Sea Frost 372 ROUTE Installation manual

Sea Frost 372 ROUTE Installation manual
372 ROUTE 4 BARRINGTON, NH 03825 USA
TEL (603) 868-5720
FAX (603) 868-1040
E-Mail:[email protected]
1-800-435-6708
www.seafrost.com
OPERATION & INSTALLATION
INSTRUCTIONS
SA-III Series
C.F. HORTON & CO., INC.
US ROUTE 4
BARRINGTON, NH 03825
U.S.A.
(603) 868-5720
SEA FROST is a registered trade mark of C.F. Horton & Co., Inc.
Aspects of the SEA FROST design are covered by
US Patent # 4,356,708
Revised 10/91
Copyright 1991 by C.F. Horton & Co., Inc.
1
Table of CONTENTS
SA-III OPERATION
ICE MAKING
MAINTENANCE
HOW REFRIGERATION WORKS
INSTALLATION
SWAGELOK FITTINGS
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
VALVE CONTROL UNIT
RECEIVER FILTER DRYER (RFD)
THERMOSTAT & WIRING
SAFETY
GAUGES
LEAK CHECKING
NEW SYSTEM CHARGING
CHECKING THE CHARGE / ADDING CHARGE
TROUBLESHOOTING
2
2
3
4-5
6-7
8-9
10-12
13
14
14-15
15-16
17-18
18-19
19-21
21-24
24
25-27
SA-III OPERATION
The SEA FROST SA-III system is an electrically driven refrigeration plant. Operation of
the compressor will freeze the contents of the holdover devices in the boat's icebox
providing refrigeration by cold holdover for an extended period after the compressor has
been turned off. A boat without continuous power can benefit from this by operating the
SEA FROST SA-III system when the generator plant is operated. Operation time will
vary with each boat.
A little time spent learning about your system and some experimentation will be best.
Maximum holdover will be reached when the cabinet is at the desired temperature and
the holdover plates are frozen. Running times beyond this have no advantage other
than to delay warming the plate(s).
This system is water-cooled. Water should begin to flow from the discharge at the
same time the unit starts. Be sure the water is flowing. If no water flows, stop the
system and inspect the water pump and strainer for obstructions. See trouble shooting
and maintenance sections.
After starting a warm system check the holdover devices for a temperature drop. If a
temperature drop is not indicated, stop the unit and read; "Checking the Charge", and;
"Reading the Sight Glass".
CONTROLS
The SA-III thermostat control is labeled with "off", one, two, and three snowflakes.
When the boats' breaker panel is switched on and 110 volt power is available, turning
the knob from "off" to one snowflake will start the compressor. Turning the knob to
three snowflakes will increase the time the compressor operates, making the
temperature cooler. Experiment with the control position to obtain the best setting.
ICE MAKING
Your SEA FROST 809 holdover plate(s) may be equipped with vertical ice trays. The
ice trays are held in contact with the plate(s) by a stainless steel rod.
Fill the vertical trays with water and hang them on the face of the plate. Try to get some
water between the tray and the plate surface to increase the thermal contact (increasing
freezing ability).
Harvesting Ice
Plan to wait some time after the trays are frozen for them to thaw in a sink or away from
the plate in the refrigerator. When the outside surface is wet invert the tray and let the
ice slide out.
3
STORAGE OF ICE CUBES
After ice has been made and harvested, store it in sealable plastic bags in the
refrigerator or is so equipped in the freezer. Ice trays left in contact with the plate will
melt rapidly if the plate goes above freezing.
DEFROSTING
It is important to defrost the holdover plate(s) regularly. This will maximize the efficiency
of the system and ice making performance. It is not necessary to turn off the system to
defrost. Scrape off any frost with a piece of wood or galley utensil. A noticeable drop in
the cabinet temperature will occur.
BAG STYLE ICE MAKING
If your SEA FROST system is not equipped with the vertical tray kit, you can still make
ice. One method is to use zip lock bags. When filled with water the bag can be held in
contact with the plate by a clip binder or a clamp of your own invention.
SA-III MAINTENANCE
Like your engine, your SEA FROST needs periodic checking.
ROUTINELY check:
1. The refrigerant charge (see "Checking The Refrigerant Charge" text NEVER
OPERATE SYSTEM WITHOUT PROPER CHARGE)
2. All components, all tubing, fittings and hose clamps for corrosion and wear. BE
SURE TO LOCATE AND INSPECT ALL FITTINGS AND COMPONENTS IN THE
SYSTEM. KNOW THE LOCATION OF ALL CONNECTION POINTS. Spray regularly
with a petroleum rust inhibitor. Corrosion unchecked in the marine environment will
severely reduce the life of your system.
CLEANING
The plate(s) surface protects itself with a layer of oxidation. You might find that after a
long period of storage the Block will look chalky. This will not effect the operation, and is
easily cleaned up with a pot scrubber and soap.
4
WATER STRAINER
The water pump is protected from damage and blockage by a sea water strainer. This
strainer must be inspected and cleaned routinely.
ROUTINE SERVICE AND INSPECTION
We recommend sea strainer inspection before leaving the boat unattended dockside
with the unit on. A visual inspection may be adequate depending on the type of
strainer. To clean most types of strainers, close the seacock, open the strainer, remove
the screen or basket, clean, reassemble and open the seacock. Operate the system
and check for water flow and leaks around the strainer opening.
PUMP IMPELLER INSPECTION (if pump is inoperative)
The LC2 and the LC3 pumps are sealed liquid cooled magnetic drive centrifugal pumps.
The impeller may be inspected for obstructions and wear by first closing the sea cock.
Drain the pump housing by removing a hose if necessary.
It is IMPORTANT that NO WATER flows between the plastic housing and the pump
body. The screws that hold the cover also seal the housing. Water behind the housing
will ruin the motor bearings. BE SURE THE PUMP HOUSING IS ABSOLUTELY DRY
BEFORE DISASSEMBLY.
Remove the Phillips screws holding the inlet fitting plate (larger hose size). The impeller
may be removed with it's ceramic seal and thrust washer. Reassemble in the reverse
order. (An exploded diagram is in this manual.) Observe the "O" ring that seals the
housing cover plate. Make sure it is in good condition. Open the seacock. Inspect for
leaks.
NEVER OPERATE THE PUMP WHILE DRY. IF IT IS SUSPECTED THAT THIS
CONDITION HAS OCCURRED, INSPECT THE IMPELLER AND HOUSING FOR
WEAR.
CHECKING THE REFRIGERANT CHARGE
The SA-III system is fitted with a fish eye sight glass located in the top of the RFD. The
charge level should be inspected to be sure refrigerant is of the proper amount and that
there are no slow leaks. Switch the unit on and immediately inspect the sight glass. A
velocity of white foam should be observed and after a minute or two show a black or
clear condition. A clear glass and an empty glass will look the same. A transition must
be seen to be sure refrigerant is present. Do not operate a low or empty system. See;
"Leak Checking" and "Adding Charge".
5
LAY-UP (Winterizing)
Flush the pump and condenser with plenty of fresh water. Pressure water should be
flushed through the inlet side of the water pump. In freezing climates a 50/50 mix of
antifreeze and water should be pumped through, after flushing, by operating the system
for a very brief period. Connect a short hose to the suction side of the pump to draw
from a bucket. Run the pump (switch on unit) until antifreeze is discharged. (The pump
is not self priming and may require filling the hose and pump with a funnel. The pump is
water lubricated, DO NOT RUN THE PUMP DRY.
HOW REFRIGERATION WORKS
There are two important concepts to understand in order to learn about refrigeration.
They are latent heat and phase changes.
A great deal of heat is required to change a solid to a liquid, and a liquid to a gas. A
great deal of heat must be removed to reverse these changes. These changes are
called phase changes, or changes of state. The heat removed or added at these phase
changes has no effect on the temperature of the substances until the change is
complete. For instance, ice melts at 32 degrees F. Water freezes at 32 degrees F also.
Ice and water will remain at 32 degrees F until the freezing or melting process is
complete. Latent heat is this hidden energy required to make or break the bonds in a
phase change.
By evaporating liquid to a gas, we can absorb heat. By condensing a gas to a liquid, we
give up heat. Refrigeration is the use of these phase changes to move heat out of the
ice box (cooling it).
We all know that cold is the absence of heat. A practical example of heat absorption by
evaporation is that of rubbing alcohol evaporating in your hand and cooling it. The
alcohol is actually using the heat from your hand to boil. The absorption of heat cools
your hand.
Pressure effects the temperature at which a gas phase change will occur. Using water
as an example, water boils at sea level at 212 degrees F. On top of MT. Everest it boils
at a much lower temperature. The air pressure is lower allowing the water-to-steam
phase change to occur more easily. A pressure cooker increases the pressure on water
to restrict boiling to a higher temperature. A pressure cooker will cook food faster
because the temperature is higher. Remember that a phase change involves latent
heat. The temperature of boiling water is only 212 degrees F. at sea level. The
evaporation action is absorbing heat at a rate equal to the rate of heat applied,
preventing further temperature rise.
Let's look at Refrigerant-12. R-12 will boil at minus 21 degrees F. at sea level. By
evaporating liquid R-12 in the SEA FROST plate heat is absorbed. To dispose of this
6
heat, a condensing phase change is necessary. By increasing the pressure
(compression) we can raise the boiling point of the gas vapor. Heat is removed from
the pressurized gas vapor at the condenser. Sea water passing the condenser coils
removes the heat, forcing the gas to a liquid state again. Pressure, therefore, is the key
that allows passing the heat we have taken from the ice box to a warmer place (the sea
water) and converting the gas to a liquid to be re-evaporated again.
By causing R-12 to boil (evaporate) in the SEA FROST Block or plate, we absorb the
heat energy there. This activity cools the liquid solution within the plate(s), causing it to
change phase (freezing to a solid). By freezing this solution, we have increased its heat
absorption capacity more than 100 times.
When the cycle is stopped (compressor is turned off) the Block will begin to absorb the
heat that leaks through the insulation in the ice box. The absorption will be at a
constant temperature until the phase change to liquid (melting) is complete. This is the
principle of holdover refrigeration and the function of your SEA FROST.
INSTALLATION ~ WORK HABITS
Installer's care should be stressed. No matter how good SEA FROST equipment is, its
performance and life are in the hands of the installer. To insure your work:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Read this manual.
Reread any aspect you don't understand.
Be very careful about Swagelok fitting installation.
Spend enough time leak checking to make sure there are no leaks.
Thanks from all of us who have to guarantee your work.
There are two contaminants that will give you problems in any refrigeration system.
They are WATER and DIRT. Moisture is always present and cannot be eliminated,
water in this case refers to puddles and drops. Dirt is any solid. The installer's habits
will be most important in ensuring a trouble-free start-up. We have added a large
receiver filter dryer (RFD) to take care of all dirt and moisture that might get into the
system during a careful installation. Moisture in the system is boiled off when the
system is evacuated, or it is captured in the desiccant. There is a screen in the
expansion valve to prevent dirt from plugging it.
Excess moisture that the RFD can't handle will plug the expansion valve with ice. This
ice stops the cycle. The only cure is to discharge the refrigerant, replace the RFD, reevacuate the system, and recharge it. This remedy takes time and is somewhat costly.
Keep the system clean when installing it to save time for something more fun.
7
TUBE HANDLING
Installation is quite simple. All the copper tube comes to you with the ends capped.
Nitrogen gas is added inside the tubes to displace air and moisture. Any routing of the
tube must be done with the tube either taped or capped. Cap both tube ends after each
cut. Work with only one line at a time, and only uncap one end at a time.
TUBE CUTTING
Use only a tube cutter; hacksawing or any other method will introduce chips to the
system and also distort the tube, making connections difficult and leak-prone. A small
miniature cutter is essential for this work. CUT SLOWLY to avoid a ridge on the inside
of the tube. We do not recommend reaming or dressing the cut as it is very easy to get
chips of copper in the system, which may cause trouble.
TUBE BENDING
Make all but the long sweep bends with a spring bender; one kink and the line must be
rerun. Don't add any more fittings than are necessary. Route all lines in such a way
that they are most direct but out of the way. Again, keep everything sealed until you are
ready to make that connection.
NOTES ON SWAGELOK FITTINGS
Swagelok fittings come to you completely assembled, finger tight. (Pieces a, b, and c in
Drawing #1 are already together). They are ready for immediate use.
Disassembly before use can result in dirt and foreign material getting into the fitting and
causing leaks. If disassembly is necessary, reassemble per drawing.
This is double ferrule system. The most serious installation problem encountered with
SEA FROST is the mis-assembly of these fittings. Be sure that you assemble all fittings
as in Drawing #1.
To ease assembly slacken the fitting nut slightly before pushing onto the tube, then
retighten with fingers before tightening with a wrench. (This is to avoid cross threading.)
Step 1. Always leave two inches of straight, undistorted tubing leading to all Swagelok
fittings to allow proper connection.
Step 2. Prior to inserting 3/8" tubing into Swagelok tube fitting, make a pencil mark 3/4"
from end of tube as a guide. Prior to inserting 1/4" tubing, make a pencil mark 5/8" from
the end of the tube as a guide.
8
Step 3. Insert clean, smooth tubing with the pencil mark into the Swagelok tube fitting.
You can be sure the tube is resting firmly on the shoulder of the fitting when the pencil
mark is flush with the nut.
Step 4. Tighten the Swagelok nut to a wrench snug* position. Scribe the nut with a
pencil at the 6:00 o'clock position (see drawing, step # 2).
* Wrench snug is the first point in the assembly tightening when the tube can not be
pulled from the fitting, (i.e. when the ferrules tighten enough to contact the tubing).
Step 5. Now, while holding the fitting body with a back-up wrench, tighten the nut oneand-one-quarter turns ( 1+1/4). To do so, watch the scribe mark, make one complete
revolution, and continue to the 9:00 o'clock position. (See drawing, step #3).
DRAWING 1
STEP 1
Simply insert the tubing into the
SWAGELOK tube fitting. Make sure that
the tubing rest firmly on the shoulder of
the fitting and that the nut is wrench
snug.
9
STEP 2
Before tightening the SWAGELOK nut,
scribe the nut at six o’clock position.
STEP 3
Now, while holding the fitting body steady
with a backup wrench, tighten the nut 1 ¼
turns. Watch the scribe mark, make one
complete revolution and continue to the 9
o’clock position. By scribing the nut at the
6 o’clock position as it appears to you
there will be no doubt as to the starting
position. When tightened 1 1 ¼ turns to
the 9 o’clock position you can easily see
that the fitting has been properly installed.
* SWAGELOK FITTINGS ARE TO BE TIGHTENED TO A TORQUE SPEC, NOT
INFINITE TIGHTNESS. BE SURE YOUR STARTING POINT IS WRENCH SNUG.
(SEE STEP 4 IN THE SWAGELOK ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS.) A DISTORTED
TUBE MIGHT GIVE A FALSE STARTING POINT.
* Swagelok fittings have a built-in spring interaction between the ferrules. This
compensates for temperature changes and allows the fittings to be reconnected many
times. As the fitting is tightened, a burnishing occurs between the body of the fitting and
the ferrules and between the ferrules and the tube. This action provides the tightest
connection available.
* When making all connections, USE TWO WRENCHES. Don't allow the fittings to turn
or twist when tightening.
RECONNECTING PRE-SWAGED FITTINGS
Connections can be disconnected and retightened many times.
When reconnecting, insert the tubing with pre-swaged ferrules into the fitting until the
front ferrule seats in the fitting. Tighten the nut by hand. Tighten the nut one-quarter of
a turn with a wrench (or to original one-and-one-quarter tight position). Then snug
slightly with the wrench. No more than an additional 1/8 turn.
10
CONDENSING UNIT LOCATION AND MOUNTING
The design of the SA-III allows placement of the unit in an enclosed space such as a
cabin locker, sail locker or engine area.
Service access and installation require that the front and left end (water fitting end) be
accessible.
Mount the Shore Assist level. The compressor is at the bottom. The unit may be
bulkhead or platform mounted. Pilot holes have been pre-drilled for the aluminum angle
clips. Use the #8 x 3/4" self tapping screws which are included.
809 PLATES
SEA FROST holdover plates mount with a
"Wellnut" expandable neoprene blind hole
fastener. See the instruction tag packed
With the plate. A template or the part itself
should be used to locate the mounting
holes. Drill 1/4" pilot holes then increase
them to 1/2". Install the screw into the
mounting tab then screw the mount onto
the screw. Install the plate pushing the
rubber mounts into the predrilled holes.
Tighten the screws.
VALVE CONTROL UNIT
For appearance and convenience of installation, the valve control unit (V/CU) may
mount outside the ice box. The valve will attract moisture and drip if it is not well
insulated with the valve blanket and additional insulation. Insulate the valve after
installation and leak checking. In certain applications it may be necessary and easier to
mount the valve inside the cabinet. Refer to schematic drawings when connecting more
than one plate. Before cutting the tubing:
1. leave a minimum of one inch of tube beyond a bulkhead and...
2. allow room for wrench access.
- 90 degree elbows can be installed on the valve control unit to reduce space
requirements if necessary.
- The tubing will support the valve control unit.
- The tubing must bottom in the fitting. A pencil mark 5/8" from the tube end (3/8 tube)
should be flush with the fitting nut face when the tube is seated in the fitting.
11
WARNING: READ SAFETY SECTION BEFORE PROCEEDING
The SA-III unit is shipped under some refrigerant pressure. Before removing the caps
on the connection ports, remove the screw caps on the service valve covers and
depress the cores with a fingernail to vent any existing pressure.
After depressurizing, working with one line at a time, remove the Swagelok caps from
compressor and condenser. Attach union fitting bodies. Make up 1/4 turn from wrench
snug. This is a pre-Swaged connection...See Swagelok fittings text in Engine Drive
installation manual.
RECEIVER FILTER DRIER (RFD)
LOCATION: The RFD is fitted with a sight glass in the top portion. Be sure that it can
be viewed from an angle of less than 40 degrees when mounted in an upright position
(the sight glass is the top). The RFD may be supported by the tubing or secured with a
large tie wrap.
Because the RFD contains desiccant to absorb moisture and the absorption is limited, it
is important to unpack and install it after all other connections are made. Leaving the
RFD installed on a partially open system may reduce its capacity by allowing it to
absorb moisture in free air before the system is sealed. See "WORK HABITS."
The RFD is a reservoir for excess refrigerant.
The RFD also contains a sight glass in the top.
(Please refer to the planning section regarding
location and "readability" rfd drawing of the
sight glass) A pick-up tube extends from the
bottom of the canister to the outlet. For
Proper function of the reservoir, the RFD must
be positioned as close to VERTICAL as
possible to ensure proper operation at various
heel angles.
12
RUNNING THE TUBING
Connect 1/4" copper tube between the condensing unit and the planned location of the
RFD. Continue with 1/4" to the expansion valve. Multiple plate hook-ups should be
assemble as indicated by the specific diagram provided.
A 3/8" line connects the valve unit to the compressor.
If possible, run the 1/4" liquid line in contact with 3/8" suction line. This will be insulated
in proper sequence.
Support the tubing (every 12 to 18 inches) as necessary with tie wraps
THERMOSTAT & WIRING
For the best looking job, the thermostat should be cut into a panel. We do not
recommend installation in the insulation or in the box as the control is not moisture
protected. A Cutting template is provided. Locate the thermostat close enough for the
"bulb" tube to reach. It is only necessary that the bulb end of the sensing tube be
installed on the plate(s). Use one of the mount screws for attaching the copper clip on
the 809 plates. The sensing tube is hollow and filled with refrigerant; avoid bending it
into a kink that could cause it to crack and leak.
THERMOSTAT WIRING
The thermostat electrical leads are low voltage for safety. Connect the red thermostat
wires to the red wires exiting the condensing unit.
110-VOLT CIRCUIT
A separate 15-amp breaker is required for the 110 volt circuit. The Shore Assist is
provided with a 3-wire male plug. A standard outlet mounted next to the unit is
recommended. Secure all wiring as necessary.
PUMP INSTALLATION
This is a most important operation. Please understand this before beginning the
installation. The SA-III uses a centrifugal pump. It is not self priming. Air pockets
caused by loops or descending lines from one component to the other may cause pump
problems. This pump must never be run dry. It is water cooled and lubricated. The wet
end may be destroyed if it is started dry.
13
A separate through hull fitting 3/4" or larger should be used. It should be as low in the
boat as possible and away from head and cockpit drains. A forward facing scoop will
prevent problems if the unit is operating underway.
A large seawater strainer should be mounted above the seacock.
The pump should be mounted horizontally. It should be higher than the strainer. The
discharge should be on the top.
(Refer to the drawing at the back of this manual.)
WIRING THE PUMP
The pump is connected by a three-prong plug to the compressor unit. Be sure this
plug will not get wet.
SAFETY
OBSERVE SAFETY REGULATIONS WHEN USING REFRIGERANT.
WEAR PROPER EYE PROTECTION
BE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND REFRIGERANT HANDLING AND GAUGE
OPERATION TO PREVENT AIR FROM ENTERING THE SYSTEM.
R-12 is non-toxic, however, liquid R-12 will freeze skin. It's especially dangerous to the
irreparable tissues of the eyes. WEAR EYE PROTECTION.
WARNING. NEVER OPERATE a system with the HIGH SIDE (discharge) OPEN TO
the REFRIGERANT supply. Pressurization of the supply can beyond it's normal
pressure could cause it to burst.
REFRIGERANT HANDLING
TAPPING A CAN OF REFRIGERANT
Be sure the can of R-12 is clean and dry. Any contaminants on the top of the can or in
the hose will enter the system. First, install the clamp assembly on the top of the can.
Next, screw the valve wheel into the valve body, closing the valve. (The metal point will
protrude from the gasket, but it will make its own seal while piercing the can). Now, with
the can upright, screw the valve body assembly into the clamp on the can, turning until
the point pierces the can and the rubber gasket has sealed. The can is now tapped.
14
THE CHARGE HOSE ENDS ARE DIFFERENT
The charge hose supplied with the SEA FROST system has a metal insert in the fitting
on one end. This fitting installs on the compressor suction service valve.
VENTING THE CHARGE HOSE
To avoid pulling air or other contaminants into the system, it is necessary to vent the air
out of the hoses that are used to carry R-12 into the system. To vent the hose, open
the can tap valve with the can upright (vapor) to allow a wind pressure to escape.
Make the connection as this gas is escaping. Follow this procedure when adding
refrigerant to an evacuated system or to a low charged system.
CHANGING CANS
Close the valve on the empty can. Unscrew the can from the valve body. Some
pressure may be present. Let this drop before completely removing the can tap. Switch
the clamp to the other can, and rethread onto the valve body.
GAUGES
Gauges are used in the evacuation and charging. They will provide information on the
operation of the system.
Gauge sets consist of two gauges installed in a manifold with two valves. The left
gauge (blue) is a compound device; it indicates pressure and vacuum. The right gauge
(red) indicates pressure only. The valves open a center port (yellow) to the left or right
side respectively. Operation of the valves is only necessary when moving refrigerant or
evacuating. With the valves closed, the gauges read the pressures of the connection
points. The red hose is connected to the discharge side of the compressor; the blue
hose is connected to the suction side.
Charging with the gauges should be done through the blue side.
The center hose is connected to the can tap. Be sure to vent the hoses to displace any
air that might be in them.
TO INSTALL GAUGES ON A CHARGED SYSTEM, with the system off, attach the
hoses to the compressor. Vent the hoses at the manifold body by loosening the fittings
for a few seconds. Again, the high side need not be connected unless compressor
problems are suspected.
15
TO REMOVE THE GAUGES, turn off the compressor, wait for the pressure readings to
equalize, then rapidly unscrew the hoses at the compressor. Re-cap the service ports.
Keep gauges clean. Inspect rubber gaskets on hoses, leak-check gauge valve packing
and all hose connections. Prior to use, any oil should be blown out of the hoses with
refrigerant. The end of the hose that contains the depressor core is the end that
attaches to the compressor service port. Check and reset "o" on low side, if necessary.
ACCESS TO THE SYSTEM ~ SERVICE PORTS
The service ports are two small-capped Schrader valves, similar to tire valves. The
suction port is on the compressor and is painted blue with a blue cap. The discharge
port is on the 1/4" copper line to the condenser and is painted red with a red cap. There
is a also a discharge port on the Receiver Filter Drier, (RFD) which is the cylinder with
the sight glass in the top. It should not be necessary to use the discharge port unless
you are diagnosing a compressor problem. (The discharge port is also called the high
side. The suction side is also called the low side.)
LEAK CHECKING
After all the equipment is mounted and connected, leak testing should be performed.
This is a very important step, which should be done with diligence. A leak will cripple
this system. Please take the time to be sure all connections are tight.
Attach clean, purged gauges to the suction service port on the compressor. This is the
blue gauge. Pressurize the system with R-12. Check for leaks. (Refer to the text
following.) Do not rely on a vacuum leak check. Perform a careful pressure leak check.
ABOUT PRESSURES
Refrigerant is a saturated condition, i.e. part liquid and part vapor, will exert a pressure
that is a function of its temperature. The higher the temperature, the higher the
pressure. Avoid leak checking in cold weather.
A refrigerant leak will show with moderate pressure. (A leak is not a function of pressure
once the pressure is high enough to show up on leak-checking equipment). However,
the pressure must be sufficient to leak enough R-12 to be detected.
TO LEAK TEST a new system, install the charge hose (or gauges) and a can of
refrigerant on the suction port of the compressor. (See "Tapping A Can Of Refrigerant",
"Changing Cans" text). With the can in the inverted (liquid) position, open the valve and
feed in about 1/2 a can of refrigerant. (Shake the can, add more if needed). Close the
valve and begin an inspection of all connections you have made.
16
In cold weather, it is possible to raise the pressure in the system by warming the
plate(s) with a light bulb left on in the cabinet until the plates are warm to the touch.
There are two ways to leak-check a pressurized system:
1. Soap bubbles (a solution of dish soap and water works well).
2. Electronic leak detector (probe senses presence of halide refrigerant molecules).
TO CHECK WITH BUBBLES
Soap each connection and observe all sides of the connection with a strong light and a
mirror. A leak will blow bubbles. Without careful examination and plenty of
pressure, this test is not reliable.
TO CHECK WITH AN ELECTRONIC DETECTOR
Slowly trace the area with the probe. Refrigerant is heavier than air, therefore, trace
below the fitting. Most units can be calibrated to home in on a leak. (See detector
instructions). We use and recommend electronic detection. TIF brand detectors can
accurately detect leaks as low as 1/2 oz. loss per year. This sensitivity exceeds SAE
leak specifications.
IF A LEAK IS DETECTED...
Try tightening the Swagelok fitting nut slightly more. (See; "Notes On Fittings"). If the
leak is not thereby stopped, it is possible that the fitting was misassembled. Discharge
the refrigerant, then disconnect the connection for inspection.
SPECIAL NOTES
-
Be aware that propellants and solvents in sprays and foams may upset electronic
detectors.
Electronic detectors do not function below 40.F.
A good electronic leak detector is able to pick up leaks as low as 1/2 oz per year.
After satisfactory leak testing, proceed to "Evacuation With A Vacuum Pump".
EVACUATION WITH A VACUUM PUMP
Evacuation removes air, readying the system for charging. Evacuate only after
pressurizing and leak checking. Connect gauges to the compressor ports (See:
"Access to the System" and "Gauges"). It is not necessary to hook on to high pressure
(discharge) access port. If pressure is noted, slowly vent the system through the low
side valve to the open center hose.
17
When pressure shows "O" psi, connect the center hose to a high vacuum pump. Start
the pump and slowly open gauge hand wheel. Evacuated to best vacuum. On a new
system using a high vacuum pump this requires 15 to 25 minutes. When evacuation is
finished close gauge hand wheel. Turn off the pump. Disconnect the center hose from
pump and connect it to a can of refrigerant (See "Tapping a Can of Refrigerant"). Vent
the hose from can tap to gauge body (See "Venting the Charge Hose").
NEW SYSTEM CHARGING
This procedure must follow "Evacuation with a Vacuum Pump".
Be familiar with the sections "Access to the System: "Service Ports", "Tapping a Can",
The Charge Hose", "Venting The Charge Hose", and "Changing Cans".
1. With the refrigerant supply still attached to the compressor suction service port
from the previous procedure, open the can tap valve (or appropriate gauge wheel) wide
open. Invert the can to the liquid position. Add about 1/2 can R-12 to the system, then
close can tap (or gauge wheel). NOW PERFORM COMPLETE LEAK TEST AS
BEFORE. If leak is found, correct leak immediately. If discharge is necessary to
remedy leaks, re-evacuate the system, then begin this step again.
2. While closely observing the sight glass in the RFD, start the compressor by
switching on breaker and then turning on the thermostat.
3. The sight glass will show a steam of foam indicating a partial charge. When a
sufficient amount of refrigerant has been added to the system the sight glass will clear,
indicating sufficient charge. (See "READING THE SIGHT GLASS" below).
Compressor (Thermostat) should be turned off while changing cans.
Charging a hot system, (cabinet and plate(s) over 80 degrees F) sight glass will usually
clear as the return line at the Valve Control Unit becomes frosted).
4. When sight glass runs clear, top off with approximately 4 oz. (1/4 of can), subject
to the formula in "PROPER CHARGE AMOUNT: MAXIMUM CHARGE".
5. When observation and test operation have been completed, disconnect charge
hose, replace service port cap (s). WARNING: if using gauges on the discharge, allow
pressures to settle (equalize) before removing discharge side hose.
6. Re-check all connection points for leaks.
7. Spray acrylic rust coating, or similar rust inhibitor, on all fittings and components
when dry.
18
READING THE SIGHT GLASS
A clear sight glass signifies a sufficiently charged SEA FROST SA-III system when the
compressor is operating. To determine the meaning of "clear", notice the appearance
of the RFD sight glass when the system is at rest with the compressor off.
This is a "clear" glass.
SPECIAL WARNING: A clear sight glass can also indicate a completely EMPTY
system. Any time the compressor is started after a rest period, a white stream of foam
should appear in the sight glass indicating that refrigerant is present. This foam may
disappear quite quickly, but IF NO FOAM IS EVIDENT, the system is empty. DO NOT
OPERATE THE SYSTEM if empty. Operation in this mode will ruin the compressor.
A white foam of high velocity with the compressor operating indicates an insufficient
charge level. Watch closely for a transition from foam to total liquid, indicated by a clear
sight glass. This transition point can be missed if proper attention is not given. Also, IT
IS POSSIBLE for the sight glass to show large bubbles even when the charge is
sufficient, so it is important to differentiate between "foam" and "bubbles". The foam
condition has velocity and direction; the bubbles are larger, temporary, and nearly
stationary. Do not try to chase away these larger bubbles with more refrigerant:
overcharging must be avoided. Air in the system may give a false sight glass reading,
which could lead to overcharging. If in doubt, discharge a suspected overcharged
system (see "DISCHARGING THE SYSTEM") and charge over again. MONITOR THE
SIGHT GLASS CONTINUALLY since the glass will not indicate when the system is
overcharged.
In a warm system, when the Block or Plates are above freezing (32.F) upon start-up,
the sight glass may take several minutes to clear. A cold system, in cold water, may
show a clear glass within seconds of start-up.
Empty or clear
Stationary bubbles
19
Foam / low
PROPER CHARGE AMOUNT
MAXIMUM CHARGE can be computed by multiplying liquid line length (distance in feet
of tubing from bottom of condenser to Valve/Control Unit) by 1/3 ounce of R-12, and
then adding 10 ounces. (Shaking the can is a good method of determining the amount
of refrigerant remaining in the can). DO NOT EXCEED THIS AMOUNT.
GENERAL INFORMATION
OPERATING PRESSURES will vary with water temperature, and water flow.
Generally, HIGH SIDE will peak with warm plate(s) in two minutes. Increasing pressure
indicates overcharge or no water flow. LOW SIDE will drop to 25 psi rapidly, and will
then drop two pounds per minute or faster to a slight vacuum. However, low side
pressure will drop more rapidly when the seawater is cold. A deeper vacuum will be
indicated. Deep vacuum indicates the valve is frozen or plugged. A running system
with little or no charge will indicate a deep vacuum. The thermostat-sensing bulb must
be attached to the plate or block in the system. The bulb is not meant to monitor box
temperature. See thermostat data sheet.
Every Valve/Control Unit has been operated prior to shipment. There are no field
superheat adjustments.
SPECIAL NOTE
WE DO NOT RECOMMEND charging SEA FROST gear with BULK CYLINDERS since
it is hard to determine how much refrigerant has been installed. The feed pressure with
a bulk cylinder can be higher which may cause skipping through the condenser, causing
bubbles in the sight glass. However, if bulk cylinders are used, keep feed pressure
below 20 PSI.
FINISHING THE JOB
After operation has been checked proper attention should be made to insulating the
V/CU, the return line (the large diameter tube) and, any tube entering the cabinet.
Armorflex closed cell insulation should be split and taped on the tubes. Install the
insulation with the seam down and be sure all tube is covered to avoid unwanted
moisture. The valve blanket should be cut and folded as needed to wrap the valve
completely. This aspect of the installation makes the difference between a good job and
an excellent job. Plan to spend the time needed to do it right.
20
CHECKING THE REFRIGERANT CHARGE ~ ADDING CHARGE
Checking the refrigerant charge must be incorporated into a routine maintenance
schedule.
MONITOR THE SIGHT GLASS CONTINUALLY. See, READING THE SIGHT
GLASS." If the sight glass does not show the presence of refrigerant within a minute of
operation the system is empty. TURN OFF SYSTEM, and follow the procedure in
"TROUBLE SHOOTING" below.
If the white foam is evident watch closely for the transition to "clear" (see "READING
THE SIGHT GLASS". If glass indicates insufficient charge level, additional charge will
be needed. Before adding charge perform a through leak check.
ADDING CHARGE
BE FAMILIAR WITH the sections: "Access To The System", "Service Ports", "Tapping A
Can", "The Charge Hose", "Venting The Charge Hose", and "Changing Cans"). Turn off
compressor. Attach a can of Refrigerant-12 with a properly vented charge hose to the
compressor suction service port. Monitoring the sight glass continually, start
compressor and add refrigerant (as vapor) until the glass clears. Top off about 3
ounces (1/4 can).
Feel the SEA FROST plate(s) in the icebox five minutes after starting the compressor.
If the sight glass clears yet the plate(s) or Block temperature does not drop after 5 to 10
minutes of operation, turn system off and follow the procedure in "TROUBLE
SHOOTING".
If the proper charge is indicated, make ice, go sailing.
DISCHARGING THE SYSTEM
Before the connections can be disconnected, the refrigerant must be discharged.
Connect a charge hose or gauge set to the suction service port. (See "Access To The
System" text). Slowly vent the refrigerant through the open hose regulating the gauge
valve or charge hose fitting on the service port to prevent oil or liquid from being
discharged. (A few drops of oil escaping may be unavoidable).
21
TROUBLESHOOTING
The most common problems that can occur in a SEA FROST SA-III system are:
1. Loss of refrigerant charge resulting from leaks.
2. Moisture or dirt plugging the valve.
3. Compressor malfunction due to loss of refrigerant charge.
4. Overcharge, disconnect of the high-pressure switch.
5. Cooling water flow loss causing the high-pressure switch to disconnect.
STEP 1. Gather information as to the nature of the problem before operating the
system. A leak often leaves a trace of oil that may be found by blotting the connection
points and fittings with a dry paper towel. Inspect all the fittings and tubing for wear,
chafe and corrosion. Operate the system as little as possible until the trouble is
corrected. Damage may result from operation with low charge.
HIGH PRESSURE CUTOUT
The compressor is fitted with a MANUAL RESET high-pressure switch. The switch is
located on the left side of the SA-III unit between the condenser tubes. (See drawing).
This switch will disconnect the thermostat circuit switching off the compressor and water
pump.
MANUAL RESET
It may be reset by pushing the soft Red Rubber Button after the unit has rested for a
few minutes. A faint click will be heard when the button resets.
BEFORE RESETTING the switch, inspect the pump and strainer. Most installations
have a line plug connection for the pump. If so fitted, plug the pump into a receptacle or
extension cord to be sure it is operating. If the installation location of the through hull
allows air to enter the system it may be necessary to bleed the air from a hose
connection after the pump but below the waterline by loosening a hose connection.
When water flows from the connection, retighten the connection.
*This switch will disconnect if the water flow stops.
*This switch will disconnect if the system is overcharged.
Overcharge may not appear until the boat moves into warmer water than it has been
commissioned in. Discharge the system until the unit operates without disconnecting the
high-pressure switch. Be sure that the sight glass still runs clear. Refer to "CHECKING
THE REFRIGERANT CHARGE".
22
For further troubleshooting, attach purged gauges to compressor service ports or
observe the temperature of lines as follows.
a) If the ice box and SEA FROST Block or plates are warm and pressure readings
are below 50 psi with compressor off (in 50 degree F or higher ambient conditions),
pressurize system with R-12 and leak-check (see "LEAK CHECKING").
b) If the pressure reading is over 50 psi with compressor off, operate the system and
proceed to check charge level via sight glass and charge if needed.
CHARGE LOSS INDICATES A LEAK THAT MUST BE CORRECTED
STEP 2. If a system continues to operate inefficiently after Step 1, check for moisture
or dirt plugging the valve. Run the system, closely observing gauge readings and Block
or plate temperature, noting the following:
a) If the system is warm upon start-up, a DIRT-PLUGGED VALVE will show an
immediate deep vacuum reading on low side. Consult Sea Frost/C.F. Horton & Co.,
Inc. for cleaning techniques.
b) MOISTURE-PLUGGED VALVE is indicated by deep vacuum readings on low
side after 1 to 5 minutes operation from warm with the system properly charged,
FOLLOWED BY any combination of these symptoms:
- High side compressor discharge tube to the top of the condenser temperature drops
from hot to warm.
- Suction line from Valve Control Unit remains warm or starts to get cold then warms.
Moisture enters either through a low side leak or during initial installation and will freeze
at the Valve Control Unit, reducing or eliminating refrigeration. Turning off system and
allowing valve/control unit to warm to above freezing, then restarting, may temporarily
solve the problem. If not, change RFD as follows.
STEP 3. To change a saturated RFD, allow entire system to warm to ambient
temperature, thereby preventing moisture from condensing in circuit upon opening. (A
light bulb in ice box will speed warming of Block or plate(s)). DISCHARGE refrigerant
from system through the suction service port SLOWLY to prevent liquid and oil from
escaping. See "Discharging The System." WARNING: BEFORE DISASSEMBLY OF
ANY PART BE SURE CHARGE IS COMPLETELY VENTED. With a back-up wrench
holding the brass body of the Swagelok fittings loosen and back off the nuts. Tubing
may be pulled out of the fittings.
23
Remove the RFD. If there is to be a delay in reinstalling an RFD, tape or cap the open
connectors to make sure no air or dirt enters the system. Replace only with identical
unit: SEA FROST RFD is a drier and a receiver/filter. SEA FROST RFD’s are oil
compensated to cover oil removed in the old part.
Install a new RFD, observing proper INLET ("IN") position. (The sight glass window is
offset toward the output) Refrigerant flow is from the condenser to the "IN" side. The
out side is to the V/CU.) Follow "RECONNECTING PRE-SWAGED FITTINGS." Leak
test. Evacuate.
Reminder: To ensure removal of moisture use high vacuum pump and evacuate the
system with highest possible ambient and plate(s) temperature. A light bulb or heat
lamp in contact with the plate(s) is a good technique. Turning a 100-watt bulb on in
the box over night will also work.
RECHARGE
MOISTURE IS A SYMPTOM. Carefully leak check the low side of the system if
moisture becomes a problem. Moisture leaks in!
CALL US WITH ANY QUESTIONS
603-868-5720
Toll Free: USA and Caribbean 1-800-435-6708
24
372 ROUTE 4 BARRINGTON, NH 03825 USA
TEL (603) 868-5720
FAX (603) 868-1040
E-Mail:[email protected]
1-800-435-6708
www.seafrost.com
THERMOSTAT CALIBRATION INSTRUCTIONS
Note: Be sure that the unit is operating properly before making any thermostat
adjustments. The sensing bulb must be in excellent thermal contact with the plate or
block.
The range of this control may be changed. To access the adjustment screw, remove
the four mounting screws on the thermostat panel. Tip the panel forward and remove
the protective tape to expose a slot in the case. Make the adjustment with a torx or
small phillips head screwdriver.
Make small adjustments. Record all adjustments.
If the lowest setting on the thermostat panel (1-snowflake) is too cold:
•
Turn the adjustment screw clockwise. One 360-degree turn will raise the box
temperature approximately 6 degrees f.
If the highest setting on the thermostat panel (3-snowflakes) is too warm:
•
Turn the adjustment screw counterclockwise.
25
HOLDOVER PLATES
STAINLESS STEEL
EVAPORATOR PLATES
26
WATER CIRCUIT
27
SA3 SCHEMATIC
28
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