Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course Quick Links:

Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course Quick Links:
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing
Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
Copyrights and Distribution
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
Dick
Quick Links:
Click on Link - Right click on screen for options
Video segments are not included - Press Home to return to this page - F1 is help
3
Day 1 - Handout materials,
Introduction to Ham Radio
77
Day 2 - Electricity, Components,
Circuits, Radio Waves, Types of Radios
230
Day 3 - Propagation, Antennas, Feed
lines, SWR, Equipment
430
Day 4
- Communicating with other
hams, Licensing and Operating
Regulations, Safety, Exam Prep
28
141
80
245
318
404
465
500
532
January 20, 2015
W3BSA.org
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
As noted at the beginning of The ARRL Instructor's Manual,
this publication is copyrighted material.
You are free to reproduce and distribute limited portions of
The ARRL Instructor's Manual or The ARRL Ham Radio
License Manual as needed for the purposes of instruction of
your class.
However, please do not scan or post copies of this material,
including photos, drawings and illustrations on the Web.
This would be considered an infringement of the provision
of the ARRL copyright.
Not for
distribution.
Thank you
Suggestions and comments to WA4USB at ARRL dot NET
1
January 20, 2015
2
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
Amateur Radio Technician
Class Licensing Course
Day 1 Starts Here
Sponsors
January 20, 2015
Scout Venturing Crew 80
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio
Club (MVARC)
4
5
6
Meet your Instructors
Amateur Radio Technician
Class Licensing Course
Meet your Instructors
Demi Pulas K4BSA
Dick Harman WA4USB
• First licensed in 1964
•
Novice, Tech, General, Advanced, Extra
Instructors:
• Control Op K4US Repeater
• 35+ years Scout Leader
Cubs, Boy Scouts, Explorer
• Committee Chair Crew 80
• Retired 20+ years
Dick – WA4USB
Demi – K4BSA
Jim – K3BUC
Bill – W2BSA
First licensed in 1965
Extra the Hard Way (20 wpm Morse Code)
• Crew 80 Advisor since 1995
• ~ 40 years Scout Leader
• Computers since '59
7
8
9
Meet your Instructors
Bill Stewart W2BSA
Meet your Instructors
Jim Buchanan K3BUC
Amateur Radio Technician Class
• Other groups using nearby
rooms
•First licensed in High School
•First licensed in 1993
•Amateur Extra License
•Scout Leader 20+ years
•Crew 80 COR
•Crew 80 Committee Member
•Scout leader since 1990
•Colonial District STEM Coordinator
•Novice - 1 year non-renewable
•BSEE, + Digital Computers
•Naval Air Systems Command
•Maintained interest in Radio
•Tech, General, Extra & Crew in 2004
•Scout + Scouter 30 years
10
• House Keeping
ƒ Restrooms
ƒ Fire Exits
ƒ Outside Access
11
12
Goals of this Course
Introductions
Goals of this Course
1. Learn about Amateur Radio
activities
• Your name and a little about
yourself
• Someone you know who is a Ham
• What you hope to gain by being a
Ham
• Do you have experience with
amateur radio?
• What are your expectations?
3. Pass the Exam and Obtain
your FCC Technician Class
Amateur Radio License!
2. Learn about Radio and
Electronics
4. The license will authorize
you to operate a Amateur
(Ham) Radio Station
(transmitter)
13
14
15
How to study to ensure passing exam
Our history
• Read assignments when due
• Each and every question is in the
handbook
We have been teaching this
course for about 20 years
• Correct answers are in the manual
• You MUST take the on line
practice tests at home and pass
at least 80% to ensure success
We have learned what
works and have included
lessons learned in this
course
arrrl.
arrrl. org/ examreview
• How class will be run
• Q&A’
Q&A’s at end of each section
16
17
Methods of Learning
• Some courses teach you to
memorize exam questions and
answers
• That method does not lead to
real advancement in your
knowledge
18
Expectations
A BAG lunch is RECOMMENDED
We are NOT teaching answers
We give you the concepts and
knowledge so you will
understand what is going on
• Class will start and end on time
• Instructors will be prepared
• Students are expected to read
assigned material before class and
be prepared to learn
• Ham radio is not a spectator sport,
active participation during class
discussions is vital to success obtaining your License
• Lunch: about Noon
30 minutes for lunch
• There are many on line practice
exams that you can take as
often as you wish at no cost
• Exam
19
Sat Feb 14 9:30 am
20
21
Course Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Let’
Let’s Get Started
Welcome to amateur radio
Electricity, Components and Circuits
Radio and Signals Fundamentals
Propagation, Antennas and Feedlines
Amateur Radio Equipment
Communicating with other hams
Licensing regulations
Operating regulations
Safety
Test preparation and review
October 2012
We intend to give you the
knowledge to pass the
exam
• BSA Jamboree On The Air
• Boy Scouts in Irving Texas
spoke with an astronaut on the
International Space Station
using Amateur Radio relayed
through amateur stations in
Australia - here is a short clip
Your knowledge and
understanding will grow as
you enjoy and use amateur
radio
22
23
24
Steps to obtaining your ticket
About the exam
• Study the Ham Radio License
Back of the book page 11-1
Sub-elements..T1A T2A T3A T4A
One question on your exam from
each of the 35 "Sub-elements"
Manual
• Review the questions in the book
• Take interactive practice exams
• Pass a 3535-question multiple choice
test
ƒ Questions are from the question
pool in the back of the book
ƒ Answer 26 correctly
• No Morse code is required
25
Exact text of Q and A …. But
Q and A (both) may be re-sequenced
26 correct to pass
26
27
1. Read the assigned pages
2. Pay attention in class
3. Do the practice exams
Most probably (> 90%) earn
your license – when you
do 1 and 2 and 3
Chapter 1
Sequence of Presentations
Lets say it another way
• We do not follow the exact book
sequence
• We generally follow Chapter
content
• Our purpose is to make it easy
to understand and make sense
• Page numbers will be in the
bottom left corner of slides
28
What is
Amateur Radio
?
29
30
What is Amateur Radio?
Today's Topics
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
1. What makes Amateur Radio
unique
2. Why the FCC makes rules
3. Activities involving Amateur
Radio
4. How to find other hams
5. Technician License
6. Next week
1-1
What is Amateur Radio?
1. The purpose is to
advance skills in the
technical and
communication phases of
the radio art
31
2. To promote the
development of an
emergency communication
capability to assist
communities when needed
32
33
What is Amateur Radio?
What is Amateur Radio?
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
What is Amateur Radio?
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
5. Through ham radio, you
will become an
ambassador for your
community and your
country
4. To promote international
goodwill by connecting
private citizens in
countries around the globe
3. To develop a pool of
trained radio operators
34
35
36
What do hams do?
Why does the FCC make rules
• Amateur Radio is a Licensed
Service
• Hams can buy or build or
modify their own equipment
• Knowledge and skills are
required
• That’
That’s why we have licenses
1-13
37
1-8
• Communicate
• Participate
• Experiment
• Build
• Compete
• Serve their communities
• LifeLife-long learning
Here is a video
showing things that
hams do and enjoy
38
32:15 39
Here is a video
showing things that
hams do and enjoy
Condensed Version
40
Full Version
41
8:34
42
One evening on the Jay
Leno show, there was a
competition between
text messaging and two
amateur radio
operators
ARRL 2011
43
Who wins?
1:31
Leno
44
45
About Ham Radio
About Ham Radio
The Amateur Radio Service is intended for
persons who are interested in radio
technique solely with a personal aim and
without pecuniary interest.
About Ham Radio
The agency that regulates and enforces
the rules for the Amateur Radio Service in
the United States is the FCC.
T1C10 You may operate to transmit after you
pass the examination elements required for
your first amateur radio license as soon as
your name and call sign appear in the FCC’
FCC’s
ULS database.
ƒ T1A02
ƒ
There is no age requirement for holding an FCC Amateur Radio License.
46
47
48
Take Aways
About Ham Radio
The normal
term for an FCCFCCissued primary
station/operator
license grant is ten
ƒ T1C08
•
years.
•
The grace
period following the
expiration of an
amateur license
within which the
license may be
renewed is two
ƒ T1C09
If your license has expired and is still within the
allowable grace period, you may not continue to
operate to transmit until the ULS database shows that
the license has been renewed.
T1A10 The FCC Part 97 definition of an amateur station
is a station in the Amateur Radio Service consisting of
the apparatus necessary for carrying on radio
communications.
T1C11
Purpose of the amateur service
•The Amateur Radio Service is intended for
those persons who are interested in radio
technique solely with a personal aim and without
pecuniary interest. [97.3(a)(4)]
The Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) is the government agency that
regulates and enforces the rules for the
Amateur Radio Service in the United
States. [97.1]
years.
49
50
51
Element 2 Technician Class
Question Pool
How soon may you operate a transmitter on
an amateur service frequency after you pass
the examination required for your first
amateur radio license?
About Ham Radio
A. Immediately
B. 30 days after the test date
C. As soon as your name and call sign
appear in the FCC’
FCC’s ULS database
D. As soon as you receive your license in
the mail from the FCC
Valid July 1, 2014
Through
June 30, 2018
52
What is the normal term for an
FCCFCC-issued primary
station/operator license
grant?
A. Five years
B. Life
C. Ten years
D. Twenty years
53
54
What makes ham radio different?
With more privileges comes
more responsibility
What makes ham radio different?
• Ham radio has:
ƒ Less restrictions
ƒ More frequencies (channels
or bands to utilize)
ƒ More power (to improve
range and quality)
ƒ More ways to communicate
ƒ It’
It’s free to operate your radio
• There are many other radio
services available
ƒ CB – no license required
ƒ FRS & GMRS
• Some are licensed to
commercial carriers and
leased to consumers
ƒ Cell phones
55
1-12
• Ham radios have the potential
of interfering with other radio
services
• Ham radios have unlimited
reach - easily reach around the
globe and into space
• No commercial use
56
57
With more privileges comes
more responsibility
Amateur Radio Activities
How do I get a License ?
• We make contacts with other
hams
• Support emergencies and
public service events
• Awards and contests
• Build, Invent, and modify our
radios and other equipment
• FCC authorization is required
to ensure the operator is
qualified to operate the radio
safely,
safely, appropriately,
appropriately, and
within the rules and regs –
that is why we are here
58
1-15
• Learn
• Understand
• Be prepared to pass the FCC
exam, administered by
volunteer examiners on
February 14, 2014 at 9:30 am
59
60
Some things can be reasoned
or calculated
Course Schedule
Amateur Radio License Structure
• Four Consecutive Saturdays
Class
• A few things have to
be memorized
Requirements
TECHNICIAN Basic Theory, Rules
and Regulations
ƒ FCC rules
ƒ A few formulas
ƒ Authorized frequencies
61
Elements
2
Frequency
Privileges
HF (CW + Limited
Voice & Data)
VHF (All Modes)
UHF (All Modes)
GENERAL
Basic and General
Theory
2, 3
More HF (All Modes)
VHF (All Modes)
UHF (ALL Modes)
EXTRA
Comprehensive
Theory
2, 3, 4
All HF (All Modes)
All VHF (All Modes)
All UHF (All Modes)
1-14
62
January 17
3:00 PM – 5:00 PM
(Introduction)
January 24
9:00 AM – 3:00 PM
(Instruction)
January 31
9:00 AM – 3:00 PM
(Instruction)
February 7
9:00 AM – 3:00 PM
(Instruction, Review, Exam prep)
63
Course Schedule
Course Schedule
License Exam :
Exam one week after the end of
the course
35 questions - 26 correct to pass
February 14
If you are close to passing they
usually offer a retest
immediately
The VE team usually has several
versions of the exam
We have enough time in the class
to cover the information needed
to pass the license exam
9:30 AM – 10:30 AM
We must stay on topic to stay on
time
MVARC offers VE Exams on the
Second Saturday of each
month at 9:30 – no fee
64
If you need something off topic,
please ask an instructor off-line
65
66
Let’
Let’s begin your ham radio journey
• We have touched briefly on
what ham radio is — more
will follow
T1A01
Let's look at some exam
questions now
T1A01
T1C10
T1C13
T1A05
T1A10
Which of the following is a purpose of the
Amateur Radio Service as stated in the
FCC rules and regulations?
A. Providing communications for
international non-profit organizations
We have
discussed
much of this
B. Advancing skills in the technical and
communication phases of the radio art
C. Providing personal radio
communications for as many citizens as
possible
They are in the back of your
book
67
D. All of these choices are correct
68
69
T1C10
T1C13
How soon after passing the examination
for your first amateur radio license
may you operate a transmitter on an
amateur service frequency?
A. Immediately
For which licenses classes are new
licenses currently available from the
FCC?
A. Novice, Technician, General,
Advanced
B. Technician, Technician Plus,
General, Advanced
C. Novice, Technician Plus, General,
Advanced
D. Technician, General, Amateur Extra
B. 30 days after the test date
C. As soon as your operator/station
license grant appears in the FCC’s
license database
D. You must wait until you receive your
license in the mail from the FCC
70
T1A05
Which of the following is a purpose of the
Amateur Radio Service rules and
regulations as defined by the FCC?
A. Enhancing international goodwill
B. Providing inexpensive communication
for local emergency organizations
C. Training of operators in military radio
operating procedures
D. All of these choices are correct
71
72
Next week
T1A10
What is the definition of an amateur
radio station?
A. A station in an Amateur Radio Service
consisting of the apparatus necessary
for carrying on radio communications
B. A building where Amateur Radio
receivers, transmitters, and RF power
amplifiers are installed
C. Any radio station operated by a nonprofessional
D. Any radio station for hobby use
Next Week's Topics
1. Electricity, Components and
Circuits
2. Radio and Signal Fundamentals
3. Types of Radios
4. Propagation Antennas and Feed
lines
• Read Chapters 1, 3, 2 and 4
• Chapter 4 may be next week or
the week after next - it depends
• Bring your questions
• If you have time, try a practice
exam or two
73
74
75
February 14 Exam
February 14 Exam
• Please bring the following:
• 1) Picture ID or a DMV "child's ID"
which looks like a drivers license.
What are you
going to do before
next Saturday?
• If you hold any FCC license and have
a FRN please bring that also
• Such as GMRS
OR a parent with the same last name
and address AND info that only a
parent would have such as a birth
certificate - parent ID IS NOT the
preferred ID
Read 1, 3, 2 and 4
Try a practice exam or two
• 2) SSN
76
77
The score does not matter
78
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
Questions?
Jim
Day 2 Starts Here
Something you don't understand?
What is bothering you?
79
January 20, 2015
80
January 20, 2015
81
Chapter 3
Today's Topics
1. Electricity, Components and
Circuits
2. Radio and Signal Fundamentals
3. Types of Radios
4. Propagation Antennas and Feed
lines
5. What to prepare for next week
• In the following presentations,
we provide an overview of the
topic
Electricity,
Components,
Circuits
82
• In later sessions, we come
back with greater detail
• Don't hesitate to ask questions
• If we ask you to hold that
thought, please jot it down
83
84
Fundamentals of Electricity
VIDEO Segments
•These videos are from a prepre2006 video for the Technician
License Course
When dealing with electricity
what we are referring to is the
flow of electrons through a
conductor
The video mentions “the test”
test”
The test is revised every 4
years -- you should rely on the
current question pool in the
back of your book
•The concepts have not
changed
•References to specific exam
questions are no longer current
85
ƒ Electrons are negatively charged
atomic particles
The opposite charge is the positive
charge
ƒ A conductor is a material that
allows electrons to move with
relative freedom
86
87
We are going to watch a
video segment about
Electrical Principles
In other words, Basic
Electricity, Electrical
components, and Units
that we use to measure
electricity
Fundamentals of Electricity
• In electronics and radio, we
control the flow of electrons
to make things happen
• Knowledge of how we control
the flow of electrons helps
you understand how to
operate your radio
88
Electrical Principles
18
89
18
90
Characteristics of Electricity
Characteristics of Electricity
• Three characteristics of
electricity
ƒ Voltage
ƒ Current
ƒ Resistance
Page 3-2
• The flow of water through a
hose is a good analogy to the
three characteristics of
electricity and how they are
related
Middle of page
• Each can be measured
3-1
91
92
93
Characteristics of Electricity
Ohm’s Law
Characteristics are InterInter-related
94
• Voltage, current, and resistance
must be present to have current
flow
• Just like water flowing through
a hose, changes in voltage,
current, and resistance affect
each other
• That effect is mathematically
expressed in Ohm’
Ohm’s Law
E is voltage
Unit is volt
I is current
Unit is ampere
95
3-4
R = E/I
I = E/R
E=IxR
R is resistance
Unit is ohm
96
When you take the exam
When you take the exam
write this down on the
scratch paper
Resistance
write this down on the
scratch paper
Pressure
E = Volts
I = Amps R = Ohms
Current flow
97
98
99
Ohm's Law:
Power Formula
Moving Electrons –
Doing Something Useful
"Resistance is not futile"
Power - the amount of current that is
pushed through a conductor or device
to do work
• Anytime energy is expended to
do something - work is
performed
• When moving electrons do
some work, power is consumed
It is voltage divided
by current
R=E÷I
P is power
Unit is watt
E is voltage
Unit is volt
I is current
Unit is ampere
P=ExI
E = P/I
I = P/E
• Power is measured in Watts
100
101
3-4
102
When you take the exam
write this down on the
scratch paper
Two Kinds of Current
When you take the exam
write this down on the scratch
paper
Alternating Current (AC)
and
P = Watts
Direct Current (DC)
E = Volts I = Amps
103
104
105
Two Kinds of Current
Two Kinds of Current
When current flows alternatively in
one direction then in the opposite
direction, it is called Alternating
Current (AC)
When current flows in only one
direction, it is called Direct Current
(DC)
Your household current is AC
Cross country power lines use AC
Radio waves are AC
3-6 (top right)
Alternating Current
106
3-6
The speed at which the Alternating
Current changes direction is called
Frequency
Batteries are a source of DC
It is measured in Hertz
Most electronic devices are
powered by DC
Batteries are in flashlights and
start your car
It used to be Cycles (same thing)
Hertz (per second)
Much more later!
107
108
Series Circuits
The Electric Circuit –
an Electronic Roadmap
• Series circuits provide only one
path for current flow
The Electric Circuit –
an Electronic Roadmap
• For current to flow, there must
be a path from one side of the
source of the current to the
other side of the source – this
path is called a circuit
• Next, we will introduce
some terms that are used to
describe circuits
ƒ There must be a hose (conductive
path) through which the water
(current) can flow
109
3-12
110
3-2
111
Parallel Circuits
Short Circuit
Open Circuit
• When there is an unintentional
current path that byby-passes
areas of the circuit – this is a
short circuit
• Parallel circuits provide
alternative paths for current
flow
112
• When the current path is broken
so that there is a gap that the
electrons can not jump – this is
an open circuit
113
114
Questions?
115
3-6
Chapter 3.2
Controlling the Flow of
Current
Components and
Units
• To make an electronic device
(like a radio) do something
useful (like a receiver), we
need to control and manipulate
the flow of current
• There are a number of different
electronic components that we
use to do this
116
117
Video
Components
Practical
Electronics
An introduction to
names and symbols
118
Practical Electronics
11
119
12
120
Switch
Resistor
• The function
of the switch
is to permit or
not permit the
flow of current
through it
121
3-13
• The function
of the resistor Circuit Symbol
is to restrict
(limit) the
flow of current
through it
122
123
Capacitor
Inductor
• The function of the
capacitor is to
Circuit Symbol
temporarily store
electric current
• The function of
the inductor is
to temporarily
store electric
current
ƒ Like a very
temporary storage
battery
ƒ Stores energy in an
electrostatic field
124
ƒ Is basically a
coil of wire
ƒ Stores energy
in a magnetic
field
Transistor
Circuit Symbol
• The function of the
transistor is to
variably control
the flow of current
Circuit Symbol
ƒ Much like an
electronically
controlled valve
ƒ Like the faucet in
your sink
125
126
Integrated Circuit
The Integrated circuit
is a collection of
Circuit Symbol
components
contained in one
device that
accomplishes a
specific task
ƒ Acts like a “blackblackbox”
box”
127
Protective Components –
Intentional Open Circuits
Fuses and circuit
breakers are
Circuit Symbol
designed to
interrupt the flow
of current if the
current becomes
uncontrolled
128
Protective Components –
Intentional Open Circuits
• Fuses blow – one
time protection
Circuit Symbol
• Circuit breakers
trip – can be reset
and reused
129
What are these?
Some Circuit Symbols
130
3-7
What are these?
3-8
What are these?
3-8
Video
Power Amps and
other devices
Electrical Principles
11
134
11
135
Putting it all together –
a circuit diagram
Numbers,
Questions?
Numbers,
Numbers
136
137
2-2
138
Dealing with Very Big and
Very Small Numeric Values
Prefix
Tera
Giga
Metric Units
• In electronics we deal with
large and small numbers
Kilo-
• The international metric
system provides a method of
dealing with the wide range
of values
MegaCentiMilli-
139
2-2
Deca
Deci
da
d
10 1
10 -1
Centi
Milli
Micro
c
m
µ
10 -2
10 -3
10 -6
Multiplication Factor
1,000,000,000,000
1,000,000,000
1,000,000
1,000
100
10
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.000001
Nano
Pico
n
p
10 -9
10 -12
0.000000001
0.000000000001
Mega
Kilo
Hecto
International System of Units (SI)
Micro140
Symbol
T
10 12
G
10 9
M
10 6
k
10 3
h
10 2
141
Types of Radios and Radio
Circuits
T5B01
How many milliamperes is
the same as 1.5 amperes?
• 3-16
A. 15 milliamperes
B. 150 milliamperes
C. 1500 milliamperes
D. 15000 milliamperes
142
Chapter 2
Radio and Signals
Fundamentals
144
Radio
Signals and
Waves
2-1
Wave Vocabulary
Radio Waves are AC
As we study radio
waves, we will
learn some new
terms
• In alternating current (AC) the
electrons flow in one direction one
moment and then the opposite
direction the next moment
• Radio waves (electromagnetic
radiation) are AC waves
• Radio waves are used to carry the
information you want to convey to
someone else
145
Amplitude
Frequency (Hertz)
Period
Wavelength (Meters)
Harmonics
146
2-2
147
• The distance a
radio wave
travels during
one cycle
• The RF Spectrum is the range
of wave frequencies which will
leave an antenna and travel
through space
• The RF Spectrum is divided
into segments of frequencies
that have a unique behavior
ƒ Band
ƒ Frequency
ƒ One complete
change between
magnetic and
electric fields
2-5
Radio Frequency (RF)
Spectrum
Finding where you are on the
radio dial
• There are two ways to tell
someone where to meet you on
the radio dial (spectrum)
Wavelength
148
149
150
Radio Frequency (RF)
Spectrum
Another use for frequency and
wavelength
• For the station antenna to
efficiently send the radio wave
out into space, the antenna
must be designed for the
specific operating frequency
So, Where am I?
• How to tell where you are in the
spectrum • Bands identify the segment of the
spectrum where you will operate
ƒ Wavelength is used to identify the
band
3kHz to 30kHz is primarily an audio (sound
wave) portion of the spectrum. In some cases,
RF waves can also be generated at these
frequencies.
2-4
ƒ The antenna length needs to
closely match the wavelength of
the frequency to be used
• Frequencies identify specifically
where you are within the band
151
152
153
Another use for frequency and
wavelength
Practice problem frequency and
wavelength
Practice problem frequency and
wavelength
Any mismatch between
antenna length and
frequency wavelength will
result in radio frequency
energy being reflected back
to the transmitter, not going
(being emitted) into space
What is the wavelength in
meters of a RF signal of 7
Mhz?
300 divided by 7
42 meters (common use 40 m.)
What is the wavelength in
meters of a RF signal of 144
Mhz?
70 goes into 300 about 4 times
7 times 4 is 28
154
155
300 divided by 144
2 meters
144 goes into 300 twice
156
Calculators
Antennas are part capacitor –
part inductor – part resistor
Antennas are part capacitor –
part inductor – part resistor
• You may use a calculator during
the exam
• Be prepared to show that all
memories are clear
• You can not store formulas or
answers to questions on your
calculator and use it on the exam
Antennas have
characteristics of
capacitors, inductors,
and resistors
We discussed these earlier
• Capacitors and inductors,
because they store energy
in fields, react differently to
AC and DC
157
ƒ Special kind of resistance to
the flow of AC – called
reactance
158
159
Resonance
Resonant Antenna
Harmonics
• If an antenna is designed correctly, the
capacitive reactance cancels the
inductive reactance
• Theoretically, the resulting reactance is
zero
ƒ Leaving only resistance – meaning
minimum impediment to the flow of
the radio frequency currents flowing in
the antenna and sending the radio
wave into space
• Because capacitors and inductors
store energy in different ways, the
stored energy can actually cancel
each other under the right
conditions
ƒ Capacitors – electrostatic field
ƒ Inductors – magnetic field
• Cancelled energy (current) = zero
reactance,
reactance, leaving only resistance
160
161
• A harmonic is a multiple of the
original frequency
• A second harmonic is 2 x
Frequency
• A third harmonic is 3 x
Frequency
• In antennas, even harmonics
cancel but odd harmonics may
radiate causing interference
162
Ham Slang
Chapter 2.2
• An antenna is a sky hook
Questions?
• Something that transmits is a rig
Introduction to
Modulation
• A bunch of antennas is an
antenna farm
2-11
(not on test)
163
164
2-6
165
Adding Information Modulation
Video
Types of
Emissions
• When we imprint some information
on the radio wave, we modulate the
wave
ƒ Turn the wave on and off
ƒ Voice AM and FM
ƒ Data
Types of Emissions
• Different modulation techniques
are called modes
166
21
167
168
Morse Code – on and off
Characteristics of voice
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
In AM, the amplitude of the
carrier wave is modified in
step with the waveform of
the information (voice)
Combining Voice with an RF
carrier produces 2
identical sidebands
• Sound waves that make up your
voice are a range of audio
frequencies
• Most voices range from 300
hertz to about 3000 Hz
• Our hearing range goes to
about 20 kHz
2-7
169
170
171
Modulation
Voice Modulation
172
173
2-8
174
Single Sideband Modulation
(SSB)
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Single Sideband Modulation
(SSB)
• Combining Voice with an RF
carrier produces 2 identical
sidebands
• We can improve efficiency of
transmission by transmitting
only one sideband and then
reconstruct the missing
sideband at the receiver
175
176
2-9
177
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Transmitting Data
• Data is made up of binary
bits 1 and 0 - On and off
states
• Instead of varying amplitude,
if we vary the frequency in
step with the information
waveform – FM is produced
• We shift the frequency of the
transmitter up and down to
carry information
• Modems translate the data
into a format capable of
modulating a carrier wave
178
2-9
179
180
Transmitting Data
Data Transmission Setup
• A terminal node controller
(TNC) is a special modem
used in ham radio
• There are many more kinds
of modems developed as data
transmission technology
advances
181
Questions?
182
183
Chapter 2.3
Terms
Basic Types of:
Jim or
Dick
Radios
Equipment
Equipment Definitions
2-11
Receiver
Transmitter
Transceiver
Antenna
184
January 20, 2015
185
186
What happens during radio
communication?
Receiving:
Receiving:
What happens during radio
communication?
Transmitting (sending a signal)
Basic Station Organization
• Station Equipment
1. Information (voice, data, video,
commands, etc.) is converted to
an electronic form
2. The electronic form is attached or
imbedded in a radio wave (a
carrier)
3. The radio wave is sent out from
the station antenna into space
ƒ Receiver
ƒ Transmitter
ƒ Antenna
ƒ Power Supply
• Accessory Station Equipment
• Repeaters
187
188
1. The antenna intercepts the radio
wave (carrier) with the
information
2. The receiver extracts the
information from the carrier
wave
3. The information is presented as
a sound, picture, or words on a
computer screen …
189
What happens during radio
communication?
Receiver Controls
Receiver
• This sounds simple, but it in reality
is complex
• Complexity is one thing that makes
ham radio fun…
fun…learning all about
how radios work
• Don’
Don’t be intimidated, you will be
required to only know the basics, but
you can learn as much about the “art
and science”
science” of radio as you want
190
191
• Main tuning dial for received
frequency (or channel)
selection
• Frequency display
• Volume control
• Other accessory controls for
mode (kind of information to
process), filters (to mitigate
interference), etc.
192
Transmitter Controls
Transmitter
Transceiver
• Main tuning dial for transmitted
frequency (or channel) selection
• Frequency display
• Power control (transmitted
signal strength)
• Other accessory controls for
mode (kind of information to
process), etc.
193
194
195
The transceiver
Transceiver Controls
• Modern transmitters and
receivers are combined in one
unit – a transceiver
• Some are physical knobs that
you manually adjust
• Many of the controls of the
transmitter and receiver are the
same
• Many electronic circuits are
shared in the transceiver
• Some are controlled by an
internal computer -- you control
the settings with keypad entries
that control the computer in the
transceiver
ƒ Saves space, Costs less
196
Antenna
197
198
Antenna
Antenna
TR Switch
• Many times the transmitting
and receiving antenna are
the same antenna
• Your antenna is connected
to your station by a wire
called a feed line
The antenna exposes your
station to the world
1. Facilitates the radiation of
your signal into space
(electromagnetic radiation)
2. Intercepts someone else’s
signal
199
200
201
Transmit/Receive (TR) Switch
Power Supply
Power Supply
• Your radio station needs
some sort of power to
operate
• When the antenna is shared
between the transmitter and
receiver, the TR switch allows the
antenna to be switched to the
transmitter when sending and to
the receiver when receiving
ƒ Battery
ƒ Household current converted
to proper voltage
ƒ Alternative sources
• In a transceiver, this TR switch is
inside the unit and requires no
attention by the operator
202
203
204
Radio Circuits
Accessory Equipment
Power Supply
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Most modern radios operate on 12
volts direct current (DC)
ƒ A power supply converts household
current to the type of current and
the correct voltage to operate your
station
ƒ Could be internal or external
• You are probably familiar with
“wallwall-wart”
wart” power supplies
205
206
Oscillators and Amplifiers
Filters
Some things
Modulators
you may see on
Mixers
the exam
Demodulators
Don't need to
Detectors
know how each
Product Detectors
works, just
Frequency Discriminators
Receivers - Direct Conversion what it does
Receivers - Superhetrodyne
Transverters
207
Filters
Amplifier
Produces a steady low power
signal at a specific frequency
• High Pass
• Low Pass
• Band
Pass
• Notch
• Cutoff is
½ signal
level
Increases a low power signal
Could also be a power Amplifier
Feeds a Driver that isolates
the load on the oscillator
Runs all the time
208
209
3-17
Level
Oscillators
Frequency
210
Mixer
Modulator
Demodulator
• Reverses what a Modulator does
• Separates the RF from the voice
• A computer Modem is a
Modulator and Demodulator in a
single box - works two ways does both jobs
• Many different types
We will talk about several types
• Combines two RF signals
Adds voice or data to a RF signal or
carrier which can then be
transmitted by radio
• Produces the sum and difference
of the input signals
• Shifts frequencies for some
purpose (filtering)
Could be a telegraph key or
microphone output
• Is NOT an AUDIO mixer
211
3-17
212
213
Product Detector
Detector
Frequency Discriminator
Demodulates CW and SSB
signals
Demodulates AM
Can be used in AM broadcast
radio receivers
214
Demodulates Frequency
Modulation (FM) signals
215
216
Receiver - Superhetrodyne
"Superhet"
Superhet"
• Uses Intermediate Frequency (IF)
amplifier and filters
• Uses a Beat Frequency Oscillator to
recover CW and SSB
Receiver - Direct Conversion
• Single Conversion of RF back into the
original modulating signal
217
Transverter
• Converts one RF frequency to
another
• For example 28 Mhz to 222
Mhz and from 222Mhz to 28
Mhz allowing a single
transceiver to operate on both
bands
218
219
Radio Circuits Pages
T7A05
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the name of a circuit
that generates a signal of a
desired frequency?
A. Reactance modulator
B. Product detector
C. Low-pass filter
D. Oscillator
220
3-16 thru 33-19
Basic Station Accessories
Oscillators and Amplifiers
Filters
Lets review
Modulators
what these
Mixers
things are
Demodulators
Detectors
used for
Product Detectors
Frequency Discriminators
Receivers - Direct Conversion
Receivers - Superhetrodyne
Transverters
• Human
interface
ƒ Microphones
ƒ Speakers
ƒ Earphones
ƒ Computer
ƒ Morse code key
ƒ TV camera
221
• Station
performance
ƒ Antenna tuner
ƒ SWR meter
(antenna match
checker)
ƒ Amplifier
ƒ Antenna rotor
(turning antenna)
ƒ Filters
222
Types of Radios
Questions?
223
Dick
224
January 20, 2015
225
Generalized Transceiver
Categories
• Single Band
VHF or UHF
FM
• Dual Band
VHF/UHF FM
• MultiVHF/UHF
Multi-mode
HF and
• MultiMulti-band
VHF/UHF
• HandHand-held (HT)
226
Single Band Transceiver
Dual Band Transceiver
• Probably the most common starter rig
• Operated from 12 volts DC, will require
external power supply
• Same as the single band transceiver
but includes additional band(s)
band(s)
• Will require an external antenna
• Can be operated mobile or as a base
station
• Limited to frequency modulation
(FM) and either 2 meters or 70 cm
bands
• Up to approximately 50 watts output
• Most common 2 m and 70 cm bands
227
• Could be tritri-bander
• Depending on antenna connectors,
might require separate coax for each
band or duplexer for single coax
228
MultiMulti-mode Transceiver
MultiMulti-band Transceiver
• Can be single or dual band
• Main difference is that these rigs
can operate on all major modes
SSB/AM/FM, CW, Data, RTTY etc.
• More features add complexity and
cost
• Most flexible of the rigs that will
allow you to explore new modes as
you gain experience
• Covers several bands – can be
limited to HF or can be
HF/VHF/UHF
• Also covers all modes
• Frequently 100 watts on HF, some
power limitations on high bands
(50 watts)
• Larger units have internal power
supplies, smaller units require
external power (12 V)
229
HandHand-held (HT) Transceiver
•
•
•
Small handhand-held FM units
Can be single band or dual band
Limited power (usually 5 watts or
less)
• Includes power (battery) and
antenna in one package
• An attractive first starter rig – but
make sure it is what you want
230
231
Comparison
MultiMulti-band
HT
Medium
Full
Limited
Limited
Full
Full
Limited
Easy
Medium
Medium
Difficult
Easy
Programming
Easy
Easy
Medium
Challengin
g
Easy/Medium
Power
Low
Low
Medium
High
Low
Cost
Low
Modest
High
High
Low
Single
Band
Dual Band
MultiMultimode
Freq Agility
Limited
Medium
Functionality
Limited
Ease of Use
More on equipment
In future
lessons
232
Dick
233
January 20, 2015
234
Introduction to
Repeaters
Introduction to Repeaters
Special stations you will use
(Repeaters)
Repeaters)
• Repeaters are automated stations
located at high places that receive
and then retransmits your signal simultaneously
ƒ Dramatically improves range
• The basic components of a repeater
are the same as your station:
receiver, transmitter, antenna, and
power supply
• Extend your coverage range
• Normally VHF or UHF
• Some on HF (6 and 10 meters)
235
2-11
236
237
Repeaters
Repeaters
Repeaters
• But, repeaters are transmitting
and receiving at the same time,
on different frequencies using
the same antenna
• Repeaters do not use T/R
switches because they are
transmitting and receiving
simultaneously
• This requires a very high quality
and specialized filter to prevent the
transmitted signal from overoverpowering the receiver
• This specialized filter is called a
duplexer
• The receiver sees the antenna
• The transmitter sees the antenna
• The receiver does NOT see the
repeater's transmitter (else smoke)
• The K4US repeater
ƒ Receives on 146.0
146.055 Mhz
ƒ Transmits on 146.6
146.655 Mhz
• Your radio
ƒ Receives on 146.655
ƒ Transmits on 146.055
238
239
240
Repeater
Repeaters
Questions?
We will cover repeaters
in detail in a later lesson
241
242
243
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
Day 2 might
end here or
later….
Questions?
Day 3 Starts Here
Something you don't understand?
What is bothering you?
244
January 20, 2015
245
246
Radio Wave Propagation
Topics
Chapter 4
Propagation
Demi
January 20, 2015
247
4-1
• How signals travel
• Antenna Basics
• Feed Lines
• What is SWR
• How to build a practical
antenna
248
4-1
249
Radio Wave Propagation
Getting from Point A to Point B
• Radio waves propagate by many
mechanisms
ƒ The science of wave propagations
has many facets
• We will discuss 3 basic ways:
LineLine-ofof-Sight
Ground Wave
• If a source of radio energy can
been seen by the receiver, then the
radio energy will travel in a
straight line from transmitter to
receiver
• Some radio frequency ranges
(lower HF frequencies) will hug
the earth’
earth’s surface as they
travel
• These waves will travel beyond
the range of lineline-ofof-sight
• A few hundred miles
ƒ There is some attenuation of the
signal as the radio wave travels
ƒ Line of sight
ƒ Ground wave
ƒ SkySky-wave
• This is the primary propagation
mode for VHF and UHF signals
250
251
252
Ionosphere
Levels of the Ionosphere
• Radiation from the
sun momentarily
will strip electrons
away from the
parent atom in the
upper reaches of
the atmosphere
ƒ Creates ions
• The region where
ionization occurs is
called the
Ionosphere
4-3
Ionosphere – a leaky RF Mirror
• The ionized layers of the
atmosphere actually act as an
RF mirror that reflect certain
frequencies back to earth
• SkySky-wave propagation is
responsible for most longlong-range,
over the horizon communication
• Reflection depends on frequency
and angle of incidence
Density of the
atmosphere affects:
• The intensity of the
radiation that can
penetrate to that
level
• The amount of
ionization that occurs
• How quickly the
electrons rere-combine
with the nucleus
253
4-3
254
255
Sun Spot Cycle
What are LUF and MUF?
• The level of ionization depends of
the radiation intensity of the sun
• Radiation from the sun is related to
the number of sun spots on the
sun’
sun’s surface
• Lowest Usable Frequency
• Maximum Usable Frequency
• If too low => absorbed
• If too high => goes into space
• Just right => bounces back to
earth miles and miles away
4-4
256
4-4
ƒ High number of sun spots, high
ionizing radiation emitted from the
sun
• Sun spot activity follows an 1111-year
cycle
257
258
Antennas and Feed Lines
• Feed line delivers the
signal to and from the
antenna
More on this shortly
4-5
Exam Questions T5B09, 10 and 11
What are Decibels ?
Please turn to page
11-34 in the back of
your book and write
down the letter of
the correct answer
• dB is the ratio of two
quantities as a power of 10
- 3 dB is half power
+ 3 dB is twice power
259
4-7
260
We will go over your answers in a couple of
minutes
261
Exam Questions T5B09, 10 and 11
•
•
•
Ham Bands
The approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power
increase from 5 watts to 10 watts is 3dB.
T5B9
Let's think about
Ohms Law
Power
Frequency
As we look at Band Plans
The approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power
decrease from 12 watts to 3 watts is 6dB.
T5B10
The approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power
increase from 20 watts to 200 watts is 10
dB.
T5B11
Two times or ½ of the power is a 3db
change
262
Band =
263
300
Freq( MHz )
264
Page
1-22
265
266
267
Band =
268
269
300
Freq( MHz )
270
Band in METERS
80
40
30
20
17
15
12
10
6
2
1.25
0.7
0.33
}
Radio Frequency (RF)
Spectrum
This has been corrected in your book
Frequency in Mhz
3.5
7
10
14
18
21
24.8
28
50
144
222
420
902
Chapter 4
Antennas
HF = 3 to 30
}
VHF = 30 to 300
} UHF 300 - 3000
271
3kHz to 30kHz is primarily an audio (sound
wave) portion of the spectrum. In some cases,
RF waves can also be generated at these
frequencies.
2-4
272
273
Video
Demi
Antennas
25
274
January 20, 2015
Antennas
275
25
276
The Antenna System
Antenna vocabulary
Antenna vocabulary
• Driven element:
element: where the
transmitted energy enters the
antenna
• Antenna:
Antenna: Facilitates the sending of
your signal to some distant station
• Feed line:
line: Connects your station to
the antenna
• OmniOmni-directional - radiates in all
directions
• Directional beam - focuses
radiation in specific directions
• Gain – apparent increase in power
in a particular direction because
energy is focused in that direction
ƒ Measured in decibels (dB)
• Polarization:
Polarization: the direction of the
electric field relative to the surface
of the earth
ƒ Same as the physical direction
ƒ Vertical – Horizontal - Circular
• Test and matching equipment:
equipment:
Allows you to monitor antenna
performance
277
278
279
Antenna Radiation Patterns
Antenna Radiation Patterns
• Radiation patterns
are a way of
visualizing antenna
performance
• The further the line
is away from the
center of the graph,
the stronger the
signal at that point
4-7
Impedance – AC Resistance
• A quick review of a previous
concept: impedance
ƒ Antennas have characteristics of
capacitors, inductors, and resistors
Horizontal
280
• The combined response of these
component parts to alternating
currents (radio waves) is called
Vertical
Impedance
281
282
Antenna Impedance
Feed Line - Antenna - SWR
Video
• Antennas have a characteristic
impedance
• Expressed in Ohms – common value 50
Ohms
• Depends on:
• For efficient transfer of energy from
the transmitter to the feed line and
from the feed line to the antenna,
the impedances need to match
• When there is mismatch of
impedances, things may still work,
but not as effectively as they could
Feed Lines
ƒ Antenna design
ƒ Height above the ground
ƒ Distance from surrounding obstacles
ƒ Frequency of operation
ƒ Other factors
283
4-8
284
10
285
Feed line types
Coaxial Cable (Coax)
• The purpose of the feed line is to
get energy from your station to the
antenna
• Basic feed line types
Feedlines
• Most common feed
line
• Easy to use
• Matches impedance
of modern radio
equipment (50 Ohms)
• Some loss of signal
depending on coax
quality (cost)
ƒ Coax cable
ƒ OpenOpen-wire or ladder line
10
286
• Each has a characteristic
impedance, each has its unique
application
287
4-8
288
OpenOpen-wire/Ladder Line
• Used in special
applications
• Need an antenna
tuner to make
impedance match
– but allows a lot
of flexibility
• Theoretically a
very low loss
Test and Matching Equipment
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)
• Proper impedance matching is
important enough to deserve some
simple test equipment as you
develop your station repertoire
• If the antenna and feed
line impedances are not
perfectly matched, some
RF energy is not radiated
into space and is
returned (reflected) back
to the source
• Basic Test Equipment: S.W.R.
Meter
• Matching Equipment: Antenna
Tuner
289
290
4-9
291
Video
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)
• Reflected energy must go somewhere
Standing Wave Ratio
(SWR)
• Usually it is converted into heat
• Sometimes it just floats around
looking for somewhere to go
• If the energy is not going out the
antenna, it is wasted and may
cause damage to the transmitter
SWR
The ratio of energy going out to
energy coming back
292
4-10
15
293
15
294
SWR Meter
Nothings Perfect
Antenna Tuner
• The SWR meter is inserted in the feed
line and indicates the reflected energy
– measures the mismatch between feed
line impedance and antenna impedance
• You make adjustments to the antenna
to minimize the reflected energy
(minimum SWR)
• Although the goal is to get 100% of
your radio energy radiated into
space, that is virtually impossible
• What is an acceptable level of loss
(reflected power or SWR?)
• One way to make antenna matching
adjustments is to use an antenna tuner
• Antenna tuners are impedance
transformers (they actually do not tune
the antenna)
ƒ When used appropriately they are
effective
ƒ When used inappropriately they just
make a bad antenna look good to the
transmitter…
transmitter…a bad antenna is still bad
ƒ 1:1 is perfect
ƒ 2:1 should be the max you should
accept (as a general rule)
• Modern radios will start lowering power
automatically when SWR is above 2:1
ƒ 3:1 is when you need to do something
to reduce SWR
295
296
297
How to use an Antenna Tuner
Practical Antenna Systems
• Monitor the SWR
meter
• Make adjustments
on the tuner until the
minimum SWR is
achieved
Dipoles and
Ground-Planes
Questions?
ƒ The impedance of the
antenna is
transformed to more
closely match the
impedance of the
transmitter
298
299
4-11
300
Symbol and Formula
How long should the antenna be ?
The Dipole
This is one of those things that needs to be
memorized
When working with antennas, it is
important to know how long ?
• A basic antenna
ƒ Two conductive, equal length
parts
ƒ Feed line connected in the middle
λ = Wavelength
Antenna length is based on the
wavelength that we want to use
½ Wave antenna length in Feet is
468 divided by the Frequency in
MHz
There is a relationship between
frequency and wavelength
• Total length is ½ wavelength
(1/2 λ)
• Dipole Length (in feet) = 468 /
Frequency (in MHz)
¼ Wavelength is 234 divided by
the Frequency in MHz
Antennas can be full or fractional
wavelengths long
301
302
303
The Dipole
The GroundGround-plane
The GroundGround-plane
• Simply a dipole that is oriented
perpendicular (vertical
(vertical to the
earth’
earth’s surface)
• One half of the dipole is replaced
by the groundground-plane
Length (in feet) = 234 / Frequency (in
MHz)
Wavelength
½ Wavelength - Dipole
¼ Wavelength – GroundGround-plane above
ground
ƒ Earth
ƒ Car roof or trunk lid - or other metal
surface
ƒ Radial wires
304
305
306
Loop Antennas – Dipole
Variations
• Quad
• Delta
• Horizontal
The GroundGround-plane
4-12
307
Beam Antennas
• Beam antennas focus or direct
RF energy in a desired
direction
ƒ Gain - An apparent increase
in power in the desired
direction (both transmit and
receive)
308
4-14
309
Beam Antennas
Beam Antennas
Beam Antennas
• Yagi (rod like elements – TV
antennas)
• Quad (square wire loop
elements)
310
311
312
Beam Antenna Elements
Coax Feed lines
• Driven element connected to
the radio by the feed line
• Reflector element is on the
back side
• Director element is on the front
side toward the desired
direction
Coax Connectors
• RGRG-58
• RGRG-8
• RGRG-213
• RGRG-174
• Hardline
313
•
•
•
•
314
SOSO-239/PL259
BNC
N
SMA
4-17
315
Antenna Supports
Antenna System Devices
• Balun
• Duplexer
• Antenna Switches
• SWR Meter
• Antenna Analyzer
• Antenna tuners
• Trees
• Towers or
masts
• Covenants
and antenna
restrictions
must be
considered
Adaptors
316
317
318
Antenna System Devices
Antenna Analyzer
Connect to antenna
Chapter 5
Equipment
Questions?
Very low power signal
Adjustable in frequency
Meter shows SWR
Determine resonant
frequencies of the antenna
319
320
321
Vocabulary
Chapter 5.1
Bill
January 20, 2015
• RX = Receiver
Transmitters
Receivers
• TX = Transmitter
• VFO = Variable Frequency
Oscillator – a frequency
control
and
Transceivers
322
5-1
323
5-1
324
Rig Vocabulary
Radios have Instructions
• We will now talk about
vocabulary specific to the
functions and controls of a
transmitter and receiver
Pictures
Explanations
Explanations
Operating Instructions
• Leading to “How to operate
a Transceiver”
Here are some samples
325
326
327
Transmitter
Transmitter Controls and Functions
• Microphone (Audio) control
ƒ Gain
•How loudly you need
to talk to be heard
5-3
328
329
330
Transmitter Controls and Functions
Transmitter Controls and Functions
• Microphone (Audio) control
Microphone (Audio) control
• Speech Compressor or
Speech Processor
ƒ Compacting your speech
into a narrow frequency
range to enhance “punch”
punch”
• Automatic Level Control (ALC)
ƒ Automatically limits transmitter
drive (output level) to prevent
problems associated with too
much gain or compression
ƒ Too much gain or
compression can cause
problems
• Splatter
• OverOver-deviation
• OverOver-modulation
331
Transmitter Controls and Functions
• Also can control external power
amplifier operation
332
333
Transmitter Controls and Functions
• Transmission on/off (not power)
ƒ PushPush-toto-Talk (PTT
(PTT))
ƒ VoiceVoice-Operated Transmission (VOX)
• VOX Gain
• VOX Delay
• AntiAnti-VOX
Transmitter Controls and Functions
Microphones
Transmitter Controls and Functions
• Morse Keys
Hand mikes
Desk mikes
SpeakerSpeaker-mikes
Headsets or boomboom-sets
Internal mikes
ƒ Straight
ƒ SemiSemi-automatic (Bug)
ƒ Electronic keyer,
keyer, paddle
• Speak across the mike, not into
the mike
ƒ Key Jack
334
335
336
Receiver Controls and Functions
Receiver
• Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
• AF Gain or Volume
ƒ Controls the audio level to the
speaker or headphones
ƒ Automatically limits the incoming
signals during signal (voice) peaks
• RF Gain or Sensitivity
• Prevents peaks from capturing the
receiver and limiting reception of lower
level portions of the incoming signal
ƒ Controls the strength of radio signal
entering the receiver’
receiver’s detector
ƒ Used to limit (attenuate) very strong
local signals
ƒ Usually operated in the fullfull-open
position
5-6
337
Receiver Controls and Functions
ƒ Fast setting for CW
ƒ Slow settings for SSB and AM
ƒ Not used in FM because of the type of
signal used in FM
338
339
Recipe for a Transceiver
Single Band Transceiver
Multi-Band Tranceiver
• Take ƒ A Receiver and
ƒ A Transmitter and
ƒ Put them in the same box, and
ƒ Share common controls and
circuits (mix well)
• You have a Transceiver
340
341
342
Transceiver Controls and
Functions
• Main tuning dial (both TX and
RX)
Transceiver Controls and
Functions
• Main tuning dial (both TX and
RX)
ƒ Controls the frequency selection
via the Variable Frequency
Oscillator (VFO)
ƒ Could be an actual dial or key pad
or programmed channels
Transceiver Controls and
Functions
• Mode Selector (both TX and RX
multimulti-mode rigs)
ƒ Variable frequency step size
(tuning rate, resolution)
ƒ Could have more than one VFO
(control more than one frequency
at a time)
343
ƒ AM/FM/SSB (LSB or USB)
ƒ CW
ƒ Data (RTTY)
• Could be automatic based on
recognized bandband-plan
344
345
Transceiver Controls and
Functions
Power Amplifier
• Reception and Transmission Meter
Dick
ƒ In transmit indicates output power or
ALC or other functions as selected by
switch setting
• In receive indicates signal strength
ƒ In “S” units S1 through S9 – S9 is
strongest
ƒ Also have dB over S9 for very strong
signals
346
347
January 20, 2015
348
Equipment
What is a Repeater?
What is a Repeater?
Repeaters
• Specialized
transmitter/receiver
interconnected by computer
controller
• Generally located at a high
place
• Receives your signal and
simultaneously rere-transmits
your signal on a different
frequency
• Dramatically extends lineline-ofofsight range, If both users
349
can "see the repeater’s
antenna"
350
351
A Little Vocabulary
A Little Vocabulary
Duplex
Simplex
• Transmitting and receiving
on the same frequency
• Each user takes turns to
transmit
• Is the preferred method if it
works
352
• Transmitting on one
frequency while
simultaneously listening on
a different frequency
• Repeaters use duplex
353
354
A Little Vocabulary
Duplex
Output frequency – the
frequency the repeater
transmits on and you listen to
Input frequency – the
frequency the repeater
listens to and you transmit on
Repeater Output Frequency
Things to Know to Use a
Repeater
• Output frequency
• Frequency offset
• Repeaters are frequently identified
by their output frequency
ƒ “Meet you on the 443.50 machine.”
machine.”
• Here the specific frequency is used
and therefore the input frequency
ƒ “Let’
Let’s go to 94.”
94.”
• Repeater access tones (if any)
• Here an abbreviation for a standard
repeater channel is used meaning 146.94
MHz
ƒ “How about the MVARC repeater?”
repeater?”
• Here the repeater is referenced by the
sponsoring club name
355
356
357
Repeater Access Tones
Repeater Frequency Offset
Standard Repeater Frequency Offset
• The shift or offset frequencies
are standardized to help
facilitate repeater use
• There are + and – shifts
depending on the band plan
• Different bands have a
different standardized amount
of shift
358
6-16
• Sometimes multiple repeaters
on the same frequency pair can
be accessed at the same time
• To preclude unintentional
access, many repeaters require
a subsub-audible tone be present
before the repeater controller
will recognize the signal as a
valid and turn on
359
360
Repeater Access Tones
Repeater Access Tones
• These tones are called by
various names (depending
on equipment manufacturer)
ƒ CTCSS – Continuous Tone
• Access tones are usually published
along with repeater frequencies
K4US Repeater Access
• 146.655 ((-)
• PL 141.3
• Could also be announced when the
repeater identifies -“PL is 141.3”
141.3”
• Tones are generally programmed
into the radio along with frequency
and offset
Coded Squelch System
ƒ PL
ƒ Privacy codes or tones
361
362
363
Repeater Controller
Repeater Controller
Repeater Controller
• Station ID - Morse or voice
ƒ Same ID requirements as you
have
ƒ Every 10 minutes
• TimeTime-out protection
ƒ Sometimes called the alligator
ƒ Protects against continuous
transmission in the event of a
stuck PPT or long winded hams
Computer that controls repeater
ƒ Sends Repeater ID (callsign)
ƒ TimeTime-out protection
ƒ Courtesy tone
ƒ Auto Patch
ƒ DTMF pad test
364
• Courtesy tone – Wait for the tone
before transmitting
• Repeater timer – limits a single
transmission to 3 minutes
• Press 99-1-1 for Alexandria PD/EMS
• Press 555 to test your tone pad
• Press 725* for record - playback
• Many other functions
365
366
George Washington National Masonic Memorial
K4US Repeater
Looking down from base of antenna
• When you use any of these
(sending tones only) you still
must ID at the end – otherwise
it is an unidentified
transmission
911 for Alexandria PD/EMS
555 to test your tone pad
725* for record - playback
367
368
369
369
At the base of the antenna looking up
Mast
is 20
feet
long
370
371
372
Looking down from 40' below antenna
373
374
375
Chapter 5.2
Equipment
Questions?
Bill
Digital Modes
376
5-9
377
January 20, 2015
378
Data (Digital) Modes
Digital Modes
• HF using SSB
• There are several different
ways to send data over amateur
radio
• Here is a brief overview
• Connecting computers via ham radio
ƒ Some systems use radio to
connect to Internet gateways
• The bulk of the work is done by
specialized modems or computer
software/sound card
ƒ Terminal Node Controller (TNC)
ƒ Multiple Protocol Controller (MPC)
ƒ RTTY - 5 bit Baudot
ƒ Winlink 2000 (Pactor
(Pactor,, Winmor)
Winmor)
ƒ Keyboard to keyboard - PSK31,
MFSK
• VHF & UHF
Yes, CW using Morse Code is a
Digital Mode
5-9
Data Modes
ƒ Packet AX.25
ƒ Winlink 2000 (B2F)
379
380
381
TNC – MPC
• Provide digital interface between
computer and radio
ƒ Package the data into proper
format
ƒ Convert digital data into audio
tones representing 1s and 0s of
digital data
ƒ Send/receive tones to transceiver
ƒ Control the transceiver
Data Station Setup
Questions?
382
383
384
Power Supplies
Chapter 5.3
Equipment
• Most modern radio equipment runs
on 12 volts DC
• Household current is 120 volts AC
• Power supplies convert 120 volts
AC to 12 volts DC
Power Supplies and
Batteries
5-15
ƒ 13.8 volts DC is the common voltage
you will see
ƒ This is the charging voltage for
motorized vehicles
385
386
Power Supply Ratings
Voltage and Current
• Continuous duty – how much
current can be supplied over
the long term
• Intermittent duty – how much
surge current can be supplied
over the short term
• Regulation – how well the
power supply can handle rapid
current changes
387
Types of Power Supplies
Inverters and Generators
• Linear
ƒ Transformers
ƒ Heavy (physically)
ƒ Heavy duty current
ƒ Expensive
• Switching
ƒ Electronics instead of transformers
ƒ Light weight and small
ƒ Not as robust May be source of RFI
ƒ Less expensive
Batteries
• Create current through a
chemical reaction
ƒ Made up of individual
cells (approximately 1.5
volts per cell) connected
in series or parallel
• Inverters convert DC into AC
ƒ Square, triangle, sinesine-wave
inverters
• Generators create AC
ƒ Gas powered
ƒ Various voltage and current
ratings
ƒ Special precautions
388
389
5-16
390
Batteries
• Battery types
ƒ Disposable
ƒ Rechargeable
ƒ Storage
• Power capabilities rated
in AmpereAmpere-hours
Battery Charging
Battery Charging
• Some batteries can be
recharged, some cannot
• Use the proper charger for
the battery being charged
• Batteries will wear out
over time
• Best if batteries are maintained
fully charged
ƒ OverOver-charging will cause
heating and could damage the
battery
• Some batteries (lead(lead-acid) will
release toxic fumes during
charging so require ventilation
ƒ Amps X time
391
392
393
Nice to have handheld
accessories
Handheld Transceivers
• Single, dual and multimulti-band
versions (with increasing cost and
complexity)
• Extra battery packs
• DropDrop-in, fast charger
• Extended antenna
• External microphone and
speaker
• Headset
ƒ Some have expanded receiver
coverage (wide(wide-band receive)
• Very portable and selfself-contained
ƒ Internal microphone and speaker
ƒ Rubber duck antenna
ƒ Battery powered
394
Dick
395
January 20, 2015
396
Chapter 5.4
Radio Frequency Interference
• Also known as RFI
• May be man made
5-19
Radio Frequency Interference
Radio Frequency Interference
397
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
5-19
Strong signals
Automobile ignition noise
Electric Welding
Fluorescent lights - Grow lights
Air Cleaners
Power Lines
Computers
Fare Card Machines
• UnUn-wanted, unun-intentional
signals from some electronic
device that interferes with radio
wave reception
• You can prevent creating RFI by
operating your transmitting
equipment properly
398
399
RFI Mitigation
RFI Mitigation
• Filters attenuate (reduce)
interfering signals – but do not
totally eliminate them
• Types
Filters
• Ferrite - the RFI Buster
• Snap on ceramic magnets
• High pass –generally on the
receive side
• Low pass – generally on the
transmit side
• BandBand-pass – used within most
radio equipment
ƒ High Pass
ƒ Low Pass
ƒ Band Pass
400
5-20
401
402
Cable TV Interference
Types of RFI
• Direct detection – offending
signals get into the electronics
circuits to cause interference
• Overload – strong signal that
overwhelms the weaker, wanted
signal
• Harmonics – even multiples of
the offending signal that
coincided with the wanted signal
Noise Sources
• Usually the result of broken
shielding somewhere in the cable
ƒ Loose connections
ƒ Broken connections
ƒ Corroded connections
• Usually solved by proper cable
maintenance by cable supplier
ƒ If the subscriber is a legitimate
subscriber
403
• Electrical arcs (motors,
thermostats, electric fences,
neon signs)
• Power lines
• Motor vehicle ignitions
• Motor vehicle alternators
• Switching power supplies
• Computers, networks, TV sets
404
405
Dealing with RFI
• Make sure you operate your
equipment properly
• Eliminate interference in your
own home first
406
Dealing with RFI
Dealing with RFI
• Strong signals may overwhelm a
receiver’
receiver’s ability to reject them. This
is called fundamental overload.
Symptoms include:
ƒ Severe interference on all channels
of a TV or FM receiver, or
an amateur may hear bursts or
fragments of conversations when
the strong signal is present
• If the interfering frequency is
similar to that of the desired
signal, it may not be
possible to remove the
transmitted signal with a
highhigh-pass or a lowlow-pass filter
because the desired signal
will be removed as well.
407
408
Dealing with RFI
Dealing with RFI
• In cases like these, such as when
a TV receiver is overloaded by a
nearby 22-meter transmitter, a
notch filter is required that
removes a specific band of
frequencies. The notch filter is
installed at the receiver and is
used to reduce the interfering
signal to a level that can be
handled properly by the receiver.
• Take interference complaints
seriously
• Make sure that you’
you’re really not
the cause (demonstrate that
you don’
don’t interfere within your
own home)
409
Dealing with RFI
• Offer to help eliminate the RFI,
even if you are not at fault
• Consult ARRL RFI Resources
for help and assistance
410
411
What the Rules Say
What the Rules Say
• RFI from and to unlicensed
devices is the responsibility of
the users of such devices
BUT – be a good neighbor
because they may (probably)
not be familiar with Part 15
rules and regulations
• Bottom line – if your station is
operating properly, you are
protected against interference
complaints
412
Questions?
413
414
Chapter 6
Typical Telephone Conversation
Communicating with
other hams
Contact Basics
Band Plans
6-1
• Greeting
• Identify who is participating
• Exchange information,
generally taking turns
• Salutations
• End the conversation
Demi and
Dick
Making a Contact
415
January 20, 2015
416
6-1
417
Typical Ham Contact (QSO)
Radio Manners
• Greeting
• Identify who is participating
• Exchange information,
generally taking turns
• Salutations
• End the conversation
Radio Manners
• Speak clearly and distinctly
• Signal Reports
• It is a GIANT party line, select
topics accordingly
• Power level
• Location
• Shared use of frequencies
418
419
420
1 - Faint signals, barely perceptible
2 - Very weak signals
3 - Weak signals
4 - Fair signals
5 - Fairly good signals
6 - Good signals
7 - Moderately strong signals
8 - Strong signals
9 - Extremely strong signals
1 - Unreadable
2 - Barely readable, occasional
words distinguishable
3 - Readable with considerable
difficulty
4 - Readable with practically no
difficulty
5 - Perfectly readable
• RST
Readability (1(1-5)
Strength (1(1-9)
Tone (CW only 11-9)
ƒ “Your RST is 58”
58”
6-3
Strength (1(1-9)
Readability (1(1-5)
Signal Reports
421
422
423
Tone (CW & Digital only 11-9)
1 - Sixty cycle AC or less, very rough and broad
2 - Very rough AC, very harsh and broad
3 - Rough AC tone, rectified but not filtered
4 - Rough note, some trace of filtering
5 - Filtered rectified AC but strongly rippleripple-modulated
6 - Filtered tone, definite trace of ripple modulation
7 - Near pure tone, trace of ripple modulation
8 - Near perfect tone, slight trace of modulation
9 - Perfect tone, no trace of ripple or modulation of any
kind
424
Q Signals
Some Q Signals
• Shorthand from the telegraphy
and CW world, some migrated
to voice
• Followed by question mark is
asking
• No question mark is answer or
statement
• QTH ? "Where are you located"
• QTH "Alexandria Va"
Va"
• QSY up 2 "move up 2 Khz to a
clearer frequency"
• QRZ ? "Who is calling me"
• Slang: QLF - please send with
your Left Foot - (not on test)
6-5
425
426
Radio Manners
Band Plans
• Ham radio is selfself-regulated
Operating Dos and Don’
Don’ts
• A band plan is a way of
organizing the use of radio
frequencies
ƒ ARRL Official Observers
• Logging
• QSL’
QSL’s
• Use CQ versus “monitoring”
monitoring”
• Use phonetics
• Taking turns and breakingbreaking-in
• Station identification
• Using repeaters
• Using simplex
ƒ Formal and legal plan
ƒ Informal – gentleman's agreement
ƒ Awards Program
427
6-9
428
429
Radio Manners
Using Repeaters
Appropriate topics
• Indecent & obscene PROHIBITED
• Offset
• Access tones
• How to ID
• Linked Repeaters
• Autopatch
• Open/Closed
• Try to stay clear of
provocative subjects:
politics, religion, sexual
• Weather and radio equipment
are frequently good topics
6-4
Digital and Internet
430
6-15
• Echolink
• IRLP
• WinLink
• D-Star
431
6-19
432
Chapter 6
Demi or
Dick
Communicating with
other hams
Questions?
Nets
433
434
January 20, 2015
435
Nets
Traffic Nets
• Net is short for “Network”
Network”
• Traffic refers to formal
messages that are relayed via
ham radio
• Formal structure to ensure
accuracy – National Traffic
System (NTS)
ƒ Evolved over the years of radio to
share and exchange information
in an organized and efficient way
with accuracy
• Social Nets
• Traffic Nets
• Emergency and Public Service
Nets
ƒ Procedures
ƒ Accountability
436
437
6-4
438
Net Structure
Emergency and Public Service Nets
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
• Net Control Station (NCS)
• Public Service Nets – training
for emergency nets
ƒ Traffic cop that controls the flow of
information
ƒ Training for ham operators as
well as supported emergency
managers
Day 4 Starts Here
• CheckCheck-in and checkcheck-out procedures
• Communications discipline vital
ƒ Learn and follow procedures
ƒ Speak only when directed, and only to
whom directed
ƒ Follow through with your
commitments
• Emergency Nets
439
440
January 20, 2015
441
Supporting Emergency
Operations
Chapter 6
Questions?
Communicating with
other hams
Something you don't understand?
Emergency Communications
• One of the pivotal reasons for the
existence of Amateur Radio
• You will be licensed communicators
ƒ Get involved and use what you
have learned
• Know where you fit in the overall
emergency management team
What is bothering you?
442
6-24
443
444
EMCOMM Tips
• Don’
Don’t become part of the problem
• You are a communicator, not a
•
•
•
•
EMCOMM
EMCOMM Training
• If you are going to
participate in EMCOMM: get
training
• Take EMCOMM courses
decision or policy maker
Don’
Don’t give out unauthorized information
Know your abilities and limitationslimitationskeep yourself safe
Follow radio discipline and net
procedures
Protect personal informationinformation-ham radio
communications is a “party line”
line”
• Actively participate in
EMCOMM activities
ƒ Nets
ƒ Public service activities
ƒ Attend community meetings
and get involved in your
community
ƒ ARRL EMCOMM Courses 1, 2,
and 3
ƒ NIMS and FEMA courses
445
446
447
EMCOMM Organizations
Emergency Declarations
EMCOMM Organizations
• Radio Amateur Civil
Emergency Service
(RACES)
• FCC may declare a Temporary State
of Communications Emergency
• Includes details of conditions and
rules to be followed
• Specifics communicated through
web sites and ARRL bulletins, the
NTS, and onon-thethe-air
• Avoid operating on restricted
frequencies unless engaged in relief
efforts
• Amateur Radio Emergency
Service (ARES)
ƒ Local and regional in scope
ƒ Supports nonnon-governmental
agencies supported
ƒ ARRL sponsored
ƒ Supports civil emergencies
ƒ National in scope
448
449
450
Making and Answering Distress
Calls
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tactical Communications
Emergency Equipment
• “GoGo-kits”
kits”
• Tactical Call Signs
Rule #1 – speak in plain language!
Mayday (voice); SOS (Morse code)
Identify
Give location
State the situation
Describe assistance required
Provide other important information
ƒ Portable ham radio equipment
ƒ Emergency power sources
ƒ Personal survival supplies and
equipment
“Fire Command”
Command”, “Main Street School
Shelter”
Shelter”, “Incident Commander”
Commander”
ƒ Facilitate communications
ƒ Location or function specific
ƒ Transcends operator changes
• FCC ID rules still apply
Your FCC Call Sign - every 10 minutes
and at end
451
452
453
Chapter 6
Communicating with
other hams
Questions?
Special Modes and
Techniques
454
6-29
455
Demi or
Dick
January 20, 2015
456
Awards
Special Events
• DXCC
Special Events
• Call Signs = 1 by 1 W1J K3D
• Special Event stations are set up
to commemorate some significant
local event
ƒ Contacting 100 different
countries and/or entities
Which type of call sign has a single
letter in both its prefix and suffix?
A. Vanity
B. Sequential
C. Special event
D. InIn-memoriam
• Usually stations are demonstration
stations set up for public display
• WAS
ƒ Contacting 50 states
• Commemorative certificates are
awarded for contacting the
stations
• VUCC
ƒ Contacting 100 grid squares
on VHF/UHF
457
T1C01
458
459
Contests
What satellite contacts sound
like
Amateur Satellites
• OSCAR
• Field Day - June
• Sweepstakes - November
• QSO Parties
• CQ DX Contest
• FM contact
ƒ Orbiting Satellites Carrying
Amateur Radio
• Modes
• SSB contact
Very loud
• ISS contact
ƒ FM
ƒ Analog (SSB and CW)
ƒ Digital
• Contest Corral (a list in QST)
• International Space Station
460
6-30
461
462
Digital Techniques
• Radio Teletype (RTTY)
ƒ Single letters sent as they are typed
• RTTY
ƒ Small grouping of letters sent with
error correction
• AMTOR
• AMTOR and PACTOR
• Digital means two states: ON and OFF
ƒ Digital code is a sequence of ON and OFF
states or 1’
1’s and 0’
0’s
ƒ The letter “A” is 0100 0001 (41 hexadecimal
or 65 decimal)
• When two audio tones are used to represent the
ON and OFF states it is called Frequency Shift
Keying (FSK)
• When changing phase states are used to
represent ON and OFF states it is calls Phase
Shift Keying (PSK)
• PACTOR
• Packet and Packet Networks
ƒ Groups (packets) of collected data
sent with error correction and
automatic forwarding
• PACKET
• PSK31
• PSK31
ƒ Different modulation technique
Digital Mode Modulation
Techniques
What Digital sounds like
463
464
465
Store and forward networks
Communicating Digitally
• KeyboardKeyboard-toto-keyboard
• Packet networks, bulletin boards
ƒ Live exchange using computer
keyboards
ƒ Digipeaters extend range
ƒ Digipeaters make up the backbone
of packet networks
• InternetInternet-Radio connections
ƒ WinLink
ƒ Radio connections are Internet
Gateways
466
467
468
APRS
Slow Scan TV
(SSTV)
• Automatic Position Reporting
System (APRS)
• Packet based Global Positioning
System (GPS) position reporting
ƒ Uses a packetpacket-like digipeater
system to create an APRS
network (also Internet
connected)
Video
Sending snapsnap-shot
pictures
Amateur TV (ATV)
Similar to
commercial TV
• What SSTV sounds
like
469
470
471
Other Special Modes
Other Special Modes
• Meteor Scatter
• Radio Control
(RC)
ƒ Reflecting radio signals off of the
ionized trail left by meteors
Questions?
ƒ Telecommand
ƒ 50 MHz band
• Moonbounce
ƒ Reflecting radio signals off the
surface of the moon
472
6-32
473
474
Chapter 7.1
• Amateur Service – non pecuniary
interest (private and personal, non
commercial)
• Amateur Operator – the person
holding authorization (license) to
operate a amateur radio station
• Amateur Station – equipment
capable of transmitting on
frequencies authorized for Amateur
Service
Licensing Regulations
Demi
January 20, 2015
Definitions
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
475
7-1
Call Signs
476
477
The Amateur License
License Term and Renewal
• The license is free
• The license is good for 10 years
ƒ Renewable within 90 days of
expiration
• Personal identification information
is required
ƒ Federal Registration Number or
Tax ID (social security number)
ƒ Current Mailing Address
Examinations
• No age limit or citizenship
restrictions
ƒ One exception – no foreign representatives
• License actually contains two parts
ƒ Operator License
ƒ Station License (the Call Sign)
• Three classes of operator privileges:
Tech, General, Extra
478
479
• Preparation
ƒ Study the content
ƒ Question Pool
• Taking the exam
ƒ Proctored exam
ƒ Multiple choice
• Volunteer Examiners (VEs
(VEs))
• Volunteer Examiner Coordinators
480
Responsibilities of Licensure
What can you do with a
Technician Class License?
Chapter 7.2
• Prevent unauthorized operation
of your station
• Provide personal information as
required – keep a current
mailing address on file
• Make your station available for
FCC inspection upon request
• Use the minimum power required to
communicate
• Up to 1500 Watts Peak Envelope
Power (PEP)
ƒ Will generally require an external
amplifier
• Some special cases where power is
restricted
Licensing Regulations
481
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
482
7-9
Call Signs
483
• www.wireless.fcc.gov/uls
• Federal Communications
Commission
Licensing Regulations
ƒ Register for onon-line access to
your license information
ƒ Make changes to your address
and other information
ƒ Renew your license
ƒ Search for other station
information
ƒ Located in Gettysburg, PA
• Amateur Radio operations
covered by FCC rules published
in Part 97 of Title 47 – Code of
Federal Regulations
7-1
Chapter 7.3
FCC ULS Web Site
Licensing Authority
484
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
485
7-10
Call Signs
486
What can you do with a
Technician Class License?
Tech VHF/UHF 1500w. max
• Frequency Given one we
can
Privileges
calculate the
ƒBand
other:
versus
300
frequency Band = Freq( MHz )
Band in meters, Freq in MHz
487
7-10
488
7-10
489
Tech HF 200 w. max
7-13
28.328.3-28.5 Mhz 200 w
• Emission Privileges
HF Phone
490
7-11
491
7-12
492
Emission Privileges
Primary & Secondary Allocations
CW
Pulse
Data
RTTY
Image
SS
MCW
Test
• Some authorized amateur
frequencies are shared
ƒPrimary Users
ƒSecondary Users
• Navigation, Research …
Phone
493
7-14
Band Plans
• Good Practice
• Voluntary
• Different frequencies for
different activities
• Don't use CW in the Phone
segment
494
7-15
495
Chapter 7.4
Repeater Coordination
• Frequency Coordinator
ƒ Fixed Repeater Input frequencies
ƒ Fixed Repeater Output frequencies
ƒ Access control tones
ƒ Distance separation
International Rules
• The ITU
• Regions
• Reciprocal Operating Authority
• IARP (N and S America)
• CEPT (most of Europe)
Licensing Regulations
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
7-15
496
7-17
Call Signs
497
7-17
498
Amateur Radio Internationally
ITU Regions
• International Telecommunications
Union (ITU)
ƒ Regions 1, 2, and 3
• CONUS hams are in Region 2
• Reciprocal Operating Authorization
• There are times when there are
restrictions on certain countries
that we can contact
Third Party Rules
• We will discuss these shortly -operating regulations
• There are different station
identification requirements for
third party communications
1
2
3
499
7-17
500
501
Chapter 7.5
• Other Radio Services have
different formats
• Prefix, Number, Suffix
W
3
BSA
WA
4
USB
K
4
BSA
KG
4
RKE
Licensing Regulations
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
7-19
Call Signs
US Amateur Radio Call Signs
Call Signs
502
• US call signs
begin with: K,
N, W, and A
• US call sign
districts: 00-9
• Other nations
have different
prefixes
503
504
US Amateur Radio Call Signs
• Are unique in the world
Australia AX, VH–VN, and VZ
Canada CF–CK, CY–CZ, VA–VG, VO
(Newfoundland and Labrador), VX–VY, XJ–XO
China B, XS, 3H–3U
Indonesia JZ, PK-PO, YB-YH, 7A-7I, 8A-8I
Japan JA–JS, 7J–7N, 8J–8N
Mexico XA–XI, 4A–4C, 6D–6J
Russia R, UA–UI
Sweden SA–SM, 7S, 8S
United Kingdom G, M, VS, ZB–ZJ, ZN–ZO, ZQ, 2
United States K, W, N, AA–AL.
Not on the test
505
506
507
You may hear this on the air
Call Signs
Special Call Signs
• Club
• Special Event (1x1)
• Portable – operating away from
primary station location
• If in the different call sign district
add:
ƒ “portable 6”
6” if voice
ƒ /6 if Morse code or digital
ƒ Not required just nice to do
• If recent upup-grade add “AG”
AG” or “AE”
AE”
Questions?
W1J October 20, 2000 to October 22,
2000 PIONEER VALLEY BSA JOTA
• Vanity Call Signs
There is a FCC fee every 10 years
508
509
510
Chapter 8.1
Operating Regulations
The FCC’
FCC’s primary concern is
that transmissions are made
only under the control of a
licensed operator
• Control Operator – the
licensed amateur responsible
for making sure transmissions
comply with FCC rules
Control Operators
Identification
Interference
Third-Party Communications
Remote and Automatic Operation
Prohibited transmissions
8-1
Control Operator
Control Operator Responsibilities
511
• Must have a valid FCC issued
amateur radio license
• Station must operate within the
authorization of the control
operator’
operator’s license
• Control operator must be present
at the control point of the station
(the onon-off switch) or remotely
connected by a control link
512
513
Chapter 8.2
Guest Operations
• Unlicensed people can use ham
radio but only when a control
operator is present
Station Identification
Operating Regulations
• Normal ID
Control Operators
ƒ Say your call sign every ten
minutes during and at the end of
the contact
Identification
ƒ The control operator is solely
responsible for station operation
Interference
• Licensed guests can use the ham
radio
• Use of Tactical Call Signs
Third-Party Communications
Does not substitute for
proper station ID
Remote and Automatic Operation
ƒ both the control operator and the
guest ham are responsible for
station operation
Prohibited transmissions
514
8-3
515
8-3
516
Every 10 minutes during
communications and at
the end of each
communication
Station Identification
• Ham Guests
(not each
ƒ Can be voice or CW (at 20 WPM
or less)
Guest’s call followed by
owners call
ID is not required at each
over or at the beginning
Be aware of
• Repeaters must ID using the
same 10 minute rule
ƒ If higher license class and use
higher class privileges
transmission)
3rd
Repeaters, Satellites, ISS
• Satellites and ISS have special
rules
“This is K4AB KG4XYZ”
KG4XYZ”
Extra
party rules
517
General
518
519
Types of Interference
Chapter 8.3
Repeaters, Satellites, ISS
Operating Regulations
• Special event calls (ex. W4J)
• QRN
ƒ Natural interference
(thunderstorms)
ƒ ManMan-made (appliances and
power lines)
Control Operators
ƒ Normal club call or control
operator call given once per hour
Identification
Interference
• QRM
Third-party Communications
ƒ Interference from nearby signals
ƒ Other hams or other users of the
frequencies
Remote and Automatic Operation
520
8-7
Prohibited Transmissions
521
8-6
522
Preventing Interference
Prevent Interference
Interference
• Use common sense and
courtesy
• Keep equipment in proper
operating order
• No one owns a frequency,
frequency, be a
good neighbor and share
• Yield to special operations and
special circumstances
Control operators should
prevent interfering with
other users of the
frequencies
523
• Harmful
ƒ Interference that is disruptive
but not intentional
ƒ Deal with it as best you can
and help others avoid harmful
interference
524
525
Chapter 8.4
Willful Interference
ThirdThird-party Communications
Operating Regulations
Intentionally causing
interference
• ThirdThird-party means that a nonnonham is involved in
communication via ham radio
Control Operators
Identification
ƒ This becomes a legal and law
enforcement issue
ƒ This is rare and there are
procedures to deal with this
(ARRL Official Observers can
help)
ƒ Could be actually speaking
on the air
Interference
Third-Party Communications
Remote and Automatic Operation
ƒ Could be passing a message
on behalf of the nonnon-ham
Prohibited transmissions
526
8-9
527
8-8
528
ThirdThird-party Communications
ThirdThird-party Across Borders
ThirdThird-party within US
• Two situations with different rules
1. Within the US
2. Communication that
crosses international
borders
• Make sure that thirdthird-party
agreement exists
• No special rules
• Make sure the message is
nonnon-commercial in nature
529
ƒ Check for current thirdthird-party
agreements from FCC sources if
in doubt
ƒ You might be surprised at the
countries that we do not have
thirdthird-party agreements with
530
531
Chapter 8.5
ThirdThird-party Across Borders
Remote and Automatic Control
Operating Regulations
• Some stations, repeaters and
beacons operate without the control
operator physically present at the
control point
• These stations must still comply
with control operator stipulations
Control Operators
• During station identification say
both station’
station’s call signs
Identification
Interference
“DL2XYZ this is K4US”
K4US”
Third-Party Communications
ƒ Local
ƒ Remote
ƒ Automatic
Remote and Automatic Operation
Prohibited transmissions
532
8-10
533
8-10
534
Chapter 8.6
Prohibited Transmissions
• Unidentified transmissions
Operating Regulations
(not giving your call sign)
Control Operators
• False or deceptive signals
(using someone else’
else’s call sign)
Identification
• False distress or emergency signals
Interference
(fake calls for help)
Third-Party Communications
• Obscene or indecent speech
Remote and Automatic Operation
(up to interpretation)
Prohibited transmissions
8-11
No Business Communications
• Music
535
8-11
536
• You can not make a profit
through the use of
transmissions made via ham
radio
• The exceptions are teachers
using ham radio in their
classrooms and certain
emergency drills
537
No Encrypted Transmissions
No Broadcasting
Special Circumstances
• Broadcasting is sending oneoneway transmissions with no
expectation of getting a
response
• Encryption involves
encoding information for
transmission that must be
decoded upon reception to
interpret the information
• Encryption is okay if:
• Ham communication is
generally intended for hams
• Emergencies and critical
situations create special
circumstances
• Special commemorative events
may qualify as special
circumstances
• Normal rules return when the
situation returns to normal
ƒ News, Music
• Exceptions
ƒ Code practice
ƒ Ham radio related bulletins
ƒ ReRe-transmission of shuttle
communications
ƒ Coding is open source
ƒ Intention is not to hide the
message or deceive
538
539
540
Chapter 9
Electrical and RF Safety
Dick
Questions?
Electrical Safety
RF Exposure
Mechanical
541
January 20, 2015
542
9-1
543
Electrical Safety
Electrical Injuries
• Avoiding contact is the most
effective way of practicing
electrical safety
• Shocks
• Burns
• Even small
currents
can cause
problems
• Most modern radio equipment
uses currents that are not as
dangerous as older equipment
but precautions still must be
taken
9-1
544
9-2
545
546
Mitigating Electrical Hazards
Mitigating Electrical Hazards
• TURN OFF power when
working on equipment
(inside the case)
• Make sure the equipment
is PROPERLY GROUNDED
and the circuit is
protected by a fuse,
breaker, etc.
• If power is required:
ƒ Remove jewelry
ƒ Avoid unintentional touching of
circuitry
ƒ Never bypass safety interlocks
ƒ Capacitors hold a charge even
when power is off
ƒ Storage batteries are dangerous
when shorted
547
Mitigating Electrical Hazards
• Use only one hand
so your body does
not complete a
circuit
• Leather shoes, dry floor
548
549
In the home
Electrical Grounding and
Circuit Protection
Respond to Electrical Injury
• REMOVE POWER!
• Make sure your home is “up to code”
code”
• Most ham equipment does not require
special wiring or circuits
ƒ Use 33-wire power cords
ƒ Use circuit breakers, circuit breaker
outlets, or Ground Fault Interrupter
(GFI) breakers
ƒ Use proper size fuse or circuit
breaker
ƒ Don’
Don’t overload outlets
• This is in your best
interest
• In the home
• In the car
ƒHave ON/OFF switches
and circuit breakers
clearly marked
• Call for help
• Learn CPR and first aid
550
551
552
In the car
Do it SAFELY in the car
RF Exposure
• Fuse positive and negative leads
• Connect radio’
radio’s negative lead to
where the battery ground
connection is made – not to the
battery
• Use grommets or sleeves to prevent
chafing
• All metal in the car is not grounded,
grounded,
cars are as much plastic as metal
• Car batteries hold lots of
energy – shorting a battery
could cause a fire
• There are many good ways
to do it safely
553
554
• Proper Grounding
• Important for protection of
ƒ Equipment
ƒ People
ƒ Wires connected to the radio
become part of the antenna - can
radiate RF – RF can burn you
9-5
555
Lightening Safety
RF Exposure
• Exposure to high levels of RF
can cause problems
• If equipment is operated
properly, RF exposure is
minimal and not dangerous
• RF energy can heat body tissues
ƒ Heating depends on the RF
intensity and frequency
• Antennas are not struck more
frequently than trees or tall
structures
• Ground all antennas
• Use lightening arrestors
• Disconnect antenna cables and
power cords during storms
• Disconnect telephone lines from
computer modems
556
557
557
9-5
558
RF Intensity
RF Intensity
• Power Density
• Power Density
ƒTransmitter power
ƒAntenna gain and
proximity
ƒMode and duty cycle
RF Intensity
• Power Density
ƒ Antenna gain and proximity
ƒActual transmitter
power
• Beam antennas focus
available energy
• Being physically close or
standing in the beam
direction increases risk
•Higher power is higher
risk
559
560
561
RF Intensity
Antenna Proximity
We are concerned about
• Power Density
• Where the antenna is located
ƒMode and duty cycle
• Controlled Environment
ƒ You know where people are
standing in relation to your
antenna and you can do
something about it
ƒ More power is allowed
because you can make
adjustments if needed
• How close can people get to
the antenna
• The more time the power
output is at a high level,
the higher the risk
• CW, Voice, RTTY
ƒ Controlled Environment
ƒ Uncontrolled Environment
562
563
564
Antenna Proximity
Mode and Duty Cycle
Mode and Duty Cycle
• The more time the
transmitted power is at high
levels, the greater the duty
cycle, and the greater the
exposure risk
• Uncontrolled Environment
ƒ You have no idea or control of
people near your antenna
ƒ Less power is allowed
because you have to assume
the worse case scenario
565
566
9-8
567
RF Exposure and Frequency
How much RF the body can
withstand without damage
• Body parts are like antennas absorb RF energy at certain
frequencies (wavelengths) more
efficiently
• RF exposure risk varies with
frequency
ƒ More caution is required at
some frequencies than others
Physical Safety
Maximum Permissible Exposure
568
9-6
HF
• Mobile Installations
ƒ Secure all equipment
ƒ Location, location, location
• Antenna installation
ƒ Clear of trees and power lines
ƒ If it falls it won’
won’t hit anyone
or cross power lines
• Tower climbing considerations
VHF
&
UHF
569
9-11
570
Copyrights and Distribution
You are free to reproduce and distribute limited portions of
The ARRL Instructor's Manual or The ARRL Ham Radio
License Manual as needed for the purposes of instruction of
your class.
• On Line
• CD based
• How did you do?
However, please do not scan or post copies of this material,
including photos, drawings and illustrations on the Web.
This would be considered an infringement of the provision
of the ARRL copyright.
• What are you going to
do this week?
As noted at the beginning of The ARRL Instructor's Manual,
this publication is copyrighted material.
Questions?
571
Practice Exams
573
Please let me know if need to have
the exam read to you and allow
extra time
Must have SSN (card is not required)
or FRN
Must have Picture ID - Government,
Student, or parent with same last
name - School ID with picture will
work
Forms must be done in black or blue
ink (we will have pens)
February 14 Exam
• Please bring the following:
• 1) Picture ID or a DMV "child's ID"
which looks like a drivers license.
OR a parent with the same last name
and address AND info that only a
parent would have such as a birth
certificate - parent ID IS NOT the
preferred ID
• 2) SSN
574
February 14 Exam
• If you hold any FCC license and have
a FRN please bring that also
• Such as GMRS
575
576
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