what makes them so resilient to their current disruption? How can they be thought in relation to global political and economic events and transitions?

Families and Relationships

TABLE NUMBER 5

Remembering Informal Support in the Welfare Mix – The Significance of Informal Financial Support Between

Family and Friends on Low Incomes

Alexander, E.

(London School of Economics)

This paper argues that informal welfare needs to be better acknowledged as a significant source of support to people on low incomes in the UK. This argument is based on data showing that extensive financial support is being provided to people on low incomes by their extended family members and friends.

The paper draws on the theoretical arguments of Robert Pinker (1974; 1979), who reasoned that the study of social policy must be extended to consider how people secure welfare for themselves in their everyday lives. Pinker argued for a framework for thinking about welfare provision which reached beyond the state and the market to include familial and other sources of informal welfare.

Data from the Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey, the Family Resources Survey, and the British Household Panel

Survey show that family and friends are a common source of regular financial support to people on low-incomes. The paper argues that these informal financial arrangements should be better acknowledged and understood as a major element in the UK's welfare mix.

Drawing on in-depth interviews with 200 social housing tenants, this paper also engages with Pinker's thinking around social exchange relationships, by considering the moral dimensions of providing and receiving welfare within family or friendship networks. The paper argues for a greater understanding of the forms of reciprocity and obligation at play between family members and friends as a result of the informal provision of welfare.

Participation in Adult Community Learning and Parental Involvement in Schooling: What Benefits for the Next

Generation?

Samuel, S.

(Cardiff University)

The argument that parental participation in adult community learning (ACL) plays a part in influencing children's later life outcomes is appealing but as such there is little empirical data to prove that this may be the case. Nevertheless, recent studies have found that no matter the origin of a mother's background, ethnic grouping or disadvantages faced throughout the life course, mothers who study at university stand to increase their children's chances of success.

Moreover, further studies argue that exposure to higher education after childbirth can change some parenting behaviours, especially in relation to activities that focus on children's schooling. However the mechanisms by which this process occurs are not fully understood. In light of these findings, this paper explores the extent to which participation in ACL influences parents' perceptions and practices with respect to the education of their children.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

200

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

Drawing on transformative learning theory (Mezirow:1981), the study identifies some of the mechanisms involved in the social dynamics of learning; highlighting the ways in which parents use reflexivity and external cues to form new learning identities. Using a 'biographical narrative' approach:24 parents (18 female:6 male) that left school at 16/17 years of age or earlier were interviewed, as well as 13 of their offspring. Initial findings suggest that parents who participate in ACL, especially at the higher levels, are able to draw upon the learning to effectively support their children through school, while parents who experience minimal levels of learning often struggle to support their children.

Sexual Relationships of Women With Learning Disabilities: An Exploration of Views and Experiences

Ndadzungira, C.

(The Open University)

Women with learning disabilities are women too and like women without disabilities they desire to express their sexuality, to love, to be loved, sexual relationships, to marry and to have children if they choose to. This paper explores empirical data drawn from fifteen one to one semi structured interviews with 15 women with mild to moderate learning disabilities:23 to 55years old. Their views on and their experiences of being in sexual relationships or not is discussed. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis framework was used to analyse interview data. All participants are members of a Dating and Friendship Agency for adults with learning disabilities. In order to build rapport with participants before interviewing them on a very sensitive and personal subject, sexual relationship, the researcher worked as a volunteer with the Dating Agency. Some studies in the past portrayed negative perspectives on the sexuality of women with learning disabilities and a lack of knowledge. Contrary to these findings most women in this study presented as sexual agents empowered to make choices on sexual needs and aspirations. Although most women aspired to be in sexual relationships this is not always a given. Some women are still faced with the challenge of negative attitudes on their reproductive rights from friends, family and professionals. Most women said that at some point in their lives someone had said they are not capable of either having a baby or looking after it. The findings raise interesting debates.

Medicine, Health and Illness 1

TABLE NUMBER 6

Invisibles, Relapsed, and Misfits?

Törölä, M.

(University of Eastern Finland)

Forensic psychiatric patients are a group of people who have committed a crime and been through a mental state examination which has led them to involuntary psychiatric care. My ongoing thesis examines the social background, the social status, and the patterns of the usage of institutional care of these patients

My research question is:

1) What kind of social status have forensic psychiatric patients had before committing a crime?

The data (n = 218) consists of the reports of the mental state examination, the records of the previous psychiatric hospital treatment, extracts from the criminal records, and the records of the previous terms of punishment. Statistical methods of analysis are applied in this research. Forensic psychiatric patients can be divided into three group on the grounds of their history of criminal sanctions and psychiatric care. In my paper the characteristics and the narratives of the members of these three separate groups based on an official information are presented.

The Experiences of Pregnant Women With Body Weight Issues and Their Midwives

Iyekekpolor, M.

(University of Huddersfield)

Pregnant women with BMI 30kg/m2 and over are classified as 'high risk' pregnant women (NICE:2008), and this classification supports the need for a shared antenatal care, an antenatal care provision whereby women have both a named midwife and an obstetric consultant. This care is medicalised and means that these women are expected to give birth in a consultant-led unit. There is a stream of research that reports increased risks and poorer outcomes associated with being pregnant with high BMI. These reports state that women with a higher BMI are at a higher risk of hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes Brown (2006), miscarriage, re-current miscarriage and caesarean section Krishnamoorthy et al. (2006) and Dodd et al. (2011). However, there is a paucity of research examining the experiences of these women. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of pregnant women with higher BMI and the study will contribute to a better understanding of the experiences of women with high BMI and their needs.

201 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

This paper presents findings from an empirical study of the experiences of pregnant women with high BMI and the healthcare practitioners who provide antenatal care for them, in the North of England. To help gain insight into how women interpret and make meanings about their antenatal care, a qualitative methodology was used. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with women between 16 to 30 weeks of their pregnancies, as well as midwives and obstetric consultants who provide antenatal care for them.

Health Inequalities and the Establishment of National Health System (NHS) in Cyprus (2016). A Sociological

Approach

Kleanthous-Kapakidou, A.

(University of Cyprus)

In the current economic and demographic content, the reform of the National Health System, the most pressing challenge and expected to be fully implemented by mid – 2016, is of prime importance in Cyprus. Leading economy and society to stabilization, priority is nowadays to ensure the financial viability of the healthcare providers and promote health among the population. In light of this, healthy and active ageing should be promoted as a key part of the solution. Furthermore, the establishment of the universal coverage of the population (national health system) would be a step in the right direction, if we want to combat social discrimination, health inequalities and poverty among the elderly. Finally, more attention must be paid to the structure of the health and care sectors, the integration of migrants, the promotion of occupational health and pension patterns, flexible forms of work and lifelong education.

Meeting these societal and economic challenges requires common vision and action across society. Under this prism, social cohesion and growth will be promoted in the post-crisis era.

Medicine, Health and Illness 2

TABLE NUMBER 7

A Medical Doctor and a Host: the Patient-Doctor Relationship in a Transnational Healthcare Setting

Skountridaki, L.

(University of Stirling)

This paper focuses on the globally increasing numbers of patients seeking and receiving private medical treatment in a foreign country. It suggests that the practice of transnational healthcare (Bell et al. 2015) coincides with the development of new forms of relationships between patients and medical professionals. From an initial patient inquiry to the phase of medical intervention, and full recovery, patients and MDs pass through several stages in a relationship which is to a great extent based on online communication. This paper examines the efforts of medical professionals in small/medium private medical units to cope with changing role requirements stemming from the complexity involved in providing care to foreign patients. The empirical research is geographically focused on Greece and Turkey where rich data are collected through qualitative interviews with thirty medical professionals. The findings indicate that medical professionals discover a new role, that of 'a host', linked to new responsibilities, organisational and emotional challenges. The international patient needs extensive information and online consultation prior to the trip; typically has increased expectations from her doctor; and is perceived particularly vulnerable when not familiar with the country of treatment. Participants discuss how they learn to cope with such changes and reveal that as foreign patient numbers grow they share clinical management with a new type of professionals, the international patient coordinators. Patient coordinators need to be trusted for their understanding of medical issues but also communication, language, and cultural skills, and ultimately, for their crucial role in mediating the patient-doctor relationship.

The Human Body in Conventional and Alternative Medicines

Lytovka, M.

(

Maria Curie-Sklodowska University

)

The present paper aims to explore the body as a fundamental category affecting attitudes towards health and illness and to compare the approaches towards the human body within conventional and alternative medicines.

Conventional medicine sees the body as an endless collection of symptoms spread all over its surface. It presents the body as a way of localizing pain, so in the biomedical discourse the body appears as a place of defining and describing pain: it is located in individual parts, organs, limbs, etc. Every real body, different from its image in the atlas of anatomy, becomes an abnormal body, a body that hides its truth and needs to undergo if not urgent treatment then at least careful observation.

The alternative or holistic framework portrays the body as a whole, a dynamic functional unit, in which all parts are interrelated and which possesses its own self-regulatory and self-healing mechanisms. While biomedicine applies a

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

202

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

dichotomy approach striving to delineate illness and health, in holistic medicine, illness is a rather dynamic process of adaptation of the body to changing conditions of outside environment, which completes health in the body. There is not, therefore, a possibility to achieve perfect health.

The disjunction between biomedicine and alternative medicine is often centred on different ways of knowing the human body. As I will try to show, attitudes towards the body in health and illness are to great extent the effect of social and cultural environment and are worth studying within sociology of medicine.

Methodological Innovations

TABLE NUMBER 8

‘I turned the camera on and pointed it at him. He said, I know all about you:’ Representation, Ethics and Visual

Sociology

Thomas, P.

(Goldsmiths College, University of London)

This paper poses the problems of representation and relationality within sociological research, via a case study of the withdrawal of consent by the subject of my research: a man claiming to be a police officer. The subject's changing demands regarding censorship of aspects of the film initially acted as 'creative constraints' for the filmmaker, but the film's ultimate repression at his request raises questions about the consequences of an ethical commitment to

'ongoing informed consent' when seeking to critique powerful social actors or institutions.

I suggest that the presence of my video camera in the interview operated a two-way technological seduction of both interviewer and interviewee. In that the interviewee was seduced by the camera's attention into giving a (consenting) performance of apparent candidness and seeming to divulge damaging professional secrets. Simultaneously, the interviewer was seduced by the potential of the technology to 'capture' the encounter with an aesthetic of 'objectivity,' which might free her from accusations of bias and provide the support of a non-human witnessing to this performance.

I explore wider research issues around ethics: questions of truth, making the invisible visible, voyeurism, anonymity and concealment. Suggesting that these considerations are particularly pertinent to visual sociology, which balances a commitment to ethical guidelines (such as the BSA's) with an imperative to show and produce visualisations. This paper performs the specificity of media in its act of translating film-making into the written text presented here today, considering what is lost, refused or revealed in these differing processes of representation.

Child Poverty in the Cultural Imaginary: Digital Photographs, Dominant Stereotypes and the Media

Lomax, H., Fink, J.

(University of Northampton)

This paper examines the nature and currency of digital images of child poverty in contemporary Britain and explores how particular stereotypes of, for example, blighted urban landscapes and 'broken families' have come to dominate depictions of disadvantage in online media reportage. Our argument is situated in a context of rising social inequality across Europe and increasingly punitive and derogatory discourses around poorer people's lives in the media. The aim of the paper, however, is to consider not only the significance of context for reading images of child poverty but also the value of different theoretical approaches for interrogating processes of interpretation and meaning making. In this we suggest how the language and method of social semiotics offer useful tools through which to articulate how images of child poverty might provoke particular readings. At the same time, we identify how images are always in internal dialogue with the texts in which they are embedded and in external dialogue with their times. By illustrating the insights to be gained by holding these two approaches in tension within analyses of 'found' images, the paper seeks to extend an often neglected theoretical field in the sociology of childhood literature and to encourage more critical reflection on practices of image based research with children and young people.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration

TABLE NUNBER 9

'We are French, but we are not French-French'. Dismantling Essentialism with Longitudinal Ethnography

Truong, F.

(University of Paris 8)

203 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

This paper is part of an extensive ethnographical survey ranging between 5 and 7 years, of 20 students from working class and immigrant backgrounds living in the northern suburbs of Paris, recently published in French (Jeunesses françaises. Bac+ 5 made in banlieue, La Découverte, Paris:2015). The study as a whole analyses social structural constraints as well as oppositional relationships and processes through the lenses of individual cases, plurality of social scenes and temporality. Having to face the 'banlieue' stigma – a combination of territorial stigma, class ostracism, cultural illegitimacy, racism and islamophobia - the students build a pluripositional sense of belonging, which varies upon space, social scenes and configurations. Time is also a key factor. Learning gradually how to cross social frontiers, they manage to stabilise their subjective social position by learning the 'art of the rocking horse'. Made out of four dynamic principles - cut, recognition, biographical continuity and singularisation – it is an empirical response to mainstream essentialism.

Conviviality in Manchester and Barcelona: The Narratives of Polish Migrant Women

Rzepnikowska, A.

(University of Manchester)

The European Union expansion in 2004 has resulted in the most significant migration within Europe in recent years.

This paper concentrates on a new understanding of multicultural societies which emerges from routine interaction between the recent arrivals and established individuals. These new emerging patterns of interaction are a result of what Gilroy (2004) calls conviviality. While the literature on conviviality tends to focus on non-white ethnic minorities, this study fills the gap in research by concentrating on convivial experience of recent migrants coming from a predominantly white society to super-diverse cities. This research empirically explores how conviviality emerges in encounters between Polish migrant women and the local population in Manchester and Barcelona in the context of post-2004 migration. The paper draws on the combination of methods, including participant observation, focus groups and narrative interviews conducted with Polish migrant women in Manchester and Barcelona. The empirically explored encounters are situated at particular times in real, lived environments where individuals interact with one another in a myriad of quotidian situations in various spaces of the neighbourhoods and in the workplaces. These encounters illustrate different forms of conviviality not necessarily free from tensions and classed, racialised, and gendered perceptions of the Other.

Rights, Violence and Crime

TABLE NUMBER 10

Showing Northern Trafficking Route within World System Theory

Kulagina, A.

(University of Edinburgh)

The Northern Trafficking Route is one of the main heroin-trafficking corridors linking Afghanistan to huge markets in

Russia and Western Europe through the Central Asian states (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and

Turkmenistan). The growing cost of the war on drugs – particularly for the worst-affected producer and transit countries such as the countries of Central Asia – has now reached a crisis point which is driving an increasingly highlevel and mainstream debate on drug policy and law reform. There has been little attempt to systematically explain the dynamics in the transit countries. I intend to explore the theoretical framework of World System Theory (WST) that allows global-level analysis of drug trafficking problem of Central Asia. Applied to illegal drug trafficking the WST highlights the fact that drugs can become a significant political and military issue. Controlling the production and availability of this commodity can provide a strategic advantage over other countries. To understand how the drug trade in the Central Asian region can be studied within a WST framework it is important to place the northern trafficking route on the core, semi-periphery and periphery scale. My research will also consider the broader WST application to the power balance in the production of policy and practice by numerous actors cooperating over drug control in Central Asia, targeting the illicit trafficking of drugs across the Northern Trafficking route.

Drug Crime Trends in Relation to Drug Policies in the Czech Republic

Gudmunson, K.

(University of Leeds)

Following the dissolution of the USSR in 1989, the Czech Republic decriminalised possession of drugs for personal use. Over the past 24 years, the policy has been modified, criminalising possession in amounts 'greater than small' in

1999, and setting threshold limits for possession in 2010. These major changes have been accompanied by variations in penalty severity and punishments used for drug crimes. As the Czech Republic has one of the longest continuous

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

204

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

decriminalisation policies, the impacts of this policy could be influential in the decisions of other nations regarding drug use and possession offences.

To evaluate the impact of the policy on crime, I analysed records from the Ministry of Justice and the National Police for trends over time, looking for correlations between policy changes and crime rates. This analysis revealed differences in the patterns of possession versus non-possession-based drug crimes, as well as shifts in offender demographics. In this paper, possible explanations for these trends are discussed in the context of the surrounding drug policy and further research into the impacts of drug decriminalisation policies on crime is proposed.

Science and Technology Studies

Table Number 11

Polarisation of Knowledge Claims in Regulatory Science: Early Debates Over Public Safety in Chemical

Product Regulation

Coles, A. M.

(University of Greenwich)

In policy arenas, it is often claimed that regulation of technology should be based on 'sound science'. There has, however, been a lack of academic commentary which focuses on the processes of translating practices of laboratory science into the pragmatic requirements of legal standards setting. This paper attempts to redress this issue by focusing on a particular phase of policy setting in the decade following the end of the Second World War. During this period there was a proliferation of new chemical-based products in sectors such as processed food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. This situation soon gave rise to concerns regarding the impact that many novel substances might present to the public health.

Within the scientific literature, however, there was a lack of consensus regarding an optimal approach for gathering evidence on safe doses of chemicals. Existing poisons' regulation was based on a backward looking list of proscribed substances. This list depended on extensive prior knowledge of the relationship between dose and effect. Scientific debate now raged over the best means of collecting predictive data on the potential effect of chemicals new to the human body. Should these substances be subject to rigorous scientific analysis or would statistical methods be quicker, economic and sufficient? This paper will present an analysis of the polarised views that were articulated in the

UK during the 1940s and 1950s by different professional groups. It will identify processes of debate and negotiation that underpin decision making in situations where science informs policy.

Rehabilitating the Third Stage Of EPOR: Or how the Social Environment Affects Knowledge on the Laboratory

Bench

Panagiotou, A.

The Empirical Program of Relativism (EPOR) was introduced in 1981 as a three-stage framework which highlighted the intrinsic social nature of scientific development. More than three decades later EPOR is still used as a mainstream approach and its record of assessed empirical cases has been considerably enriched. Nonetheless, its third stage – that is, the impact of society on knowledge produced at the laboratory bench – is often quietly dropped from the scheme. In this paper I argue for the rehabilitation of EPOR's third stage by suggesting that the impact of society is present throughout the production of scientific knowledge – that is, in both stages one and two – through the form of external structures (conditions of action) and internal structures (agents' structures). The argument is developed along the premises of Strong Structuration Theory as a comprehensive theory of social action which can refer to the ontic level and offer explanations of particular outcomes. Evelyn-Fox Keller's life and Harry Collins' leaping-lizards controversy will be used as some examples which highlight how the social world outside the scientific community affects the production of scientific knowledge both internally and externally.

Articulating the Scientific Objects in a Tibetan Village

Hu, S.

(University of Edinburgh)

The paper will be based on three recorded dialogues among the Tibetan villagers throughout an ethnography in an eastern Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. These are accordingly an articulation of a traditional herbal medicine, a summoned village talk about a wind disaster, and a talk of a local mudslide-observer. Although dispersive the themes are, all of these dialogues pose the demarcated boundary between science and non-science to be problematic. How clarified is the boundary? When the villagers engaged in the articulation of a scientific object, they do assemble the observances into their account apparently different from a scientist, as they are demarcated apart by the professional

205 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

instruments and by a universal mathematization of the natural world. Yet they do think in quantifying languages, although an exact numerical value is absent. Further, as an assigned local observer, a villager deploys the numerical measurements and took a scientific method to conduct his observations.Thus in the local context of quantifying, what the debris of the non-scientific are in the talks? Rather, is there really a fundamental difference in the epistemic order between the two? Through the dialogues, the paper addresses how a science and the local village knowledge encounter one another and embeds in one another.

Social Divisions / Social Identities 1

TABLE NUMBER 12

The Bank Of Mum And Dad: Inter-Generational Gifts and Housing Inequality in London

Friedman, S., Moor, L.

(London School of Economics)

This paper reports on findings from 30 qualitative interviews with people who have recently brought property in

London with familial financial support. It is widely recognized that inter-generational transfers of capital play a significant part in the reproduction of inequality; more recently there has been an explicit focus on the role of housing and property within this. Our research focused on the experience of inter-vivo 'gifting' from the perspective of those who benefited from it. All were able to buy property in London during a period of extremely high rates of house price growth as a result of financial aid from parents. Our analysis focuses on two key themes: first, how those interviewed oriented themselves towards questions of fairness and inequality, and did or did not offer explanations or justifications for the inequalities in property ownership that such gifts perpetuate; second, how those interviewed accounted for the emotional dimensions of property purchase – specifically, how the transfers of capital that had enabled property purchased affected their relationships with family, and also with wider friendship networks. We offer some tentative conclusions about the implications of our findings for future studies of economic inequality and for housing policy.

Postindustrial Urban Development, Social Inequalities and a Local Field of Power. A Case Study From Poland

Rek-Wozniak, M.

(University of Lodz)

The argumentation of the proposed paper is grounded in the conviction that public debate, dominated by the elite discourses, creates the space for legitimization of policies crucial for the social order in general and specifically, for the shape of the social structure. The decline of post-war consensus concerning the relationship between the market, the state and the society reinforced a belief in pro-market utopia, where rising inequalities were easily justified as inevitable for all the 'post-industrial' societies, which were assumed to consist mostly of the middle classes. While the social structure is generally constructed on the macro level, the processes occurring in local political and welfare arenas seem to play a key role in shaping both living conditions and opportunities of the citizens. However, these local contexts seem particularly under-studied.

The proposed paper will be based on a case study tracking class narratives emerging from debates surrounding the strategies of local development developed since 2010 in one of the Polish post-industrial cities (Lódz). The struggles aimed at imposing certain visions of modernization, renewal or citizenship conduce the mobilization of collective actors, representing different class-based interests. The presentation will focus on the reconstruction of the strategies employed by interest groups acting within the within the local field of power as defined by Pierre Bourdieu.

Social Divisions / Social Identities 2

TABLE NUMBER 13

The Turkish Society Between Division and Cohesion

Celik, E.

(Gediz University)

Turkey, for some scholars, has a society divided into those who are religious and those who are not. Taking sides in debates varies by people's perception of religiosity, secularity, Islam, etc. This paper addresses the extent of divisions between secular and religious students, and explores their origins, as seen by the students, and assesses the debate from philosophical, political, and social angles. Another aim of this presentation is to explore whether the differentiation in Turkish society results in extreme polarisation or whether it is a natural consequence of a pluralistic

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

206

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

society. At this point, some important questions arise: What is the essential character of these changes in Turkish society? Should such differentiation as exists in the society be termed 'division'? If we can speak of 'division', is this something novel, and if it is, it harmful? Through my findings from the fieldwork and in-depth interviews in Istanbul, I find out whether there is a division among Turkish secular and religious university students and, if so, to ascertain this of the mentioned division. I also explore how this division came about, as seen from the viewpoint of the university students, and then assess the debate from philosophical, political, and social angles. Another aim is to explore whether the differentiation in Turkish society results in extreme polarisation or whether it is a natural consequence of a pluralistic society.

Global families, Emotional Dynamics and Social Change. Towards a Micro-situated and Emotion-based Model of Citizenship and Social Inclusion

Pratesi, A.

(University of Chester)

This paper addresses fundamental political, cultural and sociological implications of the current international refugee crisis in terms of social inclusion, citizenship and social change. The EU refugee crisis needs going beyond unilateral, inflexible and value-neutral definitions of entitlement to rights. This requires shifting the focus upon the micro level of analysis and to look at the spaces where the situated actions and interactions occur, at the ways, in other words, in which people constantly construct and reconstruct their sense of entitlement and belonging. Citizenship and social inclusion (macro level) are associated in this paper to the 'sentiments' and the 'practices' of family care (micro level).

The term 'world families' (Beck:2014) includes a heterogeneous and tension-filled set of social actors who share in common the potentiality to bridge traditional distinctions between public and private, centre and periphery, national and international, bypassing dichotomous ideas of inclusion/exclusion which typically characterise the concept of citizenship. 'Global citizens' and 'global families' are the terms I use in this context to indicate refugees, asylum seekers and other unequally entitled citizens.

From the theoretical point of view, the approach here illustrated draws on those aspects of the sociology of emotions that explain inequality in terms of emotion-based processes which occur at the level of micro-situated interactions.

More specifically, the paper is based on Collins' theory of Interaction Ritual Chains (2004), according to which the fundamental mechanisms defining the individuals' statuses in society possess an emotional nature rather than a merely economic, cultural, social or political one.

Sociology of Education

TABLE NUMBER 14

'Lecturer Stress and Burnout' - 'Private Troubles and Public issues'

Baron, A.

(University of Central Lancashire)

This paper explores the experience of 'Lecturer Stress and Burnout' in British Higher Education. The analysis contextualises this phenomenon within the sociology of emotions and applies the notion of 'Private Troubles and

Public Issues' from C. Wright Mill's concept, the 'Sociological Imagination' (1959) to explain the increasing levels of stress in this occupational group. The paper's formulation originated from the initial stages of a PhD thesis that is engaging in qualitative research, a methodology that is uncommon in this specific field. Several issues are examined, the prevalence of stress, perceived causes identified by lecturers, the coping strategies they implement and how

'individualistic' SMIs (Stress Management Interventions) are orthodoxy in organisational practice and research policy recommendations. The paper highlights from the research literature and primary data that excessive workplace demands and a deficit of resources are significant factors in the causation of workplace stress and burnout in Higher

Education. It is contested that this toxic organisational dynamic needs to be analysed in relation to the effects of Neo-

Liberal educational policies. It is further argued that because existing research studies disregard this factor, SMIs inadvertently endorse and recommend organisational policies that 'individualise' solutions to alleviate this occupational health problem. This paper asserts that this major deficiency of analysis needs to be re-framed in a more complex micro-macro sociological relationship incorporating the interplay between the individual, organisational culture and education policy, hence the need for Mill's 'Sociological Imagination', that lecturer stress is not just a 'private trouble' but a 'public issue'.

207 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

Lost in Translation? The Global Field of Academic Knowledge Production and Different Mediums for

Encoding Knowledge

Mazenod, A.

(Universite Paris-Dauphine)

The worth of new academic knowledge tends to be tested against global metrics of citations and articles published in high-ranking academic journals. The pressure to produce academic knowledge in English is being driven by the systems of evaluating research, which privilege Anglophone centre based journals that publish articles in English.

Anglophone centre academic journals are effectively acting as gate-keepers in the global field of academic knowledge production. This has some important implications for the production of academic knowledge. First, academic knowledge that is considered of greatest importance is produced or recontextualised in the medium of the English language. Entangled with the language of the knowledge production are the original meanings and contexts from the local research setting(s) that or may not be adequately represented through the final medium. Second, the preference for English is indirectly demoting academic knowledge produced or re-contextualised into other languages. Third, by demoting academic knowledge produced in other languages, the global field of academic knowledge production may in fact be impoverishing the conceptual models of thinking that academics can usefully draw upon.

This paper draws on examples from a small-scale comparative empirical study of apprenticeship education systems.

The research study included a series of systematic literature reviews in three European languages and a layered process of comparative analysis to keep the contextual meanings of the research findings being synthesized intact for as long as possible before translation into English.

Lies, Damned Lies and Statistics: Training Consumers and Producers of Research

Hampton, J

(Cardiff University)

This paper is set in the context of the perceived quantitative 'crisis' in the social sciences. This concern is exemplified by Nuffield, ESRC and HEFCEs establishment of the national network of Q-Step centres as a 'strategic response to the shortage of quantitatively skilled graduates'. A great deal of the work conducted by these centres necessarily focuses on teaching and learning within Higher Education. However, the concern and focus may also be extended to those earlier in their academic career. There is national concern of an apparent lack of students engaging with quantitative methods and numeracy post GCSE. This is clearly reflected in the introduction of core maths in England and the quantitative element of the individual investigation within the Welsh Baccalaureate. The shortage of adequately numerate students has resulted in what the British Academy (2012) referred to as a 'schools gap', accounting for an estimated minimum of 150:000 new undergraduates having skills below that required. The concern lies not only with those who make the transition into academia, rather the concern should extend to the wider public. It becomes ever more necessary to be able to competently understand and have the ability to critique statistics in order to fully participate in the democratic process of our data-driven modern society. This requires a focus on training consumers, as well as producers, of research.

Bearing in mind this context, this paper will present a reflexive analysis of activities aimed at improving sociology students understanding of quantitative methods carried out by Cardiff University.

The Taste in Secondary Education: An Empirical Analysis of the Art Schools and Their Students

Uboldi, A.

(University of Milano Bicocca)

This paper examines the pupils' experience of choosing artistic schools in a way that is intended to develop understandings about the role of family and social background. The findings are based on a qualitative analysis of indepth interviews and focus group with young students and their parents. The study investigates the experiences of the students of two high secondary schools, one private and one private, in the city of Milano. Adopting a Bourdieusian perspective, the study focuses specifically on the role of cultural capital. The research investigates how the young people, and their families, choose and live this peculiar educational experience. The artistic pathway is problematized as atypical, an 'against the grain' choice. Here specific reference is made to cultural capital to explore the meanings of this school life, representations about the artistic jobs, and the aspirations on the future. It is argued that the school choice and the artistic aspiration are classed concepts and they are linked to neoliberal order. The analysis suggests that artistic school world can act as a relevant social barrier for students with low cultural capital and as a peculiar opportunity for the others, especially for those with high cultural capital but underachievers. This analysis led to an examination of the links between scholastic and family cultural capital; links that can provide some insights on reproductive educational dynamics and on creative fields.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

208

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

(Re)producing Peace? A (Post)Critical Ethnography of Peace Education in One United Nations University

Kester, K.

(University of Cambridge)

This study aims to investigate how peace intellectuals in the United Nations conceptualize the field of peace studies, how they position themselves within the field, and how they interpret its ambitions and pedagogical elements in terms of creating peace. The study is informed by the theories of violence/capital/habitus and reflexivity postulated by Pierre

Bourdieu (1988:1989:2003) and Johan Galtung (1969; 1971; 1996), and the study is epistemologically grounded in social constructivism (Lather:1992; Fairclough:1995; Kincheloe:2005). Knowledge obtained from this study is an amalgamation between the experiences of 25 peace intellectuals with data triangulated through interviews, participant observation and questionnaires with postgraduate students of one United Nations university. Methodologically, the study is grounded in qualitative (post)critical ethnography using a case study approach. Data has been collected through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, field-notes and open-ended questionnaires with lecturers and postgraduate students, and the analysis follows a multi-level discursive and thematic approach. The major contribution of the research is in offering reflexive insights into the work of peace intellectuals in the United Nations as they structure and are structured by the field of peace studies, as well as indicating forms of symbolic power/violence and social (re)production within the field'.

Theory

TABLE NUMBER 15

Schematising the Social: Difficulties, Rights and Wrongs

Dudley-Smith, R., Whiteman, N.

(UCL Institute of Education)

In his Sociology as Method, Dowling (2009) has suggested a method for social research that centres around the development of schemas. A schema maps local instances of emergent strategic action by arranging orthogonally two instances of polar opposites seen to be deployed in the ordering of social process; thus generating four modes. These may repeat across empirical settings and/or be related to other schemas describing the current setting. The theoretical productivity of schemas conceived in this way is that they purify a relational sociology in the sense put forward by

Bourdieu in The Logic of Practice (1990); but in a way that is much easier to operationalise than Bourdieu's own apparatus. In particular, the emphasis on polarity avoids imposing mensurated dimensions on the qualitative.

This paper considers a number of principles necessary for schemas to achieve full relationality in theoretical thinking.

Some of these point to the pedagogic difficulties we have encountered (in ourselves as well as our students) in adopting Dowling's approach. We then compare some properly relational schemas with other approaches to mapping social action involving similar looking spaces. Our central argument is that some of these involve a failure of relationality and a resulting tendency to introduce hidden theoretical assumptions. Further, in the light of our work, some well-known calls for relational sociology, for example Emirbayer's Manifesto (1997), can themselves be seen to fail in terms of what they set out to achieve.

Slowing Down Modernity: A Critique

Vostal, F.

(Czech Academy of Sciences)

Calls for social and cultural slowdown proliferate in both popular and academic literature. In this paper I argue that the majority of current conceptions of slowness, including the modes of reasoning underpinning such conceptions and the emerging forms of 'institutionalized slowness' are problematic. Even though 'social acceleration' undoubtedly accounts for a significant locomotion characterizing modern experience of time, social slowness – as presently conceived – does not represent for any viable counterpoise. The analysis will offer four points supporting such argument: first, I claim that slowness is actually a very successful capitalist commodity. Second, I highlight potentially dangerous relationship between slowness, parochialism and localism. Third, I argue that slowness is often perceived as an undesired subjective experience. Fourth, notwithstanding some influential interpretations of contemporary modernity as flickering, volatile, runaway, liquid and accelerating, it is possible to say that we presently live in an era of standstill and deep structural rigidity. Against the background of four aforementioned points, in this paper I provisionally outline a critical interpretivist account of slowness rather than strictly oppositional one.

Poppy Fascism and the Symbolic Power of Charity

Dean, J.

(Sheffield Hallam University)

209 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

While usually devoid of formal and statutory power, this paper posits that charities hold sway in the form of symbolic power, the power to encourage, influence, and manipulate. By focusing on separate case studies - such as the remembrance poppy, charities role as lobbying organisations, and the notion of the 'guilt trip' in fundraising - it will examine if and how this 'soft power' operates in the UK charity sector. This will be done using original qualitative interviews with policy practitioners from a range of positions in the sector, and an examination of relevant sociological theory. Both Weber and Bourdieu placed the role of charismatic authority and symbolic capital at the centre of their theoretical explorations of power. The case of the Remembrance poppy demonstrates the symbolic power of a charitable cause, to be manipulated for other concerns. The Royal British Legion are not the 'fascists' in this case; it will be argued that it is a certain section of the UK media who take the alleged snub of war veterans by various public personalities to further their agendas of faux nationalism and outrage. The media are capable of operationalising that power, and applying symbolic violence and stigma to individuals who make private decisions with which they disagree.

This public morality spat is a vivid example of the shaming ability of charity, and provides us an insight into how charity can be weaponised in the public sphere.

Work, Employment and Economic Life

TABLE NUMBER 16

The Relevance of Charisma to Identity for Firefighters and Managers in the UK Fire and Rescue Service

O'Connor, S.

(University of Kent)

Weber's notion of charisma has been subject to on-going academic debate as about its theoretical clarity and power relations within the leader/follower dynamic. Simultaneously, charisma appears as an under-used resource in contemporary academic literature. However, drawing on dimensions of charisma in my own research has proved itself to be an indispensible tool without which, understanding of career choice and workplace relations would be only partially explained. In these respects there remains so much more potential for charisma to be developed further and usefully applied in differing research environments.

Part of a larger project entitled 'The Identity and Career of Watch Managers in the UK Fire and Rescue Service' this paper first examines how the charismatic effect between new firefighter and role model becomes experienced by firefighters in early career. Focus then turns to how charisma surfaces in everyday work relations between watch members. Though charismatic authority is well acknowledged, less so is the way that charisma presents as a relational construct between social actor(s) rather than as a property 'contained' within persons. Addressing this relation, the last section then demonstrates how charisma becomes bound with other concepts such as emotional labour, homosociality and masculinity.

My PhD research is a qualitative study based on data from two Fire and Rescue Services and includes forty face-toface interviews with firefighters to principle managers. Whilst I have found charisma a useful tool, it could also be thoughtfully considered in any social context allowing understandings towards the finer nuances in a range of social relations.

Architecture, Town Planning, Electrical Work and Plumbing: Where and Why Does the Pipeline Leak?

Chilcott, S.

(Oxford Brookes University)

This paper begins by introducing the idea of a leaky pipeline, which has largely been developed in relation to SET and

STEM occupations to help explain women's under-representation across science based occupations. The concept of the leaky pipeline is a critical response to the 'pipeline approach' which presupposes that women's underrepresentation across science is a recruitment or feeder issue. From this perspective to increase women's representation across science, more women must enter the pipeline e.g. study science. On the other hand, the leak pipeline suggests that women's scarcity across science is not merely a recruitment issue, but is attributable to disproportionate losses of women, compared to men, as the science career trajectory develops.

In this paper I develop the leaky pipeline in relation to architecture, town planning electrical work and plumbing, the four occupations which were the focus of my PhD. Thereafter, I analyse the empirical data from my PhD by mobilising the idea of the idea of the leaky pipeline as a framework to compare and contrast my empirical data at various stages, in the career trajectory. I show that whilst women are increasingly moving in to specialist architecture and town planning training, few women are accessing specialist electrical work and plumbing training, and of those who do, a high proportion dropout.

I also consider the importance of theories embedded within a human capital model and social closure theories at the

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

210

Friday 8 April 2016, 09:00 - 10:30

R

OUND TABLE

S

ESSIONS

various stages, or critical periods, in the career trajectory, in accounting for unequal gendered training and working patterns.

Does Father Involvement Shape Parents’ Employment Trajectories?

Norman, H.

(University of Manchester)

Parenthood reinforces a traditional gender division of labour in most countries. When couples have children, mothers reduce their hours of paid work to take on a greater share of the domestic workload, while fathers maintain or increase their paid work hours to compensate for the reduction in household earnings. But behind this headline, there are variations: the division of domestic work is more gender equal in some households compared to others.

My previous work with the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) investigated what influences fathers to get more involved in their children's care given this constitutes a large part of the domestic work in households containing children (Norman et al. 2014; Fagan and Norman 2016). Results showed mothers' employment hours to have the strongest influence on paternal involvement when the child was aged three, more so a father's employment hours.

While this highlights the importance of mothers' employment in shaping paternal involvement at age three, we do not know whether this association works in the reverse, that is, whether the odds of a mother reducing her employment hours, or dropping out of employment are reduced by how involved a father is at home.

To investigate this, I use structural equation modelling on MCS data to analyse what effect paternal involvement has on mothers' (and fathers') employment trajectories nine months and three years after childbirth. This will reveal the extent to which parental employment trajectories are mediated by how involved a father is in his child's care at home.

Career Development of Hotel Middle Managers: What’s Holding Them Back?

Abd-Patah, M. O. R.

(University of Warwick)

Career development studies have been explored across industries including the hotel industry. Nature of hotel career provides different progression patterns, pathways, and encourages high mobility of middle managers. Understanding the aspirations of middle managers are significant for the retention of talents in the industry. Studies suggested that the development was focused on middle managers' career longevity, work relationships, and other external factors including family intervention. Using the LinkedIn professional social network to reach the managers, and by utilising career biography narrative research method, in-depth interviews of 14 hotel middle managers in Malaysia were conducted. In addition to that:11 former hotel middle managers and three hotel/general managers were also able to be interviewed to gather their insights on the issue. Based on the career biographies from the data, the findings point to the changes across the life course, family commitments, knowledge development, and different career trajectories of the middle managers. These findings have an impact on a larger perspective of the role of knowledge, work experiences, occupational factors and opportunity structures in middle managers' career development and what motivates them to stay, leave or progress.

211 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Conference Stream Room

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space G63, Main Building

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 1 Steelhouse 2, CAMS, Main Building

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 2 Conference Centre Room 145

Families and Relationships

Frontiers

Methodological Innovations

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies 1

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Stafford 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre 127

Great Hall, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 144

Conference Centre Room 139

Steelhouse 3, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 3

Science and Technology Studies 2

Social Divisions / Social Identities

Sociology of Education 1

Sociology of Education 2

Conference Centre Room 134

Whitehall 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 1A

Conference Centre Rooms 135-137

Sociology of Religion

Theory

Whitehall 3, CAMS, Main Building

Steelhouse 1, CAMS, Main Building

Work, Employment and Economic Life - SE Conference Centre Room 123

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

The Poetics of Civic Engagement & Women’s Lives: Who’s Got Time for That?

Laidlaw, M.

(University of Edinburgh)

How do our experiences of time help form who we are, and aid or prevent us fitting in or being equal and active members in communities that assume 'each individual's hour [is] standardised as the same hour' (Bastian:2011 p.153)? Investigating the ways that female 'volunteers' manage and experience the various dimensions of temporalities within their leisure, rest, family time, and paid and unpaid working lives may uncover how we consider, or overlook concerns about difference, lifestyle, power, and control within communities.

While exploring what time is to the individual in the community, how do we also recognise temporalities in relation to research methods, and what the democratisation of knowledge about communities' means in practice? New forms of knowledge are emerging about creative research methods: opening opportunities for voices to be heard that have previously been marginalised, and making it possible for these views to be expressed.

Poetry, surrounds itself with time – in its repetitive, rhyming, pausing, stopping, pondering nature; in the temporalities held within the creating process of writing poetry. In a framework of private public dichotomies, where women's civic engagement and temporal experiences could be suggested to still circulate around the private – even when concerned with the public, poetry might allow those personal experiences, spoken by women themselves, to reveal the purposeful, public nature of their work, while also reflecting the overlapping multiplicities of time connected to the home.

Spatial Measures of the Third Sector and their Relationship with Participation and Community Well-Being

Mohan, J., Bennett, M.

(University of Birmingham)

Scholars have attributed various beneficial outcomes to the presence and density of the voluntary, third or nonprofit sector in communities. Relevant examples are Putnam's work on social capital or Sampson's studies of collective efficacy. The UK literature on this subject is relatively limited. The present paper deploys findings from extensive work with UK datasets on a range of third sector (charitable, social enterprise, and other nonprofit) organisations in which indicators have been constructed of the distribution and economic weight of such organisations at various spatial scales. We construct indicators using administrative data (regulatory returns to the Charity Commission, for charities in England and Wales; Companies House data on a wider population of nonprofits); and survey data for England covering a wider population of third sector organisations). We use the Citizenship Survey for England and Wales to which we have linked data at three spatial scales (super output areas; local government districts / unitary authorities; and the 'top tier' local authorities in England) on various spatial measures of the third sector. We use multilevel modelling techniques which account for compositional (individual-level) and contextual (community-level) variations.

Firstly we investigate the relationship between the distribution of voluntary resources and the likelihood of engagement in various pro-social behaviours such as volunteering. Secondly we analyse whether the large number of indicators we construct of the third sector 'footprint' have discernible effects on perceptions of social cohesion or related measures of social capital. Our conclusions are that there is little evidence to suggest that they do.

Cities, Media and the Risk of Global Pandemics

Pieri, E.

(University of Manchester)

This paper is based on research investigating how cities in the West securitise against global pandemics, and the social implications that arise. Pandemics pose new and difficult challenges, not least in relation to mapping and controlling contagion beyond the immediate locations of disease outbreak. The recent unfolding of the Ebola crisis, the

2002-3 SARS epidemic and the 2008-9 H1N1 flu pandemic illustrate some of the implications and added complexities of increased connectivity.

Risks associated with the spread of pandemics generate intense and high-profile speculation in Western media.

Taking the recent Ebola outbreak as a case study, the paper critically engages with the media re-framing of this humanitarian health crisis into a security threat primarily.

215 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Critical studies of security (for instance Coaffee et al. 2009;Massumi 2009) contend that cities respond to a wide range of threats by embracing pre-emptive strategies. Crowded cities and large airports are often seen as significantly increasing the risk of contagion beyond initial outbreak sites, however geographically remote. While much research and financial investment is devoted to medical treatment, international humanitarian aid, and the pursuit of innovation

(from vaccines to modelling of contagion), Western cities also prepare to avert, contain and respond to threats of infection.

Fighting Incumbent Energy Regimes in Cities? Urban Energy Transitions as Strategic Action Fields

Koehrsen, J. O.

(University of Basel)

In the context of rising efforts to fight climate change, cities engage in low carbon transition processes. Actors' related to different social spheres (politics, science, economy, media, civil society etc.) intermingle in these processes. So far, however, an approach to describe the interplay of different types of actors in local energy transition processes is missing. This article proposes the field perspective as an approach to study this interplay. Social fields are conceptualized meso-level social orders in which different types of actors interact based on shared structures in form of understandings, rules, and relationships. The approach is applied is to the empirical case of the energy transition in the German city Emden. In the course of the interplay of local politicians, businesses, municipal employees, scientists, citizen initiatives, a local energy transition field emerges which is marked by hierarchies, collaboration, shared understandings, and differing positions regarding the purpose of the energy transition. While in the case of Emden, the field formation facilitates the local transformation process by generating a frame in which actors relate to each other, the general field approach can be applied to differing contexts – including those in which low carbon transformations barely become manifest – to analyze the power-constellations, barriers, and (potential) accelerators of local energy transition processes.

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 1

S

TEELHOUSE

2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

‘Inclusive’ and ‘Professional’; Interrogating the Goffmanian ‘Realities’ of a Creative Dance Class

Whiteside, B.

(Royal Conservatoire of Scotland)

Defined as an activity 'in which participants with and without disabilities engage together' (Quinlan and Bates:2008, p.140), inclusive dance has been explored in a number of contexts including therapy, education and professional practice. However, empirical literature on inclusive dance is limited (Quinlan and Bates:2008; Zitomer and Reid:2011) and existing studies overwhelmingly focus on dance participants with physical rather than learning disabilities, reflecting the preoccupation with bodily and performance aesthetics in 'disabled dance' (Herman and Chatfield:2010) and the relegation of dance participants with learning disabilities to the sphere of dance therapy rather than dance education (Benjamin 2002; Zitomer and Reid).

This research explores the 'realities' (Goffman:1959) uncovered in a case study on one inclusive creative dance class that focused on attaining superior dance performance through promoting mutual respect and understanding between participants, teachers, support workers and volunteers. Data gained from observations and interviews, based on patterns of social interaction exhibited within the class, was framed using Erving Goffman's (1959) model of dramaturgy to consider the 'individual' and 'team' dance and social performances given. Particular focus is on the meaning and nature of inclusivity and professionalism and the use of specific learning and teaching strategies, to promote a particular experience or 'reality' that aimed to be both inclusive and professional.

Flexible Selves in Flexible Times? Yoga, Spaces of Recreation, and New Middle Class Subjectivities in

Istanbul

Erkmen, T. D.

(Ozyegin University)

As part of a research project on new middle class subjectivities and recreational activities in Istanbul/Turkey, this paper explores narratives of middle class practitioners of yoga. In the last two decades, parallel to the rise of what is referred to as 'new middle classes' in Turkey, activities such as yoga, running, and cycling, which were non-existent as popular middle class activities before, saw increased participation through communities that formed around them.

Here I look at yoga not only as a consumptive practice that marks middle class status, but also as an activity that creates spaces where new identifications can be worked out and articulated. I am interested in whether the spaces,

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

216

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

networks, and communities that are formed through these new practices allow for the cultivation of discourses that challenge or question neoliberalism and its associated market values. Should we see these spaces as a refuge, as an elective 'partial exit' strategy for new middle classes within an increasingly authoritarian and neoliberal context, or should they be seen as spaces where neoliberal subjectivities are recreated? What can we learn from middle class yoga-practitioners' narratives about new subjectivities that are articulated? Do we encounter new forms of solidarity emerging out of these networks?

Overall, this paper contributes to discussions on new middle classes, 'actually existing neoliberal subjectivities,' and their link to political potentials using a non-Western case. It also seeks to provide empirical material on the practices and narratives of a subgroup of new middle classes in Istanbul.

Reconceptualizing Aesthetic Cosmopolitanism: Evidence from the Early Consecration of Anglo-American pop-rock in Italy

Varriale, S.

(University of Warwick)

This paper explores how foreign, recently imported cultural forms can redefine dynamics of legitimation in national cultural fields. It contributes to growing research on cultural legitimation and 'transnational' cultural fields showing how cultural intermediaries struggle over the symbolic boundaries of new, 'cosmopolitan' forms of cultural capital.

Drawing on archival research, the paper discusses the early consecration of Anglo-American pop-rock in 1970s Italy and analyzes the articles published by three specialist music magazines. Findings reveal the emergence of a shared pop-rock canon among Italian critics, but also that this 'cosmopolitan capital' was mobilized to implement competing editorial projects. Italian critics promoted different strategies of legitimation vis-à-vis contemporary popular music, but also opposite views of cultural globalization as a social process. Theoretically, the paper conceptualizes 'aesthetic cosmopolitanism' as a symbolic resource which can be realized through competing institutional projects, rather than as a homogeneous cultural disposition. It explores how Italian critics working for competing magazines promoted different 'cosmopolitan' musical canons and ways of being 'culturally modern'.

The paper draws on a three-year doctoral research; it uses a combination of discourse/content analysis of magazine articles, and historical analysis of various secondary sources (in line with Pierre Bourdieu's field theory:1996).

Punks’ Politics: Educative Practices in Subcultural Circles

Lohman, K.

(University of Warwick)

Punk has always been closely engaged with various forms of political activism and engagement. These discussions have often focused on punk ideologies rather than taking individual punks' political activities into account. This presentation will seek to unpick what it means to be a punk and to be politically active. It examines the wider practices of those involved in this subculture and considers the political potential of these activities.

What counts as 'political' is a hotly contested battle. I will briefly engage with debates over what can be constituted as subcultural political activism, proposing that we can learn from Giddens' (1994) and Beck's (1994) attempts to widen the definition of politics, whilst not falling into overly simplified, ahistorical notions of individualisation in political engagement (Smart:2007).

This presentation will utilise empirical data based on interviews with Dutch punks collected as part of an ethnographic research project 2010-2011. It proposes that Dutch punks engage in a wide variety of activism: from the collective

(e.g. benefit gigs, animal rights' organisations), to the individual (e.g. practices of consumption and reading).

The lens of 'educative practices' will be used to interrogate the ways in which a variety of practices may be imbued with political importance. Cultural monopolies of formal education do not eradicate alternative, punk, systems of education; educating oneself and each other remains a key strategy in political struggles. Examples provided range from educational organisations, the writing and distribution of political reading material, to informal conversations and self-education.

217 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

145

Connecting/Re-Connecting, Offenders and Ex-Offenders with the Wider Community Through Commensality and Everyday Foodways

Parsons, J.

(Plymouth University)

This paper draws on initial findings from a Sociology of Health & Illness Foundation (SHI) Mildred Blaxter post-doctoral research fellowship entitled: Commensality (eating together) as a tool for health, well-being, social inclusion and community resilience at a rural offender resettlement scheme. This scheme offers support and training to recently released offenders and those released on temporary license (ROTL), collectively referred to as trainees. At the heart of the project is sharing a lunchtime meal with visitors and volunteers, which helps break down barriers. Lunch is a locally grown vegetarian meal that can be considered an act of 'table fellowship', developed specifically to encourage social inclusion, to build links between trainees and the wider community and for trainees to develop social skills and tastes in food they might not otherwise have experienced. Indeed, everyday foodways (ways of 'doing food) and early food experiences are significant in shaping identity. Thus the sharing of everyday foodways has the capacity to create and re-create social bonds and cultural values. Arguably we eat nothing in isolation, but as part of a culture, so that we feed not only our appetites but also our social values and desire to belong. These connections and re-connections have the capacity to work for everyone involved with the scheme, in terms of fostering inclusion and acceptability. The research aims to consider the impact of the daily lunch, through participant observation of lunchtimes and associated food activities, photo dialogues in groups and individual interviews with trainees, stakeholders, volunteers, staff and visitors.

'I need fish fingers and custard': The Irruption and Supression of Vegan Ethics in 'Doctor Who'.

Stewart, K., Cole, M.

(Nottingham Trent University)

This paper explores tensions between challenging and reproducing the exploitation of other animals as food in the BBC television series Doctor Who. The critical focus of the paper is on the ways in which the programme suppresses a logical tendency towards vegan ethics. This is frequently implicit, and occasionally explicit, especially as manifested in opposition to the construction of 'victim' species (often, but not only, human) as

'inferior', as a legitimation for violence and exploitation.

A common theme of the programme is the Doctor (a member of an alien species) saving humankind from exploitation or extermination by alien Others. Thus, Doctor Who frequently explores a science fiction trope of exploding hubristic human 'superiority' in the face of technologically and/or intellectually superior alien threats, traceable to the roots of the genre: In HG Wells' The War of the Worlds, humans are consumed as food by the invading Martians. This trope was explicitly manipulated to directly challenge 'meat'-eating in the three-episode 1985 serial, The Two Doctors, which concludes with the Doctor declaring to his human companion; 'from now on it's a healthy vegetarian diet for both of us'. However, in the new series of Doctor Who, the Doctor's vegetarianism has vanished, and replaced with onscreen food practices that sit uncomfortably with the moral logic of the character's consistent opposition to domination and exploitation on the basis of claims to 'superiority'. As such, the new series is exemplary of the mainstream cultural suppression of discomfiting ethical challenges to conventional exploitative food practices.

Making Sense of Cultural Medley Through the Lens of Food and Modernity

Kesimoglu, A.

(City University London)

This paper is about negotiations of identity as can be perceived through food preferences and consumption in cultural medley, such as that of Turkish society. It stems out of consumption studies, in particular consumption of culture and taste. As most studies in this field often stem out of the Western hemi-sphere and account mostly for stable constructs

(cultural mappings of social positions), a focus on Turkish culture enhances our understanding of different cultural tensions and struggles in different settings.

Turkey makes an interesting case study, given its contested history of modernization and its on-going quest for cultural identity. Positioned between the interdisciplinary fields of cultural studies and sociology of consumption, this paper thus uses food as a gateway into the workings of a changing society. Social change has often been associated with modernity; and, modernity has been a dominant theme in socio-cultural analyses of Turkish history, consumption and identity. The analysis here also considers the Turkish experience of modernity and evaluates individuals' food cultures on the basis of their perception of modernity. While modernity and tradition figure prominently as antinomies

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

218

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

in these discussions, a third dimension also appears to be important, that of morality.

Ultimately, the paper reconsiders contours of fragmentation and connection in society, looking at its food cultures as a contested area of modernity, tradition and morality. Food provides a rich platform to reassess this cultural medley. The lens of food also provides an everyday focus to our studies of consumption and identity.

Austere Alternatives? Exploring ‘Alternative’ Food Networks in the Context of Austerity

Beacham, J.

(Lancaster University)

Since its onset in Europe, it has become clear that austerity ought not to be merely understood as a neutral background to sociality and must instead be interpreted as an active political programme reconfiguring subjectivity and lived experiences in diverse ways. Specifically, this paper explores the position of 'alternative' food networks within this programme. Drawing on findings from my qualitative (interviews, food diaries and focus groups) doctoral research undertaken within a case study in Lancashire, this paper will discuss the constitution of 'alternatives' – that is, what designates some food networks as being different and not assimilated into the mainstream of globalised agroindustrial food production – and further will consider the moral justifications, discourses and reasonings behind actors' engagements with these networks. Following this, it will reflect upon the ways in which these principles are manifested in differing practices around food in day-to-day life and in what ways austerity has served to accelerate or rearticulate any shifts in these practices. I argue that austerity is facilitating new ways of thinking about, and relating to, food and its intrinsic relation to social life. Within austerity, rather than being subjected to capitalist logics of abstraction and commodification, food is a negotiated category that people use not only to explicate their moral responsibilities to one another but also to more intangible others in time and space, including land and the natural environment itself.

Families and Relationships

G11 B

YNG

K

ENDRICK

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

'It's Just Children, Right?': Danish Sperm Donors and (Imagined) Relationships

Wheatley, A.

(University of Edinburgh)

Denmark is a major exporter of both anonymous and identity-release donor sperm worldwide, and is home to one the world's largest sperm bank networks. Moreover, the country's legal framework allows for donors to make the choice whether to be anonymous or to release their identity to potential offspring. As such, it represents an interesting case study for an investigation into the experiences of sperm donors, both anonymous and identity-release. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews carried out with donors at a major Danish sperm bank between September

2012 and February 2013.

In this paper, I explore Danish donors' narratives of relatedness and how situate themselves within the new kinship networks that are created through sperm donation. This includes the ways in which they imagine their offspring and the potential recipients of their sperm, and their negotiations with their romantic partners and other family members. I argue that donors draw on various discourses of the biological and the social throughout their accounts in order to frame and reframe relationships in particular ways.

Policies of Recovery: 'Nuclearising' Post-Disaster Families

Lamont, A.

(University of Duisburg-Essen)

The Chinese state envisions the modern Chinese family as small, nuclear and conjugal. Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, the state supported policies directly aimed at 'reconstructing' nuclear families from the 'disordered' remnants of families who had lost family members to the disaster.

The 2008 Sichuan earthquake destroyed hundreds of thousands of families through the destruction of homes, property and jobs and the death and disappearance of almost 90:000 people, including thousands of school children.

While the state was able to innovatively fund the material reconstruction of towns and cities, social reconstruction has proven to be much harder.

In the year following the earthquake, the Chinese government at central and local levels implemented a policy to enable parents who lost their only child in the earthquake to have another child, providing financial and medical support for health checks, counselling and IVF treatment. This policy explicitly targeted childless married parents in the disaster area with a view to 're-nuclearise' them, with little or no equivalent support offered to single parents who

219 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

lost a child, or to families who did not want to have another child.

Using a Foucauldian understanding of normalisation, this research demonstrates why the nuclear family of policy was imposed on the 'disordered' families of the post-disaster reality in China. The state's structural-functional perspective of the family as a welfare institution dependant on (nuclear) structural integrity to function induced the state to promote parenthood as synonymous with disaster recovery. Findings are drawn from discourse analysis and interviews by the author.

Family Practices and Genetic Thinking

Nordqvist, P.

(University of Manchester)

This paper asks questions about the interplay between family practices and 'genetic thinking', and the role of the latter in creating a sense of connection, or disconnect, in contemporary family relationships. The concept of family as practice (Morgan 1996) has been very significant in shaping sociological inquiries into family lives in recent decades. It has represented an important step away from a focus on structural issues and the nuclear family towards a more inclusive approach to exploring family life as nuanced and unresolved. However, in focusing on practices, more discursive aspects of family life have tended to disappear under the sociological radar (Morgan 2013, Smart 2007).

With some notable exceptions, little attention has been paid to how people deploy, even live, ideas and concepts about 'being' family when 'doing' family lives. In this paper I shall consider the social significance of genetic links as a prominent discourse of 'being family' and its entwinement with family practices. I draw on original data from a recent

ESRC-funded study (conducted with Carol Smart, PI) about the impact of donor conception on family relationships. I show that the process of making meaning of the absence of genetic links within families speaks to a much broader cultural tapestry of genetic thinking shaping family practices. I discuss some notable areas where we find that genetic thinking is impactful, and argue for the need for a more sustained exploration of genetic thinking.

Frontiers

S

TAFFORD

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Convergence or Divergence between the Welfare State Models in Central Eastern Europe and the Rest of the

European Union

Rae, G., Piotrowska, K.

(Kozminski University)

This paper investigates the types of welfare state in the post-communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe

(CEE) in relation to those in the rest of the European Union. Using, amongst other methods, cluster analysis, it aims to test the welfare state typology developed by Esping-Andersen and at how it relates to the countries in CEE. It analyses the extent to which the welfare state types existent in CEE and Western Europe are similar and/or whether it is possible to identify a distinct type of welfare state in the post-Communist EU countries.

The vast majority of empirical research carried out on this topic took place in the period just prior to or shortly after the expansion of the EU. (Deacon 2000; Fenge 2007; Rys:2001; Sengoku:2004). These studies have tended to find that the welfare states in CEE do not fit with the Esping-Andersen typology and furthermore that there is little similarity between the types of welfare states in CEE themselves. A dominant thesis in the literature, and one put forward by

Esping-Andersen himself, is that the welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe would converge with his three models.

We question whether this process of convergence is likely to occur due to the specific characteristics of the post-

Communist welfare states and the transition process. If this process of convergence is not occurring then we analyse whether it is possible to identify typical features of these welfare states that distinguish them from the rest of the

European Union.

Impact of Neo-Liberal Policies on Women’s NGOs In Turkey: A Foucauldian Analysis

Kadayifci, E. P., Gedik, E.

(Bozok University)

This study aims to examine the impact of Neo-Liberal policies and gender mainstreaming projects of international organizations on Women's NGO's in Turkey. This examination also intend to provide a critical reading of international gender equality regime in Foucauldian terms of bio-power, governmentality and normalization. By looking into gender

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

220

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

mainstreaming studies which recently define the political frameworks of women's NGOs in Turkey, we aim to grasp some part of this complex relationships.

Methodological Innovations

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

127

Revealing Everyday Life Through Photography and Storytelling

Silver, D.

(University of Manchester)

Edgar Pieterse's (2008) concept of 'radical incrementalism' identifies everyday life as a key site for social transformation, based on the notion that improvements to people's everyday circumstances can lay the basis for future improvements, providing a framework for a radical inductive framework grounded in people's daily lives. This necessitates methods that can uncover the complexity of everyday life, while at the same time are able to contribute towards a more systemic understanding of social inequalities.

This paper will discuss a case study in Salford, which used the methods of photo-voice (Wang:2006) combined with storytelling (Little and Froggett:2010) with six participants to reveal their everyday lives. This project explored ways in which citizens can identify the everyday situated practices that provide support for their communities, and also the challenges that they experience. The focus on support and challenges were selected as themes in order to assess how the methods can be drawn upon to identify both assets within communities that could be strengthened and the policies and practices that create social harm.

The findings from the project suggest that everyday life is multi-dimensional, complex and often connected to historical legacies that have an unavoidable relationship with the future and can be extremely personalised; yet through revealing the everyday it is possible to collectively identify shared challenges and assets that can be drawn upon to effect policy change and support local community action.

Story-Telling, Ethnography And Phronetic Education: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Examining the

Development of 'Wise' Decision-Making in Medicine

Paton, A., Conroy, M., Kotzee, B.

(University of Birmingham)

Phronesis, also known as 'practical wisdom' is a growing theme in the sociology of health and illness, as well as the philosophy of medicine. In the last decade much has been said about phronesis' contribution to theoretical conceptions of the development of 'wise' decision-making in medicine. However little is known empirically to what extent phronesis occurs in practice, and how phronesis develops through medical education and practice. In order to understand the role phronesis plays in the development of 'wise' decision-making in doctors it was necessary to develop an interdisciplinary approach that captured methodology and methods across fields, united by the importance that narrative plays both in the development of phronesis and, we argue, the study of phronesis in practice. We would like to present our unique approach to examining phronesis empirically, focusing on three distinct and ontologically compatible roots. From the humanities, we draw on the virtue ethics philosophy of MacIntyre (1981) who argues that humans are story-telling animals and that our narratives carry meaning (Bruner 1990). From the social sciences

Flyvbjerg et al.'s (2012) phronesis-based ethnography will support the contextualisation of the collected stories. Finally from the arts we draw on a participatory video approach (Schugurensky 2005) to develop a video series that will serve as an educational tool in medical schools.

The Value of Mass Observation Data as a Research Resource for Social Science: Using Data on the

Characteristics of Mass Observation Writers to Address Questions of Representativeness

Lindsey, R., Kamerade, D., Mohan, J., SIlver, C., Stevenson, G.

(University of Southampton)

The Mass Observation Project (MOP) is a volunteer writing project that has run since 1981, and involved approximately 4000 self-selected individuals writing in response to directives - broadly themed questions sent out three times a year. Writers' responses to these directives are personal accounts of their activities and attitudes towards a broad range of issues relating to British society, providing rich sources of insight into the changes and continuities in people's lives. This writing has the potential to be of interest to researchers within the social sciences.

However, for some time there has been a debate about the 'representativeness' of MOP writers with some academics arguing that MOP writers are not representative of the broader UK population, and thus their writing should not be used for research purposes. Others have argued that the depth and quality of MOP writing makes it a unique

221 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

longitudinal resource that can be used by researchers from different disciplinary fields. This debate has impacted on the trust and use of the MOP. This paper seeks to put an end to this debate by presenting sophisticated quantitative analyses of MOP writers' socio-economic characteristics, including occupational measures of class. The paper compares these with qualitative analyses of writer's thoughts on their own class, perceptions of difference and social division, and significant life-course events. This mixed-methods presentation provides insights into the 4000 MOP writers that will enable current and future users of the archive to be confident about how and why they use the MOP as a resource.

From Classificatory to Relational Spaces in Social Research

Whiteman, N., Dudley-Smith, R.

(University of Leicester)

From typologies and taxonomies, to the listing of categories and themes, social science research presents different systems of arrangement for classifying empirical data. This paper considers the nature of such outputs and the methodological issues that they raise. Whilst typologies rest on dictionary models that have been discredited

(Eco:1984), the listing of categories or themes begs the question of the principles that determine their exact enumeration.

An alternative mode of organisation – the relational schemas of Social Activity Method (Dowling:2009) – is then introduced. A move from classificatory to relational spaces is demonstrated via reference to a study of the ethics of media file-sharing activity. Here, Howard Becker's (1963) typology of deviant behaviour is contrasted with a new schema exploring strategies of discernment in responses to such activity. This juxtaposition is used to explore how relational spaces move us away from the idea of classificatory categories as preconceived 'bins' into which empirical objects are fitted (Bowker and Leigh Starr:1999). The paper considers how in developing and deploying such spaces, researchers might avoid the reification of the world as a knowable entity whilst producing a language that has the potential to do 'work' in respect of new empirical material. In doing so, the paper seeks to question the taken-forgrantedness of the 'conceptual exercises' (Bailey:1994) of some current sociological research.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

G

REAT

H

ALL

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Where Race and Ethnicity Go Separate Ways: The Exclusion of Migrant Officers in the Dutch Police Force

Siebers, H.,

(Tilburg University)

Race and ethnicity are often treated as intertwined concepts. In the Netherlands, however, they have gone separate ways and their distinction is vital for understanding the exclusion of migrants as well as to effectively counter such exclusion. This paper, based on both discourse analysis and ethnographic data on the Dutch police, shows that:

1.The Holocaust trauma has created a very strong anti-racism in Dutch political discourses, legal system and public opinion. Dutch contextualised racism is inextricably connected to this trauma.

2.Migrants have been officially labelled as 'ethnic minorities' and as 'allochthones', starting in the 1980s, to prevent their possible racialisation.

3.This multicultural ethnicisation and culturalisation of migrants has created the groundwork for a cultural fundamentalism in Dutch politics, media and society.

4.This cultural fundamentalist discourse on migrants has no meaningful connection to (cultural) racism. It is rooted in strong Dutch anti-racism, not in racism.

5.This cultural fundamentalist discourse on migrants and migration is the corollary of the increasing ethno-nationalist as well as problem-free and 'pure' definition of Dutch society

6.This ethno-nationalism and cultural fundamentalism provide both the occasions and the meanings for the emergence of ethnic conflicts and exclusion of migrant police officers in the Dutch police.

7.Ethno-nationalism and cultural fundamentalism have managed to become 'successful' exactly because they represent something different from racism.

8.We need the terms ethnicity and ethnicisation to come of age vis-à-vis race and racism as concepts on their own in analysing processes of exclusion of migrant.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

222

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Embodying Dangerousness: The Experiences of Black Prisoners in Two High Security Prisons

Bramwell, D.

(Kingston University)

This paper examines black prisoners' experiences in two contrasting maximum security prisons in northern England.

In one of these prisons 14.3% of the prisoner population was black, while in the second black prisoners composed

8.9% of the population. These figures contrast with the composition of the general population, of which blacks constitute approximately 3%. There is a significant cultural difference between the prison officers in these establishments, who are overwhelmingly white, and many of the black prisoners, especially those from London and the south east of England. In these prisons the everyday practices and modes of communication used by black prisoners are subject to information reporting and additional security measures. Furthermore, while prison officers and senior managers were sensitive to claims about institutional racism, neither prison made effective use of its management information systems to monitor equality between different 'racial' groups in the prison. However, experiences of unfair and unequal treatment in these prisons contributed to poor perceptions of the establishment's legitimacy amongst black prisoners. This paper moves beyond the issue of institutional racism to investigate the institutional processes through which 'race' is materialised in English maximum security prisons and explore the subjective experiences of black and mixed 'race' prisoners who find their bodies rendered objects of suspicion and their everyday behaviour misinterpreted, reported on, and constructed as dangerous by staff. Drawing on interviews with prisoners, senior managers, prison officers and education staff the paper considers the policing of the black body and black culture in two maximum security prisons.

The Implications of Time and Temporality in the Social Construction of Victims of Human Trafficking by

Street-Level Bureaucrats

Tangen, J.

(University of Nottingham)

Claims are made at internationally and at the national level in the UK that policies to tackle human trafficking are based on a human rights approach. Multiple claims are embedded within this perspective about the nature and scale of human trafficking, presenting an idealised view of the victim of trafficking as clearly defined. This perspective is contested in front-line encounters as street-level bureaucrats (Lipsky:1980) are required to evaluate the claims made by concrete individuals to the victim of trafficking status against these idealised images of the victim of trafficking. The contextualised perspectives of multiple policy actors from different agencies introduce instability in the social construction of the victim of trafficking status.

Based on doctoral research adopting a single case study design with multiple embedded units of analysis (Yin:2009), which emphasises the need to utilise multiple sources of data in order to develop sufficient detail about the issue under investigation. This paper draws on semi-structured interviews with street-level bureaucrats from a range of agencies working to identify victims of human trafficking; and archival data from the Hansard record of parliamentary proceedings. The paper utilises two legal cases, R v N [2012] EWCA crim 189 and R v Delgado-Fernandez and

Zammit [2007] EWCA crim 762, to illustrate aspects of the social construction of the 'victim of human trafficking' status by street-level bureaucrats. The legal cases form a focal point for the discussion, which implicates 'tempo',

'temporality' and 'historicality' in the sequencing and prioritisation of street-level bureaucrats' actions (Adams:1990).

Dissonant Belongings: Queering Home, Race and Nation

Jones, H.

(University of Warwick)

This paper develops possibilities for queering understandings of racialization, nation, migration and home by thinking through bordering practices in Britain and Australia. A focus of everyday bordering in both countries is 'illegal immigrants', both in public performance (UK government signs telling irregular immigrants to 'Go Home'; Australian government publicity telling potential entrants 'No Way: You will not make Australia your home') and in treatment of those who are caught (Australia: confining asylum seekers to off-shore detention centres, refusing permanent refugee status; Britain: detaining irregular migrants indefinitely, forcibly deporting adults and children). Less often noted,

Britons in Australia are among the largest group of visa overstayers (hence 'illegal immigrants') – and it is likely

Australians are among the largest group of UK overstayers, although the data here is lacking. Yet these groups are much less problematized than irregular migrants from elsewhere; an imagined familial, imperial logic persists.

Though both are multi-ethnic nations, these privileged statuses (as unproblematic migrants) stem from shared

(symbolic) whiteness rooted in a belief in transnational kinship (a legacy of settler colonialism). This paper draws on feminist, queer, postcolonial and whiteness theory to examine the persistence of biological symbolism, questioning the ontology of family and home as a safe space of belonging and developing a theoretical framework in which to understand dissonant forms of racialised (trans)national belonging.

223 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

144

'Real' and Other Immigrants: How Professionals Categorise Immigrants and the Research Implications

Byrne, M.

(University College Dublin)

During 2015 and the 'migration crisis' in Europe, politicians, policy makers, NGOs and the media have used a range of terms to categorise the people about whom they talk whether to plead for, or protest against. 'Refugees', 'economic migrants', 'asylum seekers' and 'illegals' are among the terms used. Based on fieldwork, this paper explores how Irish professionals conceptualise immigrants and immigration and the factors that influence this conceptualisation. I argue that 'immigrant' is not understood per the UN, OECD, EU or CSO definitions. Rather the term 'immigrant', as used by

Irish professionals, draws on perceptions of racial/ethnic difference and, significantly, distinguishes between those perceived to be net (potential) contributors or net (potential) liabilities to the host country. These findings have implications for researchers analysing the current 'crisis'. Firstly, the common-sense notion that, by virtue of their high levels of education and social class norms, members of the professional class are more tolerant and anti-racist than are members of other social classes, can be usefully critiqued. Secondly, given the existence of a number of interpretations of the category terms by this influential cohort, it is important that what is being researched in the field is the concept as it is used and understood by the respondent rather than the academy. Theoretically, this work is informed by Goffman's impression management and Whiteness studies which propose that whiteness, as a constructed racial category, can be mediated by class and that intra-racial and inter-racial division is reflected in a discourse of norms and acceptability.

Bulgarian Migration to the UK: The Influential Power of the Imaginary West

Manolova, P.

(University of Birmingham)

The increasing popularity of the UK as one of the most-preferred migration destinations amongst Bulgarians is in contrast to the hostility with which migrants tend to be met in British society and the precarious working and living conditions they often experience. This paper claims that this paradox of popularity despite hostility cannot be adequately explained with economic push factors or by conceiving contemporary migrants as rational individuals who are seeking to maximize their utility. Instead, it is argued that a collective imaginary of the West, offering the possibility of a better quality of life, often informs migratory aspirations and trajectories based on emotional and intuitive reasoning. By following the individual journeys of a number of Bulgarian migrants to the UK this paper de-constructs the imaginary West represented in their narratives as an interesting amalgam between socialist normality, marked by predictability and security, and a liberal-democratic modernity which entails a new model of entrepreneurial subjecthood. The appropriation and deployment of different aspects of this imaginary is carried out in accordance to migrants' subjective experiences, class belonging and the different capitals (economic, social, and symbolic) at their disposal. The article further discusses how migration experiences, often entangled in both hope and desperation, lead to a constant re-examination and negotiation of the migratory projects. In this process the imaginary of the West does not lose its pre-invested meaning and tends to be uncritically reproduced in the practice of migration.

Political Integration of Immigrants: Implications of Considering Pre-migration Participation

Bartram, D.

(University of Leicester)

Analysis of immigrants’ political integration generally rests on comparisons to the political activity of natives: in most settings, one discerns a gap between immigrants and natives and concludes that immigrants are not sufficiently integrated in political terms. That angle matters to a degree – but research on this topic needs to give greater consideration to the “starting point” of migrants’ political engagement, i.e., their engagement prior to migration. For this angle, we can gain insight by comparing migrants to stayers in the countries the migrants left. This paper uses data from the European Social Survey to analyse immigrants in the UK and Germany, comparing to stayers in the main origin countries where sufficient data are available (Ireland, Germany, and Poland for the UK, and Czech

Republic, Poland, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine for Germany).

The analysis shows that (naturalized) immigrants in the UK from the specified origin countries have lower voting rates than stayers in those countries – but rates of other forms of political engagement (where citizenship is not required) are not lower for immigrants than for stayers, and for some forms of engagement migrants participate more than stayers. For Germany, immigrants do not have lower voting rates than stayers in the specified origin countries; as

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

224

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

with the UK, for broader forms of engagement migrants and stayers either do not differ or migrants report higher engagement.

In both cases, from the conventional perspective (comparing migrants and natives) one sees the usual “gap”

(particularly in the lower rates of voting among eligible immigrants). By contrast, the comparison between migrants and stayers suggests that the gap is not necessarily evidence of a deficit in political engagement associated with the experience of being a migrant. Instead it could simply reflect the persistence of practices and habits acquired in the origin country.

‘For us, it’s good enough that children are accepted’: Intersections of Class, Gender, Ethnicity and

‘Undesirable Migrant’ Status in Roma Mothers’ Views of their Children’s Education Post-Migration

Sime, D., Fassetta, G.

(University of Strathclyde)

The discrimination of Roma groups across Europe has been highlighted by several international organisations. They are systematically excluded from education, suffer from poor health and experience racism on a regular basis. For many, extreme poverty and their children's exclusion from education is a 'push' factor when deciding to migrate from

Eastern and Central Europe to the West. Drawing on empirical evidence from 22 Roma mothers and 10 Roma children living in Glasgow, Scotland, this study explores Roma mothers' views of their children's education postmigration and attitudes to education more broadly. By adopting an intersectional framework, the study examines issues of marginalisation, difference and belonging as experienced by one of the most marginalised ethnic groups in

Europe. While mothers recognised the value of education for their children's social mobility, they remained aware of the limited resources they could draw upon, in the absence of desirable cultural capital, their social class, gender and

'undesirable migrant' status. There was a perceived hopelessness in relation to the chances that Roma children have to overcome their marginalisation through schooling, pointing to the need for specialist policy interventions when working with Roma families.

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

139

From Madrid to London: The Onward Migration of Ecuadorian and Colombian Immigrants from Spain to the

UK

Ramos, C.

(University of Florida)

The 2008 economic crisis severely affected the socioeconomic conditions of many immigrants in Spain. Thus, in the face of adversity, many started looking for new economic opportunities somewhere else, both returning to their home countries or migrating onward to a new destination. I explore this onward migration by looking not only at the economic reasons for leaving Spain but also at other characteristics, such as disappointment in the migratory project or unfilled expectations, and compares the trajectories of Colombians and Ecuadorians, the two largest communities from Latin America in Spain. Through secondary statistical sources as well as primary data collected through in-depth interviews with Colombians and Ecuadorians in Madrid, this paper examines the ways in which the economic crisis has affected these two groups and what strategies they are using to face it. Preliminary findings reveal that while many have chosen to return, onward migration to a new country is becoming an important option, especially once

Spanish nationality has been acquired. In particular, London is the preferred new destination for several reasons that may be explained in qualitative and quantitative terms: a) among interviewees, there was a perception that London offers many more opportunities than Spain for those who had become unemployed and it was preferred to other EU destinations because of the usefulness of the English language; b) official data show that there is a growing Latin

American community in London; c) strong social networks linking London and Madrid are play a key role in this new flow.

The Paradox of Migrant Labor Market Participation: A Lifecourse Perspective of South-American Women’s

Experiences in the Swiss Care Sector

Seminario Luna, R. A.

(University of Lausanne)

Frequently, debates about immigrant's integration in the host country raise questions about their labor market participation rates and patterns. In Switzerland, integration discourses contrast the positive image of highly qualified

(European or North---American) immigrants coming to work in cutting---edge hi--tech and pharmaceutical research sectors with the controversial image of immigrants arriving to work incare services. Although labor shortage in the

225 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Swiss care sector is unquestionable, immigrant women who perform these services struggle with this 'foreigner's integration' ideal and its institutional consequences. Particularly, segregation in the labor market based ongender and nationality hinders South---American women's job chancesin Switzerland. While promoting the labor market participation of migrants, principally to prevent their dependency on welfare benefits, most of these women are segregated into precarious jobs in the informal care sector, regardless of their qualifications or previous professional experience. Indeed, there is a process of non--qualification of immigrant women's professional experiences enacted by actors related to employment in the host countries. This particular process of governing the mobility of skills combines restrictions of the immigration laws, as well as, gender and nationality stereotypes about South American women qualities for care work. The aim of this article is to describe the institutional mechanisms of the employment, migration and gendered care regimes at play in this paradox as well as the experiences of South---American women dealing with them. These insights are based on a qualitative study conducted in Switzerland on the basis of life--stories interviews with South---American women working in the care sector stand dissonant forms of racialised

(trans)national belonging.

Labour Migrants from Central Asia in Russia: Issues of Health Care Access

Kuznetsova, I., Round, J.

(University of Birmingham)

The role of this presentation is to highlight the healthcare access faced by labour migrants in Russia and to detail how they access the treatment they need.

The extremely difficult living and working conditions migrants face compound the lack of health care access. The majority of migrants work more than 12 hour days, at least 6 days a week, often in conditions that would not meet EU safety standards. Accommodation is almost always share with in many instances 6-8 people sharing a room. Also psychological pressures are always present such as long separations from family, a constant worry about detention by the police because of the ambiguous documentation statuses and the precarious nature of their work. The Russian state to construct migrants as a 'diseased' and 'sick' group which fuels nationalist feelings against them amongst the general public and stymies any chance of meaningful integration. Migrants do not have a voice in health care debates and they are almost always portrayed as a drain on resources with no discussion of the economic benefits they bring to the country.

Analysis of barriers they face when accessing treatment can make important contributions to debates on such issues and provide data and discussion, which will be valuable to comparative studies.

The paper draws upon numerous projects undertaken by the authors on the everyday lives of labour migrants in

Moscow and Kazan, conducted between 2011-2014. The research is both qualitative and quantitative in nature as it draws upon interviews, a survey and discourse analysis.

Ageing in a ‘Foreign Land’: Exploring Sense of Belonging and the ‘Diasporic Imaginary’ Among Indian Elders in the UK

Rajan-Rankin, S., Rajan, J.

(Brunel University London)

Recent patterns of globalization, South-North migration, transnational care arrangements and post-colonial histories, have meant that a large number of ethnic minorities will be growing older in a 'foreign land' (Phillipson:2003;

Burholt:2004). Growing older 'out of place' brings with it known risks of ageing including loneliness, social isolation and deepening social and health inequalities (Victor et al:2012). Given the marginal role of ethnicity in ageing studies, there is an urgent need to enhance current understanding of the lived experiences of minority elders. This paper draws on an ethnographic study of Indian elders living in Southall, London and explores what it means to them to grow old 'in a foreign land'. Drawing on post-colonial perspectives and the concept of the 'diasporic imaginary' (Axel:2002), this study probes Indian elders' sense of belonging and identity in relation to their 'imagined homeland'. Complex identities are explored in relation to national and translocal cultural identities (Falzon:2003; Nandi & Platt:2015).

Nostalgia and memory work form powerful tools to explore Indian elders' experiences of migration, dislocation, integration and reconstituted identities. It is argued that thick descriptions of this kind are necessary to produce a situated understanding of ethnicity, migration and diaspora. Rather than regenerate a putative understanding of fixed diasporas based on country-specific groups (Brubacker:2006); this study presents emergent threads of continuity and dispersion, transcending spatiality, temporality and fixed cultural idioms.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

226

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Rights, Violence and Crime

S

TEELHOUSE

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Analysis of European Jihadist Terrorism in a Subcultural Perspective. Themes and Research Tools

Conti, U.

(Università degli Studi di Perugia)

My paper considers European foreign fighters and native-born jihadists. This issue is considered in a subcultural perspective. I consider the subcultural affiliation of Europeans jihadist terrorists. Jihadi John (former rapper); Al Italy

(former rapper); Abu Talha al-Amani (former rapper); Michael Adebowale (former member of the gang Woolwich boys); Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein (former member of the gang Brothas) are all young people grown in Western cities, listening rap, like thousands of young people of the suburbs. The above-mentioned terrorists were members of subcultural non-criminal groups, before joining terrorist groups: I argue that the belonging in terrorist groups is to be analyzed from the perspective of subcultural studies.

My research examines computer-mediated communication of jihadist terrorists. Online expressions of identity are a trademark of terrorist groups and techniques of visual sociology allow to study these membership. Members of subcultures express online the Self through photographic images and video. I consider contexts (production; image; audience) and modalities (technological compositive; social) of meaning generation and the functions (syntactic, semantic, expressive) of the visual sign. Juxtapositions between different kind of images are frequent. It generate effects of association of ideas that goes back to Eisenstein. It emerges attention to Web-graphics: elaborated, realized with professional software, but at the same time easily understandable and simple. Web-platforms (such as

Youtube…) are characterized by ludic aspects. However there are users who mention jihadist issues. Together with graphically appealing images of combat, there are images of everyday life. It is a 'light thematization' of terrorism.

Spectatoral Sympathy and the Global Image

Ray, L.

(University of Kent)

There has long been debate over the ethics and effectiveness of images of suffering that interpolate a spectator who views suffering from a distance. 'Spectatoral sympathy' shaped eighteenth-century literature of sensibility and popularized sentimental ethics. However, this was also soon condemned as voyeurism. Urbanization and the new print medium intensified popular desire to be shocked or thrilled so long as the beholder could remain safe. This in many ways presaged controversies around the uses of photography as shock but also titillation by revealing the hidden and forbidden. Spectatoral sympathy raised questions about whether visual images permit mutuality between victims and witnesses or become commodified images of violence in mass culture that are watched with detachment.

Three kinds of responses emerged – optimistic, that images of suffering awakened global human identification; pessimistic, that despite the mass circulation of such images abuses persist; critical, that the image-voyeurism is a commodified 'consumption of suffering'. These questions will be addressed within a context of global and instant transmission of images and emotional responses – do images of suffering and violence evoke empathetic responses,

'shift public mood' or are they commodified objects reaffirming distance from the contexts that generated them?

The Aum Affair as Cultural Trauma: A Comparison of Media Discourse After the Matsumoto and Tokyo Sarin

Terrorist Attacks

Ushiyama, R.

(University of Cambridge)

This paper will show how the 'Aum Affair' was constructed as a cultural trauma – an event that shakes and threatens collective identity – after the millenarian religious movement Aum Shinrikyo spread sarin gas on the Tokyo metro system on March 20th 1995. The indiscriminate terrorist attack killed thirteen and injured more than six thousand people, with many suffering from the after-effects of sarin poisoning years later. The paper will show how the national media constructed the event as a cultural trauma – an event which threatens the foundational values of collective identity – and how public discourse surrounding the Aum Affair sought to confront the threat to 'Japanese values'.

I will then ask why an earlier terrorist attack committed by the same group, the Matsumoto Sarin Incident in June

1994, which killed eight and injured over six hundred residents, did not become an independent cultural trauma of a similar magnitude. I suggest that multiple factors hindered its becoming a cultural trauma: firstly, the initial false identification of the suspect, which hindered subsequent investigation; secondly, the relatively small impact on the national scale, given Matsumoto's size and location; and the lack of factual clarity which prevented the assertion of coherent and convincing trauma narratives by the media. Thus, the Matsumoto attack remained a 'mystery' and not a

227 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

'cultural trauma' in the public imagination until the Tokyo sarin attack, after which point the attack was enveloped into a singular and overarching trauma of the Aum Affair.

Science and Technology Studies 1

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

3

Black Cells Sell: Rarity, Value and the UK Stem Cell Bioeconomy

Williams, R.

(University of Warwick)

In the UK's immunitary bioeconomy (Brown et al. 2011) in which the 'rare' tissues of Black and minority ethnic (BAME) donors are thought to be more valuable assets to save in the stem cell inventory than 'common' white donor tissues.

Using data from interviews and policy, the paper explores the economic function of race in this public health context in which stem cell transplants are used increasingly as a treatment for a number of blood cancers. I begin by setting out the racialised dimensions of the molecular 'self' since its mid-20th century emergence in scientific discourse. I then move to consider the contemporary manifestation of this in what I've elsewhere termed the metonymic alignment of genetic and ethnic identity (Williams 2015). For example, a Black cancer patient seeking stem cell transplant treatment is thought more likely to find a tissue match from within their same 'ethnic grouping' rather than from beyond it.

I explore the UK's 'overrepresentation' of white stem cell donors and the encouragement of the UK's

'underrepresented' BAME communities to donate to redress this. Importantly, though, this entire project rests on governmental strategising and health economic analyses that suggest health providers will save money by using domestic stem cells rather than importing them more expensively from abroad. Such potentially profitable selfsufficiency partly relies on enrolling more BAME donors. The paper concludes by highlighting the complex interconnection of public health concerns and state/institutional interests in reaffirming ethnicity as a genetic category and encouraging stem cell donation from BAME people.

Metaphors in Science and Society: Foetal Programming in the English News

Stelmach, A., Nerlich, B.

(University of Nottingham)

Metaphors such as 'code', 'blueprint' or 'book' have been essential for shaping research in genetic and genomic sciences, but also for shaping public understanding of what genes are and do, and how we become the way we are.

In the context of recent advances in postgenomic sciences new metaphors have started to appear, especially in relation with the emerging field of epigenetics. The thriving field of foetal programming, related to both epigenetics and epidemiology, has provided new metaphors such as 'programming' and 'critical windows' which seem to turn attention away from genes and focus on the importance of development, especially the importance of early life, for determining health and disease in adulthood. This paper traces the emergence of such scientific metaphors and examines how they are deployed in the coverage of research into foetal programming in the English news. It asks: how are these metaphors used and interpreted in the press, and how do they contribute to framing public understanding of early life?

By analysing which metaphors are used most frequently in the press and what paraphrases are used to explain them to the public this paper highlights the processes during which meanings of scientific metaphors are negotiated, resisted to and/or established in the media coverage. It explores the implications this might have for the metaphorical landscape of postgenomic science and for public understanding, as well as the significance of these findings for STS analyses of the life sciences.

Rethinking the Embeddedness of Cord Blood Economies

Beltrame, L.

(University of Exeter)

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of haematopoietic stem cells used in clinical treatments. For this purpose,

UCB has to be collected at birth, processed, typed and stored in biobanks. The two main UCB banking models are the system of national public UCB banks and a sector of commercial banks selling to mothers and parents the opportunity to privately store UCB. Public biobanking is often described as operating in a gift/redistributive economy promoting social solidarity and cohesion; while private banking is seen as a form of market economy fostering self-interest and profit-making. These two biobanking models are also linked to different forms of biopolitics: public UCB banking would work in a logic of state-led bio-politics of the population linked to notions of nationhood; private banking would run according to a neoliberal form of biopolitics where individuals manage their own health by negotiating in a market of

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

228

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

biological services. This paper calls into question this dualism and especially its national grounding. By analyzing national and European regulations on tissue banking and, moreover, practices in UCB banking, I will show how UCB is increasingly disentangled both from its corporeal embodiment and from the national dimension. Indeed, both in the public system and in the private sector, UCB is circulating at an international level. Notions of nationhood, state-led biopolitics and its opposition to a neoliberal one should be rethought. This paper points to offer a new understanding of the social ‘embeddedness’ of UCB economies considering the international circulation of this tissue.

How Biology Destabilized 'Nature'

Meloni, M.

(University of Sheffield)

In this paper I map some recent conceptual changes in theoretical biology that have marked a radical move away from key Neo-Darwinist assumptions. These novel views include:1) an unprecedented temporalization and spatialization of the genome and its functioning with implications for the notion of biological heredity; 2) reticulated challenges

(chimerism, lateral gene transfer) to the notion of a universal tree of life; 3) an increasing emphasis on symbiotic processes versus an individualistic views of life; 4) a new attention to microbial life. Reflecting on these shifts I argue that there is literally nothing in an up-to-date view of biology that can justify its equation with older metaphysics of nature, as stable, discrete, insulated, and pregiven entity. Biology (a modern word) and nature (an ancient metaphysics) have opportunistically overlapped for a certain historical period (roughly, at the peak of hard-heredity and views of genetics as immunized from social signals) but this association was historically contingent not logically determined. To define biology along the natural/social axis – grafted on the pole of nature and in opposition to social - is completely pointless today. Obviously, the destabilization of the equation biology-nature is also the dissolution of the link between the sociocultural and the 'non-biological' or superorganic. The implications for sociology and the social sciences in general are significant and need to be explored.

Science and Technology Studies 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

134

Shaping the Future of Sociology: The Challenge of Interdisciplinarity Beyond the Social Sciences

Lyle, K.

(University of Southampton)

Despite the increasing push towards interdisciplinarity across the physical and social sciences, little is known about the realities of working across such diverse disciplinary boundaries. This paper provides empirical insight into the challenges of collaboration from the perspective of a sociologist working on an interdisciplinary project focused on developing a medical device. Findings suggest the effective contribution of sociological research is affected by the framing of interdisciplinary projects. From the beginning the project pursued a narrow framing focused on scientific development, pushing the sociological research outside the relevance of the project. Reframing is negotiated in shared spaces between disciplines, and fieldwork became important in reframing the project to include the sociological research. However, without commitment to addressing a societal problem, it was impossible for sociology to contribute effectively. Sociologists embarking on similar endeavours should ensure there is shared commitment toward a social issue to prevent the marginalisation of sociological research.

Being Informed: ICT as Technique of Governmentality in the NHS

Goffey, A., Pettinger, L., Speed, E.

(University of Nottingham)

The 2012 Health and Social Care Act reforming the NHS lauded an 'information revolution' enabling better healthcare provision, more effective observation and surveillance, and greater accountability. Yet such shifts raise important questions about 'information', 'being informed' and the role of ICT in redefining the complex relationship between government, medical professionals, and citizens, as ongoing concerns about the role of digital technologies in the public sector suggest.

We consider the role of ICT in healthcare as a technique of governmentality, and, especially, a means for redefining the state-citizen relationship. Following Agar's (2003) emphasis on the importance of the history of technology and the

'material culture of bureaucracy' for understanding government, we ask how: a) technical requirements for the collection, processing, distribution and presentation of data in the NHS impacts on discursive relations between state, profession, and citizen;

229 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

b) the complex processes of technical mediation required to produce and reproduce data collection and processing infrastructures impact on the ways that patients can respond to the terms on which they are addressed as citizen/consumers ;

3) the predominance of commercial IT developers in the provision of healthcare informatics necessarily impacts on the shifting relations between state and capital within the rapidly privatising NHS.

Drawing on STS approaches to technical mediation and Foucauldian concepts of governmentality, we argue that

'being informed', as the 'information revolution in the NHS' would like citizens to be, amounts to a technocratic redefinition and disempowerment of the citizen.

Development Capital in Free and Open Source Software

Allington, D.

(University of the West of England)

A striking feature of the software industry is a willingness on the part of many developers to share apparently valuable information, ideas, expertise, and even products without charge. Outside the industry, the most visible of these are consumer-level open source software projects. But those are only the tip of a vast iceberg that comprises not only the wider field of open source software (most of it usable only by IT professionals) but also the proliferation of online tutorials, free books, programmer blogs, and contributions to wikis and Q&A sites that have accreted around technologies such as programming languages, libraries and software frameworks. One of the key spokespeople of the open source movement famously described open source as a 'gift culture' in which participants compete for prestige

(Raymond:1999: chapter 3). This suggests that software developers share in order to display what this paper terms

'development capital': intangible assets or resources enabling them to gain the esteem of their fellows and thereby also social and economic advantage. I will argue that such an approach can help both to make sense of the often bitter inter-group rivalries that characterise the culture of the software industry (i.e. because development capital associated with a particular tool appreciates or depreciates in value depending on the extent to which the tool is used), and to address the chronic problems of exclusion and inequality that the software industry presents, despite its often utopian rhetoric (e.g. by making sense of recruitment practices and the cultural assumptions they embody).

Social Divisions / Social Identities

W

HITEHALL

1-2, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Rich, Powerful, or Educated? Social Constructions of Class in China

Miao, Y.

(Xi'an Jiaotong University and University of Liverpool)

The question of class and inequality, despite being intellectually burdened, is still relevant today. The most recent development in class research is primarily focused on a Euro-American perspective, relatively little attention has been paid to how subjective class experience has changed in developing countries, where the majority of the research still focus on objective class positioning.

This article examines how class and inequality in perceived in contemporary China. Using survey and interview data among 439 urban residents in a coastal city, this article finds that there are three distinct processes of inequality that affects the social construction of class in China. The first is the different accumulation of socioeconomic capital, which manifests as inequality in access to resources. The second is the cadre-civilian dichotomy which arises out of the difference in sociopolitical capital. The third is a perceived inequality in sociocultural capital, which gives certain groups of respondents a sense of moral superiority over others that is also regarded as a class difference.

This provides as an interesting contrast to the Euro-American case whereby the transition between industrial to financial capitalism have led to a fragmentation of class identities. In China, the process of evolving class inequality is both affected by the transition from planned to market socialist economy, and influenced by state policies and discourses. There is a stark difference between how class is experienced compared to how class is measured, which has important implications for the study of class culture as a whole.

When Family Position Contradicts the Outside World: Exploring Habitus Divides in Mixed- Race Young

People’s Identity Construction

Wilson, A.

(Cardiff University)

This paper draws upon the narratives of middle-class mixed-race young people. It considers how 'the family' and

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

230

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

experiences of social spaces outside of it, impact upon identity construction. Drawing upon a Bourdieusian framework, this study illustrates the emotional and psychic consequences, which arose as participants' acquired middle-class habitus, became conflicted through their experiences of fields beyond the home. The findings suggest that as, historically, whiteness has been synonymous with middle-classness and 'colour' with working-classness participants were often denied a middle-class, mixed-race identity. These young people were often perceived of as 'black' by the white majority, and not 'black enough' within the black community. I argue that these experiences of othering illustrate the contradictory position these young people occupy within social space. This contradiction arose due to the ideological conflict between their privileged class position and their disadvantaged racial position. One result of this conflict being internalised was the development of a 'habitus divided against itself'. As a means to affirm their identities, participants sought to find ways to confirm, contradict or challenge the stereotypical expectations others drew upon when making sense of participants' presence in both black and white spaces. Whilst some participants were aware of these stereotyped expectations and, in consequence, were able to make adaptations to 'who they were' in different social situations is an attempt to 'fit in', other participants were less able to adapt and, as a result, experienced high levels of internal conflict and social suffering.

Alternative Social Conceptions of Distinction: The Discourse of Görgü and Suzhi in Turkey and China

Kesimoglu, A., Miao, Y.

(City University London)

Literature on distinction making practices are abundant; stemming out of the western cultural canon, many of them work around fixed understandings of high v. popular culture. Very few of them consider the issue outside of western context, in particular the different social conceptions of distinction. Expanding our knowledge on different cultures are important, in particular in an increasingly more interconnected social order.

This paper thus gives a comparative look of distinction making practises in Turkey and China as counter-examples to the Euro/American context. Although the two countries have different experiences with nation-building practices and demand different approaches in terms of their spatial arrangements and scope, both cases illustrate the ways in which different interpretations of state ideology, morality and civility can become embedded within 'tradition' and visualization of cultural identity. This is related to these countries' unique experiences with modernization of their cultures and the making of their national identities. Both cases show that distinction making practice are often built on/around notions of culture, morality and civility, better known as 'gorgu' and 'suzhi' in respective cultures.

Focusing on these countries, we can see that distinction making is influenced by each country's specific experiences with a Western idea of modernity. This is related to these two countries specific developing trajectories, which need to be understood in their non Euro-American contexts.

Sociology of Education 1

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

1

A

'Stop trying to impress me, you're not a student; you're a local' The Misrecognition of Working-Class

Students at an Elite UK University and the Politics of Belonging

Rowell, C.

(University of Warwick)

Within the UK a stark polarisation exists between those universities attracting students from working-class backgrounds and those attracting a traditional middle class cohort of students. 'New' (post-1992) universities contain a high proportion of non-traditional students, and those from lower social class backgrounds are poorly represented in

'Old' (pre-1992) universities. Students choose to attend universities where they feel they belong and contemporary research demonstrates that working-class students are most likely to attend post-1992 universities within the UK, even when they have the prerequisites to attended more prestigious institutions. Nevertheless, there are a number of students from working-class backgrounds who choose to study at the UK's most elite universities.

Drawing upon empirical data generated through an ethnography of working-class student's at an elite UK University, this paper explores the notion of belonging in the academy. In doing so I investigate the way in which the workingclass participants of my study were 'othered' by their student peers' seemingly mundane interactions, such as being mistaken for 'locals', trying to 'crash' student events and even being accused of lying about their student status in order to romantically impress others. In this paper I argue that such misrecognitions are indicative to classed based geographies that serve to position individuals as being in or out of place. The experiences, feelings and emotions associated with inhibiting a space of which one has historically been excluded from are investigated, thus shedding light and contributing to an understanding of the politics of classed belonging in elite UK universities.

231 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Moving the Boundaries? Undoing the Home/Away Dichotomy in Higher Education Research

Finn, K.

(Lancaster University)

Approximately 25 percent of undergraduate students live at home during term time and, given the complexities and indeed shortage of postgraduate funding (Muir 2014), it is likely that that this trend extends to students at other levels.

Although several studies have attempted to unpack the experiences of students who live at home during university

(i.e. Patiniotis and Holdsworth 2005; Christie Munro and Wager 2005; Holdsworth 2006) this literature has had the effect of fixing students, both spatially and socially (i.e. local/non-local, traditional/non-traditional). Consequently, students who live at home are regarded as immobile rather than mobile (Christie 2007), masking the importance of everyday mobilities for a range of experiences and identities. The 'mobilities turn' within the social sciences (Urry

2000; Sheller and Urry 2006) provides ways to think beyond the dichotomy of 'home' and 'away' and recognises the importance of flows, networks, connections, movements, performances, and the general disembedding of social relations across time and space. The paper will consider the ways in which mobility theories and methods can contribute to current higher education studies and highlight new directions for future research.

Four Domains of Students’ Sense of Belonging yo University

Ahn, M., Davis, H.

(Bangor University)

This paper derives from a project designed to investigate the factors that contribute to students' sense of belonging to higher education institutions. Students' sense of belonging is known as the most crucial factor for academic achievement and successful life in the university. In previous studies, academic and social engagement have been identified as the main spheres of students' sense of belonging to their higher education institutions in the UK. The research reported here challenges these findings and reveals additional dimensions of belonging.

In order to understand how students express their thoughts and feelings of attachment, the study developed a new survey instrument: the 10-words survey. It consists of a single open-ended question asking students to write down up to 10 words about their sense of belonging to their university. The resulting dataset was 2:671 words from 372 participants.

The data were coded in stages by theme and clusters of themes. The analysis shows that, in addition to academic and social engagement, there are two additional domains of belonging: surroundings and personal space.

Surroundings equate to participants' living space, and geographical and cultural location, while personal spaces refer to life satisfaction, life attitudes, identity and personal interests.

The research uses contingency analysis to explore the interrelationships between these four domains as well as subdomains. It is argued that policies for student engagement in higher education should reflect all four domains to support the full range of students' experiences.

Conceptualising University Support for Students; Diverse Students, Homogeneous Support?

Dent, S.

(Sheffield Hallam University)

Universities provide a range of support services - from personal tutors, student support officers, mental health advisers, to careers guidance staff - which ensure that universities are preforming their duties of care, and assure students they are supported (Morgan 2012, Bunc 2005). At the same time the neoliberal reform of higher education have shaped support in ways that allow student to adopt as personal failures institutionally mediated inequalities

(Brooks 2012). This paper deconstructs the notion of university support for students, exploring how support is conceptualised and enacted, and the expectations placed on the social and cultural capital that students need to be supported by their university. The paper focus on the stories of two student parents, whose accounts are taken from a

Institutional Ethnography (Smith 2006, Smith and Turner 2014) at a traditional university, as part of a PhD into the experiences of student parents. The findings demonstrate how university support is shaped in relation to the conceptualistion of a homogenous student body, and that support is conceptualised in ways that demonstrate universities have fulfilled their obligations to these homogenised students. Critically, the findings show that some students can be left uncared for by the ways support is enacted, despite appearing to be supported by their university.

I argue that these fractures between the appearance and reality of support in universities at a micro level can have significant implications for macro objectives of universities as a means of achieving social justice, and have the potential to inhibit widening participation.

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

232

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

Sociology of Education 2

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOMS

135-137

Parental Expectation, Child Aspiration and Academic Performance in China: An Intergenerational Perspective

Hu, Y.

(University of Essex)

Past research has mostly focused on parental expectation and/or child aspiration separately. Nevertheless, child aspiration and parental expectation do not always accord with each other; and this intergenerational discrepancy may have important implications for children's immediate academic performance and subsequent academic outcome in the long run. Drawing on data from the baseline wave (2014) of the new China Education Panel Studies, this paper examines how the intergenerational gap between parental expectation and child aspiration influences the academic performance of children age 12-14 in China. Unconditional quantile regression was applied to further explore how such intergenerational gap influences children who perform well and less well differently.

The results indicate that less educated parents from a lower socioeconomic background are more likely to 'overexpect'. Whereas children were seen to perform best when parental expectation matches their own aspiration, parents' over- and under-expectation are both associated with children's poor academic performance. Nevertheless, the influence of parents' under-expectation is largely mitigated by children's own educational aspiration, while the detrimental effects of over-expectation remains after controlling for child aspiration and major demographic characteristics. Notably, the unconditional quantile regressions show that parents' over-expectation has a greater detrimental effect on children who perform less well than on better performing children. Given the importance of academic outcome to educational and social mobility in China, the results underline the importance of intergenerational relations in the reproduction of social inequalities.

Choosing Schools, Choosing Selves: The Influence of Parental Identity on the School Choice Process

Gurney, E.

(King’s College London)

In India, as in many countries around the world, the contemporary education landscape is increasingly conceptualised as a market space. Set within the context of a rapidly expanding private sector, parental choice mechanisms are emerging as a discernable government policy trend in the name of quality improvement. However, policy discourse that frames parents as 'consumers' who work to make the 'best' choices for their children often fails to take into account the complex nature of choice-making as a socio-cultural process. In order to better understand the implications of recent choice-led policy reforms for households and the increased marketisation of education more generally for social equity, this paper will consider the intersections between parents' choice of a particular school and their own identity construction. The paper will draw on case study data from an ongoing ESRC funded doctoral study comprising in-depth interviews with parents/caregivers across two slum communities in New Delhi, supplemented with secondary survey data, field notes and close analysis of school documents and government policy texts. The data indicates that choice of school is for some parents a symbolic expression of identity, influenced by family dynamics and core values surrounding childhood, parenthood and citizenship. In some cases, school choice is also used to demonstrate solidarity or separation from other households along various identity constructs including ethnicity, religion and perceived social status. The intersections between choice and parental identity thus serve to illuminate continuing patterns of social and educational segregation, and problematise 'choice' as a policy mechanism for quality improvement.

Blinded by Colour? Issues in Using ‘Race’ Over ‘Faith’ in the Study of BME (Black and Ethnic Minority)

Teachers and Educational Leadership

Vince, M.

(Cardiff University)

There has been a long-standing tradition of sociological research within education concerning the underrepresentation of educational leaders from BME backgrounds (Ghuman:1995; Gordon:2000; NCSL:2002; Bush,

Glover & Sood:2006). This research has documented how the interplay of race, culture and leadership culture present serious barriers in the career progression and retention of BME professionals in education (Osler:1997:2003).

However, it is also becoming increasingly apparent that such categorisation fails to appreciate the full diversity of religious experiences within a particular 'race' category. For instance the umbrella term 'Indian' (NASWUT:2007) can refer to the experiences of Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims. This is a fundamental oversight where some religious groups tend to associate, and be associated, more by their religious identity than race (Jacobson:1998; Lewis:2007).

233 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

This paper intends to highlight how such an approach has hidden the specific challenges faced by Muslim educational leaders. I argue that because these are discourses that offer an ideological challenge on a religious level (Allen:2010) attempting to remedy these challenges through the lens of 'race' is wholly inadequate; instead it further homogenises

Muslim faith experiences into a single category. Rather, I draw attention to the work of Mogra (2010:2013:2014),

Shah & Shaikh (2010), and Everington (2014) who seek to construct religious understandings of Muslim educational leaders in these contexts, and in doing so offer fresh insights into the institutional barriers encountered by Muslim educational leaders. Therefore, this fresh perspective is a methodological necessity.

Sociology of Religion

W

HITEHALL

3, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Religious Identities in Northern Ireland – Stability and Transitions 2001-11

Doebler, S., Shuttleworth, I.

(Queen's University Belfast)

Religious self-identification is declining in most European countries. The decline in the percentages of those who selfidentify as members of a denomination was described as an indication of secularization, alongside declining churchattendance and declining numbers of believers in God. However, Northern Ireland is a special case: Throughout its history, Catholic and Protestant identities have been salient as markers of national identities and were at the centre of the 'Troubles'. Religious and national identities in Northern Ireland are thought of as intertwined to such an extent that they are often used synonymously. Thus religious identities can be expected to be more stable than in other countries.

But Northern Ireland is also a country in transition; 13 years after the Good Friday Agreement, the 2011 Census shows a decrease in residential segregation since 2001, religious inter-marriages are increasing and the younger strata are becoming more mobile. Thus, religious identities in Northern Ireland may increasingly be subject to individual choice.

This paper looks at religious identity-transitions in Northern Ireland over a ten-year period. We analyze data from the

Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS:2001:2011) – a Census-linked study based on health-card records, representing approximately 28% of the population (N = c. 500:000). The research questions are: Which social strata are more likely to change their religious identity? How is religious residential segregation related to the likelihood of individuals of switching religious identities? Are those living in deprived areas more likely to switch than those living in affluent areas?

The Making of a Gay Muslim in Malaysia and Britain: Lived Experiences and the Changing Place of Islam in

Society

Mohd Sidik, S.S.

This paper compares the experiences of gay Muslims in Malaysia and Britain to illuminate the changing place of religion in society. The mainstream populations in both countries often perceive religion as inherently opposed to sexual diversity, and assume that Islam is exceptionally rigid in this matter. By focusing on gay Muslims, my central question explores how people belonging to groups that are marginalised by dominant expressions of religion subvert, challenge or innovate on religious expressions to negotiate belonging in wider society. This paper thus also investigates lived aspects of Islam to gain a better understanding of religious change in differing social contexts – in

Malaysia where Muslims form the majority and in Britain where they are a minority. My paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in both countries between October 2012 and September 2013, including 29 in-depth interviews with gay Muslims, participant observation and media analysis for context-setting. It contributes to wider understandings of how the conditions of late modernity enable individuals to use religion and sexuality in fluid ways to shape their identities, alongside other constraints on self-expression. Finally, it also contributes methodological insights into the challenges and opportunities in conducting cross-cultural ethnographic research on religion.

Constructing a New Conservative Religious Variant: Messianic Jewish Women and the Question of Agency

Carpenedo, M.

(University of Cambridge)

Drawing on the seminal work of Mahmood (2005) and the emerging feminist literature on pious women's agency

(Bracke:2008; Avishai:2008; Rinaldo:2014), this research explores how women's agency is articulated in the context of religious conversion and formation of a new religious ethos. Rather than problematising why women resist/subvert and/or agentive comply with religious norms (Mahmood:2005; Avishai:2008), this research examines how women actively participate in the construction of an hybrid religious variant. Based on an ethnography conducted with the

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

234

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

largest Messianic Jewish community in Brazil, this study explores how religious conversion from Evangelical

Christianity to a particularly orthodox Messianic Jewish variant has impacted the lives of these Messianic women. By negotiating the adherence to strict observance of Jewish laws with their Evangelical past, these non-Jewish-born

Messianic women are constructing not only a new religious ethos, but also are participating in the creation of a new religious and cultural identity in Brazil. The research explores how women's desire for belonging, subjection to religious norms and bodily acts could be articulated in the construction of a new (conservative) religious identity. The multifaceted character of their religious transformation emerges as a site of agency, where these women negotiate and construct their religiosity as cultural bricoleurs. The non-normative and hybrid character of this emerging religious variant allows women not only to resit and/or comply with religious norms, but also be part in the creation of a new

(conservative) religious tradition.

Theory

S

TEELHOUSE

1, C

AMS

, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Towards Non-Essentialist Conceptions of the Social: Jean-Luc Nancy's Reflections on 'Community' and

Modernity

Mouzakitis, A.

(University of Crete)

This paper aims to show the ways in which Nancy's reflections on the social could serve as starting points for the development of theoretical approaches that adequately address the problems of social ontology, social change and modernity alike. Inspired by -and moving beyond- the Marxist conception of the social, Nancy provides us with an understanding of community -and consequently of the social and the political- that wishes to surmount traditional conceptions and problems in metaphysics that also haunt social theory from its inception, like the subject-object bifurcation, the reification of society in early 'holistic' accounts or the glorification of the so-called 'autonomous' individual, etc. In effect, Nancy's account might help us move both beyond the prevalent structure-agency problématique and from established structuration theories. Furthermore, Nancy furnishes insights that are often missed in the debate between communitarian and liberal discourses and in Habermas's understanding of the social

(and of modernity) in terms of relations between systems and lifeworlds. Nancy also proposes a path of deconstructing metaphysics that differs radically from Luhmann's attempt to theorize society beyond humanism and metaphysics, but at the same time invites some comparison with it, especially regarding their shared anti-essentialist emphasis on relation and difference. At the same time, Nancy's wider project of deconstruction might provide alternatives to the rather established view of modernity as passage from community to society or from simple to complex forms of social organization, while it also gives a novel twist to the Weberian understanding modernity in terms of disenchantment.

Reconstructing the Self: A Goffmanian Perspective

Susen, S.

(City University London)

In his influential study The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1971 [1959]), Erving Goffman provides an insightful account of the formation of social selves. Goffman's work has been extensively discussed in the literature. Yet, the presuppositional underpinnings, let alone the socio-ontological implications, of his conception of personhood have not been rigorously scrutinized. The main reason for the lack of methodical engagement with the principal assumptions that lie at the heart of Goffman's theory of the self is that his approach is widely regarded as an eclectic narrative that, while drawing on different sociological traditions, does not make any claim to universal validity. The persuasiveness of the contention that Goffman's analysis of the self cannot be reduced to a general theory of human personhood appears to be confirmed by the fact that both supporters and detractors of his sociological project tend to agree that it would be erroneous to deduce a foundational framework of investigation from his numerous studies concerned with the interaction between self and society. The aim of this paper is to challenge this interpretation by demonstrating that

Goffman provides a fairly systematic account of human personhood. More significantly, this enquiry suggests that a fine-grained examination of his key concepts permits us to propose an outline of a general theory of the human self.

In the final section, attention will be drawn to several controversial issues that arise when faced with the task of assessing both the strengths and the weaknesses of Goffman's understanding of the self.

Narrative Habitus: Thinking Through Structure/Agency in the Narratives of Offenders

Fleetwood, J.

(University of Leicester)

235 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

This paper reflects current moves in criminological theory toward using Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capitals and field to understand lawbreaking and harmful actions. It also draws from 'narrative criminology', which examines how individual narratives motivate and sustain harmful behaviour. It argues that narrative criminology has so far relied on a dualistic understanding pitting individual creativity versus structural constraint, and proposes developing Franks' idea of a 'narrative habitus' (2010). Doing so offers ways to better think through questions of structure and agency in lawbreaking and harmful actions by understanding narrative as embodied and generative. Bourdieu describes social action as 'regulated improvisation', due to the influence of the habitus, which structures at a deep level through dispositions (Bourdieu 1990: 57). Understanding individual narratives as an example of 'regulated improvisation' offers a way to understand how individual narratives are both creative and agential, and socially structured.

Defining Social Anti-Realism: Cultural Fragmentation, Structural Diversification and the Dialogical Self

Bouzanis, C.

(University of Edinburgh)

Though ontological anti-realism is a well-respected theoretical movement in the philosophical field of metaphysics, there is no systematic effort in social theory to utilise its proponents' anti-objectivist crusades, in order to account for social anti-realism. Such an effort requires three important theoretical steps: (a) the definition of culture, as a shared ideational background of descriptive and normative ideational elements, which thus should not be identified with the various sets of rules. This is the crucial difference between social anti-realism, on the one hand, and many interpretivist and constructionist approaches which fall into the fallacy of rendering language as the prior ontological concept. According to this view, cultural fragmentation in reflexive modernization does not entail the existence of different language games, but it rather shows that different culturally shared world-views and normative orientations are internalised, through socialisation, by self-reflective agents who hold internal conversations with imaginary others, the subject-matter of which is the maintenance, modification or radical eradication of these world-views and normative orientations. Instead of the idea of rule-following, here (b) the idea of the dialogical self is the ontological premise of a self-reflective subjectivity that, on the one hand, creatively responds to the heterogeneous descriptive and normative ideational elements that constitute the shared context of their socialization, and on the other hand, it renders agents the imaginative authors of social reality; and, now, (c) this reality cannot be described in emergentist terms of different levels of necessity, where structural differentiation entails different forms of intrinsic necessary relations.

Work, Employment and Economic Life - Special Event

C

ONFERENCE

C

ENTRE

R

OOM

123

Atmospheres of work and consumption in market spaces

Lyon, D.

(University of Kent)

This panel brings together original ethnographic research undertaken in food markets across the UK and Europe. It explores how the interactive, performative and temporal dimensions of market practices produce market space. The papers consider different modes of communication in market space through language, gesture and voice across diversity; the different roles of actors and the ways in which they assemble and configure a sense of place; the sensory and embodied experience of work and consumption; and the role of objects and materials in market practices.

Overall they make a contribution to understanding the production of atmospheres themselves through labour and consumption.

Voice and Social Relations in a City Market

Blackledge, A.

(University of Birmingham)

This study investigated the ways in which people communicate in encounters where the participants have different biographies, trajectories, and linguistic histories. It was conducted in Birmingham Bull Ring Indoor Market, and focused on a Chinese butcher’s stall. Researchers conducted linguistic ethnographic observations over a period of four months. The analysis concluded that superdiversity was experienced and perceived as a normal part of social life in the market. The Chinese butchers told of the physical hardship of setting up a new business in the market, and of their determination to succeed. The butchers were recorded as they engaged in communicative events in which they encountered the voices of others, and through which they began to find their voice. The day-to-day practices of buying and selling in the indoor market were normally characterized by good humour, conviviality, generosity of spirit, and people’s willingness to get on with other people. We saw that elaborate performance, including gesture and mime, was a feature of the spatial repertoire of the market, as people with different proficiencies in different languages

BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

236

Friday 8 April 2016, 11:00 - 12:30

P

APER

S

ESSION

7

entertained themselves and each other, and conducted commercial interactions. Communicative interactions included movement across languages, but languages were by no means the most significant dimension of the translanguaging event. In translanguaging events spaces for communication were opened up, and people made meanings in whatever way possible. The market was a place where communicative resources could be tried out in translanguaging spaces and encounters.

Curating Pop-Up Street Food Markets in London

Concha, P.

(London School of Economics)

This paper explores the curatorial practices of market organisers and presents an account of the process of staging atmospheres (Bille, Bjerregaard and Sorensen:2014) in pop up street food markets in London. Specifically, I argue that the curation of markets demands the orchestration and negotiation of different material and immaterial elements to form a specific atmosphere, such as the selection of food traders with particular cuisines, the layout and infrastructure, design, aesthetic and sensorial elements (colours, smells, sounds) of place as well as organiser’s socioeconomic knowledge and awareness about audiences. In this analysis, I am considering the work of market organisers as cultural intermediaries (Bourdieu:1984) or curators (Hracs:2014) in terms of their use of taste and calculations or qualifications (Callon:1998; Entwistle:2009) to assemble knowledge, material forms and spatial elements, and to configure a specific sense of place and a distinctive style of street food markets.

Drawing on ethnographic research including interviews with market organisers about the different curatorial processes and staging of atmospheres, I present two street food markets as case studies: a pop up lunch time market outside

The Gherkin building in The City of London, and a night market in Lewisham, South East London. The selection of these markets, which have different purposes and audiences, allows me to investigate the curatorial work of staging atmospheres and contributes to an understanding of how the curation of street food markets is a relevant practice in the generation of ‘tasted’ places in London.

Action, Interaction and Atmosphere in a Sardinian Fish Market

Lyon, D.

(University of Kent)

This presentation takes the form of a short ethnographic film about the everyday life of a wholesale fish market in

Sardinia, Italy (The Passage of Fish, editors: Francesco Bachis, Dawn Lyon, Felice Tiragallo). The film immerses the viewer in the material, sensory and affective atmosphere of the market space. It presents the micro spatial and temporal rhythms of the market with a focus on sellers’ and buyers’ techniques of communication, evaluation, exchange, and care. The fish itself is a key focus of activity and the film shows how it is classified, ordered, aestheticized and displayed - acts of ‘staging value’ - in readiness for exchange. Once the buyers arrive, we see the

‘skilled vision’ and the haptic sensitivity they bring to evaluating and handling the fish. Negotiations are intense at times and happen in different emotional registers – challenge, anger, insult and humour - and through different gestures and other embodied expressions. In addition, we explore the material dimensions of the work which takes place in the market, including the use of objects and devices (scales, the ice machine, the ubiquitous polystyrene boxes) and how they are animated by the social practices of the market. The soundscape of the film is composed of multiple voices and the noise of actions and interactions but the film does not rely on language, aiming instead to show how buyers and sellers of fish deploy their embodied knowledge and sensory perceptions in different forms of market work, and the atmospheres this produces.

237 BSA Annual Conference 2016

Aston University, Birmingham

Friday 8 April 2016, 15:15 - 16:45

P

APER

S

ESSION

8

Conference Stream

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

Room

G63, Main Building

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 1 Steelhouse 2, CAMS, Main Building

Culture, Media, Sport and Consumption 2 Conference Centre Room 145

Families and Relationships

Frontiers 1

G11 - Byng Kendrick, Main Building

Stafford 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Frontiers 2

Medicine, Health and Illness

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 1

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 2

Race, Ethnicity and Migration 3

Rights, Violence and Crime

Science and Technology Studies

Social Divisions / Social Identities

Sociology of Education 1

Sociology of Education 2

Sociology of Religion

Theory 1

Theory 2

Work, Employment and Economic Life

Conference Centre Room 127

Conference Centre Room 141

Great Hall, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 144

Conference Centre Room 139

Steelhouse 3, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 3

Whitehall 1-2, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 1A

Conference Centre Rooms 135-137

Whitehall 3, CAMS, Main Building

Steelhouse 1, CAMS, Main Building

Conference Centre Room 134

Conference Centre 123

Friday 8 April 2016, 15:15 - 16:45

P

APER

S

ESSION

8

Cities, Mobilities, Place and Space

G63, M

AIN

B

UILDING

Diasporic Environmental Protest: Articulating (Dis)Connections Between Host and Homeland Territories

Mercea, D.

(City University London)

In many corners of the world, protest is being embraced as a vehicle for voicing angst and opposition, most recently to austerity, corruption, environmental degradation, the retrenchment of the welfare state. This paper scrutinizes

Romanian diasporic environmental activism. Specifically, it charts the utilization of social media by 34 Romanian diasporic groups who mobilized in support of the Save Rosia Montana campaign, the foremost environmental movement in the country. The paper probes diasporic communication on Facebook and Twitter to understand whether and how it may en