EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Ngoc Anh Vuong

EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  Ngoc Anh Vuong
Ngoc Anh Vuong
EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Ngoc Anh Vuong
Bachelor’s thesis
Autumn 2014
Business Information Technology
Oulu University of Applied Sciences
2
ABSTRACT
Oulu University of Applied Sciences
Business Information Technology
Author(s): Ngoc Anh Vuong
Title of Bachelor’s thesis: Educational videos on sustainable development
Supervisor(s): Minna Kamula
Term and year of completion: Autumn 2014
Number of pages: 85 + 25 (Appendix)
The result of this thesis produces visual materials in this aspect to guide students and staff
members on how to act eco-friendly. On the technical side, it contributes theoretical concepts and
practical examples on shooting a short movie from pre-production to post-production.
To complete this paper, knowledge on environment conservation and video making techniques
are developed. The information is gathered from the section of sustainable development from
OUAS’ website and intranet. On video-making techniques, books and practical experiences
through implementation are the main resources.
The process of making short movies is carried out from March until the end of May 2014, with the
use of movie editing software such as Adobe Premier Pro and Adobe After Effects. Cameras and
necessary equipment are supported by OUAS laboratory. Edited parts have been temporarily
stored in OUAS’ hard drive until the full movies are completed.
After the movies are done, a link will be added to OUAS intranet, section of sustainable
development, so that everybody can access them easily. Also, they are available from the
author’s Youtube channel. The final videos are not only used in Green Thinking course, but in
other classes as well, for example in Video lectures.
Keywords: video filming, video production, short film, camera techniques, sustainable
development, ecology, environmental protection
3
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION
6
2 SUBJECT CONTEXT
8
2.1 Sustainable development
8
2.2 Environmental sustainability in Oulu UAS
10
2.2.1 Policy
11
2.2.2 Implementation
11
2.3 Transform the concepts into videos
14
3 PRE-PRODUCTION
15
3.1 Generation of idea and concept
15
3.2 Script
17
3.3 Production visualization with storyboard
20
3.4 Cast and crew
23
3.5 Locations and facility
26
4 PRODUCTION
29
4.1 Light
29
4.1.1 The camera and human vision
29
4.1.2 Light concepts in camera adjustments
30
4.1.3 Hard light, soft light and triangle lighting
34
4.1.4 Lighting techniques
37
4.1.5 Electrical safety when using lamps as light sources
38
4.2 The Camera
39
4.2.1 Camera angle elements
39
4.2.2 Types of camera angles
47
4.2.3 Camera dynamics
52
5 POST-PRODUCTION
55
5.1 The continuity
55
5.2 Editing phase with software
59
5.2.1 The composition
59
5.2.2 Adobe Premier Pro
59
5.2.3 Adobe After Effects
64
5.3 Sound
67
5.3.1 Soundtrack
67
4
5.3.2 Voice over
69
5.4 Subtitle
71
6 CONCLUSIONS
75
7 DISCUSSION
77
REFERENCES
79
APPENDIECES
86
5
1 INTRODUCTION
In Oulu University of Applied Sciences (Oulu UAS), sustainable development attracts a lot of
attention. One of the development strategies involves the education of effective use of resources.
The concern about this topic results in its integration into academic courses (e.g. Green
Thinking), programs to save energy, relevant documents and reports on the school’s website,
Ykä-koira image as an environmental representative, and theses with clear sustainable
development criteria. This thesis contributes to the development of sustainable development
teaching with visual materials on how to act eco-friendly, in which environmental conservation
serves as the core content to go further with the technical section: making short movies. At the
end of this work, four videos of five minutes per each will be produced to support the educational
purpose. The movies, hopefully, will help present green activities in a more dynamic way than
documented papers do. The idea of this work is credited to Ms. Minna Kamula, an Oulu UAS
senior lecturer and member of the sustainable development team in the School of Business and
Information Management.
The written document is divided into two parts: the first section reports sustainable development
in Oulu UAS including its policy and implementation; the second part deals with the concepts and
practical techniques that pertain to short videos production, in which numerous elements are
required to create a successful movie. Although it depends on how the producers want their films
to be as an artwork or entertainment work, movie production normally goes through the
preparation step (developing ideas, script, story board, filming equipment), the production
process with video recording elements (using camera angles, sound, lighting) and the postproduction step (editing the movie sequences by working with movie editing software).
Throughout this section, practical examples from the author’s process of filming will closely
interweave with the theoretical concepts accumulated from other resources. In other words,
illustrative images or shots in this paper will be taken mostly from the author’s videos.
As this is a type of work development thesis, the author focuses on the process of doing and its
demonstration based on her own experience. The question to answer here is: “how to make a
short movie”, or “how to feature one idea well in a five-minute video”. Finally, the answer will be
worked out with real products.
6
One of the literature resources is “The Five C’s of Cinematography” by Joseph Mascelli, in which
five influential elements namely camera angles, continuity, cutting, close-ups and composition are
each introduced in one separate chapter. This book does not talk about the process of making
films, but rather provides an understanding of what makes the perfection of a movie, so that the
director should invest more time in featuring those elements. For example, it recommends when
to use a long-shot scene, when to close-up the character’s face, and how to place the camera to
help the viewer become involved in the emotions of the character, and so on.
Another book that can be taken into account is Peter Rea and David Irving’s “Producing and
directing the short film and video”. This especially illustrates the phases of film making, such as
writing and breaking down the script, setting the crew, casting, editing sound effects, etc. Another
piece of literature, “Film directing shot by shot - Visualizing from concept to screen” by Steven
Katz, concentrates on visualization elements of pre-production, such as sketching story-board
and featuring shots. And the list goes on.
Since filmmaking requires much of practicalities, the methodology emphasizes gaining the
knowledge through personal practice and experience. Furthermore, consults with teachers on the
use of filming equipment and software are much appreciated. Cameras, tripods, and software are
borrowed from Oulu UAS. Besides, books and theses on cinematography effectively support the
base of theoretical framework. Finally, the Oulu UAS sustainable development section serves as
an important resource channel to gather information on its policy and implementation. The
resulted videos will then be uploaded to the Internet and stored in the school’s hard drive for easy
access. They may also be accessible through the school’s intranet with a link. The Oulu UAS, as
well as the author, has the full copyright to use and distribute all these videos.
7
2 SUBJECT CONTEXT
Being the theoretical base for the videos’ content, sustainable development is discussed in this
section to provide an overview of the subject.
2.1 Sustainable development
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” This definition comes
from Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development
(United Nations, Date of Retrieval 15.04.2014). In accordance with this concept, there is a
sustainability in daily operation when it fulfils both present and future needs. This does not simply
mention the preservation of current resources and savings, but also motivate innovations that
prevent people from relying too much on one means to meet their current needs.
In human life, natural resources play an indispensable role, but the way they are used can be
regarded as a two-edge knife. Crude oil is an example. Firstly, on one hand, people need oil to
make gasoline or aviation fuel to run cars, planes, machines, and so on; on the other hand, cars
generate carbon dioxide which causes air pollution. So far, oil does not directly destroy the
human lungs, but if everything is seen in connection, people are somehow shooting their own
legs. Secondly, crude oil as well as many other natural materials, is a finite resource. Sooner or
later they will become scarce commodities. Thus, the role of sustainable development is
significant in finding safe ways to ensure the standard of living and quality of life now and in the
future.
Society, economy, and ecology establish three pillars of sustainability (The Truist Blog, Date of
Retrieval 15.04.2014). Social sustainability concerns about people and human rights by balancing
the relationship between individual and community and maintaining a cohesive society, e.g.
welfare, gender equality. In line with the Western Australia Council of Social Services
(WACOSS), a community is socially sustainably developed when it is “equitable, diverse,
connected and democratic and provide a good quality of life” (Hodgson, Date of Retrieval
15.04.2014). Economic pillar indicates that the resources should be preserved efficiently to
produce long-term benefits and profitability; it also advocates local business development and
8
criticizes heavy consumption. Overall, economic sustainability ensures and prepares for the
healthy and stable growth of a company, a nation or an entire business region. The last
dimension concentrates on the protection of environment, for example reduction of carbon
footprint and deforestation, promotion of renewable resources, organic farming, recycling, waste
management, etc. (Yayadrop, Date of Retrieval 24.04.2014).
FIGURE 1. Three pillars of sustainable development (Wikipedia, Sustainable development.svg,
Date of Retrieval 08.10.2014)
The three circles of sustainable development closely intervene, depend on one another and
equally contribute to the same goal, although they differ in their own aspects and roles. According
to Teodorescu, sustainable development topic encompasses all three parts. They should not be
seen as single elements, but rather as a system form that needs to be kept in balance. Because
of their close-knit relationship, on the one hand, an activity can benefit more than one aspect. For
instance, by bringing down the amount of greenhouse gases, both human health and
environment will become better, which affect both social and ecological sides. On the other hand,
if too much attention is paid to one side, the others may get downgraded and the state of
sustainability as a whole will be at risk. As an example, Teodorescu proposes that there should
be a reasonable price that everybody can access for energy services. This blurs the line between
poverty and wealth, urban and rural areas regarding the right to use electricity. In addition, this
restricts the use of candles, which results in air pollution. (Teodorescu, Date of Retrieval
04.05.2014.)
Sustainable development remains a prominent topic on the global forum. Environment
degradation which leads to climate change, as well as current and potential damages to human
9
health and wildlife, is what humankind are dealing with at the moment. The culprits involve
greenhouse gases such as water vapours, methane, carbon dioxide from auto-vehicles and the
burning of fossil fuels; excessive energy consumption; extreme exploitation of natural resources,
and so on. For example, global warming causes ice melting, and water from glaciers raises sea
levels, which leads to sand loss and potential disappearance of islands such as Maldives (Yle
Areena, Date of Retrieval 24.04.2014), Great Barrier Reef in Australia (Agence France Presse)
and other detrimental effects on the coastal ecosystem. Along with the increased temperature of
the Earth, considerable amount of animals that live in cold climate condition like polar bears will
face the threat of extinction. Likewise, it will get increasingly difficult for human to deal with floods,
droughts and other natural catastrophes.
To remedy the situation, the resolutions in discussion are about resource preservation for the
next generations, including purifying earth, air, land, water and protecting thousands of extant
animal species, in ways that should not completely destroy quality of life. New technologies have
been developed, for example powerful machines with less energy consumption (Energy Star
products); renewable energy such as solar and wind power to replace conventional fuels; biobased products such as bio fuels to make use of renewable resources, etc. But mostly, human’s
awareness of their actions should be raised, and changed. Can people reduce the use of digital
devices in order to save energy? Can they use bicycles instead of cars to decrease the amount of
carbon dioxide emitted into the air every day? It may be difficult to permanently alter their habits,
but the chance is higher if their environmental awareness is raised in smarter ways. In this case,
the role of educational media is the key element.
2.2 Environmental sustainability in Oulu UAS
Oulu UAS, like other universities of applied sciences, cares about sustainable development and
its implementation. The school has documented its own official policy on environmental issues,
based on the instructions from Oulu Region Joint Authority for Education as well as
environmental legislation and regulations from authorities (Oulu University of Applied Sciences,
the environmental policy of the school of Business and Information Management of the Oulu
University of Applied Sciences, Date of Retrieval 14.03.2014).
10
2.2.1 Policy
Oulu UAS aims at yielding “environmentally conscious graduates”, which suggests the
sustainable development principles be included in the curriculum together with other professional
courses. The school’s objectives includes ecological, economic, social and cultural
responsibilities. Specifically, programs and events that emphasize this topic currently are
embedded in teaching development, Research Development Innovation work, integration of this
in daily routines, and communication potential to promote sustainable development as “quality
politics and culture of Oulu UAS” (Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Sustainable development
programme of Oulu UAS, Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014).
As stated in the school policy, “the most important environmental objective is to increase
awareness of environmental issues among the staff, students, local business and working life.
Other essential environmental objectives include decreasing energy consumption, use of paper
and the amount of waste” (Oulu University of Applied Sciences, The environmental policy of the
school of Business and Information Management of the Oulu University of Applied Sciences,
Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014). Thus, the UAS provides instructions on environmental guidelines,
waste management and recycling, motivates related projects and events, and annually reports on
implementation.
For theses on the topic, the assessment framework involves the four mentioned responsibilities,
the first three aspects bear resemblances with the three pillars of sustainable development in the
previous section, whilst the last one introduces the sustainability in culture and communication
process, which targets multiculturalism, internationalization, professional dialogue, local cultures
and tolerance. These also set the criteria for evaluation (Oulu University of Applied Sciences,
Assessment of theses of sustainable development in Oulu UAS, Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014).
2.2.2 Implementation
To improve awareness of people, programs and events such as “Sustainable development as a
part of the competence 2015”, “Take it or leave it”, “Energy saving week”, “International Week”,
“Global Responsibility”, and so on are organized. With regard to documentation, environmental
guidelines involves instructions on consumption of paper, energy, and water; waste management
11
in office; and introduction of eco-label. The school also encourages traveling by bicycles and
reducing the use of cars or flights to limit carbon dioxide emissions.
As several academic curriculums also joins the movement of sustainable development promotion,
Green Thinking course in which students are grouped to find green solutions for visiting
companies, then present them in front of the commissioner, teacher, and other students is
arranged as compulsory course.
Classification bins for different types of wastes can be found in classrooms and corridors. In the
corridor, waste bins are separated to contain bio-products, glass, small metals, and burnable
wastes. There are only two bins inside the classroom to classify burnable waste and paper, and
one carton for cardboards. Hazardous waste such as batteries must be brought directly to the
janitors. Waste sorting guidelines can also be found on Oiva - the school’s intranet and on the
billboard out at the corridors (Oulu University of Applied Sciences, School of Business and
Information Management environmental guidelines, Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014).
Annually, there are reports on the use of energy and the amount of paper and waste within school
areas. Those reports provides an overview of material consumption of the entire year in
comparison with the previous year (Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Sustainable
development bulletin, Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014).
Figure 2 illustrates the use of electricity, district heating and water in Oulu UAS in 2013 compared
to 2012. As can be seen, there was no major change, except a slight increase in the use of water.
Regarding electricity and water consumption, the peak of the first nine months of 2013 fell on
January, February and April with approximately 70,000 kWh (electricity) and 320,00 m3 (water).
12
FIGURE 2. Information on energy and water consumption in Oulu UAS in 2013 (Oulu University
of Applied Sciences, Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014)
As a result, previously, Oulu UAS achieved Green Office diplomas in ecological footprint
reduction for Library, Vocational teacher education, school of music, dance and media, and
Rector’s office. At the moment, environmental standard certificate ISO 14001 is granted to the
schools of Health and social care, Business and information management and Renewable
resources for their effective work in ecological management. Nowadays (September 2015), the
unit of Renewable Resources is a part of the School of Engineering and Natural Resources.
(Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Sustainable development programme of Oulu UAS, Date of
Retrieval 14.03.2014.)
Figure 3 is YKÄ-koira, Oulu UAS’s representative of sustainable development. This avatar has
been embedded as a sign/logo in documents and posters related to this issue. Also, it will be the
logo throughout this project’s videos.
13
FIGURE 3. YKÄ-koira - the representatives of sustainable development in Oulu UAS
2.3 Transform the concepts into videos
Due to the large scale of this topic, there exists a challenge in transferring the concepts into short
videos. The type of videos is decided to be educational videos. The chosen topics involve air
pollution, green use of computers, recycling and reuse. The air pollution video emphasizes on the
generation of methane and carbon dioxide as heat-trapping gases that are involved in global
warming. The video of computer green use illustrates the methods of using digital machines in an
eco-friendly and economical way. Likewise, recycling scenes are completed for another how-to
video about waste classification and the correct use of the trash bins. The last product will
mention several ways for students to reuse their materials, based on the event “Take it or leave it”
which encourages recycling and light consumption.
Because of the interdependency among the pillars of sustainable development, the delivered
messages that seem to pay more attention to the ecological and economic sides may also imply
social impacts. Most of all, the main intention focuses on environmental conservation.
14
3 PRE-PRODUCTION
The pre-production plays a key role in the development of a video project. This phase does not
only prepare camera and tripods, or ideas and concepts in details with manuscripts, but also
includes storyboards, and other materials to help visualize the flow of content shot by shot.
3.1 Generation of idea and concept
There would be no film without ideas (Gates 1999, 4). The original idea may be evaluated and
changed later based on budget and the market. To the entire movie, the idea serves as the root
of a tree, from which growing branches and leaves. Featured details can be later developed to
emphasize the core, but above all, it needs a starting point. For this project, the topics of the
movies have been decided to be re-using, waste management, green computer use, and air
pollution reduction by eating less meat and resisting travelling by car or airplane. The supporting
ideas were generated surrounding those topics. They have been found in many ways, from one
people’s real experiences and from books, magazines, and Internet. The growth of Internet has
made knowledge much more accessible to everyone. Although the accuracy of the information
needs to be evaluated, the access to the mind of millions of people also plays an important role in
expanding the videos’ content. For example, the methods of how to make use of unnecessary
objects in video Re-use were taken from Internet, so was the knowledge demonstrated in video
Air protection and the tips for using computer in video Computer green use.
One of the principles that the author applied to this project is positivity. In details, the characters
in the movies do not perform any negative activities. The author believes that the audience will
remember whatever is showed on the screen. Consequently, if there is a negative incident, it will
linger on in the viewer’s memory. For example, in order to support the idea of throwing waste into
the correct bin, the director can create a “bad” character who always mixes up the trash and then
say it is wrong to do so, or he can create a “good” character who puts things into the designated
boxes and then say this is the right way. The author prefers the second choice, because it is
positive. On the other hand, most students do not like to be showed as villains (unless they can
be very stylish villains), so they do not have to lose face this way.
15
Secondly, the feel and look of the short films were carefully contemplated. For the most part, they
were shot mainly in and around OUAS, and in student rooms to make it familiar with students,
one of the main groups of audience of these videos. The materials and products from video Reuse also benefit students because they are rather necessary and inexpensive. Video Waste
management mentions only the waste system of OUAS. The last two videos’ content is suitable
for all people, not particularly for students, but they were also filmed mainly at OUAS.
The third element considered the form of the movies. Generally, footages taken from Video
Camera might be sufficient to illustrate the ideas, but having interwoven animation made by
computer software is a complementary method, because in some cases, simply animation can
speak more than real life’s images, and it also avoids tedium of the whole footage. Figure 4 is
taken from the mentioned video, with flat icons showing the correct waste types of glass
presented in animation.
FIGURE 4. A snapshot from video Waste management
The development of these videos followed knowledge requirements. This means, the knowledge
to be covered was decided first, then the decision how to present it. Consequently, the flow of the
story is more or less predictable and there is no bottleneck or climax such as a fight between a
prince and a monster to save the princess like in a Hollywood film. Among those films, only video
Re-use develops a plot that depicts the process of problem - solution - results. By contrast, the
16
last video namely Air protection, similar to an advertising video, uses most of its runtime and a
large number of animated scenes to explain and suggest that people employ greener diets and
transportations to protect the atmosphere.
Another factor that decides how the idea is going to be developed is the number of characters. It
probably seems unprofessional to decide what idea should be developed for only 3-4 characters,
not the other way around. However, in this project, the author did exactly that way, with the
anticipation that she would have very limited number of actors in each shot. She found it easier to
process, rather than having a plot without planning beforehand how many actors she could
persuade to join the project.
3.2 Script
“It all starts with an idea. For that idea to become a film; it must be fleshed out and developed into
a script or screenplay...From it, you know the story, the characters, the locations, the approximate
budget, the final length, and your target audience.”, stated Rea & Irving (2010, 1). A script
demonstrates the idea and may also summarize what happens in the film, including elements
such as lighting, camera angles, number of actors and actresses, etc.
A manuscript and its related documents such as manuscript breakdowns are magnificent and
powerful pieces of paper similar to a business plan, which people can use as an action plan, or a
road map and a sales tool simultaneously. Above all, it is also the starting point, the first piece of
paper that everybody is involved, from actors to gaffer, should at least have a look at before they
actually start their particular jobs. For a definition, Rea & Irving wrote, “A script depicts the
moment-to-moment progression of events by indicating what the audience will see and hear”.
Experience from real life, events, images, dreams, and memories are just five among the sources
to develop film content. For example, the author was inspired by “Take it or leave it” before writing
the script Re-use based on this real event, in which people give unwanted objects to those who
need them or remake them into usable properties. Rea & Irving also suggests that the writing
should come from the heart and the subject should be based on what the writer already knows.
Also, keeping a notebook of good ideas is another method to store details for later development.
(Rea & Irving 2010, 3-6.)
17
The script starts from an idea and evolves, or will be narrowed down as more factors are taken
into consideration, e.g. budget and duration. This is when practicalities come into play. A short
movie of about five minutes should not have too many details, and a limited budget makes it
challenging to launch an idea that requires big investment. Rea & Irving (2010, 12) suggest that
only a single event be focused on in a short film, thereby, the prospects of the movie can be fully
explored. Regarding the development of ideas into scripts, they recommends that after looking
for, categorizing, and storing ideas, the next step should be communicating with other people to
“test” the ideas with potential audience, and because “verbalized ideas will be stimulating”,
speaking them out loud may bring about different influences in comparison with only reading.
They also point out that finding a suitable story and adapt it into the big screen is another way
people should think about besides writing their own scripts. (Rea & Irving 2010, 6-8.)
When it comes to serious shooting, a shooting script with numbered scenes is necessary. After
marking scenes with a number code, a shooting plan should be created for each scene, which
requires script breakdown and creation of storyboards, floor plans, or both (Rea & Irving 2010,
19). There are detailed description and steps to make script breakdown provided by Rea & Irving
(2010, 45-51), but the author feels it is not necessary for this project. Consequently, only a simple
grouping for several shootings in the same location was made as a reference document. For
example, all the actions performed in the library were shot at the same time, one after another, no
matter which video each scene was in. The grouping of actors/actresses was also taken into
consideration. Due to the limited number of actors/actresses in this project, when the director and
a performer had a shooting date together, all the scenes in different videos that involved him/her
were made. This is a common challenge in films that include a great number of players. However,
in this project, fortunately it was possible.
Brian Klems (2012, Date of retrieval 12.08.2014) gives a practical suggestion on the Writer’s
Digest website. He recommends that every paragraph in the script should not exceed three lines.
Additionally, because of visual requirements, the script language should be succinct and
“describe the things we can actually see or hear onscreen”, emphasizing the action of the
character more than describing their inner emotions like in literature publishes. Movies scripts are
different from novels, as “movies are about the external, novels are about the internal”. An
example from Saving Private Ryan (1998) script, in which words were used effectively to help
visualize the screen, is provided: “The thunderous sounds of a massive naval barrage are heard”.
(Klems 2012.)
18
Furthermore, regarding the script format, Klems (2012) thinks it should be easy to read with as
much white space as possible. He also reasons that business people do not have time to read
many scripts and that making the document spacious will catch their eyes faster and highlight the
writer’s work among other scripts. On the other hand, any writing that lacks visual elements,
significance to the movie’s progress, or “depth and insight” to the character’s actions should be
cut out of this document. (Klems 2012.)
Another tip, “enter late, leave early” mentally focuses on the structure of the script, or the flow of
the story rather than language or form standard. It is recommended that one-step late film scene
will trigger the audience’s imagination and require further thinking about what will happen
beforehand, therefore creating their own allure as well as cutting inessential details. The same
effects are produced with the phrase “leave early” (Klems 2012). For example, in the video Reuse, instead of letting the main character bring the light bulb she chooses from school to home,
the scene ends when she interestingly looks at the bulb and later starts when she sits down on a
chair with full equipment around, ready to operate the bulb.
Gates (1999, 68) writes, “For every period of shooting there should be two times for preproduction and three times for post-production”. This is an interesting statement. As the author
had understood from the beginning of this project that there might be separated periods of filming
in which pre-production, production and post-production are three phases with different
investment in the amount of time and effort, as the statement recommends. Nevertheless, in the
process, she perceived that it was not that simple, because these processes are mutual. In this
project, it was rather common that the script was fixed during a shooting event or during the
editing phase. For example, when filming video Re-use, the author needed to cut several scenes
due to the lack of time or change of location for better lighting. Likewise, in the editing phase, the
order of the scenes was many times reconstructed, because of something illogical in the script
that the author had not been able to realize initially. The following example is from the script of
video Re-use (Appendix 1).
Scene 1: FLOWER SHOP, MORNING
Ella is slowly looking for a tiny plant among numerous colourful flowers in a small quiet
outdoor flower shop. Suddenly a message from her friend suggests coming at once to
event “Take it or leave it”.
19
Scene 2: OUAS’s CORRIDOR B, MORNING
Paolo shows interest in the “Take it or leave it” poster that he suddenly notices on the
way to the library on a dense bulletin board.
Scene 3: DENIS’s MAILBOX, MORNING
In a narrow walkway of a PSOAS student house, on the way to his room, Denis wearily
checks his mailbox, which is full of colourful magazines and newspapers.
Scene 4: DENIS’s ROOM, MORNING
Denis tosses a newspaper onto his existing pile of magazines and heavily plops down
into a chair. He skims through Oiva’s notifications and carefully reads “Take it or leave it”
information. Denis hurriedly checks the time.
Scene 5: OUAS BICYCLE AREA NEAR HALL A, MORNING
Hans brings a square carton of unnecessary objects including shoes, light bulbs, clothes,
and cables to school by bicycle in a nice summer morning. After leaving the bike, he
brings the carton into Hall A, then quickly unpacks and classifies them into the correct
places.
Camera stops on the student’s way to catch the school’s name board.
3.3 Production visualization with storyboard
Alfred Hitchcock, the famous American director who relies heavily on storyboards in his
production, enjoys saying that his films had been finished before they were ever made.
Storyboarding is a useful way to present the movie before the shooting process actually begins.
Storyboards are drawings on paper that illustrates the subject matter and camera projection; they
also take notes on the camera movement and scene transition if necessary. In short, they are
drawings of what happens in the real movie, so that the director can envision and consider every
shot. (Katz 1991, 23.)
A movie preproduction step may consist of numerous drawings resembled cartoon production in
the old time, or it may be just several pictures to represent the main content of the video and
20
arouse interest from viewers. In movie sequence, it is not necessary that every piece of drawings
is seen as it was in the storyboard, because later the director can change or adapt it.
Drawing is a helpful but not indispensable skill for the storyboard man, as long as the thought and
mind can be transfered onto paper with pencil. The pictures may be very crude with only several
sketches or very professional with colour mood and tone displaying scenic landscapes; they are
all useful if the viewers can interpret and understand the ideas behind them.
For the directors, storyboard is a helpful tool whether they follow it or not. As it conveys the flow
of the story, this work does not only depict individual shots, but also generates more ideas and
points out from the flow which one may fail when it is filmed (Katz, 1991, 50). Thereby, the
director can decide on necessary cuts or changes.
In line with Katz (1991), the process of visualizing through storyboards also prepares the crew
members to better cooperate and understand one another as well as the movie. For example, the
cameraman can consider from which angle he should set the camera; the technicians can build
the scene as described; and the gaffer can better design the lighting plan. A storyboard is a
powerful way to help every member of the crew to imagine the shot.
One disadvantage of storyboarding resides in its impossibility to transfer the movements, lighting,
or transition. Thus, instead of presenting the dynamic form of these elements, the artist can mark
or take notes about them. The dolly and pan of camera or the angle changes, e.g. from longshots to close-ups, are done with symbols (Katz 1991). For instance, arrows indicate the direction
of camera pan, while rectangular lines form the frame and define the action of zooming in and out
for better shots.
Film production utilizes not only storyboards but also photoboards and other software/animation
programs to draw up the scenes in the idea visualization process. One can choose the most
suitable way to present the ideas. In this paper, storyboarding is mentioned as it is a simple, fast,
and effective traditional approach that does not cost much. Figure 5 shows images extracted from
the author’s own storyboard (Appendix 5).
21
FIGURE 5. A storyboard page from video Reuse
In this project, the storyboard and script were also used to communicate with the performers. In
the beginning, there was some misunderstanding when explanations were only done verbally.
22
Then, with the storyboard, it was easier for the actors/actresses to understand what they should
do and where their actions should take place.
3.4 Cast and crew
Cast and crew refer to the human resource of a film team. While they both engage in filming
activities, their roles are different.
Cast
Casting is the process of choosing all the people that appear in the movie, from main actors to
stuntmen and crowd performers (Gates 1999, 9). Generally, when the directors have the script in
hand, they will start looking for suitable actors based on special requirements such as gender,
age, ethnicity, and characteristics.
Each director has a different style of choosing players. Some directors may rely on the calibre or
suitability of the role, whereas others focus on the face spirit. For examples, Yu Zheng, a Chinese
director, says that a good actor for his movies must have a beautiful forehead, as it defines the
beauty of a man (Joanna, Date of Retrieval 11.6.2014). It is a reasonable argument, as the
context of his movies is ancient China, in which most of the male actors have to completely show
their forehead. A popular trend is the recruitment of celebrities such as singers, sport athletes,
racers, etc. to join the film, because they possess perfect appearance with a good fan base. In
some cases, this also means a good number of viewers.
It is not necessary that all performers must be found at the beginning of the project. Some videos
need not human performance at all (e.g. wildlife documentaries), while other films may find it
difficult to prepare the cast beforehand. For example, in an interview video, the interviewee can
be invited before or right when the video is in progress. An interview for newscast with people in a
warzone can be made with any person on-site, whilst a talk with an expert in a science program
requires more investment in finding the right person and having some discussion before the
actual filming begins (Riemke-Gurzki, Interview).
Thanks to technological advances, the process of casting nowadays has become easier. CGI
(computer-generated imagery) technique can create a unit of army or turn people from tall to
short, from normal to handicapped, and so on. For instance, in American Captain: The First
23
Avenger (2011), the first few scenes show a flabby, skinny, and ordinary main character played
by Chris Evans; but after receiving an injection resulted from a scientific experiment, he becomes
a six-pack hero. To create the difference of the body before and after the injection, the filmmakers
used special computer techniques to shrink his body down (Warner 2011). Without technicians
and special effects software, the director would have had to use two actors, because the physical
bodies were too different from each other.
Regarding the casting of actors/actresses, the author faced great difficulties. The recruitment
notice was put on the school’s intranet and the author’s Facebook status; some teachers were
also asked to pass on the message. But there had been no reply. After a long waiting time, the
author decided to directly ask some friends for help and all of them agreed. It is certainly risky to
recruit just friends, because it is possible they do not fit well with the roles, but luckily in this
project, the characters were simple enough and did not require complex acting. Therefore, the
only requirement was that they would be energetic and cooperative, which all the cast did just
fine. At the end, the author realized one lesson: there should have been some clarification for the
roles in the advertisements, because people might be reluctant to perform some of them because
of their limited acting skills, but they were more open to play static roles such as a passer-by or a
student studying in a computer room.
Constant communication was the key element to teamwork. It was important to exchange
thoughts, not only to limit misunderstandings, but also to express supportive ideas. At the
beginning of this school’s project, there had been a lot of confusion about how an actor should
perform, until we sat down together and had some discussions, even some drawings, to
demonstrate exactly what the director wanted and what the performers could offer. This
bottleneck was because the script enables various imaginations, as the text only shows how the
incidents happen, it does not illustrate the movements and feelings of a specific shot. For
example, in video Reuse, the script only guides the performer to be in the crowd, looking at things
and eventually taking the Ethernet cable. We did not know beforehand how crowded or how the
site would be arranged, so it had been impossible to prepare the movements until we were
actually at the site; only then could we choose better angle and better steps for the main
character to follow.
24
Crew
The crew includes everyone participating in the process of making the movie. Depending on the
size of the project and its budget, the crew size may vary greatly. Projects with big budgets have
more chances to recruit more people. A big film crew includes producer, production manager,
directors and assistants of all departments (i.e. photography, art, camera, casting, light, editing,
sound, music), securities, supervisors, health experts and so on. However, there may be only a
few persons to make a short movie, in which the director does the work of screenwriter and
cameraman as well. This is rather popular with student projects, where students cannot hire other
people to collaborate with them, and the content of their movies does not require large
investments. There is no specific requirements on the number of people in a crew as long as the
project can be finished successfully. (Gates 1999, 9 & 10.)
In this project, the author worked as the director, screenwriter, storyboard artist, and editor all at
the same time. The idea of having a crew sounded tempting at the beginning; but after weighing
the pros and cons, considering the time and efforts invested to have an ideal team in comparison
with the scale of the project and its workload, the author decided not to recruit more people to
save time. Fortunately, in the process of filming, there were many constructive feedbacks as well
as ideas from the players and the author’s friends on how to make the shots better.
Legal issues
For each person performing in a movie, there should be a contract signed at the beginning with a
consent statement. For all performers without a salary, they should acknowledge it before the
shooting starts. In a big project, performers should sign a Release form, acknowledging the rights
and responsibilities for legal purposes (Gates 1999, 145). In case the director feels it is not
necessary to make a serious contract, the players should at least know their role in the movie and
agree on how the movie is going to be published; especially in an interview, every editing related
to that person needs to be informed and agreed upon (Riemke-Gurzki). In this project, there was
no paper signed for legal purposes but the people involved were informed fully about the project’s
purposes and how their image would be used. Even the scenes where the main character was an
animal (e.g. cow or horse), the people who took care of them should be noticed about the filming.
Most of the owners of the shooting sites were willing to let the author do her job after they knew
the project was for educational purposes. Also, filming permission from L&T Company was
obtained with the help of the commissioner.
25
3.5 Locations and facility
Set aside from human resource, equipment and background settings are also an issue to deal
with. This answers the questions where the event happens and what equipment is used to
capture the footage.
Location
Preparation for location needs to be done as early as possible, as the procedure of getting
permission or making contracts may take time and negotiations. For example, in case of filming
on a street in America, permission from the police or authorities is required. Some shootings
require special effects or setting, such as winter/summer scenes or class time scenes. In a low
budget project or if the crew is unable to create effects after all, the shooting schedule may be
planned carefully in order not to miss particular occasions. (Gates 1999, 122.)
In this project, initially, the author planned to shoot mostly at Oulu UAS, including Wallu
restaurant, computer room, B-corridor, A-Hall, outside area, etc. Then, due to some changes in
the script, the list of locations went longer. Some shots were decided to be filmed at students’
house, the airport, a horse camp, a farm, etc. The changes in location might bring about
excitement to the viewer, provide fresh air to the whole movie, and avoid tedious repeated
scenes. The footage itself also became more natural. The downside of this was time consumption
to travel from site to site. For example, it took half an hour to drive to the countryside, where
some cows could be found for a three-second shot.
Also, permission was an issue along with locations. For filming around Oulu UAS School of
Business and Information Management campus, the author got permission from Ms. Minna
Kamula, the school’s senior lecturer and at the same time the project’s commissioner. For other
scenes, the author needed to talk to the farm’s owner, officer at the airport, or manager of the
chosen company in order to use their sites. The conversations went smoothly with the support of
the author’s Finnish friends to translate the language. When these people knew the shooting is
for educational purposes, all of them would like to cooperate.
Video Reuse is an example on event-based shots. In this product, the main story depends on one
specific event: “Take it or leave it” flea market by Oulu UAS on May 7, 2014. Although that day
was rather early and the author did not have enough actors yet, filming activities still had to be
26
carried out, because it was impractical to ask the school to host another similar event when
everything would be ready. As a plan B, the author intended to perform as an actor herself if
nobody suitable was found. Luckily, at the last minute and right on the site, the author managed
to have one friend become the much needed actor. We had a brief five-minute discussion about
his role in the movie before shooting.
Facility
As shooting equipment is taken into account, a camera is mandatory. In some cases, more than
one camera will serve better. For example, for an ongoing event (e.g. a football match) that
cannot be filmed twice, two or more cameras are able to capture more angles. It also depends on
the project, the weather, and the shooting location that lighting devices and bipods/tripods are
necessary. Before shooting, the camera lens should be checked carefully to avoid regrettable
issues due to negligence. Professor Riemke-Gurki in his lecture (2013) showed an example in
which there were small stains in the video sequence due to the camera lens being stained. For
this kind of error, the cameraman only sees the flaw after the shooting, or in a worse situation,
when the footage is already imported onto the big screen. This is a waste of time as the actors
need to perform that scene again. For this project, the cameras were borrowed from Oulu UAS
and Oulun Työstökeskus Oy, a Sony Handycam and an LG Optimus respectively. These were
both digital cameras that required the checking of battery and memory card before filming.
The selection between tripod and monopod also makes a difference to the scene. Both pieces of
equipment support stable scenes as they avoid camera shake. However, the operation of tripod
takes much more time and may even be complicated. Therefore, if the shooting place is not
affected by strong winds (ideally inside), monopod may serve as the optimal equipment because
of its flexibility. In contrast, the use of tripod is appreciated when filming outside in harsh weather.
For example, when standing by a river to take the image of an industrial chimney, the author was
nearly flown into the river by the strong winds. Even with the monopod, the camera was still
shaken violently until the author changed to a tripod. However, this does not mean we can use
only tripod or monopod, because a combination of these tools also brings about success. In many
scenes of this project, a tripod was used with one camera to film the whole incident in a long or
medium shot, and a monopod with the other camera to capture details, such as a close-up shot
on the face or a cut-in activity. This enabled taking more angles simultaneously. Thereby, the
actors had to perform only once, as all necessary angles were made from the first try.
27
Besides tripod and monopod, if the scene requires complex camera movements, for example, a
slider for a long smooth sliding movement, more tools are needed. With only tripod or monopod, it
is nearly impossible to manually maintain the accuracy and continuity throughout the movement.
In his video tutorial HDSLR Filmmaking for Beginners - Basic Camera Movement, Victor Ha
(2012) suggests the correct use of a slider and provides some successful examples of this
movement. He points out that the user should understand the nature of different slider lengths,
including 2ft, 3ft and 5ft. While the first length adapts to traveling and event filming because of its
“mobility and versatility,” 3ft slider requires more space and provides longer duration. Finally, 5ft
length is suitable for shots that are planned initially. In addition, skilled film crews use plenty of
professional equipment such as sound accessories, follow focus, jib cranes (equipment that lifts
or lowers the camera and moves it horizontally), Steadicam systems, lighting systems,
windshields, etc. to help capture ideal shots (Documentary filmmaking 101, Date of Retrieval
19.06.2014).
Also, it is of utmost significance to determine what properties are needed for specific scenes.
When filming video Re-use in a student’s room, the author intended to concentrate on the actions
of using magazines and newspapers to build a stool and a trash box. However, after finishing the
stool, we found out that there was no staple, so it was impossible to make the trash box. Because
of the video’s limited runtime, we did not need to film the second part at all, but the lesson was
that the author should have been better-prepared. In another scene that required a clock, the
author switched to a mobile phone to show time because there was no clock in the room. The
lack of properties might change the script, provided that it did not have any negative impacts on
the content. For better preparation, the author wrote down a list of necessary objects for each
scene, together with the location, duration, and number of actors. All the lists can be found on
Appendix 6, Appendix 7, Appendix 8 and Appendix 9.
28
4 PRODUCTION
This section discusses light and camera settings. For light arrangements, a comparison between
human eyes and camera eyes will be mentioned before going to specifications such as lighting
concepts, three-point light triangle, techniques, and safety issues. Regarding the use of camera,
the factors of angle and movement will be analysed.
4.1 Light
Good lighting plays a vital role in digital products such as photos and videos. For a photography
or cinematography project, inadequate amount of light source does not only make an image look
bad, but also causes trouble for later editing. Furthermore, according to John Jackman (2010, 1),
this element conveys the product’s emotion and spirit to the audience, which makes its role much
more important than just illuminating the objects. In some cases, lighting additionally creates
“illusion of depth and size”, in order to prove something that may not be true in reality, as “we are
not really trying to capture what the eyes see, we are trying to capture the mind’s interpretation of
what the eyes sees, which can be a wholly different thing” (Jackman, 2010, 2). Therefore, the
importance of lighting should be recognized.
4.1.1 The camera and human vision
In his book, Jackman provides interesting facts about the difference between human eyes and
the camera vision system, thereby improving our knowledge of what the eyes can see in reality
and on the TV/monitor screen. He points out that in reality, the human vision can even distinguish
an object from a nearly completely dark background, thanks to the ability of the brain that utilizes
the knowledge it has already known to interpret the image received from the eyes at that moment.
Consequently, it can guess the object if the perceived image is not clear enough due to the lack
of brightness. (Jackman 2010, 11-17.)
For example, when a person goes to the kitchen to get a glass of water at night, he or she is able
to grab the right thing without turning the lights on, because the arrangement of the kitchen has
already been known. In this case, the eyes only see a blurry image of the object, but the brain
29
can tell what it is. Furthermore, humans can also adjust their vision to have a better look by
moving their heads or squinting to gain extra information if they are not familiar with the object
(Jackman 2010, 12). That is to say, there are many ways people can visually identify the object
under different circumstances. The intricate supportive system of the brain is also appreciated.
However, the camera is nothing close to the human brain. It can only perceive a limited range of
brightness. Jackman assumes that the human vision can register the contrast range of more than
four folds compared with the camera system, which results in the camera’s inability to take into its
lens exactly what the eyes can see under various lighting conditions. Even state-of-the-art
cameras cannot do that. A basic mistake of beginners is to “assume that the camera is going to
react to a scene the same as the eye”, which is not usually possible. (Jackman 2010, 14-15.)
Apparently, there is no way a viewer can identify the object unless it is shown on the screen.
Squinting, touching, going close to the screen or changing the viewing angle are not useful at all.
In short, the audience can only perceive the image in a passive mode. This brings about some
advantages and also downsides to filmmakers. One of the challenges is the loss of an object’s 3D feel, as it is being shown onscreen. The screen is only “a flat piece of glass with flickering
coloured lights projected on the rear,” which explains why it is impossible to generate the depth
and feel, unless appropriate artificial methods are put to use. Jackman also argues that except for
lighting and camera motion, there is no other way to reveal depth. Specifically, his solution
emphasizes “subtle pattern of reflections, highlights, and shadows on the object’s surface”. In
short, he insists that using only realistic lighting is insufficient for screen products. The film image
needs to feed the viewer’s brain with more signals that it can process with. (Jackman 2010, 13.)
Millerson & Owens (2008, 227) have the same opinion with Jackman’s, that the camera cannot
“compensate” for what is seen by human eyes, as though interpret. If there is too much light, it
will conceal parts of the picture. Similarly, dark coloured interior often resembles a black-like
colour on the camera. They suggest that manipulation be necessary to show the lost details to
the viewer.
4.1.2 Light concepts in camera adjustments
The paragraphs below introduce the basic concepts of light, mostly in camera settings, in order to
provide the knowledge framework for later discussions.
30
Exposure and exposure triangle
The first important term is exposure, which refers to the adequate intensity of light to trigger a
CCDs’ (charge-coupled device) signal and increase it without going over the limits. Proper
exposure essentially contributes to a high standard product. The exposure is the first test that the
camera has to pass before it can actually capture any image, because without sufficient amount
of light to activate the chips, we cannot get a fine image. Consequently, shooting in the dark does
not brings about a night scene (Jackman 2010, 3). Regarding exposure, the Cambridge in Colour
website (Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014) provides some interesting knowledge. It refers to the
activity of attaining the perfect exposure value as “collecting rain in the bucket” with three fixed
elements: the width, the duration, and the expecting quantity, a combination that yields the
correct exposure, which can be obtained in many ways.
The term “exposure triangle” relates to aperture, ISO and shutter speed which are respectively
represented by the mentioned width, time and quantity. The aperture - “the opening in the lens” is
a concept referring to camera lens. The broader the lens opens, the more light gets in to the
camera sensor, and vice versa. It has a close relationship with depth of field (DOF) - “the amount
of the shot that will be in focus”. The larger DOF it is, the more proportion of the image will be
sharp. Consequently, a small aperture will receive a small amount of light and produce great
depth of field, whilst a big aperture accepts a large amount of light and provides narrow depth of
field. Aperture is measured in f-stops. (Rowse, Introduction to Aperture in Digital Photography,
Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014.) The index of f-stops in relation with the open level of camera is
illustrated by figure 6. As can be seen from the figure, the smaller the f-index is, the wider the lens
opens. The lens will broadly look at the objects with f/1.4 and with f/8, there will only be a small
area of lens opened.
FIGURE 6. Aperture diagram (Wikipedia, Aperture diagram.svg, Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014)
31
The ISO modifies the camera sensitivity towards incoming light. Because high ISO speed
generates image noise, or film grain, a low ISO is supposedly better. Popular ISO seen in camera
settings are 100, 200, 400, and 800, etc. (Cambridge in Colour). Shutter speed, or exposure time,
specifies the duration that light is allowed to enter the camera and is measured in seconds. In
other words, it determines when the camera sensor will be open or close for light. A fast shutter
speed means a short time of exposure (Cambridge in Colour). To blur out a continuous motion,
e.g. that of waterfalls, the picture is often taken with a slow shutter speed. If this applies, it is
necessary to use a tripod to stabilize the camera. This factor also relates to focal length, in a way
that long focal length generates more camera shake, in which fast shutter speed is desirable.
(Rowse, Introduction to Shutter Speed in Digital Photography, Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014.)
Figure 7 is an example of how different shutter speeds affect the images. The right photo was
taken with slower shutter speed (exposure time 2/1 sec, ISO speed 80, aperture f/6.3), and the
left photo was captured with exposure time 1/4 sec, focal rate f/3.3, ISO speed 200.
FIGURE 7. Difference shutter speeds (Wikipedia, E17 - korte sluitertijd.JPG, Date of Retrieval
01.08.2014).
Dynamic range
Another term, dynamic range, is defined as “the range of which a camera can successfully
capture the lightest and darkest areas of an image without losing details.” It relates to the
capability of the camera (Hooper 2012, date of retrieval 01.08.2014). Jackman (2010) also
provides his definition on a broader scale: dynamic range is the zone that enables proper
operation for a device. This applies to other instruments as well. For camera function, he also
agrees with the above definition, marking the zone with the lowest and the highest possible
32
values of reflected light that the camera can record the details. The ratio between these values is
called contrast ratio (Jackman 2010, 15).
Contrast
Contrast is fundamental in lighting as well as in colour, font and other artistic combination.
Millerson & Owens defines contrast as the “relative brightness of the lightest and darkest areas in
the shot”. They point out, that the loss of “extreme tones” in an image results from overly light
range which is beyond the camera’s capability, for example the hard light from the sun that
produces big shadows. Also, inappropriate contrast can be problematic, as if may dramatically
cast brightness over the details of an image. If high contrast is applied with hard light as the main
source without fill light, the quality of the picture depends on the camera’s position. For example,
if the camera stays in front of the light source, the objects may “look bright, flat and unmodeled”,
whereas only the edges of the subjects will be lit up if the camera goes behind (Miller & Owens
2008, 227-232).
Jackman regards the contrast management as the work of reducing light proportion in bright
areas and increasing the amount of illumination in poorly lit zones in comparison with the eyes’
interpretation of normal lighting. He pinpoints that the camera’s sensitivity together with exposure
setting together contributes to the lighting range, which makes it more complicated to handle
contrast. To obtain the best result, the cameraman should work with a collection of reciprocal
factors in which just one small adjustment can impact all of the others. These elements include
the subject’s light level, lens filters, camera’s type of chip (single or triple), camera’s sensitivity,
lens’ fastness, relative aperture setting, and the DOF. Luckily, there are only two indices that tend
to be changed while the others stay the same: subject’s light level and the aperture setting. The
alteration is done together with three types of light, namely key light, fill light and backlight, whose
definitions of which will be mentioned later. With the key light, zebra display can be used to set
the focal rate to avoid overexposure. On the one hand, Jackman assumes that f/4 and f/5.6
receives a lot of attraction, as most of the camera optics obtain precision with these numbers in
compared with “extremely wide open or closed down”; consequently, the DOF gains value and so
does colour contrast. On the other hand, he admits that with the capability of contemporary digital
cameras, running the shots with f/2.8 or f/1.4 is even feasible thanks to “high sensitivity and low
noise”. Additionally, the establishment of fill light at about one-half of key light’s brightness is
desirable to lighten up details in dark areas and sometimes backlight shining from above to
“separate the subject from the background” also helps to acquire the expected contrast value.
33
(Jackman 2010, 30-34.) In their writing, Millerson & Owens (2008, 233) also agree that a
combination of hard light and soft light brings about positive results. Moreover, they suggest
avoidance of high lighting contrast, which produces overly sharp images, and low contrast, which
results in flat-looking images.
Colour temperature and white balance
In accordance with Jackman, light is not only coloured in white but also in other tones, which are
called “colour temperature” and measured in Kelvin scale (K). He suggests two “benchmark
colour temperature” for the movie industry, namely “photographic daylight (5600 K)” and
“tungsten, or quartz incandescent (3200 K)”. This becomes important once the directors have
decided whether they want to film indoor or outdoor, because tungsten is for indoor shootings
with the colour temperature of around 3000 K, whist an outdoor film perceives “white” at a much
higher temperature - 5600 K, which falls under “daylight” type. Consequently, an image which is
taken indoor with photographic daylight balance will be covered with an unwanted “yellowishorange” colour. This is essential, because while human vision can register a variety of colour
which are recognized as “white”, camera can only select one at a time. (Jackman 2010, 35-38).
Therefore, camera needs white balance. This term refers more to camera adjustments, to the
setting in which we tell which colour temperature the camera should register as “white”. Besides,
all lights in use should be in the same range of colour temperature as the selection of white
balance (Jackman 2010, 38). Millerson & Owens (2008, 85) provides a more technical definition
for white balance, regarding the management of it in a camera as “automatically adjusts the
camera circuit’s colour-balance to suit the colour quality of the prevailing light and ensure that
white surfaces are accurately reproduced as neutral”. One can use the auto white balance setting
in the camera; another method is using a white or gray paper. This paper is shot in the similar
brightness as the subject’s, which the camera will use later to recognize the correct white balance
(The Digital Camera World, Date of Retrieval 06.08.2014). This setting can also be done later in
the editing phase with software such as Adobe Premier Pro.
4.1.3 Hard light, soft light and triangle lighting
Good lighting involves light sources, position and the arrangements. The concepts given in the
following sections explain and underline the importance of light sources and its positioning for
satisfactory illumination.
34
Hard light and soft light
The difference between hard light and soft light can be recognized based on the shadows. If the
highlight’s edge is sharp and harsh, the light source is hard light. If there is diffusion on the
subject’s shadows, giving it a softer look, then a soft light source (also known as floodlight) is in
use. (Jackman 2010, 94.)
In addition, Millerson & Owens provide the advantages and disadvantages of hard light and soft
light. The benefits of hard light involve sharp shadows, easy limitation of illuminated areas, strong
effects, and high brightness level which can light up the subject from a far distance. By contrast,
the unattractive and distracting highlights, high contrast, detailed revelation of pattern, and
additional lights required for vast zones are among the drawback elements of hard light.
Regarding soft lights, their strengths includes smooth shading, limited number of undesirable
highlights, less attention focus on “modelling and texture”, visible details, and large area scale as
good points; meanwhile, blurriness of the surface and texture, difficulty in restricting the desired
lighting areas, and dependence on distance to retain intensity are considered their downsides.
(Millerson & Owens 2008, 229-230.)
Triangle lighting
Triangle lighting, or three-point lighting, is a concept introduced by Millerson & Owens (2008).
These three lighting sources involve key light, fill light and backlight, which have been mentioned
in early paragraphs. According to Millersons & Owens, the best outcomes are from various
combinations of these three light directions. Among them, the key light plays the main role in
illustrating the subject’s “shape and surface”; the fill light usually stays at the other side of the
camera across from the key light, lessening the contrast and shadows without wiping them out; a
backlight (also known as a kicker) is placed upside down, shining from the rear to create contours
and separation between the subject and the background. While key light and backlight are
spotlights and share similar level of intensity, fill light is flood light and of about three-quarters the
brightness of the other two lightings. (Millersons & Owens 2008, 234-235.) Figure 8 illustrates the
concept of three-point lighting.
35
FIGURE 8. Standard three-point lighting (Wikipedia, 3 point lighting.svg, Date of Retrieval
06.08.2014)
In Placing shadows - Lighting techniques for video production, Gloman & LeTourneau (2005) put
emphasis on the significance of key light, because its brightness is much more intensive than any
other lighting source. Hence, it creates shadows that are useful in revealing the time of the day
and the weather condition. For example, an outdoor footage that is shot in high brightness
indicates a sunny day; likewise, the same scene with softer shadows “falling at a very oblique
angle in a warm light” tends to be the sign of a late afternoon. In a daytime outdoor shooting, the
sunlight can be considered one of powerful key lights. For example, in this video project,
whenever there was not enough lighting equipment at the shooting place, sunlight as key light is
apparently the best choice. (Gloman & LeTourneau 2005, 129-130.)
Millersons & Owens (2008) propose that if there are not many options, the key light should be
prioritized, then the fill light and the backlight. In some cases, a soft light source is less intense
but may outweigh a hard one due to its generation of more appealing effects, because hard light
as the single illumination source may cast unwanted strong shadows and cause excessive
contrast. (Millersons & Owens 2008, 249.)
In another source such as The Filmmaker Workshop website (Date of Retrieval 06.08.2014),
there is an advanced concept of four-point lightings instead of three, with the addition of one
background light that illuminates the background and completely sets the subject apart from it.
But no matter how many lights the director should arrange, the most important goal is to create
36
the right look and feel of the shot, which primarily depend on creativity and management abilities.
As student film projects have very little budget and equipment, creativity and organization skills
are always appreciated.
4.1.4 Lighting techniques
Lighting techniques include the methods to handle lighting issues besides the lighting
arrangement of a number of light sources. Millerson & Owens suggest five points that a director
should contemplate before adapting any illumination; these are light’s intensity, quality, contrast,
direction, and colour temperature. The techniques related to contrast and colour temperature
have been discussed in the early paragraphs. Regarding light direction, which the mentioned
authors assume to have “tremendous influence on what any subject looks like,” there is also a
suggested exercise, in which a flashlight in front of a mirror is used to illustrate the concept. In
this exercise, the flashlight is placed beside, above, or behind the subject to create different
effects on it. (Millerson & Owens 2008, 227-233.)
In order to handle light colour, according to Jackman (2010), using gels (or colour filters) is one of
the solutions. They are normally polyester plastic planes of transparency colour, and their
purpose involves converting colour or creating effect. With the correction function, gels change
the colour temperature along the “yellowish-to-blue” range and deal with the green component
addition or subtraction. On the other hand, the gels of colour effect “are intended to change the
on-camera appearance” of the light, where an intense level of tint is required. (Jackman 2010,
77.)
Regarding the quality of light, Jackman (2010, 34) provides an interesting reminder of the Inverse
Square Law, which states that if the distance between the subject and a light source is doubled,
the intensity will increase four times, and the same theory applies to spatial halving. As a result,
one method to control intensity is to adjust the distance from the lights to the subject. If there is a
lack of space, electronic dimmer and wire scrims are substitute techniques. Another method to
decrease brightness is to implement diffusion to the light (Jackman 2010, 34). Diffusion materials
vary and are commonly classified into three main groups, namely grid cloth (waterproof woven
textile), tough spun (nonwoven polyester fabric), and frost (sheet polyester). Nets and silks are
regarded as helpful materials to soften the intensity level and bring diffusion to particular areas.
Depending on the intention of use, their frame may be vast (for extreme sunlight), small (for
37
instruments), or U-shaped with an open side that holds the scrim as it needs to be hidden in the
shot. (Jackman 2010, 82-83.)
Also, according to Millerson & Owens, the intensity of light can be measured with a light meter
outside, by camera setting, or by reviewing it later. The reasons for underexposure may include
low light level, small aperture, and/or improper density of filter; consequently, the solution may
involve moving the subject towards the light source, applying a larger f-stop to decrease the DOF,
levelling up the camera sensitivity, and/or adding more lights. The method stays the same in the
case of overexposure, but with a reversed process. (Millerson & Owens 2008, 228.)
In horror movies
Horror movies may provide the optimal examples on how lighting affects our feelings. It is not that
other film genres do not produce good lighting, but in horror movies, techniques of light and
shadow can bring about immense fear. In accordance with Rose (2010), by “in horror movies,
light is commonly used to reveal or conceal the object of horror by employing various lighting
techniques”. One of them, “silhouette” the technique where back light is used to make the object
become a black figure of itself, is “the menacing posture of figure with the occasional use of
colour that creates suspense”. To craft the emotion of a face, another technique - uplighting is
employed with lights from below engraving shadow to the face, particularly to “the eyes, nose and
brow”. This change in human perception results in the feeling of “unease and mistrust” from the
audience. Spotlighting also shares similarity with silhouette in that it avoids easy realization of the
body. Finally, the use of shadows such as those of a monster or a killer moving along the stairs or
corridor is rather common in thriller films, as hiding the character’s real identity seems to be an
effective method to cast fear on people. Rose insists, “While you do not see the figure directly,
the distorted shadow exaggerates its features and feeds the imagination”. (Rose 2010, Date of
Retrieval 07.08.2014.)
4.1.5 Electrical safety when using lamps as light sources
When working with electrical devices, people should follow the precautions so that accidents such
as fire, explosion, electric shock, or skin burn do not happen. In the progress of making the
videos, the author also got a small burn on her skin when carelessly touching a light bulb at high
temperature. More than that, there is a likelihood of fire in a large area if the light bulbs are
38
directed to flammable materials such as fabric curtains for a long time, causing serious aftermath
not only for him/herself but also for other people.
The first thing to keep in mind, which is applied to not only light but also other tools, is the power
supply. For each piece of lighting equipment, there should be important information and
parameters on power input, for example, on the label of the tool. Equipment that requires high
voltage usage should be plugged in a suitable power supply. For instance, in Finland, normal
voltage is 230 Volts (International Trade Administration), whereas in the U.S., it is 110-120 Volts.
(Jackman 2010, 42.) Consequently, if the device is from the U.S., there should be a voltage
converter to use it in Finland.
Jackman provides the following tips for a safe use of electrical equipment. First, seriously inspect
the quality of the wire and the outlet to ensure that there is no power leakage from a worn one.
Secondly, separate electricity and water when filming outside. The cables should be unplugged
and covered at once in the arrival of storm or rain. Finally, avoid connecting the lights with high
amperage while they are on. Jackman recommends the use of a switch “that is designed to
disconnect the load safety and without a spark”. Jackman (2010, 53-54.)
4.2 The Camera
Not only can the content of the movie but also its presentation excite the audience. That is what
different camera angles can do. It replaces the eyes of the viewer, tells them the story in a series
of scenes that best engage with their emotions. The camera angle can affect the audience’s view,
bring in new experience, and adapt the subject to its best view in terms of art. For example, the
angle can make an object look more powerful, deceive the normal eyes about the real height of
the object, or create illusions. Camera is a good storyteller.
4.2.1 Camera angle elements
Camera position, or camera angle, refers to the presentation of on-screen subject which is
affected by “the area and view-point recorded by the lens”. Mascelli (1998, 24-49) suggests three
elements contribute to the camera angle, namely subject size, subject angle and camera height.
39
Subject size
The subject size refers to the relation between the image size and the frame. Because the movie
shows a lot of actions and changes of viewpoint, the size of the subject may also change
continuously during different times of recording. There are several types of shots that can be
taken into account: extreme long shot (E.L.S), long shot (L.S), medium shot (M.S), and close-up
(C.U) (Mascelli 1998, 24-33). In his later chapter, Mascelli (173-196) particularly divides close-ups
into more types. Also including those shots in his lecture slides, Riemke-Gurzki (2014) divides
them into more categories, with the extras of super close up, medium close up, and medium long
shot. Both of these authors agree that the closer the camera lens gets to the subject, the more
details it offers and the bigger the subject appears on-screen.
For better visualization, figure 9 by Steven Katz (1991, 122) provides an overview of each type of
shot in relation to the human size. As can be seen, the author suggests a total of nine types.
However, the E.L.S is not mentioned here as it goes over the size of a human body.
FIGURE 9: Basic framing heights for the human figure (Katz 1991, 122)
40
Extreme long shot and long shot both show the event from a distance farther than a human
scope. The former takes the view from a great distance; it opens up a vast area, typically from a
high angle to show the grandeur of scope, e.g. a geographical area or an army in war fights.
Closer than an extreme long shot, a long shot scene only concentrates on the location of action; it
covers the area that all the properties and characters involved in the story may fit in, with
observable exit and entrance. Long shots additionally reveal the size of an object in relation to
those of other objects. For instance, humans appear to be small and powerless beside a
skyscraper or inside a cathedral with high ceiling. (Mascelli, 1998, 24-26.) Figure 10 comes from
video Waste management, in which the shot can be categorized as a long-shot, as it shows the
whole restaurant looking from above without focusing on any special people. In figure 11, the size
of people is not as small as that in the first photo, but it also can be considered a long shot, or a
medium long shot, due to its revelation of the location settings in which the character is
performing.
FIGURE 10. A long-shot scene which reveals the shooting location and ongoing activities (Waste
management)
41
FIGURE 11. A medium long shot shows the place (a corner of the library) where the character is
doing her specific action (Waste management)
In a medium shot or American shot, actors/actresses are filmed from above the knee, or just
below the waist to the upper part of the body. The main idea of medium shots is to show fully the
gestures, movements, and facial emotions of an individual or a group of people. An American
shot prefers filming the individual from below the waist; just like in classic Western movies, the
shot shows the guns and holsters the character is wearing. Medium shot, a two-shot in which two
players have a conversation with each other, is considered important in movie making.
“Regardless of the size of the picture, whether it boasts a cast of thousands of a modest number,
the action always winds up in a two-shot featuring boy and girl, hero and villain, or hero and his
buddy”. (Mascelli 1998, 27-29.) Figure 12 is one example of a medium shot from video Reuse.
FIGURE 12. A medium shot (Reuse)
42
As can be seen from figure 9, the Close Up (C.U) type of shot offers more details, with five
ranges from close shot to extreme close up. The extreme close up can show the part of the face
that is expressing the strongest emotion. In Riemke-Gurzki’s lecture material, there is a shot of
only a girl’s smiling mouth as an example. Also, in his book, Mascelli dedicates an entire chapter
to discuss close up. The decision to apply a close-up shot brings the camera lens close to the
actor, in order to capture his whole face and facial expressions to better convey the sentiments.
Considering this type of shot, he becomes more specific on how close it is to the body. He divides
it into medium close-up (from waist up to above head), head and shoulder close-up (from below
the shoulder to above head), head close-up (only head), and choker close-up (“below lips to
above eyes”). Among those, a head and shoulder close-up is the default for the cameraman if no
specific instruction is given. (Mascelli 1998, 173-196.)
Close-ups are split into two groups, namely cut-in and cut-away. Cutting-in refers to the
enlargement of a part of an image following the previous larger frame. This provides details by
zooming in on the protagonist or the object to elucidate the action, presenting them in objective,
subjective, or over-the-shoulder angles. The cut-in type removes unnecessary objects, brings the
significant image closer to the audience, and accelerates the time. By contrast, a cut- away shot
is separated but still relates to the earlier scene by presenting a concurrent action in another
place. No matter how far it is from the first one, it should be “connected to the narrative”. A cutaway shot fits in with subjective, objective, and point of view angles. Depending on the situation, it
may be useful to show other performers’ response to the event, guiding the audience’s emotions
and giving opinions on the main activity by “showing corresponding action”. (Mascelli 1998, 177183.)
Above all, a movie needs more than one type of shots to tell its story. In addition to the
categorization, Katz (1991) argues that the relationship among these shots needs to follow a
“continuity style”, in which the order of the shots not only visualizes the subject, but also shows
the context. For example, in a movie sequence, the interwoven appearance of L.S., M.S., and
C.U. should support the flow of the story. A C.U. should only be used after a M.S. or M.L.S. to
help the audience understand the background situation before going to details.
43
Subject angle
Also, in line with Mascelli, the subject angle theory suggests that a subject be filmed with its
three-dimensional appearance. This approach provides depth to the scene and solidity to the
object. This theory also applies to the human face; if the face is viewed in its profile, the lack of
roundness is remarkable. Thus, the best appearance of a face model can be taken from “an
angle that presents both the front and side” that is about forty five degrees, also known as the
“three-quarter angling”. (Mascelli 1998, 34.) Figure 13 is taken from video Reuse. This close-up
shot reveals a forty-five-degree angle of the face turning to the right, thereby avoids flatness and
looks better than a straight angle. In this case, we can even see the direction in which the
character is looking.
FIGURE 13. A close-up shot with approximately forty-five degree angle of the face (Reuse)
Camera height
This term refers to the state of the camera, whether it is looking up or down to an object. It is
categorized into eye-level angle, high angle and low angle (Mascelli 1998, 35). They are also
applied to describe the type of shots when discussing about camera angle.
The level-angled situation places the camera in the same height, not with the eye-level of the
cameraman, but with the subject’s eye level, so that the top surface of that subject is hardly seen,
and only the front and side are visible. Thereby, the audience can follow eye-to-eye with a
character whether that person is sitting or standing. In a close-up that applies subjective view,
eye-level camera angle is the optimal choice (Mascelli 1998, 35). The Elements of Cinema (Date
44
of Retrieval 18.06.2014) website maintains that this shot is popular in video making, especially for
“romantic comedies” or news reports because of its neutrality and popularity. Weather forecast is
another example of direct eye-level angle use. In movies, level-angle brings about story-telling
atmosphere in which viewers do not bear any pressure in following the event. Figure 14 is an
example shot for this level angle.
FIGURE 14. A neutral event in the story with eye-level angle (Waste management)
However, despite the balance of shot view, the role of characters may not be equal due to their
postures. For example, according to Mascelli (1998, 31), if two people appear in the scene and
one of them is sitting while the other standing, the latter person will dominate the shot because of
better positioning. That is how “power” is defined in filming.
In a high angle situation, the camera needs to tilt down to take the view. Extreme long shots often
employ high-angle technique, as it brings about picturesqueness and aesthetics. This resembles
the view of a passenger when enjoying the landscape through a window when the plane starts
taking off. Psychologically, the viewer orients him/herself as more powerful than the subject
filmed; for example, when the camera angles down to a child, it applies the view of an adult.
(Mascelli 1998, 35-37.) Elements of Cinema website also agrees with this idea, summarizing that
“this position makes characters look weak, submissive, or frightened” with an example from
movie Matilda (1996).
45
Besides movies, high-angle and extreme long shot are usually adopted in sport events such as a
football match, to enable television viewers to observe the whole pitch from above and not miss
anything. This angle is also very common in tutorial videos, so that viewers can have a close and
clear look at the equipment and the steps, not at the person performing the task. Figure 15
illustrates this idea. On the other hand, figure 16 shows a bird-eye view, where the camera looks
straight down from the top of the subject, like the view of a bird (Cero, Date of Retrieval
12.08.2014).
FIGURE 15. High angle shows the main character and the objects that he wants to modify
(Reuse)
FIGURE 16. Bird-eye angle to show a clear view on the action (Reuse)
46
Similarly, in low-angle shots, the camera may turn upward to show respect to law and authorities.
Oftentimes, this method is applied when the director wants to film unique patterns that are in a
higher position in relation to the character, for example, the figures and patterns on the ceiling of
a church. In addition, the low-angle camera creates an illusion that the object is larger and more
impressive than its usual appearance; therefore, it usually helps emphasize the object’s
dominance in the event. (Mascelli 1998, 37-44.) Figure 17 presents a snapshot captured from a
low-angle. Using this view, the camera was cheating on the quantity and appearance of the
newspapers, making the pile look much bigger. Thereby, it becomes the main subject of the shot.
FIGURE 17. Low angle emphasizes on the amount of newspapers
4.2.2 Types of camera angles
According to Mascelli (1998, 13-23), there are three types of camera angles: objective, subjective
and point-of-view; these angles determine the viewpoint of the audience.
Objective angle
The objective camera, also known as the audience point-of-view, presents the event as the
viewers see. This angle places the audience as an outsider who follows the event without being
aware of other characters; therefore, no one should look directly into the lens or have any eye
contact with it. One example of objective camera is an extreme long-shot taken from a high angle
to show a landscape or a building and thus indicate the location of the scene. (Mascelli 1998, 1347
14.) In figure 18, the girl was filmed in an objective angle. This is a neutral film event and the view
obviously reveals the emotion and action of the actor.
FIGURE 18. An objective angle view (Reuse)
Subjective angle
By contrast, the subjective camera views from the personal eyes: in a moment of time, the
audience can replace a character to witness the event through their eyes. This angle engages the
emotion and experience of the viewers to an the event as if they were involved in the event. For
example, a scene that has a person looking off-screen may be followed by a subjective angle, in
order to show what this person is looking at, maybe a tall building, or an impressive billboard.
Thereby, the view first raises curiosity and then explains to the audience what is happening.
However, this angle may upset the audience if it is not used properly; the viewer may feel
disclosed or shocked if somebody in the event suddenly looks at the camera lens. An exception
that this direct-look is acceptable is weather forecast, in which the weatherman trades eyecontact with the audience to give anticipation of weather condition, or news program where the
reporter stands in front of the camera introducing the situation before doing an interview.
(Mascelli 1998, 14-21.)
The above snapshot belongs to the same sequence with figure 19. The movie event is as follows:
the girl moves along the site and sees a light bulb; then she takes the bulb into her hands,
thinking about something interesting. This shot describes the character’s viewpoint.
48
FIGURE 19. A subjective angle view (Reuse)
Point-of-view angle
Mascelli refers to point-of-view (p.o.v.) as the transition between objective and subjective angles.
He states, “A point-of-view shot is as close as an objective shot can approach a subjective shot and still remain objective. The camera is positioned at the side of a subjective player - whose
viewpoint is being depicted - so that the audience is given the impression they are standing
cheek-to-cheek with the off-screen player”. So, technically, a p.o.v. falls closer to the objective
angle category, but the lens is so close to the character that the audience can also accept that
the angle is subjective, even though the actor does not trade eye-contact with it. (Mascelli 1998,
22-23.)
Figure 20 is not a perfect subjective angle but rather a point-of-view shot, as we can see that the
character’s position does not allow this view to come from her own eyes. The key point is that the
object (i.e. the flower) comes so close to the eyes that the viewers can even feel they are
standing next to the main character.
49
FIGURE 20. A p.o.v angle view (Reuse)
Dutch-tilt (or Dutch angle)
According to Mascelli, this technique makes use of an unconventional camera angle to illustrate
unbalanced internal emotions. In details, the vertical axis of the camera diagonally switches the
screen to match the vertical axis of the subject, resulting in “weird, violent, unstable,
impressionistic or other novel effects”. Whenever a Dutch tilt is employed, the camera should
slope to a remarkable angle, so that it does not look like an accident. For more details, a left slant
indicates something “weak and static”, while a right one illustrates dynamic and strong-will.
(Mascelli 1998, 47-48.) Film noir and horror movies usually employ this slanted angle to depict
intense feelings (FilmmakerIQ, Ultimate Filmmakers Guide to Film Noir, Date of Retrieval
12.08.2014).
Angle-plus-angle
In this shot, the camera adds a slight slant related to the subject, plus a high or low angle, which
is known as “double angling”. This simply attempts to register all the facets of the subject and
avoids flatness, thereby capturing the most beautiful outlook. The three-quarter angling is an
example of the angle-plus-angle shot. (Mascelli 1998, 49.) The snapshot in figure 21 is taken
from video Re-use as an example of this view.
50
FIGURE 21. An angle-plus-angle view
Over-the-shoulder
Rea & Irving (2010, 167) define this type of shot (OTS) as “a shot of one actor speaking to
another when a portion of the second actor’s shoulder appears in the foreground of the frame”. In
this type, the focus subject only takes a certain proportion of the view, which looks over the
shoulder of someone standing between that main subject and the camera lens. Thereby, this
implies “intimacy and involvement” in the story (LAVideoFilmmaker, How to Frame Over-theshoulder Guide, with Pretty Pictures, Date of Retrieval 12.08.2014).
Mascelli (1998) considers OTS a type of close-up. He suggests that both of the players appear in
the same manner with an approximate match in angling and size, although this is rather
challenging. The most significant point is that “a back-and forth series of over-the-shoulder closeups must appear about the same to the viewer”. In an OTS, the cheek of the foreground
character should be visible but not the nose and facial traits; on the other hand, the back and side
should appear “from a rear three-quarter view”. There are two ways to present the foreground
performer: making his head and a part of the shoulder appear on-screen, or cutting off most of his
body so that only a part of the head is visible. (Mascelli 1998, 176-176.)
In modern cinematography, we can see creativity in the OTS shot from a number of directors,
including Steven Spielberg. OTS is one of the techniques that remind people of Steven Spielberg.
He stylishly employs OTS shots in which the shoulder occupies a relatively large part of the
screen; consequently, the main subject is pushed sideways. Furthermore, because of wide
51
camera lens, the foreground characters in Spielberg’s movies tend to look “much bigger than the
character, conveying a feeling of dominance” (LAVideoFilmmaker, Steven Spielberg film
techniques - with pretty pictures, Date of Retrieval 11.06.2014.) Figure 22 is an example from
Kiss of Death (1947) movie trailer. In some sources, such as Elements of Cinema website (Date
of Retrieval 18.06.2014), high-angle, low-angle, and eye-level angles are also listed in the topic
because of their influence to the underlying meaning of the shot.
FIGURE 22. An over-the-shoulder shot (Wikipedia, Kiss of Death trailer screenshot (10).jpg, Date
of Retrieval 12.08.2014)
4.2.3 Camera dynamics
The ability to capture motion by combining a series of images is among the superior elements of
cinematography over photography. Not only movement of objects but also camera placement
reveals creativeness of the director and adds value to the movie. Simply sliding the camera in
some cases may bring about amazing effects over static scenes. For instance, in his webinar
discussion HDSLR Filmmaking for Beginners - Basic Camera Movement (2012, Date of Retrieval
11.06.2014), Victor Ha provides some of the nice camera movements with slider.
Before going deeper into the aspect, there are common terms of camera movements that need to
be introduced. Primarily, basic techniques include tilt, pan, zoom, pedestal, dolly, and truck.
These words are quite literal: tilt means changing the lens position up and down on a vertical
basis; pan refers to the horizontal sideways movement, e.g. left to right or vice versa; zoom
moves the lens from back to front (zoom-in) or front to back (zoom-out) by adjusting “the focal
length of the lens” which therefore makes the subject size to be bigger or smaller; pedestal
52
signifies the move of the entire camera up or down, not only the lens (Cassidy 2009). In its
glossary, the Internet Movie Database website defines a tracking shot (or trucking) as “the
action of moving a camera along a path parallel to the path of the object being filmed”, whilst in a
dolly shot, the recording cam is moved towards (a dolly-in) or backwards (a dolly-back) with
respect to the observed object. Unlike zooming, a dolly moves the entire camera, so all the
objects’ sizes will change. (Cassidy 2009, Date of Retrieval 11.06.2014.)
Then, various combinations of these techniques result in more complicated ways the camera can
travel. In his movie Vertigo, Alfred Hitchcock employed numerous merged shots to bring
substantial experience to the viewer. For example, in his review, Jack Ferdman (Date of Retrieval
11.06.2014) points out that a dolly-back and a zoom-in combined in one shot exponentially
increase the character’s fear of height. That moment is when the detective character in a
Hitchcock’s movie jumps from the top of one building to another, nearly failing and facing death.
One of the key techniques is Steadicam. Nowadays, it refers to “all sorts of body-worn or handheld camera stabilizers” derived from the original work by Garrett Brown, who entered the
National Inventor’s Hall of Fame for his contributions to the movie industry (O’Rourke 2013, Date
of Retrieval 24.06.2014). In line with Harris and Perritano (Date of Retrieval 24.06.2014), the
human brain plays an important part in adjusting what the eyes see; consequently, the
disorientation caused by shaking movements of the body is ignored when the person receives the
image. By contrast, even when possessing some adjustment mechanism, a device such as a
camera does not have the ability to balance the footage as effectively as the brain can with the
human’s eyes. Therefore, when a simple platform such as a dolly does not work well on uneven
and craggy lands, the cameraman can demand another tool in order to smoothly track the motion.
With the invention of Steadicam, the camera movements become more stable, limiting the shake
of body and thereby making the shot much smoother. A simple Steadicam consists of an arm, a
sled, and a vest, the combination of which does not only eliminate the shake of body, but also
provides necessary mechanisms for basic and complicated camera movements. In short,
Steadicam refers to camera stabilizing systems. (Harris and Perritano.)
A brilliant example of Steadicam is provided by Lee (2014, Date of Retrieval 11.08.2014) in his
video essay with a collection of the five shots in which the camera enjoyed beautiful journeys.
They are taken from Hard Eight (1996), Boogie Nights (1997), Magnolia (1999), Punch Drunk
Love (2002), and There Will Be Blood (2007), all directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. Being led
53
by these shots, the audience has the feeling that the camera is telling the story of its own, without
focusing on anybody but still revealing the atmosphere of the scene. For example, in the movie
Hard Eight, not only following the character’s movement, but the camera also captures images of
the gamblers, giving viewers a glimpse of the casino’s interior, thereby deeply engaging their
emotion to the story. By contrast, in Magnolia, the camera only follows the father and son for a
while, and then enters its own journey around the building, with some random focus on the
people inside the house, before ending the trip filming the son again. Lee (2014) concludes, “It’s a
shot that wants to be everywhere at once, and nowhere in particular. The attraction is in the
camera movement itself as a spectacle of kinetic exertion: movement for the sake of movement”.
(Lee 2014.)
54
5 POST-PRODUCTION
The content of this part concentrates on the process of editing movie sequences, putting in
soundtrack, and making subtitle. The theories and practicalities will be discussed with specific
examples.
5.1 The continuity
In accordance with Mascelli (1998, 67), continuity refers to the coherent structure and
“continuous, smooth, logical” combination of visual and audio elements in featuring film activities.
He assumes that the continuity and editing phase should be prepared beforehand in the initial
planning phase, presented by a shooting script.
Due to the flexibility of time and space context in motion pictures, there should be appropriate
methods to handle these elements, thereby improving a movie’s “visual and audio values”.
Regarding time continuity, Mascelli divides it into four types: present -time continuity, past-time
continuity, future-time continuity and conditional continuity. Among those, the first type is
considered to be the “less confusing method” to show the story as the story flows in a “logical,
straightforward, see-it-now way”, so that the viewers are always interested in the events taking
place no matter what “story development, transition, continuity lapses” are applied because they
do not know what is coming next. The second type is applied either when the story was in the
past or when there is a flashback; it is used to reflect the change of time from present to past and
may explain the previous actions that lead to present situation. Although it allows the character to
narrate the story in the past, a flashback may break the “chronological continuity” and “disorient”
the audience. Also, the movie may become less attractive because the viewer already knows the
end. Likewise, a flash-forward is used to depict the future. Last of all, conditional time continuity
refers to an unreal time, which may happen only in the character’s mind and imagination. In this
type of continuity, “time may be eliminated, fragmented, compressed, expanded, distorted, or
combined in any manner, so that one or more event may be presented in a continuous manner impossible in real life”. (Mascelli 1998, 68-73.)
Space continuity relates to the movement of an action or an object from one place to another
while the story is going on, for example, a train journey or car trip. The audience should notice the
55
“location of action” and the “direction of the movement”. Normally, space tends to be trimmed
down or stretched out in the editing phase by creating “illusions”. For example, the movement of a
train is rarely depicted through time; instead, some event highlights and the changes of scenery
outside the window can bring about the idea that the train is moving all this time. (Mascelli 1998,
68-73.)
With reference to the breakdowns of actions to be shown onscreen, Dancyger (2007) sees eye to
eye with Mascelli. He supposes the editor should select showing either a necessary shot or a
“dramatically interesting” shot. He argues that there should be a reason a particular shot is
chosen to be part of the movie. As every second of a short movie is precious, all shots that
contain little information should be removed. The gap between scenes can be filled in many
ways, such as a combination of camera angles. For example, in video Re-use, when depicting a
donator traveling to the event “Take it or leave it”, parts of the scenes have been cut off instead of
one camera shot following him all the time (figure 23). His movements after entering the event
were also trimmed down. The following figure illustrates the actor’s series of action.
FIGURE 23. A snapshot of the character’s actions
Regarding continuity in editing, Dancyger (2007) divides the phase into two steps, namely “rough
cut” and “fine cut”. A rough cut is made by joining footages into the right order, and then they turn
into a “fine cut” after being modified following the director’s ideas. The former phase puts audio
and images continuously together, while the latter one provides “rhythm and accentuation”.
56
(Dancyger 2007, 361.)
To maintain continuity, Dancyger (2007) suggests the contemplation of which factors interestingly
contribute to the flow of the story, from shot types to camera angles. The editing phase plays an
essential role in doing that. Besides the selection of the best footages, their arrangement and
modification (e.g. what shot comes next and how they are tuned altogether) is another question
for the director to answer. For example, a cut-in close-up being placed between two medium
shots of the same background may help the close-up look similar in space and time with the
overall scene, although it may be shot at another place and put in later. He adds, “It requires
matching action from shot to shot and maintaining a clear sense of direction between shots”. To
have such a good arrangement skill, the editor should have a rich source to select from. This
comes from the shooting phase, in which the directors have caught the performance in numerous
angles, for example, they can use many cameras to feature the protagonist in a close-up, a
medium shot and a long shot. Dancyger assumes that a number of directors prefer filming the
whole movie in “long shot, medium shot and close up” so that they acquire “maximum flexibility in
putting the scenes together”. But this approach takes much time, effort and memory. (Dancyger
2007, 362.)
Mascelli (1998, 86-114) insists that the maintenance of direction is an important part of continuity,
as it provides clarity and consistency. Dancyger also agrees with this. Unlike actions in theatrical
plays or real life, the story flow and film sequence do not need to show every single move of the
actor/actress. For example, in a conversation that has more than two people, the direction in
which one character is looking and talking should match that of the other character. If the person
A is talking to person B, his or her eyes be directed to where person B is. Another example
provided by Dancyger (2007, 366) suggests that the directions of a character leaving and
returning to his house be reversed in relation with the scene frame. “Contrasting screen travel
may be used to show subject going and returning”, suggested Mascelli (1998, 88). This avoids
causing confusion to the audience. Also, cut-in and cut-away close-ups supportively create a time
lapse and let the scene flow more smoothly onscreen.
The first shot of the sequence should indicate the background in which the events occur.
Dancyger (2007, 368) calls this an “establishing shot” which reveals the context of the scene. He
writes, “An establishing shot of the location sets the context for the scene and provides a point of
reference for the close-ups, the follow action shots, and the visual details of the location”. Figure
57
10 illustrates the beginning of a sequence in video Waste management. The long-shot depicts the
overview of the restaurant at lunch time. This shot makes it easier for the viewer to follow the next
shots, which were taken from different corners of this restaurant.
While Mascelli (1998) concentrates on time and space, Dancyger (2007) describes continuity in
terms of rhythm and pace. He points out that the relation of shot-to-shot is highlighted by pace,
especially in action movies. The speediness of the action series combined with dramatic effects
brings about excitement to the sequence (Dancyger 2007, 373). An example of how pace affects
a movie can be found in all instalments of Fast and Furious, starring Vin Diesel and Paul Walker.
The series was made for people who love speed and cars; this fact explains the significance of
pacing, which is immensely and impressively featured throughout the movies. Adding pace to the
sequence belongs to the second phase of editing, after the rough cut has finished.
Timing and rhythm play key roles as pacing element. In timing, the editor should be able to justify
his decisions about where to put a cut-away or a close up in a movie sequence, whether to use
subjective or objective views, which transition to utilize between shots, and so on. In order to
succeed, the editor needs an “understanding about the purpose of the sequence as a whole”. For
example, surprise, a critical part in comedy, can be created through timing. On the other hand,
Dancyger supposes that rhythm falls under the “individual and intuitive” type of issue, which
people will notice if it is flawed. However, he also admits that there are more than just intuition
that contribute to a movie’s rhythm, for example, the proportional relationship between the “visual
amount of information” and the shot’s duration. If the information within a shot is considerable,
such as a long shot of the context, a shot of new information, or a moving shot, the duration
should be longer so that the audience has time to perceive and get used to it. By contrast, the
runtime of a close-up, a repeated shot, or a shot with little information should be cut down.
Rhythm is also affected by video transition types. Because an abrupt cut may shock the viewer,
dissolves are recommended as they signify changes and create much smoother transitions
during the sequence. (Dancyger 2007, 272-376.) For example, in video Waste management, a
transition effect (cube or wipe transition) is applied at the end of each sequence to prepare the
audience for oncoming new event. There is a fade-out between the two parts of the movie, the
narration and non-narration, in order to separate them as well as to offer the viewer some time for
thinking.
58
5.2 Editing phase with software
This section mainly discusses the use of computer software Adobe Premier Pro and Adobe After
Effects in making the videos. The theoretical base is extensive. However, this paper only touches
the basics and does not describe how to make every scene like a step-by-step tutorial does.
5.2.1 The composition
Composition refers to the planning and ordering film components that result in a “unified” and
“harmonious” condition. This definition also includes the activity of setting the scene with
appropriate placements of objects and players to fit with the director’s intention. The composition,
together with lighting, staging, and other arrangements, intentionally directs the audience’s
attention to the desired objects, actions, or performers at a certain moment of the storyThis
belongs more to the pre-production and production stage of the filming activity. (Mascelli 1998,
197.) This belongs more to the pre-production and production stage of the filming activity.
In editing phase that uses movie software, for example Adobe Premier Pro, composition
technically refers to the arrangement of existing movie sequences. A composition is made from
several sequences, effects, audio files, etc., and it can later become a component of another
composition. When there are already numerous footages in hand, how to reasonably arrange
them to create expected effects is not a simple task. The script has denoted beforehand the
placement of the scenes, but in the editing process, if there is an illogical event in the flow, the
editor can always rearrange them to yield a better product.
5.2.2 Adobe Premier Pro
Premier Pro is one of the video editing products developed by Adobe. Similar to Windows Movie
Maker, Final Cut Pro, or other video editors, this application’s functions are based on the timeline
concept. Figure 24 is a snapshot of Adobe Premier Pro’s user interface. The view provided in
Figure 24 is the default layout, which can be divided into four sections as marked.
59
FIGURE 24. Adobe Premier Pro default view user interface
Firstly, section one locates original footages which can be modified and put into a sequence.
Also, types of media other than videos, such as Adobe Illustrator file (.AI) and Adobe After Effects
sequences or images, are also accepted. Different types of file are visualized with different
colours when they are imported into section three: blue represents video footage, purple stands
for picture or image, and pink indicates an Adobe After Effects dynamic link.
Secondly, in section two, users can quickly edit the original video before putting it into the
sequence in section three. Users can extract a desired segment out of the video by marking the
beginning (Ctrl + I) and the end (Ctrl + O). In Figure 24, the selected part has been grey out from
the overall duration. Looking similar to section two, section four simply shows the final video,
which combines a number of different footages. In both sections, the users can also choose
which resolution they would like to process. In Figure 24, the Full resolution is adapted, but for
computers with low performance, it is better to apply a lower resolution, at which the program will
run faster and more smoothly.
Section three provides a timeline interface for the arrangement of various video parts. There are
two separated places for video (upper part) and audio components (lower part). Video footages
60
which are dragged into the upper part automatically include the audio in the lower part, even
though the original one does not have sound at all. To remove an unnecessary audio part is
simple, the users can right-click on the right track (for example, A1), then choose Delele Audio
Track. Before that, they should unlink the audio from the video file by clicking anywhere outside
the selected footage. Then, if a more suitable sound should be in the video, it is also positioned
within the audio area. On the other hand, if the user wants to mute the sound only, letter M near
the track name is the place to click on.
Figure 25 provides a better look on section three. The footages do not only stay in one track. This
resembles the concept of layers in Adobe Photoshop: the above layer has the priority to be seen
over a lower one. In this case, file logo_text, which shows the logo of Oulu UAS together with
Ykä-koira image imported as a link from Adobe After Effects, lies on top of all other layers. The
author wanted for sure that the logo is seen throughout the movie when the scenes change. To
make an image fit in the screen of the target video, the user can click on the image footage and
select Scale to Frame Size. However, it only enlarges or narrows down the image; it does not fix
the ratio between width and height, which means if the users has an image at different resolution
with that of the current video, they cannot expect it to lie neatly inside the frame.
FIGURE 25. Footage arrangement in Adobe Premier Pro
More than just trimming down and positioning the footages, Premier Pro also has other options to
optimize the video. Color correction is an example. This is a wonderful effect for an amateur
cameraman who finally realizes that some of the footages do not have enough lighting or produce
a more despairing look than that in early planning. Color correction does not fix all of the
mentioned beginners’ mistakes, but at least it provides some solutions. Figure 26 demonstrates
61
the use of this effect for a shot in video Waste management. As can be seen, it enhances the
appearance of the shot by making it brighter and slightly increasing the green and blue channels.
FIGURE 26. Color correction effects
Many effects including Color Correction can be located near the original footages (section two).
The user can switch the tab into Effects, which cover a number of optimization and modification
options, including Presets, Video and Audio Transitions, Video and Audio Effects. As shown in
Figure 27, color correction offers various settings to make the video look better. For example, in
this project, the author mostly made use of Brightness & Contrast, Color Balance, and RGB
Color Corrector effects. Adjustments can be made by dragging the appropriate setting onto the
target footage in section three. Likewise, the user can find many other interesting effects for audio
and video transition. For example, Cube Spins is a common and useful transition to mark the
beginning of a new sequence.
FIGURE 27. Adobe Premier Pro’s effects toolbox with a dropdown of Color Correction
62
The principal sound modification method encompasses volume fade-in and fade-out, which are
illustrated in Figure 28. Using the same concept of keyframes as in other Adobe software, Adobe
Premier Pro lets users make simple adjustments, such as volume fade in or out by marking
milestones. Figure 28 captures the keyframes set for Grace Behind the Curtain soundtrack. As
can be seen, the current position indicates a volume level of -287,5 dB, which surely cannot be
heard by normal human hearing, then, it gradually raises to a certain level after a few seconds.
The smooth transition between these two milestones simply produces a fade-in effect.
FIGURE 28. Set keyframes for an audio fade-in effect
A benefit for Adobe users relates to the resemblance and interrelationship among Adobe
products. For example, an Adobe After Effects composition can be embedded as a dynamic link
in Premier Pro. If changes are made to an After Effects composition, the embedded file in
Premier Pro will automatically update the modification, so that users do not need to import it from
After Affects. The same method works for Illustrator file (.ai) when it is imported as an After
Effects component. In Premier Pro, on the one hand, the users can include an existing After
Effects file by selecting File/Adobe Dynamic Link/Import After Effects Composition and
browsing for a suitable .aep composition. On the other hand, instead of importing existing file,
they can choose New After Effects Composition to open a new After Effects window, which has
the same resolution with that of the current Premier Pro file.
63
Figure 29 presents the output window of Premier Pro. There is a number of values to choose
including file format, preset (regarding the quality of the final video), effects, and so on. These
settings more or less affect the file size, so the user should consider balancing it and the video
quality before clicking Export. For example, AVI format may take up to about 10 GB for a fiveminute footage, which makes it time consuming to be encoded, transferred, or uploaded. In this
project, the author chose MPEG2 to be the customary output format, so the videos weigh roughly
600 MB each. After Export, Adobe Media Encore is launched to process the request.
FIGURE 29. Premier Pro output dialogue
5.2.3 Adobe After Effects
Adobe After Effects is another video editor with emphasis on animation. While Adobe Premier Pro
merely allows users to edit existing footages and have a limited source of animation effects, After
Effects possesses the capabilities of both Adobe Illustrator with vector graphical tools that give
users more options to be creative, and Premier Pro with video editing power. Above all, it features
the concepts of layers and keyframes, which are familiar not only in many Adobe products, but
also in other animation software such as Blender, 3D Max, etc.
64
The concept of layers has advanced to a higher level in this software, in comparison with Adobe
Photoshop or Illustrator. A composition in After Effects involves many layers. In addition, each
composition is also considered a layer, which can be embedded to another composition in the
same project. This separability brings about a number of advantages. Firstly, it is easier to
organize specific animations and then put them together in a bigger one. For example, in video
Air protection, when it comes to statistics about livestock sector, the pie chart was created in
another composition before joining the flow of animation, because the chart itself is fairly
complicated to create. Also, this provides excellent flexibility when files are imported to other
Adobe products, such as Adobe Premier Pro, where users can select specific compositions they
want to include in their new project. However, when files are exported, the default settings only
render the current selected composition.
Figure 30 provides an overview of the After Effect interface. Similar to Premier Pro, this software
has separate sections for imported files (section one), timeline-based layers with modification
options (section two), output video (section three), and special effects (section four). Users can
also rearrange these sections to create a layout that works for them. In the author’s case, the
default interface was in use.
FIGURE 30. Adobe After Effect’s user interface
65
Layers are marked with different colours in Figure 30. Files imported from Illustrator are light blue;
compositions set in dark yellow; red symbolizes text; and blue signifies a shape layer. Moreover,
there are null layer, solid layer, adjustment layer, and so on. This is no surprise, when working on
a composition, the user has section two displayed in a Hawaiian festival atmosphere with a lot of
cheerful colours. Every layer is supposed to have its own functionality, but it also depends on how
the user arranges it, because there are many ways to make things work. The default attribute for
each one includes Transform, in which users can set keyframes to change the Position, Opacity,
Scale, and Rotation of a layer. For example, in Figure 31, the Ykä-koira logo has been animated
by a movement and scaling effect. When new effects are adopted, there will be more settings to
manipulate. For example, in the pie chart of video Air protection, the sliding animation adopts two
special effects: Slider and Radial Wipe. These together create a particular clockwise sliding
movement that the Position attribute could not have handled.
FIGURE 31. Setting keyframes to layers
In addition to effects, Expressions is another way to manipulate the animation. They are
commands given to a specific layer to guide it on what to do. The same example can be taken
from the pie chart in video Air protection, where an expression directs the pie part to slide with an
offset one after another, creating a much smoother movement.
The last thing the author wanted to mention refers to the link between Illustrator and After Effects.
When being imported into After Effects, the layers in Illustrator remain their order, so the
animation is fairly easy to create. For example, Figure 32 snapshots the hamburger animation in
video Air protection adopts an Illustrator file with five layers with the extension .ai and are framed
in square brackets, which is marked with a yellow rectangle. Although residing in the same
project, they can be separately imported into After Effects; thereby, users can animate each of
the layers. In Figure 32, as a result of different movements, the hamburger components end up
spaciously away from one another.
66
FIGURE 32. A snapshot of hamburger animation, video Air protection
5.3 Sound
Audio is appreciated in this school project in two categories: soundtrack and voice-over narration.
The following paragraph discusses about them.
5.3.1 Soundtrack
Rea & Irving (2010) point out, that the use of music had been impossible until a sound mixing
process that enables music to be taken apart from the dialogue came into play in 1932. From that
time on, the influence of music on the viewer’s feeling has made it an the indispensable part of
any movie, from horror to romance, or just commercials. Besides promoting film mood, “audible
continuity” also stands among the reasons for the use of music by “holding together the separate
images on the screen”. Other capabilities of music involve connecting shots and scenes,
dynamically and intentionally inspiring a sequence, using “enhancement or counterpoint” to
“complement or underscore” the film, particularly presenting character through themes, indicating
space and time (e.g. bagpipes represents Scottish culture), and generating “emotional
expectation”. Furthermore, in some cases, music also indicates the genre of the movie; for
67
example, happy acoustic melodies may imply a love story, while up-tempo dynamic music
signifies a thriller, etc. (Rea & Irving 2010, 296-297.)
Music is legally protected like other creative products, so an up-to-date copyright of a soundtrack
or a piece of music should be verified before it is used. There are three ways to obtain
soundtracks for a video: using music or songs that already exist (copyrights required), using
“rerecording of pre-existing music or songs” (copyrights required), and owning the particular
tracks written for the project (copyright owned) (Rea & Irving 2010, 296). For students, the free
online audio library is the most economical source to retrieve soundtracks or sound effects. One
must invest a lot of time and efforts to find appropriate soundtracks for every single moment of
the film sequence.
Luckily, some quality audio libraries do exist on the Internet, for example, Youtube Audio Library,
which provides all the soundtracks for this video project. Youtube Terms and Conditions for Audio
Library allow users to apply its music to the products made entirely by them and not for
monetization. The download option strictly forbids the distribution in which the music is taken
apart from the video; its use for illegal content is also prohibited. Youtube Audio Library can be
accessed through the link: https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music. Figure 33 is the interface
of the library, with song name, duration, artist, genre and mood, popularity, download, and rating
options. Filtering music by genre is also possible.
FIGURE 33. Youtube Audio Library screenshot
68
It may take hours to listen to and choose a number of useful songs, with particular focus on those
with light, happy, and rather neutral melodies. The popularity rating is appreciated to choose wellreceived tracks. For example, video Re-use involves “How it began” (Silent Partner), “Grange
Party” (Huma-Huma), and “Cloud patterns” (Silent Partner); all of them are pretty popular. For two
videos Air protection and Green use of computers and printers, the melodies tend to be slow,
calm, and ambient, because there are also voice-overs. The purpose of using soundtracks that
resembles ambient music in a game is to please the ear of the audience.
5.3.2 Voice over
Voice over narration is the isolated sounds articulated by an unseen storyteller or an on-screen
character. Its uses include telling stories, commenting, or reporting. (Rea & Irving 2010, 293.)
Short videos of wild-life creatures such as ocean fish or forest animals commonly adapt
theoretical narrations together with subtitles to provide expert knowledge about life in nature.
Also, a narration may begin the story to give the audience necessary understandings of upcoming
details. For example, Bedtime stories (2008) starts with the narrative voice of a father introducing
his son and talking about his family business in hotels and introduces his son with a passion for
hotel management: “I owned and operated the Sunny Vista Motel, which I established on the
corner of Sunset and La Cienega Boulevard in Los Angeles, California in the year 1974. The
motel was my labour of love, and I ran it with the help of my child....To my boy Skeeter, the motel
was a wonderland way too hyper...A magical place full of new adventures for a six-year-old boy,
and he always tried to come up with ways to make it even better...”.
No matter when it comes up in the movie, a voice-over falls under one of these three
perspectives: the main character (first person), a secondary character (third person), or someone
unknown (omniscient) (Rea & Irving 2010, 293). This is similar to point-of-view storytelling in
writing. The example above in Bedtime stories (2008) demonstrates a first person voice-over with
the pronoun “I”. Although he is not the central character, the narrator has a role in the story and is
telling it from his unique perspective. Likewise, the third-person type is indicated by the pronouns
“he, she, it, they”, such as in Badlands (1973): “My mother died of pneumonia when I was just a
kid, my father had kept their wedding cake in the freezer for ten whole years. After the funerals he
gave it to the yard man. He tried to act cheerful, but he could never be consoled by the little
stranger he found in his house. Then, one day, hoping to begin a new life away from the scene off
69
all his memories, he moved us from Texas to Fort Dupree, South Dakota”. Finally, the omniscient
voice of an expert or a commenter providing educational knowledge is often employed in wildlife
documentaries,, for instances video “Octopus of the Volcanic Seas (Full Documentaries)” (2013)
on Documentary Spill Youtube channel, or in The Royal Tenebaum (2001): “Royal Tenenbaum
bought the house on Archer Avenue in the winter of his 35th year. Over the next decade, he and
his wife had three children and then they separated.” (Rea & Irving 2010, 293).
In this school project, the voice-overs belong to the omniscient type of narration. They are
necessary in three videos, Air protection, Green use of computers and digital devices, and Waste
management, because without narration and subtitle, the audience might feel difficult to follow
and absorb the concepts. The voice is performed by the author. Below is an excerpt from video
Air protection’s narration.
Scene 1:
Voice over and subtitle: Global warming results from unbalance in temperature, due to
unbalance in the planet’s energy coming and leaving ratio. That also means, the
temperature is high when the Earth holds too much energy from the sun without
reflecting it back to the space.
Scene 2:
Voice over and subtitle: This climate change may include huge natural disasters such as
eruptions of volcano, storms, degradation of ocean habitats, and so on.
The first requirement to create a voice over is a good audio input tool. After that, the voice may
undergo an editing step using software to filter noises, amplify, equalize, add sound effects, etc.
as needed. Most of current video software such as Microsoft Movie Maker, Adobe Premier Pro,
Proshow Gold, Final Cut Pro, and online video tools such as Youtube Editor allow embedding
pieces of audio into the sequence. Similar to soundtracks, a number of sound effects can be
found on the Internet, such as wind, door bell, elevator, animal, etc. Some sites, for examples,
are freesound.org, freesfx.co.uk, etc.
70
5.4 Subtitle
A subtitle (or caption) is a small text that appears on-screen and transcribes what the character or
narrator is speaking. It is used in cases of translating foreign languages, making the dialogues
more perceivable (if the narration is too fast or if the audience has hearing problems), or just
providing information. A subtitle can be done in real-time, such as in live events or newscasts, or
it can be processed after the movie is ready (offline captioning).
To see what comprises a subtitle file, a single file of this type can be downloaded and opened
with Notepad, a text editor, or subtitle software. Movie captions in many languages can be found
on websites such as subscene.com. As seen from examples below, a subtitle file is simply made
of timecodes, each of which represents a subtitle line and specifically entails the exact time, the
duration, and the text appearing onscreen. A person can create a subtitle file by writing the
timecodes and dialogues in this way, using a text editor and saving it in the correct format.
However, due to time constraints, finding help from subtitle generator software is much easier.
Figure 34 is an interface of Aegisub, a subtitle editor.
FIGURE 34. Aegisub interface
The interface of Aegisub can be categorized into three main parts as marked above, in addition to
the menu bar on top and the tool bar on the left. The first section displays the video together with
71
the appearance of the subtitle, with indices of time or frame number. The second one is the input
section where users can type in words or codes to manipulate the subtitle, e.g. fade in, fade out,
slide from left to right following a certain coordinate, etc. The topmost line in section three
(comment, actor, and effect) provides options for karaoke or complicated effects, which were
not used in this project. Also, it specifies the style of subtitle, which is default in this case. The
line right below it allows users to set the starting and ending times, duration, and text decoration
of selected subtitle lines. The Time and frame options let users do it either by time or by frame.
For the videos in this project, the author made subtitle based on time values. Finally, the third
section displays all subtitle lines with necessary information. Users need to work in this section if
they want to shift time, duplicate lines, or make a group of lines time-continuous, etc.
It is not difficult to learn how to make a basic subtitle file, but it takes more time to stylishly modify
the text. Luckily, in this project, there was not a lot of complicated features to adopt, so the author
only mentions the main functions that she used. The first one is style, which can be accessed
through Subtitle/Style Manager from the menu bar. The screenshot of Style Manager Dialogue
in Figure 35 illustrates this.
FIGURE 35. Style Manager Dialogue
72
People can change the text font, colour, size and save them collectively with a unique name,
which can be chosen on the first line of section two. In addition, margins let users offset the
position of the text. On the top right corner, the value opaque box puts a background behind the
text to increase contrast. This is apparently useful if the video contains too many colours that
make the subtitle hard to see. In this video, text size is the first to be changed, up to 60-65,
because the default one is for lower resolution.
One of the common problems is when the original video changes, maybe longer or shorter at any
point. It would be a burden to change every line to fit the new video. For example, when editing
video Air protection, there were 60 lines of subtitle and the author needed to make a change from
the 18th line. If she had edited the time of only that line, the following subtitles would have been
messed up because of time overlapping. Instead, the author used the shift time function, which
can be found at Timing/Shift Times, or Ctrl + I. It brings out the following dialogue in Figure 36.
FIGURE 36. Shift Times dialogue
The function enables changing the times of all the lines or of only the selected ones, shifting them
to be later or earlier in comparison with the current times. Thanks to this automation, all the
author had to do was highlight line 19 through line 60 and shift them eight seconds forward.
73
Finally, when the users are satisfied with the subtitle, they can go to File/Save Subtitles as... to
create a file with an .ass (Advanced Substation Alpha) extension. This can already be used as a
normal subtitle file. In most cases, if a subtitle file is located in the same folder and shares the
same name with the movie, the video player will automatically load the file and run it with the film.
74
6 CONCLUSIONS
This study was set out to explore the process of creating educational videos on sustainable
development for OUAS. In other words, this paper answers the questions of how to make a short
video. The outcomes of this topic include four videos of five minutes each and supportive
information on video making process, such as script writing, camera, light settings, etc. The final
clips are Waste management, Reuse, Air protection and Green use of computers and printers.
The study has been implemented through a research on the basics of cinematography and
practical filming. Elements in filming such as using different camera angles, building a script and
storyboard, etc. have been learnt through books and the Internet, as well as practiced to gain
personal experience. Also, recommendations were collected from lecturers and friends. And
shooting equipment was borrowed from the school.
This thesis has been structured by interweaving theoretical and empirical parts categorized into
three stages of filming, namely pre-production, production, and post-production. In the first phase,
the concepts of script, storyboard, film crew, and equipment have been discussed. The second
one captures camera and light essentials. Finally, the post-production mentions the editing phase
in which video editors Adobe Premier Pro and After Effects are at the centre of focus. Snapshots,
scripts, and storyboards from the outcome videos have been selectively embedded in this paper
as examples. The organization of content resembles that of a timeline-based diary, in which the
author discusses her work step by step along with the problems she has dealt with. There is a
strong relationship between theory and reality, as the former serves as the guide for the latter.
This study has been developed from work tasks and no new theoretical findings from making
movies have been found. Instead, the thesis will be a supportive source for further video making
on various topics, while the output videos may as well be used as visual materials for courses
about sustainable development. Besides, it can be used by any academic courses (e.g. Video
making course) if the teachers feel that the movie contents are suitable to be shown in their
classes.
There will be links in OUAS’s intranet under the section of sustainable development for the final
short movies, so that all the teachers and students can easily access. Besides, the videos are
75
available on the author’s Youtube channel. As a safe option, they will be stored in a CD-ROM and
given to the commissioner in case the videos cannot be retrieved from the mentioned channel.
The videos can be accessed online at:
Waste management: http://youtu.be/VQ_HZvSY7Ag
Re-use: http://youtu.be/MOyxK2gzD9I
Air protection: http://youtu.be/7kUkRlXrfzM
Green use of computers and printers: http://youtu.be/NPyvkfmTux4
Closed captioning (CC) can be turned on for subtitles.
76
7 DISCUSSION
Overall, the objectives set for the student in this project are rational and the results are
acceptable. The output videos are at a suitable length of five minutes per each and contain basic
information as required. Their resolution quality also receives good evaluation.
Although I had been making a number of short clips before, this is the first time I get involved in
such a project with several requirements from a commissioner. This gives me not only the
pressure, but also the motivation to make the movies as good as I can. The job is demanding but
rewarding. After finishing them, I feel very proud of the whole process and my efforts which have
been invested in. Overall, the truth that together with the thesis, I have real products to show
pleases me the most.
During the project, I had problems mainly due to a lack of pre-studies on cinematography
theories. Video Re-use was the earliest shooting activity, and up to that time, only about a quarter
of the theoretical parts had been studied. I wish I had known more when I filmed those footages,
especially about lightings. For other videos, there have been more or less improvements. I have
learnt that next time I should go from the theory first, before conducting any practical tryouts.
Also, the pieces of filming equipment deserved more time to practice with, as in many instances
they proved me a clumsy camerawoman.
Another value that I wish I had been able to adopt earlier is teamwork. Individual work was
challenging and time consuming, when I had two cameras and only one body trying to take
different angles. Also, without support, I had difficulties taking high camera angles. Above all, I
think having at least one partner would have reduced the whole workload.
Soon I realized, that it was nearly impossible to work towards the best solutions. On the one
hand, this required much more time; on the other hand, even though I thought it was the best,
there were always a better way to do. Especially when I asked a number of persons how they
thought about my videos, there were always new ideas. Some like, some dislike. Some propose a
change in the soundtrack, some point out that my editing has flaws. Therefore, the best solution
will be the one which meet the requirements of the commissioner and which I can give suitable
reasons for choosing.
77
As a result from this study, I have learnt movie skills and techniques, from building a script and
making the flow of storytelling, to editing footages. The knowledge gained from this is useful for
my future career, as well as for now that I know how to use software such as Adobe Premier Pro
and After Effects.
As time goes by, there will be out-of-date concepts that need to be rejected or modified,
especially in a movie industry that generally follows the audience’ taste. What I have written here
is what I appreciate as the basics one should know as a beginner. As I noticed, cinematography
is the kind of art in which opinions vary greatly. Therefore, although fairly useful for beginners, the
knowledge in this paper only serves as a reference, a starting point for further skill development.
The content covered in this project only touches a small area in this huge topic of sustainable
development, and there is plenty of room for more. Themes on economic or social pillars are
highly recommended for future video and research projects.
78
REFERENCES
Agence France Presse. 2014. Australia’s Great Barrier Reef will “disappear” within two decades
with no intervention. Business Insider. Date of Retrieval 24.04.2014
http://www.businessinsider.com/australias-great-barrier-reef-will-disappear-within-two-decadeswith-no-intervention-2014-3
Bordwell, D. & Thompson, K. 2010. Film art: An introduction. New York: The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
Cambridge in Colour. Camera exposure. Cambridgeincolour.com. Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014
http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-exposure.htm
Cassidy, K. 2009. Camera movement techniques - Tilt, Pan, Zoom, Pedestal, Dolly and Truck.
Videomaker.com. Date of Retrieval 11.06.2014
http://www.videomaker.com/article/14221-camera-movement-techniques-tilt-pan-zoom-pedestaldolly-and-truck
Cero, A. nd. Cinematography Intro: Camera Angles & Shots. Sophia.org. Date of Retrieval
12.08.2014 http://www.sophia.org/tutorials/cinematography-intro-camera-angles-shots
Cinemablend staff. 2012. Celebrating 5 modern directors and their signature styles.
Cinemablend.com. Date of Retrieval 11.06.2014
http://www.cinemablend.com/new/Celebrating-5-Modern-Directors-Their-Signature-Styles32314.html
Chapman, A. November 2013. What’s the difference between latitude and dynamic range.
XDCam-user.com. Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014 http://www.xdcam-user.com/2013/11/whats-thedifference-between-latitude-and-dynamic-range/
Dancyger, K. 2011. The technique of film and video editing: history, theory, and practice.
America: Elsevier Inc.
79
Documentary Spill. October 2013. Octopus of the Volcanic Seas (Full Documentary). Youtube
channel. Date of Retrieval 14.08.2014 http://youtu.be/iT3AFS9pgSA
Documentary filmmaking 101. Video Production Equipment - Low-Budget Documentary
Filmmaking
Gear
Check-List.
Date
of
Retrieval
19.06.2014
http://www.desktop-
documentaries.com/video-production-equipment.html
Elements of Cinema. Camera Angles. Date of Retrieval 18.6.2014
http://www.elementsofcinema.com/cinematography/camera-angles.html
Ferdman, J. Vertigo: An Integration of Style and Theme. Date of Retrieval 11.06.2014
http://jackferdman.com/essays_vertigo.html
FilmmakerIQ. nd. The Basics of Lighting for Film Noir. FilmmakerIQ.com. Date of Retrieval
08.08.2014 http://filmmakeriq.com/lessons/the-basics-of-lighting-for-film-noir/
FilmmakerIQ. nd. Ultimate Filmmakers Guide to Film Noir. FilmmakerIQ.com. Date of Retrieval
12.08.2014 http://filmmakeriq.com/2010/08/ultimate-filmmakers-guide-to-film-noir/
Gates, R. 1999. Production management for film and video. Taylor & Francis 1995, 1999.
Gloman, C. & LeTourneau, T. 2005. Placing shadows: Lighting techniques for video production.
Elsevier Inc.
Ha, V. 2012. Webinar: HDSLR Filmmaking for Beginners - Basic Camera Movement. Cinevate
Youtube
channel.
Date
of
Retrieval
11.06.2014
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kUbHc626ndU
Ha, V. 2012. HDSLR Filmmaking for Beginners 2: Beyond the Still - Focus. MAC-On-Campus
Youtube
channel.
Date
of
Retrieval
11.06.2014
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiLhT_NaXMk
Harris, T & Perritano, J. Introduction to How Steadicams Work. Howstuffwork.com. Date of
Retrieval 24.06.2014 http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/steadicam.htm/printable
80
Hodgson, N. Social sustainability assessment framework. Murdoch University. Date of Retrieval
15.04.2014 http://integral-sustainability.net/wp-content/uploads/sas4-2-hodgson.pdf
Hooper, R. 2012. Dynamic Range Defined. Vimeo video school. Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014
http://vimeo.com/videoschool/lesson/283/dynamic-range-defined
Hynninen, A. & Kuoksa J. 2013. Yleisurhelun esittelyvideo Oulun Pyrinnölle. Oulu University of
Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Information Technology. Bachelor’s thesis.
Iggy. 2013. Directing: the camera language of Paul Thomas Anderson. Howtofilmschool blog.
Date of Retrieval 11.06.2014
http://howtofilmschool.com/directing-camera-language-of-paul-thomas-anderson/
Internet Movie Database. Movie terminology glossary. Date of Retrieval 11.06.2014
http://www.imdb.com/glossary/
International Trade Administration. Electric current information for Finland. Date of Retrieval
11.08.2014 http://www.trade.gov/mas/ian/ecw/FI.html
Jackman, J. 2010. Lighting for digital video and television. Elsevier Inc.
Joanna. 2014. Yu Zheng reveals secrets behind launching A-List Actors. Jaynestar.com. Date of
Retrieval
11.6.2014
http://www.jaynestars.com/tv-dramas/yu-zheng-reveals-secrets-behind-
launching-a-list-actors/comment-page-1/
Joshi, M., Ravindranath, S., Jain, G. & Nazareth, K. Sustainable development: An introduction.
Internship Series. Date of Retrieval 15.04.2014 http://www.sayen.org/Volume-I.pdf
Kamula, M., senior lecturer, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Oulu. Multimedia lecture. In
author’s possession.
Kamula, M., senior lecturer, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Oulu. Desktop Publishing
lecture. In author’s possession.
81
Kates, R., Parris, T. & Leiserowitz, A. 2005. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable
Development. Date of Retrieval 12.04.2014
http://www.hks.harvard.edu/sustsci/ists/docs/whatisSD_env_kates_0504.pdf
Katz, S. 1991. Film directing shot by shot: visualizing from concept to screen. CA: Michael Wiese
Productions.
Klems, B. 2012. 7 ways writing a screenplay is different than writing a novel. Writersdigest.com.
Date
of
Retrieval
12.08.2014
http://www.writersdigest.com/online-editor/7-ways-writing-a-
screenplay-is-different-than-writing-a-novel
LAVideoFilmmaker.com. Steven Spielberg film techniques - with pretty pictures. Date of Retrieval
11.06.2014
http://www.lavideofilmmaker.com/filmmaking/steven-spielberg-film-techniques.html
LAVideoFilmmaker.com. How to Frame Over-the-shoulder shots: a Detailed Guide, with Pretty
Pictures. Date of Retrieval 12.08.2014
http://www.lavideofilmmaker.com/filmmaking/how-to-frame-over-the-shoulder-shots-detailedguide.html
Lee, K. B. 2014. Video: Steadicam progress - the career of Paul Thomas Anderson in five shots.
Sight&Sound magazine. Date of Retrieval 11.08.2014 http://www.bfi.org.uk/news-opinion/sightsound-magazine/features/video-steadicam-progress-career-paul-thomas-anderson-five
Mascelli, J. 1998. The five C’s of cinematography motion picture filming techniques. Los Angeles:
Silman-James Press.
Millerson, G. & Owens, J. 2008. Video production handbook. Elsevier Inc.
O’Rourke, J. April 2013. Steadicam inventor Garrett Brown honored. Videomaker.com. Date of
Retrieval 24.06.2014 http://www.videomaker.com/videonews/2013/04/steadicam-inventor-garrettbrown-honored
82
Oulu University of Applied Sciences. 2013. Assessment of theses of sustainable development in
Oulu UAS. Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014
https://oiva.oamk.fi/utils/opendoc.php?aWRfZG9rdW1lbnR0aT0xNDMwNzQ1NzYy
Oulu University of Applied Sciences. 2014. Environmental Guide. Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014
https://oiva.oamk.fi/utils/opendoc.php?aWRfZG9rdW1lbnR0aT0xNDMwNzQ0MTI3
Oulu University of Applied Sciences. 2013. School of Business and Information Management
environmental guidelines. Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014
https://oiva.oamk.fi/utils/opendoc.php?aWRfZG9rdW1lbnR0aT0xNDMwNzQxMDYz
Oulu University of Applied Sciences. 2014. Sustainable development bulletin - autumn 2013.
Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014
https://oiva.oamk.fi/utils/opendoc.php?aWRfZG9rdW1lbnR0aT0xNDMwNzUxODg3
Oulu University of Applied Sciences. 2014. Sustainable development programme of Oulu UAS.
Date of Retrieval 14.3.2014
http://www.oamk.fi/tietoa_oamkista/kestava_kehitys/toimenpideohjelma/2015/?sivu=7
Oulu University of Applied Sciences. 2014. The environmental policy of the school of Business
and Information Management of the Oulu University of Applied Sciences. Date of Retrieval
14.3.2014
https://oiva.oamk.fi/utils/opendoc.php?aWRfZG9rdW1lbnR0aT0zMTY2MA==
Riemke-Gurzki, T., lecturer, Stuttgart Hochschule der Medien, Stuttgart. Multimedia fundamental
technology lecture. In author’s possession.
Rea, P. & Irving, D. 2010. Producing and directing the short film and video. America: Elsevier Inc.
Rowse, D. n.d. Introduction to Aperture in Digital Photography. Digital photography school. Date
of Retrieval 01.08.2014 http://digital-photography-school.com/aperture/
Rowse, D. n.d. Introduction to Shutter Speed in Digital Photography. Digital photography school.
Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014 http://digital-photography-school.com/shutter-speed
83
Rose, P. 2010. Light and Horror. Speirs and Major website. Date of Retrieval 07.08.2014
http://www.speirsandmajor.com/thinking/light_and_horror/
Teodorescu, A-M. Links between the pillars of sustainable development. Petroleum-Gas
University of Ploiesti, Romania. Date of Retrieval 04.05.2014
http://feaa.ucv.ro/annals/v1_2012/EIB-12.pdf
The Digital Camera World. May 2012. How to set custom white balance for perfect colours. Date
of Retrieval 06.08.2014 http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2012/05/23/how-to-set-custom-whitebalance-for-perfect-colours/
The Filmmaker Workshop. 3 point lighting and 4 point lighting. Date of Retrieval 06.08.2014
http://www.thefilmmakersworkshop.com/3-point-lighting/
The Truist Blog. 2013. The three pillars of sustainability. Date of Retrieval 15.04.2014
http://truist.com/the-three-pillars-of-sustainability/
Thimmanagari, M. 2010. Introduction to bioproducts. Date of Retrieval 15.04.2014
http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/10-013w.htm
United Nations. Our common future, chapter 2: towards sustainable development. Date of
Retrieval 15.04.2014 http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm
Warner, K. 2011. “Captain America”: Chris Evans reveals the secret of skinny Steve. MTV. Date
of Retrieval 24.04.2014 http://splashpage.mtv.com/2011/07/21/captain-america-chris-evansskinny-steve/
Wikipedia. File: Aperture diagram.svg. Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aperture_diagram.svg
Wikipedia. File: 3 point lighting.svg. Date of Retrieval 06.08.2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3_point_lighting.svg
84
Wikipedia. File: E17 - korte sluitertijd.JPG. Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E17_-_lange_sluitertijd.JPG
Wikipedia. File: E17 - korte sluitertijd.JPG. Date of Retrieval 01.08.2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E17_-_korte_sluitertijd.JPG
Wikipedia. File: Kiss of Death trailer scrennshot (10).jpg. Date of Retrieval 12.08.2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kiss_of_Death_trailer_scrennshot_(10).jpg
Wikipedia. File: Sustainable development.svg. Date of Retrieval 08.10.2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sustainable_development.svg
World Wildlife Fund. Climate Calculator. Date of Retrieval 24.04.2014
http://www.ilmastolaskuri.fi/fi/en/user/page/show/name/page1
Yayadrop. Three pillars of sustainability. Date of Retrieval 24.04.2014
http://yadadrop.com/about/sustainability
Yle
Areena.
Prisma:
Taistelu
hiekasta.
http://areena.yle.fi/tv/2185425
85
Date
of
Retrieval
24.04.2014
SCRIPT - AIR PROTECTION
APPENDIX 1
Opening animation: Ykä-koira avatar zooms in to the center of the screen in green background,
text “Air protection” appears when the avatar slightly shrinks.
Movie: Small Ykä-koira avatar drops down from the top right, text “Oulu UAS” slides in from Ykäkoira avatar and they stay in a line.
Scene 1: ANIMATION
There are two separated lines of energy coming in and from the Earth, the coming-in line from the
sun is growing bigger, a red line appears and alertly blinks around the Earth.
Voice over and subtitle: Global warming results from unbalance in temperature, due to unbalance
in the planet’s energy coming and leaving ratio. That also means, the temperature is high when
the Earth holds too much energy from the sun without reflecting it back to the space.
Scene 2: ANIMATION
Zoom in the Earth from one point, showing volcano eruption. Switch to another point with
tornadoes taking houses away. Switch again to another point, showing smelting ices.
Voice over and subtitle: This climate change may include huge natural disasters such as
eruptions of volcano, storms, degradation of ocean habitats, and so on.
Scene 3: ANIMATION
Sun is shining hard on a tired people. Zooming out to see a crowd is lining to buy fans. The fans
price is rising gradually.
Voice over and subtitle: Or just small things that make us discomfort.
Scene 4: TRAFFIC SCENE, DAYTIME
A lot of car traffic is going on.
Voice over and subtitle: Greenhouse gases are considered to be one of the elements that keep
heat in the atmosphere and make the Earth surface warmer.
Scene 5: IN A KITCHEN
A pot is boiling hard on the stove.
Voice over and subtitle: Greenhouse gas comes from water vapour
86
Scene 6: AT THE AIRPORT, DAYTIME
A plane is landing on a quiet airport ground.
Voice over and subtitle: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide,
Scene 7: NEAR A FACTORY, GLOOMMY DAY
A shot on the factory’s chimneys in a dark weather.
Voice over and subtitle: and other emissions from industrial processes.
Scene 8: Black background with text “Carbon dioxide”
Scene 9: AT A CARPARK, AT THE AIRPORT, DAYTIME
A car is leaving the parking place, a plane is going to take off.
Voice over and subtitle: Carbon dioxide is a prevalent greenhouse gas mostly caused by human’s
activities such as burning fossil fuel to serve transportation, industrial process and electricity
provision.
Scene 10: ANIMATION
Half top of the screen: A car travels two way on a map on the route Helsinki - Oulu.
Half bottom of the screen: text animation: 116l gasoline = 272kg CO2
Voice over and subtitle: For example, a car goes from Oulu and Helsinki on a round trip may take
about 116 litres of gasoline which produces 272 kg of CO2,
Scene 11: ANIMATION
The half bottom of the previous screen pushes up to become half top.
Half bottom of the screen is now: text “= 133kg COAL BURNED, 9 days HOUSEHOLD ENERGY,
0,633 barrels of OIL, 89kg WASTE”.
Voice over and subtitle: equals to the amount of CO2 emit from 133kg of coal burned, the energy
that one house use in 9 days, 0,633 barrels of oil, and equal to greenhouse gas emission from 89
kg of waste sent to the landfill.
Scene 12: ANIMATION
Half top of the screen: a flying airplane.
Half bottom of the screen: text “705 million tonnes of CO2”.
87
Voice over and subtitle: The number is much larger with airplane. In 2013, an estimation of 705
million tonnes of CO2 was produced all over the world by flights.
Scene 13: OUAS
Students traveling to school by bicycle.
Voice over and subtitle: One solution is to avoid traveling by vehicles that do not use gasoline, for
example bicycle.
Scene 14: ON THE PUBLIC ROAD, DAYTIME
A people is swinging with skateboard on the pavement.
Voice over and subtitle: Or even skateboard.
Scene 15: ANIMATION
Two people are talking enthusiastically over Skype
Voice over and subtitle: Another method is taking advantages of technology advances, for
example using Skype or Google hangout to contact with people from far away when possible.
Scene 16: Black background with text “Methane”
Scene 17: ANIMATION
One piece of metal equals to 30 pieces of carbon dioxide
Voice over and subtitle: Methane is 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide in terms of keeping
heat.
Scene 18: N/A
Lake scene
Voice over and subtitle: Methane emits from manure management, fossil-fuel, landfills, natural
gas, petroleum system, and even in freshwater. When the temperature rises, the methane emits
into the atmosphere also increases.
Scene 19: AT A FARM, A HORSE CAMP, DAYTIME
The cow is kept inside a house and eating. A house is standing in the horse camp eating grass.
Voice over and subtitle: In agriculture, animal digestion process produces a large amount of
methane.
Scene 20: COMPUTER SCREENSHOT
88
Zoom in a website with the titles, and the details.
Voice over and subtitle: Let’s have a look at this practical example in Germany:
http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/farting-cows-blow-barn-build-methane-article1.1594986
According to the police, nearly one hundred cows had produced such high methane gas
level by their farting and belching that set the barn on fire.
Scene 21: ANIMATION
Operation of a hamburger to see 133 gr of beef, dividing into 3kg of grains, 200 liters of water, 7
square meters of land and 1036 Btu of fossil fuel, equals to 18 minutes of microwave power.
Voice over and substitute: In addition, raising animals require more energy, food, water and land
as fossil fuel, farm factory activities, etc. For example, for about 133 grams of beef in a
hamburger, it takes 3 kg of grains, 200 liters of water, 7 square meters of land to grow crops and
1036 Btu of fossil fuel for transportation and feed production, which equals to 18 minutes of
microwave power.
Scene 22: ANIMATION
A series of pie chart appears onscreen to show data
Voice over and substitute: According to United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization report
in 2013, the amount of greenhouse gases emit from livestock sector occupies 14.5% of all
greenhouse gas released by human activities. While beef and cattle milk production takes up
41% and 20% of emissions from livestock; pig meat, poultry meat and eggs only account for 9
and 8 percent.
Scene 23: ANIMATION
A cross to dismiss hamburger.
Voice over and substitute: Consequently, eating less hamburgers
Scene 24: ANIMATION
A plate with more green and organic foods such as banana, vegetables, onion, garlic, tomato and
carrots.
Voice over and substitute: and adopting a greener diet with more green things, less amount of
meat, may help reduce the amount of animal to be raised, decrease the consumption, amount of
methane gas and other emissions coming from their manure and farming factory activities.
89
Scene 25: BLACK SCREEN WITH TEXT
“Green the meal, green the day”
Black screen running credits e.g. author, camera man, etc.
Avatar Ykä-koira appears one more time. End of video.
90
SCRIPT - REUSE
APPENDIX 2
Opening animation: Ykä-koira avatar zooms in to the center of the screen in green background,
text “Re-use” appears when the avatar slightly shrinks.
Movie: Small Ykä-koira avatar drops down from the top right, text “Oulu UAS” slides in from Ykäkoira avatar and they stay in a line.
Scene 1: FLOWER SHOP, MORNING
Ella is slowly looking for a tiny plant among numerous colourful flowers in a small quiet outdoor
flower shop. Suddenly a message from her friend suggests coming at once to event “Take it or
leave it”.
Scene 2: OUAS’s CORRIDOR B, MORNING
Paolo shows interest in the “Take it or leave it” poster that he suddenly notices on the way to the
library on a dense bulletin board.
Scene 3: DENIS’s MAILBOX, MORNING
In a narrow walkway of a PSOAS student house, on the way to his room, Denis wearily checks
his mailbox, which is full of colourful magazines and newspapers.
Scene 4: DENIS’s ROOM, MORNING
Denis tosses a newspaper onto his existing pile of magazines and heavily plops down into a
chair. He skims through Oiva’s notifications and carefully reads “Take it or leave it” information.
Denis hurriedly checks the time.
Scene 5: OUAS BICYCLE AREA NEAR HALL A, MORNING
Hans brings a square carton of unnecessary objects including shoes, light bulbs, clothes, and
cables to school by bicycle in a nice summer morning. After leaving the bike, he brings the carton
into Hall A, then quickly unpacks and classifies them into the correct places.
Camera stops on the student’s way to catch the school’s name board.
Scene 6: HALL A, DAYTIME
Groups of students are checking and taking objects from the event.
Scene 7: HALL A, DAYTIME
91
Paolo leisurely walks along tables of re-use things and finally found the wires. He happily places
those tidy-rolled Internet cables into his backpack.
Scene 8: HALL A, DAYTIME
Denis excitedly digs at the mess of clothes before finding a large checked wool scarf. Also, he
takes the belt after considering its length and toughness.
Scene 9: HALL A, DAYTIME
Ella pays attention to the light bulbs and goes deep in thoughts. She enigmatically smiles and
decides to take them.
Scene 10: HALL A
Three scenes of Ella, Denis and Paolo taking useful things coming as small parts of one frame.
Scene 11: PAOLO’s ROOM, DAYTIME
Paolo energetically enters his room and quickly places the wires on the table. He professionally
connects the wires with his Wi-Fi adapter and successfully installs it on his laptop. Then, he
carefully rolls the wires and places them neatly into the toilet paper’s cores with four existing other
cables.
Scene 12: DENIS’s ROOM, DAYTIME
Denis swiftly rolls a lot of magazines and newspaper into long hard sticks and fixed each of them
with transparent tapes. He strongly tights the belt and shoe laces around to shape them into a
cylindrical chair, covers it with the wool scarf and places a lamp onto it.
Scene 13: ELLA’s ROOM, DAYTIME
Ella enthusiastically wears protection stuffs including gloves, glasses and mouth protectors to fix
the light bulbs. She carefully breaks its plastics and slowly pulls out the filaments. After cleaning
and filling the light bulb with water, she happily places small flowers into the shiny “light bulb
vases”.
Scene 15: BLACK SCREEN WITH TEXT
“People are reusing. How about you?”
Credits running e.g. author, camera man, etc.
Avatar Ykä-koira appears one more time. End of video.
92
SCRIPT – WASTE MANAGEMENT
APPENDIX 3
Opening animation: Ykä-koira avatar zooms in to the center of the screen in green background,
text “Waste management” appears when the avatar slightly shrinks.
Movie: Small Ykä-koira avatar drops down from the top right, text “Oulu UAS” slides in from Ykäkoira avatar and they stay in a line.
Scene 1: OUAS TRASH AREA, MORNING
Employees from the L&T Company are familiarly taking huge trash packets with from the bins into
a big garbage truck.
Voice over and subtitle: Wastes are valuable resources. After being thrown away, they travel a
long way before coming back and have impact on human life.
Scene 2: WALLU RESTAURANT, LUNCH TIME
There are leftovers on a student’s plate. Another student is blowing her nose with a piece of
paper.
Voice over and subtitle: Leftovers, dirty papers,
Scene 3: OULUN TYÖSTÖKESKUS COMPANY’s CORRIDOR
An employee carefully throws a heavy box of aluminium into the particular trash for renewable
metals.
Voice over and subtitle: Metal,
Scene 4: N/A
Glass bottle of wines are standing on the table.
Voice over and subtitle: glasses, and so on.
Scene 5: OULUN TYÖSTÖKESKUS COMPANY’s CORRIDOR
Lines of big garbage bins for renewable metals.
Voice over and subtitle: can be recycled into useful things, as well as power and heat generation
if they are correctly classified.
Scene 6: COMPUTER SCREEN
93
Screenshots of “Plastic shopping bags make a fine diesel fuel, researchers report” article on the
Internet.
http://news.illinois.edu/news/14/0212bags_oil_BrajendraKumarSharma.html
Voice over and subtitle: Voice-over and subtitle: for example, plastic bags, which are considered
hazardous and promotes throw-up culture, now involves in the process of producing petroleum
products such as diesel, engine oil, natural gas, and so on.
Scene 7: OULUN TYÖSTÖKESKUS COMPANY, CORRIDOR
There are big places of aluminium inside the garbage bin.
Voice-over and subtitle: Metals, by contrast, contributes to the materials that build up
infrastructure,
Scene 8: N/A
A tin can showing “Pantti” lines.
Voice over and subtitle: for example tin can,
Scene 9: A CAR PARK, DAYTIME
Cars at the car park.
Voice over and subtitle: auto parts,
Scene 10: A BRIDGE, DAYTIME
Bridge parts, sided with a lot of traffic going on.
Voice over and subtitle: bridge parts, and so on, thereby, we can decrease environment
exploitation through mining, because metals are easy to recycle.
Scene 11: SCREENCAST VIDEO
There are a lot of results displayed when searching with keyword “recycling” from Youtube. A
click on “Recycling plastic bottles” opens a new video showing an industry of plastic bottles
recycling. One more example with glasses.
Voice over and subtitle: just type in “recycle”, people can find lots of information about different
materials’ recycling, for example plastic bottles.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6R8YObQbE88
Scene 12: BLACK SCREEN
94
Voice over and subtitle: But, the question is, how to correctly classify the waste?
Scene 13: OUAS, DAYTIME
Four shots on OUAS’s overview, Hall A, Corridor B and Wallu restaurant
Scene 14: WALLU RESTAURANT, LUNCH TIME
A group of students are enjoying lunch while talking energetically in a full Wallu restaurant.
Scene 15: WING B, SECOND FLOOR, SOFA NEAR ROOM B248, DAYTIME
Anton is leisurely reading books and drinking water in a paper cup on a sofa in shining lights.
Scene 16: ROOM B328, DAYTIME
Lucy is printing out her lecture slides in an ATK room.
Scene 17: WALLU RESTAURANT
The clock ticks 12:00. The group of students stop eating and swiftly line up to the garbage to
deliver their leftovers, dirty plates and cutleries. Leftovers are thrown to the right bin, and dirty
papers go to the left. Text on frame: “For food” and “For paper” respectively.
Scene 18: WING B, SECOND FLOOR, SOFA NEAR ROOM B248, DAYTIME
Anton lazily checks the time. He drinks the rest of the water and throws it into the small trash bin
in the corner.
Scene 19: WALLU CORRIDOR
Hanna naturally throws the dirty papers into one of the four trash bins in the restaurant corridor. A
camera pan shows the labels of them.
Scene 20: ANIMATION
Text: Waste from metal
Icons appear piece by piece: (Horizontal line) a canned food, a beverage can, a glass packaging
lid, a dry paint can. A v tick at the beginning of the horizontal line. Sound “Ding”.
Scene 21: ANIMATION
Text: Waste from glass
Icons appear piece by piece: (Horizontal line) a white glass bottle, a green glass bottle, a brown
glass bottle. A v tick at the beginning of the horizontal line. Sound “Ding”. Second horizontal line:
95
A broken ceramics plate, an window glass. A x tick at the beginning of the horizontal line. Sound
“EEEE”.
Scene 22: ANIMATION
Text: Waste from food
Icons appear piece by piece: (Horizontal line) a chicken leg, an egg carton, a piece of paper, a
coffee filter. A v tick at the beginning of the horizontal line. Sound “Ding”. Second horizontal line:
A plastic bag, a cigarette, a water drop, a foil. A x tick at the beginning of the horizontal line.
Sound “EEEE”.
Scene 23: ANIMATION
Text: Burnable waste
Icons appear in first line: fire. A v tick at the beginning of the horizontal line. Sound “Ding”.
Second line: recyclable. A x tick at the beginning of the horizontal line. Sound “EEEE”.
Scene 24: ROOM B328, AFTERNOON
Lucy notices that there is no papers left. She rummages in vain through her backpack for more
papers. She starts collecting the papers which are left by earlier students, taking white papers
(one or two sided) apart and uses them for printing. After all, she closes the computers, printers
and lights before departing.
The video screen fades off as the light fades off.
Scene 25: BLACK SCREEN WITH TEXT
“Don’t waste the waste”.
Black screen running credits e.g. author, camera man, etc.
Avatar Ykä-koira appears one more time. End of video.
96
SCRIPT – GREEN USE OF COMPUTERS AND PRINTERS
APPENDIX 4
Opening animation: Ykä-koira avatar zooms in to the center of the screen in green background,
text “Re-use” appears when the avatar slightly shrinks.
Movie: Small Ykä-koira avatar drops down from the top right, text “Oulu UAS” slides in from Ykäkoira avatar and they stay in a line.
Scene 1: B248, DAYTIME
Ákos is using a computer in a quiet room.
Voice-over and subtitles: Computer,
Scene 2: B328, DAYTIME
A printer is printing
Voice-over and subtitles: and printer are two among many devices that will live longer if they are
treated correctly.
Scene 3: Black title: “#1: Look for certified label when purchasing a computer device”
Scene 4: Images of Energy Star and Eco Label
Voice-over and subtitles: The products that make use of less electricity than the previous
generation comes from certified label such as Energy Star and Eco Label. So, when buying a
new device, it is good to keep this in mind.
Scene 5: Image of a product that has Energy Star label
Scene 6: Black screen: “#2: Use laptop when possible”
Scene 7: LIBRARY, DAYTIME
Thong is sitting in the library using his laptop.
Voice over and subtitles: Usually laptops, notebooks and other thin clients take less energy than
desktop computers.
Scene 8: ANIMATION
Screen displays two computers’ information and numbers.
Voice over and subtitles: For example, according to a testing by Penn University, an Apple iMac
24 inch desktop computer consumes 146-154 Watts in moderate use and 141 Watts in boot time;
97
while an Apple MacBook Pro 13 inch notebook only uses 58-60 Watts in moderate use and 52
Watts in boot time. It can save more than a half of the energy used.
https://secure.www.upenn.edu/computing/resources/category/hardware/article/computer-powerusage
Scene 9: LIBRARY, DAYTIME
Continue of scene 7 with a close up to computer’s battery place.
Voice over and subtitles: Also, as an advantage over desktop computer, laptop was equipped
with batteries that can run several hours without electricity. This particularly nice with students.
Scene 10: Black screen: “#3: Be familiar with Power saving options”.
Scene 11: B328, DAYTIME
Thong is turning the brightness of a computer down.
Voice over and subtitles: When you are working, set your working monitor’s brightness to the
minimum that avoids your eyes to be tired fast.
Scene 12: ANIMATION
Line up text: Power saving mode, Standby/sleep mode, Hibernation. V tick at the beginning.
Line up text: Screensavers. A x tick at the beginning.
Voice over and subtitles: Other than brightness level, electricity consumption have friends, and
foe.
Scene 13: SCREENCAST
Showing the steps of changing power settings
Voice over and subtitles: To see your current power settings, go to Control Panel, Power Options.
For more details, click on “Changes Battery Settings”. You can see and modify the duration that
the computer will become dim, or the monitor is closed down, or computer to bet set to sleep.
More options can be found at “Choose what the power button does”, where you can set a
schedule for a lot of other devices, such as hard drives.
Scene 14: Black screen: “Sleep mode & Hibernation options”
Scene 15: B248, DAYTIME
98
Ákos is surfing the Internet when he suddenly has a phone call. Ákos turns the computer to sleep
mode before going out with his phone. When he comes back, Ákos presses the power button to
wake the machine up in its original state.
Voice over and subtitles: Setting computer to sleep mode when you are away for short periods
may save 60-70% of power.
Scene 16: ANIMATION
Difference between Hibernation and Sleep mode
Voice-over and subtitles: Hibernation is different from sleep mode. It does not put the machine
into sleeping, instead, it writes the current state of the computer into a temporary file before
shutting it down. So if you are using laptop battery, hibernate mode does not consume the battery
like sleep mode, therefore avoid losing data when the laptop is suddenly turn off.
Scene 17 : Black screen: “No screensavers”
Scene 18: ANIMATION
A computer screen with changing pictures resemble screensavers. A cross goes to deny it. The
screen turns into black and white.
Voice over and subtitles: Screensavers, unluckily does not contribute to power save.
Scene 19: SCREENCAST
Showing how to turn Screensavers off.
Voice over and subtitles: To turn it off, you can right-click to any place in the desktop, choosing
Personalization and go to Screensavers, setting it to No screensaver. Other way can be done
through Control Panel, Appearance and Personalization, Personalization and then Screen Saver
to bring us to the same destination..
Scene 20: Black screen: “#4: Turn devices off after using at the end of the day”
Scene 21: B328, DAYTIME
Ngoc is printing her documents in a computer room. After printing, she closes computer down,
turn the printer and lights off before getting out of the room.
Scene 22: Black screen: “#5: Use a power strip”
Scene 23: IMAGE of an extension cord
99
Voice over and subtitles: An electricity extension cord with a power switch is effective for central
turn-off point.
Scene 24: HOME, NIGHT TIME
A people is turning the power strip with many plug-ins off.
Voice over and subtitles: By using a power strip, you can be sure that all the digital devices no
longer in use.
Scene 25: Black screen: “#6: Save the printer”
Scene 26: B328, DAYTIME
A printer is printing. A student is sorting out the pages that are only used in one side, and take
them aside to re-use them.
Voice over and subtitles: For a printer, take advantages of both blank pages by using a doublesided printer, or just sort out the blank page and use them
Scene 27: LIBRARY, DAYTIME
A student is reading lecture slides alone at a corner of the library.
Voice over and subtitles: If you need to print out lecture slides, try to print several slides in one
page. These will save papers.
Scene 28: SCREENCAST
Voice over and subtitles: This can be done by choosing Zoom/Page per sheet in the Printer
option dialogue.
Scene 29: Black screen: “Use your devices greenly.”
Black screen running credits e.g. author, camera man, etc.
Avatar Ykä-koira appears one more time. End of video.
100
EXAMPLE OF STORYBOARD (REUSE)
APPENDIX 5
101
102
103
104
105
106
SCRIPT - AIR PROTECTION
APPENDIX 6
107
SHOOTING SCHEDULE – REUSE
APPENDIX 7
108
SHOOTING SCHEDULE – WASTE MANAGEMENT
109
APPENDIX 8
SHOOTING SCHEDULE – WASTE MANAGEMENT
110
APPENDIX 9
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement