Optical Fibre Line Failure Detecting Xie Feng Information Technology

Optical Fibre Line Failure Detecting  Xie Feng Information Technology
Xie Feng
Optical Fibre Line Failure Detecting
Information Technology
2013
VAASA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES
Information Technology
ABSTRACT
Author
Xie Feng
Title
Optical Fibre Line Failure Detecting
Year
2013
Language
English
Pages
79
Name of Supervisor
Dr Gao Chao
With the development of modern communications, in order to meet the needs of
social development and technological progress the optical fibre communications
has become the main communication medium for its high reliability and security.
Fibre-optic cable is the channel for signal transmission. It is an important
component in the entire fibre-optic network. Once the fibre-optic cable fault
happened, the entire communication system would be impacted seriously. When
fault occurs, it is important to find out, locate it accurately, and remove it quickly.
In this thesis, firstly we briefly describe the status of fibre optic communication
technologies. Secondly is to introduce the definition and general characteristics of
the fibre optic line communication. Then according to the causes and
characteristics of fibre-optic cable fault, we use the Optical Time-Domain Reflect
meter (OTDR) to test the line, determine the position and feature of the error point.
Finally we get the solution to fix the problem.
__________________________________________________________________
KeyWords: Optical Fibre, Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, SDH Ring Protection,
Optical Timer Domain Reflect meter, Fusion Splicing
3
List of Figures and Tables
Figure 2.1. The fibre optic link .............................................................................9
Figure 2.2. Fibre-optic communication system ...................................................10
Figure 2.3. Schematic of an optical receiver .........................................................11
Figure 2.4. Comparison of fibre and copper cables ..............................................12
Figure 2.5. Fibre optic connectors .........................................................................13
Figure 2.6. SDH point-to-point topology ............................................................15
Figure 2.7. SDH point-to-multipoint topology ...................................................17
Figure 2.8. SDH hub topology ............................................................................17
Figure 2.9. SDH ring topology ............................................................................19
Figure 2.10. SDH terminal multiplexer ...............................................................21
Figure 2.11. Unidirectional versus bidirectional rings ........................................24
Figure 2.12. Two-fibre unidirectional ring ..........................................................25
Figure 2.13. Two-fibre bidirectional ring ............................................................25
Figure 2.14. Typical components found in a point-to-point optical communication
system ...................................................................................................................26
Figure 2.15. Cross section of a fibre-optic cable ................................................27
Figure 2.16. Total internal reflection ..................................................................28
Figure 2.17. Acceptance ......................................................................................29
Figure 2.18. Attenuation versus wavelength .......................................................33
Figure 3.1. Backscattered photons ......................................................................39
Figure 3.2. OTDR block diagram .......................................................................40
Figure 3.1. Backscattered photons ......................................................................41
Figure 3.2. OTDR block diagram .......................................................................37
Figure 3.3. sampling at 2 ns rate .........................................................................38
Figure 3.4. Event-filled OTDR traces .................................................................42
Figure 3.5. Baseline trace of horizontal segment ................................................44
Figure 3.6. Measuring the attenuation of a cable segment using the 2-points
method ..................................................................................................................45
Figure 3.7. Measuring the distance to the end of an optical fibre using the
2-points method ....................................................................................................46
4
Figure 3.8. Measuring the length of a cable segment .........................................47
Figure 3.9. Measuring interconnection loss with the OTDR ..............................48
Figure 3.10. Measuring the loss of a fusion splice or macro bend ......................49
Figure 3.11. Measuring the gain of a fusion splice .............................................49
Figure 3.12. Measuring the loss of a cable segment and interconnections .........51
Figure 4.1. Optical fibre cable distribution in real test .......................................52
Figure 4.2. Fibre-optic interface processing diagram .........................................54
Figure 4.3. The fibre end face cutting diagram ...................................................54
Figure 4.4. Fibre splice installation .....................................................................55
Figure 4.5. Splice loss assessment ......................................................................56
Figure 4.6. OTDR parameter setting ...................................................................57
Figure 4.7. OTDR test result ...............................................................................58
Figure 4.8. Optical fibre geographic location .....................................................58
Figure 4.9. OTDR end point connecting diagram ...............................................59
Figure 4.10. OTDR testing in different fibre mode field diameter .....................62
Figure 5.1. OTDR test diagram ...........................................................................64
Figure 5.2. Typical OTDR measurement curve ..................................................65
Figure 5.3. Near end SDH equipment panel .......................................................65
Figure 5.4. Remote end SDH equipment ............................................................66
Figure 5.5. Network management interface connecting diagram .......................67
Figure 5.6. Single deck connection on network management interface ..............67
Figure 5.7. Feature diagram ................................................................................68
Figure 5.8. the optical power meter value ...........................................................68
Figure 5.9. Instrument panel diagram after disconnect the fibre ........................69
Figure 5.10. SDH connection diagram ................................................................70
Figure 5.11. Network alarm diagram after cutting the fibre ................................70
Figure 5.12. Alarm indication after fibre disconnect ..........................................71
Figure 5.13. Optical power meter ........................................................................71
Figure 5.14. OTDR function setting diagram .....................................................72
Figure 5.15. OTDR setting distance range with 2.5km .......................................72
Figure 5.16. OTDR setting Pulse widths with 50ns ............................................73
5
Figure 5.17. Measurement result of OTDR ........................................................74
Figure 5.18. SDH Equipment with optical fibre line connection diagram ..........74
Figure 5.19. Optical fibre management interface after reconnect the cable .......75
Table 2.1. SDH ring types ...................................................................................22
Table 4.1. Optical fibre loss budget table ............................................................53
Table 4.2. Total geographic cable length calculation ..........................................59
Table 4.3. Repeater section fibre optic loss test record form ..............................60
Table 5.1. Common failure phenomena and Causes of optical fibre cable line ..63
6
List of Abbreviations
ADM
Add-Drop Multiplexer
APS
Automatic Protection Switching
BDC
Backup Domain Controller
BER
Bite Error rate
B-ISDN
Broadband Integrated Service Digital Network
CD
Chromatic Dispersion
DCS
Cross-Connected System
DRI
Dual-Ring Interconnect
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
EO
Electrical-to-Optical
GVD
Group Velocity Dispersion
LD
Laser Diode
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
LOF
Loss of Frame
LOS
Loss of Signal
MMF
Multi Mode Fibre
MS-SPRing
Multiplex Section-Shared Protection Ring
NE
Network Element
OSNR
Optical Signal-to-Noise Rate
OTDR
Optical Time Domain Reflect meter
PDH
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PMD
Polarization Mode Dispersion
PTE
Path-Terminating Equipment
RFI
Radio Frequency interference
SAN
Storage-Area Network
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SNCP
Sub Network Dependent Conversion Protocol
SONET
Synchronous Optical Networking
STM-N
Synchronous Transport Module Level N
TM
Terminal Multiplexer
VCSELs
Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
WDM
Wavelength-Division Multiplexing
WTR
Wait to Restore
7
1. Introduction
1.1. Background description
Optical fibre is made of brittle glass. Usually its external diameter is 125µm. The
core diameter of single mode fibre is only 7-8µm. For multimode fibre core
diameter is 50µm. During the installation, connector may be broken, bilging and
natural aging due to reason of the brutal work, strong external impact, all these
elements will lead to the fault of optical fibre transmission system.
Cable communication failure not only gives a direct economic loss to the
operators, but also causes great social influence as it brings inconvenience to the
people's life. Therefore, it is important to ensure the wellness of optic fibre cable.
Repair and maintenance of cable communication have a profound significance.
At present, majority of Chinese information capacity is transfer over the optic cable
line. With the increase of optic fibre cable fault and optical fibre cable aging, the
frequency of optic fibre line fault increases, and it is difficult to find error place in
the traditional optical fibre management mode. It will take long time to eliminate
failure factor, and affects the normal work of the network. Although nowadays ring
network protection technology can guarantee the smooth and continue transmission
in certain extent. But the shortcoming of traditional line maintenance still exists. So
the implementation of the optic fibre cable line real-time detection and
management, dynamic observations of the transmission properties of the optic fibre
cable line degradation, the timely discovery and prevent hidden trouble, reduce the
incidence of blocking become more and more important.
This project is done in Wuhan Post and Telecommunication Research Institute. The
8
purpose of this project is finding the fault in the optical fibre line and use the
fusion splicer to connect the fault point. In order to achieve this goal, Synchronous
Digital Hierarchy (SDH) manage systems will inform the maintainers when fault
happens, and then we use the OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflect meter)and
fusion splicer instruments to test and reconnect the fault point. By doing this work,
a thorough understanding of optic fibre link fault detection and repairmen is
obtained. Measured data is analyzed by fibre optic theories and the result shows that
the ODTR detection method works well in real situations.
The purpose and process of the optic cable line detection is to collect equipment
state information, then list the collected data and analysis, finally we make an
effective evaluation.
1.2. Outlines of the thesis
Chapter 1 of this paper briefly describes the reasons for failure of the optical fibre
communication systems ; Chapter 2 introduce the optical fibre link components
and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy ring protection mechanism and describes the
basic composition and characteristics of the optical fibre cable line systems;
Chapter 3 describes the commonly used instrument of detecting the optical fibre
cable line fault; Chapter 4 introduces the OTDR mechanism and how to use the
OTDR testing different features of the optical fibre cable; Chapter 5 depends on
the OTDR detecting method to find the accurate fault position of fibre optic line ;
Chapter 6 makes a summary for what we have learned during the whole process.
9
2. Principles of Fibre Optic Transmission
2.1. The fibre optic link
Figure 2.1. The fibre optic link /1/.
The only difference between the fibre optical links with other link is using optical
fibre instead of wire. We can see following four basic components as Figure 2.1
shown:
•
Transmitter which is used to convert a signal into the light and send the light
•
Receiver which is used to capture the light and convert it back to a signal
•
The optical fibre is the medium which is used to carried the light
•
The connectors are used to link the cable between the transmitter and
receiver
2.1.1.
Optical transmitters
There are two functions of the transmitter. First, it is a light source launched into the
optic fibre cable. Second, it modulates the light by the binary data it receives from
the source. A transmitter’s physical dimension must be compatible with the size of
the fibre-optic cable being used. It means the light must being emitted in cone fibre
with a cross-sectional diameter of 8 to 100 microns from the transmitter; otherwise,
it cannot be coupled into the fibre-optic cable. The optical source must be able to
10
generate enough optical power in order to meet the desired BER (Bite Error Rate).
There should be efficiency in coupling the light generated by the optical source into
the fibre-optic cable, and the optical source should have sufficient linearity to
prevent the harmonics and distortion. It is extremely difficult to remove these
interferences. The optical source must be easily modulated with an electrical signal
and must be capable for high-speed modulation; otherwise, the bandwidth benefits
of fibre-optic cable are lost. Small size, low weight, low cost and high reliability are
also required. As Figure 2.2 illustrates the transmitter converts an electrical signal
into light energy to be carried through the fibre optic link.
Figure2.2. Optical transmitter/1/.
2.1.2.
Optical receivers
Figure 2.3 shows a schematic of an optical receiver. The receiver has two functions:
it sense or detect the light coupled out of the fibre-optic cable and convert the light
into electrical signal, and demodulate this light to determine the identity of the
binary data that it represents. The receiver performs the Optical-to-Electrical (OE)
transducer function.
A receiver is usually works with transmitter. Both are modules within the same
package.
11
Figure 2.3. Schematic of an optical receiver/3/.
A receiver is usually works with transmitter. Both are modules within the same
package. The light is detected by a photodiode and converts it to an electrical
current. Due to the optical signal which transmitted from the fibre-optic cable and
then demodulated to electrical current will have small amplitude. Consequently, the
photodiode circuitry must quantities it by one or more amplification stages.
The receiver schematic in Figure 2.3 shows a photodiode, bias resistor circuit, and a
low-noise pre-amp. The output of the pre-amp is an electrical waveform version of
the original information from the source.
2.1.3.
Optical fibre
We connect the transmitter and receiver by using the optical fibre to carry the signal.
Different optical fibre is made of different material have different function
depending on the requirements. The benefit we can get from the optical fibre is that
it can transmit a large amount of light signal over a long distance and around
corners.
12
“Optical fibres used in a fibre optic link have a core between 8 and 100 microns
(millionths of a meter) in diameter. The cladding which surrounds the fibre may be
as much as 140 microns in diameter. The optical fibre’s coating protects the
cladding from abrasion. “Even with the thickness of the coating, however, optical
fibre cable is much smaller and lighter than copper cabling, as shown in Figure 2.4,
and can carry man times the information.” /1/
Figure 2.4: Comparison of fibre and copper cables/1/.
13
2.1.4.
Connectors
Figure 2.5. Fibre optic connectors/1/.
The connector as Figure 2.5 shown is used to attach the optical fibre and provide the
solid contact between mated transmitter and receiver. The connector must align the
fibre end precisely with the light source or receiver to prevent signal loss.
2.2. Synchronous digital hierarchy
2.2.1.
SDH concept
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is an international standard for wide band
transmission hierarchy which defines the transmission rate, frame structure,
multiplexing mode, and optical interface specifications of digital signal
transmission. It is a synchronous system which intends to provide a more flexible,
yet simple network infrastructure.
14
2.2.2.
SDH generation background
With the development of information, modern society requires the ability of
communication networks to provide various telecommunication services. The
amount
of
information
transmitted,
switched,
and
processed
by
telecommunications network keeps increasing requiring modern communication
networks to develop towards digitalization, integration and personalization.
Transmission system is an important part of communication networks. The quality
of transmission system makes a direct effect on the development of
communication network. Lots of countries construct the optical transmission
network with larger capacity to develop the information highway. The optical
transmission network based on SDH/WDM (Wavelength-Division Multiplexing)
is the basic physical platform of the information highway. The transmission
network should have universal unified interface specifications, so that every user
in the world can communicate conveniently anytime and anywhere.
SDH has a lot of advantages /3/:
First world standard in digital format.
First optical interface.
Transversal
compatibility
reduces
networking
cost.
Multivendor
environment drives price down.
Flexible synchronous multiplexing structure.
Easy and cost-efficient traffic add-and-drop and cross connect capability.
Powerful management capability.
New network architecture. Highly flexible and survivable self healing
rings available.
15
Backward and forward compatibility: Back compatibility to existing PDH
(Plesiochronous Digital hierarchy) forward compatibility to future
B-ISDN (Broadband Integrated Service Digital Network), etc.
When do we use SDH /3/:
When network need to increase capacity, SDH simply acts as a mean of
increasing transmission capacity.
When network need to improve flexibility, to provide services quickly or
to respond to new change more rapidly.
When networks need to improve survivability for important user services.
When networks need to reduce operation costs, which are becoming a
heavy burden.
2.2.3.
Basic SDH network topologies
Various topologies can be configured by using either SDH ADMs (Add-Drop
Multiplexer) or DCSs (Cross-Connected System). The SONET (Synchronous
Optical Networking) ring topologies are often used in North America, whereas
Europe, Asia and Latin America mainly rely on SDH-based ring as well as meshed
network topologies.
SDH point-to-point topology
Point-to-Point topologies are the method by using the dark fibre to connect two
SDH PTEs (Path-Terminating Equipment) back to back. As describe in Figure 2.6,
a point-to-point distribution include two PTE ADMS (Add-Drop Multiplexer) or
TMs (Terminal Multiplexer) linked by fibre with or without an STE regenerator in
the link. The TM can be used as an E1 concentrator and transport the E1 over an
STM-N (Synchronous Transport Module Level N) link. Point-to-Point topologies
16
are very popular to support Storage-Area Network (SAN) interconnectivity
between data centres.
Figure 2.6. SDH point-to-point topology/3/.
Point-to-Point topologies use 1: N protection mechanisms for using one standby
link to protect N active links. The best protection is obtained by using 1:1 ratio.
Working path is used when the system is working in normal conditions. When the
system fails, the protection path will be activated with a switchover time less than
50ms. Ideally, the protect path of fibre must use diverse physical routing to achieve
maximum redundancy.
SDH point-to-multipoint topology
A point-to-multipoint architecture accomplish the adding and dropping of the
circuits along the path. The SDH ADM in the middle is a unique NE specifically
designed for this task. As illustrated in Figure 2.7, the ADM is usually works in an
SDH link to facilitate adding and dropping of tributary or STM-N channels at
intermediate points in the network. Compare with Point-to-Point topologies, this
topologies also use 1: N protection mechanisms for one standby link is used to
protect N active links. And also, maximum protection is obtained by using a 1:
1ratio or 1+1 topology.
17
Figure 2.7. SDH point-to-multipoint topology/3/.
SDH hub topology
The hub network topology is a scalable architecture that uses PTE devices in a
hub-and-spoke configuration. As illustrated in Figure 2.8, the hub is implemented
as BDCs (Backup Domain Controller) that concentrates traffic are central site and
allows cross-connecting services. During the BDCs implementation, we use two of
more ADMs and a BDCS switch to allow the cross-connecting at both the SDH
STS and the tributary level. Hub topologies have the same protection mechanism
by using the 1: N protection method in which one standby link is used to protect N
active links, with maximum protection obtained by using 1:1 or 1+1 protection.
Figure 2.8. SDH hub topology/3/.
18
Ring topology
SDH rings provide low restoration times for the potent protection mechanisms. As
Figure 2.9 show we use the ADM as the ring architecture in SDH building block.
Multiple ADMS can be constructed as a chain for configuring the data flow for
either bidirectional or unidirectional. The main advantage of the ring topology is
the high survivability and low restoration. If the fibre cable is broken, the ADMs
will automatic reroute the affected services by altering to the alternate path through
the ring without interruption. The ability of survivable services, diverse routing of
fibre facilities and flexibility of rearrange to alternate serving node, all these
benefits has made rings become the most popular metro access and core SDH
architecture. “Rings use advanced protection mechanisms and protocols, such as
APS, Sub network Dependent Conversion Protocol (SNCP) two-fibre, MS-SPRing
two-fibre, and MS-SPRing (Multiplex Section-shared Protection Ring) four-fibre.”
/3/
19
Figure 2.9. SDH ring topology/3/.
2.2.4.
SDH protection architectures
In this section we will discuss different SDH protection architectures and
mechanisms include APS (Automatic Protection Switching), linear and ring
protection architectures.
SDH defines a maximum switch of 50 ms for an
MS-SPRing ring less than 1200km of fibre. According to the specification, it takes
10ms for discovery of the problem and 50ms to perform the switch, but commonly
it usually completes the whole process in 50ms. Furthermore, most SDH networks
20
work faster than this example. SDH protection will be active if there is an LOS
(Loss of Signal), LOF (Loss of Frame), or even signal degradation, such as the
BER(Bite Error Rate) exceeding a preconfigured limit. “Protection implies that a
backup resource has been established for recovery if the primary resource fails, and
restoration implies re-establishing the end-to-end path based on resource available
after the failure.” /3/ SDH protection includes nonrevertive and revertive protection
mechanisms. For the nonrevertice protection, the system will not choose reverted
line as the working path by using the original protection line instead. With the
revertive protection, the system reverts to the original line after restoration.
Automatic protection switching
APS (Automatic Protection Switching) is a solution to provide link recovery in
case of failure. Link recovery is designed by having SDH devices with two sets of
fibre. One set (transmit and receive) is used for working traffic, and the other set
(transmit and receive pair) is used for protection. “APS protection can be
configured for linear or ring topologies. Each type of topology has specific choice
of 1:1, 1: N, or 1+1 protection. These can further be configured with unidirectional
or bidirectional switching mechanism.”/3/
2.2.5.
Common network elements in SDH network
SDH transmission network is composed by different types of Network Elements
(NE) which are connected by optical cable. The following contents describe the
characteristics and basic functions of common Network Elements (NE) in an SDH
network.
21
Regenerator
The regenerator is a device that regenerates attenuated signals. After long distance
transmitting between multiplexers, the signal level will attenuate too low to drive
the receiver. The regenerator is sometimes called a repeater.
Terminal multiplexer
“The Terminal Multiplexer (TM) is a Path-Terminating Element (PTE) that can
concentrate or aggregates DS1s, DS3s, E1s, E3s, and STM-Ns.” /3/ Figure 2.10
shows a schematic of a TM. As we can see from this graph, DS1, E1 and E3 levels’
signals is matched to their associated SDH electrical payloads in the TM. After the
STM-N signals were launched into the fibre, Electrical-to-Optical (EO) conversion
will be taken by the TM. “The TM is analogous to the channel bank in the TDM
world and allows lower-speed user access to the SDH network.” /3/
Figure 2.10. SDH terminals multiplexer/3/.
22
Add/Drop multiplexer
“An ADM is PTE that can multiplex or demultiplex signals to or from an STM-N
signal.”/3/Only signals that need to be accessed will be dropped or inserted, and
then the rest signals will pass through the NE with other signal processing.
Different PDH signals are match with associated SDH VC-Ns in the TM. “The
multiplexed payloads are then mapped into STM-N signals based on the line rate of
the STM-N transmission.”/3/ After an EO conversion, the STM-N signals will be
transmitted into the fibre again. “SDH enables add, drop, and pass-through
capability where a signal that terminates at one node is duplicated and is then sent to
the next and subsequent nodes.”/3/ In a case the ADM used as the matching nodes
when interconnecting SDH rings. In rings survivability application, drop and
pass-through capability provides alternate routing for traffic pass through
interconnecting rings in a matched node configuration. If the connection is broken
at one node, the signal will choose an alternate route and be transmitted again to the
target node.
2.2.6.
SDH ring protection mechanisms
The SDH gives the ability to create topologies with protection for the data
transferred.
This section introduces the SDH unidirectional and bidirectional ring architectures
and figure out the difference between two-fibre and four-fibre SDH rings. We also
make a comparison between multiplex section (ring) switching versus path (span)
switching.
SDH have three attributes with choices for each as illustrated in Table2.1.
23
Table 2.1. SDH ring types/3/.
The common use topologies always several attributes at one time as following:
Two-fiber subnetwork connection protection ring(two-fiber SNCP)
Two-fiber multiplex section-shared protection ring(two-fiber MS-SPRing)
Four-fiber multiplex section-shared protection ring(four-fiber MS-SPRing)
Unidirectional versus bidirectional rings
“In a unidirectional ring, the working traffic is routed over the clockwise spans
around the ring, and the counter clockwise spans are protection spans used to carry
traffic when the working span fails.”/3/ As we can see the data flow in Figure
2.11.Traffic from NE1 to NE2 traverses span 1in a clockwise flow, and the traffic
from NE2 to NE1 traverses span 2, span 3, and span 4in clockwise flow as well.
24
Spans 5,6,7,8 are used as protection spans and will be active to carry the traffic
when one of the working clockwise spans fail.
Figure 2.11. Unidirectional versus bidirectional rings/3/.
Bidirectional traffic flows also works as the schematic of Figure 2.11 show. The
traffic flows as the same as the unidirectional traffic. It the links between NE1 and
NE2 were failed, the system will choose the spans between NE2-NE3, NE3-NE4,
and NE4-NE1 instead.
Two-Fibre versus four-fibre rings
“Unidirectional and bidirectional systems both implement two-fibre and four fibre
systems. Most commercial unidirectional systems, such as SNCP are two-fibre
systems, whereas bidirectional systems, such as MS-SPRing, implement both
two-fibre and four-fibre infrastructures. ”/3/The two-fibre STM-N unidirectional
25
system with two nodes is illustrated in Figure 2.12. Fibre span 1 carriers N working
channels eastbound, fibre span 5 carriers N protection channel westbound.
Figure 2.12. Two-fibre unidirectional ring/3/.
A two-fibre STM-N bidirectional system with two nodes is illustrated in Figure
2.12. For each fibre , a maximum of half number of channels are used as working
channels, and the other half are defined as protection channels. Let’s take an
STM-16 system as example, it would carry eight working VC-4s and eight
protection VC-4s eastbound from NE1 to NE2, while carrying working VC-4s and
eight protection VC-4s westbound from NE2 to NE1.
Figure 2.13.Two-fibre bidirectional ring/3/.
There are some other ring protections modes, such as 4-fibre path bi-directional
protection ring. The further detail of ring protection can be found in the chapter
called “SDH Ring Architectures” of reference /3/
26
2.3. Optical fiber
“An optical fibre is a long thin strand of impurity –free glass which used as the
transport medium for data. A typical point-to-point fibre optic communication
network consists of a transmitter, a transport medium and a receiver as in Figure
2.14.” /2/
Figure 2.14. Typical components found in a point-to-point optical communication
System/2/.
2.3.1.
Structure of optical fibre
A fibre optic cable is comprised by two concentric layers, called the core and the
cladding, as Figure 2.15 showing. The core has a refractive index of n1, the have a
27
refractive index of n2, and n1 is different of n2. The index of refraction is a way of
measuring the light in a material.
Figure 2.15. Cross section of a fibre-optic cable/3/
The index of refraction is calculated by dividing the speed of light in vacuum by the
speed of light in another medium, as shown in the following formula:
Refractive index of the medium =
2.3.2.
/3/
Total internal reflection
Figure 2.16 shows the propagation of light down the fibre-optic cable using the
principle of the total internal reflection. As illustrated, a light ray is injected into the
fibre optic cable on the left. If the light ray is injected and strikes the
core-to-cladding interface at an angle greater than the critical angle with respect to
the normal axis, it is reflected back into the core. Because the angle of incidence is
always equal to the angle of reflection, the reflected light continues to be reflected.
28
The light ray then continues bouncing down the length of the fibre-optic cable. If
the angle of incidence at the core-to-cladding interface is less than the critical angle,
both reflection and refraction take place. Because of refraction at each incidence on
the interface, the light beam attenuates and dies off over a certain distance.
Figure 2.16. Total internal reflection/3/.
The critical angle is only depends on the indices of refraction of the core and
cladding and it is calculated by following formula:
θc = cos–1( /3/
Figure 2.22 shows a light ray entering the core from the outside air to the left of the
cable. “Light must enter the core from the air at angle less than an entity known as
the acceptance angle (θa)” /3/:
θa = sin–1 [ sin (Ө )] /3/
We suppose the n1=1.557 and n2 =1.343 so the critical angle can be calculated as
30.39degrees. The refractive index of air is represented by n and equals to one,
so we can calculate the acceptance angle which enters the cylindrical axis of the
core is 51.96 degrees.
29
The optical fibre also has a numerical aperture (NA). The NA is given by the
following formula:
NA = Sin Ө = n n /3/
For a three-dimensional perspective, in order to keep the signals reflected and
transmitted correctly through the core, the light must enter the core through an
acceptance cone traceable by rotating the acceptance angle to the cylindrical fibre
axis.
As illustrated in Figure 2.17, the size of the acceptance cone is depends on the
refractive difference between the core and the cladding. There is a maximum
angle at the fibre axis which light can enter the fibre so that it will propagate or
transmit through the core of the fibre. The sine value of this maximum angle is the
Numerical Aperture.
“Fibre with a large NA requires less precision to splice and
work.”/3/
Figure 2.17. Acceptance cone/3/.
30
2.3.3.
Performance consideration
The amount of light that can be transmitted into the core through the external
acceptance angle is directly proportional of the fibre-optic cable. The greater the
amount of light can be coupled into the core, the lower the Bit Error Rate (BER),
due to the more variable light reaches the receiver. The attenuation of the light is
inversely proportional to the efficiency of the optical cable. It means the lower the
attenuation in propagation the lower the BER. “The low attenuation will lead
more light reaches to the receiver, less dispersion, faster the signalling rate and
higher the end-to-end data rate from source to destination.”/3/
Optical-Power Measurement
We introduce a unit concept to express power in optical communications with a
logarithmic scale called Decibel (dB). The decibel does not directly show a
magnitude value; actually it is a ratio of the output power to the input power.
$%&'(&'
Loss or gain = 10log $
)*(&'
/3/
The decibel mille (dBm) is the power level related to 1 mill watt (mW). Sometime
the transmitter or receiver power is very small, and then we need dBm unit to
record.
A 1mW signal has a level of 0 dBm. We calculate the signal in
following formula:
$,
dBm = 10log +,- /3/
We can get the conclusion according to the above formula if the signal power is
weaker than 1 mW, the value of signal in dBm unit will be negative. Otherwise,
the dBm value will be positive.
31
2.3.4.
Laser back reflection
Back reflection is sometimes called optical return loss is a peculiar phenomenon
where by a fraction of the transmitted optical power will reflect back toward the
source upon encountering variations in refractive index. Splices, patches and
defects in the fibre all can cause back reflections. Fibre with more than 20dB of
back reflection is considered quite high and optical isolators should be used on laser
sources. For example the back reflection of an air-glass interface, as one would see
in a broken fibre is -15 dB. If a laser with –5dBm output power was launched into
this broken fibre, and then the laser would have –20dBm optical power reflecting
back into the laser cavity disrupting the standing optical wave generating noise in
the output optical signal.
2.4. Fibre-optic characteristics
Back reflection is also called optical return loss when the light hit atoms in the
fibre, it will reflect to any direction random. Some of light will reflect back
toward the source. Splices, patches and defects in the fibre all can cause back
reflection. For example the back reflection of an air-glass interface, as one would
see in a broken fibre is -15dB. If a laser with -5dBm output power was launched
into this broken fibre, and then the laser would have -20 dBm optical powers
reflecting back into the laser cavity disrupting the standing optical wave
generating noise in the output optical signal.
Optical fibre systems have many advantages by comparing with metallic-based
communication systems, like interference, attenuation and bandwidth
characteristics. Fibre can be classified as linear and nonlinear.
32
2.4.1.
Interference
Light signals transmit through fibre optic cable are immune from Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI).
So the fibre
network is suitable for the environment which has strong EMI and RFI
interference. The character makes the fibre optic cable become the important
medium in industry and biomedical network.
2.4.2.
Linear characteristics
Linear characteristics include attenuation, Chromatic Dispersion (CD),
Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), and Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR).
Attenuation
Attenuation is caused by internal and external factors. Intrinsic attenuation is
caused by substances inherently present in the fibre, whereas extrinsic attenuation
is caused by external forces such as bending. “The attenuation coefficient α is
expressed in decibels per kilometre and represents the loss in decibels per
kilometre of fibre.” /3/
Intrinsic attenuation
Intrinsic attenuation is caused by the material immanent facts likes the impurities
during the fibre optic manufacturing process. It is impossible to clean up all
33
impurities. When a light signal hits an impurity in the fibre, it may scatters to any
direction random or it may absorbed by this impurity point. So intrinsic loss
attenuation can be divided into two phenomenons:
•
Material absorption
•
Rayleigh scattering
Material absorption
Material absorption is leaded by the impurities in the fibre. “The most common
impurity is the hydroxyl (OH-) molecule, which remains as residue despite
stringent manufacturing techniques.”/3/ Figure 2.18 shows the variation of
attenuation with different wavelength. We can observe there are three windows of
850nm, 1310nm, 1550nm wavelength bands. During these three regions, the
attenuation is relatively lower than the loss in nearby duration and the light
transmitting efficiency is also higher.
Figure 2.18. Attenuation versus wavelength/3/.
34
Rayleigh scattering
The light interacts with the silica molecules during transmitting in the core fibre.
Rayleigh scattering is the result of these elastic collisions between the light and
the silica molecules in the fibre. If the scattered light keeps forwarding then there
is no attenuation occurs. Otherwise, the light scattered to any direction not
supposed to go then the attenuation occurs. Due to the different incident angle,
some portion of the light propagates forward and the other parts deviates out of
the propagation path and escapes from the fibre core. Some scattered light is
reflected back toward the light source. We use an Optical Time Domain Reflect
meter (OTDR) to capture this signal. The same principle applies to analyzing
splice loss. “Short wavelengths are scattered more than longer wavelengths.” /3/
Extrinsic attenuation
Extrinsic attenuation is caused by two external mechanisms: macro bending or
micro bending.
The strain is happened on the fibre which region is bent. It
affects the refractive index and the critical angle of the light ray in that specific
area.
A macro bend is a significant bend which is observe by eyes, and the loss is
generally reversible after bends vanished. We should no twist the fibre smaller
than the specific minimum bend radius in order to get rid of the macro bends.
Micro bending is caused by imperfections in the cylindrical geometry of fibre
during the manufacturing process. “Micro bending might be related to
temperature, tensile stress, or crushing force.” /3/Both bends will cause a
reduction of optical power. The behind one is inspected by the OTDR.
35
Chromatic dispersion
“Chromatic dispersion is the spreading of a light pulse as it travels down a
fibre.”/3/ Light can be considered as an electromagnetic wave from quantum
perspective. During the light propagating process, all of its spectral components
propagate constantly. “These spectral components travel at different group
velocities that lead to dispersion called Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD).”/3/It
also termed as chromatic dispersion. As the result of chromatic dispersion, the
pulses spread leads that it cannot be distinguished by the receiver. Light pulses
were transmitted at high data rates will leads high dispersion which brings errors
and loss information.
Optical signal-to-noise rate
The Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR) indicates the ratio of the nets signal
power to the net noise power and it shows the quality of the signal. With the
increase of transmitting time and distance, the receiver cannot distinguish the
useful signal from the noise. “Regeneration helps mitigate these undesirable
effects before they can render the system unusable and ensures that the signal can
be detected by the receiver.”/3/ Following devices like optical amplifiers, laser,
taps and fibre will add noise. Finally the optical amplifier noise is considered the
major source for OSNR penalty and degradation.
36
2.5. Fibre span analysis
“Span analysis is the calculation and verification of fibre-optic system’s operating
characteristics.”/3/It include following elements such as fibre routing, electronics,
wavelengths, fibre type, and circuit length. “Both the passive and active
components of the circuit have to be included in the loss-budget calculation.
Passive loss is made up of fibre loss, connector loss, splice loss, and losses
involved with coupler or splitters in the link. Active components are system gain,
wavelength, transmitter power, receiver sensitivity, and dynamic range.
The total span loss is also called link budget can be measured by an optical meter,
which consider the loss associate with span components such as connectors,
splices, patch panels, jumpers, and the optical safety margin. The safety margin
usually sets to 3dB. Then add all these factors together by comparing with the
maximum attenuation to decide whether this system will operate satisfactory or
not.
Transmitter launch power
“Span analysis is the calculation and verification of fibre-optic system’s operating
characteristics.”/3/It include following elements such as fibre routing, electronics,
wavelengths, fibre type, and circuit length. “Both the passive and active
components of the circuit have to be included in the loss-budget calculation.
Passive loss is made up of fibre loss, connector loss, splice loss, and losses
involved with coupler or splitters in the link. Active components are system gain,
wavelength, transmitter power, receiver sensitivity, and dynamic range.
37
The total span loss is also called link budget can be measured by an optical meter,
which consider the loss associate with span components such as connectors,
splices, patch panels, jumpers, and the optical safety margin. The safety margin
usually sets to 3dB. Then add all these factors together by comparing with the
maximum attenuation to decide whether this system will operate satisfactory or
not.
“Power measured in dBm at a particular wavelength generated by the transmitter
LED or LD used to launch the signal is known as the transmitter launch
power.”/3/ The higher the transmitters launch power, the better. “If the signal
strength is not within the receiver’s dynamic range, the receiver cannot decipher
the signal and perform an OE conversion.”/3/
Receiver sensitivity and dynamic range
“Receiver sensitivity and dynamic range are the minimum acceptable value of
received power needed to achieve an acceptable BER or performance.”/3/ We
suppose the worst-case values of extinction ratio, jitter, pulse rise times and fall
times, optical return loss, receiver connector degradations, and measurement
tolerances in the receiver sensitivity situation.
Power budget and margin calculations
To guarantee the fibre system works in correct way, we need to calculate the
span’s power budget. Worst case is happened when minimum transmitter power
and minimum receiver sensitivity happens.
Power budget (P/ = Minimum transmitter power (P0121 –Minimum receiver
sensitivity (P3124 /3/
38
Span loss P5 = (Fiber attenuation×km) + (Splice attenuation×Number of splices)
+ (Connector attenuation×Number of splices) + (Connector attenuation×Number
of connectors) + (In-line device losses) + (Nonlinear losses) + (Safety margin) /3/
The next calculation involves the power margin (P1 , which represents the
amount of power available after subtracting linear and nonlinear span losses (P from the power budget (P/ . A P1 greater than zero indicates that power budget
is sufficient to operate the receiver. The formula for power margin (P1 is as
follows:
Power margin (P1 =Power budget (P/ - Span loss (P /3/
To prevent receiver saturation, the input power received by the receiver, after the
signal has undergone span loss, must not exceed the maximum receiver sensitivity
specification ( P0167 . This signal level is denoted as ( P24 . The maximum
transmitter power ( P0167 must be considered as the launch power for this
calculation. The span loss (P5 remains constant.
Input power (P24 =Maximum transmitter power (P0167 - Span loss (P ) /3/
The design equation
Input power (P24 89Maximum receiver sensitivity (P3167 /3/
Must be satisfied to prevent receiver saturation and ensure system viability. If the
input power (P24 is greater than the maximum receiver sensitivity (P3167 ,
passive attenuation must be considered to reduce signal level and bring it within the
dynamic range of the receiver.
39
3. OTDR
3.1. OTDR techniques
The Optical Time Domain Reflectmeter(OTDR) is used for measuring the
characteristics of fibre optic cable. It has following function as verify splice loss,
measure the cable length and locate the faults.
The OTDR used the collected data to draw a picture called a “trace” which includes
valuable information and also can be stored as a record. Usually the OTDR shows
us the location of terminated point and analysis the number and loss of connections
and splices. OTDR traces are also used for troubleshooting due to it can show the
location of fault points by comparing with the initial installation documentation.
“Light reflecting back in an optical fibre is the result of reflection or backscatter.
Reflections happen when the light travelling through the optical fibre encounters
changes in the refractive index. These reflections are called Fresnel reflections,
Backscatter, or Rayleigh scattering, result from evenly distributed compositional
and density variations in the optical fibre.”/4/ Figure 3.1 shows the photons that
travel back toward the OTDR are considered backscatter.
Figure 3.1. Backscattered photons/4/.
40
3.2. OTDR working mechanism
Figure 3.2. OTDR block diagram/4/.
A typical OTDR includes eight basic components: the directional coupler, laser
generator, time circuit, signal-board computer, Digital Signal Processor (DSP), and
analogy to digital converter, sample-and-hold circuit, and avalanche photodiode.
“Figure 3.2 is a block diagram of the OTDR showing how light is launched from
the laser through the directional coupler into the optical fibre. The directional
coupler channels light returned by the optical fibre to the avalanche photodiode.”/4/
“The avalanche photodiode converts the light energy into electrical energy. The
electrical energy is sampled at a very high rate by the sample-and-hold circuit. The
sample-and-hold circuit maintains the instantaneous voltage level of each sample
long enough for the analogy to digital converter to convert the electrical value to a
numerical value. The numerical value from the analogy to digital converter s
processed by the DSP and the result is sent to the single-board computer to be
stored in memory and displayed on the screen. The entire process is typically
repeated many times during a single test of an optical fibre and coordinated by the
timing circuit.”/4/
41
The OTDR will send the light constantly during certain period. The OTDR capture
each sample in round–trip time means the actually transmitting time is half of what
the OTDR counts. Let’s assume the OTDR is taking 500 million samples per
second or one sample every two nanoseconds. If the refractive index for the optical
fibre under test were equal to 1.5, every five samples would represent the distance
of 1 meter, as shown in Figure4.3.The following formula is used to find distance
based on time and refractive index. In this formula, the speed of light is rounded up
to 3×10< m/s:
Distance=
=
>[email protected] ?* *B
C D 5
3D 2E
For the above example:
Distance=
=
*B
CFG /5
.J
Distance = 1 m
Figure 3.3. OTDR sampling at 2 ns rate/4/.
42
OTDR Display
The OTDR shows the time or distance on the horizontal axis and amplitude on the
vertical axis. The horizontal axis’s unit is shown in meters or kilometres, and dB
(decimal) in vertical axis.
The trace generated by the OTDR shows in Figure 3.4 shows event loss, event
reflectance, and optical fibre attenuation rate.
Figure 3.4. Event-Filled OTDR traces/4/.
3.3. OTDR setup
Appropriate setting leads more accurate results. When we set up the OTDR, we
need to select the correct fibre type, wavelength or wavelengths, range and
resolution, pulse width, average, refractive index, thresholds, and backscatter
coefficient.
3.3.1.
Fibre type
The OTDR has several optical fibre types testing modes. A multimode module
cannot be used to test a signal-mode optical fibre.
43
3.3.2.
Wavelength
The wavelength for OTDR testing is depends on the light source module of
OTDR.
3.3.3.
Range and resolution
“The distance range of an unzoomed trace displayed on the OTDR and the distance
between data points is determined by range and resolution.” /4/ As common, the
OTDR range should be set to 1.5 times the length of the fibre optic link. If the range
is set too short, the entire link may not be displayed. If the range is set too long, the
trace will show only a small part of the display.
3.3.4.
Pulse width
The pulse width determines the size of the dead zone and maximum length optical
fibre that can be tested. If the pulse width is set properly, the trace will stay smooth
until the end of the fibre optic link.
3.4. Testing and trace analysis
Baseline trace
At beginning, we need to generate the baseline trace. Before we use the OTDR to
test the optical fibre cable we need to check following items:
“All connector have been cleaned and inspected are undamaged.”/4/
“Launch and receiver cable have optical fibre similar to the optical fibre under
test.”/4/
44
“Launch and receiver cables are the correct length.”/4/
“Launch and receiver cables are properly connected to each end of the fibre optic
link under test.”/4/
“The correct fibre type, wavelength, range and resolution, pulse width, average,
refractive index, and backscatter coefficient have been entered into the OTDR.”/4/
Figure 3.5. Baseline trace of horizontal segment/4/.
The OTDR shows an example baseline trace in Figure 3.5 which includes the 100m
length of the launch and receiver cable and 85m length of horizontal segment.
Looking at the trace from left to right there is a large back reflection at the input to
the launch cable. Because a 20 ns pulse width was selected, the trace is smooth
within 10 m. The smooth trace slopes gradually to the back reflection caused by the
connector pair where the launch cable and horizontal segment are connected
together.
The trace becomes smooth again 10 m after the interconnection back reflection.
The trace remains smooth up to the back reflection caused by the connector pair
where receive cable and horizontal segment interconnect. The trace again becomes
45
smooth 10 m after the interconnection back reflection until a large back reflection is
generated by the end of the receive cable. The receive cable back reflection is
followed by a large reduction in amplitude, and then the trace disappears into the
noise floor.”/4/
3.5. Making measurements with the OTDR
3.5.1.
Measuring the attenuation of a partial length of optical fibre
After taking the baseline trace, we put the two cursors on a smooth section of the
optical fibre. The longer the section, less noise impact will be and then more
accurate result we will get. The trace in Figure 3.6 shows the segment between A
and B cursor is 50m in horizontal axis. The loss of this 50m segment at a
wavelength of 850 nm is approximately 0.14dB.
Figure 3.6. Measuring the attenuation of a cable segment using the 2-points
Method/4/.
46
3.5.2.
Measuring the distance to the end of the optical fibre
A break point in an optical fibre looks like the end of the optical fibre in OTDR
display. It makes us are capable to measure the distance to the break point or end
point.
When light escapes from the optical fibre, a strong back reflection called Fresnel
reflection will be generated from the end point. Figure 3.7 figures out the trace with
and without the Fresnel refection.
To measure the distance to the end of the optical fibre after zooming in on the back
reflection, we place the A cursor on a smooth section of the trace just in front of the
back reflection or the drop in the trace. Move the B cursor toward the A cursor until
it is in the leading edge of the back reflection. Keeping moving the B cursor toward
the A cursor until the A-B loss is ±0.5 dB. It should be 0.5 dB of loss for the no
reflective trace and 0.5 dB of gain for the reflective trace. The length for the entire
span is the distance for the B cursor.
47
Figure 3.7. Measuring the distance to the end of an optical fibre using the
2-points Method/4/.
3.5.3.
Measuring the length of a cable segment
The first step in measuring the length of a cable segment is to horizontally zoom in
on the interconnection. We put the cursors in the leading edge of the reflective
events for that segment. The cursors should intersect the leading edge of the
reflective event at the same vertical height above the smooth part of the trace as
shown in Figure 3.8. The distance between two cursors is the length of the cable
segment.
Figure 3.8. Measuring the length of a cable segment/4/.
3.5.4.
Measuring interconnection loss
We begin to measuring the interconnection loss by horizontally zoom in OTDR
display. We put the A cursor in front of the back reflection, then position the B
cursor on a smooth area on the trace after interconnection back reflection. Figure
3.9 shows loss for the interconnection and the optical fibre between the cursors is
0.4dB on the OTDR display and the distance between the A and B cursors is 50m.
48
Figure 3.9. Measuring interconnection loss with the OTDR/4/.
In order to find the loss for only the interconnection, the loss for the optical fibre
between cursors A and B needs to be subtracted from the A-B loss displayed by
the OTDR. This loss was previously at 0.14 dB for 50m. So the loss for only the
interconnection equals 0.4dB-0.14dB, which is 0.26dB.
3.5.5.
Measuring the loss of a fusion splice or macro bend
When different backscatter coefficients optical fibres are fusion-spliced together,
the splice point will leads a loss or gain in OTDR test from one direction. In order to
find accurate fusion splice loss, the splice must be tested in both direction and the
result average together. The losses of loss and gain should be added together and
the sum divided by 2.
To find the loss of a fusion splice or macro bend, horizontally zoom in on the event.
The loss from a fusion splice or macro bend is typically very small and will require
vertical zoom in addition to horizontal zoom. Place the A cursor on the smooth part
49
of the trace before the dip in the trace. Place the B cursor on the smooth part of the
trace after the dip, as shown in Figure 3.10. The loss for this event is 0.25 dB. The
loss for the event includes the loss for the fusion splice or macro bend plus the 50 m
of optical fibre between the cursors. Subtract the loss for the 50 m of optical fibre
that was previously measured at 0.14 dB from the event loss. The loss for this
fusion splice or macro bend is 0.11 dB.
Figure 3.10. Measuring the loss of a fusion splice or macro bend/4/.
Figure 3.11. Measuring the gain of a fusion splice/4/.
50
In order to find the exact value of gain, we need to zoom in the trace vertically and
horizontally. Then put the A cursor on the smooth part of the trace before the bump
in the trace and place the B cursors on the smooth part of the tracer after the bump,
as shown in Figure 3.11. We can read the gain of this event is 0.15dB. The gain for
the event includes the gain for the fusion splice plus the 50 m of optical fibre
between the cursors. Add the value for the loss for the 50m of optical fibre that was
previously measured at 0.14dB to the event gain. The gain for this fusion splice is
0.29 dB.
3.5.6.
Measuring the loss of a cable segment and interconnections
To find the loss for a cable segment includes the interconnections, we need to know
the exact length of this segment. We can read the length of cable segment in Figure
3.12 as example for 85m.
Firstly we zoom in horizontally on the cable segment. And then put the A cursor on
a smooth section of the trace in front of leftmost cable segment interconnection
back interconnection back reflection, distribute the B cursor on the smooth part of
the trace after the rightmost cable segment interconnection back reflection. At last
fix the A cursor and place the B cursor the position until the distance between these
two cursors equals the length of the cable segment pulse 50m.
We can read the loss of A-B segment is 1.5dB. If we want to get the loss value for
the cable segment includes the interconnections, we should subtract the loss for the
50m of optical fibre from the 1.5dB for the cable segment and interconnections. So
the loss of the cable segment and the interconnections (1.36dB) equal the loss of
A-B segment (1.5dB) subtract the loss for 50m of optical fibre (0.14dB for 850nm
signal).
51
Figure 3.12. Measuring the loss of a cable segment and interconnections/4/.
52
4. The Optical Fibre Line Measurement
4.1. Introduction of real optical fibre measurement
Firstly we build the optical fibre loop between two shelves which located at same
classroom in Wu Han Institute of Post and Telecommunication as following Figure
4.1.
Figure 4.1. Optical fibre cable distribution in real test.
We distribute the start point A and end point B in the same classroom. The
connector box locates at the other room. A point and B point represent the patch
cord shelves. We choose the 12 core optical fibres as the connecting line. In order to
get the average attenuation value of each core fibre, we need to use do the OTDR
test from both ways.
In order to evaluate value we tested whether is fulfil the requirement, we need to
calculate the cable loss budget at the benignly. We accumulated all the facts which
may increase the attenuation. Firstly the total fibre loss can be calculated by the unit
fibre attenuation times the total length of the fibre. Secondly the total connector can
be calculated by the unit connector attenuation times the number of connector. And
the total splice loss can be calculated same the previous parameter. Finally the total
link loss is the addition of these three facts. As the Table4.1shows the tested
attenuation value should between 0.574dBm and 1.064dBm as we used the signal
mode optical fibre and 1550nm signal generated by OTDR.
53
Table 4.1. Optical fibre loss budget table.
4.2. Optical fibre splicing
Due to the limit of one duration optical fibre cable is about 400m. If we want to
build long distance optical fibre communication, we need to splice several duration
of optical fibre cable together. If there is fault point in the fibre, we can also use the
fusion splice method to connect the optical fibre.
We finished the whole welding process as following steps:
1) Start dealing with the fiber end face. Firstly we remove PVC jacket, and wipe
out the ointment on the buffer coating lay of the fiber. Then use the miller
pincer to remove the cladding. In order to keep the core fiber clean, we wipe it
54
with alcohol cotton until we can hear a “quack” friction sound as Figure4.2
illustrated.
Figure 4.2. Fibre optic interface processing diagram.
2) Distributing the suitable position and orientation of each fibre connect point,
fixed it with the cover of fusion splicer, and then push the blade to cut the core
fibre as Figure 4.3 distributed.
Figure 4.3. The fibre end face cutting diagram.
55
3) Penetrated heat shrinkable tubing for both core fibres, and put two ends of fibre
well caught on the left and right fibre folder, leave the end point with discharge
needle of 0.5-1.5nm, as show in Figure 4.4.
Figure 4.4. Fibre splice installation
4) We close the cover and press the SET button. After setting the welding
machine will start welding automatically, after finished welding the loss
estimate will be shown on the welding machine interface in Figure 4.5. We
treated the welding is failure when splice loss is greater than 0.04dB.
5) We open the cover; gently remove the connected fibre from the welding
territory to the heating part. Then move the shrinkable tube to the welding part
of the connected fibre, press the heat button.
56
Figure 4.5. Splice loss assessment.
From above diagram, it shows our splice loss assessment is only 0.01dB, this
value full fill the requirement.
6) After heating a few seconds, move the fibre out from the cover. The shrinkable
will be reinforcing after cool down.
4.3. OTDR setting
Set the OTDR parameters
Firstly we need to set OTDR parameters, like refractive index N, pulse width W
and wavelength λ. We make sure the setting values are approached to the measured
core fibre parameters in order to minimize the test error. We set the refractive index
N with 1.4667, pulse width with 50ns and wavelength with 1550nm as we can see
from following Figure 4.6.
57
Figure 4.6. OTDR parameter setting.
Select the appropriate range of test files
OTDR has different testing resolution in different test range. In our test the length
we actually measured show be smaller than the test range we set. The total range we
measured is approximately 400m, so we set the distance range as 0.5km.
Amplification of the application of the instrument
The zoom function of OTDR can be used to get more accurate value when
move the cursor to the corresponding point, such as turning point, the start and end
of the fibre reflect point.
58
Figure 4.7. OTDR test results.
From above Figure 4.7 we know that the total length of the optical fibre line is
412.63m.
Connecter
Box
A
B
Figure 4.8. Optical fibre geographic location.
59
Table 4.2. Total geographic cable length calculation.
Figure 4.9. OTDR end point connecting diagram.
According to our estimate, the geographic distance (shown as the Figure 4.8) from
A point across the connector box, then back to the B point is about 200 as Table 4.2
shows. We still leave 100m twisted fibre cable on A and B points. So the total
length of the cable in real situation without launch cable and pigtail cable is about
400m. This value is almost same with the result which we test from OTDR.
As Table 4.3 show, we use OTDR test fibre loss of 12 core fibre optic from both
direction and listed in the following table. Finally we calculate the average value in
60
order to get value closer to the real loss of each core fibre.
Table 4.3. Repeater Section Fibre Optic Loss Test Record Form.
Repeater Section Fibre Optic Loss Test Record
Test Instrument: OTDR
Cable Length:413m
Test pulse width:
Wavelength:1550nm 50ns
Fibre-optic serial Number
Loss value
Average loss
01
B----A
0.216
0.189
A----B
0.162
B----A
0.086
A----B
0.171
B----A
0.221
A----B
1.146
B----A
0.918
A----B
0.312
B----A
0.103
A----B
0.780
B----A
0.843
A----B
1.273
B----A
0.001
A----B
0.074
B----A
0.094
A----B
0.436
B----A
0.077
A----B
0.021
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
B----A
0.129
0.684
0.615
0.442
1.058
0.038
0.265
0.049
0.071
61
11
12
A----B
0.071
B----A
0.092
A----B
0.004
B----A
0.012
A----B
0.071
0.048
0.042
During this test, we firstly welding at the middle position of 12 core optical fibre
then spliced these 12 cores optical fibre cables with the 12 tail cables and distribute
them into the box on the patch cord shelf.
According to the comparison, we can see the attenuation of 3th line and 6th line
measured from A point to B point is beyond the loss budget value. It may caused by
the quality of splices or connectors.
The attenuation values measured from both directions sometimes are different, this
mainly due to the core fibre diameter and relative refractive index of two core fibre.
It will not only cause an increase in splice loss but also affect the measured values
of OTDR from both directions change great. If the mode field diameter of two
welding fibre are not the same as Figure4.10; because the small mode field
diameter optical fibre has stronger transmission capacity of the Rayleigh scattering
than big mode field diameter. When the light signal which generated by the OTDR
transmitted from big mode field diameter to the same mode field diameter, if some
part of light not passing through the same diameter core, it will reflect to any
direction. OTDR will receive less signals reflect back. On the contrary, the OTDR
62
will capture more signals reflect back than the previous situation, so the splice loss
may be negative.
Figure 4.10. OTDR testing in different fibre mode field diameter.
We did not get the attenuation value of 10th optical fibre cable from end B to A. We
can get the conclusion that the patch panel at B point is broken. Because when we
measured from A to B, the B point is at end of measured cable. If this point is
broken, the OTDR still can receive the Fresnel reflection signal from the endpoint.
But if we started measure from B point, when light was transmitted from OTDR
and reach to the broken point at B. It can be treated as sent to the air at beginning, as
the result the OTDR cannot show any reflect signal in such short distance.
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5. Judgment and finding fault of fibre optic cable line
Search and positioning of optical fibre cable line fault is very important for keeping
the equipment work in good condition. It is necessary to know how to use the
relevant instruments to repair the specific location and the specific reasons of
failure.
5.1. Common fault occurrence and cause
According to the experience of practice, the cable faults are often caused at the
cable connector. No matter what kind of continuation method, but the original
coating has been removed. So the optical fibres’ own strength and reliability has
dropped down. If several fibre channels failed at the same time, then we decide this
failure is often cause human mistake or bit by the animals. Optical fibre cable lines’
common failure phenomena and causes are shown in Table 5.1. /5/
Table 5.1. Common Failure Phenomena and Causes of Optical Fibre Cable
Line./5/
Failure’ phenomenon
Possible causes of the Failures
One or more fibre splice loss increases
Installation problem of the fibre splice protect
pipe or water damage of connect box
One or more fibre attenuation curve step
Fibre optic cable damage by mechanical force
sprains, part of the fibre injured but not yet
completely disconnected
A fibre attenuation steps or broken fibre,
Fibre optic cable damage by mechanical force
other fibre intact
due to itself quality reasons
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The original optical fibre splice point steps
Fibre optic cable broken at the splicing point
of the level of elongated
Optical communications business is totally
Fibre optic cable pulled off by external
breakdown
influences or vandalism
5.2. OTDR measurement curve fault finding
Secondary Fiber
The Measured Fiber
被被被被
OTDR
活活
活活活
Active
connector
Fiber
被被Adapter
光光活
Figure 5.1. OTDR test diagram.
After confirming the fibre optical line failure, we used Optical Time Domain
Reflect meter (OTDR) to test the fibre optical line failure point (connecting like
Figure 5.1) by determine the character and location of the line fault. Firstly we
pulled the fault line out from the Light Ware Terminal Equipment, and then inserted
one point of cable into the light output port of the OTDR. Next is to observe
optical fibre backscatter signal curve. “According the point of Fresnel Reflection
Peak on the OTDR display we read the distance to the point of failure from the test
side.”/6/Finally we can determine the approximate distance to the point of failure.
Comparing with the original OTDR backscatter curve (Figure5.2), we decide the
fault point is in which two monuments, and then narrow the range. After conversion
and precisely measure we can get the accurate location of the fault point. If the
condition is approved, two-way test will be more accurately to determine the
65
position of fault point.
Reflection at the Crack
裂
裂裂裂裂
Joint loss
Backscatter Loss Curve
Facet reflection
Figure 5.2. Typical OTDR measurement curve.
5.3. Optical fibre cable line testing
In the laboratory, we use the SDH equipment “FonSWeaver 780B” which provided
by a Chinese company called “FiberHome”. Two SDH equipments are located in
two building which has 2.4km distance between each other and connected with
optic fibre cable. Next two figures (Figure5.3 and Figure5.4) illustrated two SDH
equipments in different shelves.
66
Figure 5.3. Near End SDH Equipment Panel.
Figure 5.4. Remote End SDH equipment.
67
We use the most 7th left side deck on the near end equipment and same with the
remote end equipment. Every single deck has receiver and transmitter port. If two
SDH equipments are well connected and work in good condition. Red alarm light
on both devices is off.
Network management interface uses the most left side green line to show these two
SDH equipment is well connected (Figure 5.5).
Figure 5.5. Network Management Interface Connecting Diagram.
Figure 5.6. Single Deck Connection on Network Management Interface.
From Figure5.6, we can observe from the network management interface: the light
of the 7th slot is green; it means that the connection of deck is working good
68
condition.
When transmission system is working fine, we can measure the attenuation at the
optic receiver side directly on the SDH management interface. According to our
measurement, we get the attenuation of the power at receiver side is 8.00dBm. It
shows as Figure 5.7.
Figure 5.7. Feature diagram.
After that we used the optical power meter to measure the attenuation again, and got
attenuation value equal 7.79dBm (Figure 5.8). This value is almost same with the
result we go from the optic fibre manage system.
69
Figure 5.8. The Optical Power Meter Value.
We simulated one fault is occurred at the end of the optical cable connection by
disconnect the fibre optic insert at the remote end SDH equipment. When it
happened, the most left side band’s alarm light will turn red as Figure 5.9 shows:
70
Figure 5.9. Instrument panel diagram after disconnect fibre.
As Figure 5.10 shows below, the most left side connecting line is red; it means the
connection between two SDH equipment were broken in somewhere.
Figure 5.10. SDH connection diagram.
71
Figure 5.11. Network Alarm Diagram.
As the Figure 5.11 shows above, the 7th deck connection is red; it means the
connections between two SDH equipments were broken in some place.
We can determine the character of the fault is “Loss of Signal (LOS) from Figure
5.12
Figure 5.12. Alarm Indication after Disconnecting Fibre.
72
We used the optical power meter instead but no signal received also. As we can
observe from the Figure 5.13:
Figure 5.13. Optical Power Meter.
Then we can use the OTDR to measure the distance between the fault point and the
transmitter point of the SDH. The OTDR should be set as follow steps:
As Figure 5.14 expressed, we chose the Fault Location Function on OTDR
73
Figure 5.14. OTDR function setting diagram.
Figure 5.15. OTDR setting distance range with 2.5km.
74
Figure 5.16. OTDR setting pulse widths with 50ns.
Because the distance between two SDH equipment is about 2km. the failure must
located in this range, so we set the range 2.5km and pulse width with 50ns(Figure
5.15 and Figure 5.16).
After we finished setting part, then press the button F4. The OTDR will start
automatic measuring. Then we use the zoom in function to remove the cursor to the
peak of the Fresnel reflection. The OTDR will automatic show the distance to this
point. For our case the range is about 2.085kma as the Figure 5.17 show.
75
Figure 5.17. Measurement result of OTDR.
Figure 5.18. SDH Equipment with Optical Fibre Line Connection Diagram.
In geographic perspective, the optical fibre line is distributed as Figure 5.18. The
total length of the optical fibre is about 2km. The total length of the patch cord is
about 70m, and the length of pig tail cable is about 10m. So the total length of the
cable is about 2.08km. By comparing with the OTDR result it shows the position
which we measured is almost the end of the fibre optic connection line. This is same
conclusion what we supposed to get.
76
Figure 5.19. Optical fibre management interface after reconnect the cable.
In this lab we did not cut the cable at one point in order to get the fault point. Instead
we just pull the cable out from transmitter or receiver port to simulate the failure
situation. So after we connected the cable with SDH equipment again, the signal
deck works well again as Figure 5.19. But when we meet the failure point in the real
life, after the fusion splicing the attention at receiver side which shows on SDH
management interface will increase a little bit.
77
6. Summary and Outlook
We analysis the causes and characteristics of optical fibre fault in this thesis. The
actual demand for the fast recovery of communication requires us to ensure
wellness of communication. We need to processing failure of optical fibre cable
line promptly and accurately and this project gives a good solution to find, locate
and repair the cable line fault in actual situation.
The completed work of this thesis:
1) Get clear reasons with cable line failure and explore the basic methods to
determine the fault of optical fibre cable line
2) Base on the optical fibre cable line test, locate and then deal with the fault
point.
3) Base on analysis failure of the optical fibre cable line, we are able to
quickly find the fault point and deal with failure in the future.
Actually we pull the fibre optical line off to simulate we meet a real fault in SDH
communication. However we are still able to locate the position of failure point,
and fix it by fusions splicing. To my own perspective, I did really achieve a great
deal of information and experiences from this project.
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Acknowledge
There were plenty of people who support and help me during this long period of
time. First, I really appreciate my guiding teacher Dr Gao Chao who gave me a lot
of supports on background knowledge and the teachers from WuHan Institute of
Post and Telecommunication guided me during the operational program. Special
thanks to my parents and friends, they also gave me considerable support and
help.
Vaasa, Finland; 23th January 2013
Xie Feng
79
Reference
/1/Bill Woodward, Emile B. Husson. 2005. Fibre Optics Installer and Technician
Guide.1151 Marina Village Parkway, Alameda, CA 94501. SYBEX Inc Press.
ISBN: 0-7821-4390-3
/2/Sarkis Abrahamian. 2006. Fibre Optic Training Guide. Evertz Microsystems
LTD.
/3/Vivek Alwayn. March 17, 2004. Optical Network Design and Implementation.
Cisco Press. 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA.
ISBN: 1-58705-10 5-2
/4/Reference Guide of Fiber Optics
Topic: Optical Time Domain Reflect
meter(OTDR) Reference Guide of Fibre Optics
Topic: Optical Time Domain
Reflect meter(OTDR). The Fibre Optic Association, Inc. 2008-2011.
http://thefoa.org/tech/ref/testing/OTDR/OTDR.html
/5/Zhang Silian. Communication cable line and common fault
1995.5 .ShangHai Fudan University press
ISBN:9787309014761 / 7309014766
/6/Zhao Gang,Chen Yunhong. 2007.2 The fibre optic cable line fault deciding and
processing. Communication Management and Technology.
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