Solid Wastes Use as an Alternate Energy Source in Pakistan

Solid Wastes Use as an Alternate Energy Source in Pakistan
Solid Wastes Use as an Alternate Energy Source in Pakistan
Farhan Masood
Arcada – University of Applied Sciences
Helsinki 2013
Page 0
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
DEGREE THESIS
Arcada University of Applied Science
Degree program:
Plastic Technology
Author:
Farhan Masood
Title
Solid Wastes Use as an Alternate Energy Source in Pakistan
Supervisor (Arcada)
Mariann Holmberg
Abstract:
Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste management system right from the
collection waste up to its proper disposal. Globally, wastes are used to produce electricity or used for recycling.
Recently, Europe and United States (US) are recycling waste about 41% and 32%. China is also investing US
6.3 billion dollar to achieve 30% recycling of its waste 2030. The problems arising from the solid waste can be
solved by using innovative technologies. Now-a-days different types of waste-to-energy (W-T-E) schemes are
available through which energy can be efficiently recovered and used. Different types of benefits could be
achieved if energy recovering and natural resources are considered as creation of jobs, reduction of
environmental impacts and provisions of economic opportunities. According to the Pakistan Environmental
Protection Agency (2005) only 51-69% of the generated waste is collected and the rest remains in the streets or
collection points.
Organic wastes include food, garden waste, street sweepings, textiles, wood and paper products. Most landfill
gas is produced when organic waste is broken down by bacteria naturally present in the waste and in the soil
used to cover the landfill. The treatment and disposal of solid waste are defiantly connected. Treatment is
applied to recover useful substance or energy, to reduce waste volume or to stabilize waste remains to be
dumped or disposal of in landfills. A disposal site where solid waste, such as paper, glass, and metal, is buried
between layers of dirt and other materials in such a way as to reduce contamination of the surrounding land.
One ton of wastes can produce 150-200m3 of gas. The greater the amount of organic waste present in landfill,
the more landfill gas (i.e. methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulphide) is produced by the
bacteria during decomposition.
Landfill gas production and utilization and mass burn incineration are most feasible technology at first and
second position respectively for treatment of solid waste in Pakistan. It is because these two facilities have
enough capacities to treat the current generated waste at lower costs per ton. These two technologies also
having capabilities to expand their capacities, if needed to treat more waste in future. However the treatment
cost per ton decrease with the increase in quantity of waste per day. This is good way to tackle the solid waste
generated in Pakistan.
Number of Pages
39
Language:
English
Date of acceptance
12.6.2013
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Table of Contents
Lists of Tables: ........................................................................................................................... 3
1
Introduction: ........................................................................................................................ 5
2
Objectives: .......................................................................................................................... 6
Motivation: ................................................................................................................................. 7
Map of Pakistan:......................................................................................................................... 8
Country profile: .......................................................................................................................... 9
3
Literature survey: .............................................................................................................. 10
3.1
Plastic and other components in solid waste: ............................................................ 10
3.2
Types of plastics: ....................................................................................................... 10
3.3
Plastic waste and environment concerns: .................................................................. 11
3.4
Estimated plastic waste collection in Pakistan: ......................................................... 12
3.5
Hazardous waste: ....................................................................................................... 13
3.6
Additive in plastic waste: .......................................................................................... 14
3.7
Waste as a Renewable Energy Source: ...................................................................... 14
3.8
Basic Principal Activities: ......................................................................................... 15
3.9
Selection of Principal Technology ............................................................................ 15
3.10 Final Product.............................................................................................................. 16
3.11 Collection, treatment and disposal of waste: ............................................................. 16
3.12 Landfill with Energy Recovery: ................................................................................ 17
3.13 Design: ....................................................................................................................... 18
4
Method: ............................................................................................................................. 22
4.1
Capital and operation & management costs: ............................................................. 24
4.2
Capital costs:.............................................................................................................. 24
4.3
Operation and management costs: ............................................................................. 24
4.4
Management costs: .................................................................................................... 25
4.5
Land line and internet connection charge: ................................................................. 25
4.6
Water: ........................................................................................................................ 26
4.7
Overhead costs:.......................................................................................................... 26
4.8
Collection system costs: ............................................................................................ 26
4.9
Landfills gas production and utilization: ................................................................... 27
4.10 Type of waste for landfill: ......................................................................................... 27
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
4.11 Number of LFG plants worldwide: ........................................................................... 27
4.12 Evaluation: ................................................................................................................. 28
4.13 Environmental impacts of landfills gas: .................................................................... 28
4.14 Social impacts of a landfill gas: ................................................................................. 28
4.15 Incineration with Energy Recovery: .......................................................................... 29
4.16 Social impacts of incineration: .................................................................................. 29
4.17 Production rate of landfill gas: .................................................................................. 30
5
Discussions: ...................................................................................................................... 31
6
Conclusion: ....................................................................................................................... 34
7
Recommendation: ............................................................................................................. 35
8
References: ........................................................................................................................ 36
Lists of Figures:
Figure 1: province wise plastics units ........................................................................................ 7
Figure 2: Map of Pakistan .......................................................................................................... 8
Figure 3: By” Kristalina Georgieva, Keshav Varma of the world bank Washington D.C”
(Solid waste handling and treatment system components) ...................................................... 15
Figure 4: Various phases of the municipal waste collection system ........................................ 16
Figure 5: landfill gas collection and utilization system............................................................ 17
Figure 6: Drilling equipment for a gas well and installation of the gas pipe ........................... 19
Figure 7: Connectiing a horizontal gas pipe to a gas pipe in a well ........................................ 20
Figure 8: Installing of a container with a compressor and gas cooling system ........................ 20
Figure 9: Connection of gas pipes to a pump and regulation container ................................... 21
Figure 10: Measuring equipment on an enclosed flare ............................................................ 21
Figure 11: Layout structure of the plant ................................................................................... 22
Figure 12: production start after 6 months and increase till 20 than decrease ......................... 30
Lists of Tables:
Table 1: population of ten major cities of Pakistan .................................................................... 9
Table 2: Plastic and paper waste Generation in Different Cities of Pakistan........................... 12
Table 3: Sources of hazardous waste ....................................................................................... 13
Table 4: Plant building construction investment ...................................................................... 24
Table 5: monthly salaries for the employers ............................................................................ 25
Table 6: Land line and internet expense per month ................................................................. 25
Table 7: cost of water ............................................................................................................... 26
Table 8: Total overhead costs................................................................................................... 26
Table 9: number of landfill plant worldwide ........................................................................... 27
Table 10: Landfill gas facilities cost ........................................................................................ 28
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Abbreviations:
APO
Asian Productivity Organization
CH4
Methane
CO2
Carbon dioxide
Cfm
Cubic feet per minute
EPA
Environmental protection agency
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
GHGs
Green Housed Gases
ISWM
Integrated solid Waste Management
IME
Institute of Mechanical Engineering
LFG
Landfill Gas
MSW
Municipal Solid Waste
MW
Megawatt
Mega cities
industrial and big populated cities
NRP
NON-RECYCLED PLASTICS
O&M
Operation and Maintenance
PTCL
Pakistan Telecommunication limited
PVC
polyvinylchloride
PVA
Polyvinyl alcohol
PE
polyethylene
Rs
Pakistani currency in rupee
Scavenger
A Street cleaner
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
W-T-E
Waste to energy
WASA
Water and Sanitation Agency
3R
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
1
Introduction:
Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste management system
right from the collection waste up to its proper disposal. As a consequence of the constantly
increased consumption the growing quantities of the waste generated have drawn public
attention. Much of the uncollected waste poses serious risk to public health. Although the
consumption per citizen in Pakistan is still lower than in many other countries especially of
the Western Europe. All these issues motivated me to investigate deeper into the subject of
the evaluation of the waste management system in Pakistan. In order to point out the crucial
issues regarding the future development of waste management in Pakistan.
There is a need to reduce the current levels of waste generation and increase in material and
energy recovery, which are considered as the essential steps towards an environmentalfriendly waste management system. Landfill is also no longer the first choice for the disposal
among the other methods such as recycling in solid waste management practices. Initially,
incinerators globally were used to reduce waste mass but energy is being recovered from the
incinerators now-a-days. Electricity and heat is produced from the recovered bio-gas from
landfill.
Globally, wastes are used to produce electricity or used for recycling. Recently, Europe and
United States (US) are recycling waste about 41% and 32%. China is also investing US 6.3
billion dollar to achieve 30% recycling of its waste 2030 (state bank of Pakistan, 2009) 1.
Currently, out of more than 800 incineration plants working throughout world, about 236 are
in Japan and 400 in Europe. The plants in Europe have capacity to provide electricity
approximately 27 million inhabitants (state bank of Pakistan, 2009)1. The problems arising
from the solid waste can be solved by using innovative technologies. Now-a-days different
types of waste-to-energy (W-T-E) schemes are available through which energy can be
efficiently recovered and used. Each type of technologies handles the specific composition
and quantity of solid waste (Tatamiuk, 2007)2. It seems to be difficult to propose suitable
waste management plans and technologies without determining the quantity and composition
of generated waste (Idris et al. 2004)3.
It is estimated that approximately 55,000 tons waste is generated per day (Pakistan
Environmental Protection Agency, 2005)7, based on the assumption that 0, 6 to 0, 8 kg waste
is produced per capita per day. The amount of waste production is directly linked with the
increase in gross domestic production. Steady increase in population growth rate and change
of the life style (The World Bank, 2007)4.
Energy can be produced and utilized from the generated solid waste, especially in mega cities
like Lahore, Karachi and Multan etc. Due to lack of management, the generated waste which
has potential to generate energy is dispersed all around the environment. Energy can be
recovered from it in the following forms e.g. bio-gas, electricity. These beneficial components
are currently either being released to the atmosphere due to open burning and dumping or into
the ground water due to poor landfill conditions. In most cities largest part of the budget is
fixed for solid waste services. But still approximately less than 50% of the generated solid
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
waste is collected, but instead improperly disposed at landfills, road sides or burnt openly
without taking care of air and water pollution control (Energy Sector Management assistance
program, 2010)5. According to the recent study by (Batool et al., 2006)6 in Lahore. Pakistan,
if the recycling practices are adapted as an industry, they can generate revenue of Rs. 530
million i.e., US8.8 million/year with the saving of large quantities of energy and natural
resources. Different types of benefits could be achieved if energy recovering and natural
resources are considered as creation of jobs, reduction of environmental impacts and
provisions of economic opportunities.
2 Objectives:
According to the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (2005)7 only 51-69% of the
generated waste is collected and the rest remains in the streets or collection points (Joeng et
al., 2007)8.The main objectives of this thesis are

To analyze the solid wastes treatment in Pakistan and direct it towards fulfilling the
main goals of waste management

To find out the most cost effective and least polluting technology among the available
options for the recovery of energy from generated waste.

How Pakistani Government can make solid wastes as an alternate resource.

To find out the processes of landfill Gas we can adapt to stop the environment be
polluted.

To find out the social, economic effects using landfill Gas as a resource energy.
This will help to develop a solid waste management system in Pakistan that will be
environmentally effective, economically affordable and socially acceptable. In addition this
will ensure a better quality of life of present and future generation.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
2.1 Motivation:
The per capita consumption of plastic in Pakistan was 3, 1 kilograms per annum, while this
was 3, 3 kg in India per annum and 7 kg in China per annum. The highest per capita
consumption of plastics was in United States and Germany, where per capita consumption
was 120 kg per annum. Globally, the per capita plastic consumption worked out to be around
24 kg per annum. The consumption of plastic was less in Pakistan as the local industries were
not developing as rapidly as they were growing in the other parts of the world. There are
6,000 plastic products manufacturers in the country and 600,000 people were directly and
indirectly engaged with this business.
Figure 1: province wise plastics units
2.2 Methods of this thesis:
I used exploratory method, as we know that it based on literature review and web surfing. I
took information from different publish articles related to my topic and information from
different relevant websites. I used Microsoft Visio to display the layout structure of my power
plant and landfill site. For statistical representation I used Microsoft Excel. Water, internet
and telephone charges I took from the official websites. Capital, operational and
managements costs based on my assumptions. I planned to take interview some officials of
Lahore solid waste management but due to their busy schedule I could not able to take single
interview.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Map of Pakistan:
Figure 2: Map of Pakistan
http://www.ezilon.com/maps/asia/pakistan-maps.html
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Country profile:
The Islamic republic of Pakistan emerged as an independent sovereign state on 14th August
1947, as a result of the division of former British India. It lies between 23-35 to 37-05 north
latitude and 60-50 to 77-50 east longitude touching the Hindu Kush Mountains in the north
and extending from the Pamirs to Arabian Sea. Pakistan covers 796,095sq.km with a
population of 130.579 million according to population census 1998. 67% live in rural areas,
while 33% live in urban areas. It is divided into the four provinces:




Punjab
Sindh
Khyber Pakhtun khwa
Baluchistan
Table 1: population of ten major cities of Pakistan
City
Karachi
Lahore
Faisalabad
Rawalpindi
Multan
Hyderabad
Gujranwala
Peshawar
Quetta
Islamabad
Households
Population
(million)
(million)
1.436
9.269
0.740
5.063
0.278
1.977
0.220
1.406
0.162
1.182
0.178
1.151
0.151
1.124
0.149
0.988
0.074
0.560
0.092
0.524
Source: population and housing census of Pakistan 1998
http://www.environment.gov.pk/ea-glines/swmglinesdraft.pdf (Accessed dated 20th
November 2012)
In 1998 the last census held in Pakistan. After that we had no census because of instability of
political and law and order situation. So this is a latest data which I got about Pakistani
population.
The poor communities residing in urban settlement are often engaged in a number of
initiatives on self-help basic e.g. solid waste management and recycling. Almost all the paper,
plastics, metals and glass are collected and re-used/recycled. Thus the poor communities in
urban areas play a key role in waste recycling. The only waste which remains on street and
collection points is the organic waste.
The official language of Pakistan is English, but the national language is Urdu (which is close
to Hindi language).interestingly Urdu is not spoken as native language by any of Pakistani’s
main ethic groups and was chosen as a neutral option for communication among the various
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
peoples of Pakistan. Punjabi is the native tongue of 48% of Pakistanis, with Sindhi at 12%,
Siraiki at 10%, Pashtu at 8%, Balochi at 3% and a handful of smaller language groups.
Climatically, Pakistan enjoys a considerable measure of variety. North and north western high
mountains ranges are extremely cold in winter while the summer months of April to
September are very pleasant. Pakistan has an agricultural economy with a network of canals
irrigating a major part of its cultivated land. Wheat, cotton, rice, millet and sugar cane are the
major crops. Among fruits: mangos, oranges, bananas, and apples are grown in abundance in
different part of the country. The main natural resources are natural gas, coal, salt and iron.
The country has an expanding industry, cotton. Textiles, sugar, cement and chemical play an
important role in its economy.
3 Literature survey:
The main purpose to describe plastics here because plastics are used to manufacture an
incredible number of products we use every day. That is not even counting all the plastics that
go into furniture, appliances, computers and automobiles. As the use of plastics has increased
over the year, they have become a larger part of the municipal solid waste. Recycling plastic
products also keeps them out of landfill and allows the plastics to be reused in manufacturing
new products.
3.1 Plastic and other components in solid waste:
The word plastic comes from the Greek word “plastikos”. This means ‘able to be molded into
different shapes’ (Joel 1995). The plastics we use today are made from inorganic and organic
raw material, such as carbon, silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chloride. The basic
materials used for making plastics are extracted from oil, coal and natural gas (Seymour,
1989). The condensation and addition polymers came into the market since 1950s (Datta et
al.., 1998). [10]
Plastic is the mother industry to hundreds of manufactured components and products used in
our daily life like automobile parts, television, refrigerators, other electrical goods, plastic
furniture, defense products, agriculture pipes, woven sacks, sanitary ware, pipes and fittings,
tiles and flooring, PVC shoes and sleepers, artificial leather, bottles and jars, disposable
syringes and hundreds of house hold items. Its consumption is increased at an unprecedented
rate (Sabir, 2004). [10]
3.2 Types of plastics:
There are two main types of plastics:


Thermoplastics
Thermosetting plastics
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Thermoplastics:
Plastics that become soft on heating and melt on heating and can be molded again and again
are known as thermoplastics. Repetitive heating of thermoplastics does not cause permanent
change in properties or composition. For example.




Polyethene (PE)
Nylon® (PA)
PVC
PVA
Thermosetting:
These are the plastics that can be softened on heating but they become permanently hard on
cooling. They cannot be remolded again. They are insoluble in some solvent whether organic
or inorganic. For example



3.3
Bakelite
Urea aldehyde
Silicones
Plastic waste and environment concerns:
Plastics are one of the most useful materials of all time. Tragically, tons of this plastics
end up in our landfills every year. Depending on the quality of the plastics, it may take
anywhere from a few days to several years for it to break down in landfills but it never
break down completely into particles that can be used in nature. It is possible that we may
be able to take our plastic waste and turn it into a usable energy source and many
scientists are working on the best way to do this. [1]
The world annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million
tons in the 1950s to early 100 million tons; thus, 20 times more plastic is produced today
than 50 years ago. This means that more plastic waste is being generated. Due to the
increase in generation, waste plastic are becoming a major problem in solid waste. After
food waste and paper waste is the major constitute of municipal and industrial waste in
cities. This increase has turned into a major challenge for local authorities, responsible for
solid waste management and sanitation. [14]
Plastic waste can provide opportunities to collect and dispose of environmental friendly
way and it can be converted into a resource. This resource conservation goal is very
important for most of the national and local governments, where rapid industrialization
and economic development is putting a lot of pressure on natural resources. Some of the
developed countries have already established commercial level resource recovery from
plastic waste.
Pakistan, like other developing countries, faces serious environmental and energy
problems. Rapid population growth (average annual growth rate of 2.61 percent a year)
and impressive GDP growth (of about 6 percent a year) have put enormous pressure on
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
the country natural resources base and significantly increased level of pollution. Pakistan
did not address the issue of sustainable development and environmental protection in the
nation decision-making process. Present disposal methods for solid waste are totally
inadequate. Disposal is by open dumping, primarily on flood plains and into ponds,
causing significant environmental damage. [9]
The study revealed that the rate of waste generation on average from all type of municipal
controlled areas varies from 0.283 kg/capita/day to 0,613 kg/capita/day or from 1,896
kg/house/day to 4, 29 kg/house/day in all the selected cities. [11]
3.4 Estimated plastic waste collection in Pakistan:
The plastic waste stream emerges from three main sources: agriculture, industrial and
municipal solid waste, which account for 63, 16 and 21 percent respectively (Beukering,
1997). This ratio may be slightly different for Pakistan, but it is felt that the trend would be
the same. The composition of municipal solid waste varies greatly from city to city. Table-1
gives plastics and paper waste generation in different cities of Pakistan. The estimated figure
of plastics waste generation across the country is 1.240 million tons per annum. [12]
Table 2: Plastic and paper waste Generation in Different Cities of Pakistan
Sr.
no
Cities
1
Faisalabad
2
No.Of
scavenges
Plastics waste (tons)
Paper waste (tons)
1500
Per Day
44.4
Per Year
13320
Per Day
19.4
Per Year
5820
Gujranwala
1200
41.2
12360
20.6
6180
3
Karachi
7000
412.8
123840
264.5
79350
4
Hyderabad
1200
35.1
10530
23.4
7220
5
Peshawar
800
29.9
8970
17.0
5100
6
Quetta
600
31.0
9300
27.9
2490
Source:http://www.resol.com.br/textos/INVOLVEMENT%20OF%20INFORMAL%20SECT
OR%20IN%20PLASTIC%20AND%20PAPER%20RECYCLING%20IN%20PAKISTAN.pd
f
As a proportion of total municipal waste stream, the share of Plastic is more or less equal
to the figure of some developed countries. However, it is important to note that the ratio of
Plastic in municipal solid waste decrease to less than 1% as the informal Collectors pick
up plastic, paper and metallic waste to sell them for their economic returns.[12]
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
3.5
Hazardous waste:
In Pakistan, there is no systematic mechanism for the collection and disposal of hazardous
waste generated from hospital, industries and agriculture activities. Hazardous waste is
any waste or combination of waste that poses a substantial danger, now or in the future, to
human, plant or animal life and which cannot be handles or disposed of without special
precaution. The hazardous solid waste is being generated in Pakistan from the following
six sectors: [13]
Table 3: Sources of hazardous waste
Sectors
Agriculture
Sources
Type of waste
Planting areas and plant Obsolete pesticides herbicides
protection/agriculture
insecticides, used chemical
department, warehouses
containers and contaminated
soils
Hospitals,
clinical
and Clinic
consulting
rooms, Infected human tissues and
laboratories
operation theaters, hospitals, organs, excreta, blood, sharp
wards, laboratories
instruments,
laboratory
equipment and tissue cultures
drugs etc.
Small scale industries
Metal
processing,
photo Acids, heavy metals solvents,
finishing, textile processing, acids, silver cadmium, mineral
printing, leather tanning
acid solvent, inks, dyes
solvent, chromium etc.
Large scale industries
Bauxite
processing,
oil Rig mud, spent catalysts, oily
refining
petrochemical waste, tarry residues, solvent,
manufacture, pharmaceutical and mercury.
manufacture,
chlorine
production
Commerce
Vehicles services and airports, Oily
hydraulic
fluids,
dry
cleaning,
electrical halogenated
solvent,
transformers, bus station, polychlorinated
biphenyls
workshop, petrol pumps
(PCBs), water management,
specialist tyres, plastics etc.
Household
Homes
Used
fluorescent
tubes,
batteries, drugs, cosmetic,
vehicle care material
Source: http://www.environment.gov.pk/ea-glines/swmglinesdraft.pdf (Accessed
dated 20 November 2012).
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
3.6 Additives in plastic waste:
A wide variety of additives are used in production processes of plastics goods to protect them
against undesired influence and premature mechanical failures. Plastics are processed at high
temperature and many plastics products must be resistant to exposure to such factors like
light, heat, humidity. Additives can contain hazardous substances which are of special
concern in thinking of waste management of plastics and their longer-life impacts. Due to the
role of waste management in the environment the problem of appropriate treatment of plastic
waste, related to the hazardous substances they contain, should be of special importance for
the modern societies. Even though the use of some hazardous substances decreases, e.g. due
to serious toxicological and ecological concerns about cadmium and its compounds; it is
successively replaced by other stabilizers, particular in Europe and Japan. It is also
remembered that years or even decades after discontinuing its use in the production processes,
cadmium will be still present in plastic waste stream, due to long life-spans of many plastics
products manufactured in the past and still accumulated in the atmosphere. [9]
3.7 Waste as a Renewable Energy Source:
Now the world has become more environmentally aware than ever before. While on the other
hand dumping and buring of waste is not popular solution anymore, to just loss the valuable
daily waste that can produce a value to society. (IME, 2013)19 the solid waste industries are
continuously providing environmentally friendly waste disposal solutions in the world.
According to World Bank report shows that urban areas in Asia spend 25USD million per
year on solid waste management and it is expected to raise 47USD Million per year. But
regardless of these expenditures most developing countries who are members of APO are still
grappling with the challenges of preventing environment from damages due to burring of
plastic waste and polluting the air. Solid waste management in developing countries like
Pakistan has become a serious issue which cannot be solved without a strong integrated waste
management system. (Hwa T. J, et. Al 2005)18 in this part author describe some common
waste management methods and try to suggest the best method for solid waste management in
current circumstances of Pakistan. According to UNEP”Integrated Solid Waste Management”
(ISWM) system should be based 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) principle. (UNEP, 2005)17.
Is a complete chart that guides how to handle the solid waste for renewable resources. The
solid waste needs to go through four major phases to become a usable renewable resource.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Figure 3: By” Kristalina Georgieva, Keshav Varma of the World Bank Washington
D.C” (Solid waste handling and treatment system components)
http://www.unep.org/ietc/Portals/136/SWM-Vol1-Part1-Chapters1to3.pdf
3.8 Basic Principal Activities:
For any waste solution for most activity are the estimation, collection and transportation of
waste. Waste is generated through human and commercial activities and it increases with the
urban development and population while the quality is depended on per capita income of
country. It is important to consider that if it is not handled properly, it create negative impacts
on society and environment. However an efficient and hygienic collection and transportation
system is fundamental need for 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle).
3.9 Selection of Principal Technology
Second highly important phase is to make design about technology/method that how you want
to treat your solid waste and what end product you want to have. But it is totally dependent on
the characteristics of waste and government policies, investment and budgets. Furthermore
design should also include the size and scale of waste treatment facility.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
3.10 Final Product
The priority introduced by UNEP for”Integrated Solid Waste Management” (ISWM) is
reuse/recycle. Waste reuse and recycling are the preferred options when managing waste.
There are many environmental benefits that can be derived from the use of these methods.
They reduce or prevent green house gas emissions, reduce the release of pollutants, conserve
resources, save energy and reduce the demand for waste treatment technology and landfill
space. Beside this top priority, second option could be renewable energy through incineration.
While dumping of waste should be the last option. Recycling is the initial process of any
waste, where waste is just sorted manually or mechanically
3.11 Collection, treatment and disposal of waste:
The collection of waste is usually organized on a communal basic; in developing countries
though, it may be organized (to a greater or lesser extent) on an informal basic (e.g. through
the activities of night soil collectors, scavengers, etc.) for statistical purpose, two variable of
the organization seem important: costs of the service, and personal employed.
Figure 4: Various phases of the municipal waste collection system
The treatment and disposal of solid waste are definitely connected. Treatment is applied to
recover useful substance or energy, to reduce waste volume or to stabilize waste remains to be
dumped or disposal of in landfills.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
3.12 Landfill with Energy Recovery:
Landfill is a method, where solid waste is buried between the layers of dirt to fill in or reclaim
low-lying ground. ” A disposal site where solid waste, such as paper, glass, and metal, is
buried between layers of dirt and other materials in such a way as to reduce contamination of
the surrounding land. Modern landfills are often lined with layers of absorbent material and
sheets of plastic to keep pollutants from leaking into the soil and water. Also called sanitary
landfill” (dictionary.com, 2013)21 Landfill gas land filling of solid waste stream, usually we
get.
Landfill waste management method requires big piece of land and it is suitable for the
countries, which have geographically plain land available away from residential areas. It is
most common method has been used by even great industrialized countries of the world.
Over 70% of municipal wastes in North America and Western Europe are land filled with
little or no treatment. “According to a study released by scientists at Columbia University,
landfills across the country contain enough plastic waste to provide power for 5.2 million
American homes, fuel six million cars for a year, and potentially much more” (Hall, 2011) 15
Landfill gas (LFG) recovered from municipal solid waste landfills as a source of renewable
energy. As solid waste decomposes in landfills, a gas is emitted that is approximately 50
percent methane (CH4) and 50 percent carbon dioxide (CO2), both of which are GHGs (U.S.
EPA, 2011)20. LFG energy technologies capture CH4 to prevent it from being emitted to the
atmosphere, and can reduce landfill CH4 emissions by between 60 and 90 percent (depending
on project design and effective- ness) (U.S. EPA, 2011).
Figure 5: landfill gas collection and utilization system
Source: http://www.wt-energy.com/wte-solutions/landfill-biogas-captation/
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
3.13 Design:
The design of a landfill gas consists of a detailed description and drawing of the system.
Introductory sections can include the following:






Generation information about the location, client and consultant
A general description of LFG plants
An overall description of the specific LFG plant with the planned extraction and
utilization system
Instructions for bidders with information and requirements valid for the bidding
procedure
General and special conditions for the total project
Time and payment schedule
The technical part of the design is generally divided into two sections, the extraction and the
utilization systems. The extraction system normally includes the following:









Leveling of the landfill to determine the level of the wells and pipes and the slopes for
pipes
Drilling of gas wells, including installation of a perforated gas extraction pipe in the
well [figure 6]
Dimensioning of horizontal gas pipes from wells to a pump station [figure 7]
A water knockout system for condensate
Dimensioning of the pump/compressor for the gas extraction and distribution[figure 9]
A manual or automatic regulation system for the gas extraction [figure 10]
Electrical installations
A control system
A security and alarm system
The utilization system normally includes the following:






Dimensioning of the gas transmission pipeline
Dimensioning and description of the energy utilization system which can be a power
plant, a boiler plant or another more specialized utilization system
Electrical system
A control system
A security and alarm system
Environmental installations, noise, emission and so on.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Figure 6: Drilling equipment for a gas well and installation of the gas pipe
Source: http://www.cityofbath.com/recycling/image/Gas%20Well%20Drilling.jpg
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Figure 7: Connectiing a horizontal gas pipe to a gas pipe in a well
source: http://www.lhup.edu/hemlock/Pipeline2.jpg
Figure 8: Installing of a container with a compressor and gas cooling system
Source: http://www.entec.co.nz/?page=portfolio
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Figure 9: Connection of gas pipes to a pump and regulation container
Source: http://www.entec.co.nz/images/portfolio/biogas/Hampton.jpg
Figure 10: Measuring equipment on an enclosed flare
Source: http://www.johnzink.com/wp-content/uploads/biogas_ztof.jpg
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
4 Method:
Organic wastes include food, garden waste, street sweepings, textiles, wood and paper
products. Most landfill gas is produced when organic waste is broken down by bacteria
naturally present in the waste and in the soil used to cover the landfill.






Truck in and truck out
Landfill site
Power plant (condenser, scrubber, compressor, chiller, generator, watch room)
Office (4 rooms)
Electricity to power grid
Parking area
Figure 11: Layout structure of the plant
Source: Self drawn


We assume the total area for the landfill energy plant is 15 acre. 1 acre = 4 046.85642
m2 than (15*4046, 85642) is equal to 60702,846336 m2. .
Office rooms are attached to the machinery area. Machine area is 355 m2.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
The above figure 11 is a layout structure of the power plant. The figure shows the equipment
use in the system to produce electricity. The processes are following:












The process begins when waste is collected.
Once the waste inside the landfill, waste decomposes and after 6 months start to
produce methane. Landfill gas about 50% of CH4 is collected using an underground
network of pipes and wells.
From this network, the gas is drawn to a renewable energy facilities compression
system where the gas is dewatered, pressurized and filtered to make it clean.
When the landfill gas enters this system, it first passes through the filter, which
removes any large pieces of debris and some liquids that may have mixed with the
gas.
After initial filtering, it enters a compressor, which raises its pressure until its high
enough for the gas to be used as a fuel. During compression, the temperature of the
gas rises and must be cooled down by an after cooler.
Inside cooler the temperature of the gas is lowered, which allows for any remaining
moisture to be condensed.
The gas is than filtered the second time to remove the condensed moisture. At this
stage the gas is reheated to prevent any further condensation, and is ready to be used
as a renewable energy fuel.
The whole process from start to finish takes seconds.
In figure 11 there is an engine or a turbine to generate power. Both follow the same
principle to produce electricity. Engine equipped with pistons and air filter, exhaust,
radiators and even batteries. Landfill gas enters the engine and is combusted, causing
the pistons to spin a drive shaft. The drive shaft is connected to a generator, which
convert the power into the electricity.
The electricity is than sent to the state of the art control system. To ensure that the
plant is meeting the needs of the utility.
Control system direct electricity to transforms located on site which either raise or
lower the voltage.
High voltage electricity is exported to the grid to supply energy for the communities
and businesses.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
4.1 Capital and operation & management costs:
Landfill gas energy costs may include costs for gas collection and flaring, electricity
generation, or other project options. LFG project will involve the purchase and installation of
equipment and the expense of operation and maintaining project.
4.2





4.3







Capital costs:
Land: The cost of acquiring land and buffer zone. The cost is depending on the
location.
Design and Construction: structure of the building including boundary surrounding
the factory, machinery house, office house.
Regulatory application: The costs of environmental assessment and regulatory
compliance.
Electricity connection: installation of electricity connection through the factory and
power house assembly.
Startup costs and working capital
Operation and management costs:
labor
Closure: maintenance, financial assurance.
Furniture: furniture for office rooms.
Environmental monitoring: ongoing monitoring and pollution controls to meet
regulations.
Gas piping equipment
Taxes
Administration
Table 4: Plant building construction investment
No
Unit
Items
1
1
Machinery room, office room
Cost (Pakistani Total cost
currency
in
rupees)
3,000,000
2
1
Truck for waste collection
3,200,000
3
1
4
1
Electricity connections, security 650,000
system installation
Furniture & electronics equipment 250,000
5
1
Power plant boundary and gates
150,000
6
1
Water supply fee
300,000
7,776,000 Rs
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
4.4 Management costs:
Landfill gas power plant runs only one director who will control the whole power plant.
Production engineers will look all the engineering and lab works. Assistant engineers will
perform under his decision. Every shift will has one assistant engineer and two workers.
Table 5: monthly salaries for the employers
No
Number of Job title
person
Unit wages Total wages in Total
monthly
in Rs
Rs
wages Rs
1
1
Director
45,000
45,000
2
1
Production
engineer
36,000
36,000
3
1
Production boy
11,000
11,000
4
3
Assistant engineer
20,000
60,000
5
6
Workers
15,000
90,000
6
6
Security
12,000
72,000
7
1
Accountant
25,000
25,000
8
1
Cleaning boy
8,000
8,000
4.5
347,000 Rs
Land line and internet connection charge:
Table 6: Land line and internet expense per month
Land line connection charges
Free
Internet connection
2 Mb
Monthly rate for landline
1,10
per
days=9000)
1000+1250 Rs
min
(300min*30 9,900 Rs
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
total
12,150 Rs
Source: Pakistan telecommunication company Ltd.
http://www.ptcl.com.pk/pd_content.php?pd_id=107
4.6 Water:
Monthly water bill depend on the use of consumption. WASA (water and sanitation agency)
provide water to big city. The price for 1000 gallons commercial charges 50 Rs. [19].let
assume monthly water consumption will be 6000 gallons
Table 7: cost of water
Unit price Rs
50
Total monthly unit
Monthly cost Rs
Yearly cost Rs
6
300
3600
Source: water and sanitation agency
http://www.wasa.rda.gov.pk/Tariff.htm
4.7 Overhead costs:
Salary of all employees, electricity consumption for the office, office expense water bill
internet bill, telephone bill are related to the overhead cost.
Table 8: Total overhead costs
Item
Total Rs in one month
Salary
347000 Rs
Water
300 Rs
Internet
1250 Rs
Telephone
9900 Rs
Office expense or maintaining cost
15000 Rs
Total overhead cost
373450 Rs
4.8 Collection system costs:
Total collection system costs vary widely, based on a number of site-specific factors. For
example, if the landfill is deep, collection costs tend to be higher because well depths will
need to be increased. Collection costs also increase with the number of well installed. The
estimated capital required for a 40-acre collection system designed for 600 cubic feet per
minute (cfm) of LFG (including a flare) is $991,000 approximately $24,000 per acre,
assuming one well is installed per acre. Typical annual operation and maintenance (O&M)
costs for collection system are $2,250 per well and $4,500 per flare. Electricity costs to
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
operate the blower for a 600 cfm active gas collection system average $44,500 per year. If an
LFG energy project generates electricity, often a landfill will use a portion of the electricity
generated to operate the system and sell the rest to the grid in order to offset these operation
costs. [23]
4.9 Landfills gas production and utilization:
Landfills gas recovery not only meets the energy requirements by displacing the conventional
energy resources which are getting scarce and also has positive impacts on environment. Now
days, landfill gas utilization for power production is considered as a commercial technology
for energy generation. Under optimum conditions, one ton of wastes can produce 150-200m3
of gas. The greater the amount of organic waste present in landfill, the more landfill gas (i.e.
methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulphide) is produced by the bacteria during
decomposition [26]. Several landfill gas waste-to-energy projects have been implemented and
most of them are in America and Europe (Karapidakis et al., 2010).
4.10 Type of waste for landfill:
Waste composition has crucial rule in valuation of landfill gas recovery technology especially
the moisture content, organic fraction and degradability level of different waste stream
components. Large quantity of food fraction in landfill is easily degraded and tends to
generate landfill gas within short period of time (SCS ENGINEERS, 2005)31.
4.11 Number of LFG plants worldwide:
It is difficult to find out exact figures about the number of plants implemented worldwide
because only few countries have centralized data about landfill gas projects. Landfill gas
plants were initially practiced in US and afterward in Europe and today more number of
plants are present in Europe than in US. However their capacity is half than the US landfill
gas recovery projects. Now total 1,150 landfill gas recoveries for power production are
operating worldwide and their capacity is varying from 2 million tons to 2,850 million tons of
amount of waste (Willumsen, 2009).
Table 9: number of landfill plant worldwide
Region
Europe
United State
Asia
Australia
Canada
South America
Africa
Number of Plants
734
354
19
18
15
8
4
Energy Production (MW)
1,275
2,378
72
76
106
18
4
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
4.12 Evaluation:
The landfill gas facility is suitable for recovery and utilization of gas from high quality of
generated organic waste from Pakistan waste steam. This facility requires relatively small
capital cost compared to waste-to-energy recovery technologies. Landfill gas facilities located
near communities could be used as a source of CH4 gas recovery and use it for energy
purposes in houses and industries at lower cost to conventional power plants sources.
Table 10: Landfill gas facilities cost
Waste
(ton/day)
274
360
550
1230
192
274
562
1918
quantity Cost ($/ton)
-1
-3.55
4.6
-0.25
6.73
4.04
7.32
3.89
Location
Source
Canada
Canada
Canada
Canada
Denmark
Poland
Indonesia
Latvia
Tatarmiuk, 20072
Tatarmiuk, 2007
Tatarmiuk, 2007
Tatarmiuk, 2007
Johannessen, 199927
Johannessen, 1999
Johannessen, 1999
Johannessen, 1999
It is attempted to find out the cost per ton of some landfill gas plants. It is clear to see that cost
is decreased per ton with the increase in total quantity of waste for processing and negative
sign indicates the generation of revenue.
4.13 Environmental impacts of landfills gas:
Produced landfill gas is not only utilized for the energy production to cope with energy crises
but also helpful in reduction of environmental damage and greenhouse gases emission
impacts (Karapidakis et al., 2010)28. Often some of the environmental impacts are associated
with landfill such as groundwater and surface water pollution. These environmental impacts
could be reduced thoroughly engineered landfills (FCM, 2004)29.
4.14 Social impacts of a landfill gas:
It is given preference that landfill sites should be closed to solid generated communities by
taking consideration of easy transport of waste with minimal cost, but the communities have
opposition to landfills to be closed to the housing. This result is difficulty to find out more
appropriate site for landfill setting. Additionally, the construction of landfill site is very costly
and having a limited time span. To maximize the efforts to minimize the total amount of
waste disposal in landfills that make assure available free space over long period of time for
waste disposal (Holroyd City. 2010)30.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
4.15 Incineration with Energy Recovery:
Instead of dumping incineration is the best option, but just need some more technical
investment and integrated waste management system. ” container for burning refuse, or plant
designed for large-scale refuse combustion. In the second sense, an incinerator consists of a
furnace into which the refuse is charged and ignited (usually by a gas burner), a secondary
chamber in which burning at a high temperature is continued to complete the combustion
process, and flues to convey the gases to a chimney. Auxiliary equipment may include steam
boilers for using waste heat to generate electricity or to heat nearby buildings and devices for
removing ash and other pollutants from the flue gases.” (dictionary.com, 2013a)
In late 1970’s and early 1980’s many countries from eastern Europe and Asia consider
incineration for MSW, but unfortunately these plants cannot be completed due to lack of
financial, managerial and technological shortcomings. Mechanical solution of MSW requires
significant technical skills and budget. Any unskillful planning can bring a huge bill to pay for
society. Therefore incineration projects need extra ordinary planning and care.
Incineration is getting more popular solution since now it is sensible to not loss the valuable
waste and especially in the countries where empty land is problem for land filling like eastern
European countries. There are several types of incineration technologies; the most common
one is “Mass Burning Incineration”. The mass burning technology with movable grate mature
and tested technology, which comply with latest techniques and environmental standards.
Generally mass burning technology accept the MSW without pre-treatment, but its good if the
material has been graded already to put through grates of rotary kiln incineration plant
(Georgieva et. al. 1999). A further innovation in incineration/combustor system has been
initiated by the students of Northeastern University USA, by introducing NRP to electricity
plant, which also require mass burning ” The waste combustor processes non-recyclable
plastic within two tanks. The top tank converts the plastic to gas through pyrolysis. The gas
then travels to a lower tank, where it is burned to generate heat and steam. The steam powers
a turbine to produce electricity” (Mahony M. 2010)2 Fluidized bed incineration is another
MSW incineration method, but it is not matured yet.
4.16 Social impacts of incineration:
Communities rarely accept the incineration facilities for management of solid waste stream
because of strong opposition from the local residents due to their concern about sewer health
and environmental effects. Public awareness and information is therefore important while
construction a waste-to-energy facility like incineration (Gruner, 2007)32.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
4.17 Production rate of landfill gas:
LGF production varies considerably from one plant to another, depending on the situation in
the individual country and landfill. The production rate depends on the following parameters:
1. Waste age:
LFG production reaches its maximum capacity after 3-8 years and normally decreases after
15-30 years, when it is no longer profitable to extract the gas for energy purposes.
25
production rate
20
15
year 10
production rate
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Volume of gas generation
7
8
Figure 12: production start after 6 months and increase till 20 than decrease
2. Waste structure:
Because degrading microorganisms are active in the water film around the waste particles,
smaller particles of organic materials produce more LFG.
3. Moisture content of the waste:
Methane generation bacteria live in the water film around the waste particles. Sufficient water
is needed to cover the organic particles. Moisture can accelerate bacterial activity or smother
it completely if the waste is completely saturated.
4. Temperature in the landfill:
Methane bacteria find optimum mesophyll conditions at 350 C. this temperature is found in
deep landfills. In shallower landfills (10-15 meters deep) the temperature is normally as low
as 200C.
5. Landfill cover:
Landfills must be covered to keep out atmospheric air, which will disturb the anaerobic
conditions. The cover material should allow penetration of rainwater to maintain adequate
humidity in the waste. [24]
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
5 Discussions:
Most Feasible forms of technologies:
Different types of waste-to-energy recovery technologies were studied by considering the
main factors such as social, environmental and economic which play an important role while
the section of best energy recovery technologies for large population country like Pakistan.
The cost associated with each type of energy recovery technology is directly linked with the
available quantity of waste steam for processing as well as its composition. From social and
environmental issues, environmental impacts of technologies are more important and must be
considered separately.
Landfill energy recovery technology is the most socially acceptable, environmentally friendly
and the cheapest one among all other available worldwide waste-to-energy technology for
Pakistan.
Mass burn incineration is the second best option because it is relatively socially
unacceptable more source of pollution and likewise more costly than the landfill recovery
facility.
A. Environmental impacts
Noise:
Noise could be a source of pollution when waste transporting vehicles enters and comes out of
the waste-to-energy facility. The noise pollution produced from waste transporting vehicles
could be reduced by regular maintenance and responsible use of these vehicles. Certain hours
of the day and specific routes for the waste transportation are also other factors to reduce
garneted noise from trucks (Weinstein 2006)33.
Air pollution:
Combustion systems from the waste-to-energy facilities are the main source of chemicals
emission to the atmosphere. These emissions include dioxins, mercury, particulate matter and
hydrochloric acid etc. however, these emissions are enormously reduced to minimum level
through reduction of toxic containing substance, improvement in combustion facilities and
use of gaseous control system etc. (Weinstein 2006).
Diesel emission reduction
Mostly the energy recovery facilities require small area for establishment relative to landfill
and are built near the municipalities. This will eventually not only reduce time by shortening
the distance but also emissions from diesel engines. Diesel engines of waste transporting
vehicles are the major source of emission of NOx, particulate matters and hydrocarbons etc.
these gases contribute in ground level ozone formation but this threat also reduces with
reduction of travelling distance (Weinstein 2006).
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Greenhouse gases and clean energy production:
The material left over after the segregation of recyclables and organics for composting came
from renewable sources, this derived component of waste stream could be used as clean,
sustainable and renewable fuel for heat and electricity. It has been made confirmed by many
independent studies that waste-to-energy facilities have capacity to generate electricity and
avoid the greenhouse gases emissions and are more effective than landfills (Psomopolos et al.,
2009).
B. Social Impacts:
Land use:
The implementation of waste-to-energy facilities faces the opposition and protest from local
people or neighbor for its construction due to reduction of land value and production of bad
odor from waste. So it is better to install new waste-to-energy plant on old and out dated
industry sites to improve local conditions (Weinstein 2006).
Traffic:
The installation of new waste-to-energy plant will require more waste on regular basic for its
feeding. Ultimately the increase in numbers of garbage vehicles will occur its surrounding.
Traffic congestion on roads and its surrounding can be controlled through proper management
like fixed hours in a day and also through special designed corridors for garbage vehicles
(Weinstein 2006).
Aesthetic value:
Proper design and implementation of waste-to-energy facility and improved landscape site are
helpful in improving the aesthetic value of an area. However, proper design of facility and
selection of site can the perception of local people for its implementation. The emitted gases
or smoke from chimneys having negative impact could be reduced or eliminated by
installation of control equipment’s (Weinstein 2006).
C. Economic impacts
Land requirement
Well maintained waste-to-energy facilities can operate more than 30 years. The waste-toenergy facilities require specific land area according to their size during their establishment.
These can be expanded over more area by increasing their solid waste handling capacities.
These energy facilities do not need periodic cost for more land. It is important that waste-toenergy facilities need significantly small land area as compared to landfills for handling of
same quantity of waste (Psomopolos et al., 2009)25.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
Employment:
The construction of new waste-to-energy facility generates new job opportunities during its
construction and operation phase as well. This may helpful for local people to improve their
livelihood social situations (Weinstein, 2006)25.
Real Estate value:
Uncontrolled dumping sites for waste disposal have opposition from local residence or
communities because of its negative impacts on the real estate price. However implementation
of waste-to-energy facilities not only improved the local area condition but also increased its
value. It is better to select a site for new waste-to-energy treatment plant where an old transfer
station or industry can be built aiming to improve previous environmental conditions of that
site (Weinstein 2006)25.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
6
Conclusion:
The selection of feasible technology for Pakistan, social, environmental, economic, and
composition & quality of waste factors were considered during evaluation process of different
waste-to-energy options. Municipal collection of household waste is quite irregular and
limited to influential areas. As a result solid waste remains scattered throughout the remaining
area. Municipal street sweeping services are irregular and limited to main roads and
influential areas. Many vehicles available with respective municipalities are reported out of
order while remaining is used for many other purpose besides the misuse by staff. The
operations of loading and unloading of municipal solid waste are manual. The most of
municipalities have been unable to manage some reasonable piece of land either owned or no
lease for the disposal of waste owing to the lack of fund.
There is a poor management of hazardous waste, under the current disposal practice; no
proper method is being employed. Hazardous hospital and industrial wastes are being simply
treated as ordinary waste. Open burning of waste especially non-degradable components like
plastic bags are adding to air pollution. Municipalities do spend considerable portion of their
budgets on solid waste management but as a return receive limited tax which is insufficient to
meet their operation and maintenance costs. This is one of the main reasons why these
municipalities cannot afford latest techniques and equipment to make solid waste
management a profitable enterprise and to achieve the desired standards of environmental
quality.
Landfill gas production and utilization and mass burn incineration are most feasible
technology at first and second position respectively for treatment of solid waste in Pakistan. It
is because these two facilities have enough capacities to treat the current generated waste at
lower costs per ton. These two technologies also having capabilities to expand their
capacities, if needed to treat more waste in future. However the treatment cost per ton
decrease with the increase in quantity of waste per day. This is good way to tackle the solid
waste generated in Pakistan.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
7 Recommendation:
The thesis about the solid waste use as an alternate resource in Pakistan has been carried out.
The options available for solid waste management in Pakistan have to be considered bearing
in mind both the present and future needs. It has been tried to estimate the current
composition and quality of produced waste in Pakistan and also to explore the social,
environmental and economic issues closely related to improper solid waste management and
in-depth study of technologies which are especially designed for the handling of waste. After
studying the solid waste condition in Pakistan I have some recommendations which local
municipalities can adopt to improve the current situation they are facing now.

Increase the number of containers and street bins and make their design compatible
with the collection and transportation systems.

Establish regional collection systems in rural areas.

Encourage people not to throw their garbage loosely at the roadside or into drains.

Establish proper monitoring and supervision mechanisms for waste collection and
transportation to ensure reliability and satisfactory operation of the service.

Improve working conditions of solid waste management employees by providing them
with uniforms and other protective gear, etc. Raise salaries and incentives to increase
their motivation and thus increase waste collection efficiency.

Improve vehicle selection in urban centers, taking into the account waste quantities
and characteristics, the condition of roads and distance to disposal sites.

Encourage community-based collection systems and clean-up campaigns organized by
NGOs.

Raise funds and lobby for additional allocations of local government budget for solid
waste management from the Federal and Provincial Governments.

Strengthen the enforcement of law and regulations on solid waste management as this
will simulates residents, construction waste contractors to obey the law and it will
increase the authority of the municipality.
Solid wastes use as an Alternate Energy source in Pakistan
8
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Pakistan”, the state of Pakistan’s economy, Third quarterly report FY09.
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3. Idris, A., B. Inanc, et al. (2004). "Overview of waste disposal and landfills/dumps in
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7. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. (2005). Guideline for Solid Waste
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http://www.environment.gov.pk/ea-glines/swmglinesdraft.pdf (Accessed dated 15
November 2013)
10. History of Plastics
http://prr.hec.gov.pk/chapters/2216-1.pdf (Accessed dated 6th November 2012)
11. Growth
in
solid
Waste
Generation
http://www.environment.gov.pk/PRO_PDF/PositionPaper/Brief-SWM-%20Pak.pdf
(Accessed dated 8th 2012).
12. Involvement of informal sector in Plastic and Paper recycling in Pakistan
//www.resol.com.br/textos/INVOLVEMENT%20OF%20INFORMAL%20SECTOR
%20IN%20PLASTIC%20AND%20PAPER%20RECYCLING%20IN%20PAKISTA
N.pdf (Accessed dated 10th December 2012).
13. Hazardous Waste http://www.environment.gov.pk/ea-glines/swmglinesdraft.pdf
(Accessed dated 20 November 2012).
14. Converting
waste
Plastics
into
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