Solar mobile power supply Bachelor’s Thesis Hu Libian

Solar mobile power supply  Bachelor’s Thesis Hu Libian
Solar mobile power supply
Hu Libian
Bachelor’s Thesis
3.2.2014
Engineering and Technology, Varkaus
SAVONIA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES
THESIS
Abstract
Field of Study
Engineering and Technology
Degree Programme
Degree Programme in Industrial Management
Author(s)
Hu Libian
Title of Thesis
Solar mobile power supply
Date
15/9/2014
Pages/Appendices
38
Supervisor(s)
Principal Lecturer Harri Heikura
Client Organisation/Partners
Principal Lecturer Jarmo Pyysalo
Abstract
The solar mobile power supply is a comprehensive energy saving and environment
protective product. Besides, it consists of solar panels, storage battery and controller as
well as other important components.
Based on the traditional solar charging circuit, this solar power supply combines the 5V USB
interface and 12V adjustable circuit as well as the 220V inverter and power adapter to greatly
improve the function of the power system.
This thesis introduces the internal structure, function and circuit design of solar mobile power
supply. Besides, according to the characteristics and requirements of the main circuit, the concrete
design steps and parameter calculations are explained as well as possible. Finally, the thesis
analyses the benefits and prospects of the solar mobile power supply.
Keywords
Solar panel, controller, inverter, storage battery
3
CONTENT
1 Introduction of solar mobile power supply ......................................................... 5
2 The generation principle and main influence factors of solar panels..................... 6
3 Solar direct current power generation and its application .................................... 8
3.1 Current situation and characteristics of solar direct current power generation . 8
4 Photovoltaic solar cell .................................................................................... 10
4.1 The Mode of solar cell ............................................................................. 10
4.2 The connection mode of solar photovoltaic cells ........................................ 11
5 Storage battery............................................................................................. 12
5.1 The function of storage battery ................................................................ 12
5.2 The selection of storage battery ............................................................... 12
5.3 Special requirements for storage battery .................................................. 13
5.4 The advantages of free maintenance storage battery ................................. 13
5.5 The main factors affecting the normal work and lifetime of battery ............. 13
5.6 The basic working principle of lead-acid battery ........................................ 14
6 Inverter ....................................................................................................... 16
7 Controller ..................................................................................................... 18
8 The design of mobile power supplier .............................................................. 19
8.1 The basic design idea.............................................................................. 19
8.2 Capacity design ...................................................................................... 19
8.2.1 Storage battery capacity ................................................................ 20
9 System configuration and component installation............................................. 22
9.1 The design and selection of operation interface ......................................... 22
9.2 System wire design ................................................................................. 22
9.3 Box design ............................................................................................. 24
9.4 Circuit design ......................................................................................... 24
9.5 The basic working principle of each circuit module .................................... 25
9.6 The box electrical component installation.................................................. 28
9.6.1 Battery fixation ............................................................................. 28
9.6.2 Inverter fixation ............................................................................ 28
9.6.3 Controller fixation.......................................................................... 28
9.6.4 The connection of controller circuit board wire................................. 28
9.6.5 Electrical components installation on control panel ........................... 28
9.7 Box assembling ...................................................................................... 29
9.7.1 The controller debug ..................................................................... 29
4
9.7.2 Power leads connection of solar cell board ...................................... 29
9.7.3 The performance test of solar battery board .................................... 29
9.7.4 Battery plate and aluminium frame fixation ..................................... 29
10 Power box function debugging ....................................................................... 31
10.1
The operation steps of mobile power supply ........................................ 31
10.2
Operation requirements of solar mobile power supply ........................... 32
11 The advantages and specification of solar mobile power supply ........................ 33
12 The market prospect of solar mobile supply .................................................... 34
13 Conclusion.................................................................................................... 35
14 References: .................................................................................................. 36
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
:
DC
Direct Current
AC
Alternating Current
PV
Photovoltaic
MDP
Main Distribution Panel
MPP
Maxium Power Point
DOD
Depth Of Discharge
GPS
Global Position System
PDA
Personl Digital Assiatant
DVD
Digital Video Disk
5
1 Introduction of solar mobile power supply
Solar mobile power supply is a device which can transform the solar energy into
electricity and reserve the electricity into the battery. The device basically consists of
solar photovoltaic cells, batteries, and voltage components. Besides, the power
supply can also charge from the electricity socket. So there are two ways to get
power. One way is from solar, and the other way from electricity socket. It is
convenient to combine these two ways in case that the solar energy cannot charge
very soon.
With the rapid development of economy and technology, more and more electric
devices are used by people Such devices are mobile phones, digital cameras,
cameras, portable DVD, PDA, MP3, MP4, and GPS and so on. All of them need
mobile power batteries, but the batteries cannot meet the demand of the normal
usage time because of low power capacity. So traditional mobile power supply
cannot solve the energy problem and we should develop the technology of solar
mobile power supply.
6
2 The generation principle and main influence factors of solar
panels
The solar panel is the heart of a solar electric system. There are various types of a solar
panel. The photovoltaic solar panels can generate electricity from the sun. The more
powerful the sun’s energy is, the more power you can get, although solar panels just
generate small amount of electricity in the shade. (Zhou Haiyan 2007)
Most solar panels are made up of solar cells connected together. A typical solar cell will
only produce around half a volt, so connecting them together in series inside the panel
can achieve more useful voltage.
The solar cell is the semiconductor device, which can directly convert the light into
electrical energy. Although there are a variety of forms, the basic principles are almost
same. The core part is the PN junction. When the incident light reflects to the battery,
photon energy is larger than the silicon band gap through the antireflective film into
silicon. In the N District, the depletion region and P region arouse electron hole pairs
(photo generated carrier). The photo generated electron hole pairs are generated by the
built-in electric field immediately after separation, and then the photo generated
electrons are sent to the N zone so that the photo generated holes can promote the P
district. When the battery is connected with the last load, the light current from the p
zone by the load to n region starts obtain the power output. (Ryan Mayfield 2010)
Storage battery
DC
Discharge
Solar
system
battery
DC
DC loads
Charge
Controller
DC
Inverter
AC
AC loads
Figure 1. The basic composition of photovoltaic power generation
7
The main influence factors of photovoltaic power generation are in the following aspects:
Low energy density: Although the total amount of solar energy to earth is huge, it results
in that unit area of earth can directly obtain small solar energy due to the large earth’s
surface.
Intermittence: On the surface of earth, solar photovoltaic power generation system can
only generate energy during the day instead of the night unless the space can provide
the continuous solar power generation under that specific environment where there is no
day and night distinction. But this situation does not match people’s habit of electricity
usage.
Randomness: Photovoltaic system is affected by climate obviously like snow days and
cloudy weather even the cloud change will seriously affect the power generation.
Regional dependence: Different climate depends on the different geographic location,
which cause the different sunshine resources in various regions. The photovoltaic power
generation system has the good effect on the areas with abundant solar resource.
8
3 Solar direct current power generation and its application
In 1958, photovoltaic power generation technology was firstly used in space equipment
such as the American No.1 artificial earth satellite. Following that, this technology was
extended to every field like military, civilian, industrial and so on. So far, the use of
photovoltaic power generation is various.
Photovoltaic power generation
ground application form
Grid-connected
photovoltaic
power generation system
Mobile
Independent photovoltaic
Micro power photovoltaic
Power generation system
generation system
independent
power system
Independent photovoltaic
Power station
Village independent
Public
independent
Power generation
photovoltaic power station
Figure 2. Main application form of PV power generation
3.1 Current situation and characteristics of solar direct current power
generation
The photovoltaic products commercialization sale in the Chinese rural and pastoral
areas began to develop from the 90’s with the help of national and international guide
and support such as some international cooperation projects, thus gradually forming a
certain scale. By the end of 2005, there were about 750000 sets of domestic solar
9
photovoltaic power systems into users’ homes. These users, most of them are pastoral
familes whose electricity consumption level is still relatively low so that the photovoltaic
power generation can generally meet their needs. In addition, there are some farmers
from forest and agricultural areas as well as the schools, shops and other small units
also using the household solar photovoltaic power systems. If the PV power
consumption of this household solar photovoltaic system is calculated as 80%, plus the
national bright project and power transmission of PV power generation station, there are
at least 1 million households mainly relying on the photovoltaic power generation system
to solve the basic living lighting electricity.
10
4 Photovoltaic solar cell
The core part of photovoltaic power generation system is photovoltaic solar cells, which
convert the light energy into electrical energy.
4.1 The Mode of solar cell
The solar cell of mobile power supply selects the monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic
solar cell.
Table 1. Solar cell standards (Baidu Library 2014)
Material
Efficiency (%)
Voltage(V)
Current(A)
Peak
power(Wp)
Monocrystalline
14-16
16-18
2
30
silicon
Monocrystalline silicon solar module is suitable for strong light conditions and has the
perfect consistency of solar component as well as impact resistance, certain seismic
resistance.
Figure 3. Monocrystalline silicon solar energy cell board (Baidu 2014)
The expected service life of photovoltaic solar cells in solar generation system is 20
years. The actual service life depends on the performance of solar battery structure and
local environmental conditions.
The duration of solar system installation and use should notice below things:

Handle gently

No collision
11

no percussion

no scratches
The lighting surface of solar battery cells should be kept clean. If there is any dust or
other contaminants, the operator should use the water to clear them and use the gauze
to dry the surface gently. We must remember that using hard object or corrosive liquor
will damage the photovoltaic cell. The installation personnel should pay attention to
prevent reversing the cathode and the anode when connecting the output of solar
battery components. The photoelectric parameters of solar battery components should
have the regular inspection according to some relevant methods. If some defects
happen, they must be solved immediately to ensure the normal continuous power supply.
4.2 The connection mode of solar photovoltaic cells
The series-parallel of solar cells can make up the solar cell array. Because the electrical
property of each cell component could not be absolutely consistent, it makes the total
power output of solar cell array less than the solar cells, which becomes the power
mismatch. The reasons for this: (1) The production process of solar equipment
determines that each component cannot be absolutely consistent; (2) The actual use of
each component will cause individual difference due to the occlusion, dust, surface
damage and so on.
During the connection process of the solar cell array and storage battery in series, it
needs to connect an anti-reverse charging diode. (Zhou Haiyan 2007) Its role is to avoid
battery discharging through the solar cell array when the short circuit fault occurs or the
solar cells are used in the rainy days. The diode has the one-way conduction effect on
the circuit. However, the circuit requires that the diode can bear the large current and
that the voltage drop is small. Besides, the reverse saturation current is also required to
be small.
30W solar battery cell
+
30W solar battery cell
+
Figure 4. The connection graph of solar panel
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5 Storage battery
The storage battery can store the energy through the chemical reaction and also can
release the energy to load by chemical reactions.
5.1 The function of storage battery
In the photovoltaic power generation system, the solar matrix converts the solar
radiation energy into DC power. The electric energy is converted into chemical energy
and stored in the storage battery.
The solar cell output power is in proportion to the solar radiation. When it lacks of
sunshine and the system needs repairing, the solar cell output power can be reduced or
be even without power output. According to the charge-discharge state, the storage
battery is divided into a variety of circumstances:
1)
When the loads turn off, the solar cell matrix works normally and all power flows into
the storage battery. The electrical energy is converted into chemical energy until the
battery is full. Then the controller turns off the process.
2)
At the same time in solar power generation, the loads are also in the working state.
At this point, the solar photovoltaic cell directly supplies the power to the loads and
the additional electricity will be transmitted into the storage battery. If the current the
loads need is greater than the current produced by solar cell matrix, it needs the
storage battery to be supplemented.
3)
When the solar cell does not create power, the power of loads is provided by the
storage battery. Therefore, the storage battery not only can store electrical energy,
but also play an important role in regulating power and stabilizing the output.
5.2 The selection of storage battery
There are many types of storage batteries. The lead-acid battery is selected to be used
in the solar mobile power supplier.
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Table 2. Battery standards (Gao Hai & Tian Qing 2009)
Type
Open circuit voltage
Capacity
Lifetime
Lead-acid battery
12V
32AH
3 years
Li-ion battery
4.5V
10AH
2 years
5.3 Special requirements for storage battery
Due to the particular factors of the solar mobile power supplier, its work is characterized
frequently in the repeated charge-discharge process as the battery energy storage
system.
Furthermore, some situations like overcharging and deep-discharging often appears.
Therefore, the lifetime cycle and working performance of the storage battery has
become the most concerned issue. In the current technical situation, the theoretical
lifetime of the storage battery is shortest among the main components of photovoltaic
system. ( Zhang Peng & Li Hai 2006)
Specifications and requirements:
1)
Deep-discharge performance
2)
Long lifetime cycle
3)
High tolerance ability for over-charging and over-discharging
4)
Less maintenance or free maintenance performance
5)
Good charge and discharge characteristics at low temperature
6)
Not sensitive to the high temperature
7)
High energy transformation efficiency
8)
High cost performance
5.4 The advantages of free maintenance storage battery
This storage battery has many advantages such as no need for special maintenance
even if the dumping of electrolyte will not overflow and not emit the hydrogen and acid
fog to the air, sealing packaging is suitable for long distance transportation.
5.5 The main factors affecting the normal work and lifetime of battery
1. Temperature
3. The depth of discharge
2. The rate of discharge
4. Partial discharge
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5.6 The basic working principle of lead-acid battery
The reversible reaction theory of lead-acid batteries in the charging and discharging
process is complicated. The effective substances and sulphuric acid are changed into
sulphuric acid compounds after reaction; it is recovering to the original lead and carbon
dioxide after charging. (Gao Hai & Tian Qing 2009)
Chemical reaction equations:
PbO2 + 2H2SO4 + Pb  PbO4 + 2H2O + PbO4
(1)
PbO2 = lead dioxide
H2SO4 = sulphuric acid (electrolyte)
Pb = lead
PbO4 = leaching tetroxide
H2O = water
Due to the development of the lead-acid battery technology, the major manufacturers
have introduced the industrial controlled valve or sealed battery, and the chemical
reaction principle is almost same. During the battery charging period, the positive plate
produces the oxygen, and the negative plate produce the hydrogen. Below is the
reaction equation:
Anode:
Cathode:
1/2 O2 + 2H+ + 2e
H2O
+
2H + 2e
(2)
H2
O2 = oxygen
H+ = hydrogen ion
e = electron
H2 = hydrogen
The Valve-regulated lead-acid battery:
In order to solve the water electrolysis after charging, the grid plate of the original valve
control accumulator was improved, which adopts the lead calcium alloy grid and
improves the electric potential of releasing hydrogen as well as inhibiting the hydrogen
15
production, thus reducing the gas emission and the self-discharging rate. Using the
properties of anode active material and spongy lead can inhibit the water reduction. In
the final stage of charging or over-charging, the energy is consumed in the
decomposition of electrolyte water, making the positive plate to produce oxygen. The
oxygen reacts with the spongy lead and sulphuric acid, so that the oxygen is converted
into water again. At the same time, a part of the negative plate turns into the discharging
state, thus also inhibiting the negative plate to generate hydrogen. The cathode material
can return to the spongy lead after charge, resulting in that more than 90% gas
generated in the battery float process can be eliminated. A small amount of gas is
released through the valve, which achieves the sealing condition. This is VRLA (valveregulated lead-acid) battery. (Zhang Peng & Li Hai 2006)
16
6 Inverter
1)
Brief introduction of an inverter
A DC/AC inverter is the device to convert the direct current into the alternative
current. In China, most of the families use the standard of AC power supply is 220V
and 50HZ. (Gao Hai & Tian Qing 2009) In order to facilitate the users to directly use
the electrical equipment and facility, it is needed to configure the inverter to
transform the DC to AC electricity. The inverter also has the automatic regulation
function, which can improve the power quality of solar photovoltaic power
generation system. In addition, compared with the 12V low voltage DC output
current provided by storage battery, the DC of 220V can provide bigger power
supply radius.
2)
Theory of an inverter
There are many types of inverters. Their specific working principle and working
process are different. It illustrates the working principle by the single-phase inverter
circuit.
As shown in the Figure 7-1(a), the input voltage is E and the R is the pure
resistance load of the inverter. When the switches K1 and K3 is switched on, the
current flows through K1, K2 K3 and the load voltage polarity on the left is positive
and on the right is negative; when K1 and K3 are switched off and K2 and K4 are
switched on, the current flows through the K2, R and K4 and the load voltage
polarity is opposite. If the two groups of switch K1, K3, K2 and K4 can alternatively
work with frequency f, the load R can get the alternative voltage Ut. The waveform
is shown in the Figure 5(b) below.
(a)Single phase bridge inverter principle (b) Alternative voltage Ut waveform
Figure 5. Single-phase inverter principles (Zhou Haiyan 2007)
17
3)
The type of inverter
According to the output waveform of the inverter, the inverter can be divided into a
square wave inverter, a ladder inverter and a Sine wave inverter.
The AC voltage waveform of the inverter output is the square wave, although the
used inverter circuits of the inverter are not exactly the same, but the common
specification is the relatively simple lines as well as the few power switch amounts.
The general design power fluctuates from 100 watts to 1000 watts. The merits of
square-wave are simple circuit, cheap price, and convenient maintenance; due to
the shortcomings of the square wave voltage containing lots of harmonics, it will
generate additional loss in the load with iron core inductor or transformer,
which will have interference with the electric appliances and some of the
radio communication equipment. In addition, this type of an inverter and the voltage
regulating range is not wide enough, and it has the big noise and other
shortcomings.
18
7 Controller
The Solar controller is the core of the system. It is used to automatically control the solar
power generation, battery charging-discharging, load management as well as circuit
protection. The controller plays different functions during the different chargingdischarging processes.
1. Fast charge Constant current
When the battery voltage is low, it can be charged with high current and high voltage at
fast speed. However, there is a control point, also called a protection point. When the
charging voltage is higher than the protection value, the controller can stop the charging
process. Otherwise it will cause the over charge, which can damage the battery.
2. Supplement charge
After the fast charge, the condition of the battery is just 80%, the supplement stage can
fill the battery to 100%. (Gao Hai & Tian Qing 2009)
3. Floating charge
The function of the floating charge is to help the battery keep uploaded.
4. Over-discharge protection
Generally, the voltage of battery cannot fall below a certain value, so the controller can
avoid the battery to discharge too deep.
Figure 6. Controller board (Baidu 2014)
19
8 The design of mobile power supplier
Better design can fulfil more specific requirements and get more advanced functions of
device. Besides, a logical design can make the equipment work more efficiently and
create more value, so the designer should pay more attention to the design area.
8.1 The basic design idea
The design of photovoltaic power generation system is divided into software design and
hardware design, and the software design should start earlier than hardware design.
Software design includes:

Load consumption calculation

Calculation of cell matrix surface radiation from the sun

Battery consumption

Calculation of solar array installation inclination

The forecast of the system situation and the analysis of the economic benefit
Hardware design includes:

Load selection

Solar battery box design

Selection and design of inverter

Selection and design of controller
Due to the complex calculations, the software design is usually completed by computers;
in some loose requirement circumstances, the calculation can also be solved by the
estimate.
8.2 Capacity design
For the design of the photovoltaic cell power generation system, the matter of priority is
the calculation determining the system capacity. The DC system capacity is determined
by two parameters: the solar battery module and the storage battery. For the AC system,
the inverter also needs to be concerned. These parameters are interrelated,
interdependent, and relatively independent. Among them, the solar battery components
determine the possible power amount of the whole system. The capacity of inverter
depends on the type of loads. The capacity of the storage battery is determined by the
power amount of charging-discharging and the maximum discharging and so on.
20
8.2.1
Storage battery capacity
The selection of battery capacity is one of the key problems in the household solar
photovoltaic power system. Battery maintenance is the highest cost in this system.
Battery design and unreasonable allocation will greatly accelerate the battery damage.
The too large capacity design will cause three problems: one is increasing the cost,
which is clearly not appropriate; another one is that the excessive capacity not only
cannot play the function of the equipment, but also increase the self-discharge and
unnecessarily consume the electrical energy emitted by solar photovoltaic cells; the
most serious one is that the household solar photovoltaic power system is generally not
large and cannot produce high current. Once the battery is too large, the storage battery
could not reach the full capacity condition, which will increase the salinization of the
polar plate and accelerate the battery damage. In contrast, the small electric capacity
cannot store the electricity produced by solar photovoltaic cells completely. Besides, the
battery is always in deep discharging state, which also easily causes the damage.
The formula of calculating the storage battery capacity is:
C
EOD
DOD
(3)
C = Capacity of storage battery, W*h
E0 = The average daily power consumption of load, W*h
D = The days of power supply, days
D0 = Battery discharge depth, %
Dn = Inverter efficiency, %
The calculation unit in this formula is the W*h. If it is transformed into A*h, it should
divide the system voltage. In addition, it should also take the effect of the temperature
into consideration on the storage battery.
The solar mobile power supply is mainly used temporarily, so there is no need to ensure
the self-sufficient days. In consideration of the usage condition, economic and
practicality, strong versatility, the design capacity is 32AH. This capacity can satisfy
most users’ needs.
The best charging and discharging current is generally based on 10 hours. As for the
32AH battery, both the best charging current and discharging current are 3.2A. Due to
21
the special character of the storage battery, it can choose the small charging current and
large discharging current.
Therefore, when the maximum discharge current is 10A, the discharging period is:
32Ah/10A=3.2h
(4)
When the discharging current is standard 3.2A, the discharging period is:
32Ah/3.2A=10h
(5)
Ah = Ampere-hour (the unit to measure the storage device capacity)
A = Ampere
h = hour
22
9 System configuration and component installation
The main purpose of this part is to optimize the system configuration and design and
finish the component fixation so that the whole device can work normally by the
combination of the system and components.
9.1 The design and selection of operation interface
The operation interface of mobile power supply should have the characteristics like
reasonable configuration, simple and durability, convenient operation as well as obvious
indication.
In this system, the switch controls the voltage meter respectively to measure the storage
battery voltage and adjustable output voltage. This system can supply the alternative
current for users through a DC/AC inverter and also have the LED lamp indicator. There
is a multifunctional AC output socket at the lower part of the box body in order to meet
the needs of various electrical equipment. On the other side of the operation interface,
installing the AC connector can help the user to use the DC electric appliance. At the
same time, the upper box has the master switch and the fuse wire.
9.2 System wire design
(1) Calculation of the DC input wire diameter
The solar power system should not only minimize the loss of the system, but also take
the system economy into consideration. The loss of the common photovoltaic power
generation system by the voltage drop is generally 2%, but because the domestic
solar photovoltaic power system is the DC current and voltage level is relatively low
solar battery module and storage battery match very well. So in the domestic solar
photovoltaic system, the standard loss from the solar battery to the controller is 5%.
(Zhang Peng & Li Hai 2006)
P 
S
U 2
 L
 U 2 /  
R
 S
PL
U 2
(6)
(7)
23
P = Power loss, w (Watt)
R = Conductor resistance, Ω (ohm)
U = Voltage loss, V (Volt)
 = Electrical resistivity, Ω·m
S = Wire cross sectional area, m2
L = Wire length, m (meter)
(2) Calculation of DC output wire diameter
R
L
S
u2
R
P
(8)
(9)
P = Rated power, w (Watt)
R = Conductor resistance, Ω (ohm)
 = Electrical resistivity, Ω·m
u = terminal voltage, V (Volt)
S = Wire cross sectional area, m2
L = Wire length, m (meter)
S
PL
U2
(10)
In the portable multifunctional mobile power supply, the design of the input wire line and
output wire line between controllers and the appliance is pretty important because of the
low operating system voltage.
1. The selection of the wire length
Considering the all-in-one machine principle of the mobile power supply, the wire
length is generally not more than 1 m.
2. Wire diameter selection
In order to minimize the system damage and improve the economy of the system,
the output line uses the copper wire and diameter is 1 mm. The wire area through
the inverter to an external load is 6 square mm.
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9.3 Box design
1. Material selection
In order to make the appearance to be beautiful and easy processing, the box should
be wood wrapped by drawing aluminium outside.
2. Box making
The box is made by the box making factory according to the drawing blueprint.
The box and related size are shown in Appendix 1.
3. Box function
The box body can provide the protection for the storage battery, inverter and
controller in case that they are not affected by the collision and water damage. The
box body is a metal structure. Besides, the box cover and the box body are
connected through a hinge connection. There are lap joints between the box cover
and body, which can conveniently open or close the power box. The box sides are
pressed with the reinforcing rib and also have a pull rod below the box. The box is
designed with a handle on the side, which is easy to carry. The storage battery is in
the middle position of the box. The inverter and controller are respectively in the
interior sides of the box. The panel board installs a variety of output, input socket,
display meter, control switch and other operating components.
9.4
Circuit design
The controller of portable multifunctional mobile power supply is the part of circuit and
should also have the intelligent charge-discharge control, various obvious indications,
economic
and
durable,
conveniently
operable,
reliable,
sensitive
and
other
characteristics. So the controller should have the following functions:

Signal detection
The detection of photovoltaic system device and each unit state and parameters
can provide the basis for the system judgment, control and protection. The
necessary physical quantity detection is the input voltage, the charging voltage,
output voltage and output current.
25

Optimum battery charging control
The controller determines the best way to achieve the efficient charging based on
the current solar resources and battery charging state. Furthermore, the controller
should also consider the charging method affecting on the battery life.

Battery discharge management
For the management of storage battery discharge process, the load can
automatically control the machine to switch off and switch on, preventing the load
ending the voltage by error protection etc.

Equipment protection
The electrical equipment connected by the photovoltaic system needs the controller
to provide protection in some cases such as the inverter circuit fault and the
emergence of load short-circuit and over-current. If the situation is not controlled in
time, it may cause the damage on the electric equipment of the photovoltaic system.

Fault diagnosis
When a fault occurs in photovoltaic system, the system can automatically detect the
fault types and indicate the fault accurate location, which can offer the convenience
for the system maintenance.

Operation status indication
The operation status of the photovoltaic system and the fault information can be
indicated through the indicating lamp. Photovoltaic system plays its function under
the management of the controller. The controller can use a variety of technical
means to achieve its control function. There is a most common logical control based
on simulative and digital circuit controller through the relevant parameters
measurement. The circuit can realize the specific control function by the calculation
and judgement.
The controller circuit is divided into five modules circuit diagram.
9.5 The basic working principle of each circuit module
1. The basic principle of charging circuit
The charging voltage of solar panels is 16.8V~18V. Therefore, in order to prevent
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the battery overcharging and electrolyte boiling, the battery voltage is limited in
14.8V. When the battery voltage is higher than 14.8V, a relay is normally closed
state. On the contrary, the relay is in the operating state.
2. The basic principle of discharging circuit
When the battery storage drops to 10.8V, in order to prevent the depth of discharge
and the battery power depletion, the load and the battery should be separated at this
time. The working principle of discharge circuit and technical parameters analysis
are similar with the charging circuit. Regulating the precise positioner RP2 resistance
can reduce the battery voltage to 10.8V and the battery no longer supplies power.
3. The basic principle of DC5V circuit
In the 5V generation circuit, through the LM2575 transforming the 12V to 5V, the
output current is far greater than the input current, which is decided by the energy
conservation. The pin 4 is a feedback effect, so most of the current goes through the
pin. The general charging current is 500MA with the help of big heat sink solving the
overheating. (Zhang Peng & Li Hai 2006)
4. The basic principle of adjustable output circuit
The output voltage range of adjustable output circuit is 0-11V. The LM317 pin 1 is
connected with the ground wound resistors by a wire. The adjustment of wire wound
resistors can achieve the purpose of adjustable voltage output.
5. The basic principle of DC12V output circuit.
In the discharge circuit, the voltage of the battery is the relay J2 output and its value
is about 12V. By connecting the inverter, it can obtain the A220V voltage.
6. Circuit board welding
The circuit board is produced by the manufacturer according to the circuit drawings.
The required electronic element of circuit board refers to the circuit drawings. The
electronic element name is marked according to the circuit drawings. Besides, the
electronic devices are welded on the circuit board by the electronic iron. During the
welding period, the operator should pay attention to the temperature and the amount
of the solder, to avoid welding too fast and cause overheating to affect the device
quality. At the same time, the operator should focus on checking the solder joints to
prevent the insufficient solder joints. The final job is to coat the thermal grease on the
heat sink of electronic heating component. (Zhang Peng & Li Hai 2006)
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Figure 7. Circuit diagram
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9.6 The box electrical component installation
The electrical component installation includes the battery, inverter, controller, circuit and
so on.
9.6.1
Battery fixation
The battery is put in the bottom slot of battery box, and then the U aluminium strip is
used buckling the battery. The aluminium strip is fixed by a fixing screw. Finally, the
separator at the junction and the aluminium strip should be painted with the silica gel to
prevent loosening.
9.6.2
Inverter fixation
The fixation of the inverter is the same way than the way of battery. Before fixation, the
operator should install the inverter work indicating lamp (double colour, common
cathode or common anode), power outlet and wire control switch to the specified
location of control panel.
9.6.3
Controller fixation
The controller should be installed into the groove relatively near the control panel bottom,
using a screw to fix it and make hot silica gel to prevent loosening.
9.6.4
The connection of controller circuit board wire
According to the wire column installation drawing, the wire is wired into the connecting
plug, and then inserted into a connecting groove corresponding to the circuit board. The
diameter of the metal wire inner core is inappropriately too small and the suitable size is
3 mm. Furthermore, the length of the wire should not be too long, which can reduce the
loss of the voltage and avoid affecting the normal power output.
9.6.5
Electrical components installation on control panel
First the high performance and good quality components must be selected. Then the
components should be installed on the control panel and fix all of the components
except the voltage meter. The voltage meter is inserted into the control panel not fixed. It
is convenient to fix the screw on the control board.
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9.7 Box assembling
The assemble process is to fix the each part in the specific location inside the box.
9.7.1
The controller debug
After each transmission wire is finished connection, the operator should check each line
is connected properly by using the electrical multimeter. As for the control plate
connection, the operator should check whether the various functions can meet the
specific requirements. (Ryan Mayfield 2010)
9.7.2
Power leads connection of solar cell board
The operator should use the appropriate wire length to connect the power battery plate
lead wire. After connection with two diodes, the metal wire should be wrapped by
insulation tape.
9.7.3
The performance test of solar battery board
The voltage meter can measure the function usage situation of solar panel. First of all,
the anode and cathode of voltage meter should be connected to the two poles of the
storage battery. Then using the opaque objects can shelter the upper and lower panels
respectively. After that, we should check the numerical voltage fluctuation situation. As
for the result, the numerical change shows the battery board playing the function.
Otherwise, it needs to continue debugging the device.
9.7.4
1)
Battery plate and aluminium frame fixation
Drilling the holes on the upper part of box body
The operator should drill two 4 mm diameter holes on the left and right sides of the
box cover respectively. When punching on the box body, it should use the nail
hitting a groove in the centre location to prevent the slippage.
2)
Drilling the hole on the aluminium frame
The solar battery plate is put into the box body and the level of plate is parallel to
the box body panel. Then the self-tapping screws are drilled into the hole by using a
screwdriver. When the screws touch the aluminium frame, the operator should
30
control his strength slightly so that the screw can leave traces on the surface of
aluminium frame, then stop the drilling. It is worth noticing that whether the drilling
location can meet the standard requirements. If there is no conflict, then the
operator starts to drill holes in the battery plate according to the traces left by the
screws. If there is a conflict, the operator must adjust the position of holes and then
determine the location of aluminium frame.
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10 Power box function debugging
The various electrical function debugging includes the adapter charging, indicating
lamp working state as well as the solar panel charge situation and so on. If the power
supply is kept at home for a long time, the battery needs to be charged every three
months.
10.1 The operation steps of mobile power supply
1)
Main power initiation
The first step is to press the “main switch” button by hand; therefore the circuit
power system is switched on. The “indicating lamp 1” and “indicating lamp 2” begin
to display the current operating state of the circuit power. Before using this device,
we should detect the state of the green lights. As the result, the state indicates that
the battery internal power is sufficient and it is in the normal state of preparation. If
the red light is bright, the storage battery needs to be charged, because this state
indicates that the battery is in the under voltage condition.
2)
Charging process of the power supply box
If the weather permits, it can use the solar energy to charge the power box. Firstly,
putting the box in the good light conditions can benefit the equipment to absorb
more power, and then open the upper cover to spread the solar panel as vertical as
possible with the sunshine. At this time, the indicating lamp is red. When the light
turns into the green, it means the power is full. During the process of charging, the
device allows to provide power to the load. After the storage battery is full, the solar
photovoltaic system can also provide power for the loads.
3)
Output of alternative current
The circuit is switched on the AC output when it opens the “AC switch” button. At
this time, the green light shows that the AC output circuit starts to work. The output
ability of universal socket is AC 220V/110V. (Ryan Mayfield 2010)
4)
USB(5V) voltage output
Ensuring the total power opening state, you can use USB (5V) voltage output
function. The electrical equipment can be inserted into the USB joint on the USB
output interface. Following that, the 5V voltage starts to supply the power for the
electronic equipment. It needs to pay attention to that the load current should not
exceed 1A. Besides, overload will cause the power transmission damage.
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10.2 Operation requirements of solar mobile power supply
1. Environment conditions:
(1) Altitude below 1000m (2) air temperature: -25~+50℃ (3)humidity: 30%~40%
(Zhou Haiyan 2007)
2. Charging mode:
a)
Solar panel charging voltage: DC16V~18V Charging current: ≦2A
b)
Charger input voltage:AC220V/110V, frequency 50/60Hz ; output voltage
14V, current 3.5A
c)
Charging duration: about 8~10 hours (solar charge); about 5~8 hours(rectifier
charge)
d)
Current output voltage: 0V~11V/3A continuous adjustment (±2%), 5V/1A (USB
connector) (±2%),
e)
Alternative current output voltage: 220V (±3%) 50Hz/60Hz (±0.5%)
f)
Storage battery standard: 12V/32AH
g)
The maximum current of direct current socket output: 10A
h)
External fuse: 30A
i)
No-load power consumption<1.8w
j)
Normal voltage range of storage battery: 10.8-14.8V
k)
Alarm voltage: 10.8V (Zhang Peng & Li Hai, 2006)
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11 The advantages and specification of solar mobile power supply
The solar mobile power supply has more specific advantages than other power supply
and the advantages are the reason why we choose the solar mobile power supply. The
advantages are listed below:

Flexible charging

Long service life

Wide range of use

Convenient to carry

Energy saving

Simple operation

Small volume

Continuous and adjustment output voltage

Light weight

Long discharge time

Over current protection

Short circuit protection

Overload protection

Over temperature protection
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12 The market prospect of solar mobile supply
In conclusion, the solar mobile power supply is practical power equipment, which
represents a new power generation of green energy. Furthermore, it is widely used in
automobiles, ships, long-distance travel, and household appliances and so on. Besides,
it is suitable for forest, grassland, desert, mountain and other area without electricity.
In China, the solar energy resource is very rich and there are millions people without
electricity. Therefore, some related enterprises began to compete for the “bright project”.
The photovoltaic industry development prospect is very broad.
In 21th century, non-renewable resource depletion, energy shortage and environmental
pollution are very strict so that the market needs some renewable and clean resources
to replace the old resource like solar energy. At present, there are about 50% villages
and towns have the severe power shortage, so the market potential is huge.
The solar mobile power supply is a comprehensive energy saving and environmental
protection product. One-time investment can get long-term benefit. Obviously, there is
no pollution, no noise, and no waste emissions of solar energy, which just meet needs of
the market. At present, the bottleneck of the development of solar energy products is the
high price. However, with the further popularization of the application of solar energy
and the development of solar technology, more and more solar products will enter the
public life like the solar mobile supply.
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13 Conclusion
In this thesis, I have tried to design the solar mobile power supply producing energy as
much as possible and improve the energy transmission as well. At the same time, I still
met some problems like choosing the suitable storage battery for the whole system. At
last, I selected the Lead-acid battery as my system storage battery because of the
stable reaction and cheap price and so on. Besides, the correct fixation of each
component was also very important, which spent me a long time to concern how to fix
each part accurately.
During the thesis design, I deeply felt that you must try your best to focus on the thing so
that you can complete it perfectly. Besides, when you met some problems, you must
gather any resources to get help and find the suitable solutions. Finally, I think I have
enriched my knowledge about the energy transition and circuit design and improved the
ability to do something on my own by finishing this thesis.
36
14 References:
Documents:
Zhou Haiyan, 2007, Solar energy development, China: Xinhua press
Zhang Peng & Li Hai, 2006, Storage battery technology, China: Guangzhou press
Ryan Mayfield, 2010, Photovoltaic Design & Installation, America: Telecom press
Gao Hai & Tian Qing, 2009, Brief introduction of power supply, China: Haopin press
Internet sources:
Baidu Library 2014 (Inverter)
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/54eaf42bcfc789eb136dc8a6.html (Read 25.9.2014)
Baidu 2014 (Solar controller):
http://www.baidu.com/s?wd=solar%20controller&ie=utf8&f=8&rsv_bp=1&rsv_idx=1&tn=baidu&rsv_pq=eb346e47002b1500&rsv_t=3955roaGJL
PVlSMbdbsZFx1XuFncWXPD6pIFjNcODKRwpxLw%2BULB&bs=%E5%A4%AA%E9%9
8%B3%E8%83%BD (read 25.9.2014)
Baidu Picture 2014:
http://www.baidu.com/s?usm=3&tn=baiduhome_pg&wd (Read 28.9.2014)
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Appendix 1: Design blueprint
38
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