Taoufik Tebbai Welding inspection Opinnäytetyön otsikko

Taoufik Tebbai Welding inspection Opinnäytetyön otsikko
Taoufik Tebbai
Welding inspection
Opinnäytetyön otsikko
Alaotsikko
Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu
Tutkinto: insiöörni (AMK)
Koulutusohjelma: Kone- ja tuotantotekniikka
insinöörityö: Hitsaustarkastus
Opinnäytetyö
Päivämäärä
Tiivistelmä
Tekijä
Taoufik Tebbai
Otsikko
Hitsaustarkastus
Sivumäärä
Aika
Tutkinto
69 sivua
8.5.2014
Insinööri (AMK)
Koulutusohjelma
Kone- ja tuotantotekniikka
xx sivua + x liitettä
15.9.2010
Koneensuunnittelu
Suuntautumisvaihtoehto
Ohjaaja(t)
Joel Kontturi
Tämän insinöörityön tavoitteena on selvittää, miten metalli- ja hitsausalalla hyvin koulutettujen, aktiivisten ja rehellisten hitsaustarkastajien työ vaikuttaa yrityksen tuotannon laatuun ja
asiakastyytyväisyyteen. Työssä tarkastellaan hitsaustarkastajan työn vaatimuksia ja perehdytään erityisesti NDT-tarkastuksiin.
Hitsattujen rakenteiden valmistajalla tulee olla käytettävissään riittävä määrä hitsaustarkastajia suunnittelemaan, suorittamaan, neuvomaan ja valvomaan hitsauksen tarkastusta, testausta ja arvioimista eriteltyjen vaatimusten mukaisesti. Valmistajan tulee laatia ja ylläpitää myös
työohjeita asiaankuuluvien dokumenttien laatimiseksi ja valvomiseksi. Tällaisia ovat esimerkki
hitsausohjeet, hitsausohjeiden hyväksymispöytäkirja sekä hitsausoperaattoreiden pätevyystodistukset.
Hitsaustarkastajan pätevyyteen vaaditaan, että pitää hallita NDT-tarkastus, hitsausprosessi,
työ- ja työympäristöturvallisuus sekä olla fyysisesti soveltuva. Pääsyvaatimuksena hitsaustarkastajan koulutukseen vaaditaan kone- ja metallitekniikan teknikon, insinöörin tai diplomiinsinöörin tutkinto ja vähintään 5 vuoden työkokemus.
Ainetta rikkomattomien NDT-menetelmien pätevöintikäytännöllä pyritään varmistamaan kulloinkin käytettävään tarkastussovellukseen riittävä suorituskyky. Pätevöinnissä noudatetaan
järjestelmällistä ja tarkasti dokumentoivaa lähestymistapaa, mikä asettaa uusia vaatimuksia
tarkastuksia koskevien asiakirjojen laatimiselle. Tässä työssä annetaan NDT-menetelmistä
ohjeet, jotka liittyvät radiografian, ultraäänen ja tunkeumanesteen käyttöön.
Työn lopputuloksena todetaan, että hyvin luotettava koulutettu tarkastaja, jatkuva tarkkailu ja
dokumentoitu toiminta vaikuttavat hitsauksen laatuun ja taloudellisuuteen sekä asiakkaan
tyytyväisyyteen.
Avainsanat
Hitsaus virheita- NDT menetelmät- Hitsausprocessi
Abstract
Author
Taoufik Tebbai
Title
Welding Inspection
Number of Page
Date
69 pages
8 May2014
Degree
Bachelor of Engineering
Degree Programme
Mechanical Engineering
Specialisation option
Machine Design and Production technology
Instructor(s)
Joel Kontturi Project Engineer
The objective of this Bachelor’s thesis is to describe welding inspection. The aim was to
research that in metal and welding fields all perfectly-welded structures and products absolutely require a well- educated, active and honest welding inspector for the inspection process. A qualified welding inspector will ensure the quality of the company’s products and
keep the clients satisfied.
In my work experience it was found out that the welding inspector’s qualification generally
requires the control of NDT inspection, welding process, the work and the working environment, safety, physical fitness (vision), and the continuity of operations, A welding inspector training requirement for admission are as follows:
Machinery and metal engineering technician’s qualification, an engineering or a Master of
Science degree and a minimum of 5 years of work experience.
Non-destructive methods of NDT qualification practice designed to ensure each application
used for the inspection Performance Much sufficient. Certification of compliance with a
systematic approaches to documenting and accurately, setting new standards for inspection of documents. In this work, given the NDT methods of instructions related to radiography, ultrasound, penetrant for utilization.
As a result, it was discovered that a qualified welding inspector has a permanent control of
the welding process as well as is able to monitor the instructed application of welding.
Properly performed welding reduces costs and increases quality and customer satisfaction.
Keywords
Welding Imperfection-NDT Methods-welding process
Contents
1
2
3
Introduction
1
1.1
Before welding.
3
1.1.1
Safety
3
1.1.2
Documentation
3
1.1.3
Welding Process and ancillaries
3
1.1.4
Incoming consumables
3
1.1.5
Marking out preparation &set up
3
1.1.6
During Welding
4
1.1.7
After welding
4
1.1.8
Repairs
5
Welding Terms and Definitions
5
2.1
Welding joints and types
5
2.2
Weld preparation
6
2.2.1
Weldment terms
7
2.2.2
Weld sizing (Butt):
7
2.2.3
Welding sizing (Fillets):
7
2.2.4
Welding position
7
2.2.5
Weld sizing
8
2.2.6
Design Throat Thickness DTT
8
2.2.7
Excess weld metal
9
Welding Imperfection:
9
3.1
Welding imperfection Definition
9
3.2
Cracks
10
3.3
Gas pores, porosity, cavity pipes
11
3.4
Solid inclusions
12
3.5
Lack of fusion
13
3.6
Surface and profile
14
3.6.1
Spatter
14
3.7
Undercut imperfection
16
3.8
Root concavity
16
3.9
Root oxidation
17
3.10 Misalignment
17
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
3.10.1 Linear misalignment
17
3.10.2 Angular misalignment
17
3.11 Mechanical/Surface damage
18
Welding Testing
18
4.1
Hardness and Micro hardness Testing
18
4.2
Qualitative and Quantitative
20
Hardness Testing
21
5.1 Fatigue Fracture
23
5.2
Filled Weld Fracture Test
24
5.2.1
24
Filled weld break test
Welding Procedure Specification
25
6 . 1 Introduction
25
Welding process
26
7.1
Fusion welding
26
7.2
Solid phase /state welding process
26
Procedure Qualification Record – PQR
27
8.1
27
Welder Certificate
Material Inspection
Code and Standards
28
29
10.1 A code of practice
29
10.2 An application standard
29
10.3 Typical content of Manufacturing Standard
29
10.4 Welding Symbols on Drawing
30
10.4.1 Weld sizing
30
10.4.2 Supplementary symbols
32
10.4.3 Summary
35
Welding consumables
36
11.1 MMA Welding Consumables
36
11.1.1 Welding of consumables for MMA
36
11.1.2 Function of the Electrode Covering:
37
11.2 TIG consumables
37
11.3 TIG Welding Rods:
12
13
11.3.1 Argon Ar
38
11.3.2 Helium He
38
11.3.3 Hydrogen H2
39
11.3.4 Nitrogen N2
39
Welding consumables
40
12.1 MIG/MAG Consumables
40
12.2 SAW Consumables
40
12.2.1 Welding flux
40
12.2.2 Agglomerated fluxes
40
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
41
13.1 Surface crack detection
13.1.1 Volumetric & Planar Inspection
14
16
17
41
41
13.2 Radiographic testing [3]
42
13.3 Ultrasound testing
42
13.4 Magnetic testing
44
13.5 Penetrant testing
45
13.6 Welding Repairs:
46
13.6.1 Production repairs
47
13.6.2 In service repairs
47
13.6.3 Weld repair related problems
47
Residual Stress and Distortion
48
14.1 Measurement of residual stresses
15
38
Distortion
48
49
15.1 Distortion being caused
49
15.2 The main types of distortion
50
Heat Treatment
51
16.1 Pre-heating
52
16.2 Annealing
52
16.3 Normalizing
52
16.4 Quenching hardening
52
16.5 Tempering
53
16.6 Stress reliefs
53
The Weldability of Steel
54
17.1 Material types
54
17.2 Imperfections in welds
55
17.3 Porosity
55
17.4 Solidification cracking
56
17.5 Hydrogen cracking
56
17.6 Reheat cracking
58
17.7 Weldability of steel groups
58
18
The Practice of Visual Inspection
58
18.1 Welding inspection personnel
60
18.2 Condition for visual inspection And Illumination
60
18.3 Access
60
18.4 Aids to visual inspection
61
18.5 Visual Inspection Duties
61
18.6 Typical duties of welding inspectors
62
18.7 Before welding
62
18.7.1 Safety
62
18.7.2 Documentation
62
18.7.3 Welding Process and ancillaries:
63
18.7.4 Incoming consumables:
63
18.7.5 Marking out preparation &set up:
63
18.8 After welding:
64
18.8.1 Repairs:
64
19
Visual welding inspection practical forms
65
20
The Standard EN ISO 1090
65
20.1 EN 1090-2 Welding
65
20.2 EN 1090-2 Welders and welding operators
65
20.3 EN 1090-2 Welding Coordination
66
20.3.1 Welding coordination
66
20.4 EN 1090-2 Welding – WPS
66
20.5 EN 1090·2Welding - WPS Qualification
67
20.5.1 Validity of a welding procedure qualification
67
Summary
68
References:
69
1
1
Introduction
In the fabrication industry it is common practice to employ Welding Inspectors to ensure that fabricated items meet minimum specified requirement and will be suitable for
their intended applications. Employers need to ensure that Welding Inspectors have
appropriate abilities, personal qualities and level of job knowledge in order to have confidence in their work. As a means of demonstrating this there are a number of internationally recognized schemes, under which a Welding Inspector may elect to become
certified.
A competent Welding Inspector should possess a minimum level of relevant experience, and as such there are strict pre-examination experience experience requirement
for the various examination grade. A proficient and efficient Welding Inspector would
require a sound level of knowledge in a wide variety of quality related technologies employed within the many areas of the fabrication industry. As each sector of industry
would rely more in specific processes and methods of manufacturing than others, it
would be in impossible task hope to encompass them all in any great depth within this
text, therefore the main aim has been to generalize, or simplify wherever possible.
In a typical welding Inspector working day a high proportion of time would be spent in
the practical visual inspection and assessment of welds on fabrications, and as such
this also forms a large part of the assessment procedure for most examination
schemes. BS EN 970 (Non Destructive Examination of fusion Welds-Visual examination) is standard that gives guidance on on welding inspection practices as applied in
Europe. [10]
The standard contains the following general information:

Basic requirement for welding inspection personnel.

Information about condition suitable for visual examination.

Information about aids that may be needed/ helpful for inspection.

Guidance about the stage when visual inspection is appropriate.

Guidance on what information to include in examination records.
2
It could be generally stated that all welding inspector should be:

Familiar with the standards, rules and specification relevant for the fabric ation work being undertaken. (This may include National standards, Client
standards and the company s own in –house standards)

Informed about the welding processes/procedures to be used in production.

Of high near visual acuity, in accordance with the applied schemes or standard.
This should also be checked periodically.
The important quality/characteristics that the proficient Welding Inspectors are expected to have include:

Honesty

A good standard of literacy and numeracy

A good level of general fitness

A good long patience
Welding inspection is a job that demands the highest level of integrity, professionalism, competence, confidence and commitment, if it is to be carried out effectively.
Practical experience of welding inspection in the fabrication in the industry together with recognised qualification in Welding Inspection is a route towards satisfying the requirement for competency.
The scope of work of the welding Inspector can be very wide and varied, however,
there are number of topics that are common to most areas of industry, i.e.
most fabrications are produced from drawings, and it is the duty of the welding
inspector to check that correct drawings and revisions have been issued for during
fabrication.
The duty of Welding inspector are an important list of tasks or check that need to be
carried out by the inspector, ensuring the job is completed to a level of quality
specified. These tasks or checks are generally directed in the applied application
standard. [10]
A typical list of a welding Inspector's duties may be produced which for simplicity
can be initially grouped into 3 specific areas:
3
1. Before Welding
2. During Welding
3. After Welding and Repairs
1.1
Before welding.
1.1.1
Safety
Ensure that all operations are carried out in complete compliance with local, co mpany, or national safety legislation (i.e. permits to work are in place).
1.1.2
Documentation
Documentation is issued to relevant parties as checking specification, drawing, welding
procedure specification and welder approvals validate certificate of calibration, material
and consumable certification.
1.1.3
Welding Process and ancillaries
Welding equipment and all related ancillaries should be checked. (Cables, regulator,
ovens, quivers etc.).
1.1.4
Incoming consumables
Pipe/plat and welding consumables should be checked for size, condition, specification and storage.
1.1.5

Marking out preparation &set up
Correct method for cutting weld preparation should be checked. (pre-heat for
thermal cutting if applicable)
4

Correct preparation should be checked (relevant bevel angles, root face, root
gap, root radius, land, etc)

Correct pre-welding distortion control should be checked. (Tacking, Bridging,
jigs, line up clamps, etc)

Correct level and method of pre-heat applied to tack welding should be checked

All tack welding to be monitored and inspected. (Feathering of task may be required) [10]
1.1.6
During Welding
Welding inspector should control Weather condition, Pre-heat values,
In process distortion control and consumable control, welding process and all related
variable parameters. (Voltage, amperage, travel speed, etc), Welding or purging gases.
(Type, pressure flow and control method), Welding condition for root run / hot pass and
all subsequent run, and inter-run cleaning) and Minimum or maximum inter pass temperatures.
1.1.7
After welding

visual inspection of the welding joint should be carried out

NDT requirements should be checked

repairs from assessment of visual or NDT report should be identified

Post weld heat treatment PWHT (Heating method and temperature recording
system)

Re-inspect with NDE/NDT after PWHT. (IF applicable)
5
1.1.8
Repairs
Submission of inspection report, and all related documents to the Q/C department require:

Excavation procedure. (Approval and execution)

Approval of the NDT procedures (For assessment of complete defect removal)

Execution of approval re-welding procedures.

Re-inspect the repair areas with visual inspection and approval NDT method
Good Welding Inspectors should carry out their duties competently, use our authority
wisely and be constantly aware of their responsibilities.
The main responsibilities of a Welding Inspector are:

To observe all relevant action to weld quality throughout production. This
will include a final visual inspection of the weld areas.

To record, or log all production inspection points relevant to quality, including a
final map and report sheet showing all identified welding imperfections.

To compare all reported information with the acceptance level/criteria and
clauses within the applied application standard.
Submit a final inspection report of your finding to the QA/QC department for
analysis and any remedial actions. [10]
2
2.1
Welding Terms and Definitions
Welding joints and types
A Weld is a union of materials, produced by heat and /or pressure.
6
A joint is a configuration of members (To be welded). A Weld preparation is preparing a
joint to allow access & fusion through the joint.
Types of weld: Butt. Fillet, Spot, Seam, Slot Edge as shown in picture 1
Picture 1 welding joints [4]
Types of joint: Butts: T’s laps. Open corner. Closed corners as shown in
Picture 1
Types of preparation: Bevel’s, V’s, J’s, U’s Single double sided
Preparation terms: Bevel angle. Included angle. Root face. Root gap. Root
dius. Root landing.
2.2
Weld preparation
When welding, we need to fully fuse the entire width of the faces of both members.
Mostly, we need to prepare or move metal from metal from the joint to allow access for
the process, for full fusion of the faces. The purpose of welding preparation is to allow
access for the welding process, penetration and fusion thought the complete area of
the joint and its faces. The function of the root gap is to allow penetration.
7
2.2.1
Weldment terms
Weld face, Weld root, Fusion zone, Fusion boundary,
Heat affect zone (HAZ), Weld toes, Weld width.
2.2.2
Weld sizing (Butt):
Design throat thickness (DTT)
Actual throat thickness (ATT)
Excess weld metal (Weld face)
Excess weld metal (root penetration bead)
2.2.3
Welding sizing (Fillets):
Design throat thickness (DTT)
Actual throat thickness (ATT)
Excess weld metal (Weld face)
Leg length
2.2.4
Welding position
There are essentially four different fundamental welding positions, namely flat, horizontal-vertical, overhead and vertical position. Vertical position welding can be carried
out as vertical upward or vertical downward welding as shown in picture 2
8
Picture 2 fillet weld [4]
2.2.5
Weld sizing
2.2.6
Design Throat Thickness DTT
design throat thickness should be nominal or effective.

“a”= a nominal design throat thickness (DTT)

b = an effective design throat thickness (DTT) (Deep penetration fillets welds)
When using deep penetration welding processes with high current density it is possible
to create deeper throat dimensions. This added line of fusion may be used in design
calculation to carry stresses and is thus a major design advantage in reducing the
overall weight of weld on large welded structures. [10] Look the picture 3
9
Picture 3 Design Throat Thickness DTT [15]
2.2.7
Excess weld metal
The excess weld metal can be measured by taking the measurable throat reading, then
by deducting the design throat thickness. Look the picture 4
Picture 4 excess weld metal [15]
3
3.1
Welding Imperfection:
Welding imperfection Definition
Welding imperfection are discontinuities caused by the process of welding. As thing
contain imperfection it is only when they fall outside of an applied (level of acceptance)
that they should be termed as defects, as if present they may they render the
product defective or unfit for its purpose. The closeness of tolerance in any applied
level of acceptance depends largely upon the application and /or the level of quality
required.
10
As all fusion weld can be considered as casting they may contain imperfections associated with the casting of metals. Plus any other particular imperfections associated
with the specific welding process being used. Welded components may contain imperfection, which can be classified as following:

Cracks

Gas pores, cavity, pip

Solid inclusion

Lack of fusion

Surface and profile

Mechanical/ Surface damage

Misalignment
3.2
Cracks
Cracks sometimes occur in welded materials, and maybe caused by a great number of
factor. Generally it can be stated that for any crack like imperfection to occur in a material as shown in pictures 6&7, there are 3 criteria that must be fulfilled:

A force

Restraint

A weakened structure
Typical types of hot and cold cracks: look the picture 6

H2 Cracks

Solidification

Lamellar Tears
11
Pictures 5 cold crack [15]
Picture 6 Root crack [4]
3.3
Gas pores, porosity, cavity pipes
Gas pores are singular gas filled cavities 1.5 mm diameter, created during solidification of the weld and the expulsion or evolution of gases from solution in solidifying weld
metal.
They are generally spherical in appearance though they may extend to form elongated gas cavities or worm hole depending on the condition of solidification. This term
used to describe an area of rounded of gas pores is porosity as shown in picture 7
12
Picture 7 porosity [4]
3.4
Solid inclusions
Solid inclusion can be metallic or non-metallic that is trapped in the weld. The type of
solid inclusion is really dependant on the welding process being used. In welding processes that use fluxes to form all required function of shielding and chemical cleaning, such as MMA/MAG and SAW, slag inclusion may occur. Other welding processes such as MIG/MAG and TIG use silicon, aluminium and other elements to
de-oxidise the weld. These may form silica, aluminium inclusion. Any non metallic
compounds may be trapped inside a weld. This may happen when slag trap, such as
undercut have been formed. Slag traps are mostly caused by incorrect welding technique as shown in picture 8.
Lack of side wall fusion generally solid internal inclusions may be caused by:

Lack of welder skill (incorrect welding technique)

Incorrect parameter setting i.e. voltage, amperage speed of travel

Magnetic arc blow

Incorrect positional use of process, or consumable

Incorrect inter-run cleaning
13
Picture 8 solid inclusion [15]
3.5
Lack of fusion
Lack of fusion imperfections, are defined as a lack of union between two adjacent areas of material. This may be accompanied or caused by other imperfection. Lack of fusion can be considered as serious imperfection, as like crack, they produce areas of
high stress concentration. Lack of fusion may occur in the weld face area during positional welding caused by the action of gravity and incorrect use of processes. Lack
of fusion may be found in welds where processes using high current have used as
the arc may be deviated away from the fusion faces causing a lack of fusion in that
area of weld. Lack of fusion may also be formed in the root area of the weld it may be
found on one or both plat edges as shown in picture 9.
Lack of fusion imperfection may be caused by:

Lack of welder skill (incorrect welding technique)

Incorrect parameter setting i.e. voltage, amperage speed of travel

Magnetic arc blow

Incorrect positional use of process, or consumable

Incorrect inter-run cleaning
14
Picture 9 lack of fusion [15]
3.6
Surface and profile
Surface and profile imperfection are generally caused by poor welding technique. This
includes the use incorrect welding parameters, electrod/blowpipe sizes or manipulation and joint set up. We have different imperfection of surface and profile as following:
3.6.1
Spatter
Spatter is not a major factor in lowering the weldments strength, though it may
mask other imperfection, and should therefore be cleaned off before inspection as
shown in picture 10
An incompletely Filled groove will bring the weld below the DTT (Design Throat Thickness) and may also cause a high stress concentration to occur.
Picture 10 weld spatter [15]
15
Lack of root fusion may cause serious stress concentrations to occur in the root area of
the weld. It may be caused by a poor welding technique. Look the picture11
Picture 11 lack of root fusion [15]
Bulbous contour is an imperfection as it sharp stress concentration at the toes of
individual passes and may also contribute to overall poor toe blend.
Arc strikes, Stray-arcing, or Stray flush may cause many problems including cracks to
occur.
Incomplete root penetration may be caused by too small a root gap. Insufficient amperage or poor welding technique. It may be also appear in welding at the end of poorly dressed tack weld. Incomplete root fusion as shown in pictures 12
Pictures 12 incomplete root penetration [4]
16
3.7
Undercut imperfection
Undercut can be defined as a depression at the toe of a weld in a previous deposited
weld metal caused by welding. Undercut is principally caused by an incorrect welding technique, including to high a welding current, to slow a travel speed in conjunction with the welding position 2F/2G or PB/PC. It is often found in the top of fillet
welds. Undercut can be considered a serious imperfection as shown in pictures13
Pictures 13 undercut imperfection [4]
3.8
Root concavity
This may be caused when used too high a gas backing pressure in purping. It may
also be produced when welding too large a root gap and depositing too thin a root
bead, or too large a hot pass which may pull back the root bead through contractional
stresses as shown in picture 14
Picture 14 root concavity [4]
17
3.9
Root oxidation
Root oxidation may take place when welding re-active metals such as stainless steel
with contaminated or inadequate purging gas flow as shown in picture 15.
Picture 15 images for root oxidation [15]
3.10 Misalignment
They are two main forms of misalignment in plate material
3.10.1 Linear misalignment
Linear misalignment can be controlled by the correct use of the weld set up technique. It is measured in millimetres.
3.10.2 Angular misalignment
Angular misalignment may be controlled by the correct application of distortion control
technique and it is measured in degree. Look the picture 16
18
Picture 16 misalignment [4]
3.11 Mechanical/Surface damage
This can be defined as any material surface damage caused during the manufa cturing or handling process in service condition like grinding-hammering- chipping- corrosion- chiselling etc as shown in picture 17.[10]
Picture 17 mechanical damage [15]
4
Welding Testing
Destructive testing is generally carried out to ensure that the required levels of certain
mechanical proprieties have been achieved. When metals have been welded, the mechanical properties of the plates may have changed in the HAZ due to the thermal
effects of the welding process. [10]
4.1
Hardness and Micro hardness Testing
19
Hardness and Micro hardness Testing is the measure of how resistant solid matter is
to various kinds of permanent shape change when a force is applied. Methods include: Rockwell standard testing, Rockwell superficial testing,
Knoop & Vickers
micro hardness testing, and Brinell hardness testing.

Tensile Testing subjects a sample to uniaxial tension until it fails. Element
tensile testing capabilities include: wedge tensile testing, axial tensile testing,
weld tensile testing, castings tensile testing, and elevated temperature tensile, tensile testing for machined specimens, full-size tensile testing and yield
tensile, plus heat treatment capabilities.

Torque Testing is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an
axis. Element can perform torque testing on most hardware and fastener
products.

Fatigue Testing is performed on parts and materials to simulate the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected
to cyclic loading. Element's fatigue testing methods include: fracture toughness testing, a measure of the fracture resistance of a material containing a
crack; rotating beam fatigue testing; strain controlled axial fatigue testing;
stress controlled axial fatigue testing, and da/dn testing (crack propagation
rate).

Charpy Impact Testing: The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy
v-notch test, is a standardized high strain-rate test which determines the
amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. Element conducts
sub-size Charpy impact testing and standard Charpy impact testing. Look the
picture 18

Bend Testing determines the ductility or the strength of a material by bending
the material over a given radius. Element performs bolt bend testing, weld
bend testing, and raw materials bend testing.

Proof Load Testing is often used interchangeably with yield strength; it refers
to the tension- applied load that a test sample must support without evidence of
20
deformation. Proof load testing can be done on nuts, bolts, components, and
assembled products. Methods include: tension testing, compression testing.

Shear Testing: Shear strength measures a material's response to shear
loading, a force that tends to produce a sliding failure on a material along a
plane that is parallel to the direction of the force. Element performs shear testing on bolts, rivets, pins, and other products: single shear testing, double shear
testing, and washer testing and other testing.

Other mechanical testing capabilities include mechanical durability, experimental stress analysis, flow measurement, fatigue analysis, structural testing, and pressure cycling.
Picture 18 images charpy v-notch impact test [15]
4.2
Qualitative and Quantitative
The following mechanical tests have units and are termed quantitative test to measure
properties

Tensile test (Transverse welded join, All weld metal)

Toughness testing (Charpy, Izod, CTOD)

Hardness tests (Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers)
The following mechanical tests have no units and are termed qualitative test for assessing joint quality
21
5

Macro testing

Bend testing

Fillet weld fracture testing

Butt weld nick-break testing
Hardness Testing
Hardness test, the material is held between a steel anvil and a pointed indenter. A
load is applied to the indenter, and the distance the indenter travels into the material is measured. This measurement provides a hardness value
to the material. See Vickers test in picture 20, Koop test, Brinell test in picture 21, and
Rockwell test in picture 19.
The Objective:

To understand the importance of hardness test in engineering

To learn how to use Rockwell hardness tester

To understand the different hardening mechanisms in different material systems
and effect on hardness values.

To understand the significance of Engineering Standards
22
Picture 19 image Vickers test machine [15]
Picture 20 image Brinell test [15]
23
Picture 21 Rockwell hardness [4]
5.1 Fatigue Fracture
It has been recognized that a metal subjected to a repetitive or fluctuating stress will fail
at a stress much lower than that required to cause failure on a single application of
load. Failures occurring under conditions of dynamic loading are called a fatigue failure
as shown in picture 22.
Picture 22 Fatigue failure [4]
Fatigue failure is characterized by three stages:
1. Crack Initiation
2. Crack Propagation
3. Final Fracture
24
5.2 Filled Weld Fracture Test
A fillet weld fracture test is normally only carried out during a welder approval test. The
specimen is normally cut by hacksaw through the weld to depth usually 1-2 mm stated
in the standard. It is then held in a vice and fractured with a hammer blow from the
rear. After fracture has been made both surfaces are then carefully inspected for imperfections. Look 2 pictures 23
Pictures 23 fillet weld fracture [4]
5.2.1
Filled weld break test
Nick-break test used to assess root penetration and fusion in double-sided butt weld,
and the internal faces of single sided butt welds. A Nick –break test is normally carried
out during a welder approval test. The specimen is normally cut y hacksaw through the
weld faces to a depth stated in the standard. It may then be held in a vice and fractured
with a hammer blow from above , or placed in tension and stressed too fracture. Once
fracture has occurred both fracture faces are then turned horizontally through
and
may then be inspected for imperfections along the fracture faces. Look the picture 24
25
Picture 24 Nick-Break Test [15]
6
Welding Procedure Specification
6 . 1 Introduction
Welding procedure is a systematic method that is used to repeatedly produce sound
weld. The use of welding as a process or method of joining materials in engineering
has been long established, with new technique and process being developed from ongoing research and development on a regular basis. There are over 100 recognised
welding or thermal joining processes of which many are either fully automated or
mechanised, requiring little assistance from the welder/operator and some that require
a very high level of manual input in both skill and dexterity. For each welding process
there are a number of important variable parameters that may be adjusted to suit different applications, but must also be kept within specified limits to be able to produce
welds of parameters as essential variables.
26
7
Welding process
A welding process is special equipment used with method, for producing weld. Welding
processes may be classified using various methods, such as process that use pressure
and those which not, but may also be classified as fusion or solid phase. They are 4
main requirements of any fusion welding processes:
7.1

Heating

Protection

Cleaning

Adequate properties
Fusion welding
The weld requires melting/mixing and re-solidification. This system would thus the resistance welding process within this group.
7.2
Solid phase /state welding process
The weld is made in the plastic condition.
27
8
Procedure Qualification Record – PQR
A WPQR can support several WPS under validity areas.
WPQR preparation
and tests must be conducted and approved under supervision of Third Party Inspection Bodies and WPQR must be in compliance with standard of the job carried
out.
For jobs apart from ASME Code, related standard must be taken as a basis.
For example, for jobs under EN norm, WPQR that complies with EN standard
will be prepared. The welding terminology that will be used must be appropriate to manufacturing standard.
8.1
Welder Certificate
In the welded manufactures, welding must be performed by a welder who has
absolutely this qualification. For certification of this, welders will be tested according to
ACME SEC. IX or EN 287-1 standard in compliance with project standard and will
have a certificate and badge that covers the welding specifications.
Tests of welders must be conducted under supervision of Independent Inspection Bodies, then certificates must be given by these bodies. Welders who do not
have such a certificate or whose certificate is expired, then before the project, they
must be re-taken to test in supervision of authorized Inspection Company.
In certificate of every welder, there must a special cold seal mark. This seal must be
affixed next to welding job carried out by welder. Welder Certificate must be in
compliance with the job carried out. For jobs apart from ASME Code, related standard
must be taken as a basis. For example, for jobs under EN norm, Welder Certificate
that complies with EN 287-1 standard will be prepared. The welding terminology
that will be used must be appropriate to manufacture standard. EN welding terminology definitely should not be used in US manufacturing standards, and US terminology in EN standards. [9]
28
9
Material Inspection
One of the most important items to consider is Traceability.
The materials are of little use we cannot, by use of an effective QA system
trace them from specification and purchase order to final documentation package
handed over to the client.
All materials arriving on site should be inspected for:

Size / dimensions

Condition (as shown in pictures 25-26)

Type / specification
In addition other elements may need to be considered depending on the materials form
or shape.
Picture 25 pipe inspection (9)
Picture 26 plate inspection (9)
29
10 Code and Standards
A code of practice is generally considered as legally binding document containing all
obligatory rules required to design, build and test a specific product. A standard will
generally contain, or refer to all the relevant optional and mandatory manufacturing,
testing and measuring data.
10.1 A code of practice
A set of law’s or rules that shall be following when providing a service or product.
10.2 An application standard
A level of quality or specification too which something may be tested. It would use
codes and standards to manufacture many things that have been built many times before. The most major application codes and standards contain 3 majors areas, which
are dedicated to the
1. Design
2.
Manufacturing
3. Testing
10.3 Typical content of Manufacturing Standard
Most manufacturing standards can be basically divided into 3 areas, these areas well
contain similar types of instructions, data, or information referenced to the production of
that which standard covers.
30
10.4 Welding Symbols on Drawing
It is essential that a competent welding inspector can interpret weld symbol, as a
large proportion of the inspector’s time may spent checking that the welder is co mpleting the weld in accordance with the approved fabrication drawing.
10.4.1 Weld sizing
In order that the correct size of weld can be applied, it is common to find numbers to
either the left or to the right of the symbol.
For fillet welds, numbers to the left of the symbol indicate the design throat thic kness, leg length, or both design throat thickness and leg length requirements. Figure 1
gives examples of symbols used in different Standards.
Fig1 For fillet welds [15]
Superseded BS499 Pt 2 gives
a=Throat
b = leg length
ISO 2553/EN 22553 requirements
Z=leg length
a= Throat if nominal
s = penetration throat thickness
For butt joints and welds, an S with a number to the left of a symbol refers to the depth
of penetration as shown in Fig.2
31
Fig 2 filled weld [4]
When there are no specific dimensional requirements specified for butt welds on a
drawing using weld symbols, it would normally be assumed that the requirement is for
a full penetration butt weld (Fig. 3).
Fig 3 butt weld [4]
Numbers to the right of a symbol or symbols relate to the longitudinal dimension of
welds, eg for fillets, the number of welds, weld length and weld spacing for noncontinuous welds, as Fig. 4.
Fig 4 non-continuous welds [4]
On fillet welded joints made from both sides, a staggered weld can be shown
by placing a 'Z' through the reference line (Fig. 5).
32
Fig 5 filled welded joints both side [4]
10.4.2 Supplementary symbols
Weld symbols indicate the type of preparation to use or the weld type. However,
there may still be occasions where other information is required. The basic information
can therefore be added to in order to provide further details as shown in Figs.6, 7 and
8.
Fig 6 flag weld [4]
Fig 7 NDT symbol [4]
33

Weld all round
For a Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) welded to a plate, see Fig 8
Fig 8 weld all round [4]

Weld in the field or on site
The box attached to the arrow can be used to contain, or point to, other information.

Welding process type
ISO 4063 gives welding processes specific reference numbers. As shown in Fig.9
the appropriate process number is placed in the tail of the arrow. Other processes
are given a unique number. In this example, 135 refer to MAG welding. Fig 9
Fig 9 welding process symbol [4]
There are a number of additional symbols given in the Standards (eg ISO
22553) which refer to additional welding or joint requirements. Figure 10 shows the
requirement for a sealing run.
34
Fig 10 sealing run symbol [4]

Compound joints/welds
A compound weld could be a 'T' butt weld which requires fillet welds to be added to
increase the throat thickness as shown in Fig. 11.
Fig 11 Compound weld [4]

The broken reference line
The main feature that distinguishes weld symbol standards is that for ISO 2553
and BS EN 22553, there is an additional feature of a broken reference line. Look the
Fig 12
Fig 12 the broken reference line [4]
35
This method is used when a weldment or weld preparation needs to be specified on
the 'other side' of the arrow as shown in Fig. 12.
Fig 12
Any symbol that is used to show a joint or weld type feature on the other side of
the arrow line is always placed on a dotted line.
BS 499 and AWS require symbols to be placed above the reference line (which indicate the other side) or below the reference line (indicating the arrow side).
10.4.3 Summary
Weld symbols are a very useful way of communicating welding requirements from the
design office to the shop floor.
It is essential that the 'rules' of the standard used are correctly applied by drawing
office personnel. However, it is also important that shop floor personnel are able to
read and understand the details of weld symbols.
Much of this requirement can be met by reference to the standard being used within
the organisation and by the drawing office personnel considering the needs of the end
user such as the welders, welding supervisors, welding inspection personnel and welding engineers in order to minimise costly mistakes due to misinterpretation.
Training of all personnel in the correct use of weld symbol specifications also plays
an important role in ensuring that weld symbols are both correctly applied and correctly
read. [10]
36
11 Welding consumables
Welding consumables are any products that are used up in the production of weldability Welding consumables may be:

Covered electrodes, filler wires and electrodes wires.

Shielding or oxy-fuel gases.

Separately supplied fluxes.

Fusible inserts.
When inspecting welding consumables arriving at site it is important that they are
inspected for the following:
1) Size
2) Type or Specification
3) Condition
4)
Storage
11.1 MMA Welding Consumables
The three main electrodes covering types used in MMA welding

Cellulosic-deep penetration/fusion

Rutile -general purpose

Basic – low hydrogen
11.1.1 Welding of consumables for MMA

Consist of a core wire typically between 350 -450 mm in length and from
2.5mm-6mm in diameter. The wire is covered with an extruded flux coating;
core wire is generally of a low quality rimming steel.

The weld quality is refined by the addition of alloying and refining agents in the
flux coating, the flux coating contains also many elements and compounds
that all have a variety of functions during welding
37
11.1.2 Function of the Electrode Covering:

To facilitate arc ignition and give arc stability

To generate gas for shielding the arc and molten metal from air contamination

To de-oxidise the weld for metal and flux impurities into the slag

To form a protective slag blanket over the solidifying and cooling weld metal

To provide alloying elements to give the required weld metal properties

To aid positional welding (slag design to have suitable freezing temperatures to support the molten weld metal)

To control hydrogen contents in the weld (basic type). Look the pictures 27
Picture 27 covered electrode [4]
11.2 TIG consumables
Welding consumables for TIG:

Filler wires, Shielding gases, tungsten electrodes (non- consumable).

Filler wires of different materials composition and variable diameter available in standard length, with applicable code stamped for identification.

Steel filler wires of very high quality, with copper coating to resist corrosion.

Shielding gases mainly Argon and Helium, usually of highest purity (99.9%).
38
11.3 TIG Welding Rods:

supplied in cardboard/plastic tubes

must be kept clean and free from oil and dust

Might require degreasing.
11.3.1 Argon Ar

Low cost and greater availability heavier than air-lower flow rates than Helium.

Low thermal conductivity -wide top bead profile and low ionisation potential easier arc starting, better arc stability with AC, cleaning effect.

For the same arc current produce less heat than helium- reduced penetration,
wider HAZ.

to obtain the same arc power, argon requires a higher current- increased undercut
11.3.2 Helium He

Costly and lower availability than Argon and lighter than air- requires a higher
flow rate compared with argon (2-3 times).

Higher ionisation potential- poor arc stability with AC. Less forgiving for manual
welding.

for the same arc current produce more heat than argon- increased penetration,
welding of metals with high melting point or thermal conductivity.

to obtain the same arc power, helium require a lower current -no undercut
39
11.3.3 Hydrogen H2

Not an inert gas- not used as a primary shielding gas.

increasing the heat input- faster travel speed and increased penetration
better wetting action- improved bead profile and produce a cleaner weld bead
surface.

added to argon (up to 5%)- only for austenitic stainless steel and nickel alloys

Flammable and explosive.
11.3.4 Nitrogen N2
Nitrogen is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas which forms 78 percent of the
earth’s atmosphere (by volume). It is non-flammable, does not support combustion,
and is slightly lighter than air. Nitrogen is inert except
tures, where it
will react
with some metals,
at
arc welding tempera-
such as aluminium, magnesi-
um, and titanium. It is not recommended as a primary shielding gas with GMAW, but is
commonly applied as an assist gas with laser cutting on stainless steels. It can be used
in combination with other gases for some welding applications and is also widely used
in plasma and laser cutting. [6]
40
12 Welding consumables
12.1 MIG/MAG Consumables
Welding consumables for MMA consist of a core wire typically between 350 and 450
mm length and from 2.5-6 mm diameter. Other length and diameter are also available.
The wire is covered with an extruded flux coating. The core wire is generally of low
quality steel as the weld can be considered as a casting and therefore the weld can be
refined by the addition of cleaning or refining agent in the flux coating. The flux coating
contains many elements and compounds that all have a variety of jobs during welding.
12.2 SAW Consumables
Consumable for submerged arc welding consist of an electrode wire and flux. Electrode
wires are normally of high quality and for welding C/Mn steels are generally graded on
their increasing carbon and manganese content level of de-oxidation.
Electrode wire for welding other alloy steel is generally graded by chemical composition
in a table in a similar way to MIG and TIG electrode wires. Fluxes for submerged Arc
welding are graded by their manufacture and composition.
12.2.1 Welding flux
Fused fluxes are mixed together and baked at very high temperature > 1
˚C, where
all the component become fused together. When cooled the resultant mass resembles
a sheet of coloured glass, which is then pulverised into small particles.
12.2.2 Agglomerated fluxes
Agglomerated fluxes on the other hand are a mixture of compound that are baked at a
much lower temperature and are essentially bonded together by bonding agent into
small particle. Look the picture 28
41
Picture 28 image of welding flux [4]
13 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
NDT or Non Destructive Testing may be used as a means to evaluate the quality of a
component by assessing its internal and external integrity, but without destroyed it.
They are many methods of NDT some of which require a very level of skill both in
application and analysis and therefore NDT operators for these methods require a
high degree of training and experience to apply them successfully.
13.1 Surface crack detection

Liquid penetration (PT or dry-penetrant).

Magnetic particle inspection (MT or MPI).
13.1.1 Volumetric & Planar Inspection

Ultrasonic’s (UT).

Radiography (RT).
42
Each technique has advantages& disadvantages with respect to:
- Technical capability and cost
Note: The choice of NDT techniques is based on consideration of these advantages
and disadvantages [3]
13.2 Radiographic testing [3]
As shown in picture 29
Picture 29 image of Radiographic Testing [15]
13.3 Ultrasound testing
Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw
detection/evaluation,
dimensional measurements, material characterization, and
more. To illustrate the general inspection principle, a typical pulse/echo inspection
configuration as illustrated below will be used.
A typical UT inspection system consists of several functional units, such as the
pulser/receiver, transducer, and display devices. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce high voltage electrical pulses. Driven by the pulser, the transducer generates high frequency ultrasonic energy. The sound energy is introduced
and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the
flaw surface. The reflected wave signal is transformed into an electrical signal by
43
the transducer and is displayed on a screen. In the applet below, the reflected signal strength is displayed versus the time from signal generation to when an echo
was received. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal travelled. From the signal, information about the reflector location, size, orientation and other features can sometimes be gained. [3] Look the pictures
Ultrasonic Inspection is a very useful and versatile NDT method. Some of the advantages of ultrasonic inspection that are often cited include:

It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities.

The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other
NDT methods.

Only single-sided access is needed when the pulse-echo technique is used.

It is highly accurate in determining reflector position and estimating size and
shape.

Minimal part preparation is required.

Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results.

Detailed images can be produced with automated systems.

It has other uses, such as thickness measurement, in addition to flaw detection.
As with all NDT methods, ultrasonic inspection also has its limitations, which include:

Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound.

Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods.

It normally requires a coupling medium to promote the transfer of sound energy into the test specimen.

Materials that are rough, irregular in shape, very small, exceptionally thin or not
homogeneous are difficult to inspect.

Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect
due to low sound transmission and high signal noise.

Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected.

Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration and the
characterization of flaws. [2] look the picture 30
44
Picture 30 Ultrasonic Testing [15]
13.4 Magnetic testing
Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a non-destructive testing method used for defect
detection. MPI is fast and relatively easy to apply, and part surface preparation is not
as critical as it is for some other NDT methods. These characteristics make MPI one
of the most widely utilized non-destructive testing methods.
MPI uses magnetic fields and small magnetic particles (i.e. iron filings) to detect flaws
in components. The only requirement from an inspect ability standpoint is that the
component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such as iron,
nickel, cobalt, or some of their alloys. Ferromagnetic materials are materials that can
be magnetized to a level that will allow the inspection to be effective.
The method is used to inspect a variety of product forms including castings, forgings,
and weldments. Many different industries use magnetic particle inspection for determining a component's fitness-for- use. Some examples of industries that use
magnetic particle inspection are the structural steel, automotive, petrochemical,
power generation, and aerospace industries. Underwater inspection is another
area where magnetic particle inspection may be used to test items such as offshore
structures and underwater pipelines. [8] Look the pictures 31
45
Picture 31 Magnetic testing MT [15]
13.5 Penetrant testing
The penetrant materials used today are much more sophisticated than the kerosene and whiting first used by railroad
inspectors
near
the
20th century. Today's penetrants are carefully formulated to produce
sensitivity
desired
by
turn
of
the
the
level
of
the inspector. To perform well, a penetrant must possess
a number of important characteristics. A penetrant must:

Spread easily over the surface of the material being inspected to provide
complete and even coverage.

Be drawn into surface breaking defects by capillary action.

Remain in the defect but remove easily from the surface of the part.

Remain fluid so it can be drawn back to the surface of the part through
the drying and developing steps.

Be highly visible or fluoresce brightly to produce easy to see indications.

Not be harmful to the material being tested or the inspector.
All penetrant materials do not perform the same and are not designed to perform the
same. Penetrant manufactures
address
a
variety
of
have
developed
different
formulations
to
inspection applications. Some applications call for the de-
tection of the smallest defects possible and have smooth surfaces where the penetrant
is easy to remove. In other applications, the rejectable defect size may be larger and a
penetrant formulated to find larger flaws can be used. The penetrants that are used
46
to detect the smallest defect will also produce the largest amount of irrelevant indications. [9] Look the pictures 32
step 1
step 2
step 3
Step 4
Pictures 32 Penetrant testing PT [15]
13.6 Welding Repairs:
Welding repairs can divided into two specific areas

Production repairs

In- service repairs
47
13.6.1 Production repairs
The Welding Inspector or NDT operator will usually identify production repair during
the process of evaluation of NDT report to the code or applied standard. Look the pictures 33
Picture 33 image of production weld repairs [4]
13.6.2 In service repairs
Most in service repairs can be of very complex nature as the component is very likely
to be most in a different position and condition that existed during production. It may
also have in contact with toxic or combustible fluid hence a permit to work will need to
be sought prior to many work being carried out. The repair welding procedure may look
very different to the original production procedure due to changes in these elements.
13.6.3 Weld repair related problems

heat from welding may affect dimensional stability and/or mechanical properties of repaired assembly

due to heat from welding, goes down, danger of collapse

filler materials used on dissimilar weld may lead to galvanic corrosion

local preheat may induce residual stresses

cost of weld metal deposited during a weld joint repair can reach up to 10
times the original weld cost
48
14 Residual Stress and Distortion
Unlike the applied stress, residual stress is induced during processing. There are two
kinds of residual stresses which are main concerns.
One is flow induced residual stress. When in molten state, polymer molecules are unstressed, and they tend to equilibrium, random coil state. During processing, the polymer is sheared and elongated, and the molecules are oriented
in the flow
direction. If solidification occurs before the polymer molecules are fully relaxed
to their state of equilibrium, molecular orientation is locked within the moulded part.
This kind of stress is often referred to as flow induced residual stress. [9]
Another is thermal induced residual stress which arises during the cooling stage. An
important fact is polymer shrinks as it cools. During the cooling stage, the polymer
cools at different rates from the mold wall to the centre. When the polymer starts to
cool, the external surface layers start to shrink, while the bulk of polymer at the core
is still hot and free to contract. Later when the internal core cools, it's contraction is
constrained by the external layers since they are already rigid. This leads to another
kind of residual stress. Usually the stress distribution is tensile in the core and compressive at the surface.
14.1 Measurement of residual stresses
Unlike the applied stresses, residual stresses cannot be measured directly. On the
contrary, they are calculated indirectly by measuring the strains that exist within the
material. These strains are generally measured by mechanical or X-ray methods and
corresponding stresses calculated from elastic theory formulae.
General techniques to measure residual stresses are:

Mechanical Residual stress is in a state of self equilibrium before material is
removed by mechanical means. After a part of the material is removed, the
static equilibrium is upset and stress distribution is altered.

X-ray
49
Note that residual stress has effect on the material structure. Our
knowledge of the effects of residual stresses on structure can be obtained by
X-ray method. For example, to measure the residual stress in metal, X-ray tells
of atomic arrangements; deviations from an ideal arrangement can be interpreted as strain; the state of stress can be reconstructed from this strain. [10]
Look example in pictures 34
Picture 34 image of Residual stress [15]
15 Distortion
Distortion during welding operation is mainly caused by local heating, cooling and thus
local movement of material through local expansion and contraction.
15.1 Distortion being caused
Because welding involves highly localised heating of joint edges to fuse the material, non-uniform stresses are set up in the component because of expansion and
contraction of the heated material. Initially, compressive stresses are created in the
surrounding cold parent metal when the weld pool is formed due to the thermal expansion of the hot metal (heat affected zone) adjacent to the weld pool. However,
tensile stresses occur on cooling when the contraction of the weld metal and the immediate heat affected zone is resisted by the bulk of the cold parent metal.
50
The magnitude of thermal stresses induced into the material can be seen by the volume change in the weld area on solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature. For example, when welding CMn steel, the molten weld metal volume will
be reduced by approximately 3% on solidification and the volume of the solidified weld
metal/heat affected zone (HAZ) will be reduced by a further 7% as its temperature falls
from the melting point of steel to room temperature.
If the stresses generated from thermal expansion/contraction exceed the yield
strength of the parent metal, localised plastic deformation of the metal occurs.
Plastic deformation causes a permanent reduction in the component dimensions and
distorts the structure.
15.2 The main types of distortion
Distortion occurs in six main forms:
1. Longitudinal shrinkage
2. Transverse shrinkage
3. Angular distortion
4. Bowing and dishing
5. Buckling
6. Twisting
Non-uniform contraction (through thickness) produces angular distortion in addition
to longitudinal and transverse shrinkage.
For example, in a single V butt weld, the first weld run produces longitudinal and transverse shrinkage and rotation. The second run causes the plates to rotate using the first
weld deposit as a fulcrum. Hence, balanced welding in a doubleside V butt joint can be
used to produce uniform contraction and prevent angular distortion.
Similarly, in a single side fillet weld, non-uniform contraction produces angular
distortion of the upstanding leg. Double side fillet welds can therefore be used to
control distortion in the upstanding fillet but because the weld is only deposited on
one side of the base plate, angular distortion will now be produced in the plate.
51
Longitudinal bowing in welded plates happens when the weld centre is not coincident
with the neutral axis of the section so that longitudinal shrinkage in the welds bends
the section into a curved shape.
Clad plate tends to bow in two directions due to longitudinal and transverse shrinkage
of the cladding; this produces a dished shape. Dishing is also produced in stiffened
plating. Plates usually dish inwards between the stiffeners, because of angular
distortion at the stiffener attachment welds (see main photograph).
In plating, long range compressive stresses can cause elastic buckling in thin plates,
resulting in dishing, bowing or rippling.
Distortion due to elastic buckling is unstable: if you attempt to flatten a buckled plate, it
will probably 'snap' through and dish out in the opposite direction.
Twisting in a box section is caused by shear deformation at the corner joints. This is
caused by unequal longitudinal thermal expansion of the abutting edges. Increasing
the number of tack welds to prevent shear deformation often reduces the amount of
twisting. [9] Look the pictures 35
Picture 35 image of distortion [15]
16 Heat Treatment
Heat treatment is used to change properties of metal, or as a method of controlling
formation of structure, or expansion /contraction forces during welding
The types of Heat Treatment:
52
16.1 Pre-heating
Pre-heating to an appropriate temperature immediately prior to austenitizing when
hardening high hardenability constructional steels, many of the tool steels, and heavy
sections.
16.2 Annealing
A term denoting a treatment, consisting of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature, followed by cooling at a suitable rate, used primarily to soften, but also to simultaneously produce desired changes in other properties or in microstructure. The purpose of such changes may be, but is not confined to, improvement of machinability;
facilitation of cold working; improvement of mechanical or electrical properties; or increase in stability of dimensions. The time-temperature cycles used vary widely both in
maximum temperature attained and in cooling rate employed, depending on the
composition of the material, its condition, and the results desired. When applicable,
the following more specific process names should be used: Black Annealing, Blue
Annealing, Box Annealing, Bright Annealing, Cycle Annealing, Flame Annealing,
Full Annealing, Graphitizing, Intermediate Annealing, Isothermal Annealing, Process Annealing, Quench Annealing, and Speroidizing. When the term is used without qualification, full annealing is implied. When applied only for the relief of
stress, the process is properly call stress relieving. [6]
16.3 Normalizing
Normalising is a heat treatment process that is generally used for steel. The temperature climb and holding be exactly the same as annealing.
16.4 Quenching hardening
Rapid cooling. When applicable, the following more specific terms should be used:
Direct Quenching, Fog Quenching, Hot Quenching, Interrupted Quenching, Selective
Quenching, Slack Quenching, Spray Quenching, and Time Quenching.
53
16.5 Tempering
Heating a quench hardened or normalized ferrous alloy to a temperature below
the transformation range to produce desired changes in properties. The object of
tempering or drawing is to reduce the brittleness in hardened steel and to remove
the internal strains caused by the sudden cooling in the quenching bath. The tempering process consists in heating the steel by various means to a certain temperature and then cooling it. When steel is in a fully hardened condition, its structure
consists largely of martensite. On reheating to a temperature of from about 300 to
750°F., a softer and tougher structure known as troostite is formed. If the steel is reheated to a temperature of from 750 to 1290°F, a structure known as a sorbite is
formed, which has somewhat less strength than troostite, but much greater ductility?
16.6 Stress reliefs
A process to reduce internal residual stresses in a metal object by heating the
object to a suitable temperature and holding for a proper time at that temperature.
This treatment may be applied to relieve stresses induced by casting, quenching, normalizing, machining, cold working or welding. [5] Look the pictures 36
Picture 36 weld heat treatment [15]
54
17 The Weldability of Steel
The weldability of a material to be welded by most of common welding process, and
retain the properties for which it has been designed.
The weldibility of steel can involve many factors depending on the type of steel, the
process and the mechanical properties required.
17.1 Material types
In terms of weldability, commonly used materials can be divided into the following
types:

Steels

Stainless steels

Aluminium and its alloys

Nickel and its alloys

Copper and its alloys

Titanium and its alloys

Cast iron
Fusion welding processes can be used to weld most alloys of these materials, in
a wide range of thickness. When imperfections are formed, they will be located in
either the weld metal or the parent material immediately adjacent to the weld,
called the heat affected zone (HAZ). As chemical composition of the weld metal
determines the risk of imperfections, the choice of filler metal may be crucial not only
in achieving adequate mechanical properties and corrosion resistance but also in
producing a sound weld. However, HAZ imperfections are caused by the adverse
effect of the heat generated during welding and can only be avoided by strict adherence to the welding procedure.
This part of the materials section of Job Knowledge for Welders considers the weldability of carbon- manganese (C-Mn) steels and low alloy steels. [1]
55
17.2 Imperfections in welds
Commonly used steels are considered to be readily welded. However, these materials can be at risk from the following types of imperfection:

porosity

solidification cracking

hydrogen cracking

Reheat cracking
Other fabrication imperfections are lamellar tearing and liquation cracking but using
modern steels and consumables, these types of defects are less likely to arise.
In discussing the main causes of imperfections, guidance is given on procedure and
welder techniques for reducing the risk in arc welding.
17.3 Porosity
Porosity is formed by entrapment of discrete pockets of gas in the solidifying weld
pool. The gas may originate from poor gas shielding, surface contaminants such
as rust or grease, or insufficient deoxidants in the parent metal (autogenous weld),
electrode or filler wire. A particularly severe form of porosity is 'wormholes', caused by
gross surface contamination or welding with damp electrodes.
The presence of manganese and silicon in the parent metal, electrode and filler
wire is beneficial as they act as deoxidants combining with entrapped air in the weld
pool to form slag. Rimming steels with high oxygen content can only be welded satisfactorily with a consumable which adds aluminium to the weld pool.
To obtain sound porosity-free welds, the joint area should be cleaned and degreased before welding. Primer coatings should be removed unless considered suitable for welding by that particular process and procedure. When using gas shielded processes, the material surface demands more rigorous cleaning, such as by
degreasing, grinding or machining, followed by final degreasing, and the arc must be
protected from draughts.
56
17.4 Solidification cracking
Solidification cracks occur longitudinally as a result of the weld bead having insuff icient strength to withstand the contraction stresses within the weld metal. Sulphur,
phosphorus, and carbon pick up from the parent metal at high dilution increase the
risk of weld metal (solidification) cracking especially in thick section and highly restrained joints. When welding high carbon and sulphur content steels, then weld
beads will be more susceptible to solidification cracking. However, a weld with a large
depth to width ratio can also be susceptible. In this case, the centre of the weld, the
last part to solidify, will have a high concentration of impurities increasing the risk of
cracking.
Solidification cracking is best avoided by careful attention to the ch oice of consumable, welding parameters and welder technique. To minimise the risk, consumables
with low carbon and impurity levels and relatively high manganese and silicon contents are preferred. High current density processes such as submerged-arc and CO 2,
are more likely to induce cracking. The welding parameters must produce an adequate depth to width ratio in butt welds, or throat thickness in fillet welds. High welding
speeds also increase the risk as the amount of segregation and weld stresses will
increase. The welder should ensure that there is a good joint fit-up so as to avoid
bridging wide gaps. Surface contaminants, such as cutting oils, should be removed
before welding.
17.5 Hydrogen cracking
A characteristic feature of high carbon and low alloy steels is that the HAZ immediately
adjacent to the weld hardens on welding with an attendant risk of cold (hydrogen)
cracking. Although the risk of cracking is determined by the level of hydrogen produced by the welding process, susceptibility will also depend upon several contributory factors:

material composition (carbon equivalent);

section thickness;
57

arc energy (heat) input;

Degree of restraint.
The amount of hydrogen generated is determined by the electrode type and
the process. Basic electrodes generate less hydrogen than rutile electrodes (MMA)
and the gas shielded processes (MIG and TIG) produce only a small amount of hydrogen in the weld pool. Steel composition and cooling rate determines the HAZ
hardness. Chemical composition determines material hardenability, and the higher
the carbon and alloy content of the material, the greater the HAZ hardness. Section
thickness and arc energy influences the cooling rate and hence, the hardness of the
HAZ.
For a given situation therefore, material composition, thickness, joint type, electrode
composition and arc energy input, HAZ cracking is prevented by heating the material.
Using preheat which reduces the cooling rate, promotes escape of hydrogen and reduces HAZ hardness so preventing a crack-sensitive structure being formed; the recommended levels of preheat for various practical situations are detailed in the appropriate standards e.g. BS EN1011-2:2001. As cracking only occurs at temperatures
slightly above ambient, maintaining the temperature of the weld area above the
recommended level during fabrication is especially important. If the material is allowed
to cool too quickly, cracking can occur up to several hours after welding, often termed
'delayed hydrogen cracking'. After welding, therefore, it is beneficial to maintain the
heating for a given period (hold time), depending on the steel thickness, to enable
the hydrogen to diffuse from the weld area.
When welding C-Mn structural and pressure vessel steels, the measures which are
taken to prevent HAZ cracking will also be adequate to avoid hydrogen cracking in
the weld metal. However, with increasing alloying of the weld metal e.g. when welding
alloyed or quenched and tempered steels, more stringent precautions may be necessary.
The risk of HAZ cracking is reduced by using a low hydrogen process, low hydrogen
electrodes and high arc energy, and by reducing the level of restraint. Practical precautions to avoid hydrogen cracking include drying the electrodes and cleaning the
joint faces. When using a gas shielded process, a significant amount of hydrogen
58
can be generated from contaminants on the surface of the components and filler wire
so preheat and arc energy requirements should be maintained even for tack welds.
17.6 Reheat cracking
Reheat or stress relaxation cracking may occur in the HAZ of thick section components, usually of greater than 50mm thickness, Fig. 4. The more likely cause of
cracking is embrittlement of the HAZ during high temperature service or stress relief
heat treatment.
As a coarse grained HAZ is more susceptible to cracking, low arc energy input
welding procedures reduce the risk. Although reheat cracking occurs in sensitive
materials, avoidance of high stresses during welding and elimination of local points
of stress concentration, e.g. by dressing the weld toes, can reduce the risk. [9]
17.7 Weldability of steel groups
PD CEN ISO/TR 15608:2005 identifies a number of steels groups which have similar
metallurgical and welding characteristics. The main risks in welding these groups are:
Low carbon unalloyed steels, no specific processing requirements, specified min imum yield strength R eH ≤ 46 N/mm 2.
For thin section, unalloyed materials, these are normally readily weldable. However,
when welding thicker sections with a flux process, there is a risk of HAZ hydrogen cracking, which will need increased hydrogen control of the consumables or the
use of preheat.
18 The Practice of Visual Inspection
When I was in AEL school studying IWS course I got from their an important information that how well the practice weld visual inspection is so easy to succeed? The
response was that ease and know-how are often inversely proportional as following:
59

If the basic information is weak, inspection seems easy, but with the inspection we will get a little information to find out, and also inspection is more or less
unreliable.

If the basic information is good, inspection is difficult, but with the inspection
we can get more information, experience and inspection is more trusty.

An experienced inspector can see the same weld a lot more than the inexperienced.

Visual inspector is limited to the surface, so consequently, can only detect d efects on the work piece opening. But a trained inspector can decide also weld
profile, his height of the convex weld, weld frankness etc. and it is also more
defect such as lack of fusion or incomplete root penetration existence.
Wilts MI and UI are often undertaken by external specialist inspector, visual inspection VI is always undertaken, at least in part; by the manufacturing own personnel
hence the inclusion of more detailed guidance on visual inspection on this guide. In
practice, although visual inspection is just one of the NDE disciplines, for many structural steelworks it may be one the only form of the NDE required.
Guidance and basic requirement for visual is given in BS EN ISO 17637 Non D estructive Testing of weld – Visual testing of fusion-welded joints.
BS EN ISO 17637 outlines following information:

Requirement for welding inspection personnel

Recommendations about condition suitable for visual examination.

The use of gouges/ inspection aids that may be needed and helpful for inspection.

Guidance about when inspection may be required during the stages of fabrication.

Guidance about information that may need to be included in the inspection records. [4]
60
18.1 Welding inspection personnel
Before starting work on a particular contract BS EN 17637 states that the welding inspectors should:

Be familiar with relevant standards, rules and specification of fabrication work
that be is to be undertaken.

Standards may be national or client.

Be informed about the welding procedures to be used.

Have good vision- in accordance with EN 473 and should be checked every 12
months.
18.2 Condition for visual inspection And Illumination
BS EN 17637 states that the minimum illumination shall be 350 lux but recommends a
minimum of 500 lux (normal shop or office lighting).
18.3 Access
Access to the surface, for direct inspection, should enable the eyes:

To within 600 mm of the surface being inspected. As shown in picture 37

To be in a position to give a viewing angle of not less than 30 degree.
Picture 37 visual test distance [15]
61
18.4 Aids to visual inspection
Where access is restricted for direct visual inspection, the use of a mirrored borescope, or a fibre optic viewing system, are options that may be used- usually by
agreement the contacting parties.
It may also be necessary to provide auxiliary lighting (such as torch) to give suitable
contrast and relief between surface imperfections and the background.
Other terms of equipment that may be appropriate to facilitate visual examination are:

Welding gauges- for checking bevel angles and weld profile, fillet sizing,
measuring undercut depth.

Dedicated weld gap-gauges and linear misalignment (high-low) gauges

Straight edges and measuring tapes

Magnifying lens-if magnification lens used to aid visual examination it
should be x2 to x5 magnifications.
18.5 Visual Inspection Duties
Visual inspection of the finished weld is a minimum requirement. For fabricated items
that must have high integrity, such as larges structure, inspection will usually be
required throughout the fabrication process, namely:

Before welding

After welding

During welding
62
18.6 Typical duties of welding inspectors
Visual inspection of the finished weld is a minimum requirement. For fabricated items
that must have high integrity, such as larges structure, inspection will usually be
required throughout the fabrication process, namely:

Before welding

After welding

During welding
The relevant standards, rules and specification that a welding inspectors should be
familiar with at the start of contract areal the documents required for reference during
the fabrication sequence in order to make judgements about particular details:

The application standards for visual acceptance criteria

Quality plan or inspection check lists

Drawings

Quality procedures
A typical list of welding Inspectors duties may be produced which for simplicity can
be initially grouped into three specific areas:
18.7 Before welding
18.7.1 Safety
Ensure that all operations are carried out in complete compliance with local, company, or national safety legislation (i.e. permits to work are in place).
18.7.2 Documentation

Check specification

Check drawings

Check WPS (Welding procedure and specification) and Welding approvals
63

Validate certificate of calibration. (welding equipment &inspection instruments)

Check material and consumable certification
18.7.3 Welding Process and ancillaries:
Check welding equipment and all related ancillaries.(Cables, regulator, ovens, quivers
etc.)
18.7.4 Incoming consumables:
To check pipe/plat and welding consumables for size, condition, specification and storage.
18.7.5 Marking out preparation &set up:
Check the:

Correct method for cutting weld preparation. ( pre-heat for thermal cutting if applicable)

Correct preparation (relevant bevel angles, root face, root gap, root radius, land,
etc)

Correct pre-welding distortion control. (Tacking, Bridging, jigs, line up clamps,
etc)

Correct level and method of pre-heat applied to tack welding

All tack welding to be monitored and inspected. (Feathering of task may be required) [10]

Weather condition.

Pre-heat values.

In process distortion control and consumable control.
64

Welding process and all related variable parameters. (voltage, amperage, travel
speed, etc)

Welding or purging gases.

Welding condition for root run / hot pass and all subsequent run, and inter-run
cleaning)

Minimum or maximum inter pass temperatures.
18.8 After welding:

Carry out visual inspection of the welding joint.

Check and monitor NDT requirements.

Identify repairs from assessment of visual or NDT report.

Post weld heat treatment PWHT ( Heating method and temperature recording
system)

Re-inspect with NDE/NDT after PWHT. ( IF applicable)

Hydrostatic test procedures. (For pipeline or pressure vessels) [10]
18.8.1 Repairs:

Excavation procedure. (approval and execution)


Approval of the NDT procedures (For assessment of complete defect removal)
Execution of approval re-welding procedures.

Re-inspect the repair areas with visual inspection and approval NDT method
To be effective, a Welding Inspector requires a high level of knowledge, experience and a good understanding of the job. This should in turn earn some respect
from the welder.
65
Good Welding Inspectors should carry out their duties competently, use our authority
wisely and be constantly aware of their responsibilities.
19 Visual welding inspection practical forms
The requirement for examination record / inspection reports will vary according to contract and type of fabrication and there may not always be need for a formal record.
20 The Standard EN ISO 1090
20.1 EN 1090-2 Welding
Welding shall be undertaken in accordance with the requirements of the relevant part
of EN ISO 3834 or EN ISO 14554 as applicable. NOTE Guidelines for implementation
of EN ISO 3834 on quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials is given
in CEN 3834-6. [13]
According to the execution class, the following parts of EN ISO 3834 apply:
EXC1: Part 4 "Elementary quality requirements";
EXC2: Part 3 "Standard quality requirements";
EXC3 and EXC4: Part 2 "Comprehensive quality requirements".
20.2 EN 1090-2 Welders and welding operators
Welders shall be qualified in accordance with EN 287-1 and welding operators in accordance with EN 1418.Welders of hollow section branch connection with angles less
than 60° as defined in EN 1993-1-8 shall be qualified by specific test.
Records of all welder and welding operator qualification tests shall be kept available.
Tack welds For EXC2, ECX3 and EXC4, tack welds shall be made using a qualified
welding procedure. The minimum Length of the tack shall be the lesser of four times
the thickness of the thicker part or 50 mm, unless a shorter Length can be demonstrated as satisfactory by test.
All tack welds not incorporated into the final welds shall be removed. Tack welds that
are to be incorporated into the final weld shall have a suitable shape and be carried out
66
by qualified welders. Tack welds shall be free from deposition faults and shall be
cleaned thoroughly before final welding. Cracked tack welds shall be removed.
20.3 EN 1090-2 Welding Coordination
20.3.1 Welding coordination
For EXC2, EXC3 and EXC4, welding coordination shall be maintained during the execution of welding by welding coordination personnel suitably qualified for, and experienced in the welding operations they supervise as specified in EN ISO 14731.
20.4 EN 1090-2 Welding – WPS
Qualification of welding procedures for processes 111, 114, 12, 13 and 14
a) The qualification of the welding procedure depends on the execution class, the parent metal and the degree of mechanization.
b) If EN ISO 15613 or EN ISO 15614-1 qualification procedures are used, the following
conditions apply:
1) If impact tests are specified, they shall be carried out at the lowest temperature required for impact testing of the material qualities being joined.
2) For steels according to EN 10025-6, one specimen for micro-examination is necessary. Photographs of weld metal, fusion line zone and HAZ shall be recorded. Micro
cracks are not permitted.
3) If welding on shop primers, tests shall be carried out on the maximum (nominal +
tolerance) accepted layer thickness.
c) If a qualification procedure is to apply to transverse stressed fillet welds on steel
grades higher than S275, test shall be completed by a cruciform tensile test performed
in accordance with EN ISO
18. Only specimens with a ≤ .5 t shall be evaluated.
Three cross tensile specimen shall be tested. If the fracture happens in the parent metal, the minimum nominal tensile strength of the parent metal shall be reached. If the
fracture happens in the weld metal, the fracture strength of the cross Section of the
actual weld shall be determined. By processes with deep penetration the actual root
67
penetration shall be considered. The determined average fracture strength shall be ≥
0,8 Rm (with R nominal tensile strength of the used parent metal).
20.5 EN 1090·2Welding - WPS Qualification
20.5.1 Validity of a welding procedure qualification
The validity of a welding procedure depends on the requirements of the standard used
for the qualification. If specified, welding production tests have to be carried out in accordance with the relevant standard of qualification, e.g. EN ISO 14555.
The following additional tests are required for a welding procedure qualified in accordance with EN ISO 15614-1 which is undertaken by a welding process that has not been
used:
a) For a period of between one and three years, a suitable production welding test shall
be carried out for steel grades higher than 5355. Examination and testing shall include
visual inspection, radiographic or ultrasonic inspection (not required for fillet welds),
surface crack detection by magnetic particle or penetrant test, macro-examination and
hardness test;
b) For a period of more than three years,
1) A macro specimen taken from a production test shall be inspected for acceptability
for steel grades up to and including 5355, or
2) New welding procedure tests shall be carried out for steel grades higher than 5355
as relevant.
For resistance welding, the welding parameters may be determined using tests according to EN ISO 10447. [13]
68
Summary
EU directives require products and structures with safety. Since welding is often the
most critical step, EN Standards are the technical and personnel requirments to minimize the risks. Pressure Equipment Directive and manufacturing standards and the
future nuclear power plant is the most demanding welding. Welding inspection are also
the most pressing challenges of Finnish technical researcher. Also, the construction
industry is waking up to the requirements, and will also be there on the side of much
tougher.
The standard SFS-EN ISO 3834 is shown in welded structures of companies manufacturing rules of the game. The standard provides the basis on which products can be
manufactured with high quality. The manufacturer will also be available in sufficient
coordination staff, the company to be designated. Welding inspector requirements
should be set to firm behaviour / activity. The importance of welding inspection is particularly pronounced in modern commerce, when technical researcher is increasingly
outside Finland, and their numbers are still growing!
Welding coordination tasks include following terms:

Negotiation audits of inspection and welding production methods

Method of testing and monitoring of the WPS contract Bs

Internal and independent audits and monitoring of the audit sub-contractors

Welding production development and maintenance

Knowledge of welding standards in the industry and know-how to apply them to
the production

Participation in the trading of foreign subcontractors

Welding equipment and bulwarks of acquisition, maintenance and repair activities responsibility

The latest DT and NDT standards of knowledge and expertise in the interpretation is responsible for ensuring that the products are order specification with the
material, as well as the monitoring of activities
69
References:
[1]
Foundation,
Concrete
and
Earthquake
Engineering
(www.civil-
enggworld.blogspot.com)
[2]
The Esab group welding subsidiary company (www.esab.fi)
[3]
The NDT Resource Center
[4]
Welder Training Organizations (www.cswip.com)
[5]
Industrial Ovens - Wisconsin Oven (www.wiscoven.com)
[6]
Advanced Composites Manufacturing Centre (wwwTech.plym.ac.uk)
[7]
2010 mechanical engineering Blogger Template By Blogger Theme (Engi
nearing hut.blogs.com)
[8]
RoyMech Mechanical engineering (www.roymech.co.uk)
[9]
The world’s largest community for sharing presentations and other pro-
fessional content. (www.slideshare.net)
[10]
Training & Examination Service Worldwide (www.twi.com)
[11]
AEL School Machinery And Metal Product Department (www.ael.fi)
[12]
Material Testing laboratory Engineering Service (www.tcreng.com)
[13]
[14]
[15]
Execution of Steel Structure of standards EN ISO 1090
(Stefano Morra IIS CERT – Italian Institute of Welding Group)
Images of welding pictures (Google)
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