Saimaa University of Applied Sciences Technology, Lappeenranta Degree Programme in Mechanical Engineering

Saimaa University of Applied Sciences Technology, Lappeenranta Degree Programme in Mechanical Engineering
Saimaa University of Applied Sciences Technology, Lappeenranta
Degree Programme in Mechanical Engineering
Liang Bo, Cheng Yawen
PORTABLE BEVERAGE CAN COOLER
Bachelor’s Thesis 2010
ABSTRACT
Liang Bo, Cheng Yawen
Portable beverage can cooler
Saimaa University of Applied Sciences, Lappeenranta
Technology, Mechanical Engineering and Production Technology
Bachelor’s Thesis 2010
Instructor: Mr Jukka Nisonen, Saimaa University of Applied Sciences The reason to make a portable beverage can cooler is that all the other
products in the market are heavy, expensive and all use electricity from the
wall plugs. Also regular refrigerators take a long time to properly cool a
beverage can. So it was decided to make a portable beverage can cooler
which can keep a beer cool during outdoor activities like picnics, hiking etc.
More so, since it will be portable it will be smaller and therefore cheaper.
The main user group targeted with this product (PBCC) is people interested in
outdoor activities, like picnics, camping, festivals, cyclists etc. This product can
also be useful for people working in places without refrigerator.
How to create a beverage can cooler which can be carried along since it stores
energy. Since a regular refrigerator takes over an hour to cool a beverage from
room temperature, the product should be able to cool a can in less than twenty
minutes. Without the cans it should weigh less than 5 kg and still be affordable;
also it could cool a maximum of four cans at a time.
The purpose of this project was to create a product which helps people in their
everyday lives by cooling beverages quickly.
Keywords: portable beverage, cooler, material selection
CONTENTS
1 PROBLEM FORMULATION ......................................................................... 5
2 DELIMITATION ............................................................................................. 5
3 CHOICE OF MODEL AND METHOD PROCEDURE ................................... 6
4 SCENARIO FOR THE BEVERAGE CAN COOLER ................................... 10
5 MIND MAPPING OF BEVERAGE CAN COOLER PRODUCT ................... 12
6 MORPHOLOGICAL CHART ....................................................................... 12
7 WORK FLOW DESIGN OF BEVERAGE CAN COOLER ........................... 13
8 SELECTION OF THE MATERIAL FOR BEVERAGE CAN COOLER ......... 14
8.1 Preliminary selection stage of material ............................................. 14
8.2 Step of preparing a property profile .................................................. 15
9 MATERIALS................................................................................................ 16
9.1 Cooling Materials .............................................................................. 16
9.2 Insulation .......................................................................................... 17
9.3 Cover materials ................................................................................. 17
10 TESTING .................................................................................................. 18
10.1 Peltier Element ............................................................................... 19
10.2 Refrigeration ................................................................................... 20
11 TYPE OF PELTIER ELEMENT ................................................................. 20
12 COOLING CALCULATIONS ..................................................................... 22
13 ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS ................................................................ 23
14 FINAL DESIGN OF BEVERAGE CAN COOLER ...................................... 25
15 INSULATION CALCULATIONS ................................................................ 27
16 CALCULATION OF BATTERY ................................................................. 28
17 DESIGN SELECTION ............................................................................... 29
18 IMPROVEMENT IN THE FUTURE ........................................................... 31
18.1 Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 31
18.2 Process ........................................................................................... 32
18.3 Different Power Source ................................................................... 33
18.4 Automation and Temperature Control ............................................. 33
19 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................ 33
20 REFERENCES ......................................................................................... 34
1 PROBLEM FORMULATION
Power Source
The design wants to find out which power source will be used. Information in
gathered from books, internet and also from renewable energy course teacher
and other teachers.
Material- Aesthetics -Cost
The purpose is to find out which materials will be used, since it affects costs,
aesthetics and portability; information will be mainly acquired from the project
supervisor.
Shape and Size
The decision must be made on how many cans it cools at once, since it affects
costs, usability, weight and size. This problem will be solved through a series
of calculations and tests.
Time
The last thing to solve is the time needed for the cooling, since it has a big
effect on usability.
Easily use.
The can cooler must be designed as small as possible. The operation for the
can cooler must be simple.
2 DELIMITATION
Using any other type of energy is not needed but existing energy sources like
solar, regular, mechanical or chemical.
According to materials expensive, heavy and brittle materials are delimitated,
because the product must be affordable, portable and durable.
5
Cooling cans is the only purpose; therefore we exclude bottles and other
beverage vessels are excluded. Cooling times over twenty minutes are
excluded.
3 CHOICE OF MODEL AND METHOD PROCEDURE
What
Problem
Power
Source
Materials
Shape
and Size
Cooling
time
Costs
Why
Needed to
generate
energy for
cooling
Affects
cooling,
costs and
portability
Affects
usability
Affects
usability
Affects
affordabilit
y
Which
Method
How
Calculations
and
consulting
From tables
and
consultants
Comparison
Sketching &
Drawing
Tests and
calculations
Calculations
Using
software
Testing and
calculation
Summing up
the costs
Sketches designed of beverage can cooler
There are 6 kinds of beverage can coolers. Figure 1 shows a telescope model
that could put 3 cans inside. Figure 2 and figure 3 show a briefcase model that
could put 2 cans inside and each can take half space of the beverage can
cooler. Figure 4 shows a sphere model that could contain one can. Figure 3
shows an oven model of the beverage can cooler but this design wastes so
much space. Figure 4 shows a fridge model that could contain 4 cans.
Figure 5 shows a cube model that could contain 4 cans and it really saves the
space because the target of the design is a portable beverage can cooler. In
these 6 methods the last cube model could contain the most cans and the
6
space is the smallest. In saving space and the capacity of the beverage can
cooler the cube model is the best.
Figure 6 The first sketch design on how the beverage can cooler is going to
look like – Telescope
7
Figure 7 Open and close view second sketch designs on how the beverage can
cooler is going to look like.
- Briefcase
Figure 8 Totally open sketch design on how the beverage can cooler is going
to look like
8
Figure 9 The third sketch design on how the beverage can cooler is going to
look like - Sphere
Figure 10 The fourth sketch design on how the beverage can cooler is going to
look like - Oven
Figure 11 The fifth sketch design on how the beverage can cooler is going to look like -
Fridge 9
Figure 12 The sixth design for how the beverage can cooler is going to look like
4 SCENARIO FOR THE BEVERAGE CAN COOLER
Portability
Considering outdoor activities nowadays, these include picnic, hiking,
travelling, camping, group activities, different sport and other alike. Along the
way and during these activities people would want to have a break of drinking
some cold beverages or other canned drinks, but even if you cool your drinks
at home, they will warm up during the activities especially if it is a sunny day.
When families travel by car they often pack snacks along so the kids stay busy
and father can concentrate on the road. But if the kids have warm soda, they
are going to complain about it and you are going to have to stop so you can
buy cold beverages. This wastes time and money, and in addition all the stops
you make are bad for the environment. So if you had a beverage cooler in your
car mother could cool the sodas for the children. And later on the whole family
could enjoy some cool beverages on the picnic ground.
10
Fast Cooling
Sometimes you have big events where you need to serve cold beverages and
it is not convenient to bring a fridge. So, for these events you would need to
cool your beverages at home. But if you have a portable beverage cooler
which can cool a beverage quickly you could serve all the visitors without
forming too long queues.
Luxury Item
When you book a stay at a 5-star hotel, you expect a very high level of luxury
and sophistication, to get a good value for your money. Now, if the hotel has a
high-tech beverage cooler it makes the visitors feel like they get something
special and unique.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nS32QN3s_2o&feature=channel_page
http://www.cybercandy.co.uk/aaasmt/index.php/url_indprod?xlc=945
http://www.cooldesignideasblog.net/2009/09/14/mini-beverage-fridge.html
11
5 MIND MAPPING OF BEVERAGE CAN COOLER PRODUCT
Figure 13 Mind mapping
This figure shows what should be considered in the project. It looks like a WBS
(work break down system)for the whole project considering.
6 MORPHOLOGICAL CHART
Control
Operation
Automati
c
Timer
Complex
Automation
Power
Source
Solar
Normal
Electricit
y
Mechanical
12
Simple
Switch
Component
s for
Cooling
System
Burning
of gases
Peltier
Element
Compresso
r
Cooling of
Heating part
Liquid
Fan
ventilation
Design
Sphere
Fridge
Telescope
Briefcas
e
Cub
e
Table 1 Morphological chart
7 WORK FLOW DESIGN OF BEVERAGE CAN COOLER
The work flow defines as how the system works step by
step.
Figure 14 Work flow of refrigerator and design for beverage can cooler
13
Ove
n
8 SELECTION OF THE MATERIAL FOR BEVERAGE CAN
COOLER
Selecting material is a part of the process which aims to fulfill the requirement
of the design product (beverage can cooler), also in selecting material it must
fulfill the demanded function with low costs in the pre-determined environment,
the desired period or time and the product to be manufactured.
8.1 Preliminary selection stage of material
Figure 15 Preliminary selection stage of material
14
8.2 Step of preparing a property profile
Demand --->properties
Properties-->materials to be consider
Performance factors considering the fuction of the product, order of
importance
Shape requires
Hardness, density, coefficient of heat
expansion, module of elasticity
Weight capacity
Yield strength, module of elasticity and
rigidity
Stress concentrations
Ductility, notch sensitivity
Dynamic load
Fatigue strength,fatigue of notch factor
Impact load
Impact strength, transition temperature
Wear
Hardness, coefficient of friction
Processibility
Castability: melting temperature, fluidity
Machinability: hardness, microstructure
Weldability: carbon content, alloying
Table 2 Profile to know about the material properties in selecting the material
for the desired product
15
Figure 16 Diagram step in selecting the final material to be used
9 MATERIALS
9.1 Cooling Materials
The needed material is light, cheap and has a high thermal conductivity.
16
Material
Thermal
Conductivity
Density
Price
[g/cm3]
[USD/Kg]
Process
ability
Recyclability
[W/m K]
Aluminium
205
2.7
1.87
++
+++
Copper
385
8.3-9
6.4
++
+
Diamond
1000
3.53
>10 000
-
+++
Gold
314
19.3
1085.5
+
++
Polyethylene 0.4
0.9
1
++
+++
ABS
1.04
2
+++
+++
0.19
Table 3 Material selected
Based on this study it was decided to select aluminum. Even though it has the
lowest thermal conductivity, it still meets the requirements. Further, due to the
low life-cycle costs and the weight, it is the best selection. It is also very
recyclable.
9.2 Insulation
One of the key things when considering insulation is layers; for good insulation
many layers are needed. The so called tri-lam insulation is chosen. It is a
combination of foil, polyethylene foam and high density polyethylene film. The
foil reflects the heat, foam keeps the temperature constant and the film
provides tear resistance. The price for the insulation of one unit is about 1 $.
9.3 Cover materials
The inside and outside of the system needed a material that is strong,
processable, recyclable, lightweight and cheap. Therefore ABS plastic was
chosen.
http://foamconverting.com/
17
10 TESTING
Cooling time test in a refrigerator
Figure 17 Refrigerator test
This test uses two cans of beer in the refrigerator and tested the temperature
of the cans. After 30 minutes, there was no noticeable change in the
temperature, after 70 minutes the beverage was starting to cool but it was not
really cold. After 160 minutes the beverages were finally cold enough to drink.
18
Selection of Cooling Element
Studying all sorts of different cooling elements is the beginning, but in the end
it came down to two: The Peltier element and the refrigeration. The Peltier
element, due to reasons stated below, was chosen.
http://home.howstuffworks.com/refrigerator.htm
10.1 Peltier Element
How it works
The cooling in a Peltier element is created by two highly conductive
wires (like copper) and a piece of bismuth or iron wire. When the
conducting wires are connected to the bismuth and a battery, there is a
temperature difference between the two conductive wires. The wire in
which the current is flowing to the bismuth will increase in temperature
and the wire in which the current is flowing from the bismuth will
decrease in temperature; thus creating a cooling effect.
Why Peltier?
‐ Low costs
‐ Small size & weight
‐ Safety
‐ Precise temperature control
‐ Solid state, no liquids
‐ No moving parts → High reliability (Life cycle over 20 years)
‐ Heat generated can be recycled to create energy
19
10.2 Refrigeration
How it works
Refrigerator uses a compressor to pressurize a gas to create a
temperature change in the gas. The cold gas then flows in the back of
the refrigerator until it condenses into liquid and then it flows to the
compressor again and the process restarts.
Why not refrigeration?
‐ Heavy
‐ Noisy
‐ Moving parts → Vibrations
‐ Requires a liquid, which can leak
‐ Expensive
11 TYPE OF PELTIER ELEMENT
Figure 18 Chart for diversity of Peltier element material
The Zt value is calculated using the formula:
20
Z = S2 Σ x T/Κ
Where:
T = absolute temperature
S = Seebeck coefficient
Σ = electrical conductivity
Κ = thermal conductivity
Material
Price
Bismuth Telluride(Bi2Te3)
Lead Telluride (PbTe)
Silicon Germanium (SiGe)
Table 4 Price for Peltier material
Design of Peltier element
‐
‐
‐
High mechanical strength
Low shear stress
All interfaces between components must be flat, parallel, and clean
Figure 19 Cross section of peltier element view
http://www.melcor.com/tec_intro.html
A choice of different Peltier elements in different categories is High
Performance, High Temperature, Micro, Multi-Stage, Special Shapes,
series-parallel connection and Standard. From these it is possible to
21
immediately eliminate High Temperature, Multi-Stage, Micro, Series-Parallel
connection and Special Shapes, due to over design to the requirements and
costs. Therefore, selection is made between High Performance and Standard.
12 COOLING CALCULATIONS
The basis for these calculations is a cooling time for four cans from room
temperature to five degrees, with a heat energy removal of 85 W, which comes
from the chosen Peltier element. Since beverages have different compositions
of ingredients it is difficult to get the specific heat capacity for different
beverages, because all beverages are mostly water it is assumed that the
specific heat capacity to be the same as water. It is assumed that there is a
direct contact between the Peltier element and the can, so it does not consider
the effect of the materials between the Peltier and the cans. These calculations
do not assume heat transfer from the hot side of the Peltier element to the
beverage to be cooled.
With these calculations a value for the time that it takes to cool the beverages
was found.
t = (m*Cp*dT)/Q
t = Time (s)
m = Mass of object (kg)
Cp = Specific heat capacity (J/kg K)
dT = Temperature change of object (K)
Q = Heat Energy Removed (W)
Mass of Object = 1.33 kg. The mass for one can with content was measured to
be 0, 33 kg, so four cans will have the mass of 1,33 kg.
Cp of water = 4186 (J/kg K)
22
dT = 15K Temperature difference from room temperature to desired
temperature from 293,15K to 278,15K
Q = 85 W
And from these calculations we can find a cooling time for four cans by one
Peltier element as 16 min. And since we will be using two elements, the time
will be halved.
So, the selected Peltier element will be HP-199-1,4-0,8 from TE Technology,
Inc.
Figure 20 Schematic for Peltier element
http://www.tetech.com/Peltier-Thermoelectric-Cooler-Modules/High-Performa
nce.html
A = 40mm
B= 40mm
H= 3,2mm
Price = 30$
13 ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS
Trying to use two Peltier elements for more efficient cooling, it must be decided
how they are connected.
23
Parallel
‐
Low Voltage
‐
High Current
‐
More Reliable
Figure 21 Parallel connection of Peltier element
Series
‐
High Voltage
‐
Low Current
‐
If one malfunctions, all malfunction
24
Figure 22 Series connection of Peltier element
14 FINAL DESIGN OF BEVERAGE CAN COOLER
In the final design of the beverage can cooler the cube model is the decided
model because it suited for the product requirements and technology
requirements.
There are three figures showing the parts and the whole model of the cube
model.
25
Figure 18 One part of the cube model, the sockets help the parts assembly
Figure 19 The base part of the cube model.
26
Figure 20 The whole cube model
15 INSULATION CALCULATIONS
Heat transfer is from a high temperature object to a lower temperature object.
It changes the internal energy of both systems involved according to the first
law of thermodynamics
Conservation of energy principle
u=Q–W
u = change in internal energy
Q = heat added to the system
W = work done by the system
The rate of heat loss is given by Q/t = (KA (Theat-T cold) )/D
K = thermal conductivity (W/MoC) of the barrier
A = area
D = thickness
27
16 CALCULATION OF BATTERY
The following calculations were made to find out the required battery capacity
to cool a hundred cans without recharging. Since it takes eight minutes to
cool four cans it will take 200 minutes to cool a hundred cans.
E=C*V
E = Energy Stored in Battery [Watt – Hours]
C = Capacity [Amp – Hours]
V = Voltage [V]
The system should draw 9 amperes for 200 minutes, because each of the two
Peltier elements draws 4, 5 amperes.
C=I*t
t = Time [Hours]
I = Current [A]
t = 3,3 hrs
I = 9 amp
Using these values a capacity (C) was found out as 30 ampere – hours.
To increase battery life it is not good to fully discharge the battery for each
charge cycle. Instead only 80% of its charge should be used.
C’ = C/0,8 = 37,5 amp – hours
C’ = New capacity where life cycle is considered
To change this value into watt – hours it needs to be multiplied with the
voltage.
C’ * V = 345 Watt – Hours
http://www.powerstream.com/battery-capacity-calculations.htm
28
Plastic
Foil
(Acrylonitrile Butadiene
Styrene)
(Aluminium)
Foam
Can
(Polyethylene)
Film
(Polyethylene)
Figure 21 Layers of beverage can cooler
17 DESIGN SELECTION
There are 6 designs to choose from, and from these the cube shaped was
selected. Because the Peltier element is rectangular, the cylindrical shaped
designs were eliminated. The cube has no joints, so it is more durable in that
respect. It is also in the shape of a cube, so it is easy to fit anywhere.
29
Final Work Flow
Energy
Storage
Cooling
+
Normal
Bismuth
Battery
-
Electricity
Peltier
Figure 22 Final work flow of beverage can cooler
The current comes from the plug to the battery and from there the Peltier gets
the needed current to operate.
Ventilation for Peltier elements and battery
30
Figure 23 Ventilation of beverage can
cooler
The Peltier elements and the battery will require cooling to prevent
overheating. Since the Peltiers will be placed on the sides, the best place for
the ventilation is just behind them. The Peltiers will also have aluminum
plates as heat sinks. The battery will be placed at the bottom of the beverage
can cooler, and its ventilation will be on the lower part.
18 IMPROVEMENT IN THE FUTURE
18.1 Waste Heat Recovery
Thermoelectric materials can be used for either cooling or power generation.
Since they have no moving parts compared to conventional energy
technologies, they are more reliable and durable.
In the beverage cooler, Peltier element was used to produce a refrigeration
effect by a process known as “Peltier effect”. A heat sink comprised of thin
aluminum plates was used to dissipate the heat produced on the hot side of
the Peltier element into atmosphere. It would be more efficient if the heat
31
energy was converted to electrical energy, which would in turn be used for
battery charging or for other purpose, using thermoelectric power generation
technology.
18.2 Process
Figure 24 Peltier element for waste recovery
Thermoelectric generators are based on materials that are special types of
semiconductors. When coupled, they function as a heat pump: a temperature
gradient is applied across a sample, electrons diffuse from the hot to cold part
due to the larger thermal speed of the electrons in the hot region, a charge
difference then builds up between the hot and cold region, creating a voltage
and producing an electric current.
In this case of the beverage cooler, the small amount of heat energy would not
be enough to produce enough current because of the fact that in nowadays
thermoelectric material power generation, current devices have a low
conversion efficiency of around 10 per cent.
Researchers are studying on possible special thermoelectric devices that can
be used as thermoelectric generator to recover waste heat and convert it more
efficiently into more usable electrical energy.
In the near future thermoelectric waste heat recovery will make a significant
contribution, over a wide range of applications, in reducing fossil fuel
consumption and global warming.
32
18.3 Different Power Source
Once renewable energy technology advances enough it may become possible
to make a system that uses solar energy, or other type of clean energy. The
solar energy battery could be used in the power source design. This kind of
solar energy battery does not have a high efficiency but it could be developed
in the future. A kind of electric hand torch gives another way that uses the
human power to get the energy. But it does not suit the design because that it
is not portable.
18.4 Automation and Temperature Control
The system could be developed to have automation for temperature sensors to
stop the cooling when the beverage reaches the desired temperature. Remote
controlled systems, or voice activation could also be developed. In this part a
temperature sensor could work as a switch. The temperature sensor is in the
normal closed state. When the temperature reaches the desired temperature
the sensor is working in an open state, the cooling will be stopped.
19 CONCLUSIONS
Portable beverage can cooler was designed step by step. The first step was to
design the model of the portable beverage can cooler then choose the best
one from the portable side. The second step is to divide can cooler to many
components and deign each part. The third step is to choose the suitable
material for each part. The fourth step is to calculate something about the
battery and the cooling then find the best model from the technology side. To
choose the cooling method is suitable for the product requirements(For
example, low noise, the weight is light and the product is small)
33
We learned the advantages and disadvantages for the different ways and how
to calculate the cooling and battery. We used the knowledge of material
selection to help us in materials of part choosing.
Component of layout
Figure 25 Peltier component layout view
Figure 26 Peltier layout
20 REFERENCES
Books and studies on thermodynamics and materials
34
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nS32QN3s_2o&feature=channel_page (in
24th of April, 2010)
http://www.cybercandy.co.uk/aaasmt/index.php/url_indprod?xlc=945 (in 24th of
April, 2010)
http://www.cooldesignideasblog.net/2009/09/14/mini-beverage-fridge.html (in
25th of April, 2010)
http://home.howstuffworks.com/refrigerator (in 26th April, 2010)
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070718064505AAVOd3o (in
26th of April, 2010)
http://www.greencarcongress.com/ (in 27th April, 2010)
http://foamconverting.com/ (in 27th April, 2010)
http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/ (in 28th April, 2010)
http://eekit.dk/ (in 29th April, 2010)
http://www.melcor.com/tec_intro.html (1st May, 2010)
http://ww.tetech.com (1st May, 2010)
http://www.designinsite.dk/htmsider/m1059.htm
(2nd May, 2010)
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html
May, 2009)
http://www.powerstream.com/battery-capacity-calculations.htm
35
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