Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course Quick Links:

Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course Quick Links:
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing
Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
Copyrights and Distribution
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
As noted at the beginning of The ARRL Instructor's Manual,
this publication is copyrighted material.
Quick Links:
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Video segments are not included - Press Home to return to this page - F1 is help
3
Day 1 - Handout materials,
Introduction to Ham Radio
77
Day 2 - Electricity, Components,
Circuits, Radio Waves, Types of Radios
230
Day 3 - Propagation, Antennas, Feed
lines, SWR, Equipment
430
Day 4
- Communicating with other
hams, Licensing and Operating
Regulations, Safety, Exam Prep
28
141
80
245
318
404
465
500
532
January 20, 2015
W3BSA.org
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
You are free to reproduce and distribute limited portions of
The ARRL Instructor's Manual or The ARRL Ham Radio
License Manual as needed for the purposes of instruction of
your class.
Day 1 Starts Here
However, please do not scan or post copies of this material,
including photos, drawings and illustrations on the Web.
This would be considered an infringement of the provision
of the ARRL copyright.
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distribution.
Thank you
Suggestions and comments to WA4USB at ARRL dot NET
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
1
January 20, 2015
3
Amateur Radio Technician
Class Licensing Course
Amateur Radio Technician
Class Licensing Course
Instructors:
Sponsors
Scout Venturing Crew 80
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio
Club (MVARC)
Dick – WA4USB
Demi – K4BSA
Jim – K3BUC
Bill – W2BSA
4
5
6
Meet your Instructors
Meet your Instructors
Demi Pulas K4BSA
Dick Harman WA4USB
• First licensed in 1964
•
Novice, Tech, General, Advanced, Extra
• Control Op K4US Repeater
• 35+ years Scout Leader
Cubs, Boy Scouts, Explorer
• Committee Chair Crew 80
• Retired 20+ years
Meet your Instructors
Bill Stewart W2BSA
•First licensed in 1993
•Amateur Extra License
•Scout Leader 20+ years
•Crew 80 COR
•Crew 80 Committee Member
•Scout leader since 1990
•Colonial District STEM Coordinator
First licensed in 1965
Extra the Hard Way (20 wpm Morse Code)
• Crew 80 Advisor since 1995
• ~ 40 years Scout Leader
• Computers since '59
7
8
9
Meet your Instructors
Jim Buchanan K3BUC
Amateur Radio Technician Class
•First licensed in High School
•Novice - 1 year non-renewable
•BSEE, + Digital Computers
•Naval Air Systems Command
•Maintained interest in Radio
•Tech, General, Extra & Crew in 2004
•Scout + Scouter 30 years
Goals of this Course
• Other groups using nearby
rooms
1. Learn about Amateur Radio
activities
• House Keeping
2. Learn about Radio and
Electronics
ƒ Restrooms
ƒ Fire Exits
ƒ Outside Access
10
11
12
Introductions
Goals of this Course
Our history
• Your name and a little about
yourself
• Someone you know who is a Ham
• What you hope to gain by being a
Ham
• Do you have experience with
amateur radio?
• What are your expectations?
3. Pass the Exam and Obtain
your FCC Technician Class
Amateur Radio License!
4. The license will authorize
you to operate a Amateur
(Ham) Radio Station
(transmitter)
13
We have been teaching this
course for about 20 years
We have learned what
works and have included
lessons learned in this
course
14
15
How to study to ensure passing exam
• Read assignments when due
• Each and every question is in the
handbook
• Correct answers are in the manual
• You MUST take the on line
practice tests at home and pass
at least 80% to ensure success
arrrl.
arrrl. org/ examreview
• How class will be run
• Q&A’
Q&A’s at end of each section
16
We are NOT teaching answers
Methods of Learning
We give you the concepts and
knowledge so you will
understand what is going on
• Some courses teach you to
memorize exam questions and
answers
• There are many on line practice
exams that you can take as
often as you wish at no cost
• That method does not lead to
real advancement in your
knowledge
17
18
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Class will start and end on time
• Instructors will be prepared
• Students are expected to read
assigned material before class and
be prepared to learn
• Ham radio is not a spectator sport,
active participation during class
discussions is vital to success obtaining your License
• Lunch: about Noon
30 minutes for lunch
• Exam
Course Outline
Expectations
A BAG lunch is RECOMMENDED
Sat Feb 14 9:30 am
19
20
Welcome to amateur radio
Electricity, Components and Circuits
Radio and Signals Fundamentals
Propagation, Antennas and Feedlines
Amateur Radio Equipment
Communicating with other hams
Licensing regulations
Operating regulations
Safety
Test preparation and review
21
Let’
Let’s Get Started
Steps to obtaining your ticket
October 2012
We intend to give you the
knowledge to pass the
exam
• Study the Ham Radio License
• BSA Jamboree On The Air
• Boy Scouts in Irving Texas
spoke with an astronaut on the
International Space Station
using Amateur Radio relayed
through amateur stations in
Australia - here is a short clip
Your knowledge and
understanding will grow as
you enjoy and use amateur
radio
22
Manual
• Review the questions in the book
• Take interactive practice exams
• Pass a 3535-question multiple choice
test
ƒ Questions are from the question
pool in the back of the book
ƒ Answer 26 correctly
• No Morse code is required
23
24
About the exam
Sequence of Presentations
Lets say it another way
Back of the book page 11-1
Sub-elements..T1A T2A T3A T4A
One question on your exam from
each of the 35 "Sub-elements"
Exact text of Q and A …. But
Q and A (both) may be re-sequenced
26 correct to pass
25
1. Read the assigned pages
2. Pay attention in class
3. Do the practice exams
Most probably (> 90%) earn
your license – when you
do 1 and 2 and 3
• We do not follow the exact book
sequence
• We generally follow Chapter
content
• Our purpose is to make it easy
to understand and make sense
• Page numbers will be in the
bottom left corner of slides
26
27
Chapter 1
What is Amateur Radio?
Today's Topics
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
1. What makes Amateur Radio
unique
2. Why the FCC makes rules
3. Activities involving Amateur
Radio
4. How to find other hams
5. Technician License
6. Next week
What is
Amateur Radio
?
28
1-1
1. The purpose is to
advance skills in the
technical and
communication phases of
the radio art
29
30
What is Amateur Radio?
What is Amateur Radio?
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
What is Amateur Radio?
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
2. To promote the
development of an
emergency communication
capability to assist
communities when needed
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
4. To promote international
goodwill by connecting
private citizens in
countries around the globe
3. To develop a pool of
trained radio operators
31
32
33
What is Amateur Radio?
What do hams do?
Why does the FCC make rules
• Amateur Radio is a personal
radio service authorized by the
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
• Amateur Radio is a Licensed
Service
• Hams can buy or build or
modify their own equipment
• Knowledge and skills are
required
• That’
That’s why we have licenses
5. Through ham radio, you
will become an
ambassador for your
community and your
country
34
1-13
35
1-8
• Communicate
• Participate
• Experiment
• Build
• Compete
• Serve their communities
• LifeLife-long learning
36
About Ham Radio
About Ham Radio
The Amateur Radio Service is intended for
persons who are interested in radio
technique solely with a personal aim and
without pecuniary interest.
About Ham Radio
The agency that regulates and enforces
the rules for the Amateur Radio Service in
the United States is the FCC.
T1C10 You may operate to transmit after you
pass the examination elements required for
your first amateur radio license as soon as
your name and call sign appear in the FCC’
FCC’s
ULS database.
ƒ T1A02
ƒ
There is no age requirement for holding an FCC Amateur Radio License.
37
38
39
Take Aways
About Ham Radio
The normal
term for an FCCFCCissued primary
station/operator
license grant is ten
ƒ T1C08
•
years.
•
The grace
period following the
expiration of an
amateur license
within which the
license may be
renewed is two
ƒ T1C09
If your license has expired and is still within the
allowable grace period, you may not continue to
operate to transmit until the ULS database shows that
the license has been renewed.
T1A10 The FCC Part 97 definition of an amateur station
is a station in the Amateur Radio Service consisting of
the apparatus necessary for carrying on radio
communications.
T1C11
Purpose of the amateur service
•The Amateur Radio Service is intended for
those persons who are interested in radio
technique solely with a personal aim and without
pecuniary interest. [97.3(a)(4)]
The Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) is the government agency that
regulates and enforces the rules for the
Amateur Radio Service in the United
States. [97.1]
years.
40
41
42
Element 2 Technician Class
Question Pool
How soon may you operate a transmitter on
an amateur service frequency after you pass
the examination required for your first
amateur radio license?
About Ham Radio
A. Immediately
B. 30 days after the test date
C. As soon as your name and call sign
appear in the FCC’
FCC’s ULS database
D. As soon as you receive your license in
the mail from the FCC
Valid July 1, 2014
Through
June 30, 2018
43
What is the normal term for an
FCCFCC-issued primary
station/operator license
grant?
A. Five years
B. Life
C. Ten years
D. Twenty years
44
45
What makes ham radio different?
With more privileges comes
more responsibility
What makes ham radio different?
• Ham radio has:
ƒ Less restrictions
ƒ More frequencies (channels
or bands to utilize)
ƒ More power (to improve
range and quality)
ƒ More ways to communicate
ƒ It’
It’s free to operate your radio
• There are many other radio
services available
ƒ CB – no license required
ƒ FRS & GMRS
• Some are licensed to
commercial carriers and
leased to consumers
ƒ Cell phones
46
1-12
• Ham radios have the potential
of interfering with other radio
services
• Ham radios have unlimited
reach - easily reach around the
globe and into space
• No commercial use
47
48
With more privileges comes
more responsibility
Amateur Radio Activities
How do I get a License ?
• We make contacts with other
hams
• Support emergencies and
public service events
• Awards and contests
• Build, Invent, and modify our
radios and other equipment
• FCC authorization is required
to ensure the operator is
qualified to operate the radio
safely,
safely, appropriately,
appropriately, and
within the rules and regs –
that is why we are here
49
1-15
• Learn
• Understand
• Be prepared to pass the FCC
exam, administered by
volunteer examiners on
February 14, 2014 at 9:30 am
50
51
Some things can be reasoned
or calculated
Course Schedule
Amateur Radio License Structure
• Four Consecutive Saturdays
Class
• A few things have to
be memorized
Requirements
TECHNICIAN Basic Theory, Rules
and Regulations
ƒ FCC rules
ƒ A few formulas
ƒ Authorized frequencies
52
Elements
2
Frequency
Privileges
HF (CW + Limited
Voice & Data)
VHF (All Modes)
UHF (All Modes)
GENERAL
Basic and General
Theory
2, 3
More HF (All Modes)
VHF (All Modes)
UHF (ALL Modes)
EXTRA
Comprehensive
Theory
2, 3, 4
All HF (All Modes)
All VHF (All Modes)
All UHF (All Modes)
1-14
53
January 17
3:00 PM – 5:00 PM
(Introduction)
January 24
9:00 AM – 3:00 PM
(Instruction)
January 31
9:00 AM – 3:00 PM
(Instruction)
February 7
9:00 AM – 3:00 PM
(Instruction, Review, Exam prep)
54
Course Schedule
Course Schedule
License Exam :
Exam one week after the end of
the course
35 questions - 26 correct to pass
February 14
If you are close to passing they
usually offer a retest
immediately
The VE team usually has several
versions of the exam
We have enough time in the class
to cover the information needed
to pass the license exam
9:30 AM – 10:30 AM
We must stay on topic to stay on
time
MVARC offers VE Exams on the
Second Saturday of each
month at 9:30 – no fee
55
If you need something off topic,
please ask an instructor off-line
56
57
Let’
Let’s begin your ham radio journey
• We have touched briefly on
what ham radio is — more
will follow
T1A01
Let's look at some exam
questions now
T1A01
T1C10
T1C13
T1A05
T1A10
Which of the following is a purpose of the
Amateur Radio Service as stated in the
FCC rules and regulations?
A. Providing communications for
international non-profit organizations
We have
discussed
much of this
B. Advancing skills in the technical and
communication phases of the radio art
C. Providing personal radio
communications for as many citizens as
possible
They are in the back of your
book
58
D. All of these choices are correct
59
60
T1C10
T1C13
How soon after passing the examination
for your first amateur radio license
may you operate a transmitter on an
amateur service frequency?
A. Immediately
For which licenses classes are new
licenses currently available from the
FCC?
A. Novice, Technician, General,
Advanced
B. Technician, Technician Plus,
General, Advanced
C. Novice, Technician Plus, General,
Advanced
D. Technician, General, Amateur Extra
B. 30 days after the test date
C. As soon as your operator/station
license grant appears in the FCC’s
license database
D. You must wait until you receive your
license in the mail from the FCC
61
T1A05
Which of the following is a purpose of the
Amateur Radio Service rules and
regulations as defined by the FCC?
A. Enhancing international goodwill
B. Providing inexpensive communication
for local emergency organizations
C. Training of operators in military radio
operating procedures
D. All of these choices are correct
62
63
Next week
T1A10
What is the definition of an amateur
radio station?
A. A station in an Amateur Radio Service
consisting of the apparatus necessary
for carrying on radio communications
B. A building where Amateur Radio
receivers, transmitters, and RF power
amplifiers are installed
C. Any radio station operated by a nonprofessional
D. Any radio station for hobby use
Next Week's Topics
1. Electricity, Components and
Circuits
2. Radio and Signal Fundamentals
3. Types of Radios
4. Propagation Antennas and Feed
lines
• Read Chapters 1, 3, 2 and 4
• Chapter 4 may be next week or
the week after next - it depends
• Bring your questions
• If you have time, try a practice
exam or two
64
65
66
February 14 Exam
February 14 Exam
• Please bring the following:
• 1) Picture ID or a DMV "child's ID"
which looks like a drivers license.
What are you
going to do before
next Saturday?
• If you hold any FCC license and have
a FRN please bring that also
• Such as GMRS
OR a parent with the same last name
and address AND info that only a
parent would have such as a birth
certificate - parent ID IS NOT the
preferred ID
Read 1, 3, 2 and 4
Try a practice exam or two
• 2) SSN
67
68
The score does not matter
69
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
Questions?
Today's Topics
1. Electricity, Components and
Circuits
2. Radio and Signal Fundamentals
3. Types of Radios
4. Propagation Antennas and Feed
lines
5. What to prepare for next week
Day 2 Starts Here
Something you don't understand?
What is bothering you?
70
January 20, 2015
71
72
Chapter 3
VIDEO Segments
• In the following presentations,
we provide an overview of the
topic
Electricity,
Components,
Circuits
•These videos are from a prepre2006 video for the Technician
License Course
• In later sessions, we come
back with greater detail
•The concepts have not
changed
• Don't hesitate to ask questions
• If we ask you to hold that
thought, please jot it down
73
•References to specific exam
questions are no longer current
74
75
Fundamentals of Electricity
Fundamentals of Electricity
When dealing with electricity
what we are referring to is the
flow of electrons through a
conductor
The video mentions “the test”
test”
The test is revised every 4
years -- you should rely on the
current question pool in the
back of your book
• In electronics and radio, we
control the flow of electrons
to make things happen
• Knowledge of how we control
the flow of electrons helps
you understand how to
operate your radio
ƒ Electrons are negatively charged
atomic particles
The opposite charge is the positive
charge
ƒ A conductor is a material that
allows electrons to move with
relative freedom
76
77
78
We are going to watch a
video segment about
Electrical Principles
In other words, Basic
Electricity, Electrical
components, and Units
that we use to measure
electricity
Characteristics of Electricity
Characteristics of Electricity
• Three characteristics of
electricity
ƒ Voltage
ƒ Current
ƒ Resistance
• The flow of water through a
hose is a good analogy to the
three characteristics of
electricity and how they are
related
• Each can be measured
18
79
3-1
80
81
Characteristics of Electricity
Characteristics are InterInter-related
Page 3-2
Middle of page
82
83
• Voltage, current, and resistance
must be present to have current
flow
• Just like water flowing through
a hose, changes in voltage,
current, and resistance affect
each other
• That effect is mathematically
expressed in Ohm’
Ohm’s Law
84
When you take the exam
Ohm’s Law
When you take the exam
write this down on the
scratch paper
E is voltage
write this down on the
scratch paper
Unit is volt
I is current
E = Volts
Unit is ampere
3-4
R = E/I
I = E/R
E=IxR
R is resistance
I = Amps R = Ohms
Unit is ohm
85
86
87
Ohm's Law:
Resistance
Moving Electrons –
Doing Something Useful
"Resistance is not futile"
• Anytime energy is expended to
do something - work is
performed
• When moving electrons do
some work, power is consumed
It is voltage divided
by current
Pressure
R=E÷I
Current flow
88
• Power is measured in Watts
89
90
When you take the exam
Power Formula
write this down on the
scratch paper
Power - the amount of current that is
pushed through a conductor or device
to do work
When you take the exam
write this down on the scratch
paper
P is power
Unit is watt
E is voltage
P = Watts
Unit is volt
I is current
Unit is ampere
P=ExI
E = P/I
I = P/E
3-4
E = Volts I = Amps
91
92
93
Two Kinds of Current
Two Kinds of Current
Two Kinds of Current
When current flows alternatively in
one direction then in the opposite
direction, it is called Alternating
Current (AC)
Alternating Current (AC)
and
Direct Current (DC)
When current flows in only one
direction, it is called Direct Current
(DC)
Batteries are a source of DC
Your household current is AC
Cross country power lines use AC
Radio waves are AC
94
3-6 (top right)
95
3-6
Most electronic devices are
powered by DC
Batteries are in flashlights and
start your car
96
The Electric Circuit –
an Electronic Roadmap
Alternating Current
The speed at which the Alternating
Current changes direction is called
The Electric Circuit –
an Electronic Roadmap
• For current to flow, there must
be a path from one side of the
source of the current to the
other side of the source – this
path is called a circuit
Frequency
It is measured in Hertz
It used to be Cycles (same thing)
• Next, we will introduce
some terms that are used to
describe circuits
ƒ There must be a hose (conductive
path) through which the water
(current) can flow
Hertz (per second)
Much more later!
97
98
3-12
99
Series Circuits
Parallel Circuits
• Series circuits provide only one
path for current flow
3-2
Short Circuit
• When there is an unintentional
current path that byby-passes
areas of the circuit – this is a
short circuit
• Parallel circuits provide
alternative paths for current
flow
100
101
102
Chapter 3.2
Open Circuit
• When the current path is broken
so that there is a gap that the
electrons can not jump – this is
an open circuit
Questions?
103
Components and
Units
104
3-6
105
Controlling the Flow of
Current
Video
Components
• To make an electronic device
(like a radio) do something
useful (like a receiver), we
need to control and manipulate
the flow of current
• There are a number of different
electronic components that we
use to do this
Practical
Electronics
An introduction to
names and symbols
106
107
11
108
Switch
Resistor
• The function
of the switch
is to permit or
not permit the
flow of current
through it
3-13
Capacitor
• The function
of the resistor Circuit Symbol
is to restrict
(limit) the
flow of current
through it
• The function of the
capacitor is to
Circuit Symbol
temporarily store
electric current
ƒ Like a very
temporary storage
battery
ƒ Stores energy in an
electrostatic field
109
110
111
Inductor
• The function of
the inductor is
to temporarily
store electric
current
ƒ Is basically a
coil of wire
ƒ Stores energy
in a magnetic
field
Transistor
Circuit Symbol
• The function of the
transistor is to
variably control
the flow of current
Integrated Circuit
The Integrated circuit
is a collection of
Circuit Symbol
components
contained in one
device that
accomplishes a
specific task
Circuit Symbol
ƒ Much like an
electronically
controlled valve
ƒ Like the faucet in
your sink
112
ƒ Acts like a “blackblackbox”
box”
113
114
Protective Components –
Intentional Open Circuits
Fuses and circuit
breakers are
Circuit Symbol
designed to
interrupt the flow
of current if the
current becomes
uncontrolled
115
Protective Components –
Intentional Open Circuits
• Fuses blow – one
time protection
Some Circuit Symbols
Circuit Symbol
• Circuit breakers
trip – can be reset
and reused
116
117
What are these?
3-7
What are these?
3-8
What are these?
3-8
Putting it all together –
a circuit diagram
Video
Power Amps and
other devices
Questions?
11
121
122
123
Dealing with Very Big and
Very Small Numeric Values
Numbers,
• In electronics we deal with
large and small numbers
Numbers,
International System of Units (SI)
Kilo-
• The international metric
system provides a method of
dealing with the wide range
of values
Numbers
2-2
Metric Units
124
MegaCentiMilli-
125
2-2
Micro126
Prefix
Tera
Giga
Mega
Kilo
Hecto
Symbol
T
10 12
G
10 9
M
10 6
k
10 3
h
10 2
c
m
µ
10 1
10 -1
10 -2
10 -3
10 -6
Multiplication Factor
1,000,000,000,000
1,000,000,000
1,000,000
1,000
100
10
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.000001
n
p
10 -9
10 -12
0.000000001
0.000000000001
Deca
Deci
da
d
Centi
Milli
Micro
Nano
Pico
Chapter 2
Radio and Signals
Fundamentals
T5B01
How many milliamperes is
the same as 1.5 amperes?
A. 15 milliamperes
B. 150 milliamperes
C. 1500 milliamperes
D. 15000 milliamperes
127
128
129
Radio
Signals and
Waves
2-1
Wave Vocabulary
Radio Waves are AC
As we study radio
waves, we will
learn some new
terms
• In alternating current (AC) the
electrons flow in one direction one
moment and then the opposite
direction the next moment
• Radio waves (electromagnetic
radiation) are AC waves
• Radio waves are used to carry the
information you want to convey to
someone else
130
Amplitude
Frequency (Hertz)
Period
Wavelength (Meters)
Harmonics
131
2-2
132
• The distance a
radio wave
travels during
one cycle
• The RF Spectrum is the range
of wave frequencies which will
leave an antenna and travel
through space
• The RF Spectrum is divided
into segments of frequencies
that have a unique behavior
ƒ Band
ƒ Frequency
ƒ One complete
change between
magnetic and
electric fields
2-5
Radio Frequency (RF)
Spectrum
Finding where you are on the
radio dial
• There are two ways to tell
someone where to meet you on
the radio dial (spectrum)
Wavelength
133
134
135
Radio Frequency (RF)
Spectrum
Another use for frequency and
wavelength
• For the station antenna to
efficiently send the radio wave
out into space, the antenna
must be designed for the
specific operating frequency
So, Where am I?
• How to tell where you are in the
spectrum • Bands identify the segment of the
spectrum where you will operate
ƒ Wavelength is used to identify the
band
3kHz to 30kHz is primarily an audio (sound
wave) portion of the spectrum. In some cases,
RF waves can also be generated at these
frequencies.
2-4
ƒ The antenna length needs to
closely match the wavelength of
the frequency to be used
• Frequencies identify specifically
where you are within the band
136
137
138
Another use for frequency and
wavelength
Practice problem frequency and
wavelength
Practice problem frequency and
wavelength
Any mismatch between
antenna length and
frequency wavelength will
result in radio frequency
energy being reflected back
to the transmitter, not going
(being emitted) into space
What is the wavelength in
meters of a RF signal of 7
Mhz?
300 divided by 7
42 meters (common use 40 m.)
What is the wavelength in
meters of a RF signal of 144
Mhz?
70 goes into 300 about 4 times
7 times 4 is 28
139
140
300 divided by 144
2 meters
144 goes into 300 twice
141
Calculators
Antennas are part capacitor –
part inductor – part resistor
Antennas are part capacitor –
part inductor – part resistor
• You may use a calculator during
the exam
• Be prepared to show that all
memories are clear
• You can not store formulas or
answers to questions on your
calculator and use it on the exam
Antennas have
characteristics of
capacitors, inductors,
and resistors
We discussed these earlier
• Capacitors and inductors,
because they store energy
in fields, react differently to
AC and DC
142
ƒ Special kind of resistance to
the flow of AC – called
reactance
143
144
Resonance
Resonant Antenna
Harmonics
• If an antenna is designed correctly, the
capacitive reactance cancels the
inductive reactance
• Theoretically, the resulting reactance is
zero
ƒ Leaving only resistance – meaning
minimum impediment to the flow of
the radio frequency currents flowing in
the antenna and sending the radio
wave into space
• Because capacitors and inductors
store energy in different ways, the
stored energy can actually cancel
each other under the right
conditions
ƒ Capacitors – electrostatic field
ƒ Inductors – magnetic field
• Cancelled energy (current) = zero
reactance,
reactance, leaving only resistance
145
146
• A harmonic is a multiple of the
original frequency
• A second harmonic is 2 x
Frequency
• A third harmonic is 3 x
Frequency
• In antennas, even harmonics
cancel but odd harmonics may
radiate causing interference
147
Ham Slang
Chapter 2.2
• An antenna is a sky hook
Questions?
• Something that transmits is a rig
Introduction to
Modulation
• A bunch of antennas is an
antenna farm
2-11
(not on test)
148
149
2-6
150
Adding Information Modulation
Morse Code – on and off
Video
Types of
Emissions
• When we imprint some information
on the radio wave, we modulate the
wave
ƒ Turn the wave on and off
ƒ Voice AM and FM
ƒ Data
• Different modulation techniques
are called modes
151
21
152
2-7
153
Characteristics of voice
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Voice Modulation
In AM, the amplitude of the
carrier wave is modified in
step with the waveform of
the information (voice)
Combining Voice with an RF
carrier produces 2
identical sidebands
• Sound waves that make up your
voice are a range of audio
frequencies
• Most voices range from 300
hertz to about 3000 Hz
• Our hearing range goes to
about 20 kHz
154
155
2-8
156
Single Sideband Modulation
(SSB)
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Single Sideband Modulation
(SSB)
• Combining Voice with an RF
carrier produces 2 identical
sidebands
• We can improve efficiency of
transmission by transmitting
only one sideband and then
reconstruct the missing
sideband at the receiver
157
158
2-9
159
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Transmitting Data
• Data is made up of binary
bits 1 and 0 - On and off
states
• Instead of varying amplitude,
if we vary the frequency in
step with the information
waveform – FM is produced
• We shift the frequency of the
transmitter up and down to
carry information
• Modems translate the data
into a format capable of
modulating a carrier wave
160
2-9
161
162
Transmitting Data
Data Transmission Setup
• A terminal node controller
(TNC) is a special modem
used in ham radio
• There are many more kinds
of modems developed as data
transmission technology
advances
163
Questions?
164
165
Chapter 2.3
Basic Types of:
• Station Equipment
Receiver
Transmitter
Transceiver
Antenna
Radios
Equipment
Equipment Definitions
2-11
Basic Station Organization
Terms
166
ƒ Receiver
ƒ Transmitter
ƒ Antenna
ƒ Power Supply
• Accessory Station Equipment
• Repeaters
167
168
What happens during radio
communication?
Receiving:
Receiving:
What happens during radio
communication?
Transmitting (sending a signal)
1. Information (voice, data, video,
commands, etc.) is converted to
an electronic form
2. The electronic form is attached or
imbedded in a radio wave (a
carrier)
3. The radio wave is sent out from
the station antenna into space
169
What happens during radio
communication?
1. The antenna intercepts the radio
wave (carrier) with the
information
2. The receiver extracts the
information from the carrier
wave
3. The information is presented as
a sound, picture, or words on a
computer screen …
• This sounds simple, but it in reality
is complex
• Complexity is one thing that makes
ham radio fun…
fun…learning all about
how radios work
• Don’
Don’t be intimidated, you will be
required to only know the basics, but
you can learn as much about the “art
and science”
science” of radio as you want
170
171
Receiver Controls
Receiver
172
• Main tuning dial for received
frequency (or channel)
selection
• Frequency display
• Volume control
• Other accessory controls for
mode (kind of information to
process), filters (to mitigate
interference), etc.
Transmitter
173
174
Transmitter Controls
Transceiver
The transceiver
• Main tuning dial for transmitted
frequency (or channel) selection
• Frequency display
• Power control (transmitted
signal strength)
• Other accessory controls for
mode (kind of information to
process), etc.
• Modern transmitters and
receivers are combined in one
unit – a transceiver
ƒ Saves space, Costs less
• Many of the controls of the
transmitter and receiver are the
same
• Many electronic circuits are
shared in the transceiver
175
176
177
Transceiver Controls
Antenna
Antenna
• Some are physical knobs that
you manually adjust
The antenna exposes your
station to the world
1. Facilitates the radiation of
your signal into space
(electromagnetic radiation)
• Some are controlled by an
internal computer -- you control
the settings with keypad entries
that control the computer in the
transceiver
2. Intercepts someone else’s
signal
178
179
180
Antenna
TR Switch
Transmit/Receive (TR) Switch
• Many times the transmitting
and receiving antenna are
the same antenna
• Your antenna is connected
to your station by a wire
called a feed line
• When the antenna is shared
between the transmitter and
receiver, the TR switch allows the
antenna to be switched to the
transmitter when sending and to
the receiver when receiving
• In a transceiver, this TR switch is
inside the unit and requires no
attention by the operator
181
182
183
Power Supply
Power Supply
Power Supply
• Your radio station needs
some sort of power to
operate
• Most modern radios operate on 12
volts direct current (DC)
ƒ A power supply converts household
current to the type of current and
the correct voltage to operate your
station
ƒ Could be internal or external
• You are probably familiar with
“wallwall-wart”
wart” power supplies
ƒ Battery
ƒ Household current converted
to proper voltage
ƒ Alternative sources
184
185
186
Radio Circuits
Accessory Equipment
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
187
Oscillators
Oscillators and Amplifiers
Filters
Some things
Modulators
you may see on
Mixers
the exam
Demodulators
Don't need to
Detectors
know how each
Product Detectors
works, just
Frequency Discriminators
Receivers - Direct Conversion what it does
Receivers - Superhetrodyne
Transverters
Produces a steady low power
signal at a specific frequency
Feeds a Driver that isolates
the load on the oscillator
Runs all the time
188
189
Filters
Amplifier
Increases a low power signal
Could also be a power Amplifier
190
3-17
Adds voice or data to a RF signal or
carrier which can then be
transmitted by radio
Level
• High Pass
• Low Pass
• Band
Pass
• Notch
• Cutoff is
½ signal
level
Modulator
Could be a telegraph key or
microphone output
Frequency
191
192
Mixer
Demodulator
• Reverses what a Modulator does
• Separates the RF from the voice
• A computer Modem is a
Modulator and Demodulator in a
single box - works two ways does both jobs
• Many different types
We will talk about several types
• Combines two RF signals
• Produces the sum and difference
of the input signals
• Shifts frequencies for some
purpose (filtering)
• Is NOT an AUDIO mixer
3-17
Detector
193
Demodulates AM
Can be used in AM broadcast
radio receivers
194
195
Product Detector
Receiver - Direct Conversion
Frequency Discriminator
• Single Conversion of RF back into the
original modulating signal
Demodulates CW and SSB
signals
Demodulates Frequency
Modulation (FM) signals
196
197
198
Receiver - Superhetrodyne
"Superhet"
Superhet"
• Uses Intermediate Frequency (IF)
amplifier and filters
• Uses a Beat Frequency Oscillator to
recover CW and SSB
Transverter
T7A05
• Converts one RF frequency to
another
• For example 28 Mhz to 222
Mhz and from 222Mhz to 28
Mhz allowing a single
transceiver to operate on both
bands
199
What is the name of a circuit
that generates a signal of a
desired frequency?
A. Reactance modulator
B. Product detector
C. Low-pass filter
D. Oscillator
200
201
Radio Circuits Pages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
3-16 thru 33-19
Basic Station Accessories
Oscillators and Amplifiers
Filters
Lets review
Modulators
what these
Mixers
things are
Demodulators
Detectors
used for
Product Detectors
Frequency Discriminators
Receivers - Direct Conversion
Receivers - Superhetrodyne
Transverters
• Human
interface
ƒ Microphones
ƒ Speakers
ƒ Earphones
ƒ Computer
ƒ Morse code key
ƒ TV camera
202
• Station
performance
Questions?
ƒ Antenna tuner
ƒ SWR meter
(antenna match
checker)
ƒ Amplifier
ƒ Antenna rotor
(turning antenna)
ƒ Filters
203
204
Generalized Transceiver
Categories
• Single Band
VHF or UHF
FM
• Dual Band
VHF/UHF FM
• MultiVHF/UHF
Multi-mode
HF and
• MultiMulti-band
Types of Radios
Single Band Transceiver
• Probably the most common starter rig
• Operated from 12 volts DC, will require
external power supply
• Will require an external antenna
• Can be operated mobile or as a base
station
• Limited to frequency modulation
(FM) and either 2 meters or 70 cm
bands
• Up to approximately 50 watts output
VHF/UHF
• HandHand-held (HT)
205
206
207
Dual Band Transceiver
• Same as the single band transceiver
but includes additional band(s)
band(s)
• Most common 2 m and 70 cm bands
• Could be tritri-bander
• Depending on antenna connectors,
might require separate coax for each
band or duplexer for single coax
208
MultiMulti-mode Transceiver
MultiMulti-band Transceiver
• Can be single or dual band
• Main difference is that these rigs
can operate on all major modes
SSB/AM/FM, CW, Data, RTTY etc.
• More features add complexity and
cost
• Most flexible of the rigs that will
allow you to explore new modes as
you gain experience
• Covers several bands – can be
limited to HF or can be
HF/VHF/UHF
• Also covers all modes
• Frequently 100 watts on HF, some
power limitations on high bands
(50 watts)
• Larger units have internal power
supplies, smaller units require
external power (12 V)
209
210
Comparison
HandHand-held (HT) Transceiver
•
•
•
Small handhand-held FM units
Can be single band or dual band
Limited power (usually 5 watts or
less)
• Includes power (battery) and
antenna in one package
• An attractive first starter rig – but
make sure it is what you want
211
MultiMulti-band
HT
Medium
Full
Limited
Limited
Full
Full
Limited
Easy
Medium
Medium
Difficult
Easy
Programming
Easy
Easy
Medium
Challengin
g
Easy/Medium
Power
Low
Low
Medium
High
Low
Cost
Low
Modest
High
High
Low
Single
Band
Dual Band
MultiMultimode
Freq Agility
Limited
Medium
Functionality
Limited
Ease of Use
More on equipment
In future
lessons
212
213
Introduction to
Repeaters
Introduction to Repeaters
Special stations you will use
(Repeaters)
Repeaters)
• Repeaters are automated stations
located at high places that receive
and then retransmits your signal simultaneously
ƒ Dramatically improves range
• The basic components of a repeater
are the same as your station:
receiver, transmitter, antenna, and
power supply
• Extend your coverage range
• Normally VHF or UHF
• Some on HF (6 and 10 meters)
214
2-11
215
216
Repeaters
Repeaters
Repeaters
• But, repeaters are transmitting
and receiving at the same time,
on different frequencies using
the same antenna
• Repeaters do not use T/R
switches because they are
transmitting and receiving
simultaneously
• This requires a very high quality
and specialized filter to prevent the
transmitted signal from overoverpowering the receiver
• This specialized filter is called a
duplexer
• The receiver sees the antenna
• The transmitter sees the antenna
• The receiver does NOT see the
repeater's transmitter (else smoke)
• The K4US repeater
ƒ Receives on 146.0
146.055 Mhz
ƒ Transmits on 146.6
146.655 Mhz
• Your radio
ƒ Receives on 146.655
ƒ Transmits on 146.055
217
218
219
Repeater
Repeaters
Questions?
We will cover repeaters
in detail in a later lesson
220
221
222
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
Chapter 4
Propagation
Questions?
Day 3 Starts Here
Something you don't understand?
What is bothering you?
January 20, 2015
223
224
4-1
225
Radio Wave Propagation
Getting from Point A to Point B
• Radio waves propagate by many
mechanisms
Radio Wave Propagation
Topics
• How signals travel
• Antenna Basics
• Feed Lines
• What is SWR
• How to build a practical
antenna
4-1
LineLine-ofof-Sight
• If a source of radio energy can
been seen by the receiver, then the
radio energy will travel in a
straight line from transmitter to
receiver
ƒ The science of wave propagations
has many facets
• We will discuss 3 basic ways:
ƒ There is some attenuation of the
signal as the radio wave travels
ƒ Line of sight
ƒ Ground wave
ƒ SkySky-wave
226
• This is the primary propagation
mode for VHF and UHF signals
227
228
Ground Wave
Ionosphere
Levels of the Ionosphere
• Radiation from the
sun momentarily
will strip electrons
away from the
parent atom in the
upper reaches of
the atmosphere
ƒ Creates ions
• The region where
ionization occurs is
called the
Ionosphere
• Some radio frequency ranges
(lower HF frequencies) will hug
the earth’
earth’s surface as they
travel
• These waves will travel beyond
the range of lineline-ofof-sight
• A few hundred miles
229
4-3
Density of the
atmosphere affects:
• The intensity of the
radiation that can
penetrate to that
level
• The amount of
ionization that occurs
• How quickly the
electrons rere-combine
with the nucleus
230
4-3
231
Ionosphere – a leaky RF Mirror
What are LUF and MUF?
• The ionized layers of the
atmosphere actually act as an
RF mirror that reflect certain
frequencies back to earth
• SkySky-wave propagation is
responsible for most longlong-range,
over the horizon communication
• Reflection depends on frequency
and angle of incidence
• Lowest Usable Frequency
• Maximum Usable Frequency
• If too low => absorbed
• If too high => goes into space
• Just right => bounces back to
earth miles and miles away
232
4-4
233
4-4
234
Sun Spot Cycle
Antennas and Feed Lines
• The level of ionization depends of
the radiation intensity of the sun
• Radiation from the sun is related to
the number of sun spots on the
sun’
sun’s surface
What are Decibels ?
• Feed line delivers the
signal to and from the
antenna
More on this shortly
ƒ High number of sun spots, high
ionizing radiation emitted from the
sun
• Sun spot activity follows an 1111-year
cycle
235
4-5
• dB is the ratio of two
quantities as a power of 10
- 3 dB is half power
+ 3 dB is twice power
236
4-7
237
Exam Questions T5B09, 10 and 11
Exam Questions T5B09, 10 and 11
•
Please turn to page
11-34 in the back of
your book and write
down the letter of
the correct answer
We will go over your answers in a couple of
minutes
•
•
238
Ham Bands
The approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power
increase from 5 watts to 10 watts is 3dB.
T5B9
Let's think about
Ohms Law
Power
Frequency
As we look at Band Plans
The approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power
decrease from 12 watts to 3 watts is 6dB.
T5B10
The approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power
increase from 20 watts to 200 watts is 10
dB.
T5B11
Two times or ½ of the power is a 3db
change
239
240
Band =
300
Freq( MHz )
Page
1-22
241
242
243
Band =
244
245
300
Freq( MHz )
246
Band in METERS
80
40
30
20
17
15
12
10
6
2
1.25
0.7
0.33
}
Radio Frequency (RF)
Spectrum
This has been corrected in your book
Frequency in Mhz
3.5
7
10
14
18
21
24.8
28
50
144
222
420
902
Chapter 4
Antennas
HF = 3 to 30
}
VHF = 30 to 300
} UHF 300 - 3000
247
3kHz to 30kHz is primarily an audio (sound
wave) portion of the spectrum. In some cases,
RF waves can also be generated at these
frequencies.
2-4
248
249
Video
The Antenna System
Antenna vocabulary
• Driven element:
element: where the
transmitted energy enters the
antenna
• Antenna:
Antenna: Facilitates the sending of
your signal to some distant station
Antennas
• Feed line:
line: Connects your station to
the antenna
25
250
• Polarization:
Polarization: the direction of the
electric field relative to the surface
of the earth
ƒ Same as the physical direction
ƒ Vertical – Horizontal - Circular
• Test and matching equipment:
equipment:
Allows you to monitor antenna
performance
251
252
Antenna vocabulary
Antenna Radiation Patterns
Antenna Radiation Patterns
• Radiation patterns
are a way of
visualizing antenna
performance
• The further the line
is away from the
center of the graph,
the stronger the
signal at that point
• OmniOmni-directional - radiates in all
directions
• Directional beam - focuses
radiation in specific directions
• Gain – apparent increase in power
in a particular direction because
energy is focused in that direction
ƒ Measured in decibels (dB)
253
4-7
Horizontal
254
Vertical
255
Impedance – AC Resistance
• A quick review of a previous
concept: impedance
ƒ Antennas have characteristics of
capacitors, inductors, and resistors
• The combined response of these
component parts to alternating
currents (radio waves) is called
Antenna Impedance
Feed Line - Antenna - SWR
• Antennas have a characteristic
impedance
• Expressed in Ohms – common value 50
Ohms
• Depends on:
• For efficient transfer of energy from
the transmitter to the feed line and
from the feed line to the antenna,
the impedances need to match
• When there is mismatch of
impedances, things may still work,
but not as effectively as they could
ƒ Antenna design
ƒ Height above the ground
ƒ Distance from surrounding obstacles
ƒ Frequency of operation
ƒ Other factors
Impedance
256
257
4-8
258
Video
Feed line types
Coaxial Cable (Coax)
• The purpose of the feed line is to
get energy from your station to the
antenna
• Basic feed line types
Feed Lines
• Most common feed
line
• Easy to use
• Matches impedance
of modern radio
equipment (50 Ohms)
• Some loss of signal
depending on coax
quality (cost)
ƒ Coax cable
ƒ OpenOpen-wire or ladder line
10
259
• Each has a characteristic
impedance, each has its unique
application
260
4-8
261
OpenOpen-wire/Ladder Line
• Used in special
applications
• Need an antenna
tuner to make
impedance match
– but allows a lot
of flexibility
• Theoretically a
very low loss
Test and Matching Equipment
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)
• Proper impedance matching is
important enough to deserve some
simple test equipment as you
develop your station repertoire
• If the antenna and feed
line impedances are not
perfectly matched, some
RF energy is not radiated
into space and is
returned (reflected) back
to the source
• Basic Test Equipment: S.W.R.
Meter
• Matching Equipment: Antenna
Tuner
262
263
4-9
264
Video
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)
SWR Meter
• The SWR meter is inserted in the feed
line and indicates the reflected energy
– measures the mismatch between feed
line impedance and antenna impedance
• You make adjustments to the antenna
to minimize the reflected energy
(minimum SWR)
• Reflected energy must go somewhere
Standing Wave Ratio
(SWR)
• Usually it is converted into heat
• Sometimes it just floats around
looking for somewhere to go
• If the energy is not going out the
antenna, it is wasted and may
cause damage to the transmitter
The ratio of energy going out to
energy coming back
265
4-10
15
266
267
Nothings Perfect
Antenna Tuner
• Although the goal is to get 100% of
your radio energy radiated into
space, that is virtually impossible
• What is an acceptable level of loss
(reflected power or SWR?)
• One way to make antenna matching
adjustments is to use an antenna tuner
• Antenna tuners are impedance
transformers (they actually do not tune
the antenna)
ƒ When used appropriately they are
effective
ƒ When used inappropriately they just
make a bad antenna look good to the
transmitter…
transmitter…a bad antenna is still bad
ƒ 1:1 is perfect
ƒ 2:1 should be the max you should
accept (as a general rule)
• Modern radios will start lowering power
automatically when SWR is above 2:1
ƒ 3:1 is when you need to do something
to reduce SWR
268
How to use an Antenna Tuner
• Monitor the SWR
meter
• Make adjustments
on the tuner until the
minimum SWR is
achieved
ƒ The impedance of the
antenna is
transformed to more
closely match the
impedance of the
transmitter
269
270
How long should the antenna be ?
Practical Antenna Systems
When working with antennas, it is
important to know how long ?
Dipoles and
Ground-Planes
Questions?
271
4-11
Antenna length is based on the
wavelength that we want to use
There is a relationship between
frequency and wavelength
Antennas can be full or fractional
wavelengths long
272
273
Symbol and Formula
The Dipole
This is one of those things that needs to be
memorized
The Dipole
• A basic antenna
ƒ Two conductive, equal length
parts
ƒ Feed line connected in the middle
λ = Wavelength
½ Wave antenna length in Feet is
468 divided by the Frequency in
MHz
• Total length is ½ wavelength
(1/2 λ)
• Dipole Length (in feet) = 468 /
Frequency (in MHz)
¼ Wavelength is 234 divided by
the Frequency in MHz
274
275
276
The GroundGround-plane
The GroundGround-plane
• Simply a dipole that is oriented
perpendicular (vertical
(vertical to the
earth’
earth’s surface)
• One half of the dipole is replaced
by the groundground-plane
The GroundGround-plane
Length (in feet) = 234 / Frequency (in
MHz)
Wavelength
½ Wavelength - Dipole
¼ Wavelength – GroundGround-plane above
ground
ƒ Earth
ƒ Car roof or trunk lid - or other metal
surface
ƒ Radial wires
277
278
4-12
279
Loop Antennas – Dipole
Variations
• Quad
• Delta
• Horizontal
Beam Antennas
Beam Antennas
• Beam antennas focus or direct
RF energy in a desired
direction
ƒ Gain - An apparent increase
in power in the desired
direction (both transmit and
receive)
280
4-14
• Yagi (rod like elements – TV
antennas)
• Quad (square wire loop
elements)
281
282
Beam Antennas
Beam Antennas
Beam Antenna Elements
• Driven element connected to
the radio by the feed line
• Reflector element is on the
back side
• Director element is on the front
side toward the desired
direction
283
284
285
Coax Feed lines
Coax Connectors
• RGRG-58
• RGRG-8
• RGRG-213
• RGRG-174
• Hardline
•
•
•
•
SOSO-239/PL259
BNC
N
SMA
Adaptors
286
4-17
287
288
Antenna Supports
Antenna System Devices
Antenna Analyzer
Antenna System Devices
• Balun
• Duplexer
• Antenna Switches
• SWR Meter
• Antenna Analyzer
• Antenna tuners
• Trees
• Towers or
masts
• Covenants
and antenna
restrictions
must be
considered
289
Connect to antenna
Very low power signal
Adjustable in frequency
Meter shows SWR
Determine resonant
frequencies of the antenna
290
291
Chapter 5.1
Chapter 5
Equipment
Questions?
292
Transmitters
Receivers
and
Transceivers
293
5-1
294
Vocabulary
Rig Vocabulary
• RX = Receiver
• We will now talk about
vocabulary specific to the
functions and controls of a
transmitter and receiver
• TX = Transmitter
• VFO = Variable Frequency
Oscillator – a frequency
control
5-1
Radios have Instructions
Pictures
Explanations
Explanations
Operating Instructions
• Leading to “How to operate
a Transceiver”
295
Here are some samples
296
297
Transmitter
298
299
300
Transmitter Controls and Functions
• Microphone (Audio) control
ƒ Gain
301
Transmitter Controls and Functions
• Microphone (Audio) control
Microphone (Audio) control
• Speech Compressor or
Speech Processor
ƒ Compacting your speech
into a narrow frequency
range to enhance “punch”
punch”
•How loudly you need
to talk to be heard
5-3
Transmitter Controls and Functions
ƒ Too much gain or
compression can cause
problems
• Splatter
• OverOver-deviation
• OverOver-modulation
302
303
Transmitter Controls and Functions
Transmitter Controls and Functions
• Transmission on/off (not power)
• Automatic Level Control (ALC)
ƒ PushPush-toto-Talk (PTT
(PTT))
ƒ VoiceVoice-Operated Transmission (VOX)
ƒ Automatically limits transmitter
drive (output level) to prevent
problems associated with too
much gain or compression
• VOX Gain
• VOX Delay
• AntiAnti-VOX
• Also can control external power
amplifier operation
Microphones
Hand mikes
Desk mikes
SpeakerSpeaker-mikes
Headsets or boomboom-sets
Internal mikes
• Speak across the mike, not into
the mike
ƒ Key Jack
304
Transmitter Controls and Functions
305
306
Transmitter Controls and Functions
Receiver Controls and Functions
Receiver
• AF Gain or Volume
• Morse Keys
ƒ Controls the audio level to the
speaker or headphones
ƒ Straight
ƒ SemiSemi-automatic (Bug)
ƒ Electronic keyer,
keyer, paddle
• RF Gain or Sensitivity
ƒ Controls the strength of radio signal
entering the receiver’
receiver’s detector
ƒ Used to limit (attenuate) very strong
local signals
ƒ Usually operated in the fullfull-open
position
307
5-6
308
309
Receiver Controls and Functions
• Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
Recipe for a Transceiver
Single Band Transceiver
• Take -
ƒ Automatically limits the incoming
signals during signal (voice) peaks
ƒ A Receiver and
ƒ A Transmitter and
ƒ Put them in the same box, and
ƒ Share common controls and
circuits (mix well)
• Prevents peaks from capturing the
receiver and limiting reception of lower
level portions of the incoming signal
ƒ Fast setting for CW
ƒ Slow settings for SSB and AM
ƒ Not used in FM because of the type of
signal used in FM
• You have a Transceiver
310
311
312
Transceiver Controls and
Functions
• Main tuning dial (both TX and
RX)
Multi-Band Tranceiver
Transceiver Controls and
Functions
• Main tuning dial (both TX and
RX)
ƒ Controls the frequency selection
via the Variable Frequency
Oscillator (VFO)
ƒ Could be an actual dial or key pad
or programmed channels
313
ƒ Variable frequency step size
(tuning rate, resolution)
ƒ Could have more than one VFO
(control more than one frequency
at a time)
314
315
Transceiver Controls and
Functions
• Mode Selector (both TX and RX
multimulti-mode rigs)
Transceiver Controls and
Functions
Power Amplifier
• Reception and Transmission Meter
ƒ In transmit indicates output power or
ALC or other functions as selected by
switch setting
ƒ AM/FM/SSB (LSB or USB)
ƒ CW
ƒ Data (RTTY)
• In receive indicates signal strength
ƒ In “S” units S1 through S9 – S9 is
strongest
ƒ Also have dB over S9 for very strong
signals
• Could be automatic based on
recognized bandband-plan
316
317
318
Equipment
What is a Repeater?
What is a Repeater?
Repeaters
• Specialized
transmitter/receiver
interconnected by computer
controller
• Generally located at a high
place
• Receives your signal and
simultaneously rere-transmits
your signal on a different
frequency
• Dramatically extends lineline-ofofsight range, If both users
319
can "see the repeater’s
antenna"
320
321
A Little Vocabulary
A Little Vocabulary
Duplex
Simplex
• Transmitting and receiving
on the same frequency
• Each user takes turns to
transmit
• Is the preferred method if it
works
322
• Transmitting on one
frequency while
simultaneously listening on
a different frequency
• Repeaters use duplex
323
324
A Little Vocabulary
Duplex
Output frequency – the
frequency the repeater
transmits on and you listen to
Input frequency – the
frequency the repeater
listens to and you transmit on
Repeater Output Frequency
Things to Know to Use a
Repeater
• Output frequency
• Frequency offset
• Repeaters are frequently identified
by their output frequency
ƒ “Meet you on the 443.50 machine.”
machine.”
• Here the specific frequency is used
and therefore the input frequency
ƒ “Let’
Let’s go to 94.”
94.”
• Repeater access tones (if any)
• Here an abbreviation for a standard
repeater channel is used meaning 146.94
MHz
ƒ “How about the MVARC repeater?”
repeater?”
• Here the repeater is referenced by the
sponsoring club name
325
326
327
Repeater Access Tones
Repeater Frequency Offset
Standard Repeater Frequency Offset
• The shift or offset frequencies
are standardized to help
facilitate repeater use
• There are + and – shifts
depending on the band plan
• Different bands have a
different standardized amount
of shift
328
6-16
• Sometimes multiple repeaters
on the same frequency pair can
be accessed at the same time
• To preclude unintentional
access, many repeaters require
a subsub-audible tone be present
before the repeater controller
will recognize the signal as a
valid and turn on
329
330
Repeater Access Tones
Repeater Access Tones
• These tones are called by
various names (depending
on equipment manufacturer)
ƒ CTCSS – Continuous Tone
• Access tones are usually published
along with repeater frequencies
K4US Repeater Access
• 146.655 ((-)
• PL 141.3
• Could also be announced when the
repeater identifies -“PL is 141.3”
141.3”
• Tones are generally programmed
into the radio along with frequency
and offset
Coded Squelch System
ƒ PL
ƒ Privacy codes or tones
331
332
333
Repeater Controller
Repeater Controller
Repeater Controller
• Station ID - Morse or voice
ƒ Same ID requirements as you
have
ƒ Every 10 minutes
• TimeTime-out protection
ƒ Sometimes called the alligator
ƒ Protects against continuous
transmission in the event of a
stuck PPT or long winded hams
Computer that controls repeater
ƒ Sends Repeater ID (callsign)
ƒ TimeTime-out protection
ƒ Courtesy tone
ƒ Auto Patch
ƒ DTMF pad test
334
• Courtesy tone – Wait for the tone
before transmitting
• Repeater timer – limits a single
transmission to 3 minutes
• Press 99-1-1 for Alexandria PD/EMS
• Press 555 to test your tone pad
• Press 725* for record - playback
• Many other functions
335
336
George Washington National Masonic Memorial
K4US Repeater
Looking down from base of antenna
• When you use any of these
(sending tones only) you still
must ID at the end – otherwise
it is an unidentified
transmission
911 for Alexandria PD/EMS
555 to test your tone pad
725* for record - playback
337
338
339
339
At the base of the antenna looking up
Mast
is 20
feet
long
340
341
342
Looking down from 40' below antenna
Questions?
343
344
345
Chapter 5.2
Data (Digital) Modes
Digital Modes
• There are several different
ways to send data over amateur
radio
• Here is a brief overview
Equipment
Digital Modes
• HF using SSB
ƒ RTTY - 5 bit Baudot
ƒ Winlink 2000 (Pactor
(Pactor,, Winmor)
Winmor)
ƒ Keyboard to keyboard - PSK31,
MFSK
• VHF & UHF
Yes, CW using Morse Code is a
Digital Mode
5-9
346
5-9
ƒ Packet AX.25
ƒ Winlink 2000 (B2F)
347
348
Data Modes
TNC – MPC
• Connecting computers via ham radio
ƒ Some systems use radio to
connect to Internet gateways
• The bulk of the work is done by
specialized modems or computer
software/sound card
ƒ Terminal Node Controller (TNC)
ƒ Multiple Protocol Controller (MPC)
• Provide digital interface between
computer and radio
ƒ Package the data into proper
format
ƒ Convert digital data into audio
tones representing 1s and 0s of
digital data
ƒ Send/receive tones to transceiver
ƒ Control the transceiver
349
Data Station Setup
350
351
Power Supplies
Chapter 5.3
Equipment
Questions?
• Most modern radio equipment runs
on 12 volts DC
• Household current is 120 volts AC
• Power supplies convert 120 volts
AC to 12 volts DC
Power Supplies and
Batteries
352
5-15
ƒ 13.8 volts DC is the common voltage
you will see
ƒ This is the charging voltage for
motorized vehicles
353
354
Power Supply Ratings
Voltage and Current
• Continuous duty – how much
current can be supplied over
the long term
• Intermittent duty – how much
surge current can be supplied
over the short term
• Regulation – how well the
power supply can handle rapid
current changes
Types of Power Supplies
Inverters and Generators
• Linear
ƒ Transformers
ƒ Heavy (physically)
ƒ Heavy duty current
ƒ Expensive
• Switching
ƒ Electronics instead of transformers
ƒ Light weight and small
ƒ Not as robust May be source of RFI
ƒ Less expensive
355
• Inverters convert DC into AC
ƒ Square, triangle, sinesine-wave
inverters
• Generators create AC
ƒ Gas powered
ƒ Various voltage and current
ratings
ƒ Special precautions
356
357
Batteries
Batteries
• Create current through a
chemical reaction
ƒ Made up of individual
cells (approximately 1.5
volts per cell) connected
in series or parallel
5-16
Battery Charging
• Some batteries can be
recharged, some cannot
• Use the proper charger for
the battery being charged
• Batteries will wear out
over time
• Battery types
ƒ Disposable
ƒ Rechargeable
ƒ Storage
• Power capabilities rated
in AmpereAmpere-hours
ƒ Amps X time
358
359
360
Battery Charging
Handheld Transceivers
• Best if batteries are maintained
fully charged
ƒ OverOver-charging will cause
heating and could damage the
battery
• Some batteries (lead(lead-acid) will
release toxic fumes during
charging so require ventilation
• Single, dual and multimulti-band
versions (with increasing cost and
complexity)
Nice to have handheld
accessories
• Extra battery packs
• DropDrop-in, fast charger
• Extended antenna
• External microphone and
speaker
• Headset
ƒ Some have expanded receiver
coverage (wide(wide-band receive)
• Very portable and selfself-contained
ƒ Internal microphone and speaker
ƒ Rubber duck antenna
ƒ Battery powered
361
362
363
Chapter 5.4
Radio Frequency Interference
• Also known as RFI
• May be man made
5-19
Radio Frequency Interference
Radio Frequency Interference
364
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
5-19
Strong signals
Automobile ignition noise
Electric Welding
Fluorescent lights - Grow lights
Air Cleaners
Power Lines
Computers
Fare Card Machines
• UnUn-wanted, unun-intentional
signals from some electronic
device that interferes with radio
wave reception
• You can prevent creating RFI by
operating your transmitting
equipment properly
365
366
RFI Mitigation
RFI Mitigation
• Filters attenuate (reduce)
interfering signals – but do not
totally eliminate them
• Types
Filters
• Ferrite - the RFI Buster
• Snap on ceramic magnets
• High pass –generally on the
receive side
• Low pass – generally on the
transmit side
• BandBand-pass – used within most
radio equipment
ƒ High Pass
ƒ Low Pass
ƒ Band Pass
367
5-20
368
369
Cable TV Interference
Types of RFI
• Direct detection – offending
signals get into the electronics
circuits to cause interference
• Overload – strong signal that
overwhelms the weaker, wanted
signal
• Harmonics – even multiples of
the offending signal that
coincided with the wanted signal
Noise Sources
• Usually the result of broken
shielding somewhere in the cable
ƒ Loose connections
ƒ Broken connections
ƒ Corroded connections
• Usually solved by proper cable
maintenance by cable supplier
ƒ If the subscriber is a legitimate
subscriber
370
• Electrical arcs (motors,
thermostats, electric fences,
neon signs)
• Power lines
• Motor vehicle ignitions
• Motor vehicle alternators
• Switching power supplies
• Computers, networks, TV sets
371
372
Dealing with RFI
• Make sure you operate your
equipment properly
• Eliminate interference in your
own home first
373
Dealing with RFI
Dealing with RFI
• Strong signals may overwhelm a
receiver’
receiver’s ability to reject them. This
is called fundamental overload.
Symptoms include:
ƒ Severe interference on all channels
of a TV or FM receiver, or
an amateur may hear bursts or
fragments of conversations when
the strong signal is present
• If the interfering frequency is
similar to that of the desired
signal, it may not be
possible to remove the
transmitted signal with a
highhigh-pass or a lowlow-pass filter
because the desired signal
will be removed as well.
374
375
Dealing with RFI
Dealing with RFI
• In cases like these, such as when
a TV receiver is overloaded by a
nearby 22-meter transmitter, a
notch filter is required that
removes a specific band of
frequencies. The notch filter is
installed at the receiver and is
used to reduce the interfering
signal to a level that can be
handled properly by the receiver.
• Take interference complaints
seriously
• Make sure that you’
you’re really not
the cause (demonstrate that
you don’
don’t interfere within your
own home)
376
Dealing with RFI
• Offer to help eliminate the RFI,
even if you are not at fault
• Consult ARRL RFI Resources
for help and assistance
377
378
What the Rules Say
What the Rules Say
• RFI from and to unlicensed
devices is the responsibility of
the users of such devices
BUT – be a good neighbor
because they may (probably)
not be familiar with Part 15
rules and regulations
• Bottom line – if your station is
operating properly, you are
protected against interference
complaints
379
Questions?
380
381
Chapter 6
• Greeting
• Identify who is participating
• Exchange information,
generally taking turns
• Salutations
• End the conversation
Communicating with
other hams
Contact Basics
Band Plans
6-1
Typical Ham Contact (QSO)
Typical Telephone Conversation
Making a Contact
382
6-1
• Greeting
• Identify who is participating
• Exchange information,
generally taking turns
• Salutations
• End the conversation
383
384
Radio Manners
Radio Manners
• Speak clearly and distinctly
Signal Reports
• Signal Reports
• It is a GIANT party line, select
topics accordingly
• RST
Readability (1(1-5)
Strength (1(1-9)
Tone (CW only 11-9)
• Power level
• Location
• Shared use of frequencies
ƒ “Your RST is 58”
58”
385
386
6-3
387
Strength (1(1-9)
Readability (1(1-5)
Tone (CW & Digital only 11-9)
1 - Faint signals, barely perceptible
2 - Very weak signals
3 - Weak signals
4 - Fair signals
5 - Fairly good signals
6 - Good signals
7 - Moderately strong signals
8 - Strong signals
9 - Extremely strong signals
1 - Unreadable
2 - Barely readable, occasional
words distinguishable
3 - Readable with considerable
difficulty
4 - Readable with practically no
difficulty
5 - Perfectly readable
388
1 - Sixty cycle AC or less, very rough and broad
2 - Very rough AC, very harsh and broad
3 - Rough AC tone, rectified but not filtered
4 - Rough note, some trace of filtering
5 - Filtered rectified AC but strongly rippleripple-modulated
6 - Filtered tone, definite trace of ripple modulation
7 - Near pure tone, trace of ripple modulation
8 - Near perfect tone, slight trace of modulation
9 - Perfect tone, no trace of ripple or modulation of any
kind
389
390
Q Signals
Some Q Signals
• Shorthand from the telegraphy
and CW world, some migrated
to voice
• Followed by question mark is
asking
• No question mark is answer or
statement
• QTH ? "Where are you located"
• QTH "Alexandria Va"
Va"
• QSY up 2 "move up 2 Khz to a
clearer frequency"
• QRZ ? "Who is calling me"
• Slang: QLF - please send with
your Left Foot - (not on test)
6-5
391
Radio Manners
• Ham radio is selfself-regulated
ƒ ARRL Official Observers
• Logging
• QSL’
QSL’s
ƒ Awards Program
392
393
Band Plans
Operating Dos and Don’
Don’ts
• A band plan is a way of
organizing the use of radio
frequencies
Appropriate topics
• Indecent & obscene PROHIBITED
• Use CQ versus “monitoring”
monitoring”
• Use phonetics
• Taking turns and breakingbreaking-in
• Station identification
• Using repeaters
• Using simplex
ƒ Formal and legal plan
ƒ Informal – gentleman's agreement
6-9
Radio Manners
394
• Try to stay clear of
provocative subjects:
politics, religion, sexual
• Weather and radio equipment
are frequently good topics
395
6-4
396
Using Repeaters
Digital and Internet
• Offset
• Access tones
• How to ID
• Linked Repeaters
• Autopatch
• Open/Closed
6-15
• Echolink
• IRLP
• WinLink
• D-Star
397
6-19
Questions?
398
399
Nets
Chapter 6
Traffic Nets
• Net is short for “Network”
Network”
• Traffic refers to formal
messages that are relayed via
ham radio
• Formal structure to ensure
accuracy – National Traffic
System (NTS)
ƒ Evolved over the years of radio to
share and exchange information
in an organized and efficient way
with accuracy
Communicating with
other hams
• Social Nets
• Traffic Nets
• Emergency and Public Service
Nets
Nets
400
ƒ Procedures
ƒ Accountability
401
402
Net Structure
Emergency and Public Service Nets
• Net Control Station (NCS)
• Public Service Nets – training
for emergency nets
ƒ Traffic cop that controls the flow of
information
ƒ Training for ham operators as
well as supported emergency
managers
• CheckCheck-in and checkcheck-out procedures
• Communications discipline vital
ƒ Learn and follow procedures
ƒ Speak only when directed, and only to
whom directed
ƒ Follow through with your
commitments
• Emergency Nets
6-4
403
404
405
Chapter 6
Amateur Radio Technician Class Licensing Course
Boy Scout Venturing Crew 80, Alexandria, VA
First Christian Church
Mount Vernon Amateur Radio Club (MVARC)
Day 4 Starts Here
Questions?
Communicating with
other hams
Something you don't understand?
Emergency Communications
What is bothering you?
January 20, 2015
406
407
6-24
408
Supporting Emergency
Operations
EMCOMM Tips
EMCOMM Training
• Don’
Don’t become part of the problem
• You are a communicator, not a
• One of the pivotal reasons for the
existence of Amateur Radio
• You will be licensed communicators
ƒ Get involved and use what you
have learned
• Know where you fit in the overall
emergency management team
•
•
•
•
409
• If you are going to
participate in EMCOMM: get
training
• Take EMCOMM courses
decision or policy maker
Don’
Don’t give out unauthorized information
Know your abilities and limitationslimitationskeep yourself safe
Follow radio discipline and net
procedures
Protect personal informationinformation-ham radio
communications is a “party line”
line”
ƒ ARRL EMCOMM Courses 1, 2,
and 3
ƒ NIMS and FEMA courses
410
411
EMCOMM
EMCOMM Organizations
EMCOMM Organizations
• Radio Amateur Civil
Emergency Service
(RACES)
• Actively participate in
EMCOMM activities
ƒ Nets
ƒ Public service activities
ƒ Attend community meetings
and get involved in your
community
• Amateur Radio Emergency
Service (ARES)
ƒ Local and regional in scope
ƒ Supports nonnon-governmental
agencies supported
ƒ ARRL sponsored
ƒ Supports civil emergencies
ƒ National in scope
412
413
414
Making and Answering Distress
Calls
Emergency Declarations
• FCC may declare a Temporary State
of Communications Emergency
• Includes details of conditions and
rules to be followed
• Specifics communicated through
web sites and ARRL bulletins, the
NTS, and onon-thethe-air
• Avoid operating on restricted
frequencies unless engaged in relief
efforts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
415
Tactical Communications
• Tactical Call Signs
Rule #1 – speak in plain language!
Mayday (voice); SOS (Morse code)
Identify
Give location
State the situation
Describe assistance required
Provide other important information
“Fire Command”
Command”, “Main Street School
Shelter”
Shelter”, “Incident Commander”
Commander”
ƒ Facilitate communications
ƒ Location or function specific
ƒ Transcends operator changes
• FCC ID rules still apply
Your FCC Call Sign - every 10 minutes
and at end
416
417
Chapter 6
Emergency Equipment
• “GoGo-kits”
kits”
Communicating with
other hams
Questions?
ƒ Portable ham radio equipment
ƒ Emergency power sources
ƒ Personal survival supplies and
equipment
Special Modes and
Techniques
418
419
6-29
420
Awards
Special Events
• DXCC
Special Events
• Call Signs = 1 by 1 W1J K3D
• Special Event stations are set up
to commemorate some significant
local event
ƒ Contacting 100 different
countries and/or entities
Which type of call sign has a single
letter in both its prefix and suffix?
A. Vanity
B. Sequential
C. Special event
D. InIn-memoriam
• Usually stations are demonstration
stations set up for public display
• WAS
ƒ Contacting 50 states
• Commemorative certificates are
awarded for contacting the
stations
• VUCC
ƒ Contacting 100 grid squares
on VHF/UHF
421
T1C01
422
423
Contests
What satellite contacts sound
like
Amateur Satellites
• OSCAR
• Field Day - June
• Sweepstakes - November
• QSO Parties
• CQ DX Contest
• FM contact
ƒ Orbiting Satellites Carrying
Amateur Radio
• Modes
• SSB contact
Very loud
• ISS contact
ƒ FM
ƒ Analog (SSB and CW)
ƒ Digital
• Contest Corral (a list in QST)
• International Space Station
424
6-30
425
426
Digital Techniques
• Radio Teletype (RTTY)
ƒ Single letters sent as they are typed
• RTTY
ƒ Small grouping of letters sent with
error correction
• AMTOR
• AMTOR and PACTOR
• Digital means two states: ON and OFF
ƒ Digital code is a sequence of ON and OFF
states or 1’
1’s and 0’
0’s
ƒ The letter “A” is 0100 0001 (41 hexadecimal
or 65 decimal)
• When two audio tones are used to represent the
ON and OFF states it is called Frequency Shift
Keying (FSK)
• When changing phase states are used to
represent ON and OFF states it is calls Phase
Shift Keying (PSK)
• PACTOR
• Packet and Packet Networks
ƒ Groups (packets) of collected data
sent with error correction and
automatic forwarding
• PACKET
• PSK31
• PSK31
ƒ Different modulation technique
Digital Mode Modulation
Techniques
What Digital sounds like
427
428
429
Store and forward networks
Communicating Digitally
• KeyboardKeyboard-toto-keyboard
• Packet networks, bulletin boards
ƒ Live exchange using computer
keyboards
ƒ Digipeaters extend range
ƒ Digipeaters make up the backbone
of packet networks
• InternetInternet-Radio connections
ƒ WinLink
ƒ Radio connections are Internet
Gateways
430
431
432
APRS
Slow Scan TV
(SSTV)
• Automatic Position Reporting
System (APRS)
• Packet based Global Positioning
System (GPS) position reporting
ƒ Uses a packetpacket-like digipeater
system to create an APRS
network (also Internet
connected)
Video
Sending snapsnap-shot
pictures
Amateur TV (ATV)
Similar to
commercial TV
• What SSTV sounds
like
433
434
435
Other Special Modes
Other Special Modes
• Meteor Scatter
• Radio Control
(RC)
ƒ Reflecting radio signals off of the
ionized trail left by meteors
Questions?
ƒ Telecommand
ƒ 50 MHz band
• Moonbounce
ƒ Reflecting radio signals off the
surface of the moon
436
6-32
437
438
Chapter 7.1
• The license is free
• The license is good for 10 years
ƒ Renewable within 90 days of
expiration
• Personal identification information
is required
ƒ Federal Registration Number or
ƒ Tax ID (social security number)
ƒ Current Mailing Address
• Amateur Service – non pecuniary
interest (private and personal, non
commercial)
• Amateur Operator – the person
holding authorization (license) to
operate a amateur radio station
• Amateur Station – equipment
capable of transmitting on
frequencies authorized for Amateur
Service
Licensing Regulations
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
7-1
License Term and Renewal
Definitions
Call Signs
439
440
441
The Amateur License
Examinations
• No age limit or citizenship
restrictions
ƒ One exception – no foreign representatives
• License actually contains two parts
ƒ Operator License
ƒ Station License (the Call Sign)
• Three classes of operator privileges:
Tech, General, Extra
442
Responsibilities of Licensure
• Preparation
ƒ Study the content
ƒ Question Pool
• Taking the exam
ƒ Proctored exam
ƒ Multiple choice
• Volunteer Examiners (VEs
(VEs))
• Volunteer Examiner Coordinators
443
• Prevent unauthorized operation
of your station
• Provide personal information as
required – keep a current
mailing address on file
• Make your station available for
FCC inspection upon request
444
What can you do with a
Technician Class License?
Chapter 7.2
• Use the minimum power required to
communicate
• Up to 1500 Watts Peak Envelope
Power (PEP)
ƒ Will generally require an external
amplifier
• Some special cases where power is
restricted
Licensing Regulations
Licensing Authority
• Federal Communications
Commission
Licensing Terms
ƒ Located in Gettysburg, PA
Working with the FCC
• Amateur Radio operations
covered by FCC rules published
in Part 97 of Title 47 – Code of
Federal Regulations
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
445
7-9
Call Signs
446
7-1
447
Chapter 7.3
FCC ULS Web Site
• www.wireless.fcc.gov/uls
What can you do with a
Technician Class License?
Licensing Regulations
ƒ Register for onon-line access to
your license information
ƒ Make changes to your address
and other information
ƒ Renew your license
ƒ Search for other station
information
• Frequency Given one we
can
Privileges
calculate the
ƒBand
other:
versus
300
frequency Band = Freq( MHz )
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
448
7-10
Call Signs
Band in meters, Freq in MHz
449
450
Tech VHF/UHF 1500w. max
7-10
451
7-10
Tech HF 200 w. max
452
7-13
28.328.3-28.5 Mhz 200 w
HF Phone
453
Emission Privileges
• Emission Privileges
CW
Pulse
Data
RTTY
Image
SS
MCW
Test
Phone
7-11
454
7-12
455
456
Primary & Secondary Allocations
Band Plans
• Some authorized amateur
frequencies are shared
ƒPrimary Users
ƒSecondary Users
• Navigation, Research …
7-14
Repeater Coordination
• Good Practice
• Voluntary
• Different frequencies for
different activities
• Don't use CW in the Phone
segment
457
7-15
• Frequency Coordinator
ƒ Fixed Repeater Input frequencies
ƒ Fixed Repeater Output frequencies
ƒ Access control tones
ƒ Distance separation
458
7-15
459
Chapter 7.4
• The ITU
• Regions
• Reciprocal Operating Authority
• IARP (N and S America)
• CEPT (most of Europe)
Licensing Regulations
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
7-17
Amateur Radio Internationally
International Rules
Call Signs
460
7-17
• International Telecommunications
Union (ITU)
ƒ Regions 1, 2, and 3
• CONUS hams are in Region 2
• Reciprocal Operating Authorization
• There are times when there are
restrictions on certain countries
that we can contact
461
462
ITU Regions
• We will discuss these shortly -operating regulations
• There are different station
identification requirements for
third party communications
1
2
3
7-17
Chapter 7.5
Third Party Rules
Licensing Regulations
Licensing Terms
Working with the FCC
Bands and Privileges
International Rules
463
464
7-19
Call Signs
465
Call Signs
US Amateur Radio Call Signs
• Other Radio Services have
different formats
• Prefix, Number, Suffix
W
3
BSA
WA
4
USB
K
4
BSA
KG
4
RKE
• US call signs
begin with: K,
N, W, and A
• US call sign
districts: 00-9
• Other nations
have different
prefixes
466
467
468
You may hear this on the air
Call Signs
US Amateur Radio Call Signs
• Are unique in the world
• Portable – operating away from
primary station location
• If in the different call sign district
add:
ƒ “portable 6”
6” if voice
ƒ /6 if Morse code or digital
ƒ Not required just nice to do
• If recent upup-grade add “AG”
AG” or “AE”
AE”
Australia AX, VH–VN, and VZ
Canada CF–CK, CY–CZ, VA–VG, VO
(Newfoundland and Labrador), VX–VY, XJ–XO
China B, XS, 3H–3U
Indonesia JZ, PK-PO, YB-YH, 7A-7I, 8A-8I
Japan JA–JS, 7J–7N, 8J–8N
Mexico XA–XI, 4A–4C, 6D–6J
Russia R, UA–UI
Sweden SA–SM, 7S, 8S
United Kingdom G, M, VS, ZB–ZJ, ZN–ZO, ZQ, 2
United States K, W, N, AA–AL.
Not on the test
469
470
471
Chapter 8.1
Special Call Signs
Operating Regulations
• Club
• Special Event (1x1)
Control Operators
Questions?
Identification
W1J October 20, 2000 to October 22,
2000 PIONEER VALLEY BSA JOTA
Interference
• Vanity Call Signs
Remote and Automatic Operation
Third-Party Communications
Prohibited transmissions
There is a FCC fee every 10 years
472
473
8-1
474
Control Operator
Control Operator Responsibilities
The FCC’
FCC’s primary concern is
that transmissions are made
only under the control of a
licensed operator
• Control Operator – the
licensed amateur responsible
for making sure transmissions
comply with FCC rules
Guest Operations
• Unlicensed people can use ham
radio but only when a control
operator is present
• Must have a valid FCC issued
amateur radio license
• Station must operate within the
authorization of the control
operator’
operator’s license
• Control operator must be present
at the control point of the station
(the onon-off switch) or remotely
connected by a control link
475
ƒ The control operator is solely
responsible for station operation
• Licensed guests can use the ham
radio
ƒ both the control operator and the
guest ham are responsible for
station operation
476
477
Chapter 8.2
Operating Regulations
• Normal ID
Control Operators
ƒ Say your call sign every ten
minutes during and at the end of
the contact
Identification
Interference
(not each
transmission)
• Use of Tactical Call Signs
Third-Party Communications
ID is not required at each
over or at the beginning
Does not substitute for
proper station ID
Remote and Automatic Operation
Prohibited transmissions
8-3
Every 10 minutes during
communications and at
the end of each
communication
Station Identification
478
8-3
Be aware of 3rd party rules
479
480
Station Identification
• Ham Guests
ƒ If higher license class and use
higher class privileges
Repeaters, Satellites, ISS
• Repeaters must ID using the
same 10 minute rule
• Special event calls (ex. W4J)
ƒ Normal club call or control
operator call given once per hour
ƒ Can be voice or CW (at 20 WPM
or less)
Guest’s call followed by
owners call
• Satellites and ISS have special
rules
“This is K4AB KG4XYZ”
KG4XYZ”
Extra
Repeaters, Satellites, ISS
General
481
482
483
Types of Interference
Chapter 8.3
Operating Regulations
• QRN
Control operators should
prevent interfering with
other users of the
frequencies
ƒ Natural interference
(thunderstorms)
ƒ ManMan-made (appliances and
power lines)
Control Operators
Identification
Interference
• QRM
Third-party Communications
ƒ Interference from nearby signals
ƒ Other hams or other users of the
frequencies
Remote and Automatic Operation
8-7
Prevent Interference
Prohibited Transmissions
484
8-6
485
486
Preventing Interference
Willful Interference
Interference
• Use common sense and
courtesy
• Keep equipment in proper
operating order
• No one owns a frequency,
frequency, be a
good neighbor and share
• Yield to special operations and
special circumstances
• Harmful
Intentionally causing
interference
ƒ Interference that is disruptive
but not intentional
ƒ Deal with it as best you can
and help others avoid harmful
interference
487
ƒ This becomes a legal and law
enforcement issue
ƒ This is rare and there are
procedures to deal with this
(ARRL Official Observers can
help)
488
489
Chapter 8.4
ThirdThird-party Communications
Operating Regulations
Control Operators
Identification
• Two situations with different rules
1. Within the US
2. Communication that
crosses international
borders
ƒ Could be actually speaking
on the air
Interference
Third-Party Communications
Remote and Automatic Operation
ƒ Could be passing a message
on behalf of the nonnon-ham
Prohibited transmissions
8-9
ThirdThird-party Communications
• ThirdThird-party means that a nonnonham is involved in
communication via ham radio
490
8-8
491
492
ThirdThird-party Across Borders
ThirdThird-party within US
ThirdThird-party Across Borders
• Make sure that thirdthird-party
agreement exists
• No special rules
• Make sure the message is
nonnon-commercial in nature
• During station identification say
both station’
station’s call signs
ƒ Check for current thirdthird-party
agreements from FCC sources if
in doubt
ƒ You might be surprised at the
countries that we do not have
thirdthird-party agreements with
493
“DL2XYZ this is K4US”
K4US”
494
495
Chapter 8.5
Operating Regulations
Operating Regulations
• Some stations, repeaters and
beacons operate without the control
operator physically present at the
control point
• These stations must still comply
with control operator stipulations
Control Operators
Identification
Interference
Third-Party Communications
Control Operators
Identification
Interference
Third-Party Communications
ƒ Local
ƒ Remote
ƒ Automatic
Remote and Automatic Operation
Prohibited transmissions
8-10
Chapter 8.6
Remote and Automatic Control
496
8-10
Remote and Automatic Operation
Prohibited transmissions
497
8-11
498
Prohibited Transmissions
No Business Communications
No Encrypted Transmissions
• Unidentified transmissions
(not giving your call sign)
• False or deceptive signals
(using someone else’
else’s call sign)
• False distress or emergency signals
(fake calls for help)
• Obscene or indecent speech
(up to interpretation)
• Music
8-11
499
• You can not make a profit
through the use of
transmissions made via ham
radio
• The exceptions are teachers
using ham radio in their
classrooms and certain
emergency drills
• Encryption involves
encoding information for
transmission that must be
decoded upon reception to
interpret the information
• Encryption is okay if:
ƒ Coding is open source
ƒ Intention is not to hide the
message or deceive
500
501
No Broadcasting
Special Circumstances
• Broadcasting is sending oneoneway transmissions with no
expectation of getting a
response
• Ham communication is
generally intended for hams
• Emergencies and critical
situations create special
circumstances
• Special commemorative events
may qualify as special
circumstances
• Normal rules return when the
situation returns to normal
ƒ News, Music
• Exceptions
ƒ Code practice
ƒ Ham radio related bulletins
ƒ ReRe-transmission of shuttle
communications
502
Questions?
503
504
Electrical Safety
Chapter 9
• Avoiding contact is the most
effective way of practicing
electrical safety
Electrical and RF Safety
Electrical Safety
• Shocks
• Burns
• Even small
currents
can cause
problems
• Most modern radio equipment
uses currents that are not as
dangerous as older equipment
but precautions still must be
taken
RF Exposure
Mechanical
9-1
Electrical Injuries
505
9-1
506
9-2
507
508
Mitigating Electrical Hazards
Mitigating Electrical Hazards
• TURN OFF power when
working on equipment
(inside the case)
• Make sure the equipment
is PROPERLY GROUNDED
and the circuit is
protected by a fuse,
breaker, etc.
• If power is required:
ƒ Remove jewelry
ƒ Avoid unintentional touching of
circuitry
ƒ Never bypass safety interlocks
ƒ Capacitors hold a charge even
when power is off
ƒ Storage batteries are dangerous
when shorted
509
510
Mitigating Electrical Hazards
Electrical Grounding and
Circuit Protection
Respond to Electrical Injury
• Use only one hand
so your body does
not complete a
circuit
• REMOVE POWER!
• This is in your best
interest
• In the home
• In the car
ƒHave ON/OFF switches
and circuit breakers
clearly marked
• Call for help
• Learn CPR and first aid
• Leather shoes, dry floor
511
512
513
In the home
In the car
• Make sure your home is “up to code”
code”
• Most ham equipment does not require
special wiring or circuits
ƒ Use 33-wire power cords
ƒ Use circuit breakers, circuit breaker
outlets, or Ground Fault Interrupter
(GFI) breakers
ƒ Use proper size fuse or circuit
breaker
ƒ Don’
Don’t overload outlets
514
Do it SAFELY in the car
• Fuse positive and negative leads
• Connect radio’
radio’s negative lead to
where the battery ground
connection is made – not to the
battery
• Use grommets or sleeves to prevent
chafing
• All metal in the car is not grounded,
grounded,
cars are as much plastic as metal
• Car batteries hold lots of
energy – shorting a battery
could cause a fire
• There are many good ways
to do it safely
515
516
Lightening Safety
RF Exposure
• Antennas are not struck more
frequently than trees or tall
structures
• Ground all antennas
• Use lightening arrestors
• Disconnect antenna cables and
power cords during storms
• Disconnect telephone lines from
computer modems
• Proper Grounding
• Important for protection of
ƒ Equipment
ƒ People
ƒ Wires connected to the radio
become part of the antenna - can
radiate RF – RF can burn you
9-5
517
518
519
519
RF Exposure
• Exposure to high levels of RF
can cause problems
• If equipment is operated
properly, RF exposure is
minimal and not dangerous
• RF energy can heat body tissues
ƒ Heating depends on the RF
intensity and frequency
9-5
RF Intensity
RF Intensity
• Power Density
• Power Density
ƒTransmitter power
ƒAntenna gain and
proximity
ƒMode and duty cycle
520
ƒActual transmitter
power
•Higher power is higher
risk
521
522
RF Intensity
RF Intensity
We are concerned about
• Power Density
• Power Density
ƒ Antenna gain and proximity
• Where the antenna is located
ƒMode and duty cycle
• Beam antennas focus
available energy
• Being physically close or
standing in the beam
direction increases risk
• How close can people get to
the antenna
• The more time the power
output is at a high level,
the higher the risk
• CW, Voice, RTTY
523
ƒ Controlled Environment
ƒ Uncontrolled Environment
524
525
Antenna Proximity
Antenna Proximity
• Controlled Environment
ƒ You know where people are
standing in relation to your
antenna and you can do
something about it
ƒ More power is allowed
because you can make
adjustments if needed
Mode and Duty Cycle
• The more time the
transmitted power is at high
levels, the greater the duty
cycle, and the greater the
exposure risk
• Uncontrolled Environment
ƒ You have no idea or control of
people near your antenna
ƒ Less power is allowed
because you have to assume
the worse case scenario
526
527
528
Mode and Duty Cycle
9-8
RF Exposure and Frequency
529
How much RF the body can
withstand without damage
• Body parts are like antennas absorb RF energy at certain
frequencies (wavelengths) more
efficiently
• RF exposure risk varies with
frequency
ƒ More caution is required at
some frequencies than others
Maximum Permissible Exposure
530
9-6
HF
VHF
&
UHF
531
Physical Safety
Copyrights and Distribution
• Mobile Installations
ƒ Secure all equipment
ƒ Location, location, location
• Antenna installation
ƒ Clear of trees and power lines
ƒ If it falls it won’
won’t hit anyone
or cross power lines
• Tower climbing considerations
9-11
As noted at the beginning of The ARRL Instructor's Manual,
this publication is copyrighted material.
Questions?
You are free to reproduce and distribute limited portions of
The ARRL Instructor's Manual or The ARRL Ham Radio
License Manual as needed for the purposes of instruction of
your class.
However, please do not scan or post copies of this material,
including photos, drawings and illustrations on the Web.
This would be considered an infringement of the provision
of the ARRL copyright.
532
533
Practice Exams
Please let me know if need to have
the exam read to you and allow
extra time
Must have SSN (card is not required)
or FRN
Must have Picture ID - Government,
Student, or parent with same last
name - School ID with picture will
work
Forms must be done in black or blue
ink (we will have pens)
February 14 Exam
• Please bring the following:
• 1) Picture ID or a DMV "child's ID"
which looks like a drivers license.
• On Line
• CD based
• How did you do?
OR a parent with the same last name
and address AND info that only a
parent would have such as a birth
certificate - parent ID IS NOT the
preferred ID
• What are you going to
do this week?
• 2) SSN
535
536
537
February 14 Exam
• If you hold any FCC license and have
a FRN please bring that also
• Such as GMRS
538
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