Bjorn Hautamaki_finalthesis

Bjorn Hautamaki_finalthesis
Björn Andreas Hautamäki
Analyzing the Requirements of a Reporting
Tool with Cognos BI 8
Företagsekonomi och turism
2009
2
VASA YRKESHÖGSKOLA
Utbildningsprogrammet för informationsbehandling
ABSTRAKT
Författare
Björn Hautamäki
Lärdomsprovets titel Analyzing the Requirements for a Reporting Tool with
Cognos BI 8
År
2009
Språk
Engelska
Sidantal
43 + 7 bilagor
Handledare
Kenneth Norrgård
Detta slutarbete är gjort åt Wärtsilä Corporation Information Management
avdelningen. Huvudmålet var att utforska användningsfall och data till ett rapport
verktyg for uppföljning av inköpsfakturor i SAP ERP system.
Den teoretiska delen baserar sej på boken: IBM Cognos 8 Business Intelligence,
The official guide av Dan Volitich, 2008. Samt även en kort introduction till SAP
Den praktiska delen av slutarbetet är skriven i ”Description of the present
situation” kapitlet. Resultatet för detta arbete är dokumenteting av användningsfall
samt krav specification av data vilket tillhör användningsallen.
Ämnesord
Business Intelligence, Cognos, SAP, Användningsfall, Data
3
VAASAN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES
Utbildningsprogrammet för informationsbehandling
ABSTRACT
Author
Björn Hautamäki
Title
Analyzing the Requirements for a Reporting Tool with 8
Year
2009
Language
English
Pages
43 + 7 Appendices
Name of Supervisor Kenneth Norrgård
This thesis was made for Wärtsilä Corporation Information management
department. The main goal for this was to investigate data requirements and
usecases for a possible reporting tool in Cognos that would report Purchase
Invoices from SAP ERP system.
The theoretical study was based on IBM Cognos 8 Business Intelligence, The
official guide, Dan Volitich 2008 about different aspects of Business Intelligence
and also a quick introduction to SAP.
The “Description of the present situation” chapter represents the practical study
for this thesis. The result wass an analyzing of use cases and the data requirements
for set the use cases.
Keywords
Data Requirements, SAP, Business Intelligence, Use Cases,
Cognos
4
Table of Contents
1
Introduction
1.1
Research problem and objectives
2
Wärtsilä Corporation
2.1.1 Ship Power
9
10
2.1.2 Power Plants
10
2.1.3 Service
10
2.2 Wärtsilä IM
10
Business Intelligence
3.1
Performance management with Cognos BI
12
12
3.1.1 What is performance management?
12
3.1.2 Measuring and monitoring
13
3.2.3 Reporting and analysis
13
3.2.4 Planning, budgeting, and forecasting
13
3.1.5. The IT perspective of business intelligence
15
3.1.3. The Business Intelligence perspective
17
Cognos Business reporting
4.2. Cognos User Roles
20
20
4.3.1 Cognos Non author roles
21
4.3.2 Remote Recipient
21
4.3.3 Recipient
21
4.3.4 Consumer
21
4.4.1 Cognos Connection and Cognos 8 Studios
22
4.4.2 Cognos Connection
22
4.4.3 Query Studio
22
4.4.4 Report Studio
23
4.4.5 Event Studio
23
4.4.6 Metric Studio
23
4.4.7 Analysis Studio
23
4.4.8 Summary
23
3
4
5 SAP
Figure 2 SAP R3 Main menu (http://developers.sun.com)
7
7
24
26
5.1. SAP Modules
26
5.1.1 FI module
27
5
6
5.1.2 MM module
27
5.2. SAP workflow
27
Description of the present situation
6.1
Introduction
30
30
6.2
IP
30
6.3
IP monitor tool/report functionality
31
6.3.1 Results
7 Data requirements
7.1 Use Cases
31
33
33
7.2 Use Cases, Case Wärtsilä
34
7.3 Use Cases, 1
34
7.3.1 Data requirements Use Case 1
35
7.4 Use Cases, 2
36
7.4.1 Data requirements Use Case 2
37
7.5 Use Case, 3
37
7.5.1 Data requirements Use Case 3
38
7.6 Use Case, 4
38
7.6.1 Data requirements Use Case 4
38
7.7 Use Case 5
39
7.7.1 Data requirements Use Case 5
39
8 Summary
8.1 Business Intelligence
41
41
Sources
Appendices
43
44
6
ABBREVIATIONS AND KEY CONCEPTS
IM
Information Management
WSSC
Wärtsilä Shared Service Centre
BI
Business Intelligence
CPM
Corporate Performance management
BPM
Business Performance management
ER-Scheme
Database entity relation scheme
SAP
Enterprise recourse planner application used
globally in Wärtsilä
WESAP
Modified version of SAP to suite Wärtsilä business
model
Maxflow
Modified version of Workflow configured for
WESAP
Basware IP
Tool for processing of purchase invoices developed
by Basware
SAP transaction
an application within SAP system
FICO Module
Finance and Control module in SAP
MM module
Materials Management module in SAP
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1
Introduction
This thesis has been made for Wärtsilä Corporation, more specifically Wärtsilä
Information Management, IM. Ms. Carina Nikko has been acting as my
supervisor at Wärtsilä IM and also as my closest superior during my employment.
Kenneth Norrgård has acted as my supervisor at Vaasa University of Applied
Sciences (VAMK).
This thesis was made during the time period of 1.June 2008-1.December2009.
During this time I was employed by Wärtsilä IM fulltime and later on an hourly
basis since 31 August 2008 until 01 October2009
1.1 Research problem and objectives
The reason for this research is to provide Wärstilä Shared Service Center(WSSC)
a report or tool for easy follow up of purchase invoices in the new SAP Workflow
environment which Wärtsilä is rolling out globally. In order to provide this, it is
necessary to
•
Investigate functionalities and use cases
•
Map the data in the SAP system database
•
Document use cases for the functionalities for Wärtsilä business reporting
program
It is important to note at this point that the objective in this thesis it is not to make
the report/tool in question, only to provide the above data and information in order
for Wärtsilä to make such a report if it is decided to do so internally by Wärtsilä.
There are several different transactions for follow up of invoices in SAP
Workflow environment at the moment. Users that have previously been using IP
(Basware Invoice Processing ) tools for purchase invoice handling have requested
to have a report or tool similar to the IP Monitor tool by Basware. IP Monitor is
used as an analysis and reporting tool. IP Monitor has a diverse selection of search
criteria for retrieving invoices and reports. Instead of having different SAP
8
transactions it would be less time consuming to have a purpose built tool or report
with same functionalities as IP Monitor.
Not having this is a bottle neck for controllers during, for example, monthly
closing procedures as well as end of the year closing procedures and also for
vendor invoice administrators and other accountants in the account payable team
when following up invoices in the SAP system on regular basis.
9
2
Wärtsilä Corporation
“We enhance the business of our customers by providing them with lifecycle
power solutions. When creating better and environmentally compatible
technologies, we focus on the marine and energy markets. We provide ship power
solutions and flexible power plants with related services to our customers. Trough
innovative products and services, we set out to be the most valued business
partner of all our customers. This is achieved by the dedication of more than
17,000 professionals manning 160 locations in 70 countries around the world.
Wärtsilä is listed on the Nordic Exchange in Helsinki, Finland.” (Wartsila.com
2008)
Figure 1 Wärtsilä Corporation Structure (wartsila.com 2008)
The policy of Wärtsilä is that I cannot use information other than the information
published on www.wartsila.com or presentations for external use. Information
from intranets can not be used. Also not any other documentation that has a lot of
Wärtsilä specific information with out any approval or without omitting certain
information.
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2.1.1 Ship Power
“Wärtsilä is the leading provider of ship power solutions including engines,
generating sets, reduction gears, propulsion equipment, automation and power
distribution systems as well as sealing solutions for the marine industry. Our
customer are the global or local leading companies within the merchant, offshore,
cruise and ferry, navy and special vessel segments. We command a strong
position in all main marine segments as a supplier of highly rated ship machinery
and systems.” (wartsila.com 2008)
2.1.2 Power Plants
“Wärtsilä is a leading supplier of flexible power plants for the decentralized
power generation market. We offer solutions for baseload power generation, grid
stability & peaking, industrial self-generation as well as for the oil and gas
industry. Technology leadership, a strong and broad product portfolio, high
efficiency and fuel flexibility, plus the ability to offer complete turnkey deliveries
worldwide puts us in a unique position in the power plants markets.”(wartsila.com
2008)
2.1.3 Service
“Wärtsilä supports its customers throughout the lifecycle of their installations by
optimizing efficiency and performance. We provide the broadest portfolio and
best services in the industry for both ship power and power plants. We offer
expertise, proximity and responsiveness for all customers regardless of their
equipment make in the most environmentally sound way.” (wartsila.com 2008)
2.2 Wärtsilä IM
Wärtsilä IM – is short for Information Management which a unit within Wärtsilä
Corporation that provides information management related services for the
Wärtsilä Corporation globally.
Services that Wärtsilä IM provides are:
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•
Business Information
•
Business Intelligence
•
Processes
•
Infrastructure
•
Applications
•
IM Programme and Project Management
•
User Support
•
Communication and Office Support Services
•
Security Management
(Wärtsilä IM Presentation for external use, 2009)
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3
Business Intelligence
The theoretical section of this thesis consists of different perspectives of business
intelligence such as the IT perspective, and also an introduction to Cognos
Business Intelligence 8.0 software main functionality and concepts. Also a short
introduction to SAP and SAP workflow as the practical part will involve both
software.
3.1 Performance management with Cognos BI
Performance
management,
business
performance
management,
corporate
performance management, business intelligence, all these terms is a way to
measure and manage performance in a working organisation.
IBM Cognos 8 Business Intelligence (BI) is a technology that supports
performance management by providing better visibility in business performance.
In order for Cognos 8 implementation to provide maximum benefit to your
organization, the organization has to understand BI to change the way in which
decisions are made. The more your organization is aligned with the performance
management objectives and willing to change, the more significant the impact.
(Volitich 2008, 3)
3.1.1 What is performance management?
Business Performance Management (BPM) is a set of processes that helps
organizations optimize their business performance. It is a framework for
organizing, automating, and analyzing the business methodologies, metrics,
processes, and systems that drive business performance. BPM helps businesses
efficiently use their financial, human, material, and other resources. Organizations
may take components of the performance management spectrum and deliver
solutions specific to the business area seeking better decision-making.
Performance management then can be the next generation of BI. Corporate
performance management (CPM) has been defined as “a set of processes that help
organizations optimize their business performance. The Cognos 8 Solution
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comprises three coordinated segments of performance management. (Volitich
2008, 6)
3.1.2 Measuring and monitoring
Businesses seek the answer to “How are we doing?” Most people find the answers
to this question by going to a number of different sources or tools. They pick up
the phone, send e-mails, review the last presentation, and check spreadsheets.
Some companies have home-grown systems or tools that are focused on the
executive level. The answers get pulled together from various sources and are
often manually entered into tools and results and statistics are created accordingly.
(Volitich 2008, 4)
3.2.3 Reporting and analysis
Decision makers want to find answers to the question “Why?” In most
organizations, this means consulting a number of reports and analysis tools to pull
together a picture of why they are on or off track. Analysis tools use a variety of
systems and pool data to get the answers. It sometimes requires calling on an IT
department to understand elements of the puzzle, when did this happen? Was it
consistent across the board or limited to a couple of regions? Was it all products
or just a few? Answers to these questions, and likely many others, are found via
data analysis that is used to identify trends, high or low performance, and a deeper
understanding through greater insight to the data. (Volitich 2008, 4)
3.2.4 Planning, budgeting, and forecasting
Plan for the future and identify a reliable means to gather that plan across your
organization. The answer to “What should we be doing?” begins with planning
where you want to go. It is the process of allocating resources to achieve goals
with planning, budgeting, and forecasting and includes making course corrections
when changes occur to reallocate resources. Companies often do not have such
plans in place. In most companies, these answers come from thousands of
individually created spreadsheets. (Volitich 2008, 5)
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The questions How?, What?, and Why? can be mapped to the Cognos 8 software
that enables and automates answers such as scorecards and dashboards for “How
are we doing?” and reports and analyses for “Why”?. The challenge with BI in
many organizations is that the tools have grown up regionally and functionally,
creating a patchwork of different applications and tools. The result is that, from a
business user perspective, the organization ends up with different interfaces,
different time periods, and even gaps in information, creating a lack of confidence
in the numbers. (Volitich 2008, 5)
One critical factor is the decisions made throughout the organization from top to
bottom and across functions and divisions. All those decisions are based on the
information on hand, and they depend on the accuracy, timeliness, and
completeness of the information. You have to identify where your organization
can make the greatest benefit, and begin to plan your initial phase of the business
performance journey. (Volitich 2008, 5)
As companies dig through data looking for answers, it becomes clear that they
need a means to gain insight from this information. But don’t be fooled—
selecting some cool technology that will yield great graphs and highly formatted
reports will not necessarily solve this problem. The tools are only part of the
solution. Many companies make the mistake of thinking that the tools will solve
data problems when the single largest challenge is not the tools, infrastructure, or
data, but actually the people. Organizations need to ask themselves the following
questions:
•
Do we have the people and culture that truly understand our business and
who are willing to make fact-based, not gut-based, decisions? Fact-based
decisions do not always “feel good.”
•
Do we have the process and methodology that will take what we have
learned from our BI insight and apply it to new business decisions and
processes?
•
Will our culture enable, embrace, and execute change?
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Answers to these questions require executive input, executive direction, and a
commitment to the plan for execution. More important, if the answer to the
questions is “No,” then save your budget, time, and do not embark on a business
intelligence journey. Should that be the choice made, the company should also
know that the competition is likely figuring out how to gain a competitive
advantage. The competition will do this through insights to their market,
customers, and profits. (Volitich 2008, 5 - 6)
3.1.5. The IT perspective of business intelligence
“From an IT perspective, implementing and maintaining a host of different tools
can be inefficient and expensive. It costs money, it takes time, it requires people,
and it has significant inefficiencies. Resources or report objects cannot be shared,
and you need a helpdesk for every tool or class of users. Businesses often seek
assistance from IT to find the answer to these problems, to make the solution easy
to use, to leverage applications which are easy to maintain, and most importantly,
to solve the problems. Businesses seek the “big button” that they can press to get
what they want. IT gets a new project, evaluates tools, writes up the request for
proposal (RFP), sends it out to vendors, and then months later claims they have
done what they were asked to do.” (Volitich 2008, 6)
However, the business has not adopted the solution and finds that it is still using
different spreadsheets. The project is deemed successful by IT, but a failure by the
business because the manual processes are still in place and the business is
spending huge amounts of time trying to solve the same problems that existed
prior to IT’s decision for a solution. This can be avoided.
Countless experts have made statements on the value of BI in the market and how
“good data” is required to make BI successful. The IT department is tasked with
participation in a BI solution because the huge amount of data that the company
has collected need to be organized in a manner that can be presented to the
business executives. IT has been responsible in most global and small/medium
business markets for gathering the operational data. IT has built sophisticated
systems that enable organizations to collect information from all parts of business,
16
and companies have evolved from legacy systems to enterprise resource planning
(ERP) to help make use of data to increase knowledge and profitability. (Volitich
2008, 6)
Because IT has been in charge of the data collection, it has usually been viewed
by business as the owners of the data. And because the resources that collect the
data must be knowledgeable about the organization of that data, they have built
and taken ownership of the systems that house the data. While the talent and
resources necessary to manage data are significant, business units are created to
specialize in data. (Volitich 2008, 6)
But how does one know that the data being collected can be used to improve
performance for tomorrow, next quarter, next year, or five years from now? More
importantly, have insights been made into “how” data is collected so that it can be
transformed into usable information by typically non-technical business users?
These questions can be challenging to answer because IT often does not
understand why the business cannot understand the information they have
provided. (Volitich 2008, 6)
Because business intelligence (BI) solutions bring use of “information” together
with business performance, we need a bridge that will give IT comfort that the
information they are gathering for the business is accurate and that will provide
the business with the confidence that the “information” can be used easily to make
important decisions. (Volitich 2008, 6)
To use this information, IT has to be able to provide “good data.” IT must use
strict data planning that provides, for example, a common definition of a customer
and clean delivery of that definition as defined within the business. (Volitich
2008, 6)
The following is a business case used as an example in the IBM Cognos 8
Business Intelligence, The official guide by Dan Volitich.
Business Case example:
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“At a client site, we were charged with the deployment of a data warehouse for
sales and market forecasting. When we pulled the data from their point-of-sale
(POS) system, the data contained multiple instances of customer names,
misspelled customer names, and varying opinions about whose responsibility it
was to clean them up. The client knew this problem existed in their data, but a
manual process of correcting the problems in a spreadsheet versus in the data
source masked the insight to their business that was really needed to make
informed decisions about the product mix. The lesson in such a case is to make
sure a solid plan is in place so that data can be easily maintained as necessary—
this will benefit the organization as a whole, and you may become an IT hero
along the way.” (Volitich 2008, 7)
“It is always important to work with your business to understand the benefit of
your role in the BI journey. This is not an “IT versus Business User” undertaking.
If you attack it that way, the project will fail. Do not take it personally if the
business requires IT to change or add a field in the database or the DBA is asked
to adjust the access rights to the data.” (Volitich 2008, 8)
“Educate yourselves and ask for help from a trusted source who has embarked on
this journey before, even if you partner with them for a short time. We have a
saying in our organization when getting new resources up to speed: “It is always
easier the tenth time.” This does not mean that it takes 10 times to get it right; it
means we have potentially found ways that are clearly not right before nailing the
right one” (Volitich 2008, 8)
3.1.3. The Business Intelligence perspective
“Have you ever balanced your checkbook after writing your monthly financial
obligations and thought that you should adjust your budget so that you have more
cushion from month to month? How do you adjust to a shortage in your
checkbook? In essence, you adjust your monthly plan, knowing that if you do not,
you will fall short on next month’s obligations. Businesses are the same.”
(Volitich 2008, 8)
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Businesses have to have a solid plan with visibility so they know where they are
going and if they need to “adjust.” Also, they need to have ability to see “why”
the business might need to adjust. For example, a new product line might be
exceeding sales expectations, now the organization may need to adjust its supply
chain so that it can have adequate inventory to full fill orders. In doing so,
managing cash becomes critical to such growth and so on. (Volitich 2008, 8)
“How does BI help with all of this? BI provides high-level checks and balances
that allow a business to react to resolve problems or priority changes. Because IT
controls the data and monitors the data integrity, they are often tasked with the
selection and implementation of the data warehousing solution. Sometimes, IT
departments build requirements without talking with the users and understanding
their needs. For companies with healthy BI processes, BI becomes a bridge
between IT and the business. Business users have visibility and insight into the
technical details behind the business, and the IT engineers gain an understanding
of the business drivers and issues. In addition, if users are given permission to
create reports, IT’s workload lessens and business users have access to what they
need, when they need it.” (Volitich 2008, 8)
A business intelligence solution is safe. All data extracted from a data source is
organized and wrapped within a security package. The data in the data source
cannot be touched, edited, or destroyed. Business users may have a lot of data to
thrash through using Microsoft Excel, but where does that data come from?
Usually, IT extracts the data from a database to a file format that Excel can
understand. Before you know it, you might have multiple spreadsheets containing
multiple versions of the same data. Who owns the correct data? In this case an
automated process would be better for the user? What does the data mean? Using
a business intelligence solution, you can analyze what is happening in your
business.
You have heard that customer complaints are increasing. Using dashboards, you
are able to see that the number of calls coming into the data centre is higher than
normal. A Dashboard is a collection of different kinds of statistics which can give
users and easy to understand and see an overview of different situations the
19
company is in at a certain moment. For example as you drill-through the
dashboard, the results show that shipments have not been leaving the plant on
time.
Upon further drill-through, you see that one of the largest machines in the plant
has not produced your company’s product for more than a week. A phone call to
that department indicates that the machine is under repair. The business
intelligence solution brings a level of validity to performance measurements and a
basis upon which to make adjustments. This kind of statistics is hard to argue
against and can give accurate numbers. They are what they are and business have
to be able to adjust it self to make corrections. (Volitich 2008, 8 - 9)
20
4
Cognos Business reporting
4.2. Cognos User Roles
Typically, an organization’s employees comprise executives, financial accounting
staff, IT architects, IT developers, sales managers, part/product managers, and so
on. Each employee has a specific role in a specific segment of the organization
and the need to access data to support that role. Sometimes, he or she may need to
view data from within and across organizational segments to make decisions,
understand trends, or view performance statistics. Certain data is protected, such
as financials, and only those with a need to know are granted access. (Volitich
2008, 25)
When implementing Cognos 8 application, you must keep users needs in mind.
Does the user need to be able to interact with the data and modify it or is the
ability to only view the data enough? Will the user review the same information
month after month, or does the user need to create own reports during the month
to keep track of the company’s progress? Does the user need simply to view data
or run reports? The answers to these questions determine how you will configure
the Cognos 8 license roles in which you have invested. (Volitich 2008, 25)
These questions also help you to determine which Cognos 8 studio will be made
available to the user. If a user reviews information monthly and does not need to
create reports, you can assign the Recipient role, which allows the user to view
reports created by another member of the organization. If the user needs to drillthrough the data to create reports or scorecards, assign that user a role that
provides access to one or more of Cognos 8 studios, such as Query Studio, Report
Studio, or Metric Studio. (Volitich 2008, 25)
Cognos 8 user roles are grouped according to the amount of control the user
should have over the application. The first grouping, non-author roles, allows
users access to reports generated from Cognos 8 via various mechanisms such as
e-mail, a portal, or direct access to a studio. The second grouping, author roles,
allows users to create reports using one or more studios. Also, discussed within
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author roles are the administration roles of the BI Professional and the BI
Administrator. (Volitich 2008, 25 – 26)
4.3.1 Cognos Non author roles
Cognos 8 has three non-author roles that provide all users with the ability to view
stored reports, and in the case of the consumer, to run reports. The three roles are
the Remote Recipient, Recipient, and Consumer. (Volitich 2008, 26)
4.3.2 Remote Recipient
As a Remote Recipient, you can receive reports that have been generated by
Cognos 8 and that have been released to you through various outlets (such as email, wireless devices, or paper). Users can view reports without access to any
Cognos software. (Volitich 2008, 26)
4.3.3 Recipient
As a Recipient, you have access to the Cognos Connection portal to select and
view stored reports. Additionally, you can set the default language, time zone, and
other personal preferences in Cognos Connection. You can view the same reports
that Remote Recipients can, but you can view them directly on the portal.
(Volitich 2008, 26)
4.3.4 Consumer
Consumers have access to the Cognos Connection portal to select and view stored
reports in the same way that the Recipient does. As a Consumer, you can consume
any content in Cognos Connection by running reports, responding to prompts, and
scheduling reports. Additionally, you can consume report output inside the
Microsoft Office environment with the IBM Cognos 8 Go! Office component.
This allows you to access your business intelligence (BI) content directly from
your Microsoft document. You can receive Event Studio notifications (such as
status changes, updates about priority customers. Also it is possible to set
22
preferences and create folders in the Cognos Connection portal. (Volitich 2008,
27)
4.4.1 Cognos Connection and Cognos 8 Studios
All of the roles discussed in this chapter, with the exception of the Remote
Recipient, give you access to Cognos Connection. The studios to which you have
access depends on the role you have been assigned. Each role allows different
access rights. Using Query Studio, Report Studio, Event Studio, Metric Studio,
and Analysis Studio, you can create purpose built reports, detailed reports, and
notifications based on data, and you can monitor and analyze your data. (Volitich
2008, 34)
4.4.2 Cognos Connection
Cognos Connection is the web portal by which users access Cognos 8 and the
studios.Depending on the role that you have been assigned, you can use the
Cognos Connection portal to retrieve, view, publish, manage, and organize your
organization’s reports, scorecards. The Administrator also uses the Cognos
Connection portal to establish roles and user permissions and manage the Cognos
Connection content. All Cognos Connection users can personalize how Cognos
Connection displays for them. Users can modify personal preferences, such as the
language and regional settings. They can also change the format (PDF, Excel,
HTML) in which they receive content, such as queries, reports, and analyses.
(Volitich 2008, 34 - 35 )
4.4.3 Query Studio
Query Studio, is an easy to use authoring tool with which you can quickly create
simple queries from the data stored in your database without having the skills of a
professional report writer. With Querq Studio, you can view, filter, sort, and
format the data; modify the query layout; and add charts. The content can be
saved and shared with other people in your organization. (Volitich 2008, 35 -36)
23
4.4.4 Report Studio
With Report Studio, you can create and format reports easily using two authoring
modes: the Professional authoring mode and the Express authoring mode. The
difference between these modes lies in the functionality they provide in Report
Studio. (Volitich 2008, 36)
4.4.5 Event Studio
“With Event Studio, you can establish a threshold or assign a specific event that
sends a notification to the decision makers in your organization. You create agents
that monitor your thresholds or event, and when the threshold is reached or event
occurs, the agent sends the notification. Notifications can include an e-mail,
adding information to the portal or running reports.” (Volitich 2008, 37)
4.4.6 Metric Studio
With Metric Studio, you can monitor and analyze your organization’s business
metrics by creating a scorecarding environment. Metric Studio allows you to
establish criteria and then monitor your organization to see how it is responding as
the criteria changes. (Volitich 2008, 38)
4.4.7 Analysis Studio
Analysis Studio, enables business users to get fast answers to business questions
so the organization can better understand product, customer, and organizational
needs to react swiftly and stay ahead of the competition. Analysis Studio is best
for exploring information in multiple dimensions and for deep comparative
analysis. (Volitich 2008, 39)
4.4.8 Summary
In a summary, the performance management journey will require planning,
corporate commitment, and technical perseverance. The most successful
organizations that have deployed BI and then progressed to a strategic
24
performance management driven enterprise have initiated best practice
deployment and clear measurement of their success.
Align business and technology objectives closely. Its good to remember that the
whole organisation will benefit in a well-performing company. Insight to that
performance is critical and will enable the company to make adjustments as
necessary quicker, better, and faster than the competition.
The
internal (and
external) clients depend on a proficient means to get the information they need to
make sound, well-supported decisions.
25
5 SAP
SAP R/3 is the former name of the main enterprise resource planning software
produced by SAP AG. It was renamed SAP ERP. It was later renamed Enterprise
Central Component or ECC. It is an "enterprise resource planning" package,
software used to organize effectively the resources (capital, human resources,
machinery, etc..) of an organization. SAP R/3 is a client/server based application,
utilizing a 3-tiered model. A presentation layer, or client, interfaces with the user.
The application layer houses all the business-specific logic, and the database layer
records and stores all the information about the system, including transactional
and configuration data. SAP R/3 functionality is structured using its own
proprietary
language
called
ABAP
(Advanced
Business
Application
Programming).
ABAP, or ABAP/4 is a fourth generation language (4GL), geared towards the
creation of simple, yet powerful programs. R/3 also offers a complete
development environment where developers can either modify existing SAP code
to modify existing functionality or develop their own functions, whether reports or
complete transactional systems within the SAP framework.ABAP's main
interaction with the database system is via Open SQL statements. These
statements allow a developer to query, update, or delete information from the
database. Advanced topics include GUI development and advanced integration
with other systems. With the introduction of ABAP Objects, ABAP provides the
opportunity to develop applications with object-oriented programming. (SAP
Help Portal.2007)
26
Figure 2 SAP R3 Main menu (http://developers.sun.com)
5.1. SAP Modules
In this small chapter I will give info about the SAP modules that this thesis mainly
concerns. There are several more SAP modules, however not all have to be
implemented for SAP to be useful in a company. Below are the most used
modules listed, however there are more.
•
SD module, Sales and distribution
•
PS module, Project systems
•
HR module, Human resources
•
CO module, Control
(SAP Help Portal.2007)
27
5.1.1 FI module
Designed for automated management and external reporting of general ledger,
accounts receivable, accounts payable and other sub-ledger accounts with a user
defined chart of accounts. As entries are made relating to sales production and
payments journal entries are automatically posted. This connection means that the
"books" are designed to reflect the real situation. (SAP Help Portal.2007)
5.1.2 MM module
Sap MM module is short for Materials management. Materials management is
used for procurement and inventory management. The module has two important
master data - material and vendor. Broadly, the various levels that can be defined
for a SAP MM implementation are: Client, Company Code, Plant, Storage
Location and Purchase Organization. SAP MM is all about managing the
materials i.e the resources of an organization. These resources include men,
manpower and materials. The main functionality within MM includes purchasing,
Inventory management. (SAP Help Portal.2007)
5.2. SAP workflow
SAP Workflow ensures "the right work is brought in the right sequence at the
right time to the right people". It is a tool designed to facilitate and automate
business processes that requires tasks to be performed by people. Ideal for casual
or non-SAP users, since all the work items can be performed outside of SAP by
simply responding to an email, SAP workflow can be linked to Microsoft Outlook
or Lotus Notes. Each step of a business transaction can be easily monitored and
processes are completed from the beginning to the end. Workflow allows process
owners to keep an eye on deadlines, provides statistics on the length of time to
complete work processes, determine the workload with regard to individual
employees and save processing time. (Insight Consulting Partners.2001)
“The workflow definition is a set of rules that determine the path that the process
takes” For example how an invoice document is processed from the initial
creation until the document is completed for payment.
28
“The workflow instance, which is often simply refered to as the workflow, is a
single workflow run. For example, the processing of a single purchase requisition
for computers” The tasks are the steps in the process, which have to be performed
by either people or automatically by the software. For example to check for the
availability of the spare computers in a company.” (SAP Technical.2006)
“A work item is the task instance that is performed as a single workflow step for
example, check that there are no spare computers available in the company” (SAP
Technical.2006)
“Agents are the people who process the tasks(via the work items). “ (SAP
Technical.2006)
Figure 3 below will illustrate a simple workflow process.
29
Figure 3 Sap technical.com.2008. www.scribd.com)
The above example is a simple workflow containing one decision, and approval or
rejection. This workflow will in either case send end user an e-mail notification of
the approval or rejection.
Although the advantages gained by using workflow are not of financial nature, the
time saved by optimizing processes could easily be translated into money. - The
quality of your processes will be assured by sending relevant information directly
to the user. Managers don't have the time to search for information.
30
6
Description of the present situation
6.1 Introduction
The present situation in Wärtsilä purchase invoice handling process is that most of
Wärtsilä countries have started to use SAP workflow in processing of purchase
invoices in Wärtsilä. Only in OY Wärtsilä Finland AB is Basware (IP) solution in
use. Companies that have previously been using IP and have now moved over to
use SAP environment have stated that a similar tool or report to the IP monitor
application is needed. The Monitor tool has been very useful in the following up
of invoices in the IP system. IP Monitor has a very diverse search function which
is mostly used. IP monitor enables you to search by almost all invoice data as
search criteria. IP monitor shows also a flow log specific to each invoice, whit this
user can se if other users have received the invoice during the approval process
and also see comments. IP monitor has been praised for its easy to understand
user interface also by users.
In the SAP Workflow environment you can also search by most invoice data,
however there is at the moment no single transaction that can search by all data.
This has to be done with many different transactions which is considered a bottle
neck in closing periods and also in daily work for Vendor Invoice Administrators
and other accountants at WCCS.
6.2 IP
Invoice Processing (IP) system consists of a group of tools developed by Basware.
These are
•
IP Fast Scan Client, for scanning paper invoices
•
IP Master, for booking costs
•
IP Client, for Approving invoices in approval flow
•
Monitor, IP Monitor is used as an analysis and reporting tool. Monitor has
a diverse selection of search criteria for retrieving invoices and reports.
31
The IP solution has been in use in, Wärtsilä Corporation, Wärtsilä Deutschland
and in Switzerland, and is still in use in Wärtsilä Finland partly. It is to be noted
that IP monitor does not allow users to make any kind of changes to invoices, it is
only used for viewing and following up.
“IP was slow, but it was easy to handle compared with SAP MaxFlow.” (Klemens
Kaufmann WCH Business Controll, 2008)
6.3 IP monitor tool/report functionality
IP monitor users and previous users around Wärtsilä have been interviewed by me
to find out what functionalities IP monitor users mostly use. This was done in
order for specifying the functionalities to the future tool for the Maxflow
environment. In the interview I wanted to know
•
the main usage if IP monitor
•
Specific reports during different time periods
•
Queries
•
Statistics
6.3.1 Results
The main functionality that was pointed out during interviews with different
Wärtsilä businesses was invoice search by Invoice basic data. Invoce basic data
consists mostly information about the following data:
•
Vendor Number
•
Invoice Number
•
Dates( Invoice date, entry date), Date ranges
•
Cost objects (Cost center, WBS element, Order, SAP Purchase order
number)
•
Invoice Sum total
•
Voucher Number
Data for statistic purpose to be able to se the “big picture”
•
Amount of invoices in system
32
•
Amount of invoices/Company/Business Unit/User
•
Unapproved invoices
•
Order related/not order related invoices
Invoice log
•
Creator
•
Approver
•
Time, for how log invoice has been processed/user
33
7 Data requirements
The reporting tool that Wärtsilä Corporation uses is Cognos Business intelligence.
To be able to construct the report a specification of the data requirements had to
be made for the Cognos business reporting. All the data needed for the report is in
the SAP internal databases of the different SAP modules, FICO module and MM
module. To locate the data I have used the FICO module and MM module
database ER-scheme. Together with the schemes I have searched trough the the
databases with the SAP Data browser ( SAP transaction SE16) and mapped the
table names and fields with the required data. Some additional data tables outside
of the MM and FICO module were also used such as master data tables for
example vendor information.
Within the data requirements specification all fields in the report has to be
mapped. As described in Use Case one the search criteria have to be mapped to
SAP table and table field. Also whether they are attributes or measurements. An
attribute is a value of a property such as a vendor number “1234” and a
measurement is a property that is measured such as time. Also important is to
specify is if the reporting fiels includes a calculation or other business logic. A
good example of this is the “Due Date” field. Due date is created by the
calculation Invoice date + Payment term.
For the full details of the data
requirements map in appendix 3 to 7
7.1 Use Cases
Within Wärtsilä, business reporting requirements should be described with use
cases. What is a use case? Use case describes a business process or procedure,
which is used by its business actors (people or systems) to achieve their goals.
The use case will describe a process that provides value to the business actor, and
it describes what the process does.
In Business Reporting projects the main target of using use cases is not to follow
in detail the official use case definitions or focus on the correctness of
documentation. More important is to identify that there are different use cases
34
related to certain information need and focus the discussion more on real business
needs behind the reports.
Use case should represent one specific information need. Often one report is one
use case, but not always. Sometimes there are several different use cases for the
same report, if the report is used for satisfying different needs of different user
groups. Typically for each use case there is only one user group. If there are
several user groups, it might mean that there are several use cases. However
sometimes it is valid to deal them as part of a same use case. There is no one
correct answer when to create a separate use case. Use cases will be used as a base
for test cases in user validation tests, so they should be used to validate whether
the deliverable (report, cube etc.) full fills the business needs or not.
7.2 Use Cases, Case Wärtsilä
For this investigation I have created five different use cases that will cover the
functionalities for this report. The first two use cases are very similar as they both
cover the most important aspect of this report, the invoice search by basic data
and cost objects or Purchase order number. More details on these are in the next
heading. Use cases three and four are more for a statistical purpose. Use Case
three is to get a view of the status of the invoice, for example are the invoices in
parked status or posted and completed for payment. Use case four is to get a view
of the total amount of invoices per Wärtsilä company or Business unit, as some of
the Wärtsilä companies are also devided into smaller units. This is also covered.
The final use case is to get a log of who has started the workflow and participated
in the approval process. And what actions have been taken and how long all steps
in he approval flow have taken. Ability to view inserted comments on work items.
These is an estimated total of 500 users that would be using this report, the
amount will most likely increase as the company grows.
7.3 Use Cases, 1
Use case one is very similar to use case two. These two use cases are the majority
of this report as they both cover the retrieval of invoices that match specific search
35
criteria. Use Case one is the retrieval of FI invoices. In SAP there can be two main
invoice types. Invoices with SAP Purchase Order (PO) number and invoices
without Purchase order number. Invoices without PO number are the FI invoices.
These FI invoices are located in the SAP finance and control module (FI/CO).
The purpose of use case one is the search of FI invoices with different search
criteria. The main search criteria are invoice basic data such as:
•
Customer or vendor number,
•
Invoice date
•
Due date
•
Invoice sum total
•
SAP document number
•
Status
Also important are invoice line items, such as
•
G/L Account (general ledger)
•
WBS element
•
SAP Project number
•
Cost center
•
Order number
The actors in these use cases are mainly Vendor Invoice Administrators, company
controllers and business controllers and assistant controllers and other
accountants. The frequency of the use case is estimated to be on hourly basis.
(Appendix 1)
7.3.1 Data requirements Use Case 1
In the SAP FI module databases the invoice basic data is in a Header table
(BKPF) within the FI module ER-scheme. The Line Item data is connected to
Line Items table (BSEG or VBSGS) with the SAP FI document number.
36
Depending on which status the document has is the SAP workflow approval flow
where the line items are located in another table within the FI module. In SAP
workflow an invoice document can be in “Parked” status or “Posted”. Parked
means that the document in still in the approval flow and can be modified. When a
document is considered to be correct it will be completed and document status
will be changed to “Posted”. Posted documents are ready for payment and cannot
be deleted as such, only nullified by credit note. In this use case there are only two
calculation fields. The first is Document status with two options. Parked or
Posted. This has a significant impact on the data requirements as the line items are
located in different tables as described earlier.
The other calculation is the due date which is calculated by adding payment term
to document date. For example, invoice date is 1.1.2009 and the vendor has a
payment term of 30 days. Then 1.1 + 30 days will be the due date. It would also
be preferable to have a counter in the reporting tool (Cognos) to count the amount
of hits for the specific search. The user number is estimated to be about 500 users.
This is however difficult to predict in an global and still growing company. For
details see Appendix 3 and 4
7.4 Use Cases, 2
The second use case is for retrieving MM invoices with given search criteria. The
MM invoices are located in the SAP MM module. MM is shot for Materials
Management. The MM invoice documents has a SAP Purchase Order number.
(PO). The purpose of this Use Case is to be able to search for invoices with
invoice basic data such as:
•
customer or vendor number,
•
Invoice date
•
Due date
•
Invoice sum total
•
SAP PO Number
Also Purchase Order line items can be used for the search:
37
•
PO Number
•
Item details
The actors in this use cases are mainly Vendor invoice administrators, company
controllers and business controllers and assistant controllers. The user number is
the same as for other use cases which was estimated to about 500 persons.
(Details Appendix 2)
7.4.1 Data requirements Use Case 2
In the SAP MM module databases the invoice “Basic Data” is in a Header table
(RBKP) within the MM module ER-scheme. The purchase order line item data is
in SAP table RSEG In MM module all information is in the same table and not in
different depending on document status as in the FI module. Document status are
similar to the FI module, either “Parked” or “Posted”. For details see appendix 6
and 7.
7.5 Use Case, 3
Use cases three and four are for statistical purpose to get an overview of the
invoice situation during for example monthly closings and other closing periods.
Use Case three is more specific to get a view of the status of the invoice. i.e. are
the invoices in parked status or posted and completed for payment?
Being able to view this will give a view of how many invoices are overdue or left
unprocessed after quarter closing, month ends and year ends. It would also be
preferable to have a counter in the reporting tool (Cognos) to count the number of
hits for the specific search.
The actors in this use case are mainly Vendor invoice administrators, company
controllers and business controllers and assistant controllers, the user number is
the same as for other use cases which was estimated to about 500 persons. For
details see appendix 1 and2.
38
7.5.1 Data requirements Use Case 3
The data requirements for use case three is the same as for use case one and two.
Since this use case is a use case of retrieval of invoices that match certain search
criteria, there are no specific data requirements demand. The most important data
fields are:
•
Invoice status, to determine in which status invoice is in approval flow.
•
Due date. To determine id invoices are overdue
•
Company code. To be able to search per Wärtsilä Company
This search has to be able function in both MM and FI module. It would also be
preferable to have a counter in the reporting tool (Cognos) to count amount the of
hits for the specific search. For details see appendix 3,4 and 6
7.6 Use Case, 4
Use case four is more specific to get a view of the total amount of invoices per
Wärtsilä Company and also even broken down to a business unit level for
companies that uses business units.
The actors in this use case are mainly Vendor invoice administrators, company
controllers and business controllers and assistant controllers, the user amount is
the same as for other use cases which was estimated to about 500 persons.For
more details see appendix 1 and 2.
7.6.1 Data requirements Use Case 4
Use case four is also about the retrieval of invoices with specific search criteria.
The data requirements are covered in use cases one and two as the search options
includes company code selection which would be needed to be able to retrieve
documents per company code. It would be preferable to have a counter in the
reporting tool (Cognos) to count the amount of hits for the specific search in order
to get a view of the invoice situation.
39
7.7 Use Case 5
Use Case five is to get a log of who has started the workflow and participated in
the different steps that occure in he approval process of a specific invoice. Also to
be able to view what actions have been taken and how long all steps in he
approval flow have taken and also to learn how long the whole process has taken
in total. During the approval process there is a possibility for users to insert
comments to the work item. There should be an ability to view these as well.
The actors in this use case are mainly Vendor invoice administrators, company
controllers and business controllers and assistant controllers. It would also be
preferable to have a counter in the reporting tool (Cognos) to count the number of
hits for the specific search. In the SAP workflow itself there is no built in log
other than a technical log which unfortunatelly is not very useful for end users but
more for the system support. However, this would still be considered as
something useful in invoice processing in general. For more details see appendix
1 and 2.
7.7.1 Data requirements Use Case 5
As mentioned earlier there is no built in log for invoice documents, other than a
technical log which unfortunately is not very useful for end users but more for the
system support. This makes it difficult to collect the data requitements for this use
case. However the data requirements which I have managed to collect so far are
based upon the Workflow technical log.
The data requirements for use case five are taken from SAP table SWWWIHEAD,
which is a SAP workflow table for work items. Work items are used in the SAP
Workflow to execute the individual steps of a workflow as mentioned in section
3.2 of this thesis. “Work items are subdivided into work item types. Every work
item type characterizes a specific type of execution of the work item and controls
the internal editing processes. The type of a work item decides on the permitted
status and status transitions.
40
In SAP workflow every document has a so called top level work item and below it
are all the individual work items for the document, therefore, by knowing the
document number and top level work item we can list all the work items related to
specified
documents.
There
are
custom
Workflow
tables
such
as
/GRZ/MFL_FRGKPF from where document number and top level work items can
be found that are related to SWWWIHEAD table which contains document work
items. Unfortunatelly, this will still not be enough data for a log.
Example illustration:
Document Nr
•
Top level Work Item
o Work Item
o Work Item
o Work Item
For more detail see appendix 5.
41
8 Summary
To summarize this thesis I can conclude that “Use Cases” are a good way to
explain functionalities in a computer system or an application. The end users of an
application dos not necessarily want to read or view any technical documentation
with a lot of terms, they are more interested in the end result. Hence, use cases can
be used to describe in a non technical way how the end result is achieved when
the end user is integrating with the application. Weather it is a question about an
complex application or a report use cases offer a good way to apply and describe
functionalities.
However, even if one would want to describe functionalities in a very down to
earth and non technical way, there is a need for more technical documentation for
the developers of applications and other responsible persons. In this thesis the data
requirements specification will serve as the technical part, which is explained in
the main text and also attached to the appendix.
In this thesis the goal was to investigate use cases for a report tool and also data
requirements which I was able to accomplish and I hope that if the report is
implemented the documentation that this work has resulted in will be valuable.
8.1 Business Intelligence
BPM short for Business Performance Management is a set of processes that helps
organizations optimize their business performance. It is a framework for
organizing, automating, and analyzing the business methodologies, metrics,
processes, and systems that drive business performance. CPM, short for Corporate
Performance Management has been defined as “a set of processes that help
organizations optimize their business performance.
Implementing the performance management is a huge journey that will require
planning and a lot of corporate commitment. The most successful organizations
that have deployed Business Intelligence software and then progressed to a
strategic performance management driven enterprise have initiated best practice
deployment and clear measurement of their success.
42
Its good to remember that the whole organisation will benefit in well-performing
of the company. Insight to that performance is critical and will enable the
company to make adjustments as necessary more quickly, better, and faster than
the competition. The internal and external clients depend on proficient means of
getting the information they need in order to make well supported decisions.
43
Sources
Volitich, Dan 2008. IBM Cognos 8 Business Intelligence, The official guide, The
Mc Graw-Hill Companies
Wärtsilä Home. 2008. [online]. Helsingfors. 2009 [hänvisning 1.1.2009].
available as an www-document: <URL:http://www.wartsila.com>.
SAP Help Portal.2007 [online]. Waldorf. [hänvisning 1.9.2008]. available as a
www-document: <URL:http://help.sap.com>.
SAP Technical. 2006. [online]. [hänvisning 1.9.2008]. available as a wwwdocument: <URL: http://www.saptechnical.com/>
Insight Consulting Partners.2001 [online]. [hänvisning 1.9.2008]. available as a
www-document: <URL: http://www.insightcp.com/res_23.html>
Wärtsilä IM Presentation for external use Wärtsilä Information management. 2009
[Powerpoint presentation] Wärtsilä Corporation
44
Appendices
Appendix 1
Use case id
To be filled by ... team
Use case name
FI Invoice search
User groups (actors)
Vendor invoice administrators, Company controllers, Business
controllers and Assistant controllers and other key personnell
in business in countries using WE-SAP
Purpose (business
description)
Beeing able to search invoices with versatile search criterias is
considered useful to be able to follow up on one or many
specific invoices
Search criterias:
- Basic data
- Cost objects
- Agent/User
Usage type
Drilldown possibility to view detailed data of selected FI
invoice(document)
Usage frequency
- Hourly
Number of users
300-500( still open)
Data refresh
frequency
- Online
Authorisation
.As little restrictions as possibly
Key processes
KP.9 Logistics
45
Appendix 2
Use case id
To be filled by ....team
Use case name
MM Invoice search
User groups (actors)
Vendor invoice administrators, Company controllers, Business
controllers, Assistant controllers in countries using WE-SAP
Purpose (business
description)
Being able to search invoices with versatile search criterias is
considered useful in order to be able to follow up on one or
many specific invoices
Search criterias
Basic data
PO Nr
User or Agent
Usage type
Drilldown possibility to view detailed data of selected MM
invoice (document)
Usage frequency
-Hourly
Number of users
300-500 (Still open)
Data refresh
frequency
-Daily, online
Authorisation
As little restrictions as possible
Key processes
KP.9 Logistics
46
Appendix 3
47
Appendix 4
48
Appendix 5
49
Appendix 6
50
Appendix 7
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