Alesis Point Seven Specifications

Alesis Point Seven Specifications
ALESIS
Studio 32
Reference Manual
Contents
CONTENTS
Important Safety Instructions ................................................... 5
Safety symbols used in this product.........................................................................5
Please follow these precautions when using this product:.........................................5
Introduction ................................................................................. 7
How to use this manual ..........................................................................................7
For beginners..............................................................................................7
For the experienced: a quick overview ....................................................................9
About the Studio 32 ................................................................................................10
Basic Principles of Mixing & Multitrack Recording..................................................11
The stages of multitrack recording ..............................................................12
The different mixes and what they’re needed for ....................................................14
Multitrack Mix ..........................................................................................14
Monitor (Control Room) Mix .......................................................................16
Aux Sends and Returns: Effects ...................................................................18
Guided Tour................................................................................. 19
Recorder Mix/Monitor Mix System..........................................................................19
Starting at the source: input and TRIM .......................................................19
The equalizer.............................................................................................20
Fader and assignment section ......................................................................20
Monitor 1/2 section .....................................................................................21
Aux Send/Return System ........................................................................................22
Aux sends...................................................................................................22
Stereo Aux Returns .....................................................................................22
Control Room System..............................................................................................23
Control Room source....................................................................................23
Solo/PFL ...................................................................................................23
Meters .......................................................................................................24
Hooking It Up............................................................................... 25
Unpacking and Inspection.......................................................................................25
Installing in a Rack................................................................................................25
Power ....................................................................................................................26
Avoiding ground loop noise .........................................................................27
Channel Inputs and Outputs....................................................................................28
Mic Inputs..................................................................................................28
Line Inputs.................................................................................................28
Tape Inputs................................................................................................29
Direct Outputs ...........................................................................................29
Insert.........................................................................................................30
Master Inputs and Outputs......................................................................................31
Main Outputs.............................................................................................31
Main Inserts...............................................................................................31
Group Outputs............................................................................................31
Control Room Outputs.................................................................................31
2 Track Inputs.............................................................................................31
Stereo Aux Returns .....................................................................................32
Monitor and Auxiliary Outputs...................................................................32
Headphones ..............................................................................................32
Chart of Connections ..............................................................................................33
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Contents
Connecting to an Unbalanced -10 dBV Multitrack Recorder ..........................34
Connecting to a Professional +4 dBu Multitrack Recorder .............................35
Connecting to a 2-Track Mixdown Deck........................................................36
Connecting to a Control Room amplifier ......................................................37
Connecting to a Headphone Amp ................................................................37
Connecting to a Patchbay............................................................................37
Effects and Signal Processing ................................................... 39
Connecting Aux Sends and Returns to Outboard Effects .............................................39
Should you use one or two inputs to effects?..................................................40
Using Effects ..........................................................................................................41
Connecting Signal Processors to Insert Jacks..............................................................44
Multitrack Recording Applications ........................................... 46
Recording...............................................................................................................46
Setting Levels............................................................................................46
How to Record a Single Source to One Track.................................................48
Recording Multiple Sources to One Track.....................................................49
Recording Multiple Sources to Two Tracks (Stereo) ......................................50
Recording Tips ...........................................................................................51
About Metering ..........................................................................................51
Overdubbing ..........................................................................................................52
Using MONITOR 1/2 to Monitor the Multitrack ..........................................52
Using the Channel Faders to Monitor the Multitrack...................................53
Getting the Mix to the Headphones............................................................55
Monitoring MIDI Virtual Tracks.................................................................56
Bouncing Tracks..........................................................................................57
Playback/Mixdown................................................................................................59
Getting the Mix to the 2-Track Deck ...........................................................59
Mixdown Basics .........................................................................................59
Guidelines for a rough mix..........................................................................60
Sound Reinforcement Applications .......................................... 63
Creating a mono house mix......................................................................................63
Subgrouping with the Group Faders ........................................................................63
Stage Monitor Mix......................................................................................64
Alternate uses for the Monitor 1/2 section: Stereo recording during a live concert......65
Using Monitor 1/2 to feed a cassette deck.....................................................65
Using Monitor 1/2 as the PA mix during multitrack recording.......................66
Video Production and Post-Production.....................................................................67
Description of Controls ............................................................... 69
Channel Input Controls...........................................................................................69
Trim ..........................................................................................................69
Fader Source switch ...................................................................................69
Equalizer section....................................................................................................70
75 Hz switch ..............................................................................................70
EQ IN Switch ............................................................................................70
HIGH and LOW.........................................................................................70
MID EQ controls: LEVEL, FREQ, and Q.......................................................70
Auxiliary Send Section...........................................................................................72
AUX 3(5) SOURCE Switch.........................................................................72
AUX 3(5) and AUX 4(6) Sends.....................................................................72
TO 5/6 Switch (Aux Assign Switch)............................................................72
MONITOR 1/2 SOURCE switch .................................................................72
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Contents
MONITOR 1/2 LEVEL, MONITOR 1/2 PAN ...............................................73
Channel Output Section..........................................................................................73
Channel PAN ............................................................................................73
MUTE........................................................................................................73
PEAK LED.................................................................................................73
-20 dB (Signal Present) LED........................................................................73
SOLO ........................................................................................................74
Group Assign Switches (1/2, 3/4) ................................................................74
L/R Switch................................................................................................74
Channel Fader...........................................................................................74
MASTER SECTION................................................................................................75
Power and Phantom indicators....................................................................75
Headphones Level and Source ....................................................................75
Phone jacks ................................................................................................75
Stereo Aux Return Section .......................................................................................75
MON 1/2 ...................................................................................................75
LEVEL.......................................................................................................75
L/R Assign Switch .....................................................................................75
GRP 1/2 Assign Switches (Stereo Aux Return A and B Only).........................76
GRP 3/4 Assign Switches (Stereo Aux Return C and D Only).........................76
SOLO IN PLACE Switch ...........................................................................76
Aux Master Controls ...............................................................................................77
Auxiliary Masters......................................................................................77
Monitor 1/2 Master.....................................................................................77
LINK TO L/R switch..................................................................................77
Control Room/Solo Section .....................................................................................78
Solo Master Level ......................................................................................78
Solo SIP/PFL switch ..................................................................................78
Control Room Level and Source ...................................................................78
MONO ......................................................................................................79
Master L/R Fader.......................................................................................79
Meters .......................................................................................................79
Group Master Controls ............................................................................................80
TO L/R switches ........................................................................................80
MONO switch ...........................................................................................80
Group 1—4 Master ......................................................................................80
L/R Master Fader.......................................................................................80
Back panel.............................................................................................................81
POWER switch ..........................................................................................81
Power cable................................................................................................81
PHANTOM Switch....................................................................................81
Control Room Out .......................................................................................81
2 Track Tape In...........................................................................................81
Main Outs..................................................................................................82
Main Inserts...............................................................................................82
Group Outputs............................................................................................82
Stereo Aux Return Input Jacks......................................................................82
Auxiliary Outputs (including Mon 1/2)........................................................82
Channel Input/Output Jacks (16).............................................................................82
Direct Out..................................................................................................82
Tape In ......................................................................................................83
Insert jack ..................................................................................................83
Line In jack.................................................................................................83
Mic In jack..................................................................................................83
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Contents
Troubleshooting .......................................................................... 85
Troubleshooting Index ............................................................................................85
Maintenance/Service .............................................................................................86
Specifications............................................................................... 89
Frequency Response ................................................................................................89
Connectors..............................................................................................................89
Levels....................................................................................................................89
Impedance .............................................................................................................90
Noise performance (typical)...................................................................................90
Distortion (THD+N)..............................................................................................90
Power ....................................................................................................................90
Mounting dimensions ..............................................................................................90
Dimensional Drawings:..........................................................................................92
Gain Diagram ............................................................................... 93
Block Diagram ............................................................................. 94
Index............................................................................................. 96
Studio 32 Reference Manual
4
Introduction
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
How to use this manual
You’ve taken the leap and purchased an Alesis Studio 32 Recording Console with
Inline Monitor. Congratulations. At Alesis, we design equipment that’s used by
everyone from first-time users to engineers with decades of experience. In either
case, the Studio 32 packs a lot of power into a small package, and we wrote this
manual so that no matter what your background is, you can get the most out of it.
For beginners
The first two chapters are designed to give you a background in console operation. If
you read them carefully, the rest of the manual will be easier to understand, and
you’ll be happier with your results. Mixers really aren’t as difficult as they seem
to be, but there’s a lot of things going on at one time.
Chapter 1: Introduction describes the capabilities of the Studio 32 and explains the
basic principles of mixing and recording.
Chapter 2: Guided Tour provides a brief tour of the Studio 32, and shows you how
the basic principles of all console operation apply to the particular features of the
Studio 32.
Chapter 3: Connections details installation and power hookups, rear panel
connections (inputs, outputs, and cables), and typical hook-up procedures.
Chapter 4: Effects and Signal Processing contains information on how to connect
external effects and how to use them properly. If you don’t read any other chapter,
read this one–effects send and return is one of the most misunderstood aspects of
mixing consoles.
Chapter 5: Recording Applications covers the various uses for the Studio 32 in
multitrack recording, with step-by-step instructions on setting up and mixing
techniques.
Chapter 6: Sound Reinforcement Applications covers the Studio 32’s features when
it’s connected to a PA system; but this chapter will also be useful for those doing
live recording.
Chapter 7: Description of Controls is a “dictionary” of each control for fast
reference.
Chapter 8: Troubleshooting. A guide to trouble-free operation, maintenance and
service information.
We have also included a block diagram, Gain Structure Chart and an Index.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
7
Introduction
We appreciate your feedback. If you have any suggestions on how to improve this
manual, please write to us at:
Technical Communications Dept.
Alesis Corp.
3630 Holdrege
Los Angeles, CA 90016
or via email at:
[email protected]
Conventions
The buttons, knobs, and rear panel connectors are referred to in this manual just as
their names appear on the Studio 32, using all capital letters (Example: TRIM
control, PAN knob, MIC IN jack, etc.).
✪
When something important appears in the manual, an icon (like the one on the left)
will appear in the left margin. This symbol indicates that this information is
vital when operating the Studio 32.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
8
Introduction
For the experienced: a quick overview
If you're already familiar with mixing consoles, here are some important points you
need to know about the Alesis Studio 32 Recording Console. The Studio 32 follows
commonly-accepted traditions for signal levels and routing.
Channel Input Jacks: All inputs and outputs are balanced except the INSERT jacks
and Stereo Aux Returns. All other 1/4” jacks are TRS 3-conductor types and may be
used with +4 dBu balanced or -10 dBV unbalanced systems. The XLR and LINE IN
jacks do not have a switch between them, and use the same TRIM control, so you can
only use one of them at a time. The TAPE IN jacks are entirely independent, have
no TRIM control, and can handle input levels up to +25 dBu.
PEAK indicator headroom: The PEAK LED in each channel will light 5 to 6 dB
before the onset of actual channel clipping. The same is true for the PK segment of
the main meter (which corresponds to +18 dB over reference). PEAK is monitored
both pre- and post-EQ.
Monitor LINK TO L/R: Unlike most other monitors, the Studio 32's monitor busses
are independent from the L/R mix, unless you LINK them to the L/R using the
switch. Think of them as an AUX 1/2 send with independent input source selection
from the channel source, which can be submixed into the L/R if desired.
EQ: The 75 Hz high-pass filter switch is independent of the EQ and may be used
even if the EQ IN switch is out. The midrange controls are fully parametric. The
EQ section affects the channel path only, not the MONITOR 1/2 section.
AUX: There are four post-fader Aux send busses, with two knobs from each channel.
Both knobs in a channel are assigned to a pair of auxes by the same AUX ASSIGN
switch: 3/4, or 5/6. The upper control can send from the Monitor or the Channel;
the lower control is always from the channel.
SOLO: Whether the SOLO keys function as SIP (stereo solo-in-place, also known
as After-Fader-Listen or AFL) or PFL (Pre-Fader-Listen) is selected by a master
solo status switch next to the Control Room section. The Stereo Aux Returns can only
be soloed in SIP mode.
FADERS and gain structure: The Group and L/R master faders are designed with a
nominal "0" position at the top of their travel, not the 3/4 position. The channel
faders have 10 dB of gain from the nominal position to the top of fader travel. Most
other pots are marked with a nominal position (usually "2 o'clock"). The L/R,
Group, and Direct outputs add an extra 6 dB of gain when used in balanced mode.
Chapter 5 “Description of Controls” gives a knob-by-knob definition of each feature
of the Studio 32, so if you know what the “Q” controls do, but you need more
information on “LINK TO L/R”, this is where you can look it up. In any case, please
remember after you get started that this manual contains information that will
help you get the highest level of performance from your Studio 32. Even an expert
may pick up some creative alternative techniques that aren't obvious at first
glance.
To find what you need quickly, refer to the index at the back of the manual, or the
Table of Contents.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
9
Introduction
About the Studio 32
The Studio 32 is an extremely flexible, 16-channel, 4-group plus L/R output, in-line
monitor professional audio mixing console. The MONITOR 1/2 path of each
channel has its own volume, pan, and access to the channel’s upper Aux send knob, so
you can mix or monitor the tape input while the main channel path mixes a mic or
line input. Each monitor control has its own source switch, so it may be used as a
conventional pre-fader auxiliary send as well as a tape monitor section. The
MONITOR 1/2 mix may be linked to the main stereo output, but also features its
own 1/4” output jacks. This flexible design allows full mix control of 32 sources, plus
8 aux returns, for a total of 40 sources at mixdown. For this reason, the Studio 32 is
perfectly suited for professional project studios with a large number of MIDI
sequencer-controlled sources that are synchronized with 16 tracks of ADAT. It also
makes an excellent console for live sound reinforcement use.
Each channel features a high-quality 3-band equalizer with a fully parametric
(not just sweep) midrange band. The midrange Q (bandwidth) can be set as narrow
as 1/6th of an octave, or as wide as several octaves, for boosting or cutting any
frequency range desired. An EQ IN/OUT switch permits the entire EQ circuit to be
bypassed when desired, maintaining the minimum signal path. A switchable 75
Hz high-pass filter removes low frequency rumble and noise.
The Studio 32 uses fully balanced +4 dBu inputs on 1/4" jacks for all LINE IN and
TAPE IN connections. The Studio 32 may also be used with unbalanced -10 dBV
level equipment. Each channel has its own balanced Direct Out, so that
simultaneous 16-track recording is possible.
All channels feature a high-quality, low-noise balanced microphone preamp with
globally switchable 48-volt phantom power for condenser microphones. Each input
channel features a green “-20 dB signal present” LED and a red PEAK LED to warn
of input signals that are too high for the present trim or EQ setting. The MUTE and
SOLO switches use these same LEDs to indicate when a channel is muted or soloed.
Effects mixes are handled by four post-fader Aux send busses, with two controls in
each channel that are assignable to either Aux 3-4 or Aux 5-6. The upper control,
labeled Aux 3(5), features its own input source select switch that allows it to
provide an effects send from either the channel fader or monitor level control. The
lower control, Aux 4(6), is a post-fader send that’s always sourced from the main
channel fader. Four Stereo Aux Returns (labeled A, B, C, and D) are provided, each
with its own assignment switches and MON 1/2 send control. Returns may be routed
to the stereo mix, the groups, soloed to the control room, and added to the monitor
mix, so that effects may be added to the final mix, printed to multitrack, monitored
on headphones, or any combination desired. The Studio 32 provides insert points on
each channel and the stereo main outputs, for use with compressors and graphic
equalizers.
Control room monitoring is made simpler by stereo-in-place Solo on each main
channel, which is globally switchable to PFL (Pre-fader listen). Each Auxiliary
mix and Group may be previewed in the control room while leaving the rest of the
signal path undisturbed. Two built-in headphone jacks with a separate source
select switch allow you to hear either the control room source, or the monitor mix.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
10
Introduction
Basic Principles of Mixing & Multitrack
Recording
Source select, level control, and destination assignment
When it’s being used in a recording studio, the Studio 32’s job is to control the
volume, tone, pan and effects for many different inputs such as microphones,
electronic instruments, and tape machines. You could think of this as the “where
from” (source select) and “how much” (level control) function of the console. Then,
it must route these signals to a monitor system and tape recorder so they can be
heard and recorded: this is the “where to” (assignment) function of the console.
The two-way signal flow of multitrack recording
Using a console for recording is very different from a live PA application, where
signal basically flows in one direction from the microphones to the speakers.
During multitrack recording, signal flows two ways: from the input sources through
the mixer to the recorder, and simultaneously back from the recorder through the
monitor section to speakers or headphones so the musicians can play along with
previously-recorded tracks. This two-way flow is what makes a true recording
console more versatile than a PA-only console.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
11
Introduction
The stages of multitrack recording
Most multitrack recording is a three-stage process. Instead of recording an entire
musical group in a single take of a live performance, recordings are usually made
one instrument at a time and built up in layers. Recording one instrument at a time
makes it easier to fix mistakes of an incorrectly played part. The signal flow may
seem complex, but it’s easy to understand the functions of the Studio 32 once you
understand the basic signal flows of each stage: tracking, overdubbing, and
mixdown.
Recording/Tracking
When recording the first tracks, which define the tempo and basic structure of the
song, signal flows in one direction: from the sources through the mixer to the
recorder. Monitoring the playback from the multitrack isn’t necessary, although
you may need to provide a headphone mix, which can come either from the sources
or through the multitrack (because at this stage, they’re the same thing).
Monitoring/Overdubbing
In order to properly record a performance, the engineer, the producer, and all of the
players must be able to hear what’s going on. Traditionally, the engineer listens to
speakers in the control room (where the mixer is). This is called monitoring. In the
studio, the musicians listen to a cue mix in headphones while overdubbing.
Adjustments to monitor or cue mixes should not affect the mix going to the recorder,
so that recording levels remain set at the optimum, regardless of what the monitor
mix needs to be.
During overdubbing, it’s easy to get confused, since there may be three or more
separate mixes happening at the same time. As long as you keep them separate in
your mind, and keep track of what’s going where, the Studio 32 will let you get
almost any sound mix you want.
Mixdown
In the final stage of multitrack recording, you take all the parts that were
separated so they could be perfected, and recombine them so an audience can hear
them. Mixdown is the “reverse flow”: now the multitrack is the source (sometimes
supplemented by MIDI-controlled “virtual tracks”) and a 2-track stereo recorder is
the destination. During this stage, the tracks are blended together, tonally
enhanced with EQ and effects, positioned in the stereo field with the PAN
controls, and finally recorded onto a mixdown tape deck (such as a DAT machine, 2Track reel-to-reel or cassette recorder, or 2 tracks of an ADAT). During mixdown,
the engineer must hear the exact same mix the recorder is receiving. For this
purpose, the Control Room section of the Studio 32 provides an external 2 TRACK
input for listening to the output of the mixdown tape deck.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Introduction
Studio 32 Reference Manual
13
Introduction
The different mixes and what they’re
needed for
Now that you understand the different sources and different destinations used
during the three stages of the multitrack recording process, let’s look at each one
individually, without the other components getting in the way. Please note that
these illustrations show the controls in the order they are electronically, and omit
controls that don’t apply to the mix being explained. Here are the mixes that you
will control during a typical multitrack recording session:
Multitrack Mix
This mix goes from the sources (microphones or line inputs) to the tracks of the
multitrack recorder. It is controlled by the Channel Faders and sent via the four
Group Master Faders to the Group Output jacks. (If you need to record more than
four tracks at once, some signals will go to the multitrack directly from Channel
Faders via the Direct Out jacks.) In the multitrack mix, the goal is to set the
controls so that each track is recorded as loud as it can be without distorting the
recorder.
For example, a microphone is plugged into channel 1, and its level is set by the
TRIM control. The FADER SOURCE switch is left in the UP position (MIC/LN).
After passing through the INSERT jack on the rear panel, signal may then pass
through the 75 Hz filter (if its switch is down) and the EQ (if the EQ IN switch is
down) on its way to the Channel Fader and MUTE switch. At this point, signal is
available to the DIRECT OUT jack (where it may be connected to the multitrack);
in any case it then goes on to the channel PAN and the 1/2, 3/4, and L/R assignment
switches. The channel PAN affects what group (odd, even or both) the mic will be
sent to. The mic is mixed with any other channel sources feeding the same group,
via the Group Master faders to the selected track (in the illustration, Group and
track 4).
Please note a key concept: you can go from any channel input to any of the group or
main outputs. Inputs and tracks are independent of each other. You can plug a mic
into channel 1, and record it on track 4 without repatching.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Introduction
MIC
IN
Multitrack Recorder Mix
(Groups and L/R)
LINE TAPE
IN
IN
TRIM
(to MON 1/2 SOURCE)
FADER
SOURCE
INSERT
jack
75 HZ
HIGH
MID
FREQ
Q
LOW
EQ IN
FADER
MUTE
(Post-EQ to MON 1/2 SOURCE when
MIC/LINE is selected at both)
DIRECT
OUT
MAIN L/R
OUTS &
INSERTS
GROUP OUTPUTS
(to AUX
sends)
1
2
3
4
L/R
PAN
GRP 1/2
(combined with signals
from other channels)
GRP 3/4
L/R
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Introduction
Monitor (Control Room) Mix
This mix is what the engineer and/or performer hears in headphones or the control
room speakers. During overdubbing, this mix is typically controlled by the Studio
32’s MONITOR 1/2 section, and sometimes by the L/R mix. In the monitor mix, the
goal is to set the controls so the performer gets whatever mix they need so they can
perform their overdubs as well as possible. In the engineer’s mix, the goal is to
make sure that he or she can hear any problems with the tracks being recorded, so
they can be fixed before making more overdubs. In either case, the Studio 32 allows
you to adjust the monitor and control room mix (change levels, pan position, or solo
individual channels) without disturbing the signals being recorded to the
multitrack.
In the illustration, the microphone we recorded on track 4 comes back on TAPE IN
#4. The MONITOR 1/2 source switch is set to the TAPE (up) position. The LEVEL
pot (with the purple knob), and the MONITOR PAN determine the mix going to
the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER. At this point, the CONTROL ROOM SOURCE
switch is set to MON 1/2, so the engineer can adjust the monitor mix, and the
HEADPHONES SOURCE switch is set to MON 1/2 as well, so that if the engineer
hits any SOLO buttons, only the control room mix will be affected, not the
headphone mix.
Monitor PAN: Note that the Monitor PAN controls (the black knobs above the
purple knobs) will not affect what track a signal is recorded on. They only affect
the position in the control room speakers or headphones. On the other hand, the
lower row of PAN controls for the channel faders will pan the signal from the
microphone between two tracks of tape (if you’re recording using the Groups instead
of the Direct Outs).
Sometimes you may need another mix for the musicians’ headphones, since some
musicians may need certain instruments louder or softer in the mix in order to hear
their cues. In the Studio 32, a complicated cue mix will usually come from
MONITOR 1/2, and less complicated ones may come from the post-fader AUX sends
(if it’s OK for the Aux mix to change if the engineer makes adjustments to the
channel fader). Don’t forget that MONITOR 1/2, instead of being used as one stereo
mix, may be used as two mono mixes, with careful setting of the MONITOR PAN
controls.
Post-EQ, Pre-Fader: The EQ, 75 HZ filter, and INSERT jack do not affect the
MONITOR 1/2 mix unless both the FADER SOURCE and MONITOR SOURCE
switches have selected MIC/LINE as the source. This feature allows you to hear
what the engineer is doing to the EQ, or to an effect device in the INSERT jack,
when you’re using the MON 1/2 mix for headphones or a stage monitor mix. But the
EQ and INSERT never affect the TAPE side of the MONITOR SOURCE switch, or
if the MIC signal is going through MON 1/2 while TAPE is going through the
CHANNEL FADER. (For clarity, the drawing on the next page doesn’t show this
detail; see the Block Diagram on page Error! Bookmark not defined. for the
complete signal flow.)
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Introduction
Monitor/Control Room/Solo System
MIC LINE TAPE
IN
IN
IN
(to channel FADER
SOURCE switch)
TRIM
(MIC/LN source is post-EQ
when both SOURCE
switches are set to MIC/LN)
(EQ)
MONITOR
1/2
SOURCE
MON
LEVEL
MONITOR
1/2 MASTER
CONTROL
ROOM
SELECT
SWITCHES
MON PAN
(from AUX,
GROUP,
L/R masters
and
2 TRK inputs)
(Master
solo
takeover
relay)
MONO
CONTROL
ROOM
LEVEL
(Channel
details
on previous
page)
Any SOLO
on console
controls this
relay
electronically
Channel
fader
MASTER
SOLO
LED
(PFL feed)
(SIP)
Channel
PAN
SOLO
CONTROL
ROOM
OUTPUTS
-20
SIP/PFL
SWITCH
Studio 32 Reference Manual
SOLO
MASTER
17
Introduction
Aux Sends and Returns:
Effects
The last important mix is usually used for adding effects (such as reverb, delay,
chorus, etc.) to the mix. This may be part of the tracking and overdubbing stage,
and is almost always part of the mixdown stage. The rows of blue knobs running
across the center of the Studio 32 may be thought of as secondary submixers, with a
little less independence from the other mixes, because they follow them in the
signal path. This is the “send” side of the “effects send/receive” process. The
upper row of AUX controls is capable of sending from either the MONITOR 1/2 mix
(the row of purple knobs) or from the channel faders.
Aux Sends (16)
CHANNEL
FADER
MONITOR
LEVEL
(to monitor pan)
MUTE
(to channel pan and assign)
AUXILIARY OUTPUTS
AUX 3(5)
SOURCE
3
4
5
AUXILIARY
MASTERS
TO 5/6
AUX 3(5)
6
AUX 4(6)
Once you’ve made an effect, it’s no use unless you hear it, so the STEREO AUX
RETURNS are four “miniature stereo channels” designed for effect returns. You may
want to record effects to the multitrack, so they have GRP ASSIGN switches. The
musicians may want some reverb in their headphones to help them stay on pitch, so
it has a row of four MON 1/2 controls. The engineer may need to hear the output of
a single effect device to change the delay time, so there are SOLO switches. And,
of course, you want effects on the final mix, so they all have L/R ASSIGN switches.
Except for the limitations of not having a mic preamp, EQ, post-fader Aux Sends, or
mute, the Aux Returns are just like channels--they don’t have to be used for effects.
Consider them as an extra eight input channels especially for stereo line
instruments such as synthesizers that already have their own internal effects.
Stereo Aux Returns (4)
STEREO AUX
RETURNS L, R
MON
1/2
(to Monitor 1/2 Master)
RETURN
LEVEL
GRP 1/2
(or 3/4)
L/R
Studio 32 Reference Manual
(to GRP masters)
(to L/R master)
18
Guided Tour
CHAPTER 2:
GUIDED T OUR
Recorder Mix/Monitor Mix System
The Studio 32 is designed to accommodate the two-way signal flow required in a
recording console. This is where signals are mixed, EQ’d and routed to the Aux
sends, Groups and Left and Right Master outs. Each channel provides a Mic and
Line Input plus a Tape In connector, where signals return from the multitrack
recorder. Any input may be routed to either the main or monitor section of the
channel, or even to both at once. This allows you to mix an input and monitor a tape
signal simultaneously. Counting the Stereo Aux Returns, the Studio 32 has a total of
40 inputs to the main mix. These can all be mixed down to a master tape deck via
the L/R Main outs.
Starting at the source: input and TRIM
Let’s trace the signal flow from beginning to end. Note that the controls from top to
bottom of each channel are not placed in the same order as they appear in the
signal flow. To see the paths of the signal flow, refer to the block diagram on page
Error! Bookmark not defined..
Each input module has three possible sources (line, mic and tape in) and two paths
(the main channel and the monitor). First, the signal arrives at either the line or
mic input of a channel; you should not plug into both at once. If using the mic input
with a condenser microphone, the rear-panel PHANTOM switch will be turned on
to provide phantom power (after the mics have all been plugged in). Next we come
to the gray TRIM knob, which is used to set the initial level of the signal. It is
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Guided Tour
important to set this level properly, since high levels could lead to distortion and
levels set too low will cause noise (see Setting Levels).
Channel and Monitor source select switches: Each channel has its own FADER
SOURCE SELECT switch, under the TRIM control, and MONITOR 1/2 SOURCE
SELECT switch above the MONITOR 1/2 PAN control. These two switches are
completely independent.
•
If both switches are up, the TAPE INPUTS can be heard through the
MONITOR 1/2 controls, while the MIC/LINE input appears at the main
channel controls. This is the position normally used for tracking and
overdubbing.
•
If both switches are down, the tape returns are on the main channel while the
MIC/LINE input appears at the monitor controls. This is the position normally
used for mixdown (with the main channel assigned to L/R) or for bouncing tracks
(with the main channel assigned to the appropriate Group or Groups).
•
If the FADER SOURCE switch is up and the MONITOR SOURCE switch is
down, MIC/LN is chosen for both. This is the position that would be used if
MON 1/2 is going to be used for a pre-fader stage monitoring mix.
The equalizer
EQ section: The EQ section affects only the signal on the Channel fader, not the
signal of the monitor section. An EQ IN switch allows you to hear the signal “flat”
with no EQ at the touch of a button. Once the fader source has been chosen, and the
EQ IN switch is down, signal will flow through the green knobs in the EQ section.
The EQ has three bands: the Hi & Lo EQ, and the fully-parametric Mid EQ. The
Hi & Lo EQ are shelving-type EQs, with 12 kHz and 80 Hz shelving points and an
adjustable boost or cut of ±15 dB. These act much like the bass and treble knobs
found on most audio equipment: the “12 o’clock” position has no effect, and you turn
to the right to get more of the frequencies and to the left to cut them.
The Mid EQ has three knobs: one to set the amount of boost or cut, one to select the
frequency you want to control (adjustable from 150 Hz to 15 kHz), and a “Q” or
bandwidth control. The Q control adjusts how wide an area around the selected
frequency should be cut or boosted, allowing you to be extremely specific about how
you tailor your sound.
To avoid low-end rumble and noise, turn on the 75 Hz high-pass filter, which
removes frequencies below 75 Hz at a rate of 18 dB per octave. The 75 HZ switch
has this effect even if the EQ IN switch is off.
Fader and assignment section
Channel controls: Finally, at the bottom of each channel we find the channel’s
fader, PAN knob, SOLO and MUTE buttons, PEAK and -20 LEDs, and a set of buttons
that let you determine the channel routing, i.e., where it’ll go to. The assignment
switches can route the channel’s signal to any of the four Groups and to the L/R
Master.
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Guided Tour
Group mix: Once signals are routed to the Group section, you can use the GROUP
FADERS to determine the total volume of all channels assigned there. In the
studio, the Group output usually is connected to the inputs of a multitrack recorder,
such as the Alesis ADAT. But in live performance applications, the Group Out
jacks may be used to feed other amplifiers, broadcast feeds or even other mixers.
Some engineers even use the Groups for extra effect sends.
Subgrouping: During mixdown or in PA applications, the Groups may be
“subgrouped” or assigned to the L/R Main mix, using the TO L/R buttons above the
GROUP FADERS. so that the Group Master faders can be used to adjust the volume
of several different inputs at once, such as multiple channels of drums or vocals.
L/R master: Every input may be routed to the main left and right outputs, either
directly or via a Group Master or the Monitor Link to L/R.
Monitor 1/2 section
In multitrack recording, once signal goes from the Group Outputs to the recorder, it
comes back to the tape inputs. The TAPE IN jack has no trim control of its own; it is
designed to handle the balanced or unbalanced line levels that all multitrack
recorders generate. Each channel features an in-line monitor which selects either
the tape return or the mic/line input source for the MONITOR 1/2 mix. The
MONITOR 1/2 mix has its own MASTER LEVEL control and may be heard in
several different ways:
•
•
•
•
From its own output jacks connected to an external headphone amplifier
the HEADPHONE jacks of the Studio 32, with the SOURCE switch down
in the Control Room mix, with the MON 1/2 switch down
in the L/R mix, if the LINK TO L/R switch is down
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Guided Tour
Aux Send/Return System
Aux sends
In the center of each channel module are the blue knobs that make up the Auxiliary
Send section, which allows the signal to be routed to outboard signal processing
equipment. There are two Aux knobs in each channel, but there are four different
Auxiliary Masters and outputs. Since some people will use the Monitor section as an
auxiliary send, it’s numbered 1/2, and the other auxes are numbered 3 through 6.
Both Aux Sends of any channel may be sent to Aux 3/4, or to Aux 5/6 by using the
switch in the middle of the knobs: this is the AUX ASSIGN switch and it affects
both knobs in the channel. The upper Aux knob has a unique capability: by pressing
the AUX 3(5) SOURCE switch it can select either the Channel’s signal or the
Monitor’s signal to send to Aux 3/5. In the Master section you’ll find master level
controls for all four Aux Sends.
Stereo Aux Returns
The Stereo Aux Returns, found near the top of the master section, are extra input
channels designed for routing the signals back from signal processing equipment.
Aux Returns can be thought of as very basic line input channels. The gray LEVEL
knobs control how much effect will be added to the mix, either while tracking or
mixing down. The purple MON 1/2 knobs control how much effect will be sent to the
monitor section so you can hear it in the headphone or control room mix,
independently of the amount going to the multitrack or stereo mix.
If you are using a MIDI system with several keyboards, each with stereo signals,
you can alternatively use the Stereo Aux Returns as additional line inputs. This is
especially useful for keyboards that provide their own on-board signal processing,
and therefore do not need to be routed to the other Aux Sends.
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Guided Tour
Control Room System
The SOLO switches in each channel, along with the Control Room switches and
Headphone section, make up the Control Room system of the Studio 32. This is the
engineer’s mix. It allows you to audition the different mixes that are going on at
any given time and to hear individual inputs when needed, all without disturbing
the other mixes that are going to the musicians, the PA system or recorder. It also
controls the stereo meter display.
Normally, the CONTROL ROOM OUT jacks are connected directly to the inputs of
a stereo amplifier such as the Alesis RA-100, which power a set of near-field
monitors such as the Alesis Monitor One or Point Seven reference monitors mounted
within a few feet of the console.
Control Room source
The Control Room can selectively monitor the Main outputs (L/R), MONITOR 1/2,
the Aux mixes, the Group mixes, or an external mixdown tape deck. The lowest
switch which is pressed will be the source; if no switches are down, the L/R mix
will be heard. Press the MONO button when you want to hear how a mix will
sound in a single speaker; this will help you avoid phase cancellation problems.
The Headphone outputs may receive signal either from MONITOR 1/2, or the same
signal that the Control Room is hearing.
Solo/PFL
Regardless of what’s chosen as the control room source, if any of the twenty SOLO
buttons are pressed anywhere on the console, the solo mix automatically becomes
the control room source. Because there are so many solo buttons, we make it easy for
you to find the one that’s “taken over” by turning on a green LED over the SOLO
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Guided Tour
switch. (When SOLO is not in use, these green LEDs will flash in response to input
level, but they won’t turn on solid.) There’s also a master solo LED that shows you
when the solo system is active.
Like all mixes in the Studio 32, the solo system has its own MASTER control, which
is used to adjust the level feeding the Control Room knob. Right below that is the
SIP/PFL switch, which is a source-select switch for the entire solo system. When
the switch is up, the solo source is SIP (for Solo-In-Place). This is the traditional
“stereo solo” position that puts the soloed signal in the mix at the same volume and
pan position as it is when the solo system is off. When the switch is down, the solo
source is PFL (for Pre-Fade Listen), which allows you to hear what the channel
source is in the control room, even if the fader is down, muted, or not assigned. The
advantage of PFL is that you can use it to check signals before bringing them into
the main mix (for example, to cue up a tape for playback or check to see what
microphone is plugged in).
In either SIP or PFL mode, the SOLO switches of the Studio 32 are
“nondestructive”, meaning that they never affect any other mix than the Control
Room mix.
Meters
Generally, whatever you’re hearing in the Control Room is what’s being displayed
on the L/R meters, including SOLO/PFL. Any channels that are soloed will appear
on both the left and right meters. In PFL mode, this is a good way to set the TRIM
level for the proper headroom. (See page Error! Bookmark not defined. for more
about using the meters.)
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Hooking It Up
CHAPTER 3:
HOOKING IT UP
Unpacking and Inspection
Your Studio 32 was packed carefully at the factory, and the container was designed
to protect the unit during shipping. Please retain this container in the highly
unlikely event that you need to return the Studio 32 for servicing.
Upon receiving the Studio 32, carefully examine the shipping carton and its
contents for any sign of physical damage that may have occurred in transit. If you
detect any damage, do not destroy any of the packing material or the carton, and
immediately notify the carrier of a possible claim for damage. Damage claims
must be made by you. Contact your Alesis dealer.
The shipping carton should contain the following items:
•
•
•
•
•
✪
This instruction manual and a quick reference sheet
Alesis Studio 32 with the same serial number as shown on shipping carton
A pair of rack rails with screws to mount them to the side panels
AC Power Cable
Alesis warranty card and other literature
It is important to register your purchase; if you have not already filled out your
warranty card and mailed it back to Alesis, please take the time to do so now.
Installing in a Rack
The Studio 32 may be simply set on a table, or installed in a standard 19” audio
equipment rack. To rack mount the Studio 32, simply attach the provided rack ears
to each side using the screws provided. If you wish to save rack space, you may
remove the hand rest below the faders:
1.
2.
✪
Remove the screw holding the plastic end caps to the sides of the hand rest.
Remove the end caps.
Remove the four screws attaching the hand rest to the front panel.
Make sure you leave enough space at the top of any rack installation for the cables
which must be plugged into the back panel. By using right-angle plugs, this may be
kept to a single rack space if needed.
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Hooking It Up
Power
Make sure you read the initial Important Safety Instructions chapter at the front of
this manual.
The Studio 32 works with a single standard line voltage and comes with a
detachable AC line cord suitable for the destination to which the mixing console is
shipped. Units sold in the United States are designed for use with 110 to 120 volt
AC power only (nominal 60 Hz).
The line cable cable is a IEC-spec AC power cable (do not substitute any other AC
cord), which is designed to be connected to an outlet that includes three pins, with
the third, round pin connected to ground. The ground connection is an important
safety feature designed to keep the chassis of electronic devices such as the Studio
32 at ground potential. Unfortunately, the presence of a third pin does not always
indicate that an outlet is properly grounded. You may use an AC line tester to
determine this. If the outlet is not grounded, consult with a licensed electrician.
When AC currents are suspected of being highly unstable in VAC and Hz, a
professional power conditioner should be used.
To connect power to the Studio 32:
1
Attach the female end of the AC power cord to the Studio 32’s back panel and
the male end to a good quality, noise-free AC power source of the proper rating.
2
To apply power to the Studio 32, switch on the POWER switch on the back
panel, so that it is in the | (on) position.
Do not operate any electrical equipment with ungrounded outlets. Plugging the
Studio 32 into an ungrounded outlet, or “lifting” the unit off ground with a three-totwo wire adapter, can create a hazardous condition.
Alesis cannot be responsible for problems caused by using the Studio 32 or any
associated equipment with improper AC wiring.
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Hooking It Up
Avoiding ground loop noise
In today’s studio, where it seems every piece of equipment has its own computer
chip inside, there are many opportunities for ground loop problems to occur. These
show up as hums, buzzes or sometimes radio reception and can occur if a piece of
equipment “sees” two or more different paths to ground. While there are methods to
virtually eliminate ground loops and stray radio frequency interference, most of the
professional methods are expensive and involve installing a separate power source
just for the sound system. Alternatively, here are some easy helpful hints that a
professional studio installer might use to keep those stray hums and buzzes to a
minimum.
1
KEEP ALL ELECTRONICS OF THE SOUND SYSTEM ON THE SAME AC
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT. Most stray hums and buzzes happen as a result of
different parts of the sound system being plugged into outlets of different AC
circuits. If any noise generating devices such as air conditioners, refrigerators,
neon lights, etc., are already plugged into one of these circuits, you then have a
perfect condition for stray buzzes. Since most electronic devices of a sound
system don’t require a lot of current (except for power amplifiers), it’s usually
safe to run a multi-outlet box or two from a SINGLE wall outlet and plug in all
of the components of your system there.
2
KEEP AUDIO WIRING AS FAR AWAY FROM AC WIRING AS POSSIBLE.
Many hums come from audio cabling being too near AC wiring. If a hum occurs,
try moving the audio wiring around to see if the hum ceases or diminishes. If
it’s not possible to separate the audio and AC wiring in some instances, make
sure that the audio wires don’t run parallel to any AC wire (they should only
cross at right angles, if possible).
3
TO ELIMINATE HUM IF THE ABOVE HAS FAILED:
A) Disconnect the power from all outboard devices and tape machines except
for the Studio 32 mixer and control room monitor power amp.
B ) Plug in each tape machine and outboard effects device one at a time. If
possible, flip the polarity of the plug of each device (turn it around in the
socket) until the quietest position is found.
C) Make sure that all of the audio cables are in good working order. Cables
with a detached ground wire will cause a very loud hum!!
D) Keep all cables as short as possible, especially in unbalanced circuits.
If the basic experiments don’t uncover the source of the problem, consult your dealer
or technician trained in proper studio grounding techniques. In some cases, a “star
grounding” scheme must be used, with the Studio 32 at the center of the star
providing the shield ground on telescoping shields, which do NOT connect to the
chassis ground of other equipment in the system.
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Hooking It Up
Channel Inputs and Outputs
Each of the 16 channel modules on the Studio 32 contains an XLR balanced MIC IN
connector, a 1/4" TRS balanced LINE IN jack, a 1/4" TRS balanced TAPE IN jack, a
balanced 1/4" TRS DIRECT OUT jack, and a 1/4" TRS INSERT jack. Here are more
detailed descriptions of each of these, and what they should be connected to.
Mic Inputs
The MIC IN of each channel is a standard female XLR-3 connector. The cable
wiring is illustrated below:
Balanced Mic Input
2
Hot
1
Ground
3
Cold
Socket (female)
The MIC Input is designed to accept a wide range of balanced or unbalanced low
impedance input signals. Each input can provide the +48 volts necessary for
phantom-powered microphones on pins 2 and 3; this may be turned on and off with
the PHANTOM switch.
Avoid connecting a mic while the fader is up and phantom power is on.
Do not connect a microphone and a line input to the same channel.
Line Inputs
The LINE IN of each channel is a 1/4" jack which will accept balanced or
unbalanced line-level sources.
“Line level” means that signals are typically in the 1/3 of a volt to 2-volt range,
such as the output of synthesizers, keyboards, CD players, etc. This is in contrast to
the much lower levels usually output by microphones (measured in millivolts).
Unbalanced Line Input
Balanced Line Input
Signal
Tip
Hot
Tip
Cold
Ground
Tip
Sleeve
AA
Ground
Tip
Sleeve
Ring
Ring
Sleeve
AA
A
AA
Sleeve
Unlike the low impedance microphone input, this connection provides a high
impedance (>10kΩ) to the input signal, enabling most instruments to be plugged
straight in without direct boxes or external preamplification. While the output of
a standard synthesizer (or other equipment) can be plugged in using a 2-conductor
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Hooking It Up
1/4" plug, balanced line sources may also be connected here using a “stereo” TRS
plug as shown above. Line inputs may also be used for connecting additional effects
returns, where additional post-effect equalization is required.
Do not connect a line input and a microphone to the same channel.
Tape Inputs
The TAPE IN jacks area 1/4" balanced TRS connectors which will accept either
balanced or unbalanced inputs. Usually, you’ll connect the outputs of your
multitrack tape machine here. There is no TRIM control for the tape input; it is
designed to work with +4 dBu (balanced high level) or -10 dBV (unbalanced
medium level) line signals.
Depending on the position of the source switches of a channel, you can hear the tape
input in the main channel, the monitor, or both at once.
Tip: If you don’t have a 16-track studio, you may use extra TAPE IN jacks to connect
to the outputs of any line-level unit such as synthesizers or effects devices.
Direct Outputs
The DIRECT OUT jack on each channel is a balanced 1/4" connector which provides
a direct output of the post-fader channel signal. It is set for a unity-gain output, so
it can drive either +4 dBu or -10 dBV devices depending on the setting of the TRIM
control and the fader. If you want to record a single source to a track of tape, connect
this to the inputs of your multitrack tape recorder, or for any other application
where you need a direct output. (The other option is to connect the Group Out jacks
to the recorder, as explained on page 31.)
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Hooking It Up
Insert
The INSERT connector is a TRS 1/4" jack which consists of an insert send (the tip of
the TRS plug) and an insert return (the ring of a TRS plug), and is used to insert an
outboard effects device (such as a compressor, EQ, or chorus) directly into the signal
path of only one channel: the channel it is connected to (as opposed to the Aux
system, which combines many different channels into an effect). For details on this,
see page Error! Bookmark not defined..
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Hooking It Up
Master Inputs and Outputs
Along the top of the back panel above the master section of the Studio 32 you’ll find
most of the connectors that provide the outputs of the console: two 1/4” MAIN OUT
connectors (plus two MAIN INSERT jacks), and four 1/4" GROUP OUT connectors.
The CONTROL ROOM OUT jacks are under the power connector. See the next
chapter “Effects and Signal Processing” for information about the Auxiliary
Outputs.
Main Outputs
The left and right MAIN OUT jacks are two balanced TRS 1/4" jacks which
provide the primary stereo mix of the Studio 32. These are normally connected to
the inputs of a mixdown tape machine or a PA system amplifier.
Main Inserts
These are two TRS 1/4" jacks, each of which consists of an insert send (the tip of the
TRS plug) and an insert return (the ring of a TRS plug). One is for the left channel
and one is for the right channel of the stereo mix. They are used to insert a outboard
stereo effects device (such as a compressor, limiter, reverb or EQ) directly into the
main signal path, before the fader. A special Y-cable (stereo 1/4" plug to two mono
1/4" plugs, as shown on page Error! Bookmark not defined.) is required.
Group Outputs
The GROUP OUTPUTS are balanced 1/4" connectors which are usually connected to
the inputs of a multitrack tape machine. If you want to send a mix of several
channels to a single track, you’ll use a Group Output. (The DIRECT OUT jacks can
only send one source to one track.)
Other uses for Group Outputs: In certain applications, such as video postproduction, a pair of Group Outputs may be used to provide a different mix than the
Main Outputs, such as a mix containing music and effects but minus the dialog.
Group Outs may also be used as a feed to an effect device, a separate section of a PA
system, or for a surround sound encoder.
Using four groups for eight tracks: Alesis ADAT recorders have normalling input
features, which allow you to record on tracks 5-8 without repatching, even when
the mixer output is connected only to tracks 1-4. There’s more about this later in
this manual, and in the ADAT manual as well.
Control Room Outputs
These outputs consist of two balanced TRS 1/4" jacks for the left and right signals
coming from the Control Room Select switch. Normally, you’ll connect these to the
inputs of the amplifier for your control room monitor speakers. The signal level is
controlled by the CONTROL ROOM knob.
2 Track Inputs
These balanced 1/4" jacks are intended for the outputs of a mixdown tape machine,
so you can hear it in the control room output without using up an input. This allows
you to playback your mix without repatching.
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Hooking It Up
Stereo Aux Returns
The STEREO AUX RETURNS are eight balanced 1/4" line input jacks that are most
often used to connect to the stereo outputs of four external effect units. However,
these may also be used as additional inputs for stereo sound modules, samplers or
synthesizers, if desired.
Monitor and Auxiliary Outputs
The MONITOR and AUXILIARY OUTPUTS are six balanced 1/4" jacks which feed
the signals from Monitor 1/2 and Aux 3-6. MON 1 and 2 are pre-fader, and are ideal
for feeding a headphone amp for musicians in the studio to monitor themselves and
other tracks already recorded onto tape. However, depending on your studio
hookup, you may find it more flexible to connect headphones to the jacks on the top
panel, which may be switched to receive the MONITOR 1/2 signal or the Control
Room mix. Aux 3 - 6 are post-fader, and are normally connected to the inputs of
outboard effects devices, like reverbs and digital delays.
Headphones
The headphone connectors (found on the upper right side of the console) are stereo
1/4" jacks which can drive most headphones. The signal level is controlled by the
PHONES knob. The wiring scheme is shown below; most headphones label which
side is left and right.
Headphones
Left Signal
Right Signal
Ground
Tip
Tip
Ring
Ring
Sleeve Sleeve
Tip
Ring
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Hooking It Up
Chart of Connections
The Studio 32 may be easily interfaced with most other professional recording and
audio equipment. All inputs and outputs, with the exception of the microphone
inputs, use 1/4" jacks, and may be used with balanced or unbalanced circuits. The
microphone inputs are standard balanced XLR type jacks.
Input
Mic Inputs
Line Inputs
DIRECT OUT (Direct)
Tape In
Inserts
Aux Sends
Aux Returns
Group Outs
Main L/R Outs
Main Inserts
Control Room Outs
2 TRACK IN
Headphone
Studio 32 Reference Manual
Connector
Type
XLR
1/4" TRS
1/4" Mono
1/4" TRS
1/4" TRS
1/4" Mono
1/4" Mono
1/4" Mono
1/4" TRS
1/4" TRS
1/4" TRS
1/4" Mono
1/4" TRS
Balanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced or Balanced
Unbalanced
33
Hooking It Up
Connecting to an Unbalanced -10 dBV
Multitrack Recorder
Interfacing the Studio 32 with a typical multitrack recorder using semiprofessional
unbalanced phono or 1/4" phone jacks is a simple process. Alternatively, if you are
using one or more ADATs, it is recommended that you use the balanced inputs and
outputs using the ELCO-type connector on the ADAT (see next page).
To interface with a typical unbalanced multitrack recorder:
1
Connect any microphones or instruments to be recorded into the MIC or LINE
INPUTS of channels 1 through 16.
2
Connect the four GROUP OUTs to the corresponding tape tracks by using either
1/4"-to-RCA cables or 1/4"-to-1/4" cables. Alternatively, you may decide to
connect individual channel DIRECT OUT jacks to the track you want to record,
but this will require you to repatch every time you want to record a different
channel on that track of the recorder.
3
Connect the tape machine’s outputs to the TAPE IN jacks of the same-numbered
channels of the Studio 32. Whenever you want to hear the playback of the
machine, track 1 will appear at the FADER SOURCE and MONITOR SOURCE
switches of channel 1, track 2 will appear at channel 2, and so on.
Connecting your recorder(s) at the -10 dBV unbalanced level can yield good results,
provided that the cables between the multitrack and the Studio 32 are no more
than 20 feet long. If cable runs must be longer than that, or if your studio has noise
and grounding problems, we recommend a +4 dBu balanced hookup if possible (see
next page).
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Hooking It Up
Connecting to a Professional +4 dBu
Multitrack Recorder
Professional recorders typically feature 3-pin XLR connectors on their inputs and
outputs. ADATs feature a multipin ELCO connector that takes care of all the
channels (8 inputs, 8 outputs) on a single connector. The nominal signal level of
these units is +4 dBu (1.23 volts). In either case, connect these decks to the TAPE IN
jacks, not the MIC IN XLR jacks.
ADAT: The best method for connecting an ADAT is to purchase an ELCO-to-TRS
multipair cable, available from many different cable manufacturers. This will
connect from the ELCO-type connector on the ADAT on one end, fanning out to
sixteen tip-ring-sleeve quarter-inch phone plugs (labeled INPUT 1, OUTPUT 1 and
so on) on the other end. This method assures full-balanced outputs from the ADAT
to the TAPE IN jacks. The connection from the Studio 32’s GROUP or DIRECT OUT
jacks to the ADAT’s inputs will also be balanced. The GROUP and DIRECT OUTS
have plenty of headroom, with a maximum balanced output of +27 dBu before
mixer distortion (although the ADAT’s own maximum is +19 dBu). Balanced cables
between the recorder and the mixer can be very long, if necessary, without adding
noise.
XLRs: If you have a video or old analog deck with XLR inputs and outputs, you will
need:
•
An XLR female to 1/4" TRS cable for each output of the tape recorder; and,
Sleeve (Ground)
Pin 2 (+)
Pin 1 (Ground)
Tip (+)
Ring (-)
Pin 3 (-)
•
An XLR male to 1/4"TRS cable for each send to the tape recorder.
This arrangement will give you a balanced connection for recording and playback in
most cases. However, some recorders with XLRs may not be truly balanced, with
pin 2 or 3 (depending on vintage) tied to ground, which may cause a ground loop.
Also, depending on the characteristics of the deck, metering levels may not match
between the deck and the Studio 32.
You may need to increase the Studio 32’s fader level in order to get enough level on
the multitrack’s meters. Some multitracks have high/low level input switches;
follow the manufacturer’s instructions on setting these properly.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Hooking It Up
Connecting to a 2-Track Mixdown Deck
The mixdown deck is where everything comes together: the final mix. This is your
stereo master recording of the finished project (or a rough mix of a work in progress).
A special pair of inputs of the Studio 32 are provided to hear the mixdown deck in
the Control Room mix only. If you connect the mixdown deck to regular line inputs,
you run the risk of feedback by accidentally recording the output of the 2-track to
itself.
To connect the mixdown deck to the Studio 32:
Unbalanced connection:
1 Connect the Studio 32’s MAIN OUTS Left and Right to the inputs of the
Mixdown Deck using the appropriate cables (usually 1/4” phone to “RCA”
phono).
Note that the nominal output of the MAIN OUT in unbalanced operation is -2
dBu, about 6 dB “hotter” than the nominal level of an unbalanced mixdown
deck. Lower the input level controls of the mixdown deck to achieve the desired
signal level, or lower the L/R master fader a little to compensate.
2
Connect the Mixdown Deck’s outputs to the Studio 32’s 2 TRACK IN Left/Right
Inputs using 2-conductor cables (usually phono-to-phone cables) or adapters.
Balanced connection:
If the mixdown deck has XLR outputs, make or purchase XLR-to-TRS phone
plug adapters or cables, with pin 1 connected to the sleeve, pin 2 connected to
the tip, and pin 3 to the ring. The phone plugs will always be male; 2 XLRs
will be female and 2 will be male. (The convention is that XLRs always point
in the direction of signal flow, so the mixdown deck’s outputs are male and the
inputs are female).
1
Connect a 1/4" TRS (3-conductor) -to-XLR male cable from the MAIN OUT L/R
jacks to the XLR inputs of the mixdown deck.
2
The 2 TRACK IN jacks of the Studio 32 are TRS balanced, and will accept +4
dBu balanced sources. Connect the output of the mixdown deck to these jacks.
In the rare event that the 2-track has balanced 1/4” jacks, use TRS-to-TRS
cables in place of XLRs.
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Hooking It Up
Connecting to a Control Room amplifier
Connect the Studio 32’s Control Room L & R Outs to the inputs of the amplifier used
for the control room monitor speakers. The CONTROL ROOM knob on the Studio 32
controls the level of the control room monitor speakers.
Note: These jacks are also TRS balanced. You may use unbalanced 2-conductor
cables if the power amp doesn’t have balanced inputs. If the amp features XLR
inputs, use a TRS 3-conductor phone-to-XLR-male cable.
Connecting to a Headphone Amp
Monitor 1 and 2 may be used to set up a separate cue mix for musicians to overdub to
while listening to headphones. Connect the AUXILIARY OUTPUTS MON 1 and 2
to a suitable headphone amplifier, if you will use the monitor section separately.
Tip: If you’d like your studio headphones to switch between MONITOR 1/2 and
the Control Room mix, the HEADPHONE OUTS may be connected to an amplifier’s
inputs using a tip-ring-sleeve stereo splitter cable (the same type used for Insert
cables). This also may be used for a second set of Control Room or studio playback
monitors. Just keep the PHONES level control at 2 o’clock or less.
Connecting to a Patchbay
It may be easier in some installations to access everything by the use of a patchbay,
which is several rows of jacks that are permanently connected to both the inputs
and the outputs of the Studio 32, the multitrack tape machine, and all of the
outboard equipment. This is much more convenient, but a more expensive method
than described in the last section, and is not absolutely necessary for operation. In
this case, the patching is the same as in the previous example except that it is now
done on the patchbay instead of at the rear of the console and multitrack tape
machine.
With a patchbay, it is also easier to make use of the AUX SENDS and RETURNS
of the Studio 32. Different effects may be repatched to receive signal from
whatever Aux Send the session requires.
For information on connecting to effects, see the next chapter.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
37
Hooking It Up
Studio 32 Reference Manual
38
Effects and Signal Processing
CHAPTER 4:
EFFECTS AND SIGNAL
PROCESSING
Connecting Aux Sends and Returns to
Outboard Effects
Aux Sends 3 through 6 are derived post-fader, which means that any changes in
level in the fader will also cause a change in level at these as well. The
Auxiliaries are normally used as effects sends and are connected to whatever
outboard effects that are available (reverbs, chorus, multi-effects processors,
delays) to be blended into the mix.
Before you connect the Aux Sends, consider where you want the signals to come from:
•
•
•
All Auxes can receive signal from the channel fader if desired.
Alternatively, Auxes 3 and 5 can receive signal from the Monitor.
Auxes 3 and 5 can receive signals from Faders and Monitors from different
channels simultaneously, if desired.
Note: If you want to use a separate effect on each channel, use the INSERT jacks, not
the Aux Sends (see next section).
To connect the Aux Sends and Stereo Aux Returns to outboard effects:
1
Connect the Aux Sends (AUX 3, AUX 4, AUX 5, AUX 6) to the input or inputs of
your outboard effects devices (like the Alesis QuadraVerb 2 or Midiverb 4). See
the next page for more information about using stereo inputs (or not).
2
Connect the Outputs of these effects devices back into the Studio 32’s dedicated
inputs, called STEREO AUX RETURNS. There are eight 1/4" STEREO AUX
RETURN connectors (labeled in pairs as A, B, C, D as on the front panel),
enough for 4 stereo, 8 mono, or any combination of mono and stereo devices.
You can use any Aux Returns you wish; but most people connect the outputs of the
unit being fed by Aux Send 3 into Stereo Aux Return A, plug the unit fed by Aux Send
4 into Stereo Aux Return B, and so on. The only difference between the Returns is
what groups they can be assigned to. Returns A and B may be assigned to Groups
1/2, and Returns C and D may be assigned to Groups 3/4. All Aux Returns can be sent
to the L/R Main mix, which is the most common assignment for effect returns.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
39
Effects and Signal Processing
Should you use one or two inputs to effects?
✪
If your effect unit has two inputs, in most cases you only need to connect from ONE
Aux Send to the LEFT (mono) INPUT of the effect unit, but you will still connect
both the LEFT and RIGHT OUTPUTS of the effect to the Stereo Aux Return.
You may not need to connect anything to the right input of the effect, since many
effect units use it only if the effect is connected directly between an instrument and
an amplifier. In most mixing applications, you will set the effect’s wet/dry balance
all the way to wet. The effect device will generate an artificial stereo output from
the signal input. Check the manual for your effect device for more information.
On the other hand, true dual-channel effects processors (such as the Alesis Wedge
and QuadraVerb 2) should be connected to two different sends to take advantage of
the dual processing capability.
Using MONITOR 1/2 as effects sends
Note that Mon 1 and 2 can also be used as extra effect sends while mixing.
Although Mon 1 and 2 are pre-fader, and normally used for monitoring while
recording, they are perfectly suitable as effect sends, especially during mixdown,
when you will want to maximize your ability to add effects to independent
channels. Just remember that when you move a FADER up or down you won’t be
changing the level going to the effect via MON 1/2, since “pre-fader” means that
they are independent of fader movement (the signal is not affected by the
Studio 32 Reference Manual
40
Effects and Signal Processing
Channel’s MUTE button, either). As you change fader levels, you may need to make
corresponding adjustments to MON 1 and 2 in order to maintain the desired balance
between dry and effected signal.
Using Aux Returns for extra line inputs
The four Stereo Aux Returns also serve well as additional inputs, in case you run out
of Channels. These are especially good for connecting the outputs of stereo
keyboards, many of which provide on-board signal processing and do not require
any equalization.
Using Effects
Effects such as reverb, chorus and delay are typically wired in a loop from an
Auxiliary Send to a Stereo Aux Return (see the illustration on page Error!
Bookmark not defined.). There are two basic stages to getting a low-noise,
distortion-free signal flow from an effect device:
SEND
Adjust the send level from the Studio 32 to the effect device using the channel
Aux Sends, the AUXILIARY MASTER, and the input controls of the effect
device itself. This level should be as strong as possible without clipping the
effect device, and without extreme settings on either the mixer or the effect.
RETURN
Assign the Stereo Aux Return to the destinations you want:
•
To hear effects in the headphone mix, raise the purple MON 1/2 controls in
the Stereo Aux Return section.
•
To hear effects in the control room or record them onto the mixdown deck,
press the L/R assignment switch.
•
To record effects onto the multitrack tape deck, press a GRP switch. Aux
Returns A and B can send to GRP 1/2, and Aux Returns C and D can send to
GRP 3/4.
Most complaints of “noisy effects” are due to send levels that are too low and return
levels that are too high. You must structure the gain properly between the Studio
32 and the effect device.
Selecting an Aux Send:
First, you must decide which Auxiliary Sends to use. There are four post-fader sends
from the Studio 32, labeled Aux 3 through Aux 6 because MON 1/2 is considered a
special type of auxiliary send.
•
To send a signal to the effect device from the monitor section, press the AUX
SOURCE button down. This selects the post-monitor fader signal as the source
of the AUX 3(5) knob directly below the switch. In a typical installation, Aux
3 is used for effect sends from the monitor.
•
To send a signal to the effect device from the channel, use AUX 4 or AUX 6. The
signal source for the lower AUX control always comes from the channel fader.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
41
Effects and Signal Processing
In a typical installation, Aux 4 is used for effect sends from the channel.
•
To send signal from the monitor and the channel to the same effect device(s),
press the AUX SOURCE button down and press the TO 5/6 switch. Use AUX 5
and 6 for a combined effect send.
To set the level going to the effects device:
1
Set the Aux Send(s) in the input module to about “2 o’clock.”
2
Start the signal source(s); i.e., play the tape or instrument at typical levels.
3
Raise the appropriate AUXILIARY MASTER to about “2 o’clock.”
To check the output level, select AUX 3/4 or AUX 5/6 as the Control Room
Source, and set the Aux Master to a setting that gives an average meter reading
of “0 dB” on the L/R meter.
4
Raise the input control of the effects device until its meter or clip LED shows
peak level, then lower the input control a bit. Consult the manual for the effect
device for more information.
Some effect devices have level setting switches on the back; these should be set
so that a peak level can be reached with reasonable settings (neither too high
nor too low) of the input control.
To set the level coming FROM the effects device:
In most cases, the output level of the effect device itself should be set relatively
high, at nominal or maximum. Lower the output of the device only if the meter
keeps the +10 LED on when the Stereo Aux Return is soloed, or if the effect levels
are too loud even at low settings of the Stereo Aux Return LEVEL controls.
To hear effects in the control room monitors:
It’s possible to put effects into the monitor or headphone mix without recording
them to the multitrack.
1
Press the L/R switch of the Stereo Aux Return.
Make sure the GRP 1/2 or GRP 3/4 switches are in the up position. Otherwise,
the signal will be assigned to the group and effects may be sent to the
multitrack recorder.
2
Raise the Stereo Aux Return’s LEVEL control until you hear the desired volume
of effect return.
Remember that you can SOLO the Aux Return to make adjustments to the sound, if
desired, as long as the master solo select switch is in SIP (solo in place) mode (green
solo master LED). You will be hearing the output of the effects device only,
without any “dry” signal coming from the channel.
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Effects and Signal Processing
To hear effects in the headphone/cue mix:
Often while recording, musicians would like to hear some reverb or delay in their
headphone mix. It is possible to meet this need without actually recording the
effect. If you’re using L/R as the cue feed, follow the steps for “control room
monitors” above. If the headphone mix’s source is MON 1/2:
1
Select MON 1/2 as the Control Room source so you can hear what the studio is
hearing.
2
Raise the MON 1/2 control (the purple knobs) of the Stereo Aux Return(s) until
the desired balance is heard.
To record effects onto the multitrack:
In most cases, effects are added at mixdown instead of during tracking and
overdubbing. However, you can “record wet” (with effects) in order to use the same
device for some other effect at mixdown, or because the effect is essential to the
part. To do this, you simply:
1
Assign the Stereo Aux Return to the Group that you’re recording, by pressing the
GRP switch. Returns A and B can be sent to Groups 1 and 2, and Returns C and D
can be sent to Groups 3 and 4. (If this doesn’t fit your needs, you will have to
repatch.)
2
To make sure you’re hearing what’s actually going to tape, make sure the L/R
switch is up, and follow the procedure earlier in this section under “Recording
Multiple Sources.”
If the effect is stereo, it must be recorded onto two tracks. The left Aux Return input
will go to the odd-numbered group (1 or 3) and the right Aux Return input will go to
the even-numbered group (2 or 4).
To record effects onto the mixdown deck:
This procedure is the same as for hearing effects in the control room monitors
described earlier: assign the STEREO AUX RETURNS to L/R and adjust the LEVEL
controls.
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43
Effects and Signal Processing
Connecting Signal Processors to Insert
Jacks
Inserts are used to connect signal processing devices directly into the signal path of
a Channel. Normally, the device connected would be one that shapes the dynamics
or tone of a signal (such as a compressor, gate, or EQ), rather than an effects device
(such as a reverb). It is also possible to insert a stereo signal processor into the
signal path of the MAIN L/R OUTS, using the MAIN INSERT jacks. This is
desirable when either a group of instruments, or the entire mix, needs to be
processed.
All INSERT jacks on the Studio 32 are TRS jacks containing both an output (send)
and an input (return). The tip of the plug is the Send and will be connected to the
Input of the effects device or processor, and the ring of the plug is the Return and
will be connected to the Output of the effects device or processor.
A special Y-cable consisting of a TRS 1/4" plug on one end and two mono 1/4" plugs
on the other end is required. See the illustration below.
Insert Jack
+Tip = Send
Ring
Ring = Return
S lee ve
Sleeve = Ground
(common)
S end
Re turn
G ro und
Tip
Ring
Studio 32 Reference Manual
S lee ve
44
Recording
CHAPTER 5:
M ULTITRACK
RECORDING
APPLICATIONS
Recording
Setting Levels
Your job as operator is to set the audio levels in order to ensure the cleanest signal
with the least amount of background noise (hiss or hum). To do this, it’s important
to set proper levels not only within the Studio 32 itself, but throughout the entire
audio system. Here are some procedures to follow when you’re operating the Studio
32 to achieve a gain structure (the signal level within each part of the system) that
will give you professional results.
Maintain Proper TRIM and Input Levels
To set proper input levels on either a mic or line level signal:
1
With the mic or line level signal flowing through the Channel, depress the
Channel’s SOLO button. If there are any volume controls on the instrument
itself, they should be set to maximum.
2
Set the SOLO SIP/PFL switch to PFL (the MASTER SOLO LED will turn red).
It doesn’t matter if the channel fader is up or assigned to anything at this point.
3
Observe the level on the MASTER LED Meter. Adjust the TRIM knob until the
signal is above 0 (the top green LED) but below the yellow LED (labeled +10).
It’s OK if the top yellow lights during the loudest peaks, but if you ever see the
CHANNEL PEAK LED flash, you are within 5 dB of signal overload. Turn
down the TRIM knob until the PEAK LED stops flashing.
Note: There is no TRIM control for the TAPE IN jack, because it is designed to
handle the full range of inputs generated by modern tape recorders.
Maintain Proper Fader Levels
In typical operation, the Channel, Group and Master FADERS should be run at
about the “0 dB” or “nominal” position. NOTE: that’s about 2/3 of the way up the
channel fader travel, but all the way up on the Group and L/R faders. This position
gives the best balance between maintaining adequate headroom and lowest noise.
It also allows for any additional increase or decrease in level that might be
required during mixing. Ultimately, the channel fader levels are dependent on the
requirements of the mix; the nominal level is only a starting point.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Recording
If a large amount of EQ is used, it may become necessary to decrease either the
TRIM control, or the Channel FADER, or both. The EQ is capable of adding quite a
bit of gain and is a frequent cause of overload distortion problems.
The Studio 32 has been designed with plenty of headroom on the internal summing
amplifiers (23 dB of headroom above a +4 dBu balanced output level). It is only
possible to clip the mixer internally if several channels are at or near their
maximum clipping point (with PEAK indicators flashing) and then sent at
maximum gain to an output. You are in danger of this if:
•
the meter is hitting the top of its range (“PK”) with the GROUP MASTER
FADER set to nominal level, or
•
the GROUP or MASTER FADER is set to -20 or lower, and the meter is
reading 0 dB or above.
Once again, it may be necessary to decrease either the TRIM control, the Channel
FADERS, or both, of each of the Channels assigned to the Group.
Maintain Proper System Levels
As a good rule of thumb, try to run most volume level controls of other equipment
receiving signal from the Studio 32 (amplifiers, effect devices) at 3/4 or 75% of full,
as well. This will decrease the possibility of overload distortion and keep the
amount of background noise to a minimum.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
46
Recording
How to Record a Single Source to One Track
When recording a single source appearing on one Channel onto a single tape track, it
is usually best to use the DIRECT OUT of the Channel. This provides the most
direct connection between the Studio 32 Mixer and the multitrack.
To record a single source to a single track:
1
With a microphone or instrument connected to the desired input channel, set the
TRIM and fader level correctly (see page 45, Setting Levels). Make sure the
channel’s FADER SOURCE switch is up.
2
Connect the channel’s DIRECT OUT to the Input of the desired tape track (see
page Error! Bookmark not defined., Connecting to a Multitrack Recorder).
3
Place the track you want to record into the “source” or “input” mode (usually by
arming the track for recording). At this point, you may see the channel meter of
the recorder respond to the microphone or instrument. Adjust the fader for the
proper recording level.
4
To monitor (listen to) the signal through the multitrack tape machine, make
sure the TAPE/ML switch of MONITOR 1/2 is up and raise the Monitor 1/2
LEVEL of the track being recorded.
Note that this Monitor control may be in a different channel strip, if you’re
recording onto a different-numbered track.
5
✪
✪
To hear MONITOR 1/2 in the control room, raise the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER
control, select MON 1/2 as the control room source (by making sure all other
Control Room Select switches are up), and raise the control room level. To hear
it in the headphones, you may select MON 1/2 directly as the headphone
source.
Be sure the L/R and Group Assign buttons of the Channel being recorded are in the
“Off” position (up). Otherwise, this will cause the monitoring to be false since the
signal will be heard from two sources: the Channel (source) and the Tape Monitor
(return).
NEVER select tape as the source of the channel (by pushing the upper FADER
SOURCE switch down) when the tape recorder is in input or record mode and the
DIRECT OUT is connected to the track input. This will cause feedback, since the
tape will be trying to record its own output.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
47
Recording
Recording Multiple Sources to One Track
When more than one Channel is to be recorded onto the same track of a multitrack
recorder, it is necessary to assign all desired Channels to a Group, and connect the
Group Output jack to the input of the multitrack.
If you’re recording no more than 4 tracks at a time, you may find it easier to use the
Groups even if you’re recording one source per track, since you won’t have to repatch
as you would if you use the Direct Outs.
To record two or more sources to a single track:
✪
1
With microphones or instruments connected to the desired input channels, set
the input level correctly (see page 45, Setting Levels).
2
Assign each of the Channels you wish to record onto the same track to GROUPS
1 and 2 by pressing the 1/2 button situated next to the Channel FADERs.
If you want to record effects or other devices from a Stereo Aux Return, you may
also press the ASSIGN keys in the Stereo Aux Return section.
3
Use the PAN control on each of the assigned Channels to position the signals
either fully to the left or fully to the right. If the panning is fully left, the
Channel will be routed to Group 1. If the panning is fully right, the Channel
will be routed to Group 2.
4
The GROUP FADER will now control the level going to tape. Raise the
GROUP FADER to its maximum position. To check the level of the group on the
Studio 32’s meter, press the GRP 1/2 switch in the control room section.
5
Be sure that the Group’s TO L/R switch is in the “Off” position (up).
Otherwise the signal will be assigned to the Main L/R Output directly, instead
of monitoring what’s coming back from the multitrack via the MONITOR 1/2
section.
6
To monitor the track through the multitrack tape machine, place the tape
machine track you are recording on into record or “input” mode, and raise the
MONITOR 1/2 control the track’s output is connected to.
Be sure the L/R buttons are in the “Off” position (up) for the Channels being
recorded. Otherwise, this will cause the monitoring to be false since the signals
will be heard from two sources: the Channels and MONITOR 1/2.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
48
Recording
Recording Multiple Sources to Two Tracks
(Stereo)
Recording multiple sources onto two tape tracks is simple--you just use two Groups.
Pan hard left all channels going to the odd-number Group, and pan hard right all
channels going to the even-number Group. You can pan each channel to obtain the
proper stereo positioning between left and right.
To record multiple sources to two tracks in stereo:
1
With microphones or instruments connected to the desired input channels, set
the input level correctly (see page 45, Setting Levels).
2
Assign each of the Channels or Aux Returns you wish to record onto the same
track of tape to GROUPS 1 and 2 by pressing the 1/2 button situated next to the
Channel FADER.
3
Use the PAN control on each of the assigned Channels to position the signals as
desired between the left (Group 1) and right (Group 2).
4
The GROUP 1 and GROUP 2 FADERS will now control the levels going to tape.
Raise them to the full up position (0).
5
Be sure that the Groups’ TO L/R buttons are in the “Off” position (up).
Otherwise the signals will be assigned to the Main Output directly, instead of
monitoring what’s coming back from the multitrack on the small fader.
6
To monitor the tracks through the multitrack tape machine, place the tape
machine tracks you wish to record on into the record-ready or “input” mode, and
raise the MONITOR 1/2 LEVEL controls the tracks’ outputs are connected to.
Set the Monitor PAN controls to hard left and right to hear the proper stereo
image in the control room.
If you don’t perform this last step, the main PAN settings you make on the
channels you’re recording in step 3 will be incorrect in the final stereo image.
✪
Be sure the L/R buttons are in the “Off” position (up) for the Channels being
recorded. Otherwise, this will cause the monitoring to be false since the signals
will be heard from two sources: the Channels and the Tape Monitors.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
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Recording
Recording Tips
For the cleanest possible recording, the Group FADERS (or Channel FADERS if the
DIRECT OUTS are being used) should be adjusted so that the level going to tape
averages 0 VU on the meters of a typical analog multitrack tape machine, or peaks
just below MAX or 0 dBFS on a digital multitrack machine such as the Alesis
ADAT.
About Metering
The meters of the Studio 32 are the instantaneous peak reading type, which are
preferred in digital recording where the “ideal” recording level comes close to, but
never exceeds the point where all the bits are filled (called 0 dBfs, for full scale).
Note that “0 dB” on the Studio 32’s meters means that the output of the Studio 32 is
at “nominal” level (either +4 dBu balanced or -2 dBu unbalanced, depending on the
connector), as opposed to “0 dB” on a digital recorder like ADAT which means
“maximum” level (+19 dBu balanced, +5 dBV unbalanced) . Peaks well above the
“0 dB” level on the Studio 32’s meters should be common at normal operating levels
for almost all types of tape deck. Analog tape decks typically have between 10 and
13 dB of headroom above the nominal level, depending on the tape type and any
noise reduction being used, and ADAT has 15 dB of headroom above nominal. Other
digital decks have anywhere from 12 to 20 dB of headroom.
Meters of the tape deck will not necessarily match those of the Studio 32 on
dynamic program material. With typical metering, analog VU meters may only
read 0 dB, even though the Studio 32’s peak meters are reading levels between +5
and +10. However, a steady-state tone (such as that from the built-in oscillator)
will read 0 dB on both the Studio 32 and most VU meters. Readings on combined
peak/VU meters, such as those found on semiprofessional multitracks, will vary.
Take the time to learn the relationship between the Studio 32’s meters and your
deck’s meters, using both steady-state tones and dynamic material.
If signal peaks cause the record meter to vary by more than 10 dB, a limiter or
compressor such as the Alesis 3630 Stereo Compressor may be used on that channel
to even out the peaks. In general, things will sound better if the meters remain at
roughly the same level throughout the recording.
The two LED ladder meters of the Studio 32 will follow the Control Room source
switch and SOLO system. Pressing MONO or changing the Control Room Level
control will not affect the meters.
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Recording
Overdubbing
Using MONITOR 1/2 to Monitor the Multitrack
Once you have recorded onto the multitrack tape machine, you’ll need to hear the
playback of those tracks, as you record new tracks in sync with the material
already on tape (see next section, Getting the Mix to Headphones). The signals
coming back from the multitrack tape machine connect to the TAPE IN connectors of
each channel, and during the overdubbing stage you’ll usually hear them via the
MONITOR 1/2 system.
To listen to tape tracks via MONITOR 1/2:
1
Place the tracks of the tape machine you wish to monitor into the “Tape” or
“Playback” position.
2
Make sure the MIC-LINE/TAPE switches above the MONITOR 1/2 PAN pots
are up (TAPE position). Raise the MONITOR 1/2 LEVEL controls being used for
the tape tracks you want to hear.
3
Select MON 1/2 as the Control Room Source and turn the CONTROL ROOM
control up to the desired listening level.
Alternatively, you may select L/R as the Control Room source, and press the
“LINK TO L/R” switch under the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER. This will allow
you to hear other sources from the channel faders if they are assigned to L/R.
4
Play the tape and raise the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER until the peaks of the
signal briefly light the yellow LEDs in the meters.
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Recording
Using the Channel Faders to Monitor the Multitrack
If you’re only recording a few inputs at a time, you may want to use a different
technique for monitoring. Monitoring on the channel faders gives you a head start
on your mixdown, and also allows you to start using the parametric EQ. Another
advantage of using the L/R mix for monitoring in the control room is that it frees
the MONITOR 1/2 mix to provide an independent mix for musicians’ headphones.
Keep in mind, however, that you will not be able to record any Mic or Line source
that’s plugged into a channel being used to monitor a tape return.
To listen to tape tracks on the Channel faders:
1
On the multitrack, set the tracks you want to monitor into playback mode
(Record switched OFF).
2
Make sure the Group Assign 1-4 switches of the tracks you want to hear are all
UP (off).
3
Press the FADER SOURCE switch at the top of the channel (below TRIM) down
(to the TAPE position), for all tape tracks you want to hear. This makes the
tape input jack the source of the large Channel FADER. Note: to avoid
confusion, make sure you’re not simultaneously monitoring the tape return via
MONITOR 1/2 in the same channel.
4
Assign the tape track channels to L/R (the switch lowest on the channel strip).
5
Raise the Channel FADERS being used for the tape tracks you wish to listen to.
6
Raise the L/R MASTER FADER, make sure all CONTROL ROOM SOURCE
switches are UP (L/R) and adjust the CONTROL ROOM settings, as in the
previous section.
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Recording
Once you have the tape tracks returning to the mixer, it is simple to create a cue mix
for the musicians to listen to over headphones while overdubbing. The cue mix is
created using MONITOR 1/2 on the Studio 32, because it is a pre-fader mix that is
independent from all other mixes. Follow the instructions in the previous pages to
get a monitor mix if you have not already done so.
Built-in headphone amp
The simplest solution for headphone monitoring is to simply plug into the
headphone jacks at the upper right hand side of the Studio 32. You may run stereo
extension cables from these jacks; they will power most standard headphones. (If
the phones aren’t loud enough, consider trying some more efficient headphones
with a lower impedance and a closed-cup design.)
The HEADPHONES SOURCE switch may be set to either position:
CR: The headphones will hear exactly what’s heard in the Control Room, as set
by the CONTROL ROOM SOURCE switch. Pressing SOLO will also affect the
headphones. Only the CONTROL ROOM LEVEL pot will not affect the
headphones.
MON 1/2: In this position, the headphones will hear only the MONITOR 1/2 mix,
regardless of how the control room is set.
The HEADPHONES SOURCE switch is usually set to MON 1/2 while tracking and
overdubbing, so the engineer can solo and change things without affecting the
headphone mix. Then, if you want the headphones to hear the 2 track or L/R mix,
set it to the CR position.
Using an external headphone amp
AUXILIARY OUTPUTS 1 and 2 (MON is labeled underneath) may be connected
directly to the inputs of a headphone amplifier (see page Error! Bookmark not
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Recording
defined., Connecting to a Headphone Amp). In this case, the MONITOR 1/2
MASTER control will set the overall level going to the headphones.
Turn down the input controls (if provided) of the headphone amplifier itself so
that average levels from the monitor section (up to +10 on the meter) do not make
the headphones too loud.
Option: You may use a standard “stereo splitter” cable with the TRS 3-conductor
end plugged into the Headphone output jack and connect it to an amplifier, with
the headphone level set to about 12 o’clock.
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Recording
Monitoring MIDI Virtual Tracks
If you are using a MIDI sequencer, the tracks being played “live” from sound
modules in synchronization with the tape are effectively the same as additional
tracks on tape –– which is why they are called “virtual tracks.”
Synthesizers and drum machines are normally plugged into the LINE IN jacks of
the channels, and can be monitored on the Channel FADER or MONITOR 1/2 , using
the procedures above. Since the point of virtual tracks is not to use up a track of
tape, just make sure that when the synthesizer is on the Channel FADER, that its
Group Assign switches are OFF, so it doesn’t get recorded. Assign virtual tracks to
L/R only.
If you are using Monitors and Channels simultaneously for tape return and virtual
track monitoring, the L/R mix should be used for the performers’ headphone mix,
not MON 1/2.
1
Set the Control Room source to L/R (all CR Select buttons up).
2
Press the LINK TO L/R switch. This mixes the MON 1/2 mix onto the L/R buss.
3
Set the HEADPHONES SOURCE switch to CR (up).
4
Set the MONITOR 1/2 SOURCE switches for the channels with virtual tracks
to MIC/LN (down).
5
Set the FADER SOURCE switches to TAPE (down).
6
Set the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER LEVEL control to its nominal position (about “2
o’clock”). Adjust all other levels to taste. If you want to turn all the virtual
tracks up or down in the mix simultaneously, use the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER
LEVEL control.
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Recording
Bouncing Tracks
Sometimes it is necessary to combine several tracks onto another track, particularly
when you are running out of tape tracks. Example: Once you’ve recorded the vocal
harmonies on four different tracks, you could bounce them all over to one track, or
two tracks for a stereo mix, thereby freeing up the original four tracks.
When bouncing tracks, you must control the tape tracks being bounced with the
Channel FADERS, instead of hearing them through MONITOR 1/2. You then route
the signals to a Group which corresponds to the track(s) you wish to bounce to.
Example: If we were bouncing those four vocal tracks to track 5, we would press the
FADER SOURCE button for those channels (TAPE position), route them to Group 1
(which is “normalled” to the input of track 5 on the tape deck), create a desirable
mix, and place track 5 in record. Here’s the recipe:
To bounce tracks to a single track (mono):
1
For each Channel (tape track) you wish to bounce, press the FADER SOURCE
button so it is down.
This selects the TAPE IN jacks as the source of the Channel FADERS.
2
Assign the Channels to Group 1 by pressing the 1/2 button next to the long fader.
Make sure none of these channels is assigned to L/R. Also make sure that no
unwanted channels or Aux Returns are assigned to Group 1/2, and that none are
being heard through the MONITOR 1/2 mix.
3
Turn each Channel’s PAN knob hard left.
This routes the signals to Group 1 only.
4
Place track 5 into record-ready, and adjust the Group 1 MASTER FADER to
maximum.
If you have an ADAT-XT, press and hold ANALOG INPUT and one of the first
four track keys, so that Input 1 will “normal” to Input 5. For other multitrack
recorders, check to see if they have normalling or electronic patching.
5
In the Control Room section, press the GRP 1/2 switch and make sure all other
switches are off.
This will allow you to hear Group 1 in the left Control Room monitor, and bring
it up in the Studio 32’s meter. If you wish, you may press the MONO switch so
it’s in both speakers.
6
Adjust each Channel FADER to achieve a desirable mix.
If necessary, you may adjust the Group Fader down to avoid clipping the tape
track.
7
Rewind the tape, and record onto track 5 those portions you wish to bounce.
8
Tracks 1-4 are now available for recording new parts.
Monitoring through the recorder: Instead of monitoring the GRP 1/2 feed in the
control room, you may want to use MON 1/2, turning off all other monitor level
controls except the track you’re bouncing to (track 5, in this example). This method
ensures that the patching, track arming, and levels are correct.
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Recording
To bounce multiple tracks to two tracks (stereo):
1
For each Channel (tape track) you wish to bounce, press the FADER SOURCE
button so it is down.
This sends the tape tracks to the Channel (long) FADERS.
2
Assign the Channels to Groups 1 and 2 by pressing the 1/2 buttons next to the
channel faders.
3
Raise the Group 1 and Group 2 MASTER FADERS to the maximum position.
4
Place tracks 5 and 6 into record-ready, and select either GRP 1/2 or MON 1/2 as
the Control Room source. If you’re using MON 1/2, turn the monitor pan (the
upper black knob, not the one next to the MUTE key) for track 5 hard left, and
the monitor pan for track 6 hard right.
5
Adjust each Channel’s PAN knob and FADER to achieve a desirable mix.
6
Rewind the tape, and record onto tracks 5 and 6 those portions you wish to
bounce.
7
Tracks 1-4 are now available for recording new parts.
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Recording
Playback/Mixdown
Getting the Mix to the 2-Track Deck
Once you have established a satisfactory mix, it’s time to get it over to the tape
deck. This involves connecting the L/R MAIN OUT jacks to the mixdown tape
deck’s left and right inputs. For more information on connecting the Studio 32 to a
two-track mixdown deck, see page Error! Bookmark not defined..
Assign all Channels, Monitors, Stereo Aux Returns and Groups being used to the L/R
MASTER FADER, by making sure the L/R buttons for each is down. Then create a
mix using the Faders for the selected channels.
✪
Make sure the L/R switches of all unused channels, monitors or aux returns are UP,
to keep the noise floor to a minimum.
Mixdown Basics
Here is a simplified step-by-step way to establish a mix:
1
On the channels where you want to hear tape track, press the FADER SOURCE
switch down. Now the TAPE IN will appear at the channel input.
2
Make sure the channel L/R switches are down. Set the Main L/R fader at full
and raise the channel FADERS being used as tape returns to the desired levels.
3
Add the amount of effects desired by adjusting the AUX levels of each Channel.
If required, adjust the AUX MASTERS to avoid overloading outboard effects.
4
Assign the STEREO AUX RETURNS to L/R.
5
Raise the level of the STEREO AUX RETURNS. For quietest operation with
the greatest amount of headroom, it’s best to run the individual channel AUX
Sends at about the “2 o’clock” level, the AUXILIARY MASTERS at the same
position, and if the effects are too loud, turn down the AUX RETURNS, not the
sends.
6
Adjust the input of the mixdown deck, or if necessary the Master L/R FADER, so
that the desired level is sent to the mixdown tape machine.
7
Press 2 TRACK as the source in the CONTROL ROOM section. This assures
that you are hearing only what is actually reaching the mixdown deck, and
that it is in RECORD mode when you want it to be.
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Recording
Guidelines for a rough mix
Creating a mix is easy; creating a great mix (one that jumps off the tape) is a lot
harder. There are those engineers who are in demand just for mixing because of
their sense of balance between instruments causes the mix to come alive with
excitement. Although outboard effects and tonal adjustments are important, you’d
be surprised at how good a dry (meaning no EQ or effects) mix can be if the balances
between parts are right. When you add effects and EQ, it will sound that much
better.
Since much of the art of mixing is totally subjective and up to the taste of the
engineer, a basic balance between instruments is necessary first before any tonal or
effect enhancements can really become effective. Here’s a method to help you
quickly create a “dependable” mix; one that sounds good no matter what speakers
you mix or play back on. Although our example involves mixing the instruments
found in popular music, this method can be applied to any type of music regardless
of the instruments being used. Note: This is only a reference or starting point. Each
song is unique and calls for different balances.
To create a dependable mix:
1
Begin with all the Channel FADERS in the “-∞ ” (down) position.
2
Set the L/R MASTER FADER to the “0 dB” point (all the way up).
3
Raise the Kick Drum Channel FADER until the LED meters read “-3.”
4
Mute the Kick Drum Channel by switching the MUTE button to the “On” (down)
position, so that the Kick can no longer be heard. DO NOT MOVE THE
FADER! Just mute the Kick Channel.
5
Raise the Snare Drum Channel FADER until the LED meter reads “0.” Mute
the Snare Drum Channel, the same as the Kick.
6
Raise the Hi-Hat Channel FADER until it reads “-12” on the LED meter. If any
cymbals (ride or crashes) occur in the song, set those Channels to “-12.” Mute
the Hi-hat and Cymbals Channels.
7
Raise the Toms Channel FADERS. Set them so that the LED meter indicates
“0.” Mute the Toms Channels.
8
Bring up the Bass Guitar Channel FADER so that the LED meter reads “-6.”
Mute the Bass Channel.
9
Raise the Channel FADERS with the rhythm guitar and/or keyboards so that
the LED meters read “-12,” unless percussion instruments are involved (such as
cowbell, triangle or shaker), in which case the meters should read “-18.” Mute
these Channels.
10 Raise the Channel FADERS with the keyboard pads, strings and/or organ so
that the LED meters read “-24 .” Mute these Channels.
11 Raise the Channel FADERS with the melody and solo instruments (such as
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Recording
lead vocal, solo guitar, etc.) so that the LED meters read “-8.” Mute these
Channels.
12 Raise the Channel FADERS with the background vocals and/or incidental
instruments so that the LED meters read “10.”
13 Unmute all Channels and make balance adjustments as necessary.
The above process can be accomplished very quickly once you get the hang of it.
Usually, it is done at least twice when “getting up” a mix. The first time is without
effects or EQ to see what (if anything) the mix needs. The second time is after all
the effects and EQ have been added.
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Sound Reinforcement
CHAPTER 6:
SOUND REINFORCEMENT
APPLICATIONS
Though the Studio 32 has been designed as a recording console, it makes an excellent
console for live PA applications. It has just as much (if not more) headroom as a PA
console, is more flexible, and has a much more powerful EQ than the typical stereo
PA console.
Creating a mono house mix
Most sound reinforcement applications work best in mono, since so few members of
the audience are seated in the ideal spot to hear the balance of a stereo sound
system effectively. Also, a stereo sound system can be much more difficult to mix.
To configure the Studio 32 mixer in order to achieve a mono mix:
1
Pan all of the Channels fully left (or fully right).
2
A mono mix will now be present at the MAIN OUT L jack (or the MAIN OUT R
jack, if all Channels were panned to the right).
Note that the MONO switches above the GROUP faders may be used to assign the
Group signals to left and right equally, no matter what the pan position is. Follow
the instructions below for subgrouping, making sure that no channel is assigned to
L/R directly. Also note that the MONO switch in the Control Room section only
affects the Control Room output, which usually isn’t used for connections to a PA
system because it is affected by the SOLO switches.
Subgrouping with the Group Faders
The Groups are extremely useful in sound reinforcement work. A Group can be used to
control the overall level of several Channels with the movement of only one fader.
Here are two examples:
To control all the vocal mics from the Group 1 master fader:
1
Raise the selected Channel FADERS to the desired levels.
2
Unassign each of the selected Channels from the L/R Master Fader by
switching their respective L/R buttons to the “Off” (up) position.
3
Now assign each of the selected Channels to Group 1 by switching the 1/2
button to its “On” (down) position. Make sure the 3/4 switch is off.
4
Adjust the PAN control of each of the selected Channels so that it is fully Left.
5
Assign the Group to the Master FADERS by switching the TO L/R switch to its
“On” (down) position. The Group 1 FADER will now control the selected
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Sound Reinforcement
Channels, and the combined signal will appear at the L/R MASTER FADER
along with the other Channels directly assigned to L/R.
To control a stereo submix of all the vocal mics from the Group 1 and 2 faders:
If you are doing a stereo mix, you may use two groups for a submix. Follow the
instructions above; but pan the microphones anywhere from left to right during step
4. Make sure Group Faders 1 and 2 are both set to the same level to keep the proper
stereo balance.
Stage Monitor Mix
In stage/PA applications, the MONITOR 1/2 section is usually used to provide
stage monitor mixes. MON 1/2 is pre-fader, so any changes made to the house mix
will not affect the stage monitors.
In this application, the MONITOR 1/2 SOURCE switch is pressed down (MIC/LN
position) so it receives the same input as the channel fader. The TAPE IN jacks
aren’t usually used, unless you need more inputs.
It is possible to create two separate stage monitor mixes by using the MONITOR
PAN controls carefully. For example, the lead singer may wish to hear more drums
and vocals in his or her monitor, while the lead guitarist wants more bass.
To create two different stage monitor mixes:
Set the HEADPHONES SOURCE switch to MON 1/2 (down), or connect your own
monitor speaker to the CONTROL ROOM output to hear the stage monitor mixes.
1
On the Channel modules that you wish to be part of the stage monitor mix, turn
up the MONITOR 1/2 control until the desired balance is obtained. (Make sure
the MONITOR SOURCE switch is in the down position. )
2
To send a Channel only to MONITOR 1, adjust the PAN control (the upper black
knob above the purple LEVEL control) fully left (MONITOR 1). To send a
Channel only to MONITOR 2, adjust the PAN control fully right (MONITOR
2).
3
Use the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER to increase or decrease the overall volume
going to the AUX SEND 1/2 jacks. The default (unity gain) position is marked
with a heavy dot at the “2 o’clock” position.
4
Route the AUXILIARY OUTPUT 1 and 2 jacks to the input of a stereo power
amplifier.
Usually, a 1/3 octave graphic equalizer is patched into the line to notch out
feedback frequencies. The Alesis M-EQ 230 is a perfect unit for this application.
5
Route the two speaker outputs of the amplifier to two different sets of stage
monitors.
Usually, some channels will have to be heard in both monitors. This requires
adjusting the monitor pan and level controls to taste.
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Sound Reinforcement
Alternate uses for the Monitor 1/2
section: Stereo recording during a live
concert
The most popular and obvious application of the MONITOR 1/2 section to hear the
tape tracks in the control room or headphones while using the main faders for the
sources, during multitrack studio recording. But you should think of the MON 1/2
section as an independent, 16x2 mixer with an effects send, like this:
At a major concert, feeds from microphones are often “split” so they can be sent to
two different consoles: a monitor mixer on stage, and a house mixer in the audience
(and, sometimes, a third console for multitrack recording). This allows engineers to
change the controls without affecting each other. Here are some examples of why
separate mixes are needed:
•
the recording truck needs to have microphones in the audience to record the
applause; but it would cause feedback if these microphones were sent to the PA
system.
•
the PA engineer needs to raise and lower levels during the show, with different
mixes for each song. But the multitrack recording engineer tries to set levels so
that each track is at the ideal maximum recording level for that track. (The
recording’s final mix levels will be set later, in a studio mixdown session.)
If you can afford several consoles and an expensive 2-way splitter box, good for you.
But if you think of the monitor section of your Studio 32 as if it were a separate
mixer being fed by the same microphone, a whole set of possibilities open up.
Using Monitor 1/2 to feed a cassette deck
Since the Studio 32 has a true stereo mixer independent of the main console, it can be
used to create a stereo reference mix of a live concert, while the main faders set the
PA mix. This technique is popular especially with artists who want to hear a tape
to evaluate each performance. If you just record the mix going to the PA, the
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Sound Reinforcement
balance will be wrong on the tape for instruments that don’t need to go to the PA (for
example, the lead guitarist’s kilowatt stack may be too loud to need PA
reinforcement, but if you rely on bleed through the vocal mics for the recording, the
guitar won’t sound right).
1
Connect the MON 1/2 OUT jacks to the input of your stereo tape deck.
2
Make sure the MON 1/2 LINK TO L/R switch is OFF. Otherwise, the mix you
want for the recording will also go to the PA system.
3
Set both the channel and monitor input source select switches to MIC/LN
(channel switch UP, monitor switch DOWN).
4
Set the monitor LEVEL and PAN controls for the recording mix you want.
This is what will happen with this setup:
•
There will be no EQ on the recording mix.
•
Any changes you make on the main channel (lowering the fader, muting the
channel, or changing the group or L/R master levels) will NOT be heard on the
recording.
•
Any effect that goes to the STEREO EFFECT RETURNS (ABCD) will be
recorded on the cassette deck only if the purple MON 1/2 controls in this section
are raised.
•
If you want reverb or other effects on the recording, but not on the PA, you can set
AUX 3 to the MON position, and use the upper row of AUX knobs as a dedicated
recording effects buss. Dedicate one RETURN channel to this, make sure it is
not assigned to L/R, and turn up its MON 1/2 level.
•
If you have house mics for recording audience reaction or hall ambience, make
sure to mute the main faders of those channels so they aren’t brought up in the
PA system.
Using Monitor 1/2 as the PA mix during
multitrack recording
You may run into some situations where you need the opposite hookup from the
above, especially with acoustic jazz or folk recordings where a minimum of PA or
monitoring is needed, but the recording must be digitally pristine. For example,
suppose you’re recording in a very small club, and only the vocalist needs any sound
reinforcement because the instruments are loud enough acoustically or through their
own amplifiers.
1
Use MON 1/2 as the PA feed, with only 3 channels used (one for vocal, and two
effect returns).
2
Use Group 1/2 as a stereo drum mix, Group 3/4 as a keyboard mix, the L/R
master as a guitar mix (there were acoustic and electric guitars, both in stereo).
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Sound Reinforcement
Patch these six outputs (Groups 1-4 and L/R) to the first six tracks of the
recorder.
3
Patch the vocal and bass from their respective TAPE OUTs without assigning
them to any of the main outputs:
Voila, an 8-track digital recording that is easy to manage, and a happy audience
and vocalist.
The point of all these techniques is: don’t limit yourself in how you use the
different sections of the Studio 32. What works in one situation will require a
different solution in another.
Video Production and Post-Production
The Studio 32 lends itself extremely well to post-production applications where a
soundtrack is being developed for video or film. In most situations, a
synchronization system is being used, which ties together all of the time-based
equipment including one or more video tape recorders (VTRs), a multitrack tape
recorder, and in many cases a computer running MIDI software. The software
usually performs as a sequencer for adding virtual tracks (sequenced parts not
recorded to tape), and recalling effects programs on MIDI-compatible outboard
effects devices.
Video deck outputs may be patched to either the LINE IN or TAPE IN jacks in most
cases. To feed the output of the Studio 32 into a video deck, set the input of the
video deck to “line level” or “+4”, and connect either the GROUP or MAIN L/R
OUTPUTS to the video deck using appropriate adapter cables (usually 1/4” TRS to
XLR/Male). Make sure the input level of the video recorder is not set to “mic” or
“-40” level.
In live production, a typical setup would be to plug microphones into the Studio 32,
with direct outputs feeding an ADAT. Using the techniques listed above (“Using
Monitor 1/2 to feed a cassette deck”), make a reference stereo mix to record onto the
VTR’s audio tracks (or onto a single audio track if one must be used to record time
code).
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Sound Reinforcement
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66
Description of Controls
CHAPTER 7:
DESCRIPTION OF
CONTROLS
Channel Input Controls
Trim
The TRIM knob adjusts the sensitivity of both the Mic and Line inputs. Proper
setting of this control is essential for low-noise, distortion-free operation. In most
cases, microphones require from 30 to 60 dB of preamplification, while line sources
need much less or none at all. If the Channel PEAK LED lights when the FADER
SOURCE switch is up,lower the TRIM control.
•
Mic input gain: +10 dB (minimum) to +60 dB (maximum)
•
Line input gain : -10 dB cut to +40 dB gain.
Fader Source switch
This switch selects the source of the Channel (which includes the Channel Fader,
EQ, INSERT jack, and lower Aux send). In other words, where is the signal coming
from?
• When this switch is UP, the LINE IN/MIC IN jack (having already passed
through the TRIM control) is the source of the channel.
• Press this switch DOWN to select the TAPE IN jack as the source of the
Channel.
Example: If all the console’s FADER SOURCE switches are down, all the main
Channel FADERS will be getting signal from their respective Tape Returns. This
would be a typical mixdown patch. By releasing the FADER SOURCE switch, the
large Channel FADERS will get signal from the Line inputs, which is the typical
patch for recording & overdubbing.
The MONITOR SOURCE switch, lower in the channel strip, works the same way
but in reverse: down for MIC/LN, up for tape.
Description of Controls
67
Description of Controls
Equalizer section
75 Hz switch
The graphic under this switch shows what this does: it cuts frequencies below 75
Hz at a rate of 18 dB per octave. This is called a “high pass filter”, but some
people prefer to think of it as “low cut filter”. It’s always available to the channel
path, even if the EQ IN switch is out. It is used to filter out undesirable subsonic
frequencies which may be present in the signal (air conditioning rumble, mic stand
noise, etc.).
If you push this switch, you often won’t hear any difference, because so few
instruments (and no voices) actually have harmonics below 75 Hz, and many
loudspeakers don’t have good response below this point. As a rule of thumb, you
don’t want to press the 75 Hz switch on instruments such as kick drum, bass, or
keyboards; but it can be very useful on voices (especially if you’re boosting the 125
Hz region to get an effect using the LOW or MID controls).
EQ IN Switch
This inserts the equalizer controls (with the green knobs) into the channel signal
path. When down, the EQ is in the signal path. This switch has no effect on the 75
Hz control (see above). If you’re not using the EQ, the channel path will be a little
bit quieter if you bypass the EQ by leaving this switch UP. It’s also helpful to see
if the EQ you’ve spent 10 minutes adjusting is actually helping the sound, by
comparing the in and out positions.
HIGH and LOW
These are standard shelving “treble and bass” tone controls. The HIGH knob range
is +/- 15 dB at a fixed frequency of 12 kHz. This means that frequencies above 12
kHz will be boosted or cut by the same amount , and frequency response between 1
kHz and 12 kHz will gradually rise or fall to the shelving point. The LOW knob
range is +/- 15 dB at a fixed frequency of 80 Hz. This means that frequencies below
80 Hz will be boosted or cut by the same amount, and frequency response will
gradually rise or fall from 80 Hz to about 1 kHz.
MID EQ controls: LEVEL, FREQ, and Q
The Studio 32 features a “fully parametric midrange”, which means that you can
control several parameters or aspects of the midrange, besides just cutting and
boosting a predetermined frequency range. Combined with the HIGH and LOW EQ
controls, these make up a 3-band equalizer that can create the vast majority of tones
you may need.
The Mid controls consist of three knobs: FREQuency, MID GAIN and Q
(bandwidth). Notice that the FREQ and Q controls are a lighter shade of green, to
help you identify them.
The FREQ knob changes the center frequency of the EQ. The range is sweepable
between 120 Hz (bass) to 14 kHz (extremely high treble).
Description of Controls
68
Description of Controls
The MID GAIN knob controls how much boost or cut is applied to the band chosen.
At the center detent position, there is no effect (flat response). Turning to the right
amplifies the band, to a maximum of 15 dB. Turning to the left cuts the band, to a
maximum cut of -15 dB.
The Q, or bandwidth, can be adjusted to select the range of frequencies around the
center frequency that will be most affected by the boost or cut. It can be set to as
little as 1/6th of an octave when turned completely left, or to almost 2 octaves
when turned completely clockwise.
To learn how the midrange EQ works, put some broadband material (like a CD) into
a channel at a low level, and press the EQ IN switch down. Boost the mid level to
its maximum, turn the Q control all the way to the left, and then sweep the FREQ
control to hear the effect. You usually won’t use such a dramatic EQ setting on a
mix, but it will help you get acquainted with the center frequencies this affects.
Description of Controls
69
Description of Controls
Auxiliary Send Section
AUX 3(5) SOURCE Switch
The AUX SOURCE switch selects the input for the Aux 3(5) Send control directly
below it, and only for that one control.
•
•
When this switch is up, Aux 3(5) is a post-fader send from the Channel fader.
When this switch is down, Aux 3(5) is a post-fader send from the Monitor
LEVEL control.
The purpose of this switch is to let you send to effects from the Monitor section on
some channels if you wish, while sending to two different effects from a Channel
fader simultaneously on other channels. The Aux 3(5) Source switch affects the
upper AUX send only; it has no effect on the lower AUX send. AUX 4(6)’s source is
always the channel FADER.
AUX 3(5) and AUX 4(6) Sends
These blue knobs are both mono post-fader sends typically used for effect sends. The
upper AUX 3(5) knob controls how much signal will be sent to either AUX SEND 3
or AUX SEND 5, as set by the TO 5/6 switch. The AUX 4(6) knob controls how much
signal will be sent to either AUX SEND 4 or AUX SEND 6, as set by the TO 5/6
switch. Aux 3(5)’s input can be derived from either the Channel or Monitor, as
determined by the AUX SOURCE switch (see above); the lower AUX 4(6) send
always gets its signal from the channel fader.
The unity-gain position of the AUX SENDS is at full rotation. Additional gain is
available at the AUX MASTERS.
TO 5/6 Switch (Aux Assign Switch)
The TO 5/6 switch, found between the 3(5) and 4(6) knob, is an auxiliary assignment
switch. As you can tell from its placement inbetween the two aux send controls, it
affects both knobs simultaneously.
•
•
When this switch is up, the AUX 3(5) knob sends signal to Aux Send 3, and the
4(6) knob sends signal to Aux Send 4.
When this switch is down, the AUX 3(5) knob sends signal to Aux Send 5, and
the 4(6) knob sends signal to Aux Send 6.
The reason for this switch is to allow you to use the Aux controls for different
purposes on different channels. For example, you may connect your primary reverb
effect to Aux sends 3 and 4, since you’ll use it on many channels at once. But a special
effect (a slap-back delay, or a gated reverb) may only need to be used on a few
channels (guitars, or drums), so Aux sends 5 and 6 are the logical choice here.
MONITOR 1/2 SOURCE switch
This selects the source of the monitor controls beneath it in the same way that the
FADER SOURCE switch at the top of the input channel selects the source of the
channel fader. It determines where the monitor signal is coming from.
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Description of Controls
•
•
When this switch is UP, the TAPE IN jack is the source of the Monitor send.
When this switch is DOWN, the LINE IN/MIC IN jack (having already
passed through the TRIM control) is the source of the monitor send. Whether
the MIC/LINE signal is pre- or post-EQ is set by the position of the CHANNEL
SOURCE switch: if the channel and monitor are both set to MIC/LINE, it will
be post-EQ. In all other switch positions, the MONITOR 1/2 feed is pre-EQ.
MONITOR 1/2 LEVEL, MONITOR 1/2 PAN
The purple LEVEL knobs control how much signal will be sent to the MONITOR 1/2
MASTER. The left/right balance of the MON 1/2 mix is set by the black PAN
control directly above this knob. MONITOR 1/2 is a pre-fader, pre-mute stereo
send typically used for control room monitors and headphone feeds. By turning the
PAN fully left, the signal is routed only to MON 1. When turned fully right, the
signal is routed only to MON 2. Its input can be derived from either the Channel or
Monitor, as determined by the MONITOR SOURCE switch (see above). Its unitygain position is at full rotation.
Channel Output Section
Channel PAN
The Channel PAN control sends the output of the channel in continuously variable
degrees to either side of the stereo mix (if L/R switch is pressed -- see below), or to
odd-even sides of the Group Assignment switches (pan left for Groups 1 and 3, pan
right for Groups 2 and 4). The PAN control is a combination “where to/how much”
control, in that it controls both the level and direction of a signal.
MUTE
The MUTE switch turns off the signal from the Channel Fader. It disconnects the
signal from the L/R Main outputs, the Group outputs, the DIRECT OUT, and any
Aux Sends. When pressed, the PEAK LED will light solid.
The MUTE switch has no effect on the MONITOR 1/2 control.
PEAK LED
The red Channel PEAK LED will flash when the channel’s signal level (measured
at several places in the channel) is within 5 dB of “clipping” or distortion. If it
flashes, reduce the TRIM knob (or the EQ, or the gain of any device at the INSERT
jack) until it stops flashing.
The PEAK LED will come on solid when the MUTE key above it is pressed.
-20 dB (Signal Present) LED
The green “-20” LED will light whenever a signal of -20 dB or higher is present
anywhere in the channel circuit. This will help you determine what instruments
are on what channels, and if the TRIM controls are set properly. The “-20” LED has
a second function as an indicator for the SOLO switch, described below.
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Description of Controls
SOLO
The SOLO button sends the channel’s signal (and only that Channel’s signal, if no
other SOLO buttons are pressed) directly to the Control Room monitors, cutting off
any other signals to the Control Room. It allows the engineer to focus on one signal
without disturbing any other mixes. When SOLO is pressed, the green “-20” LED
will light solid (even if no signal is present). The soloed Channel also feeds the
headphone outputs if the HEADPHONE SOURCE button in the master section is in
the up or “CR” position (see page 73). The master SOLO LED will light in the
Master module section, to alert you that Solo is active. You can adjust the output
level of the signal(s) being soloed by turning the SOLO knob in the Master module
section. The meter will show the level of the soloed signal, unnaffected by the
master solo level knob, so you can easily compare the level of individual channels
and, in PFL mode, set the TRIM control accurately.
Group Assign Switches (1/2, 3/4)
The GROUP ASSIGN switches (1/2, 3/4) assign the output of the Channel (large
fader) to any of the four Group output busses, usually for recording on a multitrack.
Each switch is an odd-even pair, and the amount of signal sent to odd or even
numbered groups is determined by the Channel PAN knob. These may be used in any
combination.
✪
Note that even when a Group switch is down, no signal will go from the channel to
the Group if the Channel PAN knob is turned to the wrong side.
L/R Switch
The L/R switch sends the channel’s signal to the Master L/R FADER, depending on
the setting of the Channel PAN knob. This switch is normally pressed for final
mixdown, or if the channel is being used for monitoring.
Channel Fader
This linear 60 mm slide fader varies the level feeding the Channel PAN control
and Assignment switches, Aux 4(6), and Aux 3(5) (if the AUX 3(5) SOURCE switch
is in the up or FADER position). The fader is set for unity gain (level in = level out)
when it is set at the “0 dB” mark, 2/3 of the way up. When the fader is raised to its
maximum, there is 10 dB of gain added to the signal.
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Description of Controls
MASTER SECTION
On the right hand side of the console are controls that affect the outputs of the
mixer.
Power and Phantom indicators
The switches for these indicators are located on the back panel. The PHANTOM
LED indicates that 48 volt phantom power is being applied to all 16 XLR jacks
Headphones Level and Source
The LEVEL knob sets the overall level of the two headphone output jacks next to it.
The HEADPHONES SOURCE switch has two positions: CR (CONTROL ROOM)
and MON 1/2. When CONTROL ROOM is selected (switch UP), the headphone is
sent the same signal appearing at the Control Room outputs (but independent of the
Control Room’s level control). When the switch is down, the Headphones are sent
the signal at the MON SEND 1 and 2 outputs. This allows you to hear the prefader monitor mix.
Phone jacks
The headphone jacks on the front panel are designed for most stereo headphones.
The internal headphone amplifier outputs the maximum power allowed by safety
standards. The impedance and efficiency of the headphones will determine the
maximum volume available. Eight-ohm headphones may be louder at a given
setting than 150-ohm or 600-ohm headphones; however, there should be enough
gain to drive any dynamic headphone to reasonable levels if the mixer is being run
properly.
Stereo Aux Return Section
This section is essentially an eight-input addition to the channels, squeezed into
the top of the master section. This section is where you determine how much signal
will be heard from effect devices.
MON 1/2
Turn these purple knobs in order to hear the Stereo Aux Returns in the Monitor 1/2
mix. This is a pre-fader stereo send typically used for performer monitors and
headphone feeds. Signals from the left input will go to Monitor 1, and signals from
the right input will go to Monitor 2. The MON 1/2 send is not affected by the
LEVEL control beneath it.
LEVEL
The grey LEVEL controls set how much signal from the Stereo Aux Return inputs
will be sent to the Aux Return ASSIGN switches. In that sense, they are just like
the Channel Faders in function.
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Description of Controls
L/R Assign Switch
This switch routes the signal from the Stereo Aux Return jacks to the Master L/R
FADER, with the left input going to the left and right going to right. If no plug is
inserted into the Right input, the left signal will be connected to both sides,
appearing in the center of the stereo image.
GRP 1/2 Assign Switches (Stereo Aux Return
A and B Only)
GRP 3/4 Assign Switches (Stereo Aux Return
C and D Only)
The Aux Return Assign switches (1/2, 3/4) route a Stereo Aux Return to two of the
four Group outputs, as written. They work in the same way as the CHANNEL
ASSIGN switches (see page 72). Press these switches if you want to record an effect
(or other device plugged into the Stereo Aux Return inputs) onto the multitrack.
Left inputs will be routed to the odd-numbered groups, and right inputs to the evennumbered groups. If no plug is inserted into the Right input, the left signal will be
connected to both groups, appearing in the center of the stereo image.
SOLO IN PLACE Switch
The SOLO IN PLACE switches in the Stereo Aux Returns are a special kind of
SOLO switch to allow you to hear the effect returns in the control room mix. It
sends the return’s post-fader signal (and only that Monitor’s signal, if no other
SOLO buttons are pressed) directly to the Control Room monitors, cutting off any
other signals to the Control Room. Unlike the channel SOLO switches, however,
the SOLO IN PLACE switches do not work when the master solo section is in PFL
(Pre-Fade-Listen) mode, denoted by the red LED next to the solo master. The
control room signal will be cut off, but you will not hear anything from the Aux
Returns until you set the solo status switch to SIP (green LED).
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Description of Controls
Aux Master Controls
Auxiliary Masters
The four blue knobs in the Aux Master section provide the final overall level control
for the Aux Send mixes. They get their signal from the individual Aux Send level
controls to the left. The signal then goes to the respective AUXILIARY OUTPUT
jacks on the back panel, and to the appropriate Control Room select switch. Adjust
the Aux Masters for the correct level feeding your external effects device. The
nominal (unity gain) setting for these controls is approximately “2 o’clock.”
Monitor 1/2 Master
This purple knob is the final overall level control for the Monitor 1/2 mix (the
sixteen controls to its left, plus the four in the Stereo Aux Return section). This
controls the level at the AUXILIARY OUTPUT 1/2 (labeled “MON” underneath)
jacks on the back panel, the MON 1/2 switch in the Control Room section, and the
MON 1/2 selection of the HEADPHONES SOURCE switch. Adjust the Monitor 1/2
Master for the correct level feeding your external headphone or stage monitor
amplifier. The nominal (unity gain) setting for this control is approximately “2
o’clock.” Set it there if the MON 1/2 mix will be used to add more inputs to the
final mix using the LINK switch, described below.
LINK TO L/R switch
This is a powerful switch that allows you to turn the Studio 32 into a 32-input
stereo mixer, instead of a 16-input mixer with an in-line monitor section. The LINK
TO L/R switch routes the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER signal to the Master L/R
FADER.
Regardless of whether the LINK switch is up or down, the MONITOR 1/2 signal
always feeds the headphone source and control room source switches, as well as the
AUX 1/2 output jacks on the rear panel. The LINK switch simply mixes or assigns
the 16x2 monitor mix to the L/R mix buss as well.
If you are sending the Monitor signal to the headphones or control room, but don’t
want that signal on the Master L/R stereo output, leave the LINK TO L/R switch
off (up).
If monitors are not being used as extra inputs during mixdown, turn the LINK switch
off for the best signal-to-noise ratio.
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Description of Controls
Control Room/Solo Section
The Control Room section determines what you’ll hear in the control room and see
on the meters. The Control Room section does not affect any other mix of the Studio
32–it just eavesdrops on them. The Solo controls are a special part of the Control
Room mix, “taking it over” anytime any SOLO switch is pressed anywhere on the
console, allowing you to hear only the soloed source instantly.
Solo Master Level
If any SOLO switch is pressed anywhere on the console, the MASTER SOLO LED
will light indicating that the Control Room is receiving signal from the Solo buss
instead of the Control Room Source switch (see below).
Note that if SOLO is engaged on a Channel that has no signal in it, you will hear
nothing in the Control Room until SOLO is turned off on that Channel.
The SOLO knob sets the level you will hear in the Control Room when SOLO is
pressed. Typically it is set a little above unity gain (about 2 o’clock), so that a
single instrument will sound about as loud in the Control Room as the entire mix
does, allowing you to focus.
Solo SIP/PFL switch
The Studio 32 allows you to use the SOLO system in two different ways:
• SIP (Solo In Place): In this mode (SIP/PFL switch UP, green MASTER LED),
you will hear instruments in their post-fader, post-pan arrangement. This is
the mode to use when mixing down, so you can adjust the levels of a stereo track,
etc.
• PFL (Pre Fade Listen): In this mode (SIP/PFL switch DOWN, red MASTER
LED), you will hear instruments in the control room pre-fader. This means that
even if their faders are down or MUTE is on, you will hear it in the center of the
control room mix and see the level of that input on the meter. Use this mode to
check an input before bringing it into the mix, or to set the proper TRIM level.
The SOLO signals from the channels and Aux Returns are stereo, coming from postfader, post-pan. The PFL signals are mono.
The Stereo Aux Returns work only in SIP mode, not in PFL mode.
Control Room Level and Source
The CONTROL ROOM knob sets the overall Control Room level. Ideally, the
control room amplifier’s input controls should be set so that full rotation of this
control does not exceed the maximum level you want in the control room.
The Control Room switches select the source of the Control Room mix (provided
that no SOLO source is turned on to override them). They also select the source of
the two meters.
When all switches are up, L/R will be selected, providing the Main L/R mix. If
any switches are pressed, you’ll hear the lowest switch (for example, if “2
TRACK” is selected, you won’t be able to hear MON 1/2 even if it is pressed).
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Description of Controls
Press MON 1/2 when you wish to route the headphone mix (Aux Send 1 and 2
output) to the Control Room. AUX 3/4, AUX 5/6, GRP 1/2, and GRP 3/4 may also be
selected. 2 TRACK corresponds to the 2 TRACK INPUT jacks on the rear of the
Studio 32. These can be used to listen to the output of a mixdown tape recorder, or
CD player.
MONO
The MONO button, when pressed down, sums the left and right sides of the selected
Control Room mix to monophonic. By using MONO mode, you can check for phase
cancellation and mono capability. This is good to use when you want to hear how
your mix will sound on AM radio or television.
Master L/R Fader
The Master L/R fader adjusts the total output level of the stereo signal. It gets its
signal from the stereo busses, which are fed by any Channels, Monitors, Groups and
Aux Returns which have their L/R switch down. They send signal to the MAIN
OUT L and R jacks, and the CONTROL ROOM switch (where it can be heard if all
other switches are up). Unity gain is achieved when the fader is all the way up.
Meters
The L and R meters will display whatever is selected as the Control Room source,
including SOLO. When SOLO is on, the meters show you the pre- or post-fader
level of an individual channel. These are peak-type meters which respond to the
immediate level.
When the meters read “0” (top green LED), the
signal is at its nominal output (+4 dBu balanced, -2
dBu unbalanced) RMS. Typically, signals should
be lighting a few yellow LEDs. When the top red
LED “PK” flashes, , signal is at +18 dB over
nominal (that’s +22 dBu in a balanced circuit, +16
dBu in an unbalanced circuit). But you still have 5
to 6 dB of headroom before the summing amps
distort (although, depending on your settings, you
may be clipping some other part of the mixer in
order to get level ).
In PFL mode, both meters will show you the postTRIM/pre-fader level, so you can adjust it for the
best balance between low distortion and low noise.
You’ll find in this mode that the main meter’s PK
LED will light at almost the same level the
PEAK LED in the channel does. Adjust your trim
so that such flashes are rare, but make sure you’re
getting some yellow segments in the meter. (For
more on metering, see page Error! Bookmark not
defined..)
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77
Description of Controls
Group Master Controls
The Groups may be used as sends to the tape recorder in recording applications, or as
subgroups or zone masters in PA applications.
TO L/R switches
These switches are primarily used when submixing for PA applications, or possibly
during a complicated recording mixdown. The first TO L/R sends Group One’s signal
to the left side only and Group Two to the right side only of the Main L/R mix. The
other TO L/R switch does the same for groups 3 and 4. They’re essentially the same
as the LINK TO L/R switch under the MONITOR 1/2 MASTER: if these switches
are up, anything routed to a group only goes to the group output. When these
switches are down, the group is sent to the L/R mix as well.
For example, if you have ten different drum mics that are in perfect balance with
each other, but you need to bring the level down in the PA, turn the drum channels’
L/R switches off, assign them to Group 1/2, and press Group 1/2’s TO L/R switch.
The Group 1/2 faders are now a submaster for the entire drum mix in the left/right
stereo mix feeding the PA or mixdown deck.
MONO switch
Sometimes you may need four separate subgroups, instead of two stereo pairs. The
MONO switches allow you to do this. When MONO is down, Group 1 will feed
both left and right of the L/R mix, so, for example, it may be used as a vocal
subgroup. (If there was no MONO switch and you did a subgroup, all the vocalists
would wind up hard-panned to the left side of the mix only.) Group 2 will also
appear in the center of the L/R mix. Because there is a separate MONO switch for
Groups 3 and 4, you can make four mono subgroups or two mono subgroups and a stereo
subgroup for instruments.
Group 1—4 Master
The four Group Master FADERS adjust the total output level of all signals assigned
to each Group. They get their signal from the ASSIGN switches in the Channels
and the Stereo Aux Returns. They send signal to the four Group output jacks, the
GRP Control Room switches, and the TO L/R switches explained above.
Note: The GROUP FADER of the Studio 32, like the L/R Master, is at unity gain
(“0 dB”) when all the way up, not at 2/3 travel as with some other consoles. This
allows you a greater range of control on fadeouts, and makes it easier to “dial in”
the best gain structure, since the “sweet spot” of the fader is actually in a useful
part of the taper.
L/R Master Fader
This is a stereo 60 mm fader with its unity 0 dB position at the top of its travel, like
the group faders. Signal from the L/R output feeds the Control Room switch, and
the back panel MAIN OUT jacks which are normally connected to a mixdown deck,
or to a PA system.
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78
Description of Controls
Back panel
POWER switch
This is the master power switch for the Studio 32. When it’s ON, the red LED on
the front panel will light.
Power cable
An industry-standard removable power cable is shipped with your Studio 32. If you
lose it, or need a longer or shorter length, compatible cables are available from
electronics and computer stores. The type is sometimes referred to as a “NEMA to
CEE” cable, or an “IEC power” cord.
Never defeat the grounding pin of the power cable. Use only approved power
cables.
PHANTOM Switch
When this switch is pressed, it applies phantom power to the XLR microphone
jacks on all channels, and the yellow PHANTOM LED on the front panel will light.
48 volts DC appears equally on pins 2 and 3 to be used by condenser-type
microphones requiring external power. Since this voltage is equal, it is “invisible”
to standard balanced dynamic microphones, hence the name, “phantom power.”
Check the manual for the mics you plan on using to make sure that this phantom
method is correct before you apply power.
✪
The PHANTOM switch must be turned off if any electronically balanced line source
(such as the balanced output of a tape recorder or CD player) is connected to any
XLR MIC IN jack; it could damage the output circuitry of such units. When you turn
PHANTOM off, it is normal for it to decay gradually; make sure the yellow
PHANTOM LED is totally off before plugging electronic units in to the MIC jacks.
Note: Make sure the channel volumes are set to minimum or are muted before
switching the PHANTOM switch on. The voltage surge at initial turn-on may
cause a loud “pop” in the system.
Control Room Out
Connect these jacks to the input of your control room amplifier. Signal comes here
from the Control Room section of the speaker. The jacks are 3-conductor with a
forward-referenced ground to avoid ground loops, and may be used balanced or
unbalanced.
2 Track Tape In
Connect the output of your 2-track (cassette, DAT, CD-R, reel-to-reel, etc.) to these
jacks. Any stereo source connected here may be heard in the control room mix only.
As with all Studio 32 input jacks, you may connect balanced TRS or unbalanced
sources here.
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79
Description of Controls
Main Outs
Connect these jacks to your primary destination: the PA system’s inputs, or the 2track mixdown recorder. Signal comes here from the L/R MASTER FADER, and
passes through the Main Inserts. This output is a true, 3-wire balanced differential
output with a maximum output level of +28 dBu.
Main Inserts
If you want to compress or equalize the stereo mix before it hits the L/R fader,
connect your processing device to these jacks using a 1/4” TRS 3-conductor “splitter”
cable (“tip” connector to the input of the device, and “ring” to the return), same as
for the channel insert jacks. See page Error! Bookmark not defined..
Group Outputs
Connect these jacks to the first four inputs of a multitrack recorder such as the
ADAT, whose input normalling feature allows you to go to any of the eight tracks
(Group 1 will feed tracks 1 and 5, etc.). In PA applications, you may connect these
jacks to amplifiers for specific zones (Group 1 feeds a center cluster, Group 2 feeds
side fills, etc.). In broadcast applications, these may be used to provide “mix
minus” or matrix feeds. These jacks are true balanced +4 dBu nominal level (+28
dBu maximum) outputs on a TRS 3-conductor phone jack.
Stereo Aux Return Input Jacks
These eight balanced TRS input jacks are arranged along the top of the jack field
for easy repatching. Connect the output of your effects devices, or any other stereo
input that doesn’t require EQ here. Traditionally, the “A” inputs are fed by an
effect device fed by Auxiliary Output #3, the “B” by a device fed by Aux 4, etc.
Auxiliary Outputs (including Mon 1/2)
Auxiliary Outputs 3, 4, 5 and 6 are normally connected to the inputs of effect
devices. The MON 1/2 jacks may be fed to a headphone amplifier in recording
applications, or to a stage monitor system in PA applications. These jacks are 3conductor TRS with a forward-referenced ground to avoid ground loops.
Channel Input/Output Jacks (16)
Direct Out
This jack provides the output of the channel, post-fader. Connect it to the input of a
multitrack tape recorder if you need to record more than four tracks at a time, or if
you only need one microphone per track. Unlike most DIRECT OUT jacks on other
consoles, these are true +4 dBu balanced outputs, so you can easily repatch the sends
to the tape recorder between the group and direct outs.
In theory, the DIRECT OUT jacks provide a cleaner signal than that of the GROUP
OUT jacks, but the difference is almost unmeasurable. You can be confident that if
it’s more convenient for you, it’s perfectly OK to record from the Groups.
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80
Description of Controls
Tape In
Connect the outputs of your multitrack tape recorder to these jacks. It may be +4 dBu
balanced (+26 dBu maximum level) or -10 dBV unbalanced. Actually, any typical
line input (such as the output of a synthesizer or effect device) may be connected to
these inputs, so you could use the Studio 32 as a 32-input line mixer, by running the
“tape inputs” through the MONITOR 1/2 section, linked to the L/R Master.
However, note that the TAPE IN jack does not pass through the TRIM control, so
extremely low-level or high-level signals should be connected to the LINE IN jack
instead.
Insert jack
This is a 3-conductor unbalanced send/receive jack for whatever is selected by the
FADER SOURCE switch. The post-trim, pre-EQ, pre-fader signal appears at the
tip connector, and the ring connector is an input to the Equalizer section of the
channel. This is normally connected to an in-line effect processor such as a
compressor or equalizer. See page Error! Bookmark not defined. for more
information on how to use the insert jack.
Line In jack
This input jack may be used with balanced 1/4” TRS or unbalanced 1/4” sources. It
connects to the Mic/Line side of the FADER SOURCE and MONITOR 1/2 SOURCE
switches of the channel. Line signals pass through the TRIM control, which allows
them to accept a wide range of input level (from +14 dBu nominal to -36 dBu
nominal). When the TRIM is set to maximum, the LINE IN signal will be amplified
40 dB. When TRIM is at minimum, it will be attenuated (lowered) 10 dB.
The LINE IN and MIC IN jacks of a single channel may not be used simultaneously.
Mic In jack
This balanced XLR connector is intended for use by low-impedance microphones
needing preamplification. It is wired in the standard configuration (Pin 1 shield,
Pin 2 “hot”, Pin 3 “cold”) and will receive 48-volt phantom power when the
PHANTOM switch is on.
When the TRIM is set to maximum, the MIC IN signal will be amplified 60 dB.
When TRIM is at minimum, it will be amplified 10 dB.
Warning for use with line sources: Though the MIC IN may be used with a balanced
line-level source such as the output of a VCR, headroom will be limited; even with
the TRIM at minimum, it will clip at +11 dBu. For this reason, it’s better to connect
balanced line sources to the LINE IN jack using an XLR-to-1/4” TRS adapter or
cable.
Never connect an electronic line input to the MIC IN jack if phantom power will be
turned on. Doing this could damage the equipment and the Studio 32.
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81
Description of Controls
Description of Controls
82
Troubleshooting
CHAPTER 8:
TROUBLESHOOTING
Troubleshooting Index
If you are experience problems while operating the Studio 32, please use the
following table to locate possible causes and solutions before contacting Alesis
customer service for assistance.
Symptom
Cause
The POWER LED does not
light when the ON/OFF
switch is turned on.
Hiss/noise in output,
faders must be raised to
top to hear.
No power.
Effects are noisy.
Effects send too low,
return too high.
Noise/hum.
Ground loop between
devices in system.
Unshielded cables.
No signal from channel.
Device in INSERT jack is
stopping the signal.
Input level is too low.
PAN pot set in wrong
direction.
Feedback when REC is
pressed on recorder.
Crackling sounds.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
Microphone requires
phantom power.
TAPE OUT is feeding its
own input.
Dirty or corroded
connections on back of
mixer.
A microphone cable has a
small short or break.
Solution
Check that the power
cable is plugged in
properly.
Turn up the TRIM
controls, lower the faders.
Set the source(s) to a
higher level.
Turn output of effect
device up and reduce Aux
Return level on mixer.
Increase Aux Send levels.
See page Error! Bookmark
not defined..
Don’t use speaker cables
for mixer connections.
Remove insert jack, set it
to bypass, or reverse
input/output of device.
Set to left for GRPs 1 & 3,
to right for 2 & 4
Turn PHANTOM switch
on.
Set channel source to
MIC/LN or turn off GRP
1/2 & 3/4 switches on
tape channels. Use MON
1/2 to hear tape.
Unplug and replug
connectors several times,
clean plugs.
Use SOLO to find the
noisy channel, and
replace the cable.
83
Troubleshooting
Maintenance/Service
Cleaning and Maintenance
Disconnect the AC cord, then use a damp cloth to clean the console’s metal and
plastic surfaces. For heavy dirt, use a non-abrasive household cleaner such as
Formula 409 or Fantastik. DO NOT SPRAY THE CLEANER DIRECTLY ONTO THE
FRONT OF THE UNIT AS IT MAY DESTROY THE LUBRICANTS USED IN THE
SWITCHES AND CONTROLS! Spray onto a cloth, then use the cloth to clean the
unit.
Here are some tips for preventive maintenance:
•
Periodically check the AC cord for signs of fraying or damage.
•
Unplug the Studio 32’s power supply when not in use for extended periods of
time.
•
Place a dust cover over the console when it is not in use.
•
Vacuum around the faders to keep dust from falling into them. DO NOT
SPRAY ANY KIND OF “FADER CLEANER” or lubricant into the faders.
These chemicals may work for a time but over the long run they attract more
dirt and will make it noisy again.
•
The one place where contact cleaner is useful is on the rear panel jacks and
cables. Periodically disconnect the mixer from AC power and all cables, and
clean the 1/4” and XLR cable ends with rubbing alchohol or electronic contact
cleaner, then work the plug into the jack repeatedly. DO NOT SPRAY
CONTACT CLEANER DIRECTLY INTO THE JACKS OF THE MIXER. It’s
better to use a damp plug to clean the jacks, or use a cotton or foam swab (but be
careful not to get cotton or foam stuck in the mixer). While Alesis does not
endorse the use of any specific product, certain contact enhancers (such as
Cramolin) may be used to keep the connections from corroding in the future.
Warranty Information
This product is warranted by Alesis to the original purchaser against defects in
material and workmanship for a period of 1 year for parts and labor from the date
of purchase. Complete terms of the Limited Warranty are stated on the Warranty
Card packed with the product. Please retain a copy of your dated sales receipt for
proof of warranty status should repairs be necessary.
Studio 32 Reference Manual
84
Troubleshooting
Refer All Servicing to Alesis
We believe that the Studio 32 is one of the most reliable mixing consoles that can be
made using current technology, and should provide years of trouble-free use.
However, should problems occur, DO NOT attempt to service the unit yourself.
Service on this product should be performed only by qualified technicians. THERE
ARE NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE.
Obtaining Repair Service
Before contacting Alesis, check over all your connections, and make sure you’ve read
the manual. Your Alesis dealer may be able to offer further assistance.
Customers in the USA:
If the problem persists, copy down the serial number of the Studio 32 and call Alesis
USA at 1-800-5-ALESIS and request the technical support department. Talk the
problem over with one of our technicians; if necessary, you will be given a return
authorization (RA) number and instructions on how to return the unit to Alesis or
the nearest authorized service center. All units must be shipped prepaid and COD
shipments will not be accepted.
You must indicate the RA number on the shipping label or the shipment will not be
accepted. If you do not have the original packing, ship the Studio 32 in a sturdy
carton or road case, with shock-absorbing materials such as foam or “bubble-pack”
surrounding the unit. Shipping damage caused by inadequate packing is not covered
by the Alesis warranty. Ship the unit with insurance via a carrier that provides a
tracking system.
Tape a note to the top of the unit describing the problem, include your name and a
phone number where Alesis can contact you if necessary, as well as instructions on
where you want the product returned. Alesis will pay for standard one-way
shipping back to you on any repair covered under the terms of this warranty.
Field repairs are not authorized during the warranty period, and repair attempts
by unqualified personnel may invalidate the warranty.
Customers outside the USA:
Contact your local Alesis dealer for warranty assistance. Do not return products to
the factory unless you have been given specific instructions to do so. Your warranty
is valid only in the country of purchase.
Internet address: Important information and advice is available on our web site:
http://www.alesis.com
E-mail may be addressed to:
[email protected]
Studio 32 Reference Manual
85
Troubleshooting
Studio 32 Reference Manual
86
Index
INDEX
2 TRACK, 12, 31, 77
connecting, 36
-20 dB (Signal Present) LED, 71
75 Hz, 20, 68
ADAT, 31
normalling w. Groups, 55
assignment, 11, 20, 39
AUX 3(5) SOURCE Switch, 22, 70
Aux Return, 22, 41
LEVEL, 73
Aux Send/Return, 22
Aux Sends, 18, 22, 39
as cue mix, 16
connecting, 39
selecting, 41
Auxiliaries
selecting 3/4 or 5/6, 22, 70
Auxiliary Masters, 75
Auxiliary Outputs, 80
balanced, 28, 33
Block Diagram, 92
Bouncing Tracks, 55
Connections, 33
Control Room, 23, 76
connecting amp, 37
in headphones, 73
level, 76
Source, 16, 76
cue mix, 12, 53
Direct Out, 14, 29, 47, 80
effects, 18, 39, 41
in control room monitors, 42
in MONITOR 1/2 mix, 43
recording to multitrack, 43, 48
returns. See Aux Return
stereo or mono input, 40
ELCO, 35
EQ, 10, 20, 46
Equalizer section, 68
Fader, 72
cleaning/maintenance, 84
Group Master, 78
Master L/R, 77
FADER SOURCE, 14, 19, 52, 55
feedback, 47
FREQuency, 68
gain, 72
of Mic and Line inputs, 67
structure, 9, 45
with effects, 41
Studio 32 Reference Manual
Ground Loops, 27
grounding, 5, 26
Group Master, 78
Faders, 78
Group Outputs, 14, 20, 31, 48, 80
GRP 1/2
in channels, 72
in Stereo Aux Returns, 18, 41, 74
headphone, 73
Headphones, 16, 23, 32, 53, 73
amplifier, 37
HEADPHONES SOURCE, 53
headroom, 77
High EQ, 68
high-pass filter, 20
Impedance, 28, 88
Inputs, 33
Aux Return, 39
balanced, 36
Mic, 28
Insert, 30, 39, 44
Main L/R, 31, 80
L/R
channel, 72
Stereo Aux Return, 18
L/R Master Fader, 78
LED
Peak, 71
Solo, 72
Level
Aux Return, 73
effects, 42
setting, 19, 45
Levels, 87
LINE IN, 19, 28
LINK TO L/R, 21, 51, 54, 75
Low EQ, 68
Main
Inserts, 31
MAIN OUTS, 31
Master
L/R FADER, 77
MASTER SECTION, 73
maximum level, 87
Meters, 24, 50, 77
MIC IN, 19, 28, 81
MIDI
virtual tracks, 54
Midrange EQ, 68
mix minus, 80
94
Index
mixdown, 12
Mixing, 11
example, 58
Group Faders as Subgroups, 61
mixdown, 57
PA, 61
stage monitor, 62
MON 1/2
in headphones, 73
in Stereo Aux Returns, 22, 73
monitor, 21
on channel faders, 52
TAPE IN, 51
MONITOR 1/2, 16, 21, 71
Master, 75
MONITOR 1/2 SOURCE, 19, 62, 70
monitor speakers, 23
MONO, 23
Control Room, 77
Group, 78
output for PA systems, 61
multitrack, 11, 14, 19, 34
MUTE, 71
noise, 27, 46
noise, 88
Outputs, 33
Aux Sends, 32
Group, 78
maximum, 35
overdubbing, 12, 51, 53
Overload, 71
PA systems, 61
Pan
Channel, 71
Monitor, 16, 71
parametric EQ, 20, 68
Patchbay, 37
PEAK, 9
as MUTE indicator, 71
Channel, 71
PFL, 24
PHANTOM, 73, 81
PK, 9
in L/R meter, 77
post-fader, 39
Power, 26
Power cable, 5, 79
pre-fader, 20, 40, 76
Q, 20, 69
rack mounting, 25
rack rails, 25
recording, 11, 45, 47
Returns
see STEREO AUX RETURNS, 73
Studio 32 User’s Manual
send/receive, 18
Setting Levels, 45
signal flow, 19, 92
SIP/PFL switch, 24
SOLO, 23, 24, 71
in Stereo Aux Return, 74
level, 76
SIP/PFL switch, 76
Solo in place, 24, 74
sound reinforcement, 61
source, 11
stage monitoring, 20, 62
Stereo Aux Return
Input Jacks, 80
STEREO AUX RETURNS, 18, 22, 32, 39, 73
Subgrouping, 21, 61
TAPE IN, 16, 19, 21, 29, 34, 81
TO L/R switches, 48, 61, 78
tracking, 12
TRIM, 19, 67
adjusting using SOLO, 45
range, 81
TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) plug, 28
on Insert cable, 44
unbalanced
line input, 28
tape in, 34
unity gain
in Auxiliary Masters, 75
in Channel Faders, 72
in Group Faders, 78
in L/R master fader, 77
in MON 1/2 master level, 62
video, 65
XLR, 28, 35
95
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