Download les1208-1548a_user_manual_rev5.pdf

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LES1208A-R2
LES1308A
LES1408A
LES1216A-R2LES1316A LES1416A
LES1232A LES1332ALES1432A
LES1248A-R2LES1348A LES1448A
LES1508A
LES1516A
LES1532A
LES1548A
Value-Line and Advanced Console Servers User’s Manual
Securely manage data center and network
equipment from anywhere in the world.
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Value-Line and Advanced Console Servers Manual
Trademarks Used in this Manual
Black Box and the Double Diamond logo are registered trademarks of BB Technologies, Inc.
Cisco is a registered trademark of Cisco Technology, Inc.
Mac is a registered trademark of Apple Computers, Inc.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Internet Explorer, Windows, Windows Me, Windows NT, and Windows Vista are a registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Nagios is a registered trademark of Nagios Enterprises LLC.
Java and Solaris are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Unix is a registered trademark of X/Open Company Ltd.
Any other trademarks mentioned in this manual are acknowledged to be the property of the trademark owners.
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Value-Line and Advanced Console Servers Manual
Federal Communications Commission and Industry Canada Radio Frequency Interference
Statements
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio-frequency energy, and if not installed and used properly, that is, in strict
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, may cause inter­ference to radio communication. It has been tested and found to
comply with the limits for a Class A computing device in accordance with the specifications in Subpart B of Part 15 of FCC rules,
which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial
environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference, in which case the user at his own
expense will be required to take whatever measures may be necessary to correct the interference.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to
operate the equipment.
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emis­sion from digital apparatus set out in the Radio
Interference Regulation of Industry Canada.
Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites applicables aux appareils numériques de
la classe A prescrites dans le Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique publié par Industrie Canada.
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FCC and IC RFI Statements
Instrucciones de Seguridad
(Normas Oficiales Mexicanas Electrical Safety Statement)
1. T odas las instrucciones de seguridad y operación deberán ser leídas antes de que el aparato eléctrico sea operado.
2. Las instrucciones de seguridad y operación deberán ser guardadas para referencia futura.
3. Todas las advertencias en el aparato eléctrico y en sus instrucciones de operación deben ser respetadas.
4. T odas las instrucciones de operación y uso deben ser seguidas.
5. E l aparato eléctrico no deberá ser usado cerca del agua—por ejemplo, cerca de la tina de baño, lavabo, sótano mojado o cerca
de una alberca, etc..
6. E l aparato eléctrico debe ser usado únicamente con carritos o pedestales que sean recomendados por el fabricante.
7. El aparato eléctrico debe ser montado a la pared o al techo sólo como sea recomendado por el fabricante.
8. S ervicio—El usuario no debe intentar dar servicio al equipo eléctrico más allá a lo descrito en las instrucciones de operación.
Todo otro servicio deberá ser referido a personal de servicio calificado.
9. El aparato eléctrico debe ser situado de tal manera que su posición no interfiera su uso. La colocación del aparato eléctrico
sobre una cama, sofá, alfombra o superficie similar puede bloquea la ventilación, no se debe colocar en libreros o gabinetes
que impidan el flujo de aire por los orificios de ventilación.
10. E l equipo eléctrico deber ser situado fuera del alcance de fuentes de calor como radiadores, registros de calor, estufas u otros
aparatos (incluyendo amplificadores) que producen calor.
11. E l aparato eléctrico deberá ser connectado a una fuente de poder sólo del tipo descrito en el instructivo de operación, o como
se indique en el aparato.
12. P recaución debe ser tomada de tal manera que la tierra fisica y la polarización del equipo no sea eliminada.
13. L os cables de la fuente de poder deben ser guiados de tal manera que no sean pisados ni pellizcados por objetos colocados
sobre o contra ellos, poniendo particular atención a los contactos y receptáculos donde salen del aparato.
14. El equipo eléctrico debe ser limpiado únicamente de acuerdo a las recomendaciones del fabricante.
15. E n caso de existir, una antena externa deberá ser localizada lejos de las lineas de energia.
16. El cable de corriente deberá ser desconectado del cuando el equipo no sea usado por un largo periodo de tiempo.
17. Cuidado
debe ser tomado de tal manera que objectos liquidos no sean derramados sobre la cubierta u orificios de ventilación.
18. S ervicio por personal calificado deberá ser provisto cuando:
A: El cable de poder o el contacto ha sido dañado; u
B: Objectos han caído o líquido ha sido derramado dentro del aparato; o
C: El aparato ha sido expuesto a la lluvia; o
D: El aparato parece no operar normalmente o muestra un cambio en su desempeño; o
E: El aparato ha sido tirado o su cubierta ha sido dañada.
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NOM Statement
Table of Contents
1. Overview
................................................................................................................................................................ 12
2. Installation ................................................................................................................................................................ 17
2.1Models................................................................................................................................................................ 17
2.1.1 Kit components LES1508A Console Server.............................................................................................. 18
2.1.2 Kit components LES1308A-–LES1348A and LES1408A -–LES1448A Advanced Console Servers............ 18
2.1.3 Kit components LES1208A-R2, LES1216A-R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-R2 Advanced
Console Servers....................................................................................................................................... 19
2.1.4 Kit components LES1516A–LES1548A Console Servers........................................................................... 20
2.2 Power connection................................................................................................................................................. 21
2.2.1 LES1408A–LES1448A, LES1308A–LES1348A and LES1208A–LES1248A power...................................... 21
2.2.2LES1508A–LES1548A power................................................................................................................... 21
2.3 Network connection.............................................................................................................................................. 22
2.4 Serial Port connection........................................................................................................................................... 22
2.5 USB Port connection............................................................................................................................................. 23
2.6 Antenna and SIM.................................................................................................................................................. 24
3. System Configuration................................................................................................................................................... 25
3.1 Management console connection......................................................................................................................... 25
3.1.1 Connected PC/workstation set up........................................................................................................... 25
3.1.2 Browser connection................................................................................................................................. 26
3.2 Administrator Password......................................................................................................................................... 28
3.2.1 Change Default Root System Password................................................................................................... 28
3.2.2 Set up new administrator........................................................................................................................ 29
3.2.3 Name the console server......................................................................................................................... 29
3.3 Network IP address............................................................................................................................................... 30
3.3.1 IPv6 configuration.................................................................................................................................... 31
3.3.2 Dynamic DNS (DDNS) configuration........................................................................................................ 31
3.4 Services and Service access.................................................................................................................................... 33
3.4.1 Brute Force Protection............................................................................................................................. 37
3.5 Communications Software.................................................................................................................................... 38
3.5.1SDT Connector........................................................................................................................................ 38
3.5.2 PuTTY...................................................................................................................................................... 38
3.5.3 SSHTerm.................................................................................................................................................. 39
3.6 Management Network configuration.................................................................................................................... 39
3.6.1 Enable the Management LAN.................................................................................................................40
3.6.2 Configure the DHCP server...................................................................................................................... 41
3.6.3 Select Failover or broadband OOB........................................................................................................... 43
3.6.4 Aggregating the network ports............................................................................................................... 45
3.6.5 Wi-Fi Wireless LAN.................................................................................................................................. 45
3.6.6Static routes............................................................................................................................................. 49
4. Serial Port and Network Host....................................................................................................................................... 51
4.1 Configure Serial Ports............................................................................................................................................ 51
4.1.1Common Settings.................................................................................................................................... 52
4.1.2 Console Server Mode.............................................................................................................................. 53
4.1.3SDT Mode................................................................................................................................................ 58
4.1.4 Device (RPC, UPS, EMD) Mode................................................................................................................ 59
4.1.5 Terminal Server Mode.............................................................................................................................. 59
4.1.6 Serial Bridging Mode...............................................................................................................................60
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4.1.7Syslog......................................................................................................................................................60
4.1.8NMEA Streaming..................................................................................................................................... 61
4.1.9 Cisco USB console connection................................................................................................................. 61
4.2 Add/ Edit Users...................................................................................................................................................... 62
4.3Authentication....................................................................................................................................................... 65
4.4 Network Hosts...................................................................................................................................................... 65
4.5 Trusted Networks..................................................................................................................................................66
4.6 Serial Port Cascading.............................................................................................................................................68
4.6.1 Automatically generate and upload SSH keys..........................................................................................68
4.6.2 Manually generate and upload SSH keys................................................................................................. 69
4.6.3 Configure the slaves and their serial ports............................................................................................... 71
4.6.4 Managing the Slaves................................................................................................................................ 72
4.7 Serial Port Redirection........................................................................................................................................... 72
4.8 Managed Devices.................................................................................................................................................. 73
4.9 IPsec VPN.............................................................................................................................................................. 75
4.9.1 Enable the VPN gateway......................................................................................................................... 76
4.10 OpenVPN............................................................................................................................................................. 77
4.10.1 Enable the OpenVPN............................................................................................................................... 77
4.10.2 Configure as Server or Client................................................................................................................... 78
4.10.3 Windows OpenVPN Client and Server set up.......................................................................................... 79
4.11PPTP VPN.............................................................................................................................................................. 83
4.11.1 Enable the PPTP VPN server..................................................................................................................... 83
4.11.2 Add a PPTP user...................................................................................................................................... 85
4.11.3 Set up a remote PPTP client..................................................................................................................... 85
4.12 Call Home.............................................................................................................................................................86
4.12.1 Set up Call Home Candidate................................................................................................................... 87
4.12.2 Accept Call Home Candidate as Managed Console Server on VCMS......................................................88
4.12.3 Calling Home to a Generic Central SSH Server........................................................................................ 89
4.13 IP Passthrough......................................................................................................................................................90
4.13.1 Downstream Router Setup......................................................................................................................90
4.13.2 IP Passthrough Certification..................................................................................................................... 91
4.13.3 IP Passthrough Configuration.................................................................................................................. 91
4.13.4
Service Interrupts..................................................................................................................................... 92
4.13.5 IP Passthrough Status............................................................................................................................... 92
4.13.6
Caveats.................................................................................................................................................... 92
5. Firewall, Failover, and OoB Dial-In................................................................................................................................ 93
5.1 Dialup Modem Connection................................................................................................................................... 93
5.2 OoB Dial-In Access................................................................................................................................................ 93
5.2.1 Configure Dial-In PPP...............................................................................................................................94
5.2.2 Using SDT Connector client.....................................................................................................................96
5.2.3 Set up Windows XP/ 2003/Vista/7 client.................................................................................................96
5.2.4 Set up earlier Windows clients................................................................................................................. 97
5.2.5 Set up Linux clients for dial-in.................................................................................................................. 97
5.3 Dial-Out Access..................................................................................................................................................... 97
5.3.1Always-On Dialout................................................................................................................................... 97
5.3.2Failover Dialout........................................................................................................................................ 99
5.4 OoB Broadband Access....................................................................................................................................... 100
5.5 Broadband Ethernet Failover................................................................................................................................ 101
5.6 Cellular Modem Connection............................................................................................................................... 104
5.6.1 Connecting to a GSM HSUPA/UMTS Carrier Network.......................................................................... 104
5.6.2 Connecting to a CDMA EV-DO Carrier Network................................................................................... 107
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5.6.3 Verifying the Cellular Connection.......................................................................................................... 109
5.6.4 Cellular Modem Watchdog.....................................................................................................................110
5.6.5 Dual SIM Failover....................................................................................................................................110
5.7 Cellular Operation................................................................................................................................................112
5.7.1 OOB Access Setup..................................................................................................................................113
5.7.2 Cellular Failover Setup.............................................................................................................................114
5.7.3Cellular Routing......................................................................................................................................115
5.7.4 Cellular CSD Dial-In Setup......................................................................................................................115
5.8 Firewall and Forwarding.......................................................................................................................................116
5.8.1 Configuring network forwarding and IP masquerading..........................................................................117
5.8.2 Configuring client devices.......................................................................................................................119
5.8.3Port forwarding..................................................................................................................................... 120
5.8.4Firewall rules.......................................................................................................................................... 121
6. Secure SSH Tunneling and SDT Connector................................................................................................................. 124
6.1 Configuring for SSH Tunneling to Hosts.............................................................................................................. 125
6.2 SDT Connector client configuration..................................................................................................................... 125
6.2.1 SDT Connector installation..................................................................................................................... 126
6.2.2 Configuring a new console server gateway in the SDT Connector client............................................... 127
6.2.3 Auto-configure SDT Connector client with the user’s access privileges................................................. 128
6.2.4 Make an SDT connection through the gateway to a host..................................................................... 129
6.2.5 Manually adding hosts to the SDT Connector gateway......................................................................... 130
6.2.6 Manually adding new services to the new hosts................................................................................... 131
6.2.7 Adding a client program to be started for the new service................................................................... 133
6.2.8 Dial in configuration.............................................................................................................................. 135
6.3 SDT Connector to Management Console............................................................................................................ 135
6.4 SDT Connector - telnet or SSH connect to serially attached devices.................................................................... 136
6.5 Using SDT Connector for out-of-band connection to the gateway..................................................................... 138
6.6 Importing (and exporting) preferences................................................................................................................ 140
6.7 SDT Connector Public Key Authentication........................................................................................................... 140
6.8 Setting up SDT for Remote Desktop access......................................................................................................... 141
6.8.1 Enable Remote Desktop on the target Windows computer to be accessed.......................................... 141
6.8.2 Configure the Remote Desktop Connection client................................................................................. 142
6.9 SDT SSH Tunnel for VNC..................................................................................................................................... 146
6.9.1 Install and configure the VNC Server on the computer to be accessed................................................. 146
6.9.2 Install, configure and connect the VNC Viewer..................................................................................... 147
6.10Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the gateway....................................................... 149
6.10.1 Establish a PPP connection between the host COM port and console server....................................... 149
6.10.2 Set up SDT Serial Ports on console server............................................................................................. 153
6.10.3 Set up SDT Connector to SSH port forward over the console server Serial Port.................................... 154
6.11 SSH Tunneling using other SSH clients (e.g. PuTTY)........................................................................................... 154
7. Alerts and Logging..................................................................................................................................................... 158
7.1 Configure Auto-Response................................................................................................................................... 158
7.2 Check Conditions................................................................................................................................................ 160
7.2.1UPS/Power Supply................................................................................................................................. 160
7.2.2UPS Status............................................................................................................................................. 160
7.2.3Serial Login/Logout................................................................................................................................ 161
7.2.4ICMP Ping.............................................................................................................................................. 161
7.2.5Cellular Data.......................................................................................................................................... 161
7.2.6Custom Check....................................................................................................................................... 161
7.2.7SMS Command...................................................................................................................................... 162
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7.2.8Custom Check....................................................................................................................................... 163
7.2.9SMS Command...................................................................................................................................... 164
7.2.10 Log In/Out Check.................................................................................................................................. 165
7.2.11 Network Interface Event........................................................................................................................ 165
7.2.12 Routed Data Usage Check..................................................................................................................... 166
7.3 Trigger Actions.................................................................................................................................................... 167
7.3.1Send Email............................................................................................................................................. 168
7.3.2Send SMS.............................................................................................................................................. 168
7.3.3 Send SNMP Trap.................................................................................................................................... 168
7.3.4 Send Nagios Event................................................................................................................................. 168
7.4 Resolve Actions................................................................................................................................................... 169
7.5 Configure SMTP, SMS, SNMP and/or Nagios service for alert notifications......................................................... 169
7.5.1 Send Email alerts................................................................................................................................... 169
7.5.2 Send SMS alerts..................................................................................................................................... 170
7.5.3 Send SNMP trap alerts........................................................................................................................... 172
7.5.4 Send Nagios alerts................................................................................................................................. 173
7.6Logging.............................................................................................................................................................. 173
7.6.1Log storage............................................................................................................................................ 173
7.6.2 Serial port logging................................................................................................................................. 174
7.6.3 Network TCP and UDP port logging...................................................................................................... 175
7.6.4 Auto-Response event logging................................................................................................................ 175
7.6.5 Power device logging............................................................................................................................ 175
8. Power and Environmental Management.................................................................................................................... 176
8.1 Remote Power Control (RPC).............................................................................................................................. 176
8.1.1RPC connection..................................................................................................................................... 176
8.1.2 RPC access privileges and alerts............................................................................................................. 179
8.1.3 User power management...................................................................................................................... 179
8.1.4RPC status............................................................................................................................................. 180
8.2 Uninterruptible Power Supply control (UPS)........................................................................................................ 180
8.2.1 Managed UPS connections.................................................................................................................... 181
8.2.2 Remote UPS management..................................................................................................................... 184
8.2.3 Controlling UPS powered computers..................................................................................................... 185
8.2.4UPS alerts.............................................................................................................................................. 186
8.2.5UPS status.............................................................................................................................................. 186
8.2.6 Overview of Network UPS Tools (NUT).................................................................................................. 187
8.3 Environmental monitoring................................................................................................................................... 189
8.3.1 Connecting the EMD and its Sensors.................................................................................................... 190
8.3.2Environmental alerts.............................................................................................................................. 192
8.3.3Environmental status.............................................................................................................................. 192
8.4 Digital I/O Ports................................................................................................................................................... 192
8.4.1 Digital I/O Output Configuration........................................................................................................... 193
8.4.2 Digital I/O Input Configuration.............................................................................................................. 194
8.4.3 HIgh Voltage Outputs............................................................................................................................ 194
8.4.4 DIO SNMP Status................................................................................................................................... 194
9.Authentication........................................................................................................................................................... 196
9.1 Authentication configuration............................................................................................................................... 196
9.1.1Local authentication.............................................................................................................................. 197
9.1.2TACACS authentication......................................................................................................................... 197
9.1.3RADIUS authentication.......................................................................................................................... 198
9.1.4LDAP authentication.............................................................................................................................. 199
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9.1.5 RADIUS/TACACS User Configuration.................................................................................................... 201
9.1.6 Group support with remote authentication........................................................................................... 201
9.1.7 Remote groups with RADIUS authentication......................................................................................... 202
9.1.8 Remote groups with LDAP authentication............................................................................................. 202
9.1.9 Remote groups with TACACS+ authentication......................................................................................204
9.1.10
Idle timeout...........................................................................................................................................204
9.1.11 Kerberos authentication.........................................................................................................................204
9.1.12
Authentication Testing........................................................................................................................... 205
9.2 PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules)........................................................................................................... 205
9.3 SSL Certificate..................................................................................................................................................... 207
10. Nagios Integration....................................................................................................................................................... 210
10.1 Nagios overview.................................................................................................................................................211
10.2 Central Management and Setting Up SDT for Nagios.........................................................................................211
10.2.1 Set up Central Nagios Server................................................................................................................. 212
10.2.2 Set up Distributed Console Servers........................................................................................................ 213
10.3 Configuring Nagios Distributed Monitoring...................................................................................................... 215
10.3.1 Enable Nagios on the console server..................................................................................................... 215
10.3.2 Enable NRPE Monitoring........................................................................................................................ 216
10.3.3 Enable NSCA Monitoring....................................................................................................................... 216
10.3.4 Configure Selected Ports for Nagios Monitoring................................................................................... 217
10.3.5 Configure Selected Network Hosts for Nagois Monitoring.................................................................... 217
10.3.6 Configure the Upstream Nagios Monitoring Host................................................................................. 217
10.4 Advanced Distributed Monitoring Configuration.............................................................................................. 218
10.4.1 Sample Nagios Configuration................................................................................................................ 218
10.4.2 Basic Nagios Plug-ins............................................................................................................................. 221
10.4.3
Additional Plug-ins................................................................................................................................. 221
10.4.4 Number of Supported Devices............................................................................................................... 222
10.4.5 Distributed Monitoring Usage Scenarios................................................................................................ 223
11. System Management................................................................................................................................................. 226
11.1 System Administration and Reset....................................................................................................................... 226
11.2 Upgrade Firmware.............................................................................................................................................. 227
11.3 Configure Date and Time................................................................................................................................... 227
11.4 Configuration Backup......................................................................................................................................... 228
11.5 Delayed Configuration Commit..........................................................................................................................230
11.6 FIPS Mode.......................................................................................................................................................... 232
12. Status Reports............................................................................................................................................................ 233
12.1 Port Access and Active Users............................................................................................................................. 233
12.2 Statistics............................................................................................................................................................. 233
12.3Support Reports.................................................................................................................................................234
12.4 Syslog ..............................................................................................................................................................234
12.5 Dashboard.......................................................................................................................................................... 235
12.5.1 Configuring the Dashboard................................................................................................................... 235
12.5.2 Creating custom widgets for the Dashboard.........................................................................................238
13. Management..............................................................................................................................................................238
13.1 Device Management..........................................................................................................................................238
13.2 Port and Host Logs............................................................................................................................................. 240
13.3 Serial Port Terminal Connection......................................................................................................................... 240
13.3.1 Web Terminal........................................................................................................................................ 240
13.3.2 SDT Connector access............................................................................................................................ 241
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13.4 Power Management..................................................................................................................................... 242
14. Configuration from the Command Line..................................................................................................................... 243
14.1 Accessing config from the command line..................................................................................................... 243
14.2 Serial Port configuration............................................................................................................................... 246
14.3 Adding and removing Users......................................................................................................................... 249
14.4 Adding and removing User Groups.............................................................................................................. 250
14.5 Authentication.............................................................................................................................................. 251
14.6 Network Hosts............................................................................................................................................. 251
14.7 Trusted Networks......................................................................................................................................... 253
14.8 Cascaded Ports............................................................................................................................................. 253
14.9 UPS connections........................................................................................................................................... 254
14.10 RPC connections........................................................................................................................................... 255
14.11Environmental............................................................................................................................................... 256
14.12 Managed Devices......................................................................................................................................... 257
14.13 Port Log........................................................................................................................................................ 257
14.14Alerts............................................................................................................................................................ 258
14.15 SMTP & SMS................................................................................................................................................ 260
14.16SNMP........................................................................................................................................................... 261
14.17Administration.............................................................................................................................................. 261
14.18 IP settings..................................................................................................................................................... 261
14.19 Date and Time settings................................................................................................................................. 262
14.20 Dial-in settings.............................................................................................................................................. 263
14.21 DHCP server................................................................................................................................................. 263
14.22Services.........................................................................................................................................................264
14.23NAGIOS........................................................................................................................................................ 265
15. Advanced Configuration............................................................................................................................................. 266
15.1 Custom Scripting................................................................................................................................................ 266
15.1.1 Custom script to run when booting....................................................................................................... 266
15.1.2 Running custom scripts when alerts are triggered................................................................................. 267
15.1.3 Example script - Power Cycling on Pattern Match.................................................................................. 268
15.1.4 Example script - Multiple email notifications on each alert.................................................................... 268
15.1.5 Deleting Configuration Values from the CLI.......................................................................................... 268
15.1.6 Power Cycle any device when a ping request fails................................................................................. 271
15.1.7 Running custom scripts when a configurator is invoked........................................................................ 272
15.1.8 Backing-up the configuration and restoring using a local USB stick...................................................... 273
15.1.9 Backing-up the configuration off-box.................................................................................................... 274
15.2 Advanced Portmanager...................................................................................................................................... 275
15.2.1 Portmanager commands........................................................................................................................ 275
15.2.2 External Scripts and Alerts..................................................................................................................... 276
15.3 Raw access to Serial Ports.................................................................................................................................. 277
15.3.1 Access to serial ports............................................................................................................................. 277
15.3.2 Accessing the console/modem port...................................................................................................... 277
15.4 IP Filtering........................................................................................................................................................... 278
15.5 SNMP Status Reporting...................................................................................................................................... 279
15.5.1 Retrieving Status Information Using SNMP............................................................................................ 279
15.5.2 Check Firewall Rules..............................................................................................................................280
15.5.3 Enable SNMP Service.............................................................................................................................280
15.6 Secure Shell (SSH) Public Key Authentication..................................................................................................... 285
15.6.1 SSH Overview........................................................................................................................................ 285
15.6.2 Generating Public Keys (Linux)............................................................................................................... 285
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15.6.3 Installing the SSH Public/Private Keys (Clustering)..................................................................................286
15.6.4 Installing SSH Public Key Authentication (Linux)....................................................................................286
15.6.5 Generating public/private keys for SSH (Windows)................................................................................288
15.6.6 Fingerprinting........................................................................................................................................290
15.6.7 SSH tunneled serial bridging..................................................................................................................290
15.6.8 SDT Connector Public Key Authentication............................................................................................. 293
15.7Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Support.................................................................................................................... 293
15.8 HTTPS ..............................................................................................................................................................294
15.8.1 Generating an encryption key................................................................................................................294
15.8.2 Generating a self-signed certificate with OpenSSL................................................................................294
15.8.3 Installing the key and certificate............................................................................................................294
15.8.4 Launching the HTTPS Server.................................................................................................................. 295
15.9 Power Strip Control............................................................................................................................................ 295
15.9.1 The PowerMan tool............................................................................................................................... 295
15.9.2 The pmpower tool................................................................................................................................. 297
15.9.3 Adding new RPC devices....................................................................................................................... 297
15.10 IPMItool............................................................................................................................................................298
15.11 Custom Development Kit (CDK)...................................................................................................................... 301
15.12 Scripts for Managing Slaves............................................................................................................................. 302
15.13 SMS Server Tools............................................................................................................................................. 302
15.14 Multicast.......................................................................................................................................................... 303
15.15 Bulk Provisioning.............................................................................................................................................. 303
15.16 Zero Touch Provisioning...................................................................................................................................304
15.16.1 Preparation............................................................................................................................................304
15.16.2 Example ISC DHCP server configuration................................................................................................304
15.16.3 Setup for an untrusted LAN...................................................................................................................305
15.16.4 How it works.........................................................................................................................................305
APPENDIX A: Linux Commands & Source Code................................................................................................................ 307
APPENDIX B: Hardware Specification................................................................................................................................ 313
APPENDIX C: Safety & Certifications................................................................................................................................. 314
APPENDIX D: Connectivity, TCP Ports & Serial I/O............................................................................................................ 315
APPENDIX E: Terminology................................................................................................................................................. 324
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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Overview
This Manual This User’s Manual walks you through installing and configuring your Black Box Console Server (LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A) or Advanced Console Server (LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-­‐R2, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A). Each of these products is referred to generically in this manual as a “console server.” Once configured, you will be able to use your console server to securely monitor access and control the computers, networking devices, telecommunications equipment, power-­‐supplies, and operating environments in your data room or communications centers. This manual guides you in managing this infrastructure locally (across your operations or management LAN or through the local serial console port), and remotely (across the Internet, private network, or via dial up). Manual Organization This manual contains the following chapters: 1. Introduction An overview of the features of the console server and information on this manual. 2. Installation Physical installation of the console server and how to interconnect controlled devices. 3. System Configuration Describes the initial installation and configuration using the Management Console. Covers configuration of the console server on the network and the services that will be supported. 4. Serial & Network Covers configuring serial ports and connected network hosts, and setting up Users and Groups. 5. Firewall, Failover & OoB Describes setting up the high availability access features of the console server. 6. Secure Tunneling Covers secure remote access using SSH and configuring for RDP, VNC, HTTP, HTTPS, etc. access to network and serially connected devices. 7. Auto-­‐response & Logging Explains how to set up local and remote event/data logs, how to trigger SNMP and email alerts, and configuring auto-response actions to trigger
events. 8. Power & Environment Describes how to manage USB, serial, and network attached power strips and UPS supplies including Network UPS Tool (NUT) operation, IPMI power control, and EMD environmental sensor configuration. 9. Authentication Access to the console server requires usernames and passwords that are locally or externally authenticated. 10. Nagios Integration Describes how to set Nagios central management with SDT extensions and configure the console server as a distributed Nagios server. _____________________________________________________________________
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11. System Management Covers access to and configuration of services that will run on the console server. 12. Status Reports View a dashboard summary and detailed status and logs of serial and network connected devices (ports, hosts, power, and environment) 13. Management Includes port controls that Users can access. 14 Basic Configuration Command line installation and configuration using the config command. 15. Advanced Config More advanced command line configuration activities where you will need to use Linux commands. The latest update of this manual can be found online at www.blackbox.com. Types of users The console server supports two classes of users: I.
First, there are the administrative users who will be authorized to configure and control the console server, and to access and control all the connected devices. These administrative users will be set up as members of the admin user group and any user in this class is referred to generically in this manual as the Administrator. An Administrator can access and control the console server using the config utility, the Linux command line, or the browser-­‐based Management Console. By default, the Administrator has access to all services and ports to control all the serial connected devices and network connected devices (hosts). II.
The second class of users are those who have been set up by the Administrator with specific limits of their access and control authority. These users are set up as members of the users user group (or some other user groups the Administrator may have added). They are only authorized to perform specified controls on specific connected devices and are referred to as Users. These Users (when authorized) can access serial or network connected devices; and control these devices using the specified services (for example, Telnet, HHTPS, RDP, IPMI, Serial over LAN, Power Control). An authorized User also has a limited view of the Management Console and can only access authorized configured devices and review port logs. In this manual, when the term user (lower case) is used, it refers to both the above classes of users. This document also uses the term remote users to describe users who are not on the same LAN segment as the console server. These remote users may be Users, who are on the road connecting to managed devices over the public Internet, or it may be an Administrator in another office connecting to the console server itself over the enterprise VPN, or the remote user may be in the same room or the same office but connected on a separate VLAN than the console server. Management Console The Management Console provides a view of the console server and all the connected devices. Administrators can use any browser to log into the Management Console either locally or from a remote location. They can then use Management Console to manage the console server, the users, the serial ports and serially connected devices, network connected hosts, and connected power devices; and to view associated logs and configure alerts. _____________________________________________________________________
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A User can also use the Management Console, but has limited menu access to control select devices, review their logs and access them using the built-­‐in java terminal or control power to them. The console server runs an embedded Linux operating system, and experienced Linux® and UNIX® users may prefer to configure it at the command line. To get command line access, connect through a terminal emulator or communications program to the console serial port; connect via ssh or telnet through the LAN; or connect through an SSH tunneling to the console server. Manual Conventions This manual uses different fonts and typefaces to show specific actions: Note Text presented like this indicates issues to note.
Text presented like this highlights important information. Make sure you read
and follow these warnings.  Text presented with an arrow head indent indicates an action you should take as part of the procedure. Bold text indicates text that you type, or the name of a screen object (for example, a menu or button) on the Management Console. Italic text indicates a text command you enter at the command line level. Publishing history Date September 2011 Revision 1 Update details Prerelease _____________________________________________________________________
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October 2011 December 2012 February 2014 August 2015 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.17 Release for V2.8 firmware and later Release for V3.5 firmware and later Release for V3.9 firmware and later Release for V3.15.3 firmware and later _____________________________________________________________________
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Copyright ©Black Box Corporation 2015. All Rights Reserved. Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Black Box. Black Box provides this document “as is,” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of fitness or merchantability for a particular purpose. Black Box may make improvements and/or changes in this manual or in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this manual at any time. This manual could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes may be incorporated in new editions of the publication. Notice to Users Use proper back-­‐up systems and necessary safety devices to protect against injury, death, or property damage caused by system failure. This protection is the user’s responsibility. This device is not approved for use as a life-­‐support or medical system. Any changes or modifications made to this device without the explicit approval or consent of Black Box will void Black Box of any liability or responsibility of injury or loss caused by any malfunction. This equipment is for indoor use and all the communication wirings are limited to the inside of the building.
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Chapter 2
INSTALLATION
Installation
Installation This chapter describes how to install the console server hardware and connect it to controlled devices. To avoid physical and electrical hazards please read Appendix C on Safety.
2.1 Models There are multiple console server models, each with a different number of network and serial ports or power supply configurations: LES1508A LES1516A LES1532A LES1548A LES1448A LES1432A LES1416A LES1408A LES1348A LES1332A LES1316A LES1308A LES1248A-­‐R2 LES1232A LES1216A-­‐R2 LES1208A-­‐R2 LES1148A LES1132A LES1116A Serial Ports 8 16 32 48 48 32 16 8 48 32 16 8 48 32 16 8 48 32 16 USB Network Ports Ports 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Console Port 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Modem -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ Internal CDMA Internal CDMA Internal CDMA Internal CDMA Internal GSM Internal GSM Internal GSM Internal GSM Internal V.92 Internal V.92 Internal V.92 Internal V.92 -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ RJ Pinout Power 02 Cisco® Cisco Cisco 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 00 Ext AC/DC Single AC Single AC Single AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Dual AC Single AC Single AC Single AC Memory (flash/RAM) 16/64MB, 4GB 32 MB, 4 GB 32 MB, 4 GB 32 MB, 4 GB 16/64MB, 16GB
16/64MB, 16GB 16/64MB, 16GB
16/64MB, 16GB
16/64MB, 16GB
16/64MB, 16GB 16/64MB, 16GB 16/64MB, 16GB 16/64MB, 16GB 16/64MB, 16GB 16/64MB, 16GB 16/64MB, 16GB 16/64MB 16/64MB 16/64MB
The next sections show the components shipped with each of these models.  Unpack your kit and verify you have all the parts shown above, and that they all appear in good working order. _____________________________________________________________________
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 If you are installing the console server in a rack, you will need to attach the rack mounting brackets supplied with the unit, then install the unit in the rack. Make sure you follow the Safety Precautions listed in Appendix C.  Connect your console server to the network, to the serial ports of the controlled devices, and to power as outlined next. 2.1.1 Kit components LES1508A Console Server LES1508A Console Server (2) UTP CAT5 blue cables DB9F-­‐RJ45S straight and DB9F-­‐RJ45S cross-­‐over connectors Power Supply 12 VDC, 1.0 A Wallmount Printed Quick Start Guide 2.1.2 Kit components LES1308A-­‐ LES1348A and LES1408A -­‐ LES1448A Advanced Console Servers LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A or LES1448A Advanced Console Server (2) UTP CAT5 blue cables _____________________________________________________________________
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DB9F-­‐RJ45S straight and DB9F-­‐RJ45S cross-­‐over connectors USB micro-AB adapter cable
Antenna with 10 foot extension cable
Dual IEC AC power cords Printed Quick Start Guide 2.1.3 Kit components LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-­‐R2 Advanced Console Servers LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A or LES1248A-­‐R2 Advanced Console Server (2) UTP CAT5 blue cables DB9F-­‐RJ45S straight and DB9F-­‐RJ45S cross-­‐over connectors Dual IEC AC power cords Printed Quick Start Guide _____________________________________________________________________
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2.1.4 Kit components LES1516A, LES1532A and LES1548A Console Servers LES1516A, LES1532A or LES1548A Console Server (2) UTP CAT5 blue cables Cisco® connector DB9F-­‐RJ45S straight and DB9F-­‐RJ45S cross-­‐over connectors (1) IEC AC power cord Printed Quick Start Guide _____________________________________________________________________
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2.2
Power connection 2.2.1 LES1508A power The LES1508A includes an external DC power supply unit. This unit accepts an AC input voltage between 100 and 250 VAC with a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz. The DC power supply comes with a selection of wall socket adapters for each geographic region (North American, Europe, UK, Japan or Australia). The 12-­‐VDC connector from the power supply plugs into the 12-­‐VDC (PWR) power socket on the side of the LES1508A. 2.2.2 LES1408A -­‐ LES1448A, LES1308A-­‐ LES1348A and LES1208A -­‐ LES1248A power The Advanced Console Server models (LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-­‐R2, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A and LES1448A) all have dual universal AC power supplies with auto failover built in. These power supplies each accept AC input voltage between 100 and 240 VAC with a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. The total power consumption per console server is less than 30W. Two IEC AC power sockets are located at the rear of the metal case, and these IEC power inlets use conventional IEC AC power cords. Power cords for various regions are available, although the North American power cord is provided by default. There is a warning notice printed on the back of each unit. To avoid electrical shock, connect the power cord grounding conductor to
ground!
2.2.2 LES1516A, LES1532A and LES1548A power The LES1516A, LES1532A and LES1548A models have a built-­‐in universal auto-­‐switching AC power supply. This power supply accepts AC input voltage between 100 and 240 VAC with a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. The power consumption is less than 20 W. The LES1516A, LES1532A and LES1548A models have an IEC AC power socket located in the rear of the metal case. This IEC power inlet uses a conventional IEC AC power cord, and the power cords for various _____________________________________________________________________
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regions are available. Call Black Box Technical Support for details at 724-­‐746-­‐5500. (The North American power cord is provided by default.) There is a warning notice printed on the back of each unit. To avoid electrical shock, connect the power cord grounding conductor to
ground.
2.3 Network connection The RJ-­‐45 LAN ports are located on the rear panel of the LES1508A, and on the front panel of the rackmount console servers. Use industry standard CAT5 cabling and connectors. Make sure that you only connect the LAN port to an Ethernet network that supports 10BASE-­‐T/100BASE-­‐T. To initially configure the console server, you must connect a PC or workstation to the console server’s principal network port (labeled NETWORK1 or LAN). 2.4 Serial Port connection The RJ-­‐45 serial ports are located on the rear panel of the LES1508A and on the front panel of the rackmount console servers. The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, and LES1548A Console Servers have a Cisco straight RJ-­‐45 pinout shown below: PIN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SIGNAL
CTS
DSR
RXD
GND
GND
TXD
DTR
RTS
DEFINITION
Clear To Send
Data Set Ready
Receive Data
Signal Ground
Signal Ground
Transmit Data
Data Terminal Ready
Request To Send
DIRECTION
Input
Input
Input
NA
NA
Output
Output
Output
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The LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-­‐R2, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A and LES1448A Advanced Console Servers have the Cyclades RJ-­‐45 pinout shown next: PIN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SIGNAL RTS DTR TXD GND CTS RXD DCD DSR DEFINITION Request To Send Data Terminal Ready Transmit Data Signal Ground Clear To Send Receive Data Data Carrier Detect Data Set Ready DIRECTION Output Output Output NA Input Input Input Input The rackmount console servers also have a DB9 LOCAL (Console/Modem) port on front panel. The
LES1508A has a DB9 LOCAL (Console/Modem) port on rear panel. With the LES1508A, Serial Port 1 is
configured by default in Local Console (modem) mode.
Conventional CAT5 cabling with RJ-45 jacks is used for serial connections. Before connecting an external
device’s console port to the console server serial port, confirm that the device supports the standard
RS-232C (EIA-232).
Black Box supplies a range of cables and adapters that may be required to connect to the more popular servers and network appliances. Call Technical Support at 724-­‐746-­‐5500 for details. 2.5 USB Port connection The LES1208A-R2, LES1216A-R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-R2 console servers each also have one
USB 1.1 port on the front face and two additional USB 2.0 ports at the rear face (adjacent to modem
jack).
The LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A and LES1448A
console servers each also have one USB1.1 port on the front face and one additional USB 2.0 port at the
rear face. This USB 2.0 port is adjacent to antenna connector and connects using the micro-AB USB
cable.
The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, and LES1548A console servers have two USB 2.0 ports on the
front face.
The USB 2.0 ports can be used for:
-
connecting to USB consoles of Managed Devices (e.g. for managing UPS supplies)
-
attaching other external USB peripherals (e.g. an external USB memory stick or modem)
-
adding supported Sierra Wireless cellular USB modems
-
plugging in USB hubs to provide additional ports
The USB 1.1 port is best reserved for use with an external USB memory stick dedicated to recovery
firmware boot images/ extended log file storage etc.
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2.6 Antenna and SIM The LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A and LES1448A console servers also have an internal CDMA
cellular modem requiring an external antenna connection.
The LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A and LES1348A console servers have an internal GSM cellular
modem that requires a SIM card and an external antenna.
Before powering on the console server:

Screw the external antenna coax cable onto the MAIN
screw mount SMA connector on the rear of the
console server (2).

The AUX connector can be used either for receive
diversity or for GPS.

Your GSM cellular carrier will provide you with a SIM
card. Insert the SIM card (1.) and it will lock into place.
Take care to insert SIM card with contacts facing
downwards.
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Chapter 3
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Initial System Configuration
System Configuration This chapter provides step-­‐by-­‐step instructions for the console server’s initial configuration, and for connecting it to the Management or Operational LAN. The Administrator must: 
Activate the Management Console. 
Change the Administrator password. 
Set the IP address console server’s principal LAN port. 
Select the network services that will be supported. This chapter also discusses the communications software tools that the Administrator may use to access the console server. 3.1 Management console connection Your console server is configured with a default IP Address 192.168.0.1 and Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 
Note


Directly connect a PC or workstation to the console server.
For initial configuration we recommend that you connect the console server directly to a single PC
or workstation. However, if you choose to connect your LAN before completing the initial setup
steps, it is important that:
you make sure that there are no other devices on the LAN with an address of 192.168.0.1
the console server and the PC/workstation are on the same LAN segment, with no interposed
router appliances.
3.1.1 Connected PC/workstation set up To configure the console server with a browser, the connected PC/workstation should have an IP address in the same range as the console server (e.g. 192.168.0.100):  To configure the IP Address of your Linux or Unix PC/workstation simply run ifconfig  For Windows PCs: 
Click Start -­‐> (Settings -­‐>) Control Panel and double click Network Connections (for 95/98/Me, double click Network). 
Right click on Local Area Connection and select Properties. 
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties. 
Select Use the following IP address and enter the following details: o
IP address: 192.168.0.100 _____________________________________________________________________
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o

Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 If you want to retain your existing IP settings for this network connection, click Advanced and Add the above as a secondary IP connection.  If it is not convenient to change your PC/workstation network address, you can use the ARP-­‐Ping command to reset the console server IP address. To do this from a Windows PC: 
Click Start -­‐> Run (or select All Programs then Accessories then Run). 
Type cmd and click OK to bring up the command line. 
Type arp –d to flush the ARP cache. 
Type arp –a to view the current ARP cache (this should be empty). Now add a static entry to the ARP table and ping the console server to assign the IP address to the console server. In the example below, a console server has a MAC Address 00:13:C6:00:02:0F (designated on the label on the bottom of the unit) and we are setting its IP address to 192.168.100.23. Also the PC/workstation issuing the arp command must be on the same network segment as the console server (that is, have an IP address of 192.168.100.xxx) 
Type arp -­‐s 192.168.100.23 00-­‐13-­‐C6-­‐00-­‐02-­‐0F (Note for UNIX the syntax is: arp -­‐s 192.168.100.23 00:13:C6:00:02:0F). 
Type ping -­‐t 192.18.100.23 to start a continuous ping to the new IP Address. 
Turn on the console server and wait for it to configure itself with the new IP address. It will start replying to the ping at this point. 
Type arp –d to flush the ARP cache again. 3.1.2 Browser connection  Activate your preferred browser on the connected PC/workstation and enter https://192.168.0.1 The Management Console supports all current versions of the popular browsers (Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome, and more). _____________________________________________________________________
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 You will be prompted to log in. Enter the default administration username and administration password: Username: root Password: default Note Console servers are factory configured with HTTPS access enabled and HTTP access disabled.
A Welcome screen, which lists initial installation configuration steps, will be displayed: -
Change the default administration password on the Users page (Chapter 3). -
Configure the local network settings on the System/IP page (Chapter 3). -
Configure port settings and enable the Serial & Network/Serial Port page (Chapter 4). -
Configure users with access to serial ports on the Serial & Network/Users page (Chapter 4). If your system has a cellular modem you will also be given the steps to configure the cellular router features: -
Configure the cellular modem connection on System/Dial page (Chapter 5) -
Allow forwarding to the cellular destination network on System/Firewall page (Chapter 5) -
Enable IP masquerading for cellular connection on System/Firewall page (Chapter 5) _____________________________________________________________________
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After completing each of the above steps, you can return to the configuration list by clicking in the top left corner of the screen on the Black Box logo. Note If you are not able to connect to the Management Console at 192.168.0.1 or if the default
Username/Password were not accepted, then reset your console server (refer to Chapter 11).
3.2 Administrator Password 3.2.1 Change default root System Password
For security reasons, only the administration user named root can initially log into your console server.
So only those people who know the root password can access and reconfigure the console server itself.
The corollary is that anyone who correctly guesses the root password could gain access (and the default
root password is default). So it is essential that you enter and confirm a new password before giving the
console server any access to, or control of, your computers and network appliances.

Note
Selecting Change default administration password from the Welcome page will take you to
Serial & Network: Users & Groups where you can add a new confirmed Password for the user
root
There are no restrictions on the characters that you can use in the user Password (each can
contain up to 254 characters). However, only the first eight Password characters are used to
make the password hash.
 Enter a new Password then re-­‐enter it in Confirm. This is the new password for root, the main administrative user account, so choose a complex password, and keep it safe. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note There are no restrictions on the characters that can be used in the Password. It can contain up to
254 characters. However, only the first eight System Password characters are used to make the
password hash.
 Click Apply. Since you have changed the password you will be prompted to log in again. This time, use the new password. Note If you are not confident that your console server has the current firmware release, you can
upgrade. Refer to Upgrade Firmware—Chapter 11.
3.2.2 Set up new administrator We recommend that you set up a new Administrator user as soon as convenient and login as this new user for all ongoing administration functions (rather than root). This Administrator can be configured in the admin group with full access privileges through the Serial & Network: Users & Groups menu (refer Chapter 4 for details) 3.2.3 Name the console server We also recommend that you set up a System Name for your console server to make it simple to identify.  Select System: Administration and enter a System Name and System Description for the console server to give it a unique ID. Note The System Name can contain from 1 to 64 alphanumeric characters (you can also use the
special characters “-”, “_”, and “.”)
There are no restrictions on the characters that can be used in the System Description or the
System Password (each can contain up to 254 characters). However, only the first eight System
Password characters are used to make the password hash.

The MOTD Banner can be used to display a “message of the day” text to users.

Click Apply.
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3.3 Network IP address The next step is to enter an IP address for the principal Ethernet (LAN/Network/Network1) port on the console server, or enable its DHCP client so that it automatically obtains an IP address from a DHCP server on the network it will connect to.  On the System: IP menu, select the Network Interface page, then check dhcp or static for the Configuration Method.  If you selected Static, you must manually enter the new IP Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway, and DNS server details. This selection automatically disables the DHCP client. 
Note
By default the console server LAN port auto detects the Ethernet connection speed. However you
can use the Media menu to lock the Ethernet to 10 Mbps or 100Mbps and to Full Duplex (FD) or
Half Duplex (HD).
If you encounter packet loss or poor network performance with the default auto-negotiation
setting, try manually setting the Ethernet Media settings on the console server, and the device it
is connected to. In most cases, select 100BASETX-FD (100 megabits, full duplex). Make sure
both sides are set identically.
 If you selected DHCP, the console server will look for configuration details from a DHCP server on your management LAN. This selection automatically disables any static address. The console server MAC address is printed on a label on the base plate. Note In its factory default state (with no Configuration Method selected), the console server has its
DHCP client enabled, so it automatically accepts any network IP address assigned by a DHCP
server on your network. In this initial state, the console server will then respond to both its Static
address (192.168.0.1) and its newly assigned DHCP address.
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
You may also enter a secondary address or comma-separated list of addresses in CIDR notation,
e.g. 192.168.1.1/24 as an IP Alias.
Note If you changed the console server IP address, you may need to reconfigure your PC/workstation
so it has an IP address that is in the same network range as this new address.
 Click Apply.  Enter http://new IP address to reconnect the browser on the PC/workstation that is connected to the console server. 3.3.1 IPv6 configuration By default, the console server Ethernet interfaces support IPv4; however, they can also be configured for
IPv6 operation:
 On the System: IP menu, select General Settings page and check Enable IPv6.  Then, configure the IPv6 parameters on each Interface page. 3.3.2 Dynamic DNS (DDNS) configuration With Dynamic DNS (DDNS), a console server whose IP address is dynamically assigned (and that may change from time to time) can be located using a fixed host or domain name.  The first step in enabling DDNS is to create an account with the supported DDNS service provider of your choice. Supported DDNS providers include: - DyNS www.dyns.cx - dyndns.org www.dyndns.org - GNUDip gnudip.cheapnet.net - ODS www.ods.org - TZO www.tzo.com - 3322.org (Chinese provider) www.3322.org _____________________________________________________________________
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Upon registering with the DDNS service provider, you will select a username and password, as well as a hostname that you will use as the DNS name (to allow external access to your machine using a URL). The Dynamic DNS service providers allow the user to choose a hostname URL and set an initial IP address to correspond to that hostname URL. Many Dynamic DNS providers offer a selection of URL hostnames available for free use with their service. However, with a paid plan, any URL hostname (including your own registered domain name) can be used. You can now enable and configure DDNS on any of the Ethernet or cellular network connections on the console server (by default DDNS is disabled on all ports): 
Select the DDNS service provider from the drop down Dynamic DNS list on the System:IP or System:Dial menu 
In DDNS Hostname enter the fully qualified DNS hostname for your console server e.g. your-­‐hostname.dyndns.org. 
Enter the DDNS Username and DDNS Password for the DDNS service provider account. 
Specify the Maximum interval between updates -­‐ in days. A DDNS update will be sent even if the address has not changed. 
Specify the Minimum interval between checks for changed addresses -­‐ in seconds. Updates will still only be sent if the address has changed. 
Specify the Maximum attempts per update i.e. the number of times to attempt an update before giving up (defaults to 3). _____________________________________________________________________
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3.4 Services and Service access The Administrator can access and configure the console server (and connected devices) using a range of
access protocols/services. For each such access:
-
the particular service must first be configured and enabled to run on the console server.
then access through the firewall must be enabled for each network connection.
To enable and configure a service:

Note

Select the Service Settings tab on the System: Services page.
With firmware releases pre 3.5.3 services are enabled and configured using the Service Access
tab on the System: Firewall page.
Enable and configure basic services:
HTTP
By default, the HTTP service is running and it cannot be fully disabled. By default,
HTTP access is disabled on all interfaces and we recommend that this access remain
disabled if the console server is to be remotely accessed over the Internet.
HTTPS
By default, the HTTPS service is running and this service is enabled on all network
interfaces. We recommend that you use only HTTPS access if the console server will
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be managed over any public network (e.g. the Internet). This ensures the
Administrator has secure browser access to all the menus on the console server. It
also allows appropriately configured Users secure browser access to selected
Manage menus. For information on certificate and user client software configuration,
refer to Chapter 9 - Authentication.
The HTTPS service can be completely disabled (or re-enabled) by checking HTTPS
Web Management and an alternate port specified (default port is 443).
Telnet
By default the Telnet service is running. However, by default the service is disabled on
all network interfaces.
Telnet can be used to give the Administrator access to the system command line
shell. While this may be suitable for a local direct connection over a management
LAN, we recommend that this service be disabled if the console server will be
remotely administered. This service may also be useful for local Administrator and the
User access to selected serial consoles.
The Enable telnet command shell checkbox will completely enable or disable the
telnet service. An alternate telnet port to listen on can be specified in Alternate Telnet
Port (default port is 23).
SSH
This service provides secure SSH access to the console server and attached devices
– and by default the SSH service is running and enabled on all interfaces. We
recommend that you choose SSH as the protocol where the Administrator connects to
the console server over the Internet or any other public network. This will provide
authenticated communications between the SSH client program on the remote
computer and the SSH sever in the console server. For more information on SSH
configuration refer Chapter 9 - Authentication.
The Enable SSH command shell checkbox will completely enable or disable this
service. An alternate SSH port to listen on can be specified in SSH command shell
port (default port is 22).

Enable and configure other services:
TFTP/FTP If a USB flash card or internal flash is detected on an advanced console server
(LES1508A or LES1200/LES1300/LES1400 series), then checking Enable TFTP
(FTP) service will enable this service and set up default tftp and ftp server on the
USB flash. These servers are used to store config files, maintain access and
transaction logs, etc. Files transferred using tftp and ftp will be stored under
/var/tmp/usbdisk/tftpboot. Unchecking Enable TFTP (FTP) service will completely
disable the TFTP (FTP) service.
DNS Relay Checking Enable DNS Server/Relay will enable the DNS relay feature so clients
can be configured with the console server's IP for their DNS server setting, and the
console server will forward the DNS queries to the real DNS server.
Web Terminal Checking Enable Web Terminal will allow web browser access to the system
command line shell via Manage -> Terminal.

Specify alternate port numbers for Raw TCP, direct Telnet/SSH and unauthenticated Telnet
services. The console server uses specific default ranges for the TCP/IP ports for the various
access services that Users and Administrators can use to access devices attached to serial ports
(as covered in Chapter 4 – Configure Serial Ports). The Administrator can also set alternate
ranges for these services, and these secondary ports will then be used in addition to the defaults.
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The default TCP/IP base port address for telnet access is 2000, and the range for telnet is IP
Address: Port (2000 + serial port #) i.e. 2001 – 2048. So if the Administrator were to set 8000 as
a secondary base for telnet then serial port #2 on the console server can be telnet accessed at IP
Address:2002 and at IP Address:8002. The default base for SSH is 3000; for Raw TCP is 4000;
and for RFC2217 it is 5000.

A number of other services can be enabled and configured indirectly from this menu by selecting
Click here to configure:
Nagios

Access to the Nagios NRPE monitoring daemons (refer Chapter 10).
NUT
Access to the NUT UPS monitoring daemon (refer Chapter 10).
SNMP
This will enable netsnmp in the console server. SNMP is disabled by default (refer
Chapter 7 and Chapter 15.5).
NTP
Refer Chapter 11.
Click Apply. As you apply your services selections, the screen will be updated with a confirmation
message: Message Changes to configuration succeeded.
The Services Access settings can now be set to allow or block access. This specifies which (enabled)
services the Administrator can use over each network interface - to connect to the console server and
through the console server to attached serial and network connected devices.

Note
Select the Service Access tab on the System: Services page.
With firmware releases pre 3.5.3, the Service Access tab is found on the System: Firewall
page.
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

This will display the services currently enabled for the console server’s network interfaces.
Depending on the particular console server model the interfaces displayed may include:
-
Network interface (for the principal Ethernet connection).
-
Management LAN / OOB Failover (second Ethernet connections).
-
Dialout/Cellular (V90 and 3G modem).
-
Dial-in (internal or external V90 modem).
-
Wi-Fi (802.11 wireless).
-
VPN (IPsec or Open VPN connection over any network interface).
Check/uncheck for each network which service access is to be enabled /disabled.
In the example shown next, local administrators on local Management LAN have Telnet access
directly to the console server (and attached serial ports), while remote administrators using Dial In
or Cellular have no such Telnet access (unless they set up a VPN).
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The Respond to ICMP echos (i.e. ping) service access options can be configured at this stage. This
allows the console server to respond to incoming ICMP echo requests. Ping is enabled by default, but, for
security reasons, this service should generally be disabled post initial configuration.
You can also configure to allow serial port devices to be accessed from nominated network interfaces
using Raw TCP, direct Telnet/SSH, unauthenticated Telnet services, etc. Click Apply to apply your services access selections. 3.4.1
Brute Force Protection
Brute force protection (Micro Fail2ban) temporarily blocks source IPs that show malicious signs, such as
too many password failures. This may help mitigate scenarios where the console server device’s network
services are exposed to an untrusted network such as the public WAN, and scripted attacks or software
worms are attempting to guess (brute force) user credentials and gain unauthorized access.
Brute Force Protection may be enabled for the listed services. Once protection is enabled, 3 or more
failed connection attempts within 60 seconds from a specific source IP trigger it to be banned from
connecting for the next 60 seconds. Active Bans are also listed and may be refreshed by reloading the
page.
Note
When an console server is running on an untrusted network, we recommend that you use a
variety of strategies to lock down remote access. This includes strong passwords (or even better,
SSH public key authentication), VPN, and using Firewall Rules to whitelist remote access from
trusted source networks only.
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3.5 Communications Software You have configured access protocols for the Administrator client to use when connecting to the console server. User clients (who you may set up later) will also use these protocols when accessing console server serial attached devices and network attached hosts. You will need to have appropriate communications software tools set up on the Administrator (and User) PC/workstation. Black Box provides the SDT Connector Java applet as the recommended client software tool. You can use other generic tools such as PuTTY and SSHTerm. These tools are all described below as well. 3.5.1 SDT Connector Each console server has an unlimited number of SDT Connector licenses to use with that console server. SDT Connector is a lightweight tool that enables Users and Administrators to securely access the console server and the various computers, network devices, and appliances that may be serially or network connected to the console server. SDT Connector is a Java applet that couples the trusted SSH tunneling protocol with popular access tools such as Telnet, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, VNC, and RDP to provide point-­‐and-­‐click secure remote management access to all the systems and devices being managed. Information on using SDT Connector for browser access to the console server’s Management Console, Telnet/SSH access to the console server command line, and TCP/UDP connecting to hosts that are network connected to the console server is in Chapter 6—Secure Tunneling. SDT Connector can be installed on Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista and Windows 7 PCs, and on most Linux, UNIX, and Solaris computers. 3.5.2 PuTTY You can also use communications packages like PuTTY to connect to the console server command line (and to connect serially attached devices as covered in Chapter 4). PuTTY is a freeware implementation of Telnet and SSH for Windows and UNIX platforms. It runs as an executable application without needing _____________________________________________________________________
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to be installed onto your system. PuTTY (the Telnet and SSH client itself) can be downloaded from http://www.tucows.com/preview/195286.html 
To use PuTTY for an SSH terminal session from a Windows client, enter the console server’s IP address as the ”Host Name (or IP address).” 
To access the console server command line, select “SSH” as the protocol, and use the default IP Port 22. 
Click “Open” and the console server login prompt will appear. (You may also receive a “Security Alert” that the host’s key is not cached. Choose “yes” to continue.) 
Using the Telnet protocol is similarly simple -­‐ but you use the default port 23. 3.5.3 SSHTerm Another popular communications package you can use is SSHTerm, an open source package that you can download from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sshtools 
To use SSHTerm for an SSH terminal session from a Windows Client, simply Select the “File” option and click on “New Connection.” 
A new dialog box will appear for your “Connection Profile.” Type in the host name or IP address (for the console server unit) and the TCP port that the SSH session will use (port 22). Then, type in your username, choose password authentication, and click connect. 
You may receive a message about the host key fingerprint. Select “yes” or “always” to continue. 
The next step is password authentication. The system prompts you for your username and password from the remote system. This logs you on to the console server. 3.6 Management Network configuration The console servers have a second network port that you can configure as a management LAN port or as a failover/ OOB access port. _____________________________________________________________________
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3.6.1 Enable the Management LAN The console servers provide a firewall, router, and DHCP server. You need to connect an external LAN switch to Network 2 to attach hosts to this management LAN. This Management LAN feature is disabled by default. To configure the Management LAN gateway:  Select the Management LAN page on the System: IP menu and uncheck Disable.  Configure the IP Address and Subnet Mask for the Management LAN (but leave the DNS fields blank).  Click Apply. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Note You can configure the second Ethernet port as either a gateway port or as an OOB/Failover port
(but not both). Make sure you did not allocate Network 2 as the Failover Interface when you
configured the principal Network connection on the System: IP menu.
The management gateway function is now enabled with default firewall and router rules. By default, these rules are configured so the Management LAN can only be accessible by SSH port forwarding. This ensures that the remote and local connections to Managed Devices on the Management LAN are secure. You can also configure the LAN ports in bridged mode (as described later in this chapter) or you can configure them from the command line. 3.6.2 Configure the DHCP server The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-­‐R2 console servers also host a DHCP server which by default is disabled. The DHCP server enables the automatic distribution of IP addresses to hosts on the Management LAN that are running DHCP clients. To enable the DHCP server:  On the System: IP menu, select the Management LAN page and click the Disable label in the DHCP Server field (or directly go to the System: DHCP Server menu.  Check Enable DHCP Server. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Enter the Gateway address that you want to issue to the DHCP clients. If you leave this field blank, the console server’s IP address will be used.  Enter the Primary DNS and Secondary DNS address to issue the DHCP clients. If you leave this field blank, the console server’s IP address is used. So, leave this field blank for automatic DNS server assignment.  Optionally, enter a Domain Name suffix to issue DHCP clients.  Enter the Default Lease time and Maximum Lease time in seconds. The lease time is the time that a dynamically assigned IP address is valid before the client must request it again.  Click Apply. The DHCP server will sequentially issue IP addresses from a specified address pool(s):  Click Add in the Dynamic Address Allocation Pools field.  Enter the DHCP Pool Start Address and End Address and click Apply. _____________________________________________________________________
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The DHCP server also supports pre-­‐assigning IP addresses to be allocated only to specific MAC addresses and reserving IP addresses to be used by connected hosts with fixed IP addresses. To reserve an IP addresses for a particular host:  Click Add in the Reserved Addresses field.  Enter the Hostname, the Hardware Address (MAC), and the Statically Reserved IP address for the DHCP client and click Apply. When DHCP has initially allocated hosts addresses, copy these addresses into the pre-­‐assigned list so the same IP address will be reallocated if you reboot the system. 3.6.3 Select Failover or broadband OOB The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-­‐R2 console servers provide a broadband failover option. If you have a problem using the main LAN connection for accessing the console server, an alternate access path is used.  By default, the failover is not enabled. To enable, select the Network page on the System: IP menu.  Select the Failover Interface to be used if the main fails. This can be: _____________________________________________________________________
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o
Management LAN -­‐ an alternate broadband Ethernet connection (which would be the Network2 port on the LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-­‐R2 console server) or o
Internal Modem -­‐ the internal V.92 modem in the LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-­‐R2 console server, or o
Internal Cellular Modem -­‐ the CDMA modem in the LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432 and LES1448, or the GSM modem in the LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332 and LES1348 console server o
Serial DB9 -­‐ an external serial modem connected to the Console port for dialing out to an ISP or the remote management office.  Click Apply. You have selected the failover method. It is not active until you specify the external sites to be probed to trigger failover, and set up the failover ports themselves. This is covered in Chapter 5. Note You can configure the second Ethernet port as either a gateway port or as an OOB/Failover port,
but not both. Make sure you did not enable the Management LAN function on Network 2.
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3.6.4 Aggregating the network ports By default, you can only access the console server's Management LAN network ports using SSH tunneling/port forwarding or by establishing an IPsec VPN tunnel to the console server. However, all the wired network ports on the console servers can also aggregated by being bridged or bonded.  Select Enable Bridging on the System: IP General Settings menu.  Select Bridge Interfaces or Bond Interfaces. o
When bridging is enabled, network traffic is forwarded across all Ethernet ports with no firewall restrictions. All the Ethernet ports are all transparently connected at the data link layer (layer 2), so they do retain their unique MAC addresses. o
With bonding, the network traffic is carried between the ports, but they present with one MAC address. o
Both modes remove all the Management LAN Interface and Out-­‐of-­‐Band/Failover Interface functions and disable the DHCP Server. o
All the Ethernet ports are transparently connected at the data link layer (layer 2) and they are configured collectively using the Network Interface menu. 3.6.5 Wi-­‐Fi Wireless LAN The console servers have an internal 802.11 WiFi adapter and come with an external WiFi antenna. The
WiFi can be configured as a Wi-Fi Wireless Access Point (WAP) or as a Wi-Fi client. The inbuilt WiFi is
inactive by default. If you wish to use the WiFi facility you will need to attach the WiFi antenna (and any
auxiliary WiFi antenna you may have ordered).
Note:

A custom model also has an internal wireless adapter, however this can only operate as a client.
To activate and configure the Wireless Access Point functionality, navigate to the System: IP
page and then click the Wireless Network Interface tab.
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
Un-tick the Disable box.
WAP configuration:

Configure the IP Settings for the Wireless Network. Generally, if the device is being used as a
Wireless AP, a static address is set here in the IP Settings. In this example, 192.168.10.1 is used.
Set the IP address, and the netmask (in this case, 255.255.255.0 to give 254 unique network
addresses in subnet), but do not fill in the Gateway, Primary DNS, and Secondary DNS. These
settings are used if the interface is to be the primary network link to the outside world, or if it will
be used for failover.

Select Wireless AP, which will make the Wireless AP Settings section visible:
Country: Select the correct country from the list. If the country does not appear, select the World
Regulatory Domain.
SSID:
Select an SSID for the network. It should be unique.
Broadcast SSID: Tick this to broadcast the SSID. This should generally done, disabling
broadcast is not a security measure.
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Network Channel: Select the network channel. 6 is most commonly used, so it is best to do a
site survey and pick another channel if the unit is being deployed into an office
environment.
Hardware Mode: The unit supports 802.11b, g and single band 802.11n. In most cases,
selection 802.11b/g/n will provide for the best interoperability with other hardware.
Supported Authentication Methods: Select the authentication method for the AP. If the client
equipment supports it, select WPA/WPA2 and AES encryption. WEP and WPA with TKIP
have been proven vulnerable to cryptanalysis.
If WEP is selected:
WEP Mode: Select Open System or Shared System. Open System is more secure than
Shared, due to the way encryption keys are used.
WEP Key Length: Select the WEP key length. 128 bit keys offer more security, but are
not supported on all devices. WEP Keys must be entered in Hexidecimal.
WEP Key 1-4:
Up to 4 WEP keys can be used on a single network.
Default Transmit Key:
This selects the default transmit key for the network.
If WPA/WPA2 is selected:
WPA/WPA2 Encryption Methods: Select one or both of TKIP or AES for encrypting
WPA/WPA2 connections. AES is more secure, and is required for the AP to advertise itself
as 802.11n if that hardware mode is selected.
WPA Password:
The password that clients will use to connect to the AP.

Once the Wireless AP Settings have been filled out, click Apply, then wait for the page to refresh.

The next step is to set up a DHCP server for the wireless clients. Click the link next to DHCP
Server in the IP settings section, or go to System: DHCP Server page. More information on
configuring DHCP can be found in Chapter 3.6.2.
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
Note The Wireless screen on the Status: Statistics page shows the list of clients that are
connected to the WAP.


Wireless Client configuration:

Select Wireless Client in the Wireless Settings section - which will make the Wireless Client
Settings section visible.

Select DHCP or Static for the Configuration Method.

If you selected Static, then manually enter the new IP Address, Subnet Mask,
Gateway and DNS server details. This selection automatically disables the DHCP
client.

If you selected DHCP, the device will look for configuration details from a DHCP
server on your management LAN. This selection automatically disables any static
address. The device MAC address is printed on a label on the base plate.

The wireless LAN when enabled in client mode will operate as the main network connection to
the device, so failover is available (though it not enabled by default). Use Failover Interface to
select the device to failover to in case of wireless outage, and specify Probe Addresses of the
peers to probed for connectivity detection.

Configure the Wireless Client to select the local wireless network that will serve as the main
network connection to the console server.
o
Select the Country the device is to operate in.
o
Enter the appropriate SSID (Set Service Identifier) of the wireless access point to connect
to
o
Select the Wireless Network Type where Infrastructure is used to connect to an
access point and Ad-hoc to connect directly to a computer.
o
Select the Wireless Security mode of the wireless network (WEP, WPA etc.) and enter
the required Key / Authentication / Encryption settings.
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Note: The Wireless screen in Status: Statistics will display all the locally accessible wireless LANs (with
SSID and Encryption/Authentication settings). You can also use this screen to confirm you have
successfully connected to the selected access point - refer to Chapter 12.
3.6.6 Static routes Static routes provide a very quick way to route data from one subnet to different subnet. You can hard
code a path that specifies to the console server to get to a certain subnet by using a certain path. This
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may be useful for remotely accessing various subnets at a remote site when being accessed using the
cellular out of band connection.
To add to the static route to the route table of the system:

Select the Route Settings tab on the System: IP General Settings menu.

Enter a meaningful Route Name for the route.

In the Destination Network/Host field, enter the IP address of the destination network/host that
the route provides access to.

Enter a value in the Destination netmask field that identifies the destination network or host. It
can be any number between 0 and 32. A subnet mask of 32 identifies a host route.

Enter Route Gateway with the IP address of a router that will route packets to the destination
network.

Enter a value in the Metric field that represents the metric of this connection. This generally only
has to be set if two or more routes conflict or have overlapping targets. It can be any number
equal to or greater than 0.

Click Apply.
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Chapter 4
Serial Port and Network Host
SERIAL PORT AND NETWORK HOST
Introduction The Black Box console server enables access and control of serially attached devices and network attached devices (hosts). The Administrator must configure access privileges for each of these devices, and specify the services that can be used to control the devices. The Administrator can also set up new users and specify each user’s individual access and control privileges. This chapter covers each of the steps in configuring hosts and serially attached devices: Configure Serial Ports—setting up the protocols to be used in accessing serially-­‐connected devices. Users & Groups—setting up users and defining the access permissions for each of these users. Authentication—covered in more detail in Chapter 9. Network Hosts—configuring access to network connected devices (referred to as hosts). Configuring Trusted Networks—nominate user IP addresses. Cascading and Redirection of Serial Console Ports. Connecting to Power (UPS PDU and IPMI) and Environmental Monitoring (EMD) devices. Managed Devices—presents a consolidted view of all the connections.
IPSec – enabling VPN connection.
OpenVPN connection. PPTP connection. 4.1 Configure Serial Ports To configure a serial port, you must first set the Common Settings (the protocols and the RS-­‐232 parameters [such as baud rate]) that will be used for the data connection to that port. Select what mode the port is to operate in. You can set each port to support one of five operating modes: _____________________________________________________________________
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1) Console Server Mode is the default and this enables general access to serial console port on the serially attached devices. 2) Device Mode sets the serial port up to communicate with an intelligent serial controlled PDU, UPS, or Environmental Monitor Device (EMD). 3) SDT Mode enables graphical console access (with RDP, VNC, HTTPS, etc.) to hosts that are serially connected. 4) Terminal Server Mode sets the serial port to wait for an incoming terminal login session. 5) Serial Bridge Mode transparently interconnects two serial port devices over a network.  Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and you will see the current labels, modes, logging levels, and RS-­‐232 protocol options that are currently set up for each serial port.  By default, each serial port is set in Console Server mode. To reconfigure the port, click Edit.  When you have reconfigured the common settings (Chapter 4.1.1) and the mode (Chapters 4.1.2 –4.1.6) for each port, you can set up any remote syslog (Chapter 4.1.7), then click Apply. Note If you want to set the same protocol options for multiple serial ports at once, click Edit Multiple
Ports and select which ports you want to configure as a group.
 If the console server has been configured with distributed Nagios monitoring enabled, then you will also be presented with Nagios Settings options to enable nominated services on the Host to be monitored (refer Chapter 10—Nagios Integration). 4.1.1 Common Settings There are a number of common settings that you can set for each serial port. These are independent of the mode in which the port is being used. Set these serial port parameters to match the serial port parameters on the device you attach to that port. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Specify a label for the port.  Select the appropriate Baud Rate, Parity, Data Bits, Stop Bits, and Flow Control for each port. (Note: The RS-­‐485/RS-­‐422 option is not relevant for console servers.)  Before proceeding with further serial port configuration, connect the ports to the serial devices they will be controlling, and make sure they have matching settings. Note The serial ports are all set at the factory to RS-232, 9600 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit,
and Console server Mode. You can change the baud rate to 2400–230400 baud using the
management console. You can configure lower baud rates (50, 75, 110, 134, 150, 200, 300, 600,
1200, 1800 baud) from the command line. Refer to Chapter 14—Configuration from the
Command Line.
4.1.2 Console Server Mode Select Console Server Mode to enable remote management access to the serial console that is attached to this serial port: _____________________________________________________________________
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Logging Level This specifies the level of information to be logged and monitored (referto Chapter 7— Alerts and Logging). Telnet When the Telnet service is enabled on the console server, a Telnet client on a User or Administrator’s computer can connect to a serial device attached to this serial port on the console server. The Telnet communications are unencrypted, so this protocol is generally recommended only for local connections. With Win2000/XP/NT you can run telnet from the command prompt (cmd.exe). Vista and Windows 7 include a Telnet client and server, but they are not enabled by default. To enable Telnet: 
Log in as Admin and go to Start/Control Panel/Programs and Features. 
Select Turn Windows features on or off, check the Telnet Client, and click OK. _____________________________________________________________________
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If the remote communications are tunneled with SDT Connector, then you can use Telnet to securely access these attached devices (refer to the Note below). Note In Console Server mode, Users and Administrators can use SDT Connector to set up secure
Telnet connections that are SSH tunneled from their client PC/workstations to the serial port on
the console server. SDT Connector can be installed on Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, and
Windows 7 PCs and on most Linux platforms. You can also set up secure Telnet connections
with a simple point-and-click.
To use SDT Connector to access consoles on the console server serial ports, you configure SDT
Connector with the console server as a gateway, then configure it as a host, Next, you enable
Telnet service on Port (2000 + serial port #) i.e. 2001–2048. Refer to Chapter 6 for more details
on using SDT Connector for Telnet and SSH access to devices that are attached to the console
server serial ports.
You can also use standard communications packages like PuTTY to set a direct Telnet (or SSH) connection to the serial ports (refer to the Note below). Note PuTTY also supports Telnet (and SSH) and the procedure to set up a Telnet session is simple.
Enter the console server’s IP address as the “Host Name (or IP address).” Select “Telnet” as the
protocol and set the “TCP port” to 2000 plus the physical serial port number (that is, 2001 to
2048).
Click the “Open” button. You may then receive a “Security Alert” that the host‘s key is not cached.
Choose “yes” to continue. You will then be presented with the login prompt of the remote system
connected to the serial port chosen on the console server. Login as normal and use the host
serial console screen.
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PuTTY can be downloaded at http://www.tucows.com/preview/195286.html
SSH We recommend that you use SSH as the protocol where the User or Administrator connects to the console server (or connects through the console server to the attached serial consoles) over the Internet or any other public network. This will provide authenticated SSH communications between the SSH client program on the remote user’s computer and the console server, so the user’s communication with the serial device attached to the console server is secure. For SSH access to the consoles on devices attached to the console server serial ports, you can use SDT Connector. Configure SDT Connector with the console server as a gateway, then as a host, and enable SSH service on Port (3000 + serial port #) i.e. 3001-­‐3048. Chapter 6—Secure Tunneling has more information on using SDT Connector for SSH access to devices that are attached to the console server serial ports. You can also use common communications packages, like PuTTY or SSHTerm to SSH connect directly to port address IP Address _ Port (3000 + serial port #) i.e. 3001–3048. SSH connections can be configured using the standard SSH port 22. Identify the the serial port that’s accessed by appending a descriptor to the username. This syntax supports: <username>:<portXX> <username>:<port label> <username>:<ttySX> <username>:<serial> _____________________________________________________________________
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For a User named “fred” to access serial port 2, when setting up the SSHTerm or the PuTTY SSH client, instead of typing username = fred and ssh port = 3002, the alternate is to type username = fred:port02 (or username = fred:ttyS1) and ssh port = 22. Or, type username=fred:serial and ssh port = 22. A port selection option appears to the User: This syntax enables Users to set up SSH tunnels to all serial ports with only opening a single IP port 22 in their firewall/gateway. TCP RAW TCP allows connections directly to a TCP socket. Communications programs like PuTTY also support RAW TCP. You would usually access this protocol via a custom application. For RAW TCP, the default port address is IP Address _ Port (4000 + serial port #) i.e. 4001 – 4048. RAW TCP also enables the serial port to be tunneled to a remote console server, so two serial port devices can transparently interconnect over a network (see Chapter 4.1.6—Serial Bridging). RFC2217 Selecting RFC2217 enables serial port redirection on that port. For RFC2217, the default port address is IP Address _ Port (5000 + serial port #), that is, 5001 – 5048. Special client software is available for Windows UNIX and Linux that supports RFC2217 virtual com ports, so a remote host can monitor and manage remote serially attached devices, as though they were connected to the local serial port (see Chapter 4.6—Serial Port Redirection for details). RFC2217 also enables the serial port to be tunneled to a remote console server, so two serial port devices can transparently interconnect over a network (see Chapter 4.7—Serial Bridging). Unauthenticated Telnet Selecting Unauthenticated Telnet enables telnet access to the serial port without requiring the user to provide credentials. When a user accesses the console server to telnet to a serial port, he normally is given a login prompt. With unauthenticated telnet, the user connects directly through to a port with any console server login. This mode is mainly used when you have an external system (such as conserver) managing user authentication and access privileges at the serial device level. For Unauthenticated Telnet, the default port address is IP Address _ Port (6000 + serial port #) i.e. 6001 – 6048 Web Terminal Selecting Web Terminal enables web browser access to the serial port via Manage: Devices: Serial using the Management Console's built in AJAX terminal. Web Terminal _____________________________________________________________________
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connects as the currently authenticated Management Console user and does not re-­‐
authenticate. See section 13.3 for more details. Authenticate Enable for secure serial communications using Portshare and add password. Accumulation Period By default, once a connection is established for a particular serial port (such as a RFC2217 redirection or Telnet connection to a remote computer), then any incoming characters on that port are forwarded over the network on a character-­‐by-­‐character basis. The accumulation period changes this by specifying a period of time that incoming characters will be collected before then being sent as a packet over the network. Escape Character This enables you to change the character used for sending escape characters. The default is ~. Power Menu This setting enables the shell power command. A user can control the power connection to a Managed Device from command line when they are connected to the device via telnet or ssh. To operate, the Managed Device must be set up with both its Serial port connection and Power connection configured. The command to bring up the power menu is ~p Single Connection This setting limits the port to a single connection: If multiple users have access privileges for a particular port, only one user at a time can access that port (that is, port “snooping” is not permitted). 4.1.3 SDT Mode This setting allows port forwarding of RDP, VNC, HTPP, HTTPS, SSH, Telnet, and other LAN protocols through to computers that are locally connected to the console server by their serial COM port. Port forwarding requires that you set up a PPP link over this serial port. _____________________________________________________________________
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For configuration details, refer to Chapter 6—Using SDT Connector to Telnet or SSH connect to devices that are serially attached to the console server. 4.1.4 Device (RPC, UPS, EMD) Mode This mode configures the selected serial port to communicate with a serial controlled Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS), Remote Power Controller/Power Distribution Unit (RPC) or Environmental Monitoring Device (EMD).  Select the desired Device Type (UPS, RPC or EMD)  Proceed to the appropriate device configuration page (Serial & Network: UPS Connections, RPC Connection or Environmental) as detailed in Chapter 8—Power & Environmental Management. 4.1.5 Terminal Server Mode  Select Terminal Server Mode and the Terminal Type (vt220, vt102, vt100, Linux, or ANSI) to enable a getty on the selected serial port. The getty will then configure the port and wait for a connection to be made. An active connection on a serial device is usually indicated by the Data Carrier Detect (DCD) pin on the serial device being raised. When a connection is detected, the getty program issues a login: prompt, and then invokes the login program to handle the actual system login. Note Selecting Terminal Server mode will disable Port Manager for that serial port, so data is no longer
logged for alerts, etc.
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4.1.6 Serial Bridging Mode With serial bridging, the serial data on a nominated serial port on one console server is encapsulated into network packets and then transported over a network to a second console server. It is then represented on its serial port again as serial data. The two console servers effectively act as a virtual serial cable over an IP network. One console server is configured as the Server. Set the Server serial port to be bridged in Console Server mode with either RFC2217 or RAW enabled (as described in Chapter 4.1.2—Console Server Mode). For the Client console server, the serial port to bridge must be set in Bridging Mode:  Select Serial Bridging Mode and specify the IP address of the Server console server and the TCP port address of the remote serial port (for RFC2217 bridging, this will be 5001-­‐5048).  By default, the bridging client will use RAW TCP. Select RFC2217 if this is the console server mode you have specified on the console server.  You may secure the communications over the local Ethernet by enabling SSH. You will need to generate and upload keys (refer to Chapter 15— Advanced Configuration). 4.1.7 Syslog In addition to built-­‐in logging and monitoring (which can be applied to serial-­‐attached and network-­‐
attached management accesses, as covered in Chapter 7—Alerts and Logging), you can also configure the console server to support the remote syslog protocol on a per serial port basis:  Select the Syslog Facility/Priority fields to enable logging of traffic on the selected serial port to a syslog server, and to appropriately sort and action those logged messages (that is, redirect them/send alert email etc.). _____________________________________________________________________
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For example, if the computer attached to serial port 3 should never send anything out on its serial console port, the Administrator can set the Facility for that port to local0 (local0 .. local7 are for site local values), and the Priority to critical. At this priority, if the console server syslog server does receive a message, it will automatically raise an alert. Refer to Chapter 7—Alerts & Logging. 4.1.8 NMEA Streaming
The LES1204A-3G, LES1300A and LES1400A can provide GPS NMEA data streaming from the internal
GPS /cellular modem. This data stream presents as a serial data steam on port 5 on the LES1204A-3G
model. For the LES1300A and LES1400A models with an internal cellular modem, the NMEA data stream
presents on ports 9/17/33/49 for the LES1308/16/32/48 models.
The Common Settings (baud rate etc.) are ignored when configuring the NMEA “serial port”. However,
you can specify the Fix Frequency (i.e. this GPS fix rate determines how often GPS fixes are obtained).
You can also apply all the Console Server Mode, Syslog, and Serial Bridging settings to this port.
You can also use pmshell, webshell, SSH, RFC2217 or RawTCP to access the stream.
4.1.9
Cisco USB console connection
The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, and LES1548A console servers support direct USB 2.0
connection to one or two Cisco USB console ports (in addition to the traditional RS-232 serial console
port connections).
With such a USB console connection, users can send IOS commands through the USB console port
remotely (using a browser and the console server’s built-in AJAX terminal) or monitor messages from the
Cisco USB console ports and take rule book actions (using the console server’s built-in Auto-Response
capabilities).
For configuration and control, these USB consoles are presented as new “serial ports” on the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu. For an LES1508A, any Cisco USB console ports would present as Port 9
and 10.
Common Settings, such baud rate, are ignored when configuring the Cisco USB “serial port”. However
you can apply all the Console Server Mode, Syslog, and Serial Bridging settings to this port.
Note: The Cisco USB console is auto detected and the new “serial port” numbers are created. However
it must be manually configured on initial connection. Any subsequent USB console disconnection
is auto-detected. USB console re-connection on the same physical USB port will also be autodetected, but only if the console server has been power cycled.
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4.2 Add/ Edit Users The Administrator uses this menu selection to set up, edit, and delete users, and to define the access permissions for each of these users. Users can be authorized to access specified console server serial ports and specified network-­‐attached hosts. These users can also be given full Administrator status (with full configuration and management and access privileges). To simplify user set up, they can be configured as members of Groups. There are six Groups set up by default (admin and user). admin
Provides users with unlimited configuration and management privileges.
pptpd
Group to allow access to the PPTP VPN server. Users in this group will have
their password stored in clear text.
dialin
Group to allow dialin access via modems. Users in this group will have their
password stored in clear text.
ftp
Group to allow ftp access and file access to storage devices.
pmshell
Group to set default shell to pmshell.
users
Provides users with basic management privileges.
Note: 1. Members of the admin group have full Administrator privileges. The admin user
(Administrator) can access the console server using any of the services that are enabled in
System: Services. For example, if only HTTPS has been enabled, then the Administrator can
only access the console server using HTTPS. Once logged in, they can reconfigure the
console server settings (for example, to enabled HTTP/Telnet for future access). They can
also access any of the connected Hosts or serial port devices using any of the services that
have been enabled for these connections. The Administrator can reconfigure the access
services for any Host or serial port. Only trusted users should have Administrator access.
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2. Membership of the user group provides the user with limited access to the console server
and connected Hosts and serial devices. These Users can access only the Management
section of the Management Console menu and they have no command line access to the
console server. They also can only access those Hosts and serial devices that have been
checked for them, using services that have been enabled.
3. If a user is set up with pptd, dialin, ftp or pmshell group membership they will have
restricted user shell access to the nominated managed devices but they will not have any
direct access to the console server itself. To add this the users must also be a member of the
"users" or "admin" groups.
4. The Administrator can also set up additional Groups with specific power device, serial port,
and host access permissions. Users in these additional groups don’t have any access to the
Management Console menu, nor do they have any command line access to the console
server itself.
5. The Administrator can also set up users with specific power device, serial port, and host
access permissions, who are not a member of any Groups. Similarly, these users don’t have
any access to the Management Console menu, nor do they have any command line access
to the console server itself.
6. For convenience, the SDT Connector “Retrieve Hosts” function retrieves and auto-configures
checked serial ports and checked hosts only, even for admin group users.
To set up new Groups and new users, and to classify users as members of particular Groups:  Select Serial & Network: Users & Groups to display the configured Groups and Users.  Click Add Group to add a new Group.  Add a Group name and Description for each new Group, then nominate the Accessible Hosts, Accessible Ports, and Accessible RPC Outlets(s) that you want any users in this new Group to be able to access.  Click Apply. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Click Add User to add a new user.  Add a Username and a confirmed Password for each new user. You may also include information related to the user (for example, contact details) in the Description field. Note The User Name can contain from 1 to 127 alphanumeric characters (you can also use the special
characters “-”, “_”, and “.” ).
There are no restrictions on the characters that you can use in the user Password (each can
contain up to 254 characters). Only the first eight Password characters are used to make the
password hash.
 Specify which Group (or Groups) you want the user to join.  SSH pass-­‐key authentication can be used. This is more secure than password based authentication. Paste the public keys of authorized public/private keypairs for this user in the Authorized SSH Keys field.  Check Disable Password Authentication if you wish to only allow public key authentication for this user when using SSH.  Check Enable Dial-­‐Back in the Dial-­‐in Options menu to allow an outgoing dial-­‐back connection to be triggered by logging into this port. Enter the Dial-­‐Back Phone Number with the phone number to call-­‐back when user logs in.  Check specific Accessible Hosts and/or Accessible Ports to nominate the serial ports and network connected hosts you want the user to have access privileges to.  If there are configured RPCs, you can check Accessible RPC Outlets to specify which outlets the user is able to control (that is, Power On/Off). _____________________________________________________________________
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 Click Apply. The new user can now access the Network Devices, Ports, and RPC Outlets you nominated as accessible. Plus, if the user is a Group member he can also access any other device/port/outlet that was set up as accessible to the Group. Note There are no specific limits on the number of users you can set up, nor on the number of users
per serial port or host. Multiple users (Users and Administrators) can control/monitor one port or
host.
There are no specific limits on the number of Groups. Each user can be a member of a number of
Groups (they take on the cumulative access privileges of each of those Groups). A user does not
have to be a member of any Groups (but if the User is not even a member of the default user
group, then he will not be able to use the Management Console to manage ports).
The time allowed to re-configure increases as the number and complexity increases. We
recommend that you keep the aggregate number of users and groups under 250.
The Administrator can also edit the access settings for any existing users: 
Select Serial & Network: Users & Groups and click Edit for the User to be modified.

Alternately click Delete to remove the User or click Disable to temporarily block any access
privileges.
Note For more information on enabling the SDT Connector so each user has secure tunneled remote
RPD/VNC/Telnet/HHTP/HTTPS/SoL access to the network connected hosts, refer to Chapter 6.
4.3 Authentication Refer to Chapter 9.1— Remote Authentication Configuration for authentication configuration details. 4.4 Network Hosts To access a locally networked computer or device (referred to as a Host), you must identify the Host and specify the TCP or UDP ports/services that will be used to control that Host. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Selecting Serial & Network: Network Hosts presents all the network connected Hosts that have been enabled for access, and the related access TCP ports/services.  Click Add Host to enable access to a new Host (or select Edit to update the settings for an existing Host).  Enter the IP Address or DNS Name and a Host Name (up to 254 alphanumeric characters) for the new network connected Host (and optionally enter a Description).
 Add or edit the Permitted Services (or TCP/UDP port numbers) that are authorized to be used in controlling this host. Only these permitted services will be forwarded through by SDT to the Host. All other services (TCP/UDP ports) will be blocked.  The Logging Level specifies the level of information to be logged and monitored for each Host access (refer to Chapter 7—Alerts and Logging).  If the Host is a PDU or UPS power device or a server with IPMI power control, then specify RPC (for IPMI and PDU) or UPS and the Device Type. The Administrator can then configure these devices and enable which users have permission to remotely cycle power, etc. (refer to Chapter 8). Otherwise, leave the Device Type set to None.  If the console server has been configured with distributed Nagios monitoring enabled, then you will also be presented with Nagios Settings options to enable nominated services on the Host to be monitored (refer to Chapter 10— Nagios Integration).  Click Apply. This will create the new Host and also create a new Managed Device (with the same name). 4.5 Trusted Networks The Trusted Networks facility gives you an option to nominate specific IP addresses where users (Administrators and Users) must be located to access console server serial ports. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select Serial & Network: Trusted Networks.  To add a new trusted network, select Add Rule.  Select the Accessible Port(s) that the new rule is to be applied to.  Then, enter the Network Address of the subnet to be permitted access.  Then, specify the range of addresses that are to be permitted by entering a Network Mask for that permitted IP range, for example: 


To permit all the users located with a particular Class C network (for example, 204.15.5.0) connection to the nominated port then you would add the following Trusted Network New Rule: Network Address 204.15.5.0 Network Mask 255.255.255.0 If you want to permit only the one user who is located at a specific IP address (for example, 204.15.5.13 say) to connect: Network Address 204.15.5.0 Network Mask 255.255.255.255 If, however, you want to allow all the users operating from within a specific range of IP addresses (for example, any of the thirty addresses from 204.15.5.129 to 204.15.5.158) to be permitted connection to the nominated port: Host /Subnet Address 204.15.5.128 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.224  Click Apply. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note The above Trusted Networks will limit Users and Administrators access to the console serial
ports. They do not restrict access to the console server itself or to attached hosts. To change the
default settings for this access, you will to need to edit the IPtables rules as described in Chapter
15—Advanced Configurstion.
4.6 Serial Port Cascading Cascaded Ports enable you to cluster distributed console servers. A large number of serial ports (up to 1000) can be configured and accessed through one IP address and managed through one Management Console. One console server, the Master, controls other console servers as Slave units and all the serial ports on the Slave units appear as if they are part of the Master. Black Box’s clustering connects each Slave to the Master with an SSH connection. This uses public key authentication so the Master can access each Slave using the SSH key pair (rather than using passwords). This ensures secure authenticated communications between Master and Slaves, enabling the Slave console server units to be distributed locally on a LAN or remotely around the world. 4.6.1 Automatically generate and upload SSH keys To set up public key authentication, you must first generate an RSA or DSA key pair and upload them into the Master and Slave console servers. This can all be done automatically from the Master.  Select System: Administration on Master’s Management Console.  Check Generate SSH keys automatically and click Apply. _____________________________________________________________________
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Next, you must select whether to generate keys using RSA and/or DSA (if unsure, select only RSA). Generating each set of keys will require approximately two minutes, and the new keys will destroy any old keys of that type that may previously been uploaded. Also, while the new generation is underway on the master, functions relying on SSH keys (for example, cascading) may stop functioning until they are updated with the new set of keys. To generate keys:  Select RSA Keys and/or DSA Keys.  Click Apply.  Once the new keys have been successfully generated, Click here to return and the keys will automatically be uploaded to the Master and connected Slaves. 4.6.2 Manually generate and upload SSH keys Or, if you have an RSA or DSA key pair, you can manually upload them to the Master and Slave console servers. Note If you already have an RSA or DSA key pair that you do not want to use, you will need to create a
key pair using ssh-keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool as detailed in Chapter 15.6.
To manually upload the public and private key pair to the Master console server:  Select System: Administration on Master’s Management Console.  Browse to the location where you have stored RSA (or DSA) Public Key and upload it to SSH RSA (DSA) Public Key.  Browse to the stored RSA (or DSA) Private Key and upload it to SSH RSA (DSA) Private Key.  Click Apply. _____________________________________________________________________
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Next, you must register the Public Key as an Authorized Key on the Slave. In a case that has only one Master with multiple Slaves, you only need to upload the one RSA or DSA public key for each Slave. Note Using key pairs can be confusing since one file (Public Key) fulfills two roles— Public Key and
Authorized Key. For a more detailed explanation, refer to the Authorized Keys section of Chapter
15.6. Also, refer to this chapter if you need to use more than one set of Authorized Keys in the
Slave.
 Select System: Administration on the Slave’s Management Console.  Browse again to the stored RSA (or DSA) Public Key and upload it to Slave’s SSH Authorized Key.  Click Apply. The next step is to Fingerprint each new Slave-­‐Master connection. This one-­‐time step will validate that you are establishing an SSH session to who you think you are. On the first connection, the Slave will receive a fingerprint from the Master which will be used on all future connections:  To establish the fingerprint, first log in the Master server as root and establish an SSH connection to the Slave remote host: # ssh remhost _____________________________________________________________________
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Once the SSH connection has been established, the system asks you to accept the key. Answer yes and the fingerprint will be added to the list of known hosts. For more details on Fingerprinting, refer to Chapter 15.6.  If the system asks you to supply a password, then there is a problem with uploading keys. The keys should remove any need to supply a password. 4.6.3 Configure the slaves and their serial ports You can now begin setting up the Slaves and configuring Slave serial ports from the Master console server:  Select Serial & Network: Cascaded Ports on the Master’s Management Console:  To add clustering support, select Add Slave. Note You can’t add any Slaves until you automatically or manually generate SSH keys.
To define and configure a Slave:  Enter the remote IP Address (or DNS Name) for the Slave console server.  Enter a brief Description and a short Label for the Slave (use a convention here that enables you to effectively manage large networks of clustered console servers and the connected devices).  Enter the full number of serial ports on the Slave unit in Number of Ports.  Click Apply. This will establish the SSH tunnel between the Master and the new Slave. The Serial & Network: Cascaded Ports menu displays all the Slaves and the port numbers that have been allocated on the Master. If the Master console server has 16 ports of its own, then ports 1-­‐16 are pre-­‐allocated to the Master. The first Slave added will be assigned port number 17 and up. _____________________________________________________________________
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Once you have added all the Slave console servers, you can assign and access the Slave serial ports and the connected devices from the Master’s Management Console menu. You can also access them through the Master’s IP address.  Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Serial Port and Edit to configure the serial ports on the Slave.  Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Users & Groups to add new users with access privileges to the Slave serial ports (or to extend existing users’ access privileges).  Select the appropriate Serial & Network: Trusted Networks to specify network addresses that can access nominated Slave serial ports .  Select the appropriate Alerts & Logging: Alerts to configure Slave port Connection, State Change, or Pattern Match alerts.  The configuration changes made on the Master are propagated out to all the Slaves when you click Apply. 4.6.4 Managing the Slaves The Master is in control of the Slave serial ports. For example, if you change User access privileges or edit any serial port setting on the Master, the updated configuration files will be sent out to each Slave in parallel. Each Slave will then automatically make changes to its local configuration (and only make those changes that relate to its particular serial ports). You can still use the local Slave Management Console to change the settings on any Slave serial port (such as alter the baud rates). These changes will be overwritten next time the Master sends out a configuration file update. Also, while the Master is in control of all Slave serial port related functions, it is not master over the Slave network host connections or over the Slave console server system itself. You must access each Slave directly to manage Slave functions such as IP, SMTP & SNMP Settings, Date &Time, and DHCP server. These functions are not overwritten when configuration changes are propagated from the Master. Similarly, you have to configure the Slaves Network Host and IPMI settings at each Slave. The Master’s Management Console provides a consolidated view of the settings for its own and all the Slave’s serial ports. The Master does not provide a fully consolidated view. For example, if you want to find out who's logged in to cascaded serial ports from the master, you’ll see that Status: Active Users only displays those users active on the Master’s ports, so you may need to write custom scripts to provide this view. This is covered in Chapter 11. 4.7 Serial Port Redirection To allow an application on a client PC to access the virtual serial ports on the console server, you need to run client software (to redirect the local serial port traffic to remote console server serial port). There’s a selection of commercial software available including Serial to Ethernet from Eltima (www.eltima.com) and Serial/IP™ COM Port Redirector from Tactical Software (www.tacticalsoftware.com/products/serialip.htm). _____________________________________________________________________
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This serial port redirector software is loaded in your desktop PC, and it allows you to use a serial device that’s connected to the remote console server as if it were connected to your local serial port. 4.8 Managed Devices Managed Devices presents a consolidated view of all the connections to a device that you can access and monitor through the console server. To view the connections to the devices:  Select Serial & Network: Managed Devices. This screen displays all the Managed Devices with their Description/Notes. It also lists all the configured Connections, that is, Serial Port # (if serially connected) or USB if USB connected; IP Address (if network connected); Power PDU/outlet details (if applicable), and any UPS connections. Devices such as servers will commonly have more than one power connections (for example, dual power supplied) and more than one network connection (for example, for BMC service processor). All Users can view (but not edit) these Managed Device connections by selecting Manage: Devices. The Administrator user can edit and add/delete these Managed Devices and their connections. To edit an existing device and add a new connection:  Select Edit on the Serial & Network: Managed Devices and click Add Connection. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select the connection type for the new connection (Serial, Network Host, UPS, or RPC) and then select the specific connection from the presented list of configured unallocated hosts/ports/outlets. To add a new network-­‐connected Managed Device:  The Administrator adds a new network-­‐connected Managed Device using Add Host on the Serial & Network: Network Host menu. This automatically creates a corresponding new Managed Device (as covered in Section 4.4—Network Hosts).  When adding a new network-­‐connected RPC or UPS power device, you set up a Network Host, designate it as RPC or UPS, then go to RPC Connections (or UPS Connections) to configure the relevant connection. A corresponding new Managed Device (with the same Name /Description as the RPC/UPS Host) is not created until you complete this connection step (refer Chapter 8—
Power and Environment). Note The outlet names on this newly created PDU will by default be “Outlet 1” and “Outlet 2.” When
you connect a particular Managed Device (that draws power from the outlet), then the outlet will
take the powered Managed Device’s name.
To add a new serially connected Managed Device:  Configure the serial port using the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu (refer to Section 4.1—
Configure Serial Port).  Select Serial & Network: Managed Devices and click Add Device.  Enter a Device Name and Description for the Managed Device.  Click Add Connection and select Serial and the Port that connects to the Managed Device.  To add a UPS/RPC power connection or network connection or another serial connection, click Add Connection.  Click Apply. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note To set up a new serially connected RPC UPS or EMD device, configure the serial port, designate
it as a Device, then enter a Name and Description for that device in the Serial & Network: RPC
Connections (or UPS Connections or Environmental). When applied, this will automatically
create a corresponding new Managed Device with the same Name /Description as the RPC/UPS
Host (refer to Chapter 8—Power and Environment).
All the outlet names on the PDU will by default be “Outlet 1” and “Outlet 2.” When you connect a
particular Managed Device (that draws power from the outlet) then the outlet will then take up the
name of the powered Managed Device.
4.9
IPsec VPN
The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232 and LES1248A-­‐R2 console servers include Openswan, a Linux implementation of the IPsec (IP Security) protocols, which can be used to configure a Virtual Private Network (VPN). The VPN allows multiple sites or remote administrators to
access the console server (and Managed Devices) securely over the Internet.

The administrator can establish an encrypted authenticated VPN connection between advanced
console serves distributed at remote sites and a VPN gateway (such as a Cisco router running
IOS IPsec) on their central office network:
o
o

Users and administrators at the central office can then securely access the remote
console servers and connected serial console devices and machines on the Management
LAN subnet at the remote location as though they were local.
With serial bridging, serial data from controller at the central office machine can be
securely connected to the serially controlled devices at the remote sites (refer Chapter
4.1).
The road warrior administrator can use a VPN IPsec software client such as TheGreenBow
(www.thegreenbow.com/vpn_gateway.html) or Shrew Soft (www.shrew.net/support ) to remotely
access the console server and every machine on the Management LAN subnet at the remote
location.
Configuration of IPsec is quite complex so the console servers have a simple GUI interface for basic set
up as described next. For more detailed information on configuring IPsec at the command line and
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interconnecting with other IPsec VPN gateways, and road warrior IPsec software, refer to
http://wiki.openswan.org
4.9.1 Enable the VPN gateway 
Select IPsec VPN on the Serial & Networks menu.

Click Add and complete the Add IPsec Tunnel screen.

Enter any descriptive name you wish to identify the IPsec Tunnel you are adding such as
WestStOutlet-VPN.

Select the Authentication Method to be used, either RSA digital signatures or a Shared secret
(PSK).
o
If you select RSA, you will asked to click here to generate keys. This will generate an
RSA public key for the console server (the Left Public Key). You will need to find out the
key to be used on the remote gateway, then cut and paste it into the Right Public Key.
o
If you select Shared secret, you will need to enter a Pre-shared secret (PSK). The PSK
must match the PSK configured at the other end of the tunnel.

In Authentication Protocol, select the authentication protocol to be used. Either authenticate as
part of ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) encryption or separately using the AH
(Authentication Header) protocol.

Enter a Left ID and Right ID. This is the identifier that the Local host/gateway and remote
host/gateway use for IPsec negotiation and authentication. Each ID must include an ‘@’ and can
include a fully qualified domain name preceded by ‘@’ (e.g. [email protected]).

Enter the public IP or DNS address of this console server VPN gateway (or enter the address of
the device connecting the console server to the Internet) as the Left Address. You can leave this
blank to use the interface of the default route.

In Right Address enter the public IP or DNS address of the remote end of the tunnel (only if the
remote end has a static or dyndns address). Otherwise, leave this blank.
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
If the VPN gateway is serving as a VPN gateway to a local subnet (e.g. the console server has a
Management LAN configured), enter the private subnet details in Left Subnet. Use the CIDR
notation (where the IP address number is followed by a slash and the number of ‘one’ bits in the
binary notation of the netmask). For example 192.168.0.0/24 indicates an IP address where the
first 24 bits are used as the network address. This is the same as 255.255.255.0. If the VPN
access is only to the console server itself and to its attached serial console devices then leave
Left Subnet blank.

If there is a VPN gateway at the remote end, enter the private subnet details in Right Subnet.
Again use the CIDR notation and leave blank if there is only a remote host.

Select Initiate Tunnel if the tunnel connection is to be initiated from the Left console server end.
This can only be initiated from the VPN gateway (Left) if the remote end was configured with a
static (or dyndns) IP address.

Click Apply to save changes.
Note
It is essential the configuration details set up on the advanced console server (referred to as the
Left or Local host) exactly matches the set up entered when configuring the Remote (Right)
host/gateway or software client.
4.10
OpenVPN
The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A. LES1548A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232 and LES1248A-­‐R2 console servers include OpenVPN which is based on TSL (Transport Layer Security) and SSL (Secure Socket Layer).
With OpenVPN, it is easy to build cross-platform, point-to-point VPNs using x509 PKI (Public Key
Infrastructure) or custom configuration files.
OpenVPN allows secure tunneling of data through a single TCP/UDP port over an unsecured network,
thus providing secure access to multiple sites and secure remote administration to a console server over
the Internet.
OpenVPN also allows the use of Dynamic IP addresses by both the server and client thus providing client
mobility. For example, an OpenVPN tunnel may be established between a roaming windows client and a
console server within a data centre.
Configuration of OpenVPN can be complex so a simple GUI interface is provided for basic set up as
described below. However for more detailed information on configuring OpenVPN Access server or client
refer to the HOW TO and FAQs at http://www.openvpn.net
4.10.1 Enable the OpenVPN 
Select OpenVPN on the Serial & Networks menu.

Click Add and complete the Add OpenVPN Tunnel screen.
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
Enter any descriptive name you wish to identify the OpenVPN Tunnel you are adding, for
example, NorthStOutlet-VPN.

Select the Device Driver to be used, either Tun-IP or Tap-Ethernet. The TUN (network tunnel)
and TAP (network tap) drivers are virtual network drivers that support IP tunneling and Ethernet
tunneling, respectively. TUN and TAP are part of the Linux kernel.

Select either UDP or TCP as the Protocol. UDP is the default and preferred protocol for
OpenVPN.

In Tunnel Mode, nominate whether this is the Client or Server end of the tunnel. When running
as a server, the advanced console server supports multiple clients connecting to the VPN server
over the same port.

In Configuration Method, select the authentication method to be used. To authenticate using
certificates, select PKI (X.509 Certificates) or select Custom Configuration to upload custom
configuration files. Custom configurations must be stored in /etc/config.
Note: If you select PKI (public key infrastructure) you will need to establish:

Separate certificate (also known as a public key). This Certificate File will be a *.crt file type.

Private Key for the server and each client. This Private Key File will be a *.key file type.

Master Certificate Authority (CA) certificate and key which is used to sign each of the server and
client certificates. This Root CA Certificate will be a *.crt file type.
For a server you may also need dh1024.pem (Diffie Hellman parameters). Refer to
http://openvpn.net/easyrsa.html for a guide to basic RSA key management. For alternative authentication
methods, see http://openvpn.net/index.php/documentation/howto.html#auth. For more information, also
see http://openvpn.net/howto.html

Check or uncheck the Compression button to enable or disable compression, respectively
4.10.2 Configure as Server or Client 
Complete the Client Details or Server Details depending on the Tunnel Mode selected.
o
If Client has been selected, the Primary Server Address will be the address of the
OpenVPN Server.
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o
If Server has been selected, enter the IP Pool Network address and the IP Pool Network
mask for the IP Pool. The network defined by the IP Pool Network address/mask is used
to provide the addresses for connecting clients.

Click Apply to save changes.

To enter authentication certificates and files, Edit the OpenVPN tunnel.

Select the Manage OpenVPN Files tab. Upload or browse to relevant authentication certificates
and files.

Apply to save changes. Saved files will be displayed in red on the right-hand side of the Upload
button.

To enable OpenVPN, Edit the OpenVPN tunnel.

Check the Enabled button.

Apply to save changes.
Note:

Please make sure that the console server system time is correct when working with OpenVPN.
Otherwise authentication issues may arise.
Select Statistics on the Status menu to verify that the tunnel is operational.
4.10.3 Windows OpenVPN Client and Server set up Windows does not come with an OpenVPN server or client. This section outlines the installation and
configuration of a Windows OpenVPN client or a Windows OpenVPN server and setting up a VPN
connection to a console server.
The OpenVPN GUI for Windows software (which includes the standard OpenVPN package plus a
Windows GUI) can be downloaded from http://openvpn.se/download.html.

Once installed on the Windows machine, an OpenVPN icon will have been created in the
Notification Area located in the right side of the taskbar. Right click on this icon to start (and
stop) VPN connections, and to edit configurations and view logs.
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When the OpenVPN software is started, the C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\config folder will be scanned for
“.opvn” files. This folder will be rechecked for new configuration files whenever the OpenVPN GUI icon is
right-clicked. So once OpenVPN is installed, a configuration file will need to be created:

Using a text editor, create an xxxx.ovpn file and save in C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\config. For
example, C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\config\client.ovpn
An example of an OpenVPN Windows client configuration file is shown below:
# description: les1216_client
client
proto udp
verb 3
dev tun
remote 192.168.250.152
port 1194
ca c:\\openvpnkeys\\ca.crt
cert c:\\openvpnkeys\\client.crt
key c:\\openvpnkeys\\client.key
nobind
persist-key
persist-tun
comp-lzo
An example of an OpenVPN Windows Server configuration file is shown below:
server 10.100.10.0 255.255.255.0
port 1194
keepalive 10 120
proto udp
mssfix 1400
persist-key
persist-tun
dev tun
ca c:\\openvpnkeys\\ca.crt
cert c:\\openvpnkeys\\server.crt
key c:\\openvpnkeys\\server.key
dh c:\\openvpnkeys\\dh.pem
comp-lzo
verb 1
syslog LES1216_OpenVPN_Server
The Windows client/server configuration file options are:
Options
Description
#description:
This is a comment describing the configuration.
Comment lines start with a ‘#’ and are ignored by OpenVPN.
Specify whether this will be a client or server configuration file.
In the server configuration file, define the IP address pool and netmask.
For example, server 10.100.10.0 255.255.255.0
Set the protocol to UDP or TCP. The client and server must use the
same settings.
Mssfix sets the maximum size of the packet. This is only useful for UDP
if problems occur.
Set log file verbosity level. Log verbosity level can be set from 0
(minimum) to 15 (maximum). For example,
0 = silent except for fatal errors
3 = medium output, good for general usage
Client
server
proto udp
proto tcp
mssfix <max. size>
verb <level>
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dev tun
dev tap
remote <host>
Port
Keepalive
http-proxy <proxy
server> <proxy port #>
ca <file name>
cert <file name>
key <file name>
dh <file name>
Nobind
persist-key
persist-tun
cipher BF-CBC Blowfish
(default)
cipher AES-128-CBC
AES
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
Triple-DES
comp-lzo
syslog
5 = helps with debugging connection problems
9 = extremely verbose, excellent for troubleshooting
Select ‘dev tun’ to create a routed IP tunnel or ‘dev tap’ to create an
Ethernet tunnel. The client and server must use the same settings.
The hostname/IP of OpenVPN server when operating as a client. Enter
either the DNS hostname or the static IP address of the server.
The UDP/TCP port of the server.
Keepalive uses ping to keep the OpenVPN session alive. 'Keepalive 10
120' pings every 10 seconds and assumes the remote peer is down if no
ping has been received over a 120 second time period.
If a proxy is required to access the server, enter the proxy server DNS
name or IP and port number.
Enter the CA certificate file name and location.
The same CA certificate file can be used by the server and all clients.
Note: Ensure each ‘\’ in the directory path is replaced with ‘ \\’. For
example, c:\openvpnkeys\ca.crt will become c:\\openvpnkeys\\ca.crt
Enter the client’s or servers’s certificate file name and location.
Each client should have its own certificate and key files.
Note: Ensure each ‘\’ in the directory path is replaced with ‘ \\’.
Enter the file name and location of the client’s or server’s key.
Each client should have its own certificate and key files.
Note: Ensure each ‘\’ in the directory path is replaced with ‘ \\’.
This is used by the server only.
Enter the path to the key with the Diffie-Hellman parameters.
‘Nobind’ is used when clients do not need to bind to a local address or
specific local port number. This is the case in most client configurations.
This option prevents the reloading of keys across restarts.
This option prevents the close and reopen of TUN/TAP devices across
restarts.
Select a cryptographic cipher. The client and server must use the same
settings.
Enable compression on the OpenVPN link. This must be enabled on both
the client and the server.
By default, logs are located in syslog or, if running as a service on
Window, in \Program Files\OpenVPN\log directory.
To initiate the OpenVPN tunnel following the creation of the client/server configuration files:

Right click on the OpenVPN icon in the Notification Area.

Select the newly created client or server configuration. For example, LES1216_client.

Click ‘Connect’ as shown next.
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
The log file will be displayed as the connection is established.

Once established, the OpenVPN icon will display a message notifying of the successful
connection and assigned IP. This information, as well as the time the connection was established,
is available anytime by scrolling over the OpenVPN icon.
Note: An alternate OpenVPN Windows client can be downloaded from
http://www.openvpn.net/index.php/openvpn-client/downloads.html. Refer to
http://www.openvpn.net/index.php/openvpn-client/howto-openvpn-client.html for help.
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4.11 PPTP VPN The LES1508A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232 and LES1248A-­‐R2 console servers include a PPTP (Point-to-Point
Tunneling Protocol) server. PPTP is typically used for communications over a physical or virtual serial
link. The PPP endpoints define a virtual IP address to themselves. Routes to networks can then be
defined with these IP addresses as the gateway, which results in traffic being sent across the tunnel.
PPTP establishes a tunnel between the physical PPP endpoints and securely transports data across the
tunnel.
The strength of PPTP is its ease of configuration and integration into existing Microsoft infrastructure. It is
generally used for connecting single remote Windows clients. If you take your portable computer on a
business trip, you can dial a local number to connect to your Internet access service provider (ISP) and
then create a second connection (tunnel) into your office network across the Internet and have the same
access to your corporate network as if you were connected directly from your office. Similarly,
telecommuters can also set up a VPN tunnel over their cable modem or DSL links to their local ISP.
To set up a PPTP connection:
1.
Enable and configure the PPTP VPN server on your console server .
2.
Set up VPN user accounts on the console server and enable the appropriate authentication.
3.
Configure the VPN clients at the remote sites. The client does not require special software as the
PPTP Server supports the standard PPTP client software included with Windows XP/ NT/ 2000/ 7
and Vista.
4. Connect to the remote VPN.
4.11.1 Enable the PPTP VPN server

Select PPTP VPN on the Serial & Networks menu.
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
Select the Enable check box to enable the PPTP Server.

Select the Minimum Authentication Required. Access is denied to remote users attempting to
connect using an authentication scheme weaker than the selected scheme. The schemes are
described below, from strongest to weakest.
•
•
•
•
Encrypted Authentication (MS-CHAP v2): The strongest type of authentication to use; this
is the recommended option.
Weakly Encrypted Authentication (CHAP): This is the weakest type of encrypted password
authentication to use. It is not recommended that clients connect using this as it provides very
little password protection. Also note that clients connecting using CHAP are unable to encrypt
traffic.
Unencrypted Authentication (PAP): This is plain text password authentication. When using
this type of authentication, the client password is transmitted unencrypted.
None

Select the Required Encryption Level. Access is denied to remote users attempting to connect
not using this encryption level. Strong 40 bit or 128 bit encryption is recommended.

In Local Address enter IP address to assign to the server's end of the VPN connection.

In Remote Addresses enter the pool of IP addresses to assign to the incoming client's VPN
connections (e.g. 192.168.1.10-20). This must be a free IP address (or a range of free IP
addresses), from the network (typically the LAN) that remote users are assigned while connected
to the Console server.

Enter the desired value of the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for the PPTP interfaces into
the MTU field (defaults to 1400).

In the DNS Server field, enter the IP address of the DNS server that assigns IP addresses to
connecting PPTP clients.

In the WINS Server field, enter the IP address of the WINS server that assigns IP addresses to
connecting PPTP client.
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
Enable Verbose Logging to assist in debugging connection problems

Click Apply Settings.
4.11.2 Add a PPTP user

Select Users & Groups on the Serial & Networks menu and complete the fields as covered in
section 4.2.

Ensure the pptpd Group has been checked, to allow access to the PPTP VPN server. Note users in this group will have their password stored in clear text.

Keep note of the username and password for when you need to connect to the VPN connection.

Click Apply.
4.11.3 Set up a remote PPTP client
Ensure the remote VPN client PC has Internet connectivity. To create a VPN connection across the
Internet, you must set up two networking connections. One connection is for the ISP, and the other
connection is for the VPN tunnel to the console server.
Note:
This procedure sets up a PPTP client in the Windows 7 Professional operating system. The steps
may vary slightly depending on your network access or if you are using an alternate version of
Windows. More detailed instructions are available from the Microsoft web site.

Login to your Windows client with administrator privileges.

From the Network & Sharing Center on the Control Panel select Network Connections and
create a new connection.

Select Use My Internet Connection (VPN) and enter the IP Address of the console server.
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Note:
To connect remote VPN clients to the local network, you need to know the user name and
password for the PPTP account you added, as well as the Internet IP address of the console
server. If your ISP has not allocated you a static IP address, consider using a dynamic DNS
service. Otherwise, you must modify the PPTP client configuration each time your Internet IP
address changes.
4.12 Call Home
All console servers with Firmware V3.2 and later, include the Call Home feature which initiates the setup
of a secure SSH tunnel from the console server to a centralized VCMS. The console server then
registers as a “candidate” on the VCMS - and once accepted there it becomes a Managed Console
Server.
The VCMS will then monitor the Managed Console Server, and administrators can access the remote
Managed Console Server, through the VCMS. This access is available even when the remote console
server is behind a third party firewall or has a private non-routable IP addresses (which is often the case
when the console server is connected via a cellular modem connection).
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Note
VCMS maintains public key authenticated SSH connections to each of its Managed Console
Servers. These connections are used for monitoring, commanding and accessing the Managed
Console Servers and the Managed Devices connected to the Managed Console Server.
To manage Local Console Servers, or console servers that are reachable from the VCMS, the
SSH connections are initiated by VCMS.
To manage Remote Console Servers, or console servers that are firewalled, not routable, or
otherwise unreachable from the VCMS, the SSH connections are initiated by the Managed
Console Server via an initial Call Home connection.
This ensures secure, authenticated communications and enables Managed Console Servers
units to be distributed locally on a LAN, or remotely around the world.
4.12.1 Set up Call Home candidate
To set up the console server as a Call Home management candidate on the VCMS:

Select Call Home on the Serial & Network menu.

If you have not already generated or uploaded an SSH key pair for this console server, you will
need to do so before proceeding (refer to Chapter 3).

Click Add.

Enter the IP address or DNS name (e.g. the dynamic DNS address) of the VCMS.

Enter the Password that you configured on the VCMS as the Call Home Password.

Click Apply.

These steps initiate the Call Home connection from the console server to the VCMS. This creates
an SSH listening port on the VCMS, and sets the console server up as a candidate.
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

Once the candidate has been accepted on the VCMS (as outlined in the next section) an SSH
tunnel to the console server is then redirected back across the Call Home connection. The
console server has now become a Managed Console Server and the VCMS can connect to and
monitor it through this tunnel.
4.12.2 Accept Call Home candidate as Managed Console Server on VCMS
This section gives an overview on configuring the VCMS to monitor console servers that are connected
via Call Home
1. You first must enter a new Call Home Password on the CMS. This password is used solely for
accepting Call Home connections from candidate console servers
2. For the VCMS to be contacted by the console server, it must either have a static IP address or, if
using DHCP, be configured to use a dynamic DNS service.
3. The Configure: Managed Console Servers screen on the VCMS shows the status of local and
remote Managed Console Servers and candidates.
The Managed Console Server section shows the console servers currently being monitored by
the VCMS.
The Detected Console Servers section:
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o
The Local Console Servers drop-down list lists all the console servers that are on the
same subnet as the CMS and are not currently being monitored.
o
The Remote Console Servers drop-down list in the Detected Console Servers section
lists all the console servers that have established a Call Home connection, and are not
currently being monitored (i.e. candidates). Click Refresh to update.
4. To add a console server candidate to the Managed Console Server list:
o
Select it from the Remote Console Servers drop down list, and click Add.
o
Enter IP Address and SSH Port (if these fields have not been auto-completed) and enter a
Description and unique Name for the Managed Console Server you are adding.
o
Enter the Remote Root Password (i.e. System Password that has been set on this
Managed Console Server). This password is used by the VCMS to propagate auto
generated SSH keys and then forgotten. It will not be stored.
o
Click Apply. The VCMS will now set up secure SSH connections to and from the Managed
Console Server and will retrieve its Managed Devices, user account details, and configured
alerts.
4.12.3 Calling Home to a generic central SSH server
If you are connecting to a generic SSH server (not a VCMS) you may configure Advanced settings:

Enter the SSH Server Port and SSH User to authenticate as.

Enter the details for the SSH port forward(s) to create.
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By selecting Listening Server, you may create a Remote port forward from the Server to this unit, or a
Local port forward from this unit to the Server:

Specify a Listening Port to forward from; leave this field blank to allocate an unused port.
Enter the Target Server and Target Port that will be the recipient of forwarded connections. 4.13 IP Passthrough
IP Passthrough is used to make a modem connection (via the internal cellular modem) appear like a
regular Ethernet connection to a third-party downstream router, allowing the downstream router to use the
modem connection as a primary or backup WAN interface.
The server provides the modem IP address and DNS details to the downstream device over DHCP and
transparently passes network traffic to and from the modem and router.
While IP Passthrough essentially turns a console server into a modem-to-Ethernet half bridge, some
specific layer 4 services (HTTP/HTTPS/SSH) may still be terminated at the console server (Service
Intercepts). Also, services running on the console server can initiate outbound cellular connections
independent of the downstream router.
This allows the console server to continue to be used for out-of-band management and alerting and also
be managed via VCMS, while in IP Passthrough mode.
4.13.1 Downstream Router Setup
To use failover connectivity on the downstream router (aka Failover to Cellular or F2C), it must have two
or more WAN interfaces.
Note
Failover in IP Passthrough context is performed entirely by the downstream router, and the builtin out-of-band failover logic on the console server itself is not available while in IP Passthrough
mode.
Connect an Ethernet WAN interface on the downstream router to the console server’s Network Interface
or Management LAN port with an Ethernet cable.
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Configure this interface on the downstream router to receive its network settings via DHCP. If failover is
required, configure the downstream router for failover between its primary interface and the Ethernet port
connected to the console server.
4.13.2 IP Passthrough Pre-Configuration
Prerequisite steps to enable IP Passthrough are:


Configure the Network Interface and applicable Management LAN interfaces with static network
settings.

Click Serial & Network: IP.

For Network Interface and where applicable Management LAN, select Static for
the Configuration Method and enter the network settings (see the section entitled
Network Configuration for detailed instructions).

For the interface connected to the downstream router, you may choose any
dedicated private network – this network will only exist between the console server
and downstream router and will not normally be accessible.

For the other interfaces, configure as you would normally on the local network.

For both interfaces, leave Gateway blank.
Configure the Opengear modem in Always On Out-of-band mode

For a cellular connection, click System: Dial: Internal Cellular Modem.

Select Enable Dial-Out and enter carrier details such as APN (see the section
entitled Cellular Modem Connection for detailed instructions).
4.13.3 IP Passthrough Configuration
To configure IP Passthrough:

Click Serial & Network: IP Passthrough and check Enable.

Select the Modem to use for upstream connectivity.

Optionally, enter the MAC Address of downstream router’s connected interface.
Note If MAC address is not specified, the Opengear will passthrough to the first downstream device
requesting a DHCP address.

Select the Ethernet Interface to use for connectivity to the downstream router.

Click Apply.
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4.13.4 Service Intercepts
These allow the console server to continue to provide services for e.g. out-of-band management when in
IP Passthrough mode. Connections to the modem address on the specified intercept port(s) will be
handled by the Opengear, rather than being passed through to the downstream router.

For the required service of HTTP, HTTPS or SSH, check Enable.

Optionally modify the Intercept Port to an alternate port (e.g. 8443 for HTTPS), this is useful if
you want to continue to allow the downstream router to remain accessible via its regular port.
4.13.5 IP Passthrough Status
Refresh the page to view the Status section. It displays the modem’s External IP Address being passed
through, the Internal MAC Address of the downstream router (only populated when the downstream
router accepts the DHCP lease), and the overall running status of the IP Passthrough service.
Additionally, you may be alerted to the failover status of the downstream router by configuring a Routed
Data Usage Check under Alerts & Logging: Auto-Response.
4.13.6 Caveats
Some downstream routers may be incompatible with the gateway router. This may happen when IP
Passthrough is bridging a 3G cellular network where the gateway address is a point-to-point destination
address and no subnet information is available. The console server sends a DHCP netmask of
255.255.255.255. Devices will normally correctly construe this as a "single host route" on the interface,
but as this is an unusual setting for Ethernet, some older downstream devices may have issues.
Intercepts for local services will not work if the console server is using a default route other than the
modem. As per normal operation, they will also not work unless the service is enabled and access to the
service is enabled (see System: Services: Service Access: Dialout/Cellular).
Outbound connections originating from the console server to remote services are supported (e.g. sending
SMTP email alerts, SNMP traps, getting NTP time, IPSec tunnels); however, there is a miniscule risk of
connection failure should both the Opengear and the downstream device try to access the same UDP or
TCP port on the same remote host at the same time where they have randomly chosen the same
originating local port number.
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Chapter 5
Firewall, Failover and OoB Dial Access
FIREWALL, FAILOVER AND OoB DIAL-IN
Introduction The console server has a number of out-of-band access capabilities and transparent fail-over features, to
ensure high availability. So if you have difficulty accessing the console server through the main network
path, all console server models provide out-of-band (OOB) access and the Administrator can still access
it (and its Managed Devices) from a remote location.

All console server models support serially attaching an external dial-up modem and configuring
dial-in OOB access. Some models with USB ports support attaching an external USB modem.
Some models also come standard with an internal modem. These modems can also be configured
for dial-in OOB access.

All console server models with an internal or externally attached modem (and V3.4 firmware or
later) can be configured for out-dial to be permanently connected.

The advanced console server models can also be configured for transparent out-dial failover. So if
the principal management network is disrupted, an external dial-up ppp connection is
automatically established.

These advanced console server models can also be accessed out-of-band using an alternate
broadband link and also offer transparent broadband failover.

Models with an internal cellular modem can be configured for OOB cellular access or for cellular
transparent failover or can be configured as a cellular router.
5.1
Dialup Modem Connection
To enable dial-in or dial-out you must first ensure there is a modem attached to the console server.
-
The LES1508A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, and LES1348A come with an internal modem that can provide for OOB dial-in access. These models
will display an Internal Modem Port tab under System -> Dial (as well as the Serial DB9 Port tab)
-
The LES1208A-R2, LES1216A-R2, LES1232A, and LES1248A-R2 need to have an external
modem attached via a serial cable to their DB9 port. This port is marked Local and is located on
the back of the units.
5.2 OoB Dial-­‐In access To enable OoB dial-­‐in access, you first configure the console server. Once it’s set up for dial-­‐in PPP access, the console server will await an incoming dial-­‐in connection. Set up the remote client dial-­‐in software so it can establish a network connection from the Administrator’s client modem to the dial-­‐in modem on the console server. _____________________________________________________________________
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5.2.1 Configure Dial-­‐In PPP To enable dial-­‐in PPP access on the modem.  Select the System: Dial menu option and the port to be configured (Serial DB9 Port or Internal Modem Port). 
Check Enable Dial-In.
 Select the Baud Rate and Flow Control that will communicate with the modem. Note The console server console/modem serial port is set by default to 115200 baud, No parity, 8 data
bits and 1 stop bit, with software (Xon-Xoff) flow control enabled for the Serial DB9 Port and 9600
baud for the Internal modem and PC Card Ports. When enabling OoB dial-in, we recommend that
this be changed to 38,400 baud with Hardware Flow Control.
Note You can further configure the console/modem port (for example, to include modem init strings) by
editing /etc/mgetty.config files as described in the Chapter 15—Advanced Configuration.
 Check the Enable Dial-­‐In Access box.  In the Remote Address field, enter the IP address to be assigned to the dial-­‐in client. You can select any address for the Remote IP Address. It, and the Local IP Address, must both be in the same network range (e.g. 200.100.1.12 and 200.100.1.67).  In the Local Address field, enter the IP address for the Dial-­‐In PPP Server. This is the IP address that will be used by the remote client to access console server once the modem connection is established. You can select any address for the Local IP Address, but it must be in the same network range as the Remote IP Address.  The Default Route option enables the dialed PPP connection to become the default route for the Console server.  The Custom Modem Initialization option allows you to enter a custom AT string modem initialization string (for example, AT&C1&D3&K3). _____________________________________________________________________
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 You must select the Authentication Type to apply to the dial-­‐in connection. The console server uses authentication to challenge Administrators who dial-­‐in to the console server. (For dial-­‐in access, the username and password received from the dial-­‐in client are verified against the local authentication database stored on the console server). The Administrator must also configure the client PC/workstation to use the selected authentication scheme. Select PAP, CHAP, MSCHAPv2, or None, and click Apply. None With this selection, no username or password authentication is required for dial-­‐in access. We do not recommend this. PAP Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is the usual method of user authentication used on the internet: sending a username and password to a server where they are compared with a table of authorized users. While most common, PAP is the least secure of the authentication options. CHAP Challenge-­‐Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is used to verify a user's name and password for PPP Internet connections. It is more secure than PAP, the other main authentication protocol. MSCHAPv2 Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MSCHAP) is authentication for PPP connections between a computer using a Microsoft Windows operating system and a network access server. It is more secure than PAP or CHAP, and is the only option that also supports data encryption. Note: The User name and Password to be used for the dial-in PPP link are setup when the User is
initially set up with dialin Group membership. The dialin Group supports multiple dial-in users.
Any dial-back phone numbers are also configured when the User is set up.
Note Chapter 15 (Advanced Configuration) has examples of Linux commands that you can use to
control the modem port operation at the command line level.
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5.2.2 Using SDT Connector client Administrators can use their SDT Connector client to set up secure OoB dial-­‐in access to all their remote console servers. With a point and click, you can initiate a dial up connection. Refer to Chapter 6.5. 5.2.3 Set up Windows XP/ 2003/Vista/7 client  Open Network Connections in Control Panel and click the New Connection Wizard.  Select Connect to the Internet and click Next.  On the Getting Ready screen, select Set up my connection manually and click Next.  On the Internet Connection screen, select Connect using a dial-­‐up modem and click Next.  Enter a Connection Name (any name you choose) and the dial-­‐up Phone number that will connect through to the console server modem.  Enter the PPP User name and Password you set up for the console server. _____________________________________________________________________
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5.2.4 Set up earlier Windows clients  For Windows 2000, the PPP client set up procedure is the same as above, except you get to the Dial-­‐Up Networking Folder by clicking the Start button and selecting Settings. Then, click Network and Dial-­‐up Connections and click Make New Connection.  Similarly, for Windows 98, you double click My Computer on the Desktop, then open Dial-­‐Up Networking and double click Make New Connection. Then, proceed as above. 5.2.5 Set up Linux clients for dial-­‐in The online tutorial http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialPPP.html presents a selection of methods for establishing a dial up PPP connection: -
Command line PPP and manual configuration (works with any Linux distribution). Using the Linuxconf configuration tool (for Red Hat compatible distributions). This configures the scripts ifup/ifdown to start and stop a PPP connection. Using the Gnome control panel configuration tool. WVDIAL and the Redhat “Dialup configuration tool“ . GUI dial program X-­‐isp. Download/Installation/Configuration. Note For all PPP clients:



Set the PPP link up with TCP/IP as the only protocol enabled.
Specify that the Server will assign IP address and do DNS.
Do not set up the console server PPP link as the default for Internet connection.
5.3
Dial-Out Access
The internal or externally attached modem on the console server can be set up either:
- in Failover mode where a dial-out connection is only established in event of a ping failure, or
- with the dial-out connection always on.
In both of the above cases, if the dial-out connection is disrupted, the console server will try to
re-establish the connection.
5.3.1
Always-on dial-out
With V3.4 firmware (and later) the console server modem can be configured for out-dial to be always on,
with a permanent external dial-up ppp connection.

Select the System: Dial menu option and check Enable Dial-Out to allow outgoing modem
communications.

Select the Baud Rate and Flow Control that will communicate with the modem.

In the Dial-Out Settings - Always On Out-of-Band field enter the access details for the
remote PPP server to be called.
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Override DNS is available for PPP Devices such as modems. Override DNS allows the use of alternate
DNS servers from those provided by your ISP. For example, an alternative DNS may be required for
OpenDNS used for content filtering.

To enable Override DNS, check the Override returned DNS Servers box. Enter the IP of the
DNS servers into the spaces provided.
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5.3.2
Failover dial-out
The advanced console servers can be configured so a dial-out PPP connection is automatically set up if
the principal management network is disrupted.
Note:
Only SSH access is enabled on the failover connection. However in firmware versions later than
3.0.2, HTTPS access is also enabled. The administrator can SSH (or HTTPS) connect to the
console server and fix the problem.

When configuring the principal network connection in System: IP specify the Failover Interface
that will be used when a fault has been detected with Network / Network1 (eth0). This can be
either Internal Modem or the Dial Serial DB9 (if you are using an external modem on the
Console port) or USB Modem (if you are using a plug-on USB).

Specify the Probe Addresses of two sites (the Primary and Secondary) that the IM console
server is to ping to determine if Network / Network1 is still operational.

Select the System: Dial menu option and the port to be configured (Serial DB9 Port or PC Card
or Internal Modem Port).

Select the Baud Rate and Flow Control that will communicate with the modem.
Note
You can further configure the console/modem port (e.g. to include modem init strings) by editing
/etc/mgetty.config files.

Check the Enable Dial-Out Access box and enter the access details for the remote PPP server
to be called.
Override DNS is available for PPP Devices such as modems. Override DNS allows the use of alternate
DNS servers from those provided by your ISP. For example, an alternative DNS may be required for
OpenDNS used for content filtering.

To enable Override DNS, check the Override returned DNS Servers box. Enter the IP of the
DNS servers into the spaces provided.
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Note:
By default, the advanced console server supports automatic failure-recovery back to the original
state prior to failover (V3.1.0 firmware and later). The advanced console server continually pings
probe addresses whilst in original and failover states. The original state will automatically be set
as a priority and reestablished following three successful pings of the probe addresses during
failover. The failover state will be removed once the original state has been re-established.
5.4 OoB broadband access The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-­‐R2 console servers have a second Ethernet port (Network 2) that you can configure for alternate and OoB (out-­‐of-­‐
band) broadband access. With two active broadband access paths to the console server, if you are unable to access it through the primary management network (Network or Network1), you can still access it through the alternate broadband path (for example, a T1 link). _____________________________________________________________________
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 On the System: IP menu select Network 2 and configure the IP Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway, and DNS with the access settings for the alternate link.  Make sure that when you configure the principal Network 1 Settings connection, the Failover Interface is set to None. 5.5 Broadband Ethernet Failover The second Ethernet port on the LES1508A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A and LES1248A-­‐R2 console servers can also be configured for failover to ensure transparent high availability. _____________________________________________________________________
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
When configuring the principal network connection, specify Network 2 (eth1) as the Failover Interface to use when a fault is detected with Network 1 (eth0). 
Specify the Probe Addresses of two sites (the Primary and Secondary) that the Advanced Console Server is to ping to determine if Network 1 (eth0) is still operating. 
On the Management LAN Interface -­‐ Network 2, configure the IP Address/Subnet Mask/Gateway the same as Network Interface -­‐ Network 1. _____________________________________________________________________
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In this mode, Network 2 (eth1) is available as the transparent back-­‐up port to Network 1 (eth0) for accessing the management network. Network 2 will automatically and transparently take over the work of Network 1, if Network 1 becomes unavailable for any reason. When Network 1 becomes available again, it takes over the work of Network Interface, if the Network Interface becomes unavailable for
any reason. Note:
Only SSH access is enabled on the failover connection. However in firmware versions later than
3.0.2 HTTPS access is also enabled. The administrator can then SSH (or HTTPS) connect to the
console server and fix the problem.
By default, the advanced console server supports automatic failure-recovery back to the original state
prior to failover (V3.1.0 firmware and later). The advanced console server continually pings probe
addresses while in original and failover states. The original state will automatically be set as a priority and
reestablished following three successful pings of the probe addresses during failover. The failover state
will be removed once the original state has been re-established.
Note:
For firmware pre V3.1.0, the advanced console server does not support automatic failurerecovery back to the original state prior to the failover. To restore networking to a recovered state,
you need to run the following command:
rm -f /var/run/*-failed-over && config -r ipconfig
If required, you can run a custom bash script when the device fails over. You can use this script
to implement automatic failure recovery, depending on your network setup. The script to create is:
/etc/config/scripts/interface-failover-alert
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5.6 Cellular Modem Connection
The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A,
LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, and LES1448A console servers support internal cellular modems.
These modems first need to be installed (as described below in 5.6.1, 5.6.2 or 5.6.3) and then set up to
validate they can connect to the carrier network (as described below in 5.6.4 and 5.6.5). They then can be
configured for operation in Always- on cellular router or OOB mode, or in Failover mode (as detailed in
next section 5.7).
5.6.1
Connecting to a GSM HSUPA/UMTS carrier network
The LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, and LES1348A have an internal GSM modem that will connect to
any major GSM carrier globally.

Note:
Before powering on the console server, you must install the SIM card provided by your cellular
carrier, and attach the external aerial antenna.
The console servers each have two cellular status LEDs. The SIM LED on top of the unit should
go on solid when a SIM card has been inserted and detected.

Select Internal Cellular Modem panel on the System: Dial menu.

Check Enable Dial-Out Settings.
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Note: Your 3G carrier may have provided you with details for configuring the connection including APN
(Access Point Name), Pin Code (optional PIN code, which may be required to unlock the SIM
card), Phone Number (the sequence to dial to establish the connection, defaults to *99***1#),
Username / Password (optional) and Dial string (optional AT commands). However, you generally
will only need to enter your provider’s APN and leave the other fields blank.

Enter the carrier’s APN e.g. for AT&T (USA) simply enter i2gold, for T-Mobile (USA) enter
epc.tmobile.com, for InterNode (Aust) enter internode and for Telstra (Aust) enter telstra.internet

If the SIM Card is configured with a PIN Code, you will be required to unlock the Card by entering
the PIN Code. If the PIN Code is entered incorrectly three times, then the PUK Code will be
required to unlock the Card.
You may also need to set Override DNS to use alternate DNS servers from those provided by your
carrier.

To enable Override DNS, check the Override returned DNS Servers box. Enter the IP of the
DNS servers into the spaces provided.
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
5.6.2
Check Apply and a radio connection will be established with your cellular carrier.
Connecting to a CDMA EV-DO carrier network
The LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, and LES1448A models have an internal CDMA modem. Both
will connect to the Verizon network in North America.
After creating an account with the CDMA carrier some carriers require an additional step to provision the
Internal Cellular Modem, referred to as Provisioning. The LES1200/LES1300/LES1400 series supports:
-
Over-the-Air Service Provisioning (OTASP), where modem specific parameters can be retrieved
via a voice call to a special phone number, and
-
a manual process where the phone number and other parameters can be entered manually.
OTASP Activation:
Before this can be achieved you need both a working account and an activated device. The console
server’s ESN (Electronic Serial Number) needs to be registered with an appropriate plan on your Carrier’s
account.

Select Internal Cellular Modem panel on the System: Dial menu.

A particular phone number will need to be dialed to complete OTASP, e.g., Verizon uses *22899,
Telus uses *22886.
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
Click Activate to initiate the OTASP call. The process is successful if no errors are displayed and
you no longer see the CDMA Modem Activation form. ( If OTASP is unsuccessful you can consult
the System Logs for clues to what went wrong at Status: Syslog).

When OTASP has completed successfully you can proceed to enabling the Internal Cellular
Modem by entering the carriers phone number (which defaults to #777) and clicking Apply.

The Cellular statistics page on Status: Statistics will display the current state of the modem.

OTASP success will result in a valid phone number being placed in the NAM Profile Account
MDN field.
Manual Activation:
Some carriers may not support OTASP. In this case, you might need to manually provision the modem.

Select Internal Cellular Modem panel on the System: Dial menu

Enter the MSL, MDN and MSID values. These values are specific to your carrier and for manual
activation you will have to investigate what values your carrier uses in each field. For example
Verizon has been known to use an MSL of 000000 and the phone number assigned to the
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console server as both the MDN and MSID with no spaces or hyphens e.g. “5551231234” for
“555-123-1234”

Click Activate. If no errors occur you will see the new values entered into the NAM Profile at the
Cellular page on Status: Statistics.

Navigate to the Internal Cellular Modem tab on System: Dial. To connect to your carriers 3G
network enter the appropriate phone number (usually #777) and a Username and Password if
directed to by your account/plan documentation.

Select Enable and then click Apply to initiate the Always On Out-of-Band connection.
5.6.3
Verifying the cellular connection
Out-of-band access is enabled by default, so the cellular modem connection should now be on.


You can verify the connection status from the Status: Statistics.
o
Select the Cellular tab and in Service Availability verify Mode is set to Online.
o
Select Failover& Out-of-Band and the Connection Status reads Connected.
o
You can check your allocated IP address.
You can measure the received signal strength from the Cellular Statistics page on the Status:
Statistics screen. This will display the current state of the cellular modem, including the Received
Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).
Note: Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is a measurement of the Radio Frequency (RF)
power present in a received radio signal at the mobile device. It is generally expressed
in dBm and the best throughput comes from placing the device in an area with the highest
RSSI.
-100 dbm or less = Unacceptable coverage.
-99 dbm to –90 dbm = Weak Coverage.
-89 dbm to – 70 dbm = Medium to High Coverage.
-69 dbm or greater = Strong Coverage.
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
5.6.4
With the cellular modem connection on, you can also see the connection status from the LEDs
on top of the unit.
Cellular modem watchdog
When you select Enable Dial-Out on the System: Dial menu, you will be given the option to configure a
cellar modem watchdog service (with firmware V3.5.2u13 and later). This service will periodically ping a
configurable IP address. If a threshold number of consecutive attempts fail, the service will cause the unit
to reboot. This can be used to force a clean restart of the modem and its services to work around any
carrier issues.
5.6.5
Dual SIM failover
Some console server models allow you to insert two SIM cards (so you can connect selectively to two
carrier networks). The dual SIM failover feature allows the cell modem to selectively failover to the
secondary SIM when communications over the primary SIM fails.
To configure dual SIM failover, you need to:

Choose which of the SIMs is to be the Primary, and the other SIM will be the secondary/failover.
Select Internal Cellular Modem panel on the System: Dial menu nominate which slot (Top or
Bottom) contains the Primary.

Check Enable SIM Failover.
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
Specify how the device will Failback from the failover SIM to the Primary SIM. There are two
options:
o
The 'On Disconnect' failback option will failback to the Primary SIM only after the
connection on the failover SIM has failed its ping test.
o
The 'On Timeout' failback option will failback to the Primary SIM after the connection on
the failover SIM has been up for the timeout period. The timeout period is either the
default value of 600 seconds if the Failback Timeout field is left empty or the number of
seconds you have specified in the Failback Timeout field.

Next, you will need to configure each SIM connection with as much information (eg. APN etc)
such that it will make a successful connection assuming sufficient signal strength from the cell
service provider.

Enter a Failback Test IP address for each SIM. This IP address is used to ping test the status of
the cell modem connection and to determine if SIM failover or failback is to take place.

Configuring DDNS and the Modem Watchdog are optional. DDNS, when configured, will be
applied to the cell modem dial out connection regardless of which SIM is currently in use. Dual
SIM failover is for dial out connections only.
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Note:
Dual SIM failover still applies to the cell modem interface when the cell modem itself is used as
the console server's failover interface. Be aware that when the console server is failing over to
the cell modem interface and the primary SIM fails, total time to fail over to the cell modem and
then for the cell modem to failover to its secondary SIM can take several minutes - be patient.
5.7
Cellular Operation
When set up as a console server, the 3G cellular modem can be set up to connect to the carrier in either:
-
Cellular router mode. In this case the dial-out connection to the carrier cellular network is always on,
and IP traffic is routed between the cellular connected network and the console server’s local network
ports. This is the default mode of operation for the LES1508A.
-
OOB mode. As above, in this mode, the dial-out connection to the carrier cellular network is always on
- awaiting any incoming access (from a remote site wanting to access to the console server or
attached serial consoles/network hosts).
-
Failover mode. In this case a dial-out cellular connection is only established if a ping fails.
-
Circuit Switched Data (CSD) mode. In this dial-in mode, the cellular modem can receive incoming calls
from remote modems who dial a special Data Terminating number. This is a 3G mode only.
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5.7.1
OOB access set up
In this mode, the dial-out connection to the carrier cellular network is always on, awaiting any incoming
traffic. By default, the only traffic enabled are incoming SSH access to the console server and its serial
ports, and incoming HTTPS access to the console server. There is a low level of keep alive and
management traffic going over the cellular network; however, generally the status reports and alerts, etc.,
from the site can be carried over the main network.
This mode is used typically for out-of-band access to remote sites, and as above to be directly accessed
the appliance needs to have a Public IP address (and it must not have SSH access firewalled). This OOB
mode is the default for LES1200/LES1300/LES1400 series appliances with internal cellular modems. Outof-band access is enabled by default and the cellular modem connection is always on.
To be directly accessed, the console server needs to have a Public IP address and it must not have SSH
access firewalled.
Almost all carriers offer corporate mobile data service/plans with a Public (static or dynamic) IP address.
These plans often have a service fee attached.

If you have such a static Public IP address plan, you can also now try accessing the console
server using the Public IP Address provided by the carrier. By default, only HTTPS and SSH
access is enabled on the OOB connection. You can browse to the console server, but you cannot
ping it.

If you have a dynamic Public IP address plan, then a DDNS service will need to be configured to
enable the remote administrator to initiate incoming access. Once this is done, you can then also
try accessing the console server using the allocated domain name.
By default, most providers offer a consumer grade service that provides dynamic Private IP address
assignments to 3G devices. This IP address is not visible across the Internet, but generally it is adequate
for home and general business use.

With such a plan the Failover& Out-of-Band tab on the Status: Statistics shows will identify
that your carrier has allocated you a Private IP Address (i.e. in the range 10.0.0.0 –
10.255.255.255, 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 or 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255)

For inbound OOB connection with such a plan you will need to use Call Home with a VCMS or
set up a VPN.
In out-of-band access mode, the internal cellular modem will continually stay connected. The alternative is
to set up Failover mode on the console server as detailed in the next section.
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5.7.2
Cellular failover setup
In this mode, a dial-out cellular connection is only established if the main network is disrupted. The
cellular connection normally remains idle - in a low power state - and is only activated if a ping fails. This
standby mode can suit remote sites with expensive power or very high cellular traffic costs.
In this mode, the appliance continually pings nominated probe addresses over the main network
connection and if a ping fails, it dials out and sets up a dial-out ppp over the cellular modem and access
is switched transparently to this network connection. Then, when the main network connection is restored,
access is switched back.
Once you have configured carrier connection, the cellular modem can be configured for failover.
This will tell the cellular connection to remain idle in a low power state. If the primary and secondary probe
addresses are not available, it will bring up the cellular connection and connect back to the cellular carrier.

Navigate back to the Network Interface on the System:IP menu and specify Internal Cellular
modem (cell modem 01) as the Failover Interface to be used when a fault has been detected.

Specify the Probe Addresses of two sites (the Primary and Secondary) that the console server
is to ping to determine if the principal network is still operational.

If the principal network fails, the 3G network connection is activated as the access path to the
console server (and Managed Devices). Only HTTPS and SSH access is enabled on the failover
connection (this should enable the administrator to connect and fix the problem).
Note:
By default, the advanced console server supports automatic failure-recovery back to the original
state prior to failover (V3.1.0 firmware and later). The advanced console server continually pings
probe addresses whilst in original and failover states. The original state will automatically be set
as a priority and reestablished following three successful pings of the probe addresses during
failover. The failover state will be removed once the original state has been re-established.
For earlier firmware that does not support automatic failure-recovery, to restore networking to a
recovered state, the following command then needs to be run:
rm -f /var/run/*-failed-over && config -r ipconfig
If required, you can run a custom bash script when the device fails over. You can use this script
to implement automatic failure recovery, depending on your network setup. The script to create is:
/etc/config/scripts/interface-failover-alert

You can check the connection status by selecting the Cellular panel on the Status: Statistics
menu.
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5.7.3
o
The Operational Status will change as the cellular modem finds a channel and connects to
the network.
o
The Failover & Out-of-Band screen will display information relating to a configured
Failover/OOB interface and the status of that connection. The IP Address of the Failover /
OOB interface will be presented in the Failover & Out-of-Band screen once the
Failover/OOB interface has been triggered.
Cellular routing
Once you have configured carrier connection, the cellular modem can be configured to route traffic
through the console server. This requires setting up forwarding and masquerading - as detailed in
Chapter 5.8.
5.7.4
Cellular CSD dial-in setup
Once you have configured carrier connection, the cellular modem can be configured to receive Circuit
Switched Data (CSD) calls.
Note: CSD is a legacy form of data transmission developed for the TDMA based mobile phone systems
like GSM. CSD uses a single radio time slot to deliver 9.6 kbps data transmission to the
GSM Network and Switching Subsystem where it could be connected through the equivalent of a
normal modem to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) allowing direct calls to
any dial-up service. CSD is provided selectively by carriers and it is important you receive a Data
Terminating number as part of the mobile service your carrier provides. This is the number which
external modems will call to access the console server.

Select the Cellular Modem panel on the System: Dial menu.

Check Enable Dial-In and configure the Dial-In Settings.
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5.8 Firewall & Forwarding The console server has routing, NAT, packet filtering, and port forwarding support on all physical and virtual network interfaces. _____________________________________________________________________
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This enables the console server to function as an Internet or external network gateway: -
Network Forwarding allows the network packets on one network interface (i.e. LAN1/ eth0) to be forwarded to another network interface (i.e. LAN2/eth1 or dial-­‐out/cellular). So locally networked devices can IP connect through the console server to devices on remote networks. -
IP Masquerading is used to allow all the devices on your local private network to hide behind and share the one public IP address when connecting to a public network. This type of translation is only used for connections originating within the private network destined for the outside public network, and each outbound connection is maintained by using a different source IP port number. -
When using IP Masquerading, devices on the external network cannot initiate connections to devices on the internal network. Port Forwards allows external users to connect to a specific port on the external interface of the console server/cellular router and be redirected to a specified internal address for a device on the internal network. -
With Firewall Rules, packet filtering inspects each packet passing through the firewall and accepts or rejects it based on user-­‐defined rules. -
Then Service Access Rules can be set for connecting to the console server/router itself. 5.8.1 Configuring network forwarding and IP masquerading To use a console server as an Internet or external network gateway requires establishing an external network connection and then setting up forwarding and masquerading. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note: Network forwarding allows the network packets on one network interface (i.e. LAN1/ eth0) to be forwarded to another network interface (i.e. LAN2/eth1 or dial-­‐out/cellular). Locally networked devices can IP connect through the console server to devices on remote networks. IP masquerading is used to allow all the devices on your local private network to hide behind and share the one public IP address when connecting to a public network. This type of translation is only used for connections originating within the private network destined for the outside public network, and each outbound connection is maintained by using a different source IP port number. By default, all console server models are configured so that they will not route traffic between networks. To use the console server as an Internet or external network gateway, forwarding must be enabled so that traffic can be routed from the internal network to the Internet/external network:  Navigate to the System: Firewall page, and then click on the Forwarding &Masquerading tab.  Find the Source Network to be routed, and then tick the relevant Destination Network to enable Forwarding.  For example, to configure a single Ethernet device as a cellular router: The source network should be the Network Interface and the Destination Network used should be Dialout/Cellular. IP Masquerading is generally required if the console server will be routing to the Internet, or if the external network being routed to does not have routing information about the internal network behind the console server. IP Masquerading performs Source Network Address Translation (SNAT) on outgoing packets, to make them appear like they've come from the console server (rather than devices on the internal network). When response packets come back to devices on the external network, the console server will translate the packet address back to the internal IP, so that it is routed correctly. This allows the console server to provide full outgoing connectivity for internal devices using a single IP Address on the external network. By default IP Masquerading is disabled for all networks. To enable masquerading: _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select Forwarding & Masquerading panel on the System: Firewall menu.  Check Enable IP Masquerading (SNAT) on the network interfaces where masquerading is be enabled. Generally, this masquerading would be applied to any interface that is connecting with a public network such as the Internet. 5.8.2 Configuring client devices Client devices on the local network must be configured with Gateway and DNS settings. This can be done statically on each device, or using DHCP. Manual Configuration: Manually set a static gateway address (the address of the console server) and set the DNS server address to be the same as used on the external network, i.e., if the console server is acting as an internet gateway or a cellular router, then use the ISP provided DNS server address. DHCP Configuration:  Navigate to the System:IP page.  Click the tab of the interface connected to the internal network. To use DHCP, a static address must be set; check that the static IP and subnet mask fields are set.  Click on the Disabled link next to DHCP Server which will bring up the System: DHCP Server page.  Check Enable DHCP Server.  To configure the DHCP server, tick the Use interface address as gateway check box. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Set the DNS server address(es) to be the same as used on the external network, i.e., if the console server is acting as an internet gateway or a cellular router, then use the ISP provided DNS server address.  Enter the Default Lease time and Maximum Lease time in seconds. The lease time is the time that a dynamically assigned IP address is valid before the client must request it again.  Click Apply. The DHCP server will sequentially issue IP addresses from a specified address pool(s):  Click Add in the Dynamic Address Allocation Pools field.  Enter the DHCP Pool Start Address and End Address and click Apply. The DHCP server also supports pre-­‐assigning IP addresses to be allocated only to specific MAC addresses and reserving IP addresses to be used by connected hosts with fixed IP addresses to reserve an IP address for a particular host. 5.8.3 Port forwarding When using IP Masquerading, devices on the external network cannot initiate connections to devices on the internal network. To work around this, Port Forwards can be set up to allow external users to connect to a specific port, or range of ports on the external interface of the console server/cellular router, and have the console server/cellular router redirect the data to a specified internal address and port range. To setup a port forward:  Navigate to the System: Firewall page, and click on the Port Forwarding tab.  Click Add New Port Forward.  Fill in the following fields: Name: Name for the forwarded port. This should describe the target and the service that the port forward is used to access. Input Interface: This allows the user to only forward the port from a specific interface. In most cases, this should be left as "Any." Source Address/Address Range: This allows the user to restrict access to a port forward to a specific address. In most cases, this should be left blank. IP address ranges use the format ip/netmask (where netmask is 1–32 bits. Destination Address/Address Range: The destination IP address/address range should match. This may be left blank. IP address ranges use the format ip/netmask (where network is 1–32 bits. Input Port Range: The range of ports to forward to the destination IP. These will be the port(s) specified when accessing the port forward. These ports need not be the same as the output port range. Protocol: The protocol of the data being forwarded. The options are TCP or UDP, TCP and UDP, ICMP, ESP, GRE, or Any. _____________________________________________________________________
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Output Address: The target of the port forward. This is an address on the internal network where packets sent to the Input Interface on the input port range are sent. Output Port Range: The port or ports that the packets will be redirected to on the Output Address. For example, to forward port 8443 to an internal HTTPS server on 192.168.10.2, the following settings would be used: Input Interface: Any Input Port Range: 8443 Protocol: TCP Output Address: 192.168.10.2 Output Port Range: 443 5.8.4 Firewall rules Firewall rules can be used to block or allow traffic through an interface based on port number, the source and/or destination IP address (range), the direction (ingress or egress) and the protocol. This can be used to allow custom on-­‐box services, or block traffic based on policy. To setup a firewall rule:  Navigate to the System: Firewall page, and click on the Firewall Rules tab. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Click New Firewall Rule.  Fill in the following fields: Name: Name the rule. This name should describe the policy the firewall rule is being used to implement (e.g. block ftp, Allow Tony). Interface: Select the interface that the firewall rule will be applied to (i.e. Any, Dialout/Cellular, VPN, Network Interface, Dial-­‐in etc). Port Range: Specify the Port or range of Ports (e.g. 1000 – 1500) that the rule will apply to. This may be left blank for Any. Source Address Range: Specify the source IP address (or address range) to match. IP address ranges use the format ip/netmask (where netmask is in bits 1-­‐32). This may be left blank for Any. Destination Range: Specify the destination IP address/address range to match. IP address ranges use the format ip/netmask (where netmask is in bits 1-­‐32). This may be left blank. Protocol: Select if the firewall rule will apply to TCP or UDP. Direction: Select the traffic direction that the firewall rule will apply to (Ingress = incoming or Egress). Action: Select the action (Accept or Block) that will be applied to the packets detected that match the Interface+ Port Range+ Source/destination Address Range+ Protocol+ Direction. For example, to block all SSH traffic from leaving Dialout Interface, the following settings can be used: Interface: Dialout/Cellular Port Range: 22 _____________________________________________________________________
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Protocol: TCP Direction: Egress Action: Block The firewall rules are processed in a set order—from top to bottom. Rule placement is important. For example, with the following rules, all traffic coming in over the Network Interface is blocked except when it comes from two nominated IP addresses (SysAdmin and Tony): To allow all incoming traffic on all interfaces from the SysAdmin: To allow all incoming traffic from Tony: To block all incoming traffic from the Network Interface: Interface Any Any Network Interface Port Range Any Any Any IP address of SysAdmin IP address of Tony Any Destination IP Any Any Any Protocol TCP TCP TCP Direction Ingress Ingress Ingress Action Accept Accept Block Source IP If the Rule Order above is changed so the “Block Everyone Else” rule is second on the list, then the traffic coming in over the Network Interface from Tony would be blocked. _____________________________________________________________________
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Chapter 6
Secure SSH Tunneling & SDT Connector
SECURE SSH TUNNELING AND SDT CONNECTOR
Introduction Each Black Box console server has an embedded SSH server and uses SSH tunneling so remote users can securely connect through the console server to Managed Devices—using text-­‐based console tools (such as SSH, telnet, SoL) or graphical tools (such VNC, RDP, HTTPS, HTTP, X11, VMware, DRAC, iLO). The Managed Devices you access can be located on the same local network as the console server or they can be attached to the console server via a serial port. The remote User/Administrator connects to the console server thru an SSH tunnel via dial-­‐up, wireless, or ISDN modem; a broadband Internet connection; the enterprise VPN network; or the local network. -
To set up the secure SSH tunnel from the client PC to the console server, install and launch SSH client software on the User/Administrator’s PC. Black Box recommends you use the SDT Connector client software supplied with the console server for this. SDT Connector is simple to install and auto-­‐configure and it provides all your users with point-­‐and-­‐click access to all the systems and devices in the secure network. With one click, SDT Connector sets up a secure SSH tunnel from the client to the selected console server, then establishes a port forward connection to the target network connected host or serial connected device. Next, it executes the client application that it uses in communicating with the host. This chapter details the basic SDT Connector operations: 
Configuring the console server for SSH tunneled access to network attached hosts and setting up permitted Services and user access (Section 6.1). 
Setting up the SDT Connector client with gateway, host, service, and client application details, and making connections between the Client PC and hosts connected to the console server (Section 6.2). 
Using SDT Connector to access the Management Console via a browser (Section 6.3). _____________________________________________________________________
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
Using SDT Connector to Telnet or SSH connect to devices that are serially attached to the console server (Section 6.4). The chapter then covers more advanced SDT Connector and SSH tunneling topics: 6.1

Using SDT Connector for out-­‐of-­‐band access (Section 6.5). 
Automatic importing and exporting configurations (Section 6.6). 
Configuring Public Key Authentication (Section 6.7). 
Setting up a SDT Secure Tunnel for Remote Desktop (Section 6.8). 
Setting up a SDT Secure Tunnel for VNC (Section 6.9). 
Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the console server (Section 6.10). Configuring for SSH Tunneling to Hosts To set up the console server to SSH tunnel access a network attached host:  Add the new host and the permitted services using the Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu as detailed in Network Hosts (Chapter 4.4). Only these permitted services will be forwarded through by SSH to the host. All other services (TCP/UDP ports) will be blocked. Note Following are some of the TCP Ports used by SDT in the console server:
22
23
80
3389
5900
73XX
79XX
6.2
SSH (All SDT Tunneled connections)
Telnet on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
HTTP on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
RDP on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
VNC on local LAN (forwarded inside tunnel)
RDP over serial from local LAN – where XX is the serial port number (that is, 7301 to
7348 on a 48 port console server)
VNC over serial from local LAN – where XX is the serial port number
 Add the new Users using Serial & Network: Users & Groups menu as detailed in Network Hosts (Chapter 4.4). Users can be authorized to access the console server ports and specified network attached hosts. To simplify configuration, the Administrator can first set up Groups with group access permissions, then Users can be classified as members of particular Groups. SDT Connector client configuration The SDT Connector client works with all Black Box console servers. Each of these remote console servers has an embedded OpenSSH based server that you can configure to port forward connections from the SDT Connector client to hosts on their local network (as detailed in the previous chapter). You can also pre-­‐configure the SDT Connector with the access tools and applications that are available to run when you’ve established access to a particular host. SDT Connector can connect to the console server using an alternate OoB access. It can also access the console server itself and access devices connected to serial ports on the console server. _____________________________________________________________________
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6.2.1 SDT Connector installation  The SDT Connector set up program (SDTConnector Setup-­‐1.n.exe or sdtcon-­‐1.n.tar.gz) is included on the CD supplied with your Black Box console server.  Run the set-­‐up program. Note For Windows clients, the SDTConnectorSetup-1.n.exe application will install the SDT Connector
1.n.exe and the config file defaults.xml. If there is already a config file on the Windows PC, then it
will not be overwritten. To remove an earlier config file, run the regedit command and search for
“SDT Connector,” then remove the directory with this name.
For Linux and other Unix clients, SDTConnector.tar.gz application will install the sdtcon-1.n.jar
and the config file defaults.xml.
Once the installer completes, you will have a working SDT Connector client installed on your machine and an icon on your desktop: 
Note
Click the SDT Connector icon on your desktop to start the client. SDT Connector is a Java application, so it must have a Java Runtime Environment (JRE)
installed. You can download this for free from http://java.sun.com/j2se/. It installs on Windows
2000, XP, 2003, Vista, and 7 PCs and on most Linux platforms. Solaris platforms are also
supported, but they must have Firefox installed. SDT Connector can run on any system with
Java 1.4.2 and above installed, but it assumes the web browser is Firefox, and that xterm -e
telnet opens a telnet window. To operate SDT Connector, you first need to add new gateways to the client software by entering the access details for each console server (refer to Section 6.2.2). Then, let the client auto-­‐configure all host and serial port connections from each console server (refer to Section 6.2.3). Finally, point-­‐and-­‐click to connect to the Hosts and serial devices (refer to Section 6.2.4). Or, you can manually add network connected hosts (refer to Section 6.2.5) and manually configure new services to use to access the console server and the hosts (refer to Section 6.2.6). Then, manually _____________________________________________________________________
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configure clients to run on the PC that will use the service to connect to the hosts and serial port devices (refer to Section 6.2.7 and 6.2.9). You can also set up SDT Connector to connect out-­‐of-­‐band to the console server (refer to Section 6.2.9). 6.2.2 Configuring a new console server gateway in the SDT Connector client To create a secure SSH tunnel to a new console server:  Click the New Gateway icon or select the File: New Gateway menu option.  Enter the IP or DNS Address of the console server and the SSH port that you will use (typically 22). Note If SDT Connector is connecting to a remote console server through the public Internet or routed
network you will need to:

Determine the public IP address of the console server (or of the router/ firewall that connects
the console server to the Internet) as assigned by the ISP. One way to find the public IP
address is to access http://checkip.dyndns.org/ or http://www.whatismyip.com/ from a
computer on the same network as the console server and note the reported IP address.

Set port forwarding for TCP port 22 through any firewall/NAT/router that is located between
SDT Connector and the console server so it points to the console server.
http://www.portforward.com has port forwarding instructions for a range of routers. Also, you
can use the Open Port Check tool from http://www.canyouseeme.org to check if port
forwarding through local firewall/NAT/router devices has been properly configured.
 Enter the Username and Password of a user on the gateway that is enabled to connect via SSH and/or create SSH port redirections. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Or, enter a Descriptive Name to display instead of the IP or DNS address, and any Notes or a Description of this gateway (such as its firmware version, site location, or anything special about its network configuration).  Click OK and an icon for the new gateway will now appear in the SDT Connector home page. Note
For an SDT Connector user to access a console server (and then access specific hosts or serial
devices connected to that console server), that user must first be setup on the console server,
and must be authorized to access the specific ports/hosts (refer to Chapter 5). Only these
permitted services will be forwarded through by SSH to the Host. All other services (TCP/UDP
ports) will be blocked.
6.2.3 Auto-­‐configure SDT Connector client with the user’s access privileges Each user on the console server has an access profile that was configured with those specific connected hosts and serial port devices the user has authority to access, and a specific set of the enabled services for each of these. You can upload this configuration automatically into the SDT Connector client:  Click on the new gateway icon and select Retrieve Hosts. This will: _____________________________________________________________________
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
configure access to network connected Hosts that the user is authorized to access and set up (for each of these Hosts) the services (for example, HTTPS, IPMI2.0) and the related IP ports being redirected. 
configure access to the console server itself (this is shown as a Local Services host). 
configure access with the enabled services for the serial port devices connected to the console server. Note
The Retrieve Hosts function will auto-configure all user classes (that is, they can be members
of user or admin or some other group or no group). SDT Connector will not auto-configure the
root (and we recommend that you only use this account for initial config and to add an initial
admin account to the console server).
6.2.4 Make an SDT connection through the gateway to a host  Simply point at the host to access and click on the service to use to access that host. The SSH tunnel to the gateway is then automatically established, the appropriate ports redirected through to the host, and the appropriate local client application is launched pointing at the local endpoint of the redirection: _____________________________________________________________________
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Note
The SDT Connector client can be configured with unlimited number of Gateways (that is, console
servers). You can configure each Gateway to port forward to an unlimited number of locally
networked Hosts. There is no limit on the number of SDT Connector clients that can be
configured to access the one Gateway. Nor are there limits on the number of Host connections
that an SDT Connector client can concurrently have open through the one Gateway tunnel.
There is a limit on the number of SDT Connector SSH tunnels that can be open at the same time
on a particular Gateway (console server). Each Gateway (console server) can support at least 50
such concurrent connections. At any time, you could have up to 50 users securely controlling an
unlimited number of Managed Devices at a remote site through the on-site console server
Gateway.
6.2.5 Manually adding hosts to the SDT Connector gateway For each gateway, you can manually specify the network connected hosts that you will access through that console server; and for each host, specify the services that you will use to communicate with the host.  Select the newly added gateway and click the Host icon to create a host that will be accessible via this gateway. (Alternatively select File: New Host).  Enter the IP or DNS Host Address of the host (if this is a DNS address, it must be able to be resolved by the gateway).  Select which Services to use to access the new host. A range of service options are pre-­‐
configured in the default SDT Connector client (RDP, VNC, HTTP, HTTPS, Dell RAC, VMware, etc.). However if you want to add new services to the range, then proceed to the next section (Adding a new service) then return here.  Or, enter a Descriptive Name for the host to display instead of the IP or DNS address, and any Notes or a Description of this host (such as its operating system/release, or anything special about its configuration).  Click OK. _____________________________________________________________________
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6.2.6 Manually adding new services to the new hosts To extend the range of services that you can use when accessing hosts with SDT Connector:  Select Edit: Preferences and click the Services tab. Click Add.  Enter a Service Name and click Add.  Under the General tab, enter the TCP Port that this service runs on (for example, 80 for HTTP). Or, select the client to use to access the local endpoint of the redirection.  Select which Client application is associated with the new service. A range of client application options are pre-­‐configured in the default SDT Connector (RDP client, VNC client, HTTP browser, HTTPS browser, Telnet client, etc.). If you want to add new client applications to this range, proceed to the next section (Adding a new client), then return here.  Click OK, then Close. A service typically consists of a single SSH port redirection and a local client to access it. It may consist of several redirections, and some or all may have clients associated with them. _____________________________________________________________________
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An example is the Dell RAC service. The first redirection is for the HTTPS connection to the RAC server— it has a client associated with it (web browser) that it launches immediately when you click the button for this service. The second redirection is for the VNC service that you may choose to later launch from the RAC web console. It automatically loads in a Java client served through the web browser, so it does not need to have a local client associated with it.  On the Add Service screen, you can click Add as many times as needed to add multiple new port redirections and associated clients. You may also specify Advanced port redirection options:  Enter the local address to bind to when creating the local endpoint of the redirection. It is not usually necessary to change this from “localhost.”  Enter a local TCP port to bind to when creating the local endpoint of the redirection. If you leave this blank, a random port is selected. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note SDT Connector can also tunnel UDP services. SDT Connector tunnels the UDP traffic through
the TCP SSH redirection, so it is a “tunnel within a tunnel.”
Enter the UDP port where the service is running on the host. This will also be the local UDP port
that SDT Connector binds as the local endpoint of the tunnel.
Note that for UDP services, you still need to specify a TCP port under General. This will be an
arbitrary TCP port that is not in use on the gateway. An example of this is the SOL Proxy service.
It redirects local UDP port 623 to remote UDP port 623 over the arbitrary TCP port 6667.
6.2.7 Adding a client program to be started for the new service Clients are local applications that you may launch when a related service is clicked. To add to the pool of client programs:  Select Edit: Preferences and click the Client tab. Click Add. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Enter a Name for the client. Enter the Path to the executable file for the client (or click Browse to locate the executable).  Enter a Command Line associated with launching the client application. SDT Connector typically launches a client using command line arguments to point it at the local endpoint of the redirection. There are three special keywords for specifying the command line format. When launching the client, SDT Connector substitutes these keywords with the appropriate values: %path% is path to the executable file, that is, the previous field. %host% is the local address to which the local endpoint of the redirection is bound, that is, the Local Address field for the Service redirection Advanced options. %port% is the local port to which the local endpoint of the redirection is bound, that is, the Local TCP Port field for the Service redirection Advanced options. If this port is unspecified (that is, “Any”), the appropriate randomly selected port will be substituted. For example SDT Connector is preconfigured for Windows installations with a HTTP service client that will connect with the local browser that the local Windows user has configured as the default. Otherwise, the default browser used is Firefox: Also some clients are launched in a command line or terminal window. The Telnet client is an example of this so the “Path to client executable file” is telnet and the “Command line format for client executable” is cmd /c start %path% %host% %port% : _____________________________________________________________________
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 Click OK. 6.2.8 Dial in configuration If the client PC is dialing into Local/Console port on the console server, you will need to set up a dial-­‐in PPP link:  Configure the console server for dial-­‐in access (following the steps in the Configuring for Dial-­‐In PPP Access section in Chapter 5, Configuring Dial In Access).  Set up the PPP client software at the remote User PC (following the Set up the remote Client section in Chapter 5). Once you have a dial-­‐in PPP connection established, you then can set up the secure SSH tunnel from the remote Client PC to the console server. 6.3
SDT Connector to Management Console You can also configure SDT Connector for browser access to the console server’s Management Console —and for Telnet or SSH access to the command line. For these connections to the console server itself, you must configure SDT Connector to access the Gateway itself by setting the Gateway (console server) up as a host, and then configuring the appropriate services:  Launch SDT Connector on your PC. Assuming you have already set up the console server as a Gateway in your SDT Connector client (with username/ password etc.), select this newly added Gateway and click the Host icon to create a host. Or, select File -­‐> New Host.  Enter 127.0.0.1 as the Host Address and provide details in Descriptive Name/Notes. Click OK. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Click the HTTP or HTTPS Services icon to access the Management Console, and/or click SSH or Telnet to access the command line console. Note: To enable SDT access to the console, you must also configure the console server to allow the
port forwarded network access to itself:

Browse to the console server and select Network Hosts from Serial & Network, click Add
Host, and in the IP Address/DNS Name field enter 127.0.0.1 (this is the Black Box network
loopback address). Then, enter Loopback in Description.

Remove all entries under Permitted Services except for those that you will use to access the
Management Console (80/http or 443/https) or the command line (22/ssh or 23/telnet). Scroll
to the bottom and click Apply.

Administrators by default have gateway access privileges. For Users to access the console
server Management Console, you will need to give those Users the required access
privileges. Select Users & Groups from Serial & Network. Click Add User. Enter a
Username, Description and Password/Confirm. Select 127.0.0.1 from Accessible Host(s)
and click Apply.
6.4
SDT Connector -­‐ telnet or SSH connect to serially attached devices You can also use SDT Connector to access text consoles on devices that are attached to the console server serial ports. For these connections, you must configure the SDT Connector client software with a Service that will access the target gateway serial port, and then set the gateway up as a host:  Launch SDT Connector on your PC. Select Edit -­‐> Preferences and click the Services tab. Click Add.  Enter "Serial Port 2" in Service Name and click Add.  Select Telnet client as the Client. Enter 2002 in TCP Port. Click OK, then Close and Close again. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Assuming you have already set up the target console server as a gateway in your SDT Connector client (with username/ password etc), select this gateway and click the Host icon to create a host. Or, select File -­‐> New Host.  Enter 127.0.0.1 as the Host Address and select Serial Port 2 for Service. In Descriptive Name, enter something such as Loopback ports, or Local serial ports. Click OK.  Click Serial Port 2 icon for Telnet access to the serial console on the device attached to serial port #2 on the gateway. To enable SDT Connector to access to devices connected to the gateway’s serial ports, you must also configure the Console server itself to allow port forwarded network access to itself, and enable access to the nominated serial port:  Browse to the Console server and select Serial Port from Serial & Network.  Click Edit next to selected Port # (for example, Port 2 if the target device is attached to the second serial port). Make sure the port’s serial configuration is appropriate for the attached device.  Scroll down to Console server Setting and select Console server Mode. Check Telnet (or SSH) and scroll to the bottom and click Apply.  Select Network Hosts from Serial & Network and click Add Host.  In the IP Address/DNS Name field enter 127.0.0.1 (this is the Black Box network loopback address) and enter Loopback in Description.  Remove all entries under Permitted Services, select TCP, and enter 200n in Port. (This configures the Telnet port enabled in the previous step, so for Port 2 you would enter 2002.)  Click Add, then scroll to the bottom and click Apply.  Administrators by default have gateway and serial port access privileges; however for Users to access the gateway and the serial port, you will need to give those Users the required access privileges. Select Users & Groups from Serial & Network. Click Add User. Enter a Username, _____________________________________________________________________
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Description, and Password/Confirm. Select 127.0.0.1 from Accessible Host(s) and select Port 2 from Accessible Port(s). Click Apply. 6.5
Using SDT Connector for out-­‐of-­‐band connection to the gateway You can also set up SDT Connector to connect to the console server (gateway) out-­‐of-­‐band (OoB). OoB access uses an alternate path for connecting to the gateway to that used for regular data traffic. OoB access is useful for when the primary link into the gateway is unavailable or unreliable. Typically, a gateway’s primary link is a broadband Internet connection or Internet connection via a LAN or VPN, and the secondary out-­‐of-­‐band connectivity is provided by a dial-­‐up or wireless modem directly attached to the gateway. Out-­‐of-­‐band access enables you to access the hosts and serial devices on the network, diagnose any connectivity issues, and restore the gateway's primary link. In SDT Connector, to configure OoB access, you provide the secondary IP address of the gateway, and tell SDT Connector how to start and stop the OoB connection. You can start an OoB connection by initiating a dial up connection, or adding an alternate route to the gateway. SDT Connector allows for maximum flexibility. It allows you to provide your own scripts or commands for starting and stopping the OoB connection. To configure SDT Connector for OoB access:  When adding a new Gateway or editing an existing Gateway, select the Out Of Band tab.  Enter the secondary, OoB IP address of the gateway (for example, the IP address it is using when dialed in directly). You also may modify the gateway’s SSH port if it's not using the default of 22.  Enter the command or path to a script to start the OoB connection in Start Command. 
To initiate a pre-­‐configured dial-­‐up connection under Windows, use the following Start Command: cmd /c start "Starting Out of Band Connection" /wait /min rasdial network_connection login password _____________________________________________________________________
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where network_connection is the name of the network connection as displayed in Control Panel -­‐> Network Connections, login is the dial-­‐in username, and password is the dial-­‐in password for the connection. 
To initiate a pre-­‐configured dial-­‐up connection under Linux, use the following Start Command: pon network_connection where network_connection is the name of the connection.  Enter the command or path to a script to stop the OoB connection in Stop Command. 
To stop a pre-­‐configured dial-­‐up connection under Windows, use the following Stop Command: cmd /c start "Stopping Out of Band Connection" /wait /min rasdial network_connection /disconnect where network connection is the name of the network connection as displayed in Control Panel -­‐> Network Connections. 
To stop a pre-­‐configured dial-­‐up connection under Linux, use the following Stop Command: poff network_connection To make the OoB connection using SDT Connector:  Select the console server and click Out Of Band. The status bar will change color to indicate that this console server is now accessed using the OoB link rather than the primary link. When you connect to a service on a host behind the console server, or to the console server itself, SDT Connector will initiate the OoB connection using the provided Start Command. The OoB connection does not stop (using the provided Stop Command) until you click off Out Of Band under Gateway Actions; then the status bar will return to its normal color. _____________________________________________________________________
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6.6
Importing (and exporting) preferences To enable the distribution of pre-­‐configured client config files, SDT Connector has an Export/Import facility:  To save a configuration.xml file (for backup or for importing into other SDT Connector clients) select File -­‐> Export Preferences and select the location where you want to save the configuration file.  To import a configuration, select File -­‐> Import Preferences and select the .xml configuration file to install. 6.7
SDT Connector Public Key Authentication SDT Connector can authenticate against an SSH gateway using your SSH key pair instead of requiring you to enter your password. This is known as public key authentication. To use public key authentication with SDT Connector, first you must add the public part of your SSH key pair to your SSH gateway:  Make sure the SSH gateway allows public key authentication, this is typically the default behavior.  If you do not already have a public/private key pair for your client PC (the one running SDT Connector), generate them now using ssh-­‐keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool. You may use RSA or DSA; however, leave the passphrase field blank: -
PuTTYgen: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html -
OpenSSH: http://www.openssh.org/ -
OpenSSH (Windows): http://sshwindows.sourceforge.net/download/ 
Upload the public part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa.pub or id_dsa.pub) to the SSH gateway, or otherwise add to .ssh/authorized keys in your home directory on the SSH gateway. 
Next, add the private part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa or id_dsa) to SDT Connector. Click Edit -­‐> Preferences -­‐> Private Keys -­‐> Add, locate the private key file, and click OK. You do not have to add the public part of your SSH key pair; the private key calculates it. SDT Connector will now use public key authentication when connecting through the SSH gateway (console server). You may have to restart SDT Connector to shut down any existing tunnels that were established using password authentication. If you have a host behind the console server that you connect to by clicking the SSH button in SDT Connector, you may also want to configure access to it for public key authentication as well. This configuration is entirely independent of SDT Connector and the SSH gateway. You must configure the SSH client that SDT Connector launches (for example, Putty, OpenSSH) and the host’s SSH server for _____________________________________________________________________
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public key authentication. Essentially, what you are using is SSH over SSH, and the two SSH connections are entirely separate. 6.8
Setting up SDT for Remote Desktop access The Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) enables the system manager to securely access and manage remote Windows computers—to reconfigure applications and user profiles, upgrade the server’s operating system, reboot the machine, etc. Black Box’s Secure Tunneling uses SSH tunneling, so this RDP traffic is securely transferred through an authenticated and encrypted tunnel. SDT with RDP also allows remote Users to connect to Windows XP, Vista, Server2003, and Server 2008 computers and to Windows 2000 Terminal Servers; and to access to all of the applications, files, and network resources (with full graphical interface just as though they were in front of the computer screen at work). To set up a secure Remote Desktop connection, enable Remote Desktop on the target Windows computer that you want to access and configure the RPD client software on the client PC. 6.8.1 Enable Remote Desktop on the target Windows computer to be accessed To enable Remote Desktop on the Windows computer being accessed:  Open System in the Control Panel and click the Remote tab.  Check Allow users to connect remotely to this computer.  Click Select Remote Users. _____________________________________________________________________
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 To set the user(s) who can remotely access the system with RDP, click Add on the Remote Desktop Users dialog box. Note If you need to set up new users for Remote Desktop access, open User Accounts in the Control
Panel and follow the steps to nominate the new user’s name, password, and account type
(Administrator or Limited).
Note With Windows XP Professional and Vista, you have only one Remote Desktop session and it
connects directly to the Windows root console. With Windows Server 2008, you can have
multiple sessions (and with Server 2003 you have three sessions— the console session and
two other general sessions). More than one user can have active sessions on a single
computer.
When the remote user connects to the accessed computer on the console session, Remote
Desktop automatically locks that computer (no other user can access the applications and
files). When you come back to your computer at work, you can unlock it by typing
CTRL+ALT+DEL.
6.8.2 Configure the Remote Desktop Connection client Now that you have the Client PC securely connected to the console server (either locally, or remotely—
through the enterprise VPN, or a secure SSH internet tunnel, or a dial-­‐in SSH tunnel), you can establish the Remote Desktop connection from the Client. Simply enable the Remote Desktop Connection on the remote client PC, then point it to the SDT Secure Tunnel port in the console server: A. On a Windows client PC  Click Start. Point to Programs, then to Accessories, then Communications, and click Remote Desktop Connection. _____________________________________________________________________
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 In the Computer field, enter the appropriate IP Address and Port Number: 
Where there is a direct local or enterprise VPN connection, enter the IP Address of the console server, and the Port Number of the SDT Secure Tunnel for the console server serial port that you attach to the Windows computer you want to control. For example, if the Windows computer is connected to serial Port 3 on a console server located at 192.168.0.50, then you would enter 192.168.0.50:7303. 
Where there is an SSH tunnel (over a dial up PPP connection or over a public internet connection or private network connection), simply enter the localhost as the IP address, 127.0.0.1. For Port Number, enter the source port you created when setting SSH tunneling /port forwarding (in Section 6.1.6), for example, :1234.  Click Option. In the Display section, specify an appropriate color depth (for example, for a modem connection, we recommend that you not use over 256 colors). In Local Resources, specify the peripherals on the remote Windows computer that are to be controlled (printer, serial port, etc.). _____________________________________________________________________
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 Click Connect. Note The Remote Desktop Connection software is pre-installed with Windows XP, Vista and Server
2003/2008. For earlier Windows PCs, you need to download the RDP client:

Go to the Microsoft Download Center site
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=80111F21-D48D-426E-96C208AA2BD23A49&displaylang=en and click the Download button
This software package will install the client portion of Remote Desktop on Windows 95, Windows
98 and 98 Second Edition, Windows Me, Windows NT 4.0, and Windows 2000. When run, this
software allows these older Windows platforms to remotely connect to a computer running current
Windows.
B. On a Linux or UNIX client PC:  Launch the open source rdesktop client: rdesktop -­‐u windows-­‐user-­‐id -­‐p windows-­‐password -­‐g 1200x950 ms-­‐windows-­‐terminal-­‐
server-­‐host-­‐name option description -­‐a Color depth: 8, 16, 24 -­‐r Device redirection. ( Redirect sound on remote machine to local device. -­‐0 -­‐r sound (MS/Windows 2003) -­‐g Geometry: widthxheight or 70% screen percentage. -­‐p Use -­‐p -­‐ to receive password prompt.  You can use GUI front end tools like the GNOME Terminal Services Client tsclient to configure and launch the rdesktop client. (Using tsclient also enables you to store multiple configurations of rdesktop for connection to many servers.) _____________________________________________________________________
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Note The rdesktop client is supplied with Red Hat 9.0:

rpm -ivh rdesktop-1.2.0-1.i386.rpm
For Red Hat 8.0 or other distributions of Linux; download source, untar, configure, make, make,
then install.
rdesktop currently runs on most UNIX based platforms with the X Window System and can be
downloaded from http://www.rdesktop.org/
C. On a Macintosh client:  Download Microsoft's free Remote Desktop Connection client for Mac OS X http://www.microsoft.com/mac/otherproducts/otherproducts.aspx?pid=remotedesktopclient _____________________________________________________________________
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6.9
SDT SSH Tunnel for VNC With SDT and Virtual Network Computing (VNC), Users and Administrators can securely access and control Windows 98/NT/2000/XP/2003, Linux, Macintosh, Solaris, and UNIX computers. There’s a range of popular free and commercial VNC software available (UltraVNC, RealVNC, TightVNC). To set up a secure VNC connection, install and configure the VNC Server software on the computer the user will access, then install and configure the VNC Viewer software on the Viewer PC. 6.9.1 Install and configure the VNC Server on the computer to be accessed Virtual Network Computing (VNC) software enables users to remotely access computers running Linux, Macintosh, Solaris, UNIX, all versions of Windows, and most other operating systems. A. For Microsoft Windows servers (and clients): Windows does not include VNC software, so you will need to download, install, and activate a third party VNC Server software package: RealVNC http://www.realvnc.com is fully cross-­‐platform, so a desktop running on a Linux machine may be displayed on a Windows PC, on a Solaris machine, or on any number of other architectures. There is a Windows server, allowing you to view the desktop of a remote Windows machine on any of these platforms using exactly the same viewer. RealVNC was founded by members of the AT&T team who originally developed VNC. TightVNC http://www.tightvnc.com is an enhanced version of VNC. It has added features such as file transfer, performance improvements, and read-­‐
only password support. They have just recently included a video drive much like UltraVNC. TightVNC is still free, cross-­‐platform (Windows, Unix, and Linux), and compatible with the standard (Real) VNC. UltraVNC http://ultravnc.com is easy to use, fast, and free VNC software that has pioneered and perfected features that the other flavors have consistently refused or been very slow to implement for cross platform and minimalist reasons. UltraVNC runs under Windows operating systems (95, 98, Me, NT4, 2000, XP, 2003). Download UltraVNC from Sourceforge's UltraVNC file list. B. For Linux servers (and clients): Most Linux distributions now include VNC Servers and Viewers and they generally can be launched from the (Gnome/KDE etc) front end; for example, with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 there’s VNC Server software and a choice of Viewer client software, and to launch:  Select the Remote Desktop entry in the Main Menu -­‐> Preferences menu.  Click the Allow other users… checkbox to allow remote users to view and control your desktop. _____________________________________________________________________
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 To set up a persistent VNC server on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4: Set a password using vncpasswd. Edit /etc/sysconfig/vncservers. Enable the service with chkconfig vncserver on. Start the service with service vncserver start. Edit /home/username/.vnc/xstartup if you want a more advanced session than just twm and an xterm. C. For Macintosh servers (and clients): o
o
o
o
o
OSXvnc http://www.redstonesoftware.com/vnc.html is a robust, full-­‐featured VNC server for Mac OS X that allows any VNC client to remotely view and/or control the Mac OS X machine. OSXvnc is supported by Redstone Software. D. Most other operating systems (Solaris, HPUX, PalmOS etc) either come with VNC bundled, or have third-­‐party VNC software that you can download. 6.9.2 Install, configure and connect the VNC Viewer VNC is truly platform-­‐independent so a VNC Viewer on any operating system can connect to a VNC Server on any other operating system. There are Viewers (and Servers) from a wide selection of sources (for example, UltraVNC TightVNC, or RealVNC) for most operating systems. There are also a wealth of Java viewers available, so that any desktop can be viewed with any Java-­‐capable browser (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VNC lists many of the VNC Viewers sources).  Install the VNC Viewer software and set it up for the appropriate speed connection. Note To make VNC faster, when you set up the Viewer:

Set encoding to ZRLE (if you have a fast enough CPU).

Decrease color level (e.g. 64 bit).

Disable the background transmission on the Server or use a plain wallpaper.
(Refer to http://doc.uvnc.com for detailed configuration instructions.)
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 To establish the VNC connection, first configure the VNC Viewer, entering the VNC Server IP address. A. When the Viewer PC is connected to the console server thru an SSH tunnel (over the public Internet, or a dial-­‐in connection, or private network connection), enter localhost (or 127.0.0.1) as the IP VNC Server IP address; and the source port you entered when setting SSH tunneling /port forwarding (in Section 6.2.6) e.g. :1234 B. When the Viewer PC is connected directly to the console server (i.e. locally or remotely through a VPN or dial in connection), and the VNC Host computer is serially connected to the console server, enter the IP address of the console server unit with the TCP port that the SDT tunnel will use. The TCP port will be 7900 plus the physical serial port number (i.e. 7901 to 7948, so all traffic directed to port 79xx on the console server is tunneled thru to port 5900 on the PPP connection on serial Port xx). For a Windows Viewer PC using UltraVNC connecting to a VNC Server attached to Port 1 on a console server, it is located at 192.168.0.1. 
To establish the VNC connection, simply activate the VNC Viewer software on the Viewer PC and enter the password. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note For general background reading on Remote Desktop and VNC access we recommend the
following:
The Microsoft Remote Desktop How-To.
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/mobility/getstarted/remoteintro.mspx
The Illustrated Network Remote Desktop help page.
http://theillustratednetwork.mvps.org/RemoteDesktop/RemoteDesktopSetupandTroubleshooting.ht
ml
What is Remote Desktop in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003? by Daniel Petri.
http://www.petri.co.il/what's_remote_desktop.htm
Frequently Asked Questions about Remote Desktop.
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/mobility/rdfaq.mspx
Secure remote access of a home network using SSH, Remote Desktop and VNC for the home user
http://theillustratednetwork.mvps.org/RemoteDesktop/SSH-RDPVNC/RemoteDesktopVNCandSSH.html
Taking your desktop virtual with VNC, Red Hat magazine.
http://www.redhat.com/magazine/006apr05/features/vnc/ and
http://www.redhat.com/magazine/007may05/features/vnc/
Wikipedia general background on VNC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VNC.








6.10 Using SDT to IP connect to hosts that are serially attached to the gateway Network (IP) protocols like RDP, VNC and HTTP can also be used for connecting to host devices that are serially connected through their COM port to the console server. To do this you must: ●
establish a PPP connection (Section 6.7.1) between the host and the gateway, then ●
set up Secure Tunneling—Ports on the console server (Section 6.7.2), then ●
configure SDT Connector to use the appropriate network protocol to access IP consoles on the host devices that are attached to the Console server serial ports (Section 6.7.3) 6.10.1 Establish a PPP connection between the host COM port and console server (This step is only necessary for serially connected computers) First, physically connect the COM port on the host computer you want to access to the serial port on the console server, then: A. For non Windows (Linux, UNIX, Solaris, etc.) computers, establish a PPP connection over the serial port. The online tutorial http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialPPP.html presents a selection of methods for establishing a PPP connection for Linux. _____________________________________________________________________
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B. For Windows XP and 2003 computers, follow the steps below to set up an advanced network connection between the Windows computer, through its COM port to the console server. Both Windows 2003 and Windows XP Professional allow you to create a simple dial in service that can be used for the Remote Desktop/VNC/HTTP/X connection to the console server:  Open Network Connections in Control Panel and click the New Connection Wizard.  Select Set up an advanced connection and click Next.  On the Advanced Connection Options screen, select Accept Incoming Connections and click Next.  Select the Connection Device (i.e. the serial COM port on the Windows computer that you cabled through to the console server). By default, select COM1. The COM port on the Windows computer should be configured to its maximum baud rate. Click Next.  On the Incoming VPN Connection Options screen, select Do not allow virtual private connections and click Next. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Specify which Users will be allowed to use this connection. This should be the same Users who were given Remote Desktop access privileges in the earlier step. Click Next.  On the Network Connection screen select TCP/IP and click Properties.  Select Specify TCP/IP addresses on the Incoming TCP/IP Properties screen, select TCP/IP. Nominate a From: and a To: TCP/IP address, and click Next. Note You can choose any TCP/IP addresses so long as they are addresses that are not used
anywhere else on your network. The From: address will be assigned to the Windows XP/2003
computer and the To: address will be used by the console server. For simplicity, use the IP
address as shown in the illustration above:
From: 169.134.13.1
To: 169.134.13.2
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Or, you can set the advanced connection and access on the Windows computer to use the
console server defaults:

Specify 10.233.111.254 as the From: address.

Select Allow calling computer to specify its own address.
Also, you could use the console server default username and password when you set up the
new Remote Desktop User and gave this User permission to use the advance connection to
access the Windows computer:

The console server default Username is portXX where XX is the serial port number on the
console server.

The default Password is portXX
To use the defaults for a RDP connection to the serial port 2 on the console server, you would
have set up a Windows user named port02.
 When the PPP connection has been set up, a network icon will appear in the Windows task bar. Note The above notes describe setting up an incoming connection for Windows XP. The steps are
similar for Vista and Windows Server 2003/2008, but the set up screens present slightly differently:
You need to put a check in the box for Always allow directly connected devices such as
palmtop…..
The option for to Set up an advanced connection is not available in Windows 2003 if RRAS is
configured. If RRAS has been configured, you can enable the null modem connection for the dialin configuration.
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C. For earlier version Windows computers, follow the steps in Section B. To get to the Make New Connection button: 
For Windows 2000, click Start, and select Settings. At the Dial-­‐Up Networking Folder, click Network and Dial-­‐up Connections, and click Make New Connection. You may need to first set up a connection over the COM port using Connect directly to another computer before proceeding to Set up an advanced connection. 
For Windows 98, double click My Computer on the Desktop, then open Dial-­‐Up Networking and double click. 6.10.2 Set up SDT Serial Ports on console server To set up RDP (and VNC) forwarding on the console server Serial Port that is connected to the Windows computer COM port:  Select the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu option and click Edit (for the particular Serial Port that is connected to the Windows computer COM port).  On the SDT Settings menu, select SDT Mode (this will enable port forwarding and SSH tunneling) and enter a Username and User Password. Note When you enable SDT, it will override all other Configuration protocols on that port.
Note If you leave the Username and User Password fields blank, they default to portXX and portXX
where XX is the serial port number. The default username and password for Secure RDP over
Port 2 is port02.  Make sure the console server Common Settings (Baud Rate, Flow Control) are the same as those set up on the Windows computer COM port and click Apply.  RDP and VNC forwarding over serial ports is enabled on a Port basis. You can add Users who can have access to these ports (or reconfigure User profiles) by selecting Serial & Network: User & Groups menu tag—as described earlier in Chapter 4, Configuring Serial Ports. _____________________________________________________________________
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6.10.3 Set up SDT Connector to SSH port forward over the console server Serial Port In the SDT Connector software running on your remote computer, specify the gateway IP address of your console server and a username/password for a user you set up on the console server that has access to the desired port. Next, add a New SDT Host. In the Host address, put portxx, where xx = the port you are connecting to. Example: for port 3 you would have a Host Address of: port03. Then select the RDP Service check box. 6.11 SSH Tunneling using other SSH clients (e.g. PuTTY) As covered in the previous sections of this chapter, we recommend that you use the SDT Connector client software that is supplied with the console server. There’s also a wide selection of commercial and free SSH client programs that can provide the secure SSH connections to the console servers and secure tunnels to connected devices: -
PuTTY is a complete (though not very user friendly) freeware implementation of SSH for Win32 and UNIX platforms. -
SSHTerm is a useful open source SSH communications package. -
SSH Tectia is leading end-­‐to-­‐end commercial communications security solution for the enterprise. -
Reflection for Secure IT (formerly F-­‐Secure SSH) is another good commercial SSH-­‐based security solution. For example, the steps below show how to establish an SSH tunneled connection to a network connected device using the PuTTY client software. _____________________________________________________________________
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 In the Session menu, enter the IP address of the console server in the Host Name or IP address field. 
For dial-­‐in connections, this IP address will be the Local Address that you assigned to the console server when you set it up as the Dial-­‐In PPP Server. 
For Internet (or local/VPN connections) connections, this will be the console server’s public IP address.  Select the SSH Protocol, and the Port will be set as 22.  Go to the SSH -­‐> Tunnels menu and in Add new forwarded port enter any high unused port number for the Source port, for example, 54321.  Set the Destination: IP details. 
If your destination device is network-­‐connected to the console server and you are connecting using RDP, set the Destination as <Managed Device IP address/DNS Name>:3389. For example, if when setting up the Managed Device as Network Host on the console server you specified its IP address to be 192.168.253.1 (or its DNS Name was accounts.myco.intranet.com), then specify the Destination as 192.168.523.1:3389 (or accounts.myco.intranet.com:3389 ). Only devices that are configured as networked Hosts can be accessed using SSH tunneling (except by the “root” user who can tunnel to any IP address the console server can route to). _____________________________________________________________________
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
If your destination computer is serially connected to the console server, set the Destination as <port label>:3389. For example, if the Label you specified on the serial port on the console server is win2k3, then specify the remote host as win2k3:3389. Or, you can set the Destination as portXX:3389 (where XX is the SDT enabled serial port number). For example, if port 4 is on the console server is to carry the RDP traffic, then specify port04:3389 Note http://www.jfitz.com/tips/putty_config.html has useful examples on configuring PuTTY for SSH
tunneling.
 Select Local and click the Add button.  Click Open to SSH connect the Client PC to the console server. You will now be prompted for the Username/Password for the console server user. 
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
If you are connecting as an Administrator (in the “admin” group), then you can connect to any configured Host or Serial Ports (that has SDT enabled). To set up the secure SSH tunnel for a HTTP browser connection to the Managed Device, specify port 80 (instead of port 3389 that was used for RDP) in the Destination IP address. To set up the secure SSH tunnel from the Client (Viewer) PC to the console server for VNC, follow the steps above, but when you configure the VNC port redirection, specify port 5900 in the Destination IP address. Note How secure is VNC? VNC access generally allows access to your whole computer, so security is
very important. VNC uses a random challenge-response system to provide the basic
authentication that allows you to connect to a VNC server. This is reasonably secure and the
password is not sent over the network.
Once connected, all subsequent VNC traffic is unencrypted. A malicious user could snoop your
VNC session. There are also VNC scanning programs available, which will scan a subnet looking
for PCs that are listening on one of the ports that VNC uses.
Tunneling VNC over a SSH connection ensures all traffic is strongly encrypted. No VNC port is
ever open to the internet, so anyone scanning for open VNC ports will not be able to find your
computers. When tunneling VNC over a SSH connection, the only port that you’re opening on
your console server is the SDT port 22.
Sometimes it may be prudent to tunnel VNC through SSH even when the Viewer PC and the
console server are both on the same local network.
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Chapter 7
Alerts and Logging
ALERTS AND LOGGING
Introduction This chapter describes the automated response, alert generation, and logging features of the console server. The new Auto-Response facility (in firmware V3.5.1 and later) extends the basic Alert facility available in
earlier firmware revisions. With the new facility, the console server monitors selected serial ports, logins,
the power status and environmental monitors and probes for Check Condition triggers. The console
server will then initiate a sequence of actions in response to the triggers. To configure you:
•
set general parameters (Section 7.1), then
•
select and configure the Check Conditions, i.e., the conditions that will trigger the response
(Section 7.2) , then
•
specify the Trigger Actions, i.e., the sequence of actions initiated in the event of the trigger
condition (Section 7.3), then
•
specify the Resolve Actions, i.e., the actions performed when trigger conditions have been
resolved (Section 7.4).
All console server models can maintain log records of all access and communications with the console
server and with the attached serial devices. A log of all system activity is also maintained as is a history of
the status of any attached environmental monitors.
Some models also log access and communications with network attached hosts and maintain a history of
the UPS and PDU power status.
•
If port logs are to be maintained on a remote server, then the access path to this location needs
to be configured. Then, you need to activate and set the desired levels of logging for each serial
and/or network port (Section 7.6) and/or power and environment UPS (refer Chapter 8).
7.1 Configure Auto-Response
With the Auto-Response facility, a sequence of Trigger Actions is initiated in the event of a specified
trigger condition (Check Condition). Subsequent Resolve Actions can also be performed when the trigger
condition has been resolved.
To configure, first set the general parameters that will be applied to all Auto-Responses:

Check Log Events on Alerts & Logging: Auto-Response to enable logging all AutoResponse activities.

Check Delay after Boot to set any general delay to be applied after console server system
boot, before processing events.
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To configure a new Auto-Response:


Select New Auto-Response in the Configured Auto-Response field. You will be presented
with a new Auto-Response Settings menu.

Enter a unique Name for the new Auto-Response.

Specify the Reset Timeout for the time in seconds after resolution to delay before this AutoResponse can be triggered again.

Check Repeat Trigger Actions to continue to repeat trigger action sequences until the check
is resolved.

Enter any required delay time before repeating trigger actions in Repeat Trigger Action
Delay. This delay starts after the last action is queued.
Check Disable Auto-Response at specific times and you will be able to periodically disable
auto-Responses between specified times of day.
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7.2
Check Conditions
To configure the condition that will trigger the Auto-Response:

7.2.1
Click on the Check Condition type (e.g. Environmental, UPS Status or ICMP ping) to be
configured as the trigger for this new Auto-Response in the Auto-Response Settings menu
UPS / Power Supply
To use the properties of any attached UPS as the trigger event:
Note:

Click on UPS / Power Supply as the Check Condition.

Select UPS Power Device Property (Input Voltage, Battery Charge %, Load %, Input
Frequency in Hz, or Temperature in °C) that will checked for the trigger.

Specify the Trigger value that the check measurement must exceed or drop below to trigger
the AutoResponse.

Select Comparison type as being Above Trigger Value or Below Trigger Value to trigger.

Specify any Hysteresis factor that is to be applied to environmental measurements (e.g. if an
Auto-Response was set up with a trigger event of a battery charge below 20% with a
Hysteresis of 5 then the trigger condition would not be seen as having been resolved till the
battery charge was above 25%).

Check Save Auto-Response.
Before configuring UPS checks in Auto-Response you first must configure the attached UPS.
7.2.2 UPS Status
To use the alert state of any attached UPS as the Auto-Response trigger event:
Note:

Click on UPS Status as the Check Condition.

Select the reported UPS State to trigger the Auto-Response (either On Battery or Low
Battery). The Auto-Response will resolve when the UPS state returns to the "Online" state.

Select which connected UPS Device to monitor and check Save Auto-Response.
Before configuring UPS state checks in Auto-Response, you first must configure the attached
UPS.
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7.2.3 Serial Login/Logout
To monitor serial ports and check for login/logout or pattern matches for Auto-Response triggers events:
Note:

Click on Serial Login/Logout as the Check Condition. Then in the Serial Login/Logout
Check menu, select Trigger on Login (to trigger when any user logs into the serial port) or
Trigger on Logout and specify Serial Port to perform check on, and/or

Click on Serial Signal as the Check Condition. Then in the Serial Signal Check menu,
select the Signal (CTS, DCD, DSR) to trigger on, the Trigger condition (either on serial
signal change, or check level) and specify Serial Port to perform check on, and/or

Click on Serial Pattern as the Check Condition. Then in the Serial Pattern Check menu,
select the PCRE pattern to trigger on and the serial line (TX or RX) and Serial Port to
pattern check on.

Check Save Auto-Response.
Before configuring serial port checks in Auto-Response you first must configure the serial port in
Console server mode. Also most serial port checks are not resolvable so resolve actions will not
be run.
7.2.4 ICMP Ping
To use a ping result as the Auto-Response trigger event:

Click on ICMP Ping as the Check Condition.

Specify which Address to Ping (i.e. IP address or DNS name to send ICMP Ping to) and
which Interface to send ICMP Ping from (e.g. Management LAN or Wireless network).

Set the Check Frequency (i.e. the time in seconds between checks) and the Number of
ICMP Ping packets to send.

Check Save Auto-Response.
7.2.5 Cellular Data
This check monitors the aggregate data traffic inbound and outbound through the cellular modem as an
Auto-Response trigger event.

Note:
Click on Cellular Data as the Check Condition.
Before configuring cellular data checks in Auto-Response, the internal or external USB cellular
modem must be configured and detected by the console server.
7.2.6 Custom Check
This check allows users to run a nominated custom script with nominated arguments whose return value
is used as an Auto-Response trigger event:
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
Click on Custom Check as the Check Condition.

Create an executable trigger check script file e.g. /etc/config/test.sh
#!/bin/sh
logger "A test script"
logger Argument1 = $1
logger Argument2 = $2
logger Argument3 = $3
logger Argument4 = $4
if [ -f /etc/config/customscript.0 ]; then
rm /etc/config/customscript.0
exit 7
fi
touch /etc/config/customscript.0
exit 1
Refer to the online FAQs for a sample web page html check and other script file templates.

Enter the Script Executable file name (e.g. /etc/config/test.sh).

Set the Check Frequency (i.e. the time in seconds between re-running the script) and the
Script Timeout (i.e. the maximum run-time for the script).

Specify the Successful Return Code. An Auto-Response is triggered if the return code from
the script is not this value.

Enter Arguments that are to be passed to the script (e.g. with a web page html check script,
these Arguments might specify the web page address/DNS and user logins).

Check Save Auto-Response.
7.2.7 SMS Command
An incoming SMS command from a nominated caller can trigger an Auto-Response:

Click on SMS Command as the Check Condition.

Specify the Phone Number (in international format) of the phone sending the SMS message.

Set the Incoming Message Pattern (PCRE regular expression) to match to create a trigger
event.
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7.2.8
Custom Check
This check allows users to run a nominated custom script with nominated arguments whose return value
is used as an Auto-Response trigger event:

Click on Custom Check as the Check Condition.

Create an executable trigger check script file e.g. /etc/config/test.sh
#!/bin/sh
logger "A test script"
logger Argument1 = $1
logger Argument2 = $2
logger Argument3 = $3
logger Argument4 = $4
if [ -f /etc/config/customscript.0 ]; then
rm /etc/config/customscript.0
exit 7
fi
touch /etc/config/customscript.0
exit 1
Refer to the online FAQs for a sample web page html check and other script file templates.

Enter the Script Executable file name (e.g. /etc/config/test.sh).

Set the Check Frequency (i.e. the time in seconds between re-running the script) and the Script
Timeout (i.e. the maximum run-time for the script).

Specify the Successful Return Code. An Auto-Response is triggered if the return code from the
script is not this value.

Enter Arguments that are to be passed to the script (e.g. with a web page html check script,
these Arguments might specify the web page address/DNS and user logins).

Check Save Auto-Response.
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Note: The SMS command trigger condition can only be set if there is an internal or external USB cellular
modem detected.
7.2.9
SMS Command
An incoming SMS command from a nominated caller can trigger an Auto-Response:

Click on SMS Command as the Check Condition.

Specify the Phone Number (in international format) of the phone sending the SMS message. For
multiple trusted SMS sources, separate the numbers with a comma.

Set the Incoming Message Pattern (PCRE regular expression) to match to create a trigger
event.
`
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Note: The SMS command trigger condition can only be set if there is an internal cellular modem detected
7.2.10 Log In/Out Check
To configure Web Log In/Out as the trigger event:

Click on the Web UI Authentication as the Check Condition.
Check Trigger on Login (Logout) to trigger when a user logs into (or out of) the Web UI.
Check Trigger on Authentication Error to trigger when a user fails to authenticate to the Web
UI.
Note: This check is not resolvable so Resolve actions will not be run.
7.2.11 Network Interface Event
You may wish to configure a change in the network status as the trigger event (e.g. to send an alert or
restart a VPN tunnel connection):

Click on Network Interface as the Check Condition.
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Select the Interface (Ethernet /Failover OOB Interface or Modem or VPN) to monitor.
Check what type of network interface Event to trigger on (interface Down, Starting, Up or
Stopping).
Note: This check is not resolvable so Resolve actions will not be run.
7.2.12 Routed Data Usage Check
This check monitors the specified input interface for data usage that is being routed through the console
server and out another interface such as the Internal Cellular Modem.
It is particularly useful in IP Passthrough mode, to detect when the downstream router has failed over and
is now routing via the modem as a backup connection.
This check may be configured with these parameters:
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
The console server’s incoming Interface to monitor.

An optional Source MAC/IP Address, to monitor traffic from a specific host (e.g. the downstream
router).

A Data Limit threshold; the Auto-Response will trigger when this is hit in the specified Time
Period.

The Auto-Response will resolve if no matching data is routed for the Resolve Period.
7.3
Trigger Actions
To configure the sequence of actions that is to be taken in the event of the trigger condition:

For a nominated Auto-Response - with a defined Check Condition - click on Add Trigger
Action (e.g., Send Email or Run Custom Script) to select the action type to be taken. Then,
configure the selected action (as detailed in the following sections).

Each action is configured with a nominated Action Delay Time that specifies how long (in
seconds) after the Auto-Response trigger event to wait before performing the action. You can
add follow-on actions to create a sequence of actions that will be taken in the event of the
one trigger condition.

To edit (or delete) an existing action, click the Modify (or Delete) icon in the Scheduled
Trigger Action table.
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Note:
A message text can be sent with Email, SMS, and Nagios actions. This configurable message
can include selected values:
$AR_TRIGGER_VAL = the trigger value for the check e.g. for UPS Status, it could be onbatt or
battlow
$AR_VAL = the value returned by the check e.g. for ups status, it could be online/onbatt/battlow
$AR_CHECK_DEV = the device name of the device being checked e.g. for Alarm, the alarm
name
$TIMESTAMP = the current timestamp.
$HOSTNAME = the hostname of the console server.
The default message text is: $TIMESTAMP: This action was run - Check details: value $AR_VAL
vs trigger value $AR_TRIGGER_VAL
7.3.1
Send Email


Specify the Recipient Email Address to send this email to and the Subject of the email. For
multiple recipients, you can enter comma-separated addresses.

Note
Click on Send Email as the Add Trigger Action. Enter a unique Action Name and set the
Action Delay Time.
Edit the Email Text message to send and click Save New Action.
An SMS alert can also be sent via an SMTP (email) gateway. You will need to specify the
Recipient Email Address in the format specified by the gateway provider (e.g. for T-Mobile it is
phonenumber @tmomail.net).
7.3.2
Send SMS


Click on Send SMS as the Add Trigger Action. Enter a unique Action Name and set the
Action Delay Time.
Specify the Phone number that the SMS will be sent to in international format (without the +).

Edit the Message Text to send and click Save New Action.
Note:
The SMS alert can only be sent if there is an internal or external USB cellular modem attached.
An SMS alert can also be sent via a SMTP SMS gateway as described above.
7.3.3
Send SNMP Trap

Click on Send SNMP Trap as the Add Trigger Action. Enter a unique Action Name and set
the Action Delay Time.
Note:
The SNMP Trap actions are valid for Serial, Environmental, UPS, and Cellular data triggers only.
7.3.4
Send Nagios Event

Click on Send Nagios Event as the Add Trigger Action. Enter a unique Action Name and
set the Action Delay Time.

Edit the Nagios Event Message text to display on the Nagios status screen for the service.

Specify the Nagios Event State (OK, Warning, Critical or Unknown) to return to Nagios for
this service.
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
Click Save New Action.
Note:
To notify the central Nagios server of Alerts, NSCA must be enabled under System: Nagios and
Nagios must be enabled for each applicable host or port.
7.4
Resolve Actions
Actions can also be scheduled to be taken a trigger condition has been resolved:

Note:
For a nominated Auto-Response - with a defined trigger Check Condition - click on Add
Resolve Action (e.g. Send Email or Run Custom Script) to select the action type to be
taken.
Resolve Actions are configured exactly the same as Trigger Actions, except the designated
Resolve Actions are all executed on resolution of the trigger condition and there are no Action
Delay Times set.
7.5
Configure SMTP, SMS, SNMP and/or Nagios service for alert notifications
The Auto-Response facility enables remote alerts to be sent as Trigger and Resolve Actions. Before such
alert notifications can be sent, you must configure the nominated alert service.
7.5.1
Send Email alerts
The console server uses SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) for sending the email alert notifications.
To use SMTP, the Administrator must configure a valid SMTP server for sending the email:

Select Alerts & Logging: SMTP &SMS
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 In the SMTP Server field, enter the outgoing mail Server’s IP address.  If this mail server uses a Secure Connection, specify its type.  You may enter a Sender email address which will appear as the “from” address in all email notifications sent from this console server. Many SMTP servers check the sender’s email address with the host domain name to verify the address as authentic. So it may be useful to assign an email address for the console server such as [email protected]  You may also enter a Username and Password if the SMTP server requires authentication.  You can specify the specific Subject Line that will be sent with the email.  Click Apply to activate SMTP. 7.5.2 Send SMS alerts With the console server, you can use email-­‐to-­‐SMS services to send SMS alert notifications to mobile devices. Almost all mobile phone carriers provide an SMS gateway service that forwards email to mobile phones on their networks. There’s also a wide selection of SMS gateway aggregators who provide email to SMS forwarding to phones on any carriers. Alternately, if your console server has an embedded or externally attached cellular modem, you will be given the option to send the SMS directly over the carrier connection. SMS via Email Gateway To use SMTP SMS, the Administrator must configure a valid SMTP server for sending the email:  In the SMTP Settings field in the Alerts & Logging: SMTP &SMS menu, select SMS Gateway. An SMS via Email Gateway field will appear.  Enter the IP address of the outgoing mail Server SMS gateway. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select a Secure Connection (if applicable) and specify the SMTP port to be used (if other than the default port 25).  You may also enter a Sender email address which will appear as the “from” address in all email notifications sent from this console server. Some SMS gateway service providers only forward email to SMS when the email has been received from authorized senders. So you may need to assign a specific authorized email address for the console server  You may also enter a Username and Password, because some SMS gateway service providers use SMTP servers which require authentication.  Similarly you can specify the specific Subject Line that will be sent with the email. Generally, the email subject will contain a truncated version of the alert notification message (which is contained in full in the body of the email). Some SMS gateway service providers require blank subjects, or require specific authentication headers to be included in the subject line.  Click Apply Settings to activate SMS-­‐SMTP connection. SMS via Cellular Modem To use an attached or internal cellular modem for SMS the Administrator must enable SMS:  Select Cellular Modem In the SMS Settings field.  Check Receive Messages to enable incoming SMS messages to be received. A custom script will be called on receipt of incoming SMS messages.  You may need to enter the phone number of the carrier’s SMS Message Centre (only if advised by your carrier or Support).  Click Apply Settings to activate SMS connection. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note The option to directly send SMS alerts via the cellular modem was included in the Management
GUI in V3.4. Advanced console servers already had the gateway software (SMS Server Tools 3)
embedded, but you this could only be accessed from the command line to send SMS messages.
7.5.3 Send SNMP trap alerts The Administrator can configure the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent that resides on the console server to send SNMP trap alerts to an NMS management application:  Select Alerts & Logging: SNMP.  Enter the SNMP transport protocol. SNMP is generally a UDP-­‐based protocol, though infrequently, it uses TCP instead.  Enter the IP address of the SNMP Manager and the Port to use for connecting (default = 162).  Select the version being used. The console server SNMP agent supports SNMP v1, v2, and v3.  Enter the Community name for SNMP v1 or 2c. An SNMP community is the group that devices and management stations running SNMP belong to. It helps define where information is sent. SNMP default communities are private for Write (and public for Read).  To configure for SNMP v3, you will need to enter an ID and authentication password and contact information for the local Administrator (in the Security Name).  Click Apply to activate SNMP. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note All console servers have the snmptrap daemon to send traps/notifications to remote SNMP
servers on defined trigger events as detailed above. LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A,
LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-R2, LES1216A-R2,
LES1232 and LES1248A-R2 console servers also embed the net-snmpd daemon. It accepts
SNMP requests from remote SNMP management servers and provides information on network
interface, running processes, etc. (refer to Chapter 15.5—Modifying SNMP Configuration for
more details).
7.5.4 Send Nagios alerts To notify the central Nagios server of Alerts, NSCA must be enabled under System: Nagios and Nagios must be enabled for each applicable host or port under Serial & Network: Network Hosts or Serial & Network: Serial Ports (refer to Chapter 10). 7.6 Logging The console server can maintain log records of auto-response events and log records of all access and
communications events (with the console server and with the attached serial, network and power
devices).
A log of all system activity is also maintained by default, as is a history of the status of any attached
environmental monitors.
7.6.1
Log storage
Before activating any Event, Serial, Network or UPS logging, you must specify where those logs are to be
saved. These records are stored off-server or in the console server USB flash memory.
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
Select the Alerts & Logging: Port Log menu option and specify the Server Type to be used,
and the details to enable log server access.
From the Manage: Devices menu the Administrator can view serial, network, and power device logs
stored in the console reserve memory (or flash USB). The User will only see logs for the Managed
Devices they (or their Group) that have been given access privileges (refer to Chapter 13).
Event logs on the USB can be viewed using the web terminal or by ssh/telnet connecting to the console
server.
7.6.2
Serial port logging
In Console Server mode, activity logs can be maintained of all serial port activity. To specify which serial
ports are to have activities recorded and to what level data is to be logged:

Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and Edit the port to be logged.

Specify the Logging Level of for each port as:
Level 0
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Turns off logging for the selected port.
Logs all User connection events to the port.
Logs all data transferred to and from the port and all changes in hardware flow
control status and all User connection events.
Logs all data transferred from the port and all changes in hardware flow control
status and all User connection events.
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Level 4

Logs all data transferred to the port and all changes in hardware flow control
status and all User connection events.
Click Apply.
Note
A cache of the most recent 8K of logged data per serial port is maintained locally (in addition to
the Logs which are transmitted for remote/USB flash storage). To view the local cache of logged
serial port data, select Manage: Port Logs.
7.6.3
Network TCP and UDP port logging
The console server supports optional logging of access to and communications with network attached
Hosts.

For each Host, when you set up the Permitted Services that are authorized to be used, you also
must set up the level of logging that is to be maintained for each service.

Specify the logging level that is to be maintained for that particular TDC/UDP port/service, on
that particular Host:
Level 0
Level 1
Level 2

7.6.4

7.6.5
Turns off logging for the selected TDC/UDP port to the selected Host.
Logs all connection events to the port.
Logs all data transferred to and from the port.
Click Add, then click Apply.
Auto-Response event logging
Check Log Events on Alerts & Logging: Auto-Response to enable logging all Auto-Response
activities.
Power device logging
The console server also logs access and communications with network attached hosts and maintain a
history of the UPS and PDU power status.
To activate and set the desired levels of logging for each serial (Section 7.4) and/or network port (Section
7.5) and/or power and environment UPS (refer Chapter 8).
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Chapter 8
Power & Environmental Management
POWER & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Introduction Black Box console servers manage embedded software that you can use to manage connected Power Distribution Systems (PDUs), IPMI devices, and Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs) supplied by a number of vendors, and some environmental monitoring devices. 8.1
Remote Power Control (RPC) The console server Management Console monitors and controls Remote Power Control (RPC) devices using the embedded PowerMan and Network UPS Tools open source management tools and the Black Box power management software. RPCs include power distribution units (PDUs) and IPMI power devices. You can control serial PDUs invariably using their command line console, so you could manage the PDU through the console server using a remote Telnet client. Also, you could use proprietary software tools supplied by the vendor. This generally runs on a remote Windows PC, and you could configure the console server serial port to operate with a serial COM port redirector in the PC (as detailed in Chapter 4). Similarly, you can control network-­‐attached PDUs with a browser (for example, with SDT as detailed in Chapter 6.3), an SNMP management package, or using the vendor-­‐supplied control software. Servers and network-­‐attached appliances with embedded IPMI service processors or BMCs invariably have their own management tools (like SoL) that provide secure management when connected with SDT Connector. For simplicity, you can now control all these devices through one window using the Management Console’s RPC remote power control tools. 8.1.1 RPC connection Serial and network connected RPCs must first be connected to, and configured to communicate with, the console server:  For serial RPCs, connect the PDU to the selected serial port on the console server. From the Serial and Network: Serial Port menu, configure the Common Settings of that port with the RS-­‐232 properties etc required by the PDU (refer to Chapter 4.1.1 Common Settings). Then, select RPC as the Device Type.  For each network-­‐connected RPC, go to Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu and configure the RPC as a connected Host by specifying it as Device Type: RPC and clicking Apply (refer to Section 4.4, Network Hosts). _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select the Serial & Network: RPC Connections menu. This will display all the RPC connections that have already been configured.  Click Add RPC.  Connected Via presents a list of serial ports and network Host connections that you have set up with device type RPC (but have yet to connect to a specific RPC device): 
When you select Connect Via for a Network RPC connection, then the corresponding Host Name/Description that you set up for that connection will be entered as the Name and Description for the power device. 
Or, if you select to Connect Via a Serial connection, enter a Name and Description for the power device. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select the appropriate RPC Type for the PDU (or IPMI) being connected:  If you are connecting to the RPC via the network, you will be presented with the IPMI protocol options and the SNMP RPC Types currently supported by the embedded Network UPS Tools.  If you are connecting to the RPC by a serial port, you will be presented with all the serial RPC types currently supported by the embedded PowerMan and the Black Box power manager: _____________________________________________________________________
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 Enter the Username and Password used to login into the RPC (Note that these login credentials are not related to the Users and access privileges you configured in Serial & Networks: Users & Groups).  If you selected SNMP protocol, enter the SNMP v1 or v2c Community for Read/Write access (by default this would be “private”).  Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status from this RPC to be logged. View these logs from the Status: RPC Status screen.  Click Apply.  For SNMP PDUs, the console server probes the configured RPC to confirm the RPC Type matches and reports the number of outlets it finds that can be controlled. If unsuccessful, it will report Unable to probe outlets and you’ll need to check the RPC settings or network/serial connection.  For serially connected RPC devices, a new Managed Device (with the same name as given to the RPC) will be created. The console server will then configure the RPC with the number of outlets specified in the selected RPC Type or will query the RPC itself for this information. Note The Black Box console servers support most popular network and serial PDUs. If your PDU is not
on the default list, then you can add support directly (as covered in Chapter 14—Advanced
Configurations) or add the PDU support to either the Network UPS Tools or PowerMan open
source projects.
Configure IPMI service processors and BMCs so that all authorized users can use the
Management Console to remotely cycle power and reboot computers, even when their operating
system is unresponsive. To set up IPMI power control, the Administrator first enters the IP
address/domain name of the BMC or service processor (for example, a Dell DRAC) in Serial &
Network: Network Hosts, then in Serial & Network: RPC Connections specifies the RPC
Type to be IPMI1.5 or 2.0.
8.1.2 RPC access privileges and alerts You can now set PDU and IPMI alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer to Chapter 7). You can also assign which user can access and control which particular outlet on each RPC using Serial & Network: User & Groups (refer Chapter 4). 8.1.3 User power management The Power Manager enables both Users and Administrators to access and control the configured serial and network attached PDU power strips, and servers with embedded IPMI service processors or BMCs.  Select the Manage: Power and the particular Target power device to be controlled (and the Outlet to be controlled if the RPC supports outlet level control).  The outlet status is displayed and you can initiate the Action you want to take by selecting the appropriate icon: Turn ON _____________________________________________________________________
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Turn OFF Cycle Status You will only be presented with icons for those operations that are supported by the Target you have selected. 8.1.4 RPC status You can monitor the current status of your network and serially connected PDUs and IPMI RPCs.  Select the Status: RPC Status menu and a table with the summary status of all connected RPC hardware will be displayed.  Click on View Log or select the RPCLogs menu and you will be presented with a table of the history and detailed graphical information on the selected RPC.  Click Manage to query or control the individual power outlet. This will take you to the Manage: Power screen. 8.2
Uninterruptible Power Supply control (UPS) You can configure all Black Box console servers to manage locally and remotely connected UPS hardware using Network UPS Tools. Network UPS Tools (NUT) is a group of open source programs that provide a common interface for monitoring and administering UPS hardware. These programs ensure safe shutdowns of the systems that are connected. NUT is built on a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server, and clients (covered in some detail in Chapter 8.2.6). _____________________________________________________________________
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8.2.1 Managed UPS connections A Managed UPS is a UPS that is directly connected as a Managed Device to the console server. You can connect it via serial or USB cable or by the network. The console server becomes the master of this UPS, and runs a upsd server to allow other computers that are drawing power through the UPS (slaves) to monitor the UPS status and take appropriate action, such as shutdown when the UPS battery is low. The console server may or may not be drawing power itself through the Managed UPS. When the UPS’s battery power reaches critical, the console server signals and waits for slaves to shut down, then powers off the UPS. Serial and network connected UPSes must first be connected to, and configured to communicate with the console server: _____________________________________________________________________
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 For serial UPSes attach the UPS to the selected serial port on the console server. From the Serial and Network: Serial Port menu, configure the Common Settings of that port with the RS-­‐232 properties, etc., required by the UPS (refer to Chapter 4.1.1—Common Settings). Then, select UPS as the Device Type.  For each network connected UPS, go to the Serial & Network: Network Hosts menu and configure the UPS as a connected Host by specifying it as Device Type: UPS and clicking Apply.  No such configuration is required for USB connected UPS hardware.  Select the Serial & Network: UPS Connections menu. The Managed UPSes section will display all the UPS connections that have already been configured.  Click Add Managed UPS. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select if the UPS will be Connected Via USB, over a pre-­‐configured serial port, or via SNMP/HTTP/HTTPS over the preconfigured network Host connection.  When you select a network UPS connection, then the corresponding Host Name/Description that you set up for that connection will be entered as the Name and Description for the power device. Or, if you selected to Connect Via a USB or serial connection, then you will need to enter a Name and Description for the power device (and these details will also be used to create a new Managed Device entry for the serial/USB connected UPS devices).  Enter the login details. This Username and Password is used by slaves of this UPS (that is, other computers that are drawing power through this UPS) to connect to the console server to monitor the UPS status so they can shut themselves down when battery power is low. Monitoring will typically be performed using the upsmon client running on the slave server (refer to Section 8.2.3) _____________________________________________________________________
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Note: These login credentials are not related to the Users and access privileges you configured in Serial
& Networks: Users & Groups.
 If you have multiple UPSes and require them to be shut down in a specific order, specify the Shutdown Order for this UPS. This is a whole positive number, or -­‐1. 0s shut down first, then 1s, 2s, etc. -­‐1s are not shut down at all. Defaults to 0.  Select the Driver that you will use to communicate with the UPS. Most console servers are preconfigured so the drop-­‐down menu presents a full selection of drivers from the latest Network UPS Tools (NUT version 2.4).  Click New Options in Driver Options if you need to set driver-­‐specific options for your selected NUT driver and hardware combination (more details at http://www.networkupstools.org/doc).  Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status from this UPS to be logged. You can view these logs from the Status: UPS Status screen.  If you have enabled Nagios services, then you will be presented with an option for Nagios monitoring. Check Enable Nagios to enable this UPS to be monitored using Nagios central management.  Check Enable Shutdown Script if this is the UPS providing power to the console server itself and if a critical power failure occurs, you can perform any "last gasp" actions on the console server before power is lost. Place a custom script in /etc/config/scripts/ups-­‐shutdown (you may use the provided /etc/scripts/ups-­‐shutdown as a template). This script only runs when then UPS reaches critical battery status.  Click Apply. Note: You can also customize the upsmon, upsd, and upsc settings for this UPS hardware directly from
the command line.
8.2.2 Remote UPS management A Remote UPS is a UPS that is connected as a Managed Device to a remote console server that is monitored (but not managed) by your console server. You can configure the upsc and upslog clients in the Black Box console server to monitor remote servers that are running Network UPS Tools managing their locally connected UPSes. These remote servers might be other Black Box console servers or generic Linux servers running NUT. You can centrally monitor all these distributed UPSes (which may be spread in a row in a data center, around a campus property, or across the country) through the one central console server window. To add a Remote UPS:  Select the Serial & Network: UPS Connections menu. The Remote UPSes section will display all the remote UPS devices being monitored.  Click Add Remote UPS. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Enter the Name of the particular remote UPS that you want to remotely monitor. This name must be the name that the remote UPS was configured with on the remote console server (because the remote console server may itself have multiple UPSes attached that it manages locally with NUT). Optionally, enter a Description.  Enter the IP Address or DNS name of the remote console server* that is managing the remote UPS. (*This may be another Black Box console server or it may be a generic Linux server running Network UPS Tools.) Note An example where centrally monitored remotely distributed UPSes is useful is a campus or large
business site where there’s a multitude of computer and other equipment sites spread afar, each
with their own UPS supply … and many of these (particularly the smaller sites) will be USB or
serially connected.
Having a console server at these remote sites would enable the system manager to centrally
monitor the status of the power supplies at all sites, and centralize alarms. So he/she can be
warned to initiate a call-out or shut-down.
 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want the status from this UPS to be logged. You can view these logs from the Status: UPS Status screen.  Check Enable Shutdown Script if this remote UPS is the UPS providing power to the console server itself. If the UPS reaches critical battery status, the custom script in /etc/config/scripts/ups-­‐shutdown runs, enabling you to perform any “last gasp” actions.  Click Apply. 8.2.3 Controlling UPS powered computers One of the advantages of having a Managed UPS is that you can configure computers that draw power through that UPS to shut down gracefully if you have UPS problems. For Linux computers, set up upsmon on each computer and direct them to monitor the console server that is managing their UPS. This will set the specific conditions that will be used to initiate a power down of the computer. Non-­‐critical servers may be powered down some seconds after the UPS starts running _____________________________________________________________________
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on battery. In contrast, more critical servers may not be shut down until a low battery warning is received). Refer to the online NUT documentation for details on how to do this: http://eu1.networkupstools.org/doc/2.2.0/INSTALL.html http://linux.die.net/man/5/upsmon.conf http://linux.die.net/man/8/upsmon An example upsmon.conf entry might look like: MONITOR [email protected] 1 username password slave -­‐ managedups is the UPS Name of the Managed UPS -­‐ 192.168.0.1 is the IP address of the Black Box console server -­‐ 1 indicates the server has a single power supply attached to this UPS -­‐ username is the Username of the Managed UPS -­‐ password is the Password of the Manager UPS There are NUT monitoring clients available for Windows computers (WinNUT). If you have an RPC (PDU), you can shut down UPS powered computers and other equipment if if the they don’t have a client running (for example, communications, and surveillance gear). Set up a UPS alert and using this to trigger a script that controls a PDU to shut off the power (refer to Chapter 15). 8.2.4 UPS alerts You can set UPS alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer Chapter — Alerts & Logging). 8.2.5 UPS status You can monitor the current status of your network, serially or USB connected Managed UPSes, and any configured Remote UPSes.  Select the Status: UPS Status menu and a table with the summary status of all connected UPS hardware displays.  Click on any particular UPS System name in the table and more detailed graphical information on the selected UPS System appears. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Click on any particular All Data for any UPS System in the table for more status and configuration information about the selected UPS System.  Select UPS Logs and you will be presented with the log table of the load, battery charge level, temperature, and other status information from all the Managed and Monitored UPS systems. This information will be logged for all UPSes that were configured with Log Status checked. The information is also presented graphically. 8.2.6 Overview of Network UPS Tools (NUT) NUT is built on a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server, and clients. Configure NUT using the Management Console as described above, or configure the tools and manage the UPSes directly from the command line. This section provides an overview of NUT. You can find full documentation at http://www.networkupstools.org/doc. _____________________________________________________________________
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NUT is built on a networked model with a layered scheme of drivers, server, and clients: 
The driver programs talk directly to the UPS equipment and run on the same host as the NUT network server (upsd). Drivers are provided for a wide assortment of equipment from most of the popular UPS vendors and understand the specific language of each UPS. They communicate with serial, USB, and SNMP network connected UPS hardware and map the communications back to a compatibility layer. This means both an expensive “smart” protocol UPS and a simple “power strip” model can be handled transparently. 
The NUT network server program upsd is responsible for passing status data from the drivers to the client programs via the network. upsd can cache the status from multiple UPSes and then serve this status data to many clients. upsd also contains access control features to limit the abilities of the clients (only authorized hosts may monitor or control the UPS hardware). 
There are a number of NUT clients that connect to upsd to check on the status of the UPS hardware and do things based on the status. These clients can run on the same host as the NUT server or they can communicate with the NUT server over the network (enabling them to monitor any UPS anywhere): 
The upsc client provides a quick way to poll the status of a UPS server. Use it inside shell scripts and other programs that need UPS data but don't want to include the full interface. 
The upsmon client enables servers that draw power through the UPS to shutdown gracefully when the battery power reaches critical. 
There are also logging clients (upslog) and third party interface clients (Big Sister, Cacti, Nagios, Windows, and more. Refer to www.networkupstools.org/client-­‐projects.) _____________________________________________________________________
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
The latest release of NUT (2.4) also controls PDU systems. It can do this either natively using SNMP or through a binding to Powerman (open source software from Livermore Labs that also is embedded in Black Box console servers). These NUT clients and servers all are embedded in each Black Box console server (with a Management Console presentation layer added) —and they also are run remotely on distributed console servers and other remote NUT monitoring systems. This layered distributed NUT architecture enables: 
Multiple manufacturer support: NUT can monitor UPS models from 79 different manufacturers—and PDUs from a growing number of vendors—with a unified interface. 
Multiple architecture support: NUT can manage serial and USB connected UPS models with the same common interface. Network-­‐connected USB and PDU equipment can also be monitored using SNMP. 
Multiple clients monitoring one UPS: Multiple systems may monitor a single UPS using only their network connections. There is a wide selection of client programs that support monitoring UPS hardware via NUT (Big Sister, Cacti, Nagios, and more). 
Central management of multiple NUT servers: A central NUT client can monitor multiple NUT servers that may be distributed throughout the data center, across a campus, or around the world. NUT supports the more complex power architectures found in data centers, communications centers, and distributed office environments where many UPSes from many vendors power many systems with many clients. Each of the larger UPSes power multiple devices, and many of these devices are in turn dual powered. 8.3
Environmental monitoring The Environmental Monitor Device (EMD) connects to any Black Box console server serial port and each console server can support multiple EMDs. Each EMD device has one temperature and one humidity sensor and one or two general-­‐purpose status sensors that you can connect to a smoke detector, water detector, vibration, or open-­‐door sensor.
Using the Management Console, Administrators can view the ambient temperature (in °C) and humidity (percentage), and set the EMD to automatically send alarms progressively from warning levels to critical alerts. _____________________________________________________________________
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8.3.1 Connecting the EMD and its sensors The Environmental Monitor Device (EMD) connects to any serial port on the console server via a special EMD Adapter and standard CAT5 cable. The EMD is powered over this serial connection and communicates using a custom handshake protocol. It is not an RS-­‐232 device and should not be connected without the adapter: 
Plug the male RJ plug on the EMD Adapter into EMD and then connect it to the console server serial port using the provided UTP cable. If the 6-­‐foot (2-­‐meter) UTP cable provided with the EMD is not long enough, you can replace it with a standard CAT5 UTP cable up to 33 feet (10 meters) long.  Screw the bare wires on any smoke detector, water detector, vibration sensor, open-­‐door sensor, or general purpose open/close status sensors into the terminals on the EMD. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note: You can attach two external sensors onto the terminals on EMDs that are connected to LES1108A, LES1116A, LES1132 and LES1148A console servers. LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A,
LES1548A, LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A,
LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232 and LES1248A-­‐R2 console servers only support
attaching a single sensor to each EMD.
You can only use the EMD with a Black Box console server; you cannot connect it to standard RS-­‐232 serial ports on other appliances.  Select Environmental as the Device Type in the Serial & Network: Serial Port menu for the port to which the EMD will be attached. No particular Common Settings are required.  Click Apply.  Select the Serial & Network: Environmental menu. This will display all the EMD connections that have already been configured.  Click Add.  Enter a Name and optionally a Description for the EMD and select the pre-­‐configured serial port that the EMD will be Connected Via.  You may optionally calibrate the EMD with a Temperature Offset (+ or -­‐ °C) or Humidity Offset (+ or percent).  Provide Labels for each of the two alarms (if used). _____________________________________________________________________
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 Check Log Status and specify the Log Rate (minutes between samples) if you want to log the status from this EMD. These logs can be views from the Status: Environmental Status screen.  Click Apply. This will also create a new Managed Device (with the same name). 8.3.2 Environmental alerts You can now set temperature, humidity and probe status alerts using Alerts & Logging: Alerts (refer to Chapter 7). 8.3.3 Environmental status You can monitor the current status of all EMDs and their probes.  Select the Status: Environmental Status menu, and a table with the summary status of all connected EMD hardware will be displayed.  Click on View Log or select the Environmental Logs menu, and you will be presented with a table and graphical plot of the selected EMD’s log history. 8.4 Digital I/O Ports Console servers are available that have four digital interface ports which present on a green connector
block on the side of the unit:
-
DIO1 and DIO2 are two TTL level digital I/O ports (5V max @ 20mA)
-
OUT1 and OUT2 are two "High-Voltage" digital Output ports (>5V to <= 30V @100mA)
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The I/O ports are configured via the I/O port page which is found under the system menu. Each port can
be configured with a default direction and state.

8.4.1
Select the System: I/O Ports menu.
Digital I/O Output Configuration
Each of the two digital I/O ports (DIO1 and DIO2) can be configured as an Input or Output port. To use
them as digital outputs, first configure the port direction on the System: I/O Ports menu page.
The DIO1 and DIO2 pins are current limited by the chip to 20 mA and accept 5V levels – so they cannot
drive a relay etc.
Alternately, you can change the output states using the ioc command line utility. The following text is the
usage message from the ioc usage:
ioc: digital io-port controller:
-p
pin_num
-d
pin_dir
-v
pin_val
-r
-g
-l
pin number (1 to 4)
pin direction (0 = output 1 = input)
pin electrical value in output mode (0 = low 1 = high)
reset pins to all inputs and low
displays the pin directions and current values
load pin configuration from configlity
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For example, to set pin 1 to a low output, type:
ioc -p 1 -d 0 -v 0
To pulse one of these outputs, use a script like the following:
ioc -p 1 -d 0 -v 1
sleep 1
ioc -p 1 -d 0 -v 0
This will set the output high for 1 second, then return it to low (assuming the initial state is low).
8.4.2
Digital I/O Input Configuration
When either of the two digital I/O (DIO1 & DIO2) outlets is configured as an Input on the System: I/O
Ports, it can be used to monitor the current status of any attached sensor.
When configured as inputs (and this is the factory default), these first two ports are attached to an internal
EMD. To configure them as alarms, go to the Environmental page and edit and enable the Internal EMD.
Also the low voltage circuits in DIO1 and DIO2 should not be wired to voltages greater than 5V DC.
Alternately, these input ports can be monitored using the ioc command line utility (as detailed in the
previous section.
8.4.3
High Voltage Outputs
OUT1 and OUT2 (internally DIO3 & DIO4) outlets are wired as high voltage outputs. The way these
outputs are expected to be used is to pull a power connected line to ground (i.e. the OUT1 and OUT2
transistors are open collector).
The I/O port header includes a 12-V reference line (VIN) which can be used to detect the line state
change.
For example, to light a 12-V LED using the high voltage outputs, connect the positive leg of the LED to
the 12-V reference, and the negative leg to output pin 4. Due to the way that the I/O port is connected
internally, the output has to be set "high" to pull the output to ground.
The following command will switch on the led:
ioc -p 4 -d 0 -v 1
OUT1 and OUT2 transistors can operate with a supply of >5V to <= 30V @100mA. This means to drive a
relay circuit you must guarantee it doesn't provide more than 100mA when set to 1.
8.4.4
DIO SNMP status
There is a SNMP status table (with V3.9 and later) that reports on the status of the digital IO ports. The
table OID is OG-STATUSv2-MIB::ogEmdDioTable. Performing an snmpwalk on this table on a console
server with DIO produces something like (will vary depending on device status):
$ snmpwalk -v2c -c public -M $MIBSDIR -m ALL t5:161 1.3.6.1.4.1.25049.16.5
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusName.1 = STRING: DIO 1
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusName.2 = STRING: DIO 2
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusName.3 = STRING: DIO 3
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusName.4 = STRING: DIO 4
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusType.1 = INTEGER: ttlInputOutput(0)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusType.2 = INTEGER: ttlInputOutput(0)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusType.3 = INTEGER: highVoltageOutput(1)
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OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusType.4 = INTEGER: highVoltageOutput(1)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusDirection.1 = INTEGER: input(1)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusDirection.2 = INTEGER: input(1)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusDirection.3 = INTEGER: input(1)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusDirection.4 = INTEGER: input(1)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusState.1 = INTEGER: low(0)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusState.2 = INTEGER: high(1)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusState.3 = INTEGER: high(1)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusState.4 = INTEGER: high(1)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusCounter.1 = Counter64: 0
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusCounter.2 = Counter64: 0
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusCounter.3 = Counter64: 0
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusCounter.4 = Counter64: 0
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusTriggerMode.1 = INTEGER: risingFallingEdge(3)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusTriggerMode.2 = INTEGER: risingFallingEdge(3)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusTriggerMode.3 = INTEGER: risingFallingEdge(3)
OG-STATUS-MIB::ogDioStatusTriggerMode.4 = INTEGER: risingFallingEdge(3)
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Chapter 9
Authentication
AUTHENTICATION
Introduction The console server is a dedicated Linux computer with a myriad of popular and proven Linux software modules for networking, secure access (OpenSSH), and communications (OpenSSL), and sophisticated user authentication (PAM, RADIUS, TACACS+ and LDAP). 
This chapter details how the Administrator can use the Management Console to establish remote AAA authentication for all connections to the console server and attached serial and network host devices. 
This chapter also covers how to establish a secure link to the Management Console using HTTPS and using OpenSSL and OpenSSH to establish a secure Administration connection to the console server. 9.1 Authentication configuration Authentication can be performed locally, or remotely using an LDAP, Radius, or TACACS+ authentication server. The default authentication method for the console server is Local. Any authentication method that is configured will be used for authentication of any user who attempts to log in through Telnet, SSH, or the Web Manager to the console server and any connected serial port or network host devices. _____________________________________________________________________
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You can configure the console server to the default (Local) or using an alternate authentication method (TACACS, RADIUS, or LDAP). Optionally, you can select the order in which local and remote authentication is used: Local TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP: Tries local authentication first, falling back to remote if local fails. TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP Local: Tries remote authentication first, falling back to local if remote fails. TACACS /RADIUS/LDAP Down Local: Tries remote authentication first, falling back to local if the remote authentication returns an error condition (for example, if the remote authentication server is down or inaccessible). 9.1.1 Local authentication  Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check Local.  Click Apply. 9.1.2 TACACS authentication Perform the following procedure to configure the TACACS+ authentication method to use whenever the console server or any of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:  Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check TACAS or LocalTACACS or TACACSLocal or TACACSDownLocal .  Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication/Authorization server. Multiple remote servers may be specified in a comma-­‐separated list. Each server is tried in succession. _____________________________________________________________________
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 In addition to multiple remote servers, you can also enter separate lists of Authentication/ Authorization servers and Accounting servers. If no Accounting servers are specified, the Authentication/Authorization servers are used instead. 
Enter and confirm the Server Password. Then select the method to be used to authenticate to
the server (defaults to PAP). To use DES encrypted passwords, select Login.

If required enter the TACACS Group Membership Attribute that is to be used to indicate group
memberships (defaults to groupname#n).

If required, specify TACACS Service to authenticate with. This determines which set of attributes
are returned by the server (defaults to raccess).

If required, check Default Admin Privileges to give all TACAS+ authenticated users admin
privileges. Use Remote Groups must also be ticked for these privileges to be granted.
 Click Apply. TACAS+ remote authentication will now be used for all user access to console server and serially or network attached devices. TACACS+
The Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) security protocol is a
recent protocol developed by Cisco. It provides detailed accounting information and flexible
administrative control over the authentication and authorization processes. TACACS+ allows for a
single access control server (the TACACS+ daemon) to provide authentication, authorization, and
accounting services independently. Each service can be tied into its own database to take
advantage of other services available on that server or on the network, depending on the
capabilities of the daemon. There is a draft RFC detailing this protocol. You can find further
information on configuring remote TACACS+ servers at the following sites:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk59/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094e99.shtml
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/secursw/ps4911/products_user_guide_chapter09186a0
0800eb6d6.html
http://cio.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios113ed/113ed_cr/secur_c/scprt2/sctplu
s.htm
9.1.3 RADIUS authentication Perform the following procedure to configure the RADIUS authentication method to use whenever the console server or any of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:  Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check RADIUS or LocalRADIUS or RADIUSLocal or RADIUSDownLocal. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication/ Authorization server. Multiple remote servers may be specified in a comma-­‐separated list. Each server is tried in succession.  In addition to multiple remote servers, you can also enter separate lists of Authentication/ Authorization servers and Accounting servers. If no Accounting servers are specified, the Authentication/Authorization servers are used instead.  Enter the Server Password.  Click Apply. RADIUS remote authentication will now be used for all user access to a console server and serially or network-­‐attached devices. RADIUS
The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol was developed by
Livingston Enterprises as an access server authentication and accounting protocol. The RADIUS
server can support a variety of methods to authenticate a user. When it is provided with the
username and original password given by the user, it can support PPP, PAP, or CHAP, UNIX
login, and other authentication mechanisms. You can find further information on configuring
remote RADIUS servers at the following sites:
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/library/DepKit/d4fe8248-eecd49e4-88f6-9e304f97fefc.mspx
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk59/technologies_tech_note09186a00800945cc.shtml
http://www.freeradius.org/
9.1.4 LDAP authentication Perform the following procedure to configure the LDAP authentication method to use whenever the console server or any of its serial ports or hosts is accessed:  Select Serial and Network: Authentication and check LDAP or LocalLDAP or LDAPLocal or LDAPDownLocal . _____________________________________________________________________
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 Enter the Server Address (IP or host name) of the remote Authentication server. Multiple remote servers may be specified in a comma-­‐separated list. Each server is tried in succession.  Enter the Server Password. Note To interact with LDAP requires that the user account exist on our console server to work with the
remote server. (You can't just create the user on your LDAP server and not tell the console server
about it.) You need to add the user account.
 Click Apply. LDAP remote authentication will now be used for all user access to console server and serially or network attached devices. LDAP The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is based on the X.500 standard, but is
significantly simpler and more readily adapted to meet custom needs. The core LDAP
specifications are all defined in RFCs. LDAP is a protocol used to access information stored in an
LDAP server. You can find further information on configuring remote RADIUS servers at the
following sites:
http://www.ldapman.org/articles/intro_to_ldap.html
http://www.ldapman.org/servers.html
http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/5050/1/
http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/5074/4/
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9.1.5 RADIUS/TACACS User Configuration Users may be added to the local console server appliance. If they are not added and they log in via remote AAA, a user will be added for them. This user will not show up in the Black Box configurators unless they are specifically added, at which point they are transformed into a completely local user. The newly added user must authenticate from the remote AAA server, and will have no access if it is down. If a local user logs in, they may be authenticated/authorized from the remote AAA server, depending on the chosen priority of the remote AAA. A local user’s authorization is the union of local and remote privileges. Example 1: User Tim is locally added, and has access to ports 1 and 2. He is also defined on a remote TACACS server, which says he has access to ports 3 and 4. Tim may log in with either his local or TACACS password, and will have access to ports 1 through 4. If TACACS is down, he will need to use his local password, and will only be able to access ports 1 and 2. Example 2: User Ben is only defined on the TACACS server, which says he has access to ports 5 and 6. When he attempts to log in, a new user will be created for him, and he will be able to access ports 5 and 6. If the TACACS server is down he will have no access. Example 3: User Paul is defined on a RADIUS server only. He has access to all serial ports and network hosts. Example 4: User Don is locally defined on an appliance using RADIUS for AAA. Even if Don is also defined on the RADIUS server, he will only have access to those serial ports and network hosts he has been authorized to use on the appliance. If a “no local AAA” option is selected, then root will still be authenticated locally. You can add remote users to the admin group via either RADIUS or TACACS. Users may have a set of authorizations set on the remote TACACS server. Users automatically added by RADIUS will have authorization for all resources, whereas those added locally will still need their authorizations specified. LDAP has not been modified, and will still need locally defined users. 9.1.6 Group support with remote authentication All console servers allow remote authentication via RADIUS, LDAP, and TACACS+. With RADIUS and
LDAP, additional restrictions can be provided on user access based on group information or membership.
For example, with remote group support, RADIUS and LDAP users can belong to a local group that has
been setup to have restricted access to serial ports, network hosts, and managed devices.
Remote authentication with group support works by matching a local group name with a remote group
name provided by the authentication service. If the list of remote group names returned by the
authentication service matches any local group names, the user is given permissions as configured in the
local groups.
To enable group support to be used by remote authentication services:
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
Select Serial & Network: Authentication.

Select the relevant Authentication Method.

Check the Use Remote Groups button.
9.1.7 Remote groups with RADIUS authentication 
Enter the RADIUS Authentication and Authorization Server Address and Server Password.


Click Apply.
Edit the Radius user’s file to include group information and restart the Radius server.
When using RADIUS authentication, group names are provided to the console server using the
Framed-Filter-Id attribute. This is a standard RADIUS attribute, and may be used by other devices
that authenticate via RADIUS.
To interoperate with other devices using this field, the group names can be added to the end of any
existing content in the attribute, in the following format:
:group_name=testgroup1,users:
The above example sets the remote user as a member of testgroup1 and users if groups with those
names exist on the console server. Any groups which do not exist on the console server are ignored.
When setting the Framed-Filter-Id, the system may also remove the leading colon for an empty field.
To work around this, add some dummy text to the start of the string. For example:
dummy:group_name=testgroup1,users:

If no group is specified for a user, for example AmandaJones, then the user will have no User
Interface and serial port access but limited console access.

Default groups available on the console server include ‘admin’ for administrator access and
‘users’ for general user access.
TomFraser
Cleartext-Password := ”FraTom70”
Framed-Filter-Id=”:group_name=admin:”
AmandaJones
Cleartext-Password := ”JonAma83”
FredWhite
Cleartext-Password := ”WhiFre62”
Framed-Filter-Id=”:group_name=testgroup1,users:”
JanetLong
Cleartext-Password := ”LonJan57”
Framed-Filter-Id=”:group_name=admin:”

9.1.8 Additional local groups such as testgroup1 can be added via Users & Groups: Serial &
Network.
Remote groups with LDAP authentication Unlike RADIUS, LDAP has built in support for group provisioning, which makes setting up remote groups
easier. The console server will retrieve a list of all the remote groups that the user is a direct member of,
and compare their names with local groups on the console server.
Note: Any spaces in the group name will be converted to underscores.
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For example, in an existing Active Directory setup, a group of users may be part of the “UPS Admin” and
“Router Admin” groups. On the console server, these users will be required to have access to a group
“Router_Admin”, with access to port 1 (connected to the router), and another group “UPS_Admin”, with
access to port 2 (connected to the UPS). Once LDAP is setup, users that are members of each group will
have the appropriate permissions to access the router and UPS.
Currently, the only LDAP directory service that supports group provisioning is Microsoft Active Directory.
Support is planned for OpenLDAP at a later time.
To enable group information to be used with an LDAP server:

Complete the fields for standard LDAP authentication including LDAP Server Address, Server
Password, LDAP Base DN, LDAP Bind DN, and LDAP User Name Attribute.

Enter memberOf for LDAP Group Membership Attribute as group membership is currently only
supported on Active Directory servers.

If required, enter the group information for LDAP Console Server Group DN and/or LDAP
Administration Group DN.
A user must be a member of the LDAP Console Server Group DN group in order to gain access to the
console and user interface. For example, the user must be a member of ‘MyGroup’ on the Active Server
to gain access to the console server.
Additionally, a user must be a member of the LDAP Administration Group DN in order to gain
administrator access to the console server. For example, the user must be a member of ‘AdminGroup’ on
the Active Server to receive administration privileges on the console server.

Click Apply.
Ensure the LDAP service is operational and group names are correct within the Active Directory.
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9.1.9
Remote groups with TACACS+ authentication
When using TACACS+ authentication, there are two ways to grant a remotely authenticated user
privileges. The first is to set the priv-lvl and port attributes of the raccess service to 12; this is discussed
further in section 9.2 of this document. Additionally or alternatively, group names can be provided to the
console server using the groupname custom attribute of the raccess service.
An example Linux tac-plus config snippet might look like:
user = myuser {
service = raccess {
groupname="users"
groupname1="routers"
groupname2="dracs"
}
}
You may also specify multiple groups in one comma-delimited, e.g. groupname="users,routers,dracs,"
but be aware that the maximum length of the attribute value string is 255 characters.
To use an attribute name other than "groupname", set Authentication -> TACACS+ -> TACACS Group
Membership Attribute.
9.1.10 Idle timeout
You can specify the amount of time in minutes the console server waits before it terminates an idle ssh,
pmshell, or web connection.
 Select Serial and Network: Authentication.
 Web Management Session Timeout specifies the browser console session idle timeout in
minutes. The default setting is 20 minutes.
 CLI Management Session Timeout specifies the ssh console session idle timeout in minutes.
The default setting is to never expire.
 Console Server Session Timeout specifies the pmshell serial console server session idle
timeout in minutes. The default setting is to never expire.
9.1.11 Kerberos authentication
The Kerberos authentication can be used with UNIX and Windows (Active Directory) Kerberos servers.
This form of authentication does not provide group information, so a local user with the same username
must be created, and permissions set.
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Note:
Kerberos is very sensitive to time differences between the Key Distribution Center (KDC)
authentication server and the client device. Make sure that NTP is enabled, and the time zone is
set correctly on the console server.
When authenticating against Active Directory, the Kerberos Realm will be the domain name, and the
Master KDC will be the address of the primary domain controller.
9.1.12
Authentication testing
The Authentication Testing option enables the connection to the remote authentication server to be
tested.
9.2 PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) The console server supports RADIUS, TACACS+, and LDAP for two-­‐factor authentication via PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules). PAM is a flexible mechanism for authenticating users. A number of new ways of authenticating users have become popular. The challenge is that each time a new authentication scheme is developed, you need to rewrite all the necessary programs (login, ftpd, etc.) to support it. PAM provides a way to develop programs that are independent of authentication scheme. These programs need “authentication modules” to be attached to them at run-­‐time in order to work. Which authentication module is attached depends on the local system setup and is at the discretion of the local Administrator. The console server family supports PAM with the following modules added for remote authentication: RADIUS -­‐ pam_radius_auth (http://www.freeradius.org/pam_radius_auth/) _____________________________________________________________________
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TACACS+ -­‐ pam_tacplus LDAP -­‐ pam_ldap (http://echelon.pl/pubs/pam_tacplus.html) (http://www.padl.com/OSS/pam_ldap.html) Further modules can be added as required. Changes may be made to files in /etc/config/pam.d/ that will persist, even if the authentication configurator runs. 
Users added on demand: When a user attempts to log in, but does not already have an account on the console server, a new user account will be created. This account will have no rights, and no password set. It will not appear in the Black Box configuration tools. Automatically added accounts will not be able to log in if the remote servers are unavailable. RADIUS users are currently assumed to have access to all resources, so they will only be authorized to log in to the console server. RADIUS users will be authorized each time they access a new resource. 
Admin rights granted over AAA: Users may be granted Administrator rights via networked AAA. For TACACS a priv-­‐lvl of 12 or above indicates an Administrator. For RADIUS, Administrators are indicated via the Framed Filter ID. (See the example configuration files below for example.) 
Authorization via TACACS for both serial ports and host access: Permission to access resources may be granted via TACACS by indicating a Black Box Appliance and a port or networked host the user may access. (See the example configuration files below for example.) TACACS Example: user = tim { service = raccess { priv-­‐lvl = 11 port1 = les1116/port02 port2 = 192.168.254.145/port05 } global = cleartext mit } RADIUS Example: paul Cleartext-­‐Password := "luap" Service-­‐Type = Framed-­‐User, Fall-­‐Through = No, Framed-­‐Filter-­‐Id=":group_name=admin" The list of groups may include any number of entries separated by a comma. If the admin group is included, the user will be made an Administrator. _____________________________________________________________________
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If there is already a Framed-­‐Filter-­‐Id, simply add the list of group_names after the existing entries, including the separating colon “:”. 9.3 SSL Certificate The console server uses the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol for encrypted network traffic between itself and a connected user. When establishing the connection, the console server has to expose its identity to the user’s browser using a cryptographic certificate. The default certificate that comes with the console server device upon delivery is for testing purposes only. The System Administrator should not rely on the default certificate as the
secured global access mechanism for use through Internet.
 Activate your preferred browser and enter https:// IP address. Your browser may respond with a message that verifies the security certificate is valid but notes that it is not necessarily verified by a certifying authority. To proceed, you need to click yes if you are using Internet Explorer or select accept this certificate permanently (or temporarily) if you are using Mozilla Firefox.  You will then be prompted for the Administrator account and password as normal. We recommend that you generate and install a new base64 X.509 certificate that is unique for a particular console server. To do this, the console server must be enabled to generate a new cryptographic key and the associated Certificate Signing Request (CSR) that needs to be certified by a Certification Authority (CA). A certification authority verifies that you are the person who you claim you are, and signs and issues a SSL certificate to you. To create and install a SSL certificate for the console server: _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select System: SSL Certificate and fill out the fields as explained below: Common name: This is the network name of the console server once it is installed in the network (usually the fully qualified domain name). It is identical to the name that is used to access the console server with a web browser (without the “http://” prefix). In case the name given here and the actual network name differ, the browser will pop up a security warning when the console server is accessed using HTTPS. Organizational Unit: Use this field to specify which department within an organization the console server belongs to. Organization: The name of the organization that the console server belongs to. Locality/City: The city where the organization is located. State/Province: The state or province where the organization is located. Country: The country where the organization is located. This is the two-­‐letter ISO code, for example, DE for Germany, or US for the USA. (Note: Enter the country code in CAPITAL LETTERS.) Email: The email address of a contact person that is responsible for the console server and its security. Challenge Password: Some certification authorities require a challenge password to authorize later changes on the certificate (for example, revocation of the certificate). The password must be at least 4 characters long. Confirm Challenge Password: Confirmation of the Challenge Password. _____________________________________________________________________
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Key length: This is the length of the generated key in bits. 1024 Bits are supposed to be sufficient for most cases. Longer keys may result in slower response time of the console server when establishing connection.  Once this is done, click on the button Generate CSR which will initiate the Certificate Signing Request generation. The CSR can be downloaded to your administration machine with the Download button.  Send the saved CSR string to a Certification Authority (CA) for certification. You will get the new certificate from the CA after a more or less complicated traditional authentication process (depending on the CA).  Upload the certificate to the console server using the Upload button as shown below. After completing these steps, the console server has its own certificate that is used for identifying the console server to its users. Note You can find information on issuing certificates and configuring HTTPS from the command line in
Chapter 15.
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Chapter 10
Nagios Integration
NAGIOS INTEGRATION
Introduction Nagios is a powerful, highly extensible open source tool for monitoring network hosts and services. The core Nagios software package will typically be installed on a server or virtual server, the central Nagios server. Console servers operate in conjunction with a central/upstream Nagios server to distribute and monitor attached network hosts and serial devices. They embed the NSCA (Nagios Service Checks Acceptor) and NRPE (Nagios Remote Plug-­‐in Executor) add-­‐ons—this allows them to communicate with the central Nagios server, so you won’t need a dedicated slave Nagios server at remote sites. The console server products all support basic distributed monitoring. Additionally, the Advanced Console Server (LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A, LES1348A, LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-­‐R2) family supports extensive customizable distributed monitoring. Even if distributed monitoring is not required, the console servers can be deployed locally alongside the Nagios monitoring host server, to provide additional diagnostics and points of access to managed devices. SDT for Nagios extends the capabilities of the central Nagios server beyond monitoring, enabling it to be used for central management tasks. It incorporates the SDT Connector client, enabling point-­‐and-­‐click access and control of distributed networks of console servers and their attached network and serial hosts, from a central location. Note If you have an existing Nagios deployment, you may want to use the console server gateways in a
distributed monitoring server capacity only. If this case and you are already familiar with Nagios,
skip ahead to section 10.3.
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10.1 Nagios overview Nagios provides central monitoring of the hosts and services in your distributed network. Nagios is freely downloadable, open source software. This section offers a quick background of Nagios and its capabilities. A complete overview, FAQ, and comprehensive documentation are available at: http://www.nagios.org Nagios does take some time to install and configure; once Nagios is up and running, it provides an outstanding network monitoring system. With Nagios you can: 
Display tables showing the status of each monitored server and network service in real time. 
Use a wide range of freely available plug-­‐ins to make detailed checks of specific services—for example, don't just check that a database is accepting network connections, check that it can actually validate requests and return real data. 
Display warnings and send warning e-­‐mails, pager, or SMS alerts when a service failure or degradation is detected. 
Assign contact groups who are responsible for specific services in specific time frames. 10.2 Central management and setting up SDT for Nagios
The Black Box Nagios solution has three parts: the Central Nagios server, Distributed Black Box console servers, and the SDT for Nagios software. Central Nagios server 


A vanilla Nagios 2.x or 3.x installation (typically on a Linux server) generally running on a blade, PC, virtual machine, etc. at a central location. Runs a web server that displays the Nagios GUI. Imports configuration from distributed console servers using the SDT for Nagios Configuration Wizard. _____________________________________________________________________
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Distributed console servers 


Black Box console servers. Serial and network hosts are attached to each console server. Each runs Nagios plug-­‐ins, NRPE, and NSCA add-­‐ons, but not a full Nagios server. Clients 





Typically a client PC, laptop, etc., running Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. Runs SDT Connector client software 1.5.0 or later. Possibly remote to the central Nagios server or distributed console servers (i.e. a road warrior). May receive alert emails from the central Nagios server or distributed console servers. Connects to the central Nagios server web UI to view status of monitored hosts and serial devices. Uses SDT Connector to connect through the console servers to manage monitored hosts and serial devices. SDT Nagios setup involves the following steps: i.
Install Nagios and the NSCA and NRPE add-­‐ons on the central Nagios server (Section 10.2.1—Set up central Nagios server). ii.
Configure each Black Box distributed console server for Nagios monitoring, alerting, and SDT Nagios integration (Section 10.2.2— Set up distributed Black Box servers). iii.
Run the SDT for Nagios Configuration Wizard on the central Nagios server (Section 10.2.3— Set up SDT Nagios on central Nagios server) and perform any additional configuration tasks. iv.
Install SDT Connector on each client (Section 10.2.4—Set up clients). 10.2.1 Set up central Nagios server SDT for Nagios requires a central Nagios server running Nagios 2.x or 3.x. Nagios 1.x is not supported. The Nagios server software is available for most major distributions of Linux using the standard package management tools. Your distribution will have documentation available on how to install Nagios. This is usually the quickest and simplest way to get up and running. Note that you will need the core Nagios server package, and at least one of the NRPE or NSCA add-­‐ons. NSCA is required to use the alerting features of the Black Box distributed hosts; installing both NRPE and NSCA is recommended. You will also require a web server such as Apache to display the Nagios web UI (and this may be installed automatically depending on the Nagios packages). Or, you may wish to download the Nagios source code directly from the Nagios website, and build and install the software from scratch. The Nagios website (http://www.nagios.org) has several Quick Start Guides that walk through this process. Once you are able to browse to your Nagios server and see its web UI and the local services it monitors by default, you are ready to continue. _____________________________________________________________________
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10.2.2 Set up distributed console servers This section provides a brief walkthrough on configuring a single console server to monitor the status of one attached network host (a Windows IIS server running HTTP and HTTPS services) and one serially attached device (the console port of a network router), and to send alerts back to the Nagios server when an Administrator connects to the router or IIS server. This walkthrough provides an example, but details of the configuration options are described in the next section. This walkthrough also assumes the network host and serial devices are already physically connected to the console server. The first step is to set up the Nagios features on the console server:  Browse the Black Box console server and select System: Nagios on the console server Management Console. Check Nagios service Enabled.  Enter the Host Name and the Nagios Host Address (for example, IP address) that the central Nagios server will use to contact the distributed Black Box console server.  Enter the IP address that the distributed Black Box console server will use to contact the central Nagios server in Nagios Server Address.  Enter the IP address that the clients running SDT Connector will use to connect through the distributed Black Box servers in SDT Gateway address.  Check Prefer NRPE, NRPE Enabled, and NRPE Command Arguments.  Check NSCA Enabled, choose an NSCA Encryption Method and enter and confirm an NSCA Secret. Remember these details because you will need them later on. For NSCA Interval, enter: 5.  Click Apply. Next, you must configure the attached Windows network host and specify the services you will be checking with Nagios (HTTP and HTTPS):  Select Network Hosts from the Serial & Network menu and click Add Host.  Enter the IP Address/DNS Name of the network server, for example: 192.168.1.10 and enter a Description, for example: Windows 2003 IIS Server. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Remove all Permitted Services. This server will be accessible using Terminal Services, so check TCP, Port 3389 and log level 1 and click Add. Remove and re-­‐add the service to enable logging.  Scroll down to Nagios Settings and check Enable Nagios.  Click New Check and select Check Ping. Click check-­‐host-­‐alive.  Click New Check and select Check Permitted TCP. Select Port 3389.  Click New Check and select Check TCP. Select Port 80.  Click New Check and select Check TCP. Select Port 443.  Click Apply. Similarly, you now must configure the serial port to the router to be monitored by Nagios:  Select Serial Port from the Serial & Network menu.  Locate the serial port that has the router console port attached and click Edit.  Make sure the serial port settings under Common Settings are correct and match the attached router’s console port.  Click Console server Mode, and select Logging Level 1.  Check Telnet (SSH access is not required, as SDT Connector is used to secure the otherwise insecure Telnet connection).  Scroll down to Nagios Settings and check Enable Nagios.  Check Port Log and Serial Status.  Click Apply. Now you can set the console server to send alerts to the Nagios server:  Select Alerts from the Alerts & Logging menu and click Add Alert.  In Description enter: Administrator connection.  Check Nagios (NSCA).  In Applicable Ports check the serial port that has the router console port attached. In Applicable Hosts check the IP address/DNS name of the IIS server.  Click Connection Alert.  Click Apply. Finally, you need to add a User for the client running SDT Connector: _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select Users & Groups from the Serial & Network menu.  Click Add User.  In Username, enter: sdtnagiosuser, then enter and confirm a Password.  In Accessible Hosts click the IP address/DNS name of the IIS server, and in Accessible Ports click the serial port that has the router console port attached.  Click Apply. 10.3 Configuring Nagios distributed monitoring To activate the console server Nagios distributed monitoring: 
Nagios integration must be enabled and a path established to the central/upstream Nagios server. 
If the console server is to periodically report on Nagios monitored services, then the NSCA client embedded in the console server must be configured—the NSCA program enables scheduled check-­‐ins with the remote Nagios server and is used to send passive check results across the network to the remote server. 
If the Nagios server is to actively request status updates from the console server, then the NRPE server embedded in the console server must be configured— the NRPE server is the Nagios daemon for executing plug-­‐ins on remote hosts. 
Each of the Serial Ports and each of the Hosts connected to the console server that you want to monitor must have Nagios enabled and any specific Nagios checks configured. 
Configure the central/upstream Nagios monitoring host. 10.3.1 Enable Nagios on the console server  Select System: Nagios on the console server Management Console and tick the Nagios service Enabled.  Enter the Nagios Host Name that the Console server will be referred to in the Nagios central server—this will be generated from local System Name (entered in System: Administration) if unspecified.  In Nagios Host Address enter the IP address or DNS name that the upstream Nagios server will use to reach the console server— if unspecified this will default to the first network port’s IP (Network (1) as entered in System: IP).  In Nagios Server Address enter the IP address or DNS name that the console server will use to reach the upstream Nagios monitoring server.  Check the Disable SDT Nagios Extensions option if you want to disable the SDT Connector integration with your Nagios server at the head end— this would only be checked if you want to run a vanilla Nagios monitoring.  If not, enter the IP address or DNS name that the SDT Nagios clients will use to reach the console server in SDT Gateway Address.  When NRPE and NSCA are both enabled, NSCA is preferred method for communicating with the upstream Nagios server— check Prefer NRPE to use NRPE whenever possible (that is, for all communication except for alerts). _____________________________________________________________________
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10.3.2 Enable NRPE monitoring Enabling NRPE allows you to execute plug-­‐ins (such as check_tcp and check_ping) on the remote Console server to monitor serial or network attached remote servers. This will offload CPU load from the upstream Nagios monitoring machine. This is especially valuable if you are monitoring hundreds or thousands of hosts. To enable NRPE: 
Select System: Nagios and check NRPE Enabled. 
Enter the details for the user connection to the upstream Nagios monitoring server and again refer to the sample Nagios configuration example below for details about how to configure specific NRPE checks. By default, the console server will accept a connection between the upstream Nagios monitoring server and the NRPE server with SSL encryption, without SSL, or tunneled through SSH. The security for the connection is configured at the Nagios server. 10.3.3 Enable NSCA monitoring NSCA is the mechanism that allows you to send passive check results from the remote console server to the Nagios daemon running on the monitoring server. To enable NSCA:  Select System: Nagios and check NSCA Enabled.  Select the Encryption to be used from the drop down menu, then enter a Secret password and specify a check Interval.  Refer to the sample Nagios configuration section (next) for some examples of configuring specific NSCA checks. _____________________________________________________________________
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10.3.4 Configure Selected Serial Ports for Nagios Monitoring The individual Serial Ports connected to the console server to be monitored must be configured for Nagios checks. Refer to Chapter 4.4—Network Host Configuration for details on enabling Nagios monitoring for Hosts that are network connected to the console server. To enable Nagios to monitor a device connected to the console server serial port:  Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and click Edit on the serial Port # you want to monitor.  Select Enable Nagios, specify the name of the device on the upstream server and determine the check you want to run on this port. Serial Status monitors the handshaking lines on the serial port and Check Port monitors the data logged for the serial port. 10.3.5 Configure Selected Network Hosts for Nagios Monitoring The individual Network Hosts connected to the console server that you want to monitor must also be configured for Nagios checks:  Select Serial & Network: Network Port and click Edit on the Network Host you want to monitor.  Select Enable Nagios, specify the name of the device as it will appear on the upstream Nagios server.  Click New Check to add a specific check which will be run on this host.  Select Check Permitted TCP/UDP to monitor a service that you have previously added as a Permitted Service.  Select Check TCP/UDP to specify a service port that you want to monitor, without allowing external (SDT Connector) access.  Select Check TCP to monitor. 
The Nagios Check nominated as the check-­‐host-­‐alive check is the check used to determine whether the network host itself is up or down.  Typically this will be Check Ping—although in some cases the host will be configured not to respond to pings.  If no check-­‐host-­‐alive check is selected, the host will always be assumed to be up.  You may deselect check-­‐host-­‐alive by clicking Clear check-­‐host-­‐alive.  If required, customize the selected Nagios Checks to use custom arguments.  Click Apply. 10.3.6 Configure the upstream Nagios monitoring host Refer to the Nagios documentation (http://www.nagios.org/docs/) for configuring the upstream server:  The section entitled Distributed Monitoring steps through what you need to do to configure NSCA on the upstream server (under Central Server Configuration).  NRPE Documentation was recently added that steps through configuring NRPE on the upstream server http://nagios.sourceforge.net/docs/nrpe/NRPE.pdf. At this stage, Nagios at the upstream monitoring server is configured, and individual serial port and network host connections on the console server are configured for Nagios monitoring. If NSCA is enabled, each selected check will be executed once over the period of the check interval. If NRPE is enabled, then the upstream server will be able to request status updates under its own scheduling. _____________________________________________________________________
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10.4 Advanced distributed monitoring configuration 10.4.1 Sample Nagios configuration An example configuration for Nagios is listed below. It shows how to set up a remote Console server to monitor a single host, with both network and serial connections. Each check has two configurations, one each for NRPE and NSCA. In practice, these would be combined into a single check that uses NSCA as a primary method, falling back to NRPE if a check was late— for details see the Nagios documentation (http://www.nagios.org/docs/) on Service and Host Freshness Checks. ; Host definitions ; ; Black Box console server define host{ use generic-­‐host host_name Black Box alias Console server address 192.168.254.147 } ; Managed Host define host{ use generic-­‐host host_name server alias server address 192.168.254.227 } ; NRPE daemon on gateway define command { command_name check_nrpe_daemon command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -­‐H 192.168.254.147 -­‐p 5666 } define service { service_description NRPE Daemon host_name Black Box use generic-­‐service check_command check_nrpe_daemon } ; Serial Status define command { command_name check_serial_status command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -­‐H 192.168.254.147 -­‐p 5666 -­‐c check_serial_$HOSTNAME$ } _____________________________________________________________________
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define service { service_description Serial Status host_name server use generic-­‐service check_command check_serial_status } define service { service_description serial-­‐signals-­‐server host_name server use generic-­‐service check_command check_serial_status active_checks_enabled 0 passive_checks_enabled 1 } define servicedependency{ name Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep host_name Black Box dependent_host_name server dependent_service_description Serial Status service_description NRPE Daemon execution_failure_criteria w,u,c } ; Port Log define command{ command_name check_port_log command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -­‐H 192.168.254.147 -­‐p 5666 -­‐c port_log_$HOSTNAME$ } define service { service_description Port Log host_name server use generic-­‐service check_command check_port_log } define service { service_description port-­‐log-­‐server host_name server use generic-­‐service check_command check_port_log active_checks_enabled 0 passive_checks_enabled 1 } define servicedependency{ _____________________________________________________________________
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name Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep host_name Black Box dependent_host_name server dependent_service_description Port Log service_description NRPE Daemon execution_failure_criteria w,u,c } ; Ping define command{ command_name check_ping_via_Black Box command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -­‐H 192.168.254.147 -­‐p 5666 -­‐c host_ping_$HOSTNAME$ } define service { service_description Host Ping host_name server use generic-­‐service check_command check_ping_via_Black Box } define service { service_description host-­‐ping-­‐server host_name server use generic-­‐service check_command check_ping_via_Black Box active_checks_enabled 0 passive_checks_enabled 1 } define servicedependency{ name Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep host_name Black Box dependent_host_name server dependent_service_description Host Ping service_description NRPE Daemon execution_failure_criteria w,u,c } ; SSH Port define command{ command_name check_conn_via_Black Box command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -­‐H 192.168.254.147 -­‐p 5666 -­‐c host_$HOSTNAME$_$ARG1$_$ARG2$ } define service { service_description SSH Port host_name server _____________________________________________________________________
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use generic-­‐service check_command check_conn_via_Black Box!tcp!22 } define service { service_description host-­‐port-­‐tcp-­‐22-­‐server ; host-­‐port-­‐<protocol>-­‐<port>-­‐<host> host_name server use generic-­‐service check_command check_conn_via_Black Box!tcp!22 active_checks_enabled 0 passive_checks_enabled 1 } define servicedependency{ name Black Box_nrpe_daemon_dep host_name Black Box dependent_host_name server dependent_service_description SSH Port service_description NRPE Daemon execution_failure_criteria w,u,c } 10.4.2 Basic Nagios plug-­‐ins Plug-­‐ins are compiled executables or scripts that can be scheduled to run on the console server to check the status of a connected host or service. This status is then communicated to the upstream Nagios server that uses the results to monitor the current status of the distributed network. Each console server is preconfigured with a selection of the checks that are part of the Nagios plug-­‐ins package: check_tcp and check_udp are used to check open ports on network hosts check_ping is used to check network host availability check_nrpe is used to execute arbitrary plug-­‐ins in other devices Each console server is preconfigured with two checks that are specific to Black Box: check_serial_signals is used to monitor the handshaking lines on the serial ports check_port_log is used to monitor the data logged for a serial port. 10.4.3 Additional plug-­‐ins Additional Nagios plug-­‐ins (listed below) are available for Advanced Console Servers (LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-­‐R2: check_apt check_by_ssh check_clamd check_dig check_dns check_dummy check_fping check_ftp check_game check_hpjd check_http check_imap _____________________________________________________________________
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check_jabber check_ldap check_load check_mrtg check_mrtgtraf check_nagios check_nntp check_nntps check_nt check_ntp check_nwstat check_overcr check_ping check_pop check_procs check_real check_simap check_smtp check_snmp check_spop check_ssh check_ssmtp check_swap check_tcp check_time check_udp check_ups check_user You can download these plug-­‐ins from the Nagios plug-­‐ins package from www.blackbox.com. You can also download and run bash scripts (primarily check_log.sh).  To configure additional checks, save the downloaded plug-­‐in program in the tftp addins directory on the USB flash and save the downloaded text plug-­‐in file in /etc/config  To enable these new additional checks, select Seria l& Network: Network Port, then Edit the Network Host you want to monitor, and select New Checks. The additional check option is included in the updated Nagios Checks list, and you can again customize the arguments. 10.4.4 Number of supported devices Ultimately, the number of devices that any particular console server can support depends upon the number of checks made, and how often they are performed. Access method will also play a part. The table (next) shows the performance of three of the console servers: _____________________________________________________________________
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Time No encryption 3DES SSH tunnel NSCA for single check ~ ½ second ~ ½ second ~ ½ second NSCA for 100 sequential checks 100 seconds 100 seconds 100 seconds NSCA for 10 sequential checks, batched upload 1 ½ seconds 2 seconds 1 second 11 seconds 6 seconds NSCA for 100 sequential checks, batched upload 7 seconds No encryption SSL no encryption -­‐ tunneled over existing SSH session NRPE time to service 1 check 1/10th second 1/3rd second 1/8th second NRPE time to service 10 simultaneous checks 1 second 3 seconds 1 ¼ seconds Maximum number of simultaneous checks before timeouts 30 20 (1,2 and 8) or 25 (8 port), 35 (16 25 (16 and 48 port) and 48 port) The results were from running tests 5 times in succession with no timeouts on any runs. There are a number of ways to increase the number of checks you can do. Usually when using NRPE checks, an individual request will need to set up and tear down an SSL connection. This overhead can be avoided by setting up an SSH session to the console server and tunneling the NRPE port. This allows the NRPE daemon to run securely without SSL encryption, because SSH will provide the security. When the console server submits NSCA results, it staggers them over a certain time period (for example, 20 checks over 10 minutes will result in two check results every minute). Staggering the results like this means that if the power fails or other incident causes multiple problems, the individual freshness checks will be staggered too. NSCA checks are also batched. In the previous example, the two checks per minute are sent through in a single transaction. 10.4.5 Distributed Monitoring Usage Scenarios Below are a number of distributed monitoring Nagios scenarios: I.
Local office In this scenario, the console server is set up to monitor each managed device’s console. Configure it to make a number of checks, either actively at the Nagios server's request, or passively at preset intervals, and submit the results to the Nagios server in a batch. You can augment the console server at the local office site by one or more Intelligent Power Distribution Units (IPDUs) to remotely control the power supply to the managed devices. _____________________________________________________________________
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II.
Remote site In this scenario, configure the console server NRPE server or NSCA client to actively check configured services and upload the checks to the Nagios server that’s waiting passively. You can also configure it to service NRPE commands to perform checks on demand. In this situation, the console server will perform checks based on both serial and network access. Remote site with restrictive firewall In this scenario, the role of the console server will vary. One aspect may be to upload check results through NSCA. Another may be to provide an SSH tunnel to allow the Nagios server to run NRPE commands. _____________________________________________________________________
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Remote site with no network access In this scenario the console server allows dial-­‐in access for the Nagios server. Periodically, the Nagios server will establish a connection to the console server and execute any NRPE commands before dropping the connection. _____________________________________________________________________
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Chapter 11
System Management
SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
Introduction This chapter describes how the Administrator can perform a range of general console server system administration and configuration tasks such as: 
Applying Soft and Hard Resets to the gateway. 
Re-­‐flashing the Firmware. 
Configuring the Date, Time and NTP. 
Setting up Backup of the configuration files. System administration and configuration tasks that are covered elsewhere include: 
Resetting the System Password and entering a new System Name and Description (Chapter 3.2). 
Setting the System IP Address (Chapter 3.3). 
Setting the permitted Services by which to access the gateway (Chapter 3.4). 
Setting up OoB Dial-­‐in (Chapter 5). 
Configuring the Dashboard (Chapter 12). 11.1 System Administration and Reset The Administrator can reboot or reset the gateway to default settings. A soft reset is affected by:  Selecting Reboot in the System: Administration menu and clicking Apply. The console server reboots with all settings (for example, the assigned network IP address) preserved. This soft reset disconnects all users and ends any established SSH sessions. A soft reset will also occur when you switch OFF power from the console server, and then switch the power back ON. If you cycle the power and the unit is writing to flash, you could corrupt or lose data, so rebooting the software is the safer option. A hard erase (hard reset) is performed by: _____________________________________________________________________
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 Pushing the Erase button on the rear panel twice. A ball-­‐point pen or bent paper clip is a suitable tool for this procedure. Do not use a graphite pencil. Press the button gently twice (within a couple of seconds) while the unit is powered ON. This will reset the console server back to its factory default settings and clear the console server’s stored configuration information. The hard erase will clear all custom settings and return the unit back to factory default settings (i.e. the IP address will be reset to 192.168.0.1). You will be prompted to log in and must enter the default administration username and administration password: Username: root Password: default 11.2 Upgrade Firmware Before upgrading, make sure you are already running the most current firmware in your gateway. Your console server will not allow you to upgrade to the same or an earlier version.  The Firmware version is displayed in each page’s header.  Or select Status: Support Report and note the Firmware Version.  To upgrade, you first must download the latest firmware image from the Black Box.web site.  Save this downloaded firmware image file to a system on the same subnet as the console server.  Download and read the release_notes.txt for the latest information.  To upload the firmware image file to your console server, select System: Firmware.  Specify the address and name of the downloaded Firmware Upgrade File, or Browse the local subnet and locate the downloaded file.  Click Apply and the console server appliance will perform a soft reboot and start upgrading the firmware. This process will take several minutes.  After the firmware upgrade completes, click here to return to the Management Console. Your console server will have retained all its pre-­‐upgrade configuration information. 11.3 Configure Date and Time We recommend that you set the local Date and Time in the console server as soon as it is configured. Features like Syslog and NFS logging use the system time for time-­‐stamping log entries, while certificate generation depends on a correct Timestamp to check the validity period of the certificate. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select the System: Date & Time menu option.  Manually set the Year, Month, Day, Hour, and Minute using the Date and Time selection boxes, then click Set Time. The gateway can synchronize its system time with a remote time server using the Network Time Protocol (NTP). Configuring the NTP time server ensures that the console server clock will be accurate soon after the Internet connection is established. Also, if NTP is not used, the system clock will reset randomly every time the console server is powered up. To set the system time using NTP:  Select the Enable NTP checkbox on the Network Time Protocol page.  Enter the IP address of the remote NTP Server and click Apply Settings. You must now also specify your local time zone so the system clock can show local time (and not UTP):  Set your appropriate region/locality in the Time Zone selection box and click Apply. 11.4 Configuration Backup We recommend that you back up the console server configuration whenever you make significant changes (such as adding new Users or Managed Devices) or before performing a firmware upgrade.  Select the System: Configuration Backup menu option or click the icon. Note You can also back up the configuration files from the command line (refer to Chapter 14).
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With all console servers, you can save the backup file remotely on your PC and you can restore configurations from remote locations:  Click Save Backup in the Remote Configuration Backup menu.  The config backup file (System Name_date_config.opg) will be downloaded to your PC and saved in the location you nominate. To restore a remote backup:  Click Browse in the Remote Configuration Backup menu and select the Backup File you want to restore.  Click Restore and click OK. This will overwrite all the current configuration settings in your console server. With Advanced Console Servers (LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-­‐R2), you can save the backup file locally on the console server USB storage. To do this you must have an external USB flash drive installed. To backup and restore using USB:  Make sure the USB flash is the only USB device attached to the console server and click Prepare Storage in the Local Configuration Backup menu.  This will set a Volume Label on the USB storage device. This preparation step is only necessary the first time, and will not affect any other information you have saved onto the USB storage device. We recommend that you back up any critical data from the USB storage device before using it with your console server.  If there are multiple USB devices installed, you will be warned to remove them.  To backup to the USB, enter a brief Description of the backup in the Local Configuration Backups menu and select Save Backup. _____________________________________________________________________
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 The Local Configuration Backup menu will display all the configuration backup files you have stored onto the USB flash.  To restore a backup from the USB simply select Restore on the particular backup you wish to restore and click Apply. After saving a local configuration backup, you may choose to use it as the alternate default configuration. When the console server is reset to factory defaults, it will then load your alternate default configuration instead of its factory settings:  To set an alternate default configuration, check Load On Erase and click Apply. Note Before selecting Load On Erase, make sure that you have tested your alternate default configuration by clicking
Restore.
If your alternate default configuration causes the console server to not boot, recover your unit to factory settings
using the following steps:
-
If the configuration is stored on an external USB storage device, unplug the storage device and reset to
factory defaults as per section 11.1 of the user manual.
-
If the configuration is stored on an internal USB storage device, reset it to factory defaults using a specially
prepared USB storage device:
o The USB storage device must be formatted with a Windows FAT32/VFAT file system on the first
partition or the entire disk; most USB thumb drives are already formatted this way.
o The file system must have the volume label: OPG_DEFAULT.
o Insert this USB storage device into an external USB port on the console server and reset to factory
defaults as described in Section 11.1.
- After recovering your console server, make sure the problem configuration is no longer selected for Load On
Erase.
11.5 Delayed Configuration Commit With Advanced Console Servers (LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-­‐R2), a Delayed Config Commit mode is available that allows the grouping or queuing of configuration changes and the simultaneous application of these _____________________________________________________________________
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changes to a specific device. For example, changes to authentication methods or user accounts may be grouped and run once to minimize system downtime. To enable:  Check the Delayed Config Commits button under System: Administration.  Click Apply.  The Commit Config icon will be displayed in top right-­‐hand corner of the screen between the Backup and Log Out icons. To queue then run configuration changes:  First, apply all the required changes to the configuration, e.g., modify user accounts, amend authentication method, enable OpenVPN tunnel, or modify system time.  Click the Commit Config button. This will generate the System: Commit Configuration screen displaying all the configurators to be run.  Click Apply to run all the configurators in the queue.  Alternately click Cancel and this will discard all the delayd configuration changes. Note All the queued configuration changes will be lost if Cancel is selected.
To disable the Delayed Configuration Commits mode:  Uncheck the Delayed Config Commits button under System: Administration and click Apply.  Click the Commit Config button in top right-­‐hand corner of the screen to display the System: Commit Configuration screen.  Click Apply to run the systemsettings configurator. The Commit Config button will no longer be displayed in the top right-­‐hand corner of the screen and configurations will no longer be queued. _____________________________________________________________________
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11.6 FIPS Mode The Advanced Console Servers (LES1208A-­‐R2, LES1216A-­‐R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-­‐R2) all use an embedded cryptographic module that has been validated to meet the FIPS 140-­‐2 standards. Note The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) publishes the FIPS (Federal Information
Processing Standard) series of standards. FIPS 140-1 and FIPS 140-2 are both technical standards and
worldwide de-facto standards for the implementation of cryptographic modules. These standards and guidelines
are issued by NIST for use government-wide. NIST develops FIPS when there are compelling Federal
government requirements such as for security and interoperability and there are no acceptable industry standards
or solutions.
Advanced Console Servers (LES1408A, LES1416A, LES1432A, LES1448A, LES1308A, LES1316A, LES1332A,
LES1348A, LES1208A-R2, LES1216A-R2, LES1232A, LES1248A-R2) use an embedded OpenSSL
cryptographic module that has been validated to meet the FIPS 140-2 standards and has received Certificate
#1051
When configured in FIPs mode, all SSH, HTTPS, and SDT Connector access to all services on the advanced console servers will use the embedded FIPS compliant cryptographic module. To connect, you must also be using cryptographic algorithms that are FIPs approved in your browser or client or the connection will fail.  Select the System: Administration menu option.  Check FIPS Mode to enable FIPS mode on boot, and check Reboot to safely reboot the console server.  Click Apply and the console server will now reboot. It will take several minutes to reconnect as secure communications with your browser are validated, and when reconnected it will display “FIPs mode: Enabled” in the banner. Note To enable FIPS mode from the command line, login and run these commands:
config -s config.system.fips=on
touch /etc/config/FIPS
chmod 444 /etc/config/FIPS
flatfsd -b
The final command saves to flash and reboots the unit. The unit will take a few minutes to boot into FIPS mode.
To disable FIPS mode:
config -d config.system.fips
rm /etc/config/FIPS
flatfsd –b
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Chapter 12
Status Reports
STATUS REPORTS
Introduction This chapter describes the dashboard feature and the status reports that are available: 
Port Access and Active Users. 
Statistics. 
Support Reports. 
Syslog. 
Dashboard. Other status reports that are covered elsewhere include: 
UPS Status (Chapter 8.2). 
RPC Status (Chapter 8.1). 
Environmental Status (Chapter 8.3). 12.1 Port Access and Active Users The Administrator can see which Users have access privileges with which serial ports:  Select the Status: Port Access. The Administrator can also see the current status as to Users who have active sessions on those ports:  Select the Status: Active Users. 12.2 Statistics The Statistics report provides a snapshot of the status, current traffic, and other activities and operations of your console server: _____________________________________________________________________
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 Select Status: Statistics.  You can find detailed statistics reports by selecting the various submenus. 12.3 Support Reports The Support Report provides useful status information that will assist the Black Box Technical Support team to solve any problems you may experience with your console server. If you do experience a problem and have to contact tech support, make sure you include the Support Report with your email support request. The Support Report is generated when the issue is occurring, and is attached in plain text format.  Select Status: Support Report and you will be presented with a status snapshot.  Save the file as a text file and attach it to your support email. 12.4 Syslog The Linux System Logger in the console server maintains a record of all system messages and errors:  Select Status: Syslog You can redirect the syslog record to a remote Syslog Server: _____________________________________________________________________
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 Enter the remote Syslog Server Address and Syslog Server Port details and click Apply. The console maintains a local Syslog. To view the local Syslog file:  Select Status: Syslog. To make it easier to find information in the local Syslog file, use the provided pattern matching filter tool.  Specify the Match Pattern that you want to search for (for example, the search for mount is shown below) and click Apply. The Syslog will then be represented with only those entries that actually include the specified pattern. 12.5 Dashboard The Dashboard provides the Administrator with a summary of the status of the console server and its Managed Devices. You can configure custom dashboards for each user group. 12.5.1 Configuring the Dashboard Only users who are members of the admin group (and the root user) can configure and access the dashboard. To configure a custom dashboard:  Select System: Configure Dashboard and select the user (or group) you are configuring this custom dashboard layout for. _____________________________________________________________________
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 Click Next. Note: You can configure a custom dashboard for any admin user or for the admin group, or you can reconfigure the
default dashboard.
The Status:Dashboard screen is the first screen displayed when admin users (other than root) log into the console
manager. If you log in as “John,” and John is member of the admin group and there is a dashboard layout
configured for John, then you will see the dashboard for John upon login and each time you click on the
Status:Dashboard menu item.
If there is no dashboard layout configured for John, but there is an admin group dashboard configured, then you
will see the admin group dashboard instead. If there is no user dashboard or admin group dashboard configured,
then you will see the default dashboard.
The root user does not have its own dashboard.
Use the above configuration options to enable admin users to setup their own custom dashboards.
The Dashboard displays six widgets. These widgets include each of the Status screens (alerts, devices, ports ups, rpc, and environmental status) and a custom script screen. The admin user can configure which of these widget is to be displayed where:  Go to the Dashboard layout panel and select which widget is to be displayed in each of the six display locations (widget1 …6).  Click Apply. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note: The Alerts widget is a new screen that shows the current alerts status. When an alert gets triggered, a
corresponding .XML file is created in /var/run/alerts/. The dashboard scans all these files and displays a summary status
in the alerts widget. When an alert is deleted, the corresponding .XML files that belong to that alert are also deleted.
To configure what is to be displayed by each widget:  Go to the Configure widgets panel and configure each selected widget (for example, specify which UPS status is to be displayed on the ups widget or the maximum number of Managed Devices to be displayed in the devices widget.  Click Apply. Note: Dashboard configuration is stored in the /etc/config/config.xml file. Each configured dashboard will increase the
config file. If this file gets too big, you can run out of memory space on the console manager.
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12.5.2 Creating custom widgets for the Dashboard T o run a custom script inside a dashboard widget: Create a file called "widget-­‐<name>.sh" in the folder /etc/config/scripts/, where <name> can be anything. You can have as many custom dashboard files as you want. Inside this file you can put any code you want. When configuring the dashboard, choose "widget-­‐<name>.sh" in the dropdown list. The dashboard will run the script and display the output of the script commands directly on the screen, inside the specific widget. The best way to format the output would be to send HTML commands back to the browser by adding echo commands in the script: echo '<table>' You can, of course, run any command and its output will be displayed in the widget window directly. Below is an example script that writes the current date to a file, and then echos HTML code back to the browser. The HTML code gets an image from a specific URL and displays it in the widget. #!/bin/sh date >> /tmp/test echo '<table>' echo '<tr><td> This is my custom script running </td></tr>' echo '<tr><td>' echo '<img src="http://www.vinras.com/images/linux-­‐online-­‐inc.jpg">' echo '</td></tr>' echo '</table>' exit 0
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Chapter 13
Management
MANAGEMENT
Introduction The console server has a small number of Manage reports and tools that are available to both Administrators and Users: 
Access and control authorized devices. 
View serial port logs and host logs for those devices. 
Use SDT Connector or the Web terminal to access serially attached consoles. 
Control power devices (where authorized). All other Management Console menu items are available to Administrators only. 13.1 Device Management To display the Managed Devices and their associated serial, network, and power connections:  Select Manage: Devices. The Administrator will be presented with a list of all configured Managed Devices, whereas the User will only see the Managed Devices they (or their Group) has been given access privileges for.  Select Serial Network or Power for a view of the specific connections. The user can then take a range of actions using these serial, network, or power connections by selecting the Action icon or the related Manage menu item. (For example, selecting the Manager Power icon [or Manage: Power from the menu] would enable the user to power Off/On/Cycle any power outlet on any PDU the user has been given access privileges to [refer to Chapter 8 for details]). _____________________________________________________________________
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13.2 Port and Host Logs Administrators and Users can view logs of data transfers to connected devices.  Select Manage: Port Logs and the serial Port # to be displayed.  To display Host logs, select Manage: Host Logs and the Host to be displayed. 13.3
Serial Port Terminal Connection
There are two methods available for accessing the console server command line and devices attached to the console
server serial ports, directly from a web browser:
-
The Web Terminal service uses AJAX to enable the web browser to connect to the console server using HTTP or
HTTPS, as a terminal—without the need for additional client installation on the user's PC.
-
The SDT Connector service launches a pre-installed SDT Connector client on the user's PC to establish secure
SSH access, then uses pre-installed client software on the client PC to connect to the console server.
Web browser access is available to users who are a member of the admin or users groups.
13.3.1 Web Terminal
The AJAX based Web Terminal service may be used to access the console server command line or attached serial
devices.
Note:
Any communication using the Web Terminal service using HTTP is unencrypted and not secure. The Web
Terminal connects to the command line or serial device using the same protocol that is being used to browse to
the Management Console, i.e., if you are browsing using an https:// URL (this is the default), the Web Terminal
connects using HTTPS.
13.3.1.1 Web Terminal to Command Line
To enable the Web Terminal service for the console server:

Select System: Firewall.

Check Enable Web Terminal and click Apply.
Administrators can now communicate directly with the console server command line from their browser:

Select Manage: Terminal to display the Web Terminal from which you can log in to the console server command
line.
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13.3.1.2 Web Terminal to Serial Device
To enable the Web Terminal service for each serial port you want to access:

Select Serial & Network: Serial Port and click Edit. Ensure the serial port is in Console Server Mode.

Check Web Terminal and click Apply.
Administrator and Users can communicate directly with serial port attached devices from their browser:

Select the Serial tab on the Manage: Devices menu.

Under the Action column, click the Web Terminal icon to display the Web Terminal, connected directly to the
attached serial device.
13.3.2 SDT Connector access
Administrator and Users can communicate directly with the console server command line and with devices attached to the
console server serial ports using SDT Connector and their local tenet client, or using a Web terminal and their browser

Select Manage: Terminal

Click Connect to SDT Connector. This will to activate the SDT Connector client on the computer you are
browsing and load your local telnet client to connect to the command line or serial port using SSH
Note You must install SDT Connector on the computer you are browsing from and add and the console server as a
gateway as detailed in Chapter 6.
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13.4 Power Management Administrators and Users can access and manage the connected power devices.  Select Manage: Power _____________________________________________________________________
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Chapter 14
Command Line Configuration
CONFIGURATION FROM THE COMMAND LINE Introduction For those who prefer to configure their console server at the Linux command line level (rather than use a browser and the Management Console), this chapter describes how to use command line access and the config tool to manage the console server and configure the ports, etc. This config documentation in this chapter walks through command line configuration to deliver the functions provided using the Management Console GUI. For advanced and custom configurations and for details using other tools and commands, refer to the next chapter. When displaying a command, the convention used in the rest of this chapter is to use single quotes ('') for user-­‐defined values (for example, descriptions and names). Element values without single quotes must be typed exactly as shown. After the initial section on accessing the config command, the menu items in this document follow the same structure as the menu items in the web GUI. 14.1 Accessing config from the command line The console server runs a standard Linux kernel and embeds a suite of open source applications. If you do not want to use a browser and the Management Console tools, you can configure the console server and manage connected devices from the command line using standard Linux and Busybox commands and applications such as ifconfig, gettyd, stty, powerman, nut etc. Without care, these configurations may not withstand a power-­‐cycle-­‐reset or reconfigure. Black Box provides a number of custom command line utilities and scripts to make it simple to configure the console server and make sure the changes are stored in the console server's flash memory, etc. In particular, the config utility allows you to manipulate the system configuration from the command line. With config, you can activate a new configuration by running the relevant configurator, which performs the action needed to make the configuration changes live. To access config from the command line:  Power on the console server and connect the “terminal” device: o
If you are connecting using the serial line, plug a serial cable between the console server local DB9 console port and terminal device. Configure the serial connection of the terminal device you are using to 115200 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, and one stop bit. o
If you are connecting over the LAN, then you will need to interconnect the Ethernet ports and direct your terminal emulator program to the IP address of the console server (192.168.0.1 by default).  Log on to the console server by pressing “return” a few times. The console server will request a username and password. Enter the username root and the password default. You should now see the command line prompt which is a hash (#). _____________________________________________________________________
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This chapter is not intended to teach you Linux. We assume you already have
a certain level of understanding before you execute Linux kernel level
commands.
The config tool Syntax config [ -­‐ahv ] [ -­‐d id ] [ -­‐g id ] [ -­‐p path ] [ -­‐r configurator ] [ -­‐s id=value ] [ -­‐P id ] Description The config tool is designed to perform multiple actions from one command if needed, so options can be chained together. The config tool allows you to manipulate and query the system configuration from the command line. Using config, you can activate the new configuration by running the relevant configurator that performs the action needed to make the configuration changes live. The custom user configuration is saved in the /etc/config/config.xml file. This file is transparently accessed and edited when configuring the device using the Management Console browser GUI. Only the user “root” can configure from the shell. By default, the config elements are separated by a '.' character. The root of the config tree is called <config>. To address a specific element place a '.' between each node/branch e.g. to access and display the description of user1 type: # config -­‐g config.users.user1.description The root node of the config tree is <config>. To display the entire config tree, type: # config -­‐g config To display the help text for the config command, type: # config -­‐h The config application resides in the /bin directory. The environmental variable called PATH contains a route to the /bin directory. This allows a user to simply type config at the command prompt instead of the full path /bin/config. Options -­‐a –run-­‐all Run all registered configurators. This performs every configuration synchronization action pushing all changes to the live system -­‐h –help Display a brief usage message -­‐v –verbose Log extra debug information. -­‐d –del=id Remove the given configuration element specified by a '.' separated identifier. -­‐g –get=id Display the value of a configuration element. -­‐p –path=file Specify an alternate configuration file to use. The default file is located at /etc/config/config.xml. -­‐r –run=configurator Run the specified registered configurator. Registered configurators are listed below. -­‐s -­‐-­‐set=id=value Change the value of configuration element specified by a '.' separated identifier. _____________________________________________________________________
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-­‐e -­‐-­‐export=file Save active configuration to file. -­‐i -­‐-­‐import=file Load configuration from file. -­‐t -­‐-­‐test-­‐import=file Pretend to load configuration from file. -­‐S -­‐-­‐separator=char The pattern to separate fields with, default is '.' -­‐P -­‐-­‐password=id Prompt user for a value. Hash the value, then save it in id. The registered configurators are: alerts auth cascade console dhcp dialin eventlog hosts ipaccess ipconfig nagios power serialconfig services slave systemsettings time ups users There are three ways to delete a config element value. The simplest way is use the delete-­‐node script detailed later in Chapter 15. You can also assign the config element to "", or delete the entire config node using -­‐d: # /bin/config -­‐d 'element name' All passwords are saved in plaintext except the user passwords and the system passwords, which are encrypted. _____________________________________________________________________
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Note: The config command does not verify whether the nodes edited/added by the user are valid. This means that any
node may be added to the tree. If a user runs the following command:
# /bin/config -s config.fruit.apple=sweet
The configurator will not complain, but this command is useless. When the configurators are run (to turn the
config.xml file into live config) they will simply ignore this <fruit> node. Administrators must make sure of the
spelling when typing config commands. Incorrect spelling for a node will not be flagged.
Most configurations made to the XML file will be immediately active. To make sure that all configuration changes are active, especially when editing user passwords, run all the configurators: # /bin/config -­‐a For information on backing up and restoring the configuration file, refer to Chapter 15, Advanced Configuration. 14.2 Serial Port configuration The first set of configurations you need to make to any serial port are the RS-­‐232 common settings. For example, setup serial port 5 to use the following properties: Baud Rate 9600 Parity None Data Bits 8 Stop Bits 1 label Myport log level 0 protocol RS232 flow control None To do this, use the following commands: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.speed=9600 # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.parity=None # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.charsize=8 # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.stop=1 # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.label=myport # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.loglevel=0 # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.protocol=RS232 # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.flowcontrol=None The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐r serialconfig Note: Supported serial port baud-­‐rates are ‘50’, ‘75’, ‘110’, ‘134’, ‘150’, ‘200’, ‘300’, ‘600’, ‘1200’, ‘1800’, ‘2400’, ‘4800’, ‘9600’, '19200', '38400', '57600', '115200', and '230400'. Supported parity values are 'None', 'Odd', 'Even', 'Mark' and 'Space'. Supported data-­‐bits values are '8', '7', '6' and '5'. Supported stop-­‐bits values are '1', '1.5' and '2'. Supported flow-­‐control values are 'Hardware', 'Software' and 'None'. Additionally, before any port can function properly, you need to set the port mode. Set any port to run in one of the five possible modes (refer Chapter 4 for details): [Console server mode|Device mode|SDT mode|Terminal server mode|Serial bridge mode]. All these modes are mutually exclusive. _____________________________________________________________________
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Console server mode The command to set the port in portmanager mode: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.mode=portmanager To set the following optional config elements for this mode: Data accumulation period 100 ms Escape character % (default is ~) log level 2 (default is 0) Shell power command menu Enabled RFC2217 access Enabled Limit pot to 1 connection Enabled SSH access Enabled TCP access Enabled telnet access Disabled Unauthorized telnet access Disabled # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.delay=100 # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.escapechar=% # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.loglevel=2 # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.powermenu=on # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.rfc2217=on # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.singleconn=on # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.ssh=on # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.tcp=on # config -­‐d config.ports.port5.telnet # config -­‐d config.ports.port5.unauthtel Device Mode For a device mode port, set the port type to ups, rpc, or enviro: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.device.type=[ups | rpc | enviro] For port 5 as a UPS port: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.mode=reserved For port 5 as an RPC port: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.mode=powerman For port 5 as an Environmental port: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.mode=reserved SDT mode To enable access over SSH to a host connected to serial port 5: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.mode=sdt # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.sdt.ssh=on To configure a username and password when accessing this port with Username = user1 and Password = secret: # config -­‐s config.ports.port#.sdt.username=user1 # config -­‐s config.ports.port#.sdt.password=secret _____________________________________________________________________
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Terminal server mode Enable a TTY login for a local terminal attached to serial port 5: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.mode=terminal # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.terminal=[vt220 | vt102 | vt100 | linux | ansi] The default terminal is vt220. Serial bridge mode Create a network connection to a remote serial port via RFC-­‐2217 on port 5: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.mode=bridge Optional configurations for the network address of RFC-­‐2217 server of 192.168.3.3 and TCP port used by the RFC-­‐2217 service = 2500: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.bridge.address=192.168.3.3 # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.bridge.port=2500 To enable RFC-­‐2217 access: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.bridge.rfc2217=on To redirect the serial bridge over an SSH tunnel to the server: # config -­‐s config.ports.port5.bridge.ssh.enabled=on Syslog settings Additionally, the global system log settings can be set for any specific port, in any mode: # config -­‐s config.ports.port#.syslog.facility='facility' 'facility' can be: Default local 0-­‐7 auth authpriv cron daemon ftp kern lpr mail news user uucp # config -­‐s config.ports.port#.syslog.priority='priority' 'priority' can be: Default warning notice Info error emergency debug critical alert _____________________________________________________________________
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14.3 Adding and removing Users First, determine the total number of existing Users (if you have no existing Users you can assume this is 0): # config -­‐g config.users.total This command should display config.users.total 1. Note that if you see config.users.total this means you have 0 Users configured. Your new User will be the existing total plus 1. If the previous command gave you 0, then start with user number 1. If you already have 1 user your new user will be number 2, etc. To add a user (with Username=John, Password=secret and Description =mySecondUser) issue the commands: # config -­‐s config.users.total=2 (assuming we already have 1 user configured) # config -­‐s config.users.user2.username=John # config -­‐s config.users.user2.description=mySecondUser # config -­‐P config.users.user2.password NOTE: The -­‐P parameter will prompt the user for a password, and encrypt it. You can encrypt the value of any config element using the -­‐P parameter, but only encrypted user passwords and system passwords are supported. If any other element value were to be encrypted, the value will become inaccessible and will have to be reset. To add this user to specific groups (admin/users): # config -­‐s config.users.user2.groups.group1='groupname' # config -­‐s config.users.user2.groups.group2='groupname2' etc... To give this user access to a specific port: # config -­‐s config.users.user2.port1=on # config -­‐s config.users.user2.port2=on # config -­‐s config.users.user2.port5=on etc... To remove port access: # config -­‐s config.users.user2.port1='' (the value is left blank) or simply: # config -­‐d config.users.user2.port1 The port number can be anything from 1 to 48, depending on the available ports on the specific console server. For example, assume we have an RPC device connected to port 1 on the console server and the RPC is configured. To give this user access to RPC outlet number 3 on the RPC device, run the 2 commands below: # config -­‐s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.user2=John # config -­‐s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.total=2 (total number of users that have access to this outlet) If more users are given access to this power outlet, then increment the 'config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.users.total' element accordingly. To give this user access to network host 5 (assuming the host is configured): # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.user1=John # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.total=1 (total number of users having access to host) To give another user called “Peter” access to the same host: # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.user2=Peter _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host5.users.total=2 (total number of users having access to host) To edit any of the user element values, use the same approach as when adding user elements, that is, use the “-­‐s” parameter. If any of the config elements do not exist, they will automatically be created. To delete the user called John, use the delete-­‐node script: # ./delete-­‐node config.users.user2 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐r users 14.4 Adding and removing User Groups The console server is configured with a few default user groups (even though only two of these groups are visible in the Management Console GUI). To find out how many groups are already present: # config -­‐g config.groups.total Assume this value is six. Make sure you number any new groups you create from seven and up. To add a custom group to the configuration with Group name=Group7, Group description=MyGroup and Port access= 1,5 you’d issue the commands: # config -­‐s config.groups.group7.name=Group7 # config -­‐s config.groups.group7.description=MyGroup # config -­‐s config.groups.total=7 # config -­‐s config.groups.group7.port1=on # config -­‐s config.groups.group7.port5=on Assume we have an RPC device connected to port 1 on the console manager, and the RPC is configured. To give this group access to RPC outlet number 3 on the RPC device, run the two commands below: # config -­‐s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.group1=Group7 # config -­‐s config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.total=1 (total number of groups that have access to this outlet) If more groups are given access to this power outlet, then increment the 'config.ports.port1.power.outlet3.groups.total' element accordingly. To give this group access to network host 5: # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.group1=Group7 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.total=1 (total number of groups having access to host) To give another group called 'Group8' access to the same host: # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.group2=Group8 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host5.groups.total=2 (total number of users having access to host) To delete the group called Group7, use the following command: # rmuser Group7 Attention: The rmuser script is a generic script to remove any config element from config.xml correctly. However, any dependencies or references to this group will not be affected. Only the group details are deleted. The Administrator is responsible for going through config.xml and removing group dependencies and references manually, specifically if the group had access to a host or RPC device. _____________________________________________________________________
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The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.5 Authentication To change the type of authentication for the console server: # config -­‐s config.auth.type='authtype' 'authtype' can be: Local LocalTACACS TACACS TACACSLocal TACACSDownLocal LocalRADIUS RADIUS RADIUSLocal RADIUSDownLocal LocalLDAP LDAP LDAPLocal LDAPDownLocal To configure TACACS authentication: # config -­‐s config.auth.tacacs.auth_server='comma separated list' (list of remote authentiction and authorization servers.) # config -­‐s config.auth.tacacs.acct_server='comma separated list' (list of remote accounting servers. If unset, Authentication and Authorization Server Address will be used.) # config -­‐s config.auth.tacacs.password='password' To configure RADIUS authentication: # config -­‐s config.auth.radius.auth_server='comma separated list' (list of remote authentiction and authorization servers.) # config -­‐s config.auth.radius.acct_server='comma separated list' (list of remote accounting servers. If unset, Authentication and Authorization Server Address will be used.) # config -­‐s config.auth.radius.password='password' To configure LDAP authentication: # config -­‐s config.auth.ldap.server='comma separated list' (list of remote servers.) # config -­‐s config.auth.ldap.basedn='name' (The distinguished name of the search base. For example: dc=my-­‐
company,dc=com) # config -­‐s config.auth.ldap.binddn='name' (The distinguished name to bind to the server with. The default is to bind anonymously.) # config -­‐s config.auth.radius.password='password' The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐r auth 14.6 Network Hosts To determine the total number of currently configured hosts: _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐g config.sdt.hosts.total Assume this value is equal to 3. If you add another host, make sure you increment the total number of hosts from 3 to 4: # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.total=4 If the output is config.sdt.hosts.total then assume 0 hosts are configured. Add power device host To add a UPS/RPC network host with the following details: IP address/ DNS name Host name Description Type Allowed services Log level for services 192.168.2.5 remoteUPS UPSroom3 UPS ssh port 22 and https port 443 0 Issue the commands below: # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.address=192.168.2.5 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.name=remoteUPS # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.description=UPSroom3 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.device.type=ups # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1=22 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1.loglevel=0 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.udpport2=443 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.udpport2.loglevel=0 The loglevel can have a value of 0 or 1. The default services that you should configure are: 22/tcp (ssh), 23/tcp (telnet), 80/tcp (http), 443/tcp (https), 1494/tcp (ica), 3389/tcp (rdp), 5900/tcp (vnc) Add other network host To add any other type of network host with the following details: IP address/ DNS name Host name Description Allowed sevices log level for services 192.168.3.10 OfficePC MyPC ssh port 22,https port 443 1 Issue the commands below. If the Host is not a PDU or UPS power device or a server with IPMI power control, then leave the device type blank: # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.address=192.168.3.10 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.description=MyPC # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.name=OfficePC # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.device.type='' (leave this value blank) # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1=22 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.tcpports.tcpport1.loglevel=1 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.tcppport2=443 # config -­‐s config.sdt.hosts.host4.udpports.tcpport2.loglevel=1 If you want to add the new host as a managed device, make sure you use the current total number of managed devices + 1, for the new device number. _____________________________________________________________________
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To get the current number of managed devices: # config -­‐g config.devices.total Assuming we already have one managed device, our new device will be device 2. Issue the following commands: # config -­‐s config. devices.device2.connections.connection1.name=192.168.3.10 # config -­‐s config. devices.device2.connections.connection1.type=Host # config -­‐s config. devices.device2.name=OfficePC # config -­‐s config. devices.device2.description=MyPC # config -­‐s config.devices.total=2 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐hosts 14.7 Trusted Networks You can further restrict remote access to serial ports based on the source IP address. To configure this via the command line, you need to do the following: Determine the total number of existing trusted network rules. If you have no existing rules, you can assume this is 0. # config -­‐g config.portaccess.total This command should display config.portaccess.total 1 Note that if you see config.portaccess.total this means you have 0 rules configured. Your new rule will be the existing total plus 1. If the previous command gave you 0, then you start with rule number 1. If you already have 1 rule, your new rule will be number 2, etc. If you want to restrict access to serial port 5 to computers from a single class C network (192.168.5.0 for example), you need to issue the following commands (assuming you have a previous rule in place). Add a trusted network: # config -­‐s config.portaccess.rule2.address=192.168.5.0 # config -­‐s "config.portaccess.rule2.description=foo bar" # config -­‐s config.portaccess.rule2.netmask=255.255.255.0 # config -­‐s config.portaccess.rule2.port5=on # config -­‐s config.portaccess.total=2 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐r serialconfig 14.8 Cascaded Ports To add a new slave device with the following settings: IP address/DNS name Description Label Number of ports 192.168.0.153 Console in office 42 les1116-­‐5 16 The following commands must be issued: # config -­‐s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.address=192.168.0.153 # config -­‐s "config.cascade.slaves.slave1.description=CM in office 42" # config -­‐s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.label=les1116-­‐5 _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐s config.cascade.slaves.slave1.ports=16 The total number of slaves must also be incremented. If this is the first slave you’re adding, type: # config -­‐s config.cascade.slaves.total=1 Increment this value when adding more slaves. NOTE: If a slave is added using the CLI, then the master SSH public key will need to be manually copied to every slave device before cascaded ports will work (refer Chapter 4). The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐r cascade 14.9 UPS connections Managed UPSes Before adding a managed UPS, make sure that at least 1 port has been configured to run in 'device mode', and that the device is set to 'ups'. To add a managed UPS with the following values: Connected via UPS name Description Username to connect to UPS Password to connect to UPS shutdown order Driver Driver option -­‐ option Driver option -­‐ argument Logging Log interval Run script when power is critical Port 1 My UPS UPS in room 5 User2 secret 2 (0 shuts down first) genericups option argument Enabled 2 minutes Enabled # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.port=/dev/port01 If the port number is higher than 9, eg port 13, enter: # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.port=/dev/port13 # config -­‐s "config.ups.monitors.monitor1.name=My UPS" # config -­‐s "config.ups.monitors.monitor1.description=UPS in room 5" # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.username=User2 # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.password=secret # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.sdorder=2 # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.driver=genericups # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.option1.opt=option # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.option1.arg=argument # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.options.total=1 # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.log.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.log.interval=2 # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.monitor1.script.enabled=on Make sure to increment the total monitors: # config -­‐s config.ups.monitors.total=1 _____________________________________________________________________
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The five commands below will add the UPS to Managed devices. Assuming there are already two managed devices configured: # config -­‐s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.name=My UPS" # config -­‐s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.type=UPS Unit" # config -­‐s "config.devices.device3.name=My UPS" # config -­‐s "config.devices.device3.description=UPS in toom 5" # config -­‐s config.devices.total=3 To delete this managed UPS: # config -­‐d config.ups.monitors.monitor1 Decrement monitors.total when deleting a managed UPS. Remote UPSes To add a remote UPS with the following details (assuming this is our first remote UPS): UPS name Description Address Log status Log rate Run shutdown script oldUPS UPS in room 2 192.168.50.50 Disabled 240 seconds Enabled # config -­‐s config.ups.remotes.remote1.name=oldUPS # config -­‐s "config.ups.remotes.remote1.description=UPS in room 2" # config -­‐s config.ups.remotes.remote1.address=192.168.50.50 # config -­‐d config.ups.remotes.remote1.log.enabled # config -­‐s config.ups.remotes.remote1.log.interval=240 # config -­‐s config.ups.remotes.remote1.script.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.ups.remotes.total=1 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.10 RPC connections You can add an RPC connection from the command line. We do not recommend that you do this because of dependency issues. However FYI before adding an RPC the Management Console GUI code makes sure that at least one port has been configured to run in 'device mode', and that the device is set to 'rpc'. To add an RPC with the following values: RPC type Connected via UPS name Description Login name for device Login password for device SNMP community Logging Log interval Number of power outlets APC 7900 Port 2 MyRPC RPC in room 5 rpclogin secret v1 or v2c Enabled 600 second 4 (depends on the type/model of the RPC) _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐s config.ports.port2.power.type=APC 7900 # config -­‐s config.ports.port2.power.name=MyRPC # config -­‐s "config.ports.port2.power.description=RPC in room 5" # config -­‐s config.ports.port2.power.username=rpclogin # config -­‐s config.ports.port2.power.password=secret # config -­‐s config.ports.port2.power.snmp.community=v1 # config -­‐s config.ports.port2.power.log.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.ports.port2.power.log.interval=600 # config -­‐s config.ports.port2.power.outlets=4 The following five commands are used by the Management Console to add the RPC to “Managed Devices”: # config -­‐s config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.name=myRPC # config -­‐s "config.devices.device3.connections.connection1.type=RPC Unit" # config -­‐s config.devices.device3.name=myRPC # config -­‐s "config.devices.device3.description=RPC in room 5" # config -­‐s config.devices.total=3 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.11 Environmental To configure an environmental monitor with the following details: Monitor name Envi4 Monitor Description Monitor in room 5 Temperature offset 2 Humidity offset 5 Enable alarm 1 ? yes Alarm 1 label door alarm Enable alarm 2 ? yes Alarm 2 label window alarm Logging enabled ? yes Log interval 120 seconds # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.name=Envi4 # config -­‐s "config.ports.port3.enviro.description=Monitor in room 5" # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.offsets.temp=2 # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.offsets.humid=5 # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm1.alarmstate=on # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm1.label=door alarm # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm2.alarmstate=on # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.alarm2.label=window alarm # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.alarms.total=2 # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.log.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.ports.port3.enviro.log.interval=120 Assign alarms (total = 2 even if they are off). The following 5 commands will add the environmental monitor to “Managed devices”: To get the total number of managed devices: # config -­‐g config.devices.total _____________________________________________________________________
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Make sure you use the total + 1 for the new device below: # config -­‐s config. devices.device5.connections.connection1.name=Envi4 # config -­‐s "config. devices.device5.connections.connection1.type=EMD Unit" # config -­‐s config. devices.device5.name=Envi4 # config -­‐s "config. devices.device5.description=Monitor in room 5" # config -­‐s config.devices.total=5 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.12 Managed Devices To add a managed device: (also see UPS, RPC connections and Environmental) # config -­‐s "config.devices.device8.name=my device" # config -­‐s "config.devices.device8.description=The eighth device" # config -­‐s "config.devices.device8.connections.connection1.name=my device" # config -­‐s config.devices.device8.connections.connection1.type=[serial | Host | UPS | RPC] # config -­‐s config.devices.total=8 (decrement this value when deleting a managed device) To delete the above managed device: # config -­‐d config.devices.device8 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.13 Port Log To configure serial/network port logging: # config -­‐s config.eventlog.server.address='remote server ip address' # config -­‐s config.eventlog.server.logfacility='facility' 'facility' can be: Daemon Local 0-­‐7 Authentication Kernel User Syslog Mail News UUCP # config -­‐s config.eventlog.server.logpriority='priority' 'priority' can be: Info Alert Critical Debug Emergency Error Notice Warning _____________________________________________________________________
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Assume the remote log server needs a username 'name1' and password 'secret': # config -­‐s config.eventlog.server.username=name1 # config -­‐s config.eventlog.server.password=secret To set the remote path as '/Black Box/logs' to save logged data: # config -­‐s config.eventlog.server.path=/Black Box/logs # config -­‐s config.eventlog.server.type=[none | syslog | nfs | cifs | usb] If the server type is set to usb, none of the other values need to be set. The mount point for storing on a remote USB device is /var/run/portmanager/logdir The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.14 Alerts You can add an email, SNMP or NAGIOS alert by following the steps below. The general settings for all alerts Assume this is our second alert, and we want to send alert emails to [email protected] Box.com and sms to [email protected] Box.com: # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.description=MySecondAlert # config -­‐s [email protected] Box.com # config -­‐s [email protected] Box.com To use NAGIOS to notify of this alert # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.nsca.enabled=on To use SNMP to notify of this alert # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.snmp.enabled=on Increment the total alerts: # config -­‐s config.alerts.total=2 Below are the specific settings depending on the type of alert required: Connection Alert To trigger an alert when a user connects to serial port 5 or network host 3: # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.host3='host name' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.port5=on # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.type=login Signal Alert To trigger an alert when a signal changes state on port 1: # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.port1=on # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.signal=[ DSR | DCD | CTS ] # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.type=signal _____________________________________________________________________
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Pattern Match Alert To trigger an alert if the regular expression '.*0.0% id' is found in serial port 10's character stream. # config -­‐s "config.alerts.alert2.pattern=.*0.0% id" # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.port10=on # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.type=pattern UPS Power Status Alert To trigger an alert when myUPS (on localhost) or thatUPS (on remote host 192.168.0.50) power status changes between on line, on battery, and low battery. # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.type=ups # config -­‐s [email protected] # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.ups2=that[email protected] Environmental and Power Sensor Alert # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical='critical value' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning='warning value' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis='value' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical='critical value' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning='warning value' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro1='Enviro sensor name' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.outlet#='RPCname'.outlet# 'alert2.outlet#' increments sequentially with each added outlet. The second 'outlet#' refers to the specific RPC power outlets. # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.rpc#='RPC name' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=[ temp | humid | load | charge] # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.ups1='[email protected]' Example1: To configure a temperature sensor alert for a sensor called 'SensorInRoom42': # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical=60 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning=50 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis=2 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical=5 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning=10 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro1=SensorInRoom42 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro Example2: To configure a load sensor alert for outlets 2 and 4 for an RPC called 'RPCInRoom20': # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.outlet1='RPCname'.outlet2 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.outlet2='RPCname'.outlet4 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.critical=300 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.high.warning=280 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.hysteresis=20 _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.critical=50 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.enviro.low.warning=70 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.rpc1=RPCInRoom20 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=load # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.type=enviro Alarm Sensor Alert To set an alert for 'doorAlarm' and 'windowAlarm' that are two alarms connected to an environmental sensor called 'SensorInRoom3'. Both alarms are disabled on Mondays from 8:15 am to 2:30 pm: # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarm1=SensorInRoom3.alarm1 (doorAlarm) # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarm1=SensorInRoom3.alarm2 (windowAlarm) # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.hour=8 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.min=15 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.hour=14 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.min=30 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.description='description' # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.sensor=temp # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.signal=DSR # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.type=alarm To enable an alarm for the entire day: # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.hour=0 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.from.min=0 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.hour=0 # config -­‐s config.alerts.alert2.alarmrange.mon.until.min=0 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐r alerts 14.15 SMTP & SMS To set-­‐up an SMTP mail or SMS server with the following details: Outgoing server address mail.Black Box.com Secure connection type SSL Sender [email protected] Box.com Server username john Server password secret Subject line SMTP alerts # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.server=mail.Black Box.com # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.encryption=SSL (can also be TLS or None ) # config -­‐s [email protected] Box.com # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.username=john # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.password=secret # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.subject=SMTP alerts To set-­‐up an SMTP SMS server with the same details as above: # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.server2=mail.Black Box.com # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.encryption2=SSL (can also be TLS or None ) # config -­‐s [email protected] Box.com # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.username2=john _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐s config.system.smtp.password2=secret # config -­‐s config.system.smtp.subject2=SMTP alerts The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.16 SNMP To set-­‐up the SNMP agent on the device: # config -­‐s config.system.snmp.protocol=[ UDP | TCP ] # config -­‐s config.system.snmp.trapport='port number' (default is 162) # config -­‐s config.system.snmp.address='NMS IP network address' # config -­‐s config.system.snmp.commnity='community name' (v1 and v2c only) # config -­‐s config.system.snmp.engineid='ID' (v3 only) # config -­‐s config.system.snmp.username='username' (v3 only) # config -­‐s config.system.snmp.password='password' (v3 only) # config -­‐s config.system.snmp.version=[ 1 | 2c | 3 ] The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.17 Administration To change the administration settings to: System Name System Password (root account) Description og.mydomain.com secret Device in office 2 # config -­‐s config.system.name=og.mydomain.com # config -­‐P config.system.password (will prompt user for a password) # config -­‐s "config.system.location=Device in office 2" NOTE: The -­‐P parameter will prompt the user for a password, and encrypt it. You can encrypt the value of any config element using the -­‐P parameter, but only encrypted user passwords and system passwords are supported. If any other element value were to be encrypted, the value will become inaccessible and will have to be reset. The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.18 IP settings To configure the primary network interface with static settings: IP address 192.168.0.23 Netmask 255.255.255.0 Default gateway 192.168.0.1 DNS server 1 192.168.0.1 DNS server 2 192.168.0.2 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.address=192.168.0.23 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.netmask=255.255.255.0 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.gateway=192.168.0.1 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.dns1=192.168.0.1 _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.dns2=192.168.0.2 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.mode=static # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.media=[ Auto | 100baseTx-­‐FD | 100baseTx-­‐HD | 10baseT-­‐HD ] 10baseT-­‐FD To enable bridging between all interfaces: # config -­‐s config.system.bridge.enabled=on To enable IPv6 for all interfaces # config -­‐s config.system.ipv6.enabled=on To configure the management LAN interface, use the same commands as above but replace: config.interfaces.wan, with config.interfaces.lan Note: Not all devices have a management LAN interface. To configure a failover device in case of an outage: # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.failover.address1='ip address' # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.failover.address2='ip address' # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.failover.interface=[ eth1 | console | modem ] The network interfaces can also be configured automatically: # config -­‐s config.interfaces.wan.mode=dhcp # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.mode=dhcp The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # /bin/config –-­‐run=ipconfig The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐r ipconfig 14.19 Date & Time settings To enable NTP using a server at pool.ntp.org, issue the following commands: # config -­‐s config.ntp.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.ntp.server=pool.ntp.org Alternatively, you can manually change the clock settings: To change running system time: # date 092216452005.05 Format is MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss] Then the following command will save this new system time to the hardware clock: # /bin/hwclock -­‐systohc Alternatively, to change the hardware clock: # /bin/hwclock -­‐-­‐ set -­‐-­‐date=092216452005.05 Format is MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss] Then the following command will save this new hardware clock time as the system time: # /bin/hwclock -­‐hctosys To change the timezone: # config -­‐s config.system.timezone=US/Eastern The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐r time 14.20 Dial-­‐in settings To enable dial-­‐in access on the DB9 serial port from the command line with the following attributes: Local IP Address Remote IP Address Authentication Type: Serial Port Baud Rate: Serial Port Flow Control: Custom Modem Initialization: Callback phone User to dial as Password for user 172.24.1.1 172.24.1.2 MSCHAPv2 115200 Hardware ATQ0V1H0 0800223665 user1 secret Run the following commands: # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.localip=172.24.1.1 # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.remoteip=172.24.1.2 # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.auth=MSCHAPv2 # config -­‐s config.console.speed=115200 # config -­‐s config.console.flow=Hardware # config -­‐s config.console.initstring=ATQ0V1H0 # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.callback.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.callback.phone1=0800223665 # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.username=user1 # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.password=secret To make the dialed connection the default route: # config -­‐s config.console.ppp.defaultroute=on Please note that supported authentication types are 'None', 'PAP', 'CHAP' and 'MSCHAPv2'. Supported serial port baud-­‐rates are '9600', '19200', '38400', '57600', '115200', and '230400'. Supported parity values are 'None', 'Odd', 'Even', 'Mark' and 'Space'. Supported data-­‐bits values are '8', '7', '6' and '5'. Supported stop-­‐bits values are '1', '1.5' and '2'. Supported flow-­‐control values are 'Hardware', 'Software' and 'None'. If you do not want to use out-­‐of-­‐band dial-­‐in access, note that the procedure for enabling start-­‐up messages on the console port is covered in Chapter 15—Accessing the Console Port. The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.21 DHCP server To enable the DHCP server on the console management LAN, with settings: Default lease time Maximum lease time DNS server1 DNS server2 Domain name Default gateway 200000 seconds 300000 seconds 192.168.2.3 192.168.2.4 company.com 192.168.0.1 _____________________________________________________________________
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IP pool 1 start address IP pool 1 end address Reserved IP address MAC to reserve IP for Name to identify this host 192.168.0.20 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.50 00:1e:67:82:72:d9 John-­‐PC Issue the commands: # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.defaultlease=200000 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.maxlease=300000 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.dns1=192.168.2.3 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.dns2=192.168.2.4 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.domain=company.com # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.gateway=192.168.0.1 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.pool1.start=192.168.0.20 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.pool1.end=192.168.0.100 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.pools.total=1 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.ip=192.168.0.50 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.mac=00:1e:67:82:72:d9 # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.staticip1.host=John-­‐PC # config -­‐s config.interfaces.lan.dhcpd.staticips.total=1 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: # config -­‐a 14.22 Services You can manually enable or disable network servers from the command line. For example, if you wanted to guarantee the following server configuration: HTTP Server HTTPS Server Telnet Server SSH Server SNMP Server Ping Replies (Respond to ICMP echo requests) TFTP server # config -­‐s config.services.http.enabled=on # config -­‐d config.services.https.enabled # config -­‐d config.services.telnet.enabled # config -­‐s config.services.ssh.enabled=on # config -­‐d config.services.snmp.enabled # config -­‐d config.services.pingreply.enabled # config -­‐s config.services.tftp.enabled=on Enabled Disabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Disabled Enabled To set secondary port ranges for any service # config -­‐s config.services.telnet.portbase='port base number' Default: 2000 # config -­‐s config.services.ssh.portbase='port base number' Default: 3000 # config -­‐s config.services.tcp.portbase='port base number' Default: 4000 # config -­‐s config.services.rfc2217.portbase='port base number' Default: 5000 # config -­‐s config.services.unauthtel.portbase='port base number Default: 6000 The following command will synchronize the live system with the new configuration: _____________________________________________________________________
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# config -­‐a 14.23 NAGIOS To configure NAGIOS with the following settings: NAGIOS host name NAGIOS host address NAGIOS server address Enable SDT for NAGIOS ext. SDT gateway address Prefer NRPE over NSCA console at R3 (Name of this system) 192.168.0.1 (IP to find this device at) 192.168.0.10 (upstream NAGIOS server) Enabled 192.168.0.1 (defaults to host address) Disabled (defaults to Disabled) # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.name=les1116 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.address=192.168.0.1 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.server.address=192.168.0.10 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.sdt.disabled=on (diables SDT for nagios extensions) # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.sdt.address=192.168.0.1 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nrpe.prefer='' To configure NRPE with following settings: NRPE port NRPE user NRPE group Allow command arguments 5600 (port to listen on for nrpe. Defualts to 5666) user1 (User to run as. Defaults to nrpe) group1 (Group to run as. Defaults to nobody) Enabled # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nrpe.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nrpe.port=5600 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.user=user1 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nrpe.group=group1 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nrpe.cmdargs=on To configure NSCA with the following settings: NSCA encryption BLOWFISH (can be: [ None | XOR | DES | TRPLEDES | CAST-­‐256 | BLOWFISH | TWOFISH | RIJNDAEL-­‐256 | SERPENT | GOST ] NSCA password secret NSCA check-­‐in interval 5 minutes NSCA port 5650 (defaults to 5667) user to run as User1 (defaults to nsca) group to run as Group1 (defaults to nobody) # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nsca.enabled=on # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nsca.encryption=BLOWFISH # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nsca.secret=secret # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nsca.interval=2 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nsca.port=5650 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nsca.user=User1 # config -­‐s config.system.nagios.nsca.group=Group1 Then synchronize the live system with the new configuration using # config -­‐a _____________________________________________________________________
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Chapter 15
Advanced Configuration
ADVANCED CONFIGURATION
Introduction Black Box console servers run the embedded Linux operating system. So Administrator class users can configure the console server and monitor and manage attached serial console and host devices from the command line using Linux commands and the config utility as described in Chapter 14. The Linux kernel in the console server also supports GNU bash shell script enabling the Administrator to run custom scripts. This chapter presents a number of useful scripts and scripting tools including: -
delete-­‐node, which is a general script for deleting users, groups, hosts, UPSes etc. -
ping-­‐detect, which will run specified commands when a specific host stops responding to ping requests. This chapter then details how to perform advanced and custom management tasks using Black Box commands, Linux commands, and the open source tools embedded in the console server: -
portmanager serial port management. -
raw data access to the ports and modems. -
iptables modifications and updating IP filtering rules. -
modifying SNMP with net-­‐snmpd. -
public key authenticated SSH communications. -
SSL, configuring HTTPS and issuing certificates. -
using pmpower for NUT and PowerMan power device management. -
using IPMItools. -
CDK custom development kit. 15.1 Custom Scripting The console server supports GNU bash shell commands (refer to Appendix A), enabling the Administrator to run custom scripts. 15.1.1 Custom script to run when booting The /etc/config/rc.local script runs whenever the system boots. By default, this script file is empty. You can add any commands to this file if you want them to run at boot time (for example, if you wanted to display hello world:). #!/bin/sh echo "Hello World!" If this script has been copied from a Windows machine, you may need to run the following command on the script before bash can run it successfully: # dos2unix /etc/config/rc.local _____________________________________________________________________
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Another scenario would be to call another custom script from the /etc/config/rc.local file, making sure that your custom script will run whenever the system is booted. 15.1.2 Running custom scripts when alerts are triggered Whenever an alert gets triggered, specific scripts are called. These scripts all reside in /etc/scripts/. Below is a list of the default scripts that are run for each applicable alert: -
For a connection alert (when a user connects or disconnects from a port or network host): /etc/scripts/portmanager-­‐user-­‐alert (for port connections) or /etc/scripts/sdt-­‐user-­‐alert (for host connections) -
For a signal alert (when a signal on a port changes state): /etc/scripts/portmanager-­‐signal-­‐alert -
For a pattern match alert (when a specific regular expression is found in the serial ports character stream): /etc/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert -
For a UPS status alert (when the UPS power status changes between on line, on battery, and low battery): /etc/scripts/ups-­‐status-­‐alert -
For a environmental, power and alarm sensor alerts (temperature, humidity, power load, and battery charge alerts): /etc/scripts/environmental-­‐alert -
For an interface failover alert: /etc/scripts/interface-­‐failover-­‐alert All of these scripts do a check to see whether you have created a custom script to run instead. The code that does this check is shown below (an extract from the file /etc/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert): # If there's a user-­‐configured script, run it instead scripts[0]="/etc/config/scripts/pattern-­‐alert.${ALERT_PORTNAME}" scripts[1]="/etc/config/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert" for (( i=0 ; i < ${#scripts[@]} ; i++ )); do if [ -­‐f "${scripts[$i]}" ]; then exec /bin/sh "${scripts[$i]}" fi done This code shows that there are two alternative scripts that can be run instead of the default one. This code first checks whether a file "/etc/config/scripts/pattern-­‐alert.${ALERT_PORTNAME}" exists. The variable ${ALERT_PORTNAME} must be replaced with "port01" or "port13" or whichever port the alert should run for. If this file cannot be found, the script checks whether the file "/etc/config/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert" exists. If either of these files exists, the script calls the exec command on the first file that it finds and runs that custom file/script instead. As an example, you can copy the /etc/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert script file to /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-­‐
pattern-­‐alert: # cd / # mkdir /etc/config/scripts (if the directory does not already exist) # cp /etc/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert The next step will be to edit the new script file. First, open the file /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert using vi (or any other editor), and remove the lines that check for a custom script (the code from above). This will prevent the new custom script from repeatedly calling itself. After these lines have been removed, edit the file, or add any additional scripting to the file. _____________________________________________________________________
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15.1.3 Example script -­‐ Power Cycling on Pattern Match For example, we have an RPC (PDU) connected to port 1 on a console server and also have a telecommunications device connected to port 2 (which is powered by the RPC outlet 3). Now assume the telecom device transmits a character stream "EMERGENCY" out on its serial console port every time that it encounters some specific error, and the only way to fix this error is to power cycle the telecom device. The first step is to setup a pattern-­‐match alert on port 2 to check for the pattern "EMERGENCY." Next we need to create a custom script to deal with this alert: # cd / # mkdir /etc/config/scripts (if the directory does not already exist) # cp /etc/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert /etc/config/scripts/portmanager-­‐pattern-­‐alert Note: Make sure to remove the if statement (which checks for a custom script) from the new script, in order to prevent an infinite loop. The pmpower utility is used to send power commands to RPC device in order to power cycle our telecom device: # pmpower -­‐l port01 -­‐o 3 cycle (The RPC is on serial port 1. The telecom device is powered by RPC outlet 3) We can now append this command to our custom script. This will guarantee that our telecom device will be power cycled every time the console reads the "EMERGENCY" character stream on port 2. 15.1.4 Example script -­‐ Multiple email notifications on each alert If you want to send more than one email when an alert triggers, you have to create a replacement script using the method described above and add the appropriate lines to your new script. Currently, there is a script /etc/scripts/alert-­‐email that runs from within all the alert scripts (for example, portmanager-­‐
user-­‐alert or environmental-­‐alert). The alert-­‐email script sends the email. The line that invokes the email script is as follows: /bin/sh /etc/scripts/alert-­‐email $suffix & If you want to send another email to a single address or the same email to many recipients, edit the custom script appropriately. You can follow the examples in any of the seven alert scripts listed above. In particular, consider the portmanager-­‐user-­‐alert script. If you need to send the same alert email to more than one email address, find the lines in the script responsible for invoking the alert-­‐email script, then add the following lines below the existing lines: export TOADDR="[email protected]" /bin/sh /etc/scripts/alert-­‐email $suffix & These two lines assign a new email address to TOADDR and invoke the alert-­‐email script in the background. 15.1.5 Deleting Configuration Values from the CLI The delete-­‐node script is provided to help with deleting nodes from the command line. The "delete-­‐node" script takes one argument, the node name you want to delete (for example, "config.users.user1" or "config.sdt.hosts.host1"). delete-­‐node is a general script for deleting any node you desire (users, groups, hosts, UPSes, etc.) from the command line. The script deletes the specified node and shuffles the remainder of the node values. For example, if we have five users configured and we use the script to delete user 3, then user 4 will become user 3, and user 5 will become user 4. _____________________________________________________________________
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This creates an obvious complication because this script does NOT check for any other dependencies that the node being deleted may have. You are responsible for making sure that any references and dependencies connected to the deleted node are removed or corrected in the config.xml file. The script treats all nodes the same. The syntax to run the script is # ./delete-­‐node {node name}. To remove user 3: # ./delete-­‐node config.users.user3 The delete-­‐node script #!/bin/bash #User must provide the node to be removed. e.g. "config.users.user1" # Usage: delete-­‐node {full node path} if [ $# != 1 ] then echo "Wrong number of arguments" echo "Usage: delnode {full '.' delimited node path}" exit 2 fi # test for spaces TEMP=`echo "$1" | sed 's/.* .*/N/'` if [ "$TEMP" = "N" ] then echo "Wrong input format" echo "Usage: delnode {full '.' delimited node path}" exit 2 fi # testing if node exists TEMP=`config -­‐g config | grep "$1"` if [ -­‐z "$TEMP" ] then echo "Node $1 not found" exit 0 fi # LASTFIELD is the last field in the node path e.g. "user1" # ROOTNODE is the upper level of the node e.g. "config.users" # NUMBER is the integer value extracted from LASTFIELD e.g. "1" # TOTALNODE is the node name for the total e.g. "config.users.total" # TOTAL is the value of the total number of items before deleting e.g. "3" # NEWTOTAL is the modified total i.e. TOTAL-­‐1 # CHECKTOTAL checks if TOTAL is the actual total items in .xml LASTFIELD=${1##*.} ROOTNODE=${1%.*} NUMBER=`echo $LASTFIELD | sed 's/^[a-­‐zA-­‐Z]*//g'` TOTALNODE=`echo ${1%.*} | sed 's/\(.*\)/\1.total/'` TOTAL=`config -­‐g $TOTALNODE | sed 's/.* //'` NEWTOTAL=$[ $TOTAL -­‐1 ] # Make backup copy of config file _____________________________________________________________________
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cp /etc/config/config.xml /etc/config/config.bak echo "backup of /etc/config/config.xml saved in /etc/config/config.bak" if [ -­‐z $NUMBER ] # test whether a singular node is being \ #deleted e.g. config.sdt.hosts then echo "deleting $1" config -­‐d "$1" echo Done exit 0 elif [ $NUMBER = $TOTAL ] # Test if only one item exists then echo "only one item exists" # Deleting node echo "Deleting $1" config -­‐d "$1" # Modifying item total. config -­‐s "$TOTALNODE=0" echo Done exit 0 elif [ $NUMBER -­‐lt $TOTAL ] # more than one item exists then # Modify the users list so user numbers are sequential # by shifting the users into the gap one at a time... echo "Deleting $1" LASTFIELDTEXT=`echo $LASTFIELD | sed 's/[0-­‐9]//g'` CHECKTOTAL=`config -­‐g $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$TOTAL` if [ -­‐z "$CHECKTOTAL" ] then echo "WARNING: "$TOTALNODE" greater than number of items" fi COUNTER=1 while [ $COUNTER != $((TOTAL-­‐NUMBER+1)) ] do config -­‐g $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+COUNTER)) \ | while read LINE do config -­‐s \ "`echo "$LINE" | sed -­‐e "s/$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+ \ COUNTER))/$LASTFIELDTEXT$((NUMBER+COUNTER-­‐1))/" \ _____________________________________________________________________
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else fi done -­‐e 's/ /=/'`" let COUNTER++ done # deleting last user config -­‐d $ROOTNODE.$LASTFIELDTEXT$TOTAL # Modifying item total. config -­‐s "$TOTALNODE=$NEWTOTAL" echo Done exit 0 echo "error: item being deleted has an index greater than total items. Increase the total count variable." exit 0 15.1.6 Power Cycle any device when a ping request fails The ping-­‐detect script is designed to run specified commands when a monitored host stops responding to ping requests. The first parameter taken by the ping-­‐detect script is the hostname/IP address of the device to ping. Any other parameters are then regarded as a command to run whenever the ping to the host fails. ping-­‐detect can run any number of commands. Below is an example using ping-­‐detect to power cycle an RPC (PDU) outlet whenever a specific host fails to respond to a ping request. The ping-­‐detect runs from /etc/config/rc.local to make sure that the monitoring starts whenever the system boots. Suppose we have a serially controlled RPC connected to port01 on a console server and have a router powered by outlet 3 on the RPC (and the router has an internal IP address of 192.168.22.2). The following instructions will show you how to continuously ping the router. When the router fails to respond to a series of pings, the console server will send a command to RPC outlet 3 to power cycle the router, and write the current date/time to a file: -
Copy the ping-­‐detect script to /etc/config/scripts/ on the console server -
Open /etc/config/rc.local using vi -
Add the following line to rc.local: /etc/config/scripts/ping-­‐detect 192.168.22.2 /bin/bash -­‐c "pmpower -­‐l port01 -­‐o 3 cycle && date" > /tmp/output.log & The above command will cause the ping-­‐detect script to continuously ping the host at 192.168.22.2 which is the router. If the router crashes, it will no longer respond to ping requests. If this happens, the two commands pmpower and date will run. The output from these commands is sent to the file /tmp/output.log so that we have a record. The ping-­‐detect is also run in the background using the "&". Remember the rc.local script only runs by default when the system boots. You can manually run the rc.local script or the ping-­‐detect script if desired. _____________________________________________________________________
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The ping-­‐detect script The above is just one example of using the ping-­‐detect script. The idea of the script is to run any number of commands when a specific host stops responding to ping requests. Here are details of the ping-­‐detect script itself: #!/bin/sh # Usage: ping-­‐detect HOST [COMMANDS...] # This script takes 2 types of arguments: hostname/IPaddress to ping, and the commands to # run if the ping fails 5 times in a row. This script can only take one host/IPaddress per # instance. Multiple independent commands can be sent to the script. The commands will be # run one after the other. # # PINGREP is the entire reply from the ping command # LOSS is the percentage loss from the ping command # $1 must be the hostname/IPaddress of device to ping # $2... must be the commands to run when the pings fail. COUNTER=0 TARGET="$1" shift # loop indefinitely: while true do # ping the device 10 times PINGREP=`ping -­‐c 10 -­‐i 1 "$TARGET" ` #get the packet loss percentage LOSS=`echo "$PINGREP" | grep "%" | sed -­‐e 's/.* \([0-­‐9]*\)% .*/\1/'` if [ "$LOSS" -­‐eq "100" ] then COUNTER=`expr $COUNTER + 1` else COUNTER=0 sleep 30s fi if [ "$COUNTER" -­‐eq 5 ] then COUNTER=0 "[email protected]" sleep 2s fi done 15.1.7 Running custom scripts when a configurator is invoked A configurator is responsible for reading the values in /etc/config/config.xml and making the appropriate changes live. Some changes made by the configurators are part of the Linux configuration itself, such as user passwords or ipconfig. Currently there are nineteen configurators. Each one is responsible for a specific group of config (for example, the "users" configurator makes the user configurations in the config.xml file live). To see all the available configurators type the following from a command line prompt: # config When a change is made using the Management Console web GUI, the appropriate configurator automatically runs. This can be a problem if another Administrator makes a change using the Management Console. The configurator could possibly overwrite any custom CLI/linux configurations you may have set. _____________________________________________________________________
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The solution is to create a custom script that runs after each configurator runs. After each configurator runs, it will check whether that appropriate custom script exists. You can then add any commands to the custom script and they will be invoked after the configurator runs. The custom scripts must be in the correct location: /etc/config/scripts/config-­‐post-­‐ To create an alerts custom script: # cd /etc/config/scripts # touch config-­‐post-­‐alerts # vi config-­‐post-­‐alerts You could use this script to recover a specific backup config or overwrite a config or make copies of config files, etc. 15.1.8 Backing-­‐up the configuration and restoring using a local USB stick The /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb script is written to save and load custom configuration using a USB flash disk. Before saving configuration locally, you must prepare the USB storage device for use. To do this, disconnect all USB storage devices except for the storage device you want to use. Usage: /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb COMMAND [FILE] COMMAND: check-­‐magic -­‐-­‐ check volume label set-­‐magic -­‐-­‐ set volume label save [FILE] -­‐-­‐ save configuration to USB delete [FILE] -­‐-­‐ delete a configuration tarbal from USB list -­‐-­‐ list available config backups on USB load [FILE] -­‐-­‐ load a specific config from USB load-­‐default -­‐-­‐ load the default configuration set-­‐default [FILE] -­‐-­‐ set which file becomes the default The first thing to do is to check if the USB disk has a label: # /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb check-­‐magic If this command returns "Magic volume not found", then run the following command: # /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb set-­‐magic To save the configuration: # /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb save config-­‐20May To check if the backup was saved correctly: # /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb list If this command does not display "* config-­‐20May" then there was an error saving the configuration. The set-­‐default command takes an input file as an argument and renames it to "default.opg". This default configuration remains stored on the USB disk. The next time you want to load the default config, it will be sourced from the new default.opg file. To set a config file as the default: # /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb set-­‐default config-­‐20May To load this default: # /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb load-­‐default _____________________________________________________________________
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To load any other config file: # /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb load {filename} The /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb script can be executed directly with various COMMANDS or called from other custom scripts you may create. We recommend that you do not customize the /etc/scripts/backup-­‐usb script itself at all. 15.1.9 Backing-­‐up the configuration off-­‐box If you do not have a USB port on your console server, you can back up the configuration to an off-­‐box file. Before backing up you need to arrange a way to transfer the backup off-­‐box. This could be via an NFS share, a Samba (Windows) share to USB storage, or copied off-­‐box via the network. If backing up directly to off-­‐box storage, make sure it is mounted. /tmp is not a good location for the backup except as a temporary location before transferring it off-­‐box. The /tmp directory will not survive a reboot. The /etc/config directory is not a good place either, because it will not survive a restore. Backup and restore should be done by the root user to make sure correct file permissions are set. The config command is used to create a backup tarball: config -­‐e <Output File> The tarball will be saved to the indicated location. It will contain the contents of the /etc/config/ directory in an uncompressed and unencrypted form. Example nfs storage: # mount -­‐t nfs 192.168.0.2:/backups /mnt # config -­‐e /mnt/les4108.config # umount/mnt/ Example transfer off-­‐box via scp: # config -­‐e /tmp/les4108.config # scp /tmp/les4108.config 192.168.0.2:/backups The config command is also used to restore a backup: config -­‐i <Input File> This will extract the contents of the previously created backup to /tmp, and then synchronize the /etc/config directory with the copy in /tmp. One problem that can crop up here is that there is not enough room in /tmp to extract files to. The following command will temporarily increase the size of /tmp: mount -­‐t tmpfs -­‐o remount,size=2048k tmpfs /var If restoring to either a new unit or one that has been factory defaulted, make sure that the process generating SSH keys either stops or completes before restoring configuration. If this is not done, then a mix of old and new keys may be put in place. SSH uses these keys to avoid man-­‐in-­‐the-­‐middle attacks. Logging in may be disrupted. _____________________________________________________________________
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15.2 Advanced Portmanager Black Box’s portmanger program manages the console server serial ports. It routes network connection to serial ports, checks permissions, and monitors and logs all the data flowing to/from the ports. 15.2.1 Portmanager commands pmshell The pmshell command acts similar to the standard tip or cu commands, but all serial port access is directed via the portmanager. Example: To connect to port 8 via the portmanager: # pmshell -­‐l port08 pmshell Commands: Once connected, the pmshell command supports a subset of the '~' escape commands that tip/cu support. For SSH you must prefix the escape with an additional ‘~’ command (i.e. use the ‘~~’ escape) Send Break: Typing the character sequence '~b' will generate a BREAK on the serial port. History: Typing the character sequence '~h' will generate a history on the serial port. Quit pmshell: Typing the character sequence '~.' will exit from pmshell. Set RTS to 1 run the command: pmshell -­‐-­‐rts=1 Show all signals: # pmshell –signals DSR=1 DTR=1 CTS=1 RTS=1 DCD=0 Read a line of text from the serial port: # pmshell –getline pmchat The pmchat command acts similar to the standard chat command, but all serial port access is directed via the portmanager. Example: To run a chat script via the portmanager: # pmchat -­‐v -­‐f /etc/config/scripts/port08.chat < /dev/port08 For more information on using chat (and pmchat) you should consult the UNIX man pages: http://techpubs.sgi.com/library/tpl/cgibin/getdoc.cgi?coll=linux&db=man&fname=/usr/share/catman/man8/chat.8.htm
l pmusers The pmusers command is used to query the portmanager for active user sessions. Example: To detect which users are currently active on which serial ports: # pmusers This command will output nothing if there are no active users currently connected to any ports. Otherwise, it will respond with a sorted list of usernames per active port: Port 1: _____________________________________________________________________
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Port 2: Port 8: user1 user2 user1 user2 The above output indicates that a user named “user1” is actively connected to ports 1 and 2, while “user2” is connected to both ports 1 and 8. portmanager daemon There is normally no need to stop and restart the daemon. To restart the daemon normally, just run the command: # portmanager Supported command line options are: Force portmanager to run in the foreground: -­‐-­‐nodaemon Set the level of debug logging: -­‐-­‐loglevel={debug,info,warn,error,alert} Change which configuration file it uses: -­‐c /etc/config/portmanager.conf Signals Sending a SIGHUP signal to the portmanager will cause it to re-­‐read its configuration file 15.2.2 External Scripts and Alerts The portmanager can execute external scripts on certain events. When the portmanager opens a port: -
It attempts to execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.init (where XX is the number of the port, e.g. 08). The script is run with STDIN and STDOUT both connected to the serial port. -
If the script cannot be executed, then portmanager will execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.chat via the chat command on the serial port. When an alert occurs on a port: -
The portmanager will attempt to execute /etc/config/scripts/portXX.alert (where XX is the port number, e.g. 08) -
The script is run with STDIN containing the data which triggered the alert, and STDOUT redirected to /dev/null, NOT to the serial port. If you want to communicate with the port, use pmshell or pmchat from within the script. -
If the script cannot be executed, then the alert will be mailed to the address configured in the system administration section. When a user connects to any port: -
If a file called /etc/config/pmshell-­‐start.sh exists it is run when a user connects to a port. It is provided 2 arguments, the "Port number" and the "Username". Here is a simple example: </etc/config/pmshell-­‐start.sh > #!/bin/sh PORT="$1" USER="$2" _____________________________________________________________________
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echo "Welcome to port $PORT $USER" < /etc/config/pmshell-­‐start.sh> -
The return value from the script controls whether the user is accepted or not, if 0 is returned (or nothing is done on exit as in the above script) the user is permitted, otherwise the user is denied access. -
Here is a more complex script which reads from configuration to display the port label if available and denies access to the root user: </etc/config/pmshell-­‐start.sh> #!/bin/sh PORT="$1" USER="$2" LABEL=$(config -­‐g config.ports.port$PORT.label | cut -­‐f2-­‐ -­‐d' ') if [ "$USER" == "root" ]; then echo "Permission denied for Super User" exit 1 fi if [ -­‐z "$LABEL" ]; then echo "Welcome $USER, you are connected to Port $PORT" else echo "Welcome $USER, you are connected to Port $PORT ($LABEL)" fi </etc/config/pmshell-­‐start.sh> 15.3 Raw access to Serial Ports 15.3.1 Access to serial ports You can use tip and stty to completely bypass the portmanager and have raw access to the serial ports. When you run tip on a portmanager controlled port, portmanager closes that port, and stops monitoring it until tip releases control of it. With stty, the changes made to the port only “stick” until that port is closed and opened again. People probably will not want to use stty for more than initial debugging of the serial connection. If you want to use stty to configure the port, you can put stty commands in /etc/config/scripts/portXX.init which gets run whenever portmanager opens the port. Otherwise, any setup you do with stty will get lost when the portmanager opens the port. (The reason that portmanager sets things back to its config rather than using whatever is on the port, is so the port is in a known good state, and will work, no matter what things are done to the serial port outside of portmanager.) 15.3.2 Accessing the console/modem port The console dial-­‐in is handled by mgetty, with automatic PPP login extensions. mgetty is a smart getty replacement, designed to be used with Hayes compatible data and data/fax modems. mgetty knows about modem initialization, manual modem answering (your modem doesn’t answer if the machine isn’t ready), UUCP locking (you can use the same device for dial-­‐in and dial-­‐out). mgetty provides very extensive logging facilities. All standard mgetty options are supported. _____________________________________________________________________
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Modem initialization strings: -
To override the standard modem initialization string either use the Management Console (refer Chapter 5) or the command line config tool (refer to Dial-­‐In Configuration Chapter 14). Enabling Boot Messages on the Console: -
If you are not using a modem on the DB9 console port and instead want to connect to it directly via a Null Modem cable, enable verbose mode, which allows you to see the standard linux start-­‐up messages. Follow these commands: # /bin/config -­‐-­‐set=config.console.debug=on # /bin/config -­‐-­‐run=console # reboot -
If at some point in the future you chose to connect a modem for dial-­‐in out-­‐of-­‐band access, you can reverse the procedure with the following commands. # /bin/config -­‐-­‐del=config.console.debug # /bin/config -­‐-­‐run=console # reboot 15.4 IP-­‐ Filtering The console server uses the iptables utility to provide a stateful firewall of LAN traffic. By default, rules are automatically inserted to allow access to enabled services, and serial port access via enabled protocols. The commands that add these rules are contained in configuration files: /etc/config/ipfilter This is an executable shell script that runs whenever the LAN interface is brought up and whenever modifications are made to the iptables configuration as a result of CGI actions or the config command line tool. The basic steps performed are as follows: -
The current iptables configuration is erased. -
If a customized IP-­‐Filter script exists it is executed and no other actions are performed. -
Standard policies are inserted that will drop all traffic not explicitly allowed to and through the system. -
Rules are added which explicitly allow network traffic to access enabled services, for example, TTP, SNMP, etc. -
Rules are added that explicitly allow traffic network traffic access to serial ports over enabled protocols e.g. Telnet, SSH and raw TCP. If the standard system firewall configuration is not adequate for your needs you can bypass it safely by creating a file at /etc/config/filter-­‐custom containing commands to build a specialized firewall. This firewall script will run whenever the LAN interface is brought up (including initially) and will override any automated system firewall settings. Below is a simple example of a custom script that creates a firewall using the iptables command. Only incoming connections from computers on a C-­‐class network 192.168.10.0 will be accepted when this script is installed at /etc/config/filter-­‐custom. Note that when this script is called, any preexisting chains and rules have been flushed from iptables: #/bin/sh # Set default policies to drop any incoming or routable traffic # and blindly accept anything from the 192.168.10.0 network. iptables –-­‐policy FORWARD DROP iptables –-­‐policy INPUT DROP iptables –-­‐policy OUTPUT ACCEPT # Allow responses to outbound connections back in. _____________________________________________________________________
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iptables –-­‐append INPUT \ –-­‐match state –-­‐state ESTABLISHED,RELATED –-­‐jump ACCEPT # Explicitly accept any connections from computers on # 192.168.10.0/24 iptables –-­‐append INPUT –-­‐source 192.168.10.0/24 –-­‐jump ACCEPT There’s good documentation about using the iptables command at the Linux netfilter website http://netfilter.org/documentation/index.html. There are also many high-­‐quality tutorials and HOWTOs available via the netfilter website, in particular peruse the tutorials listed on the netfilter HOWTO page. 15.5 SNMP Status Reporting All console servers contain an SNMP Service (snmpd) which can provide status information on demand. snmpd is an
SNMP agent which binds to a port and awaits requests from SNMP management software. Upon receiving a request, it
processes the request(s), collects the requested information and/or performs the requested operation(s) and returns the
information to the sender.
Note:
Initially only advanced console server models were equipped with an SNMP Service. With V3.0 (and later)
firmware this support was extended to all console servers. Also the MIBS were extended (and renamed for
compliance) with this firmware release.
All console servers can also be configured to send SNMP traps/messages to multiple remote SNMP Network Managers
on defined trigger events. Refer Chapter 7 for configuration details
15.5.1 Retrieving status information using SNMP
Console servers can provide serial and device status information through SNMP. This includes
- Serial port status
- Active users
- Remote Power Control (RPC) and Power Distribution Unit (PDU) status
- Environmental Monitoring Device (EMD) status
- Signal alert status
- Environmental alert status and
- UPS alert status
The MIBs in your console server are located in /etc/snmp/mibs. You also can view the current MIBs online at / and they
include:
OG-STATUS-MIB
This MIB contains serial and connected device status
information (for snmpstatusd & snmpalertd)
OG-STATUSv2-MIB
This new MIB contains extended status and alert
OG-SMI-MIB
Enterprise structure of management information
OGTRAP-MIB
SMIv1 traps from old MIBS (as smilint will not let SMIv1
structures coexist with SMIv2)
OGTRAPv2-MIB
Updated traps
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15.5.2 Check firewall rules

Select System: Services and ensure the SNMP daemon box has been checked for the interface required. This
will allow SNMP requests through the firewall for the specified interface.
15.5.3 Enable SNMP Service
The console server supports different versions of SNMP including SNMPv1, SNMPv2c and SNMPv3.
SNMP, although an industry standard, brings with it a variety of security concerns. For example, SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c
offer no inherent privacy, while SNMPv3 is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks. Recent IETF developments
suggests tunnelling SNMP over widely accepted technologies such as SSH (Secure Shell) or TLS (Transport Layer
Security) rather than relying on a less mature security systems such as SNMPv3's USM (User-based Security Model).
Additional information regarding SNMP security issues and SNMPv3 can be found at:
http://net-snmp.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/TUT:Security
http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/snmpv3-charter.html.

Select Alerts & Logging: SNMP

The SNMP Service Details tab is shown by default. The SNMP Service Details tab controls aspects of the
SNMP Service including Security Level. It manages requests from external agents for Opengear status
information.

Check the Enable the SNMP Service box to start the SNMP Service. The Service is disabled by default.

Select either UDP or TCP for the TCP/IP Protocol. UDP is the recommended protocol and is selected by default.
TCP should only be used in special cases such as when Port Forwarding SNMP requests/responses to or from
the Opengear device is required.

Complete the Location and Contact fields. The Location field should describe the physical location of the
Opengear and will be used in response to requests for the SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 of the device. The
Contact field refers to the person responsible for the Opengear such as the System Administrator and will be used
in response to requests as follows: SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0.

Enter the Read-Only Community and Read-Write Community. This is required for SNMP v1 & v2c only. The
Read-Only Community field is used to specify the SNMPv1 or SNMPv2c community that will be allowed read-only
(GET and GETNEXT) access. This must be specified in order for both versions to become enabled. The ReadWrite Community field is used to specify the SNMPv1 or SNMPv2c community that will be allowed read-write
(GET, GETNEXT and SET) access.

Configure SNMP v3, if required. SNMP v3 provides secure SNMP operations through the use of USM (Userbased Security Model). It offers various levels of security including user-based authentication and basic
encryption.
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o
The Engine ID is used to localize the SNMPv3 user. It will be automatically generated from a Network
Interface (eth0) hardware address, if left blank, or must be entered as a hex value e.g. 0x01020304.
o
Specify the Security Level:
noauth

No authentication or encryption is required. This is the minimum
level of security.
auth
Authentication will be required but encryption is not enforced. An
authentication protocol (SHA or MD5) and password will be required.
priv
Enforces the use of encryption. This is the highest level of security and
requires an encryption protocol (DES or AES) and password in addition
to the authentication protocol and password.
o
Complete the Read Only Username. Enter the read only security name. This field is mandatory and must be
completed when configuring the console server for SNMPv3.
o
For a Security Level of auth, select the Auth. Protocol (SHA or MD5) and the Auth. Password. A
password of at least 8 characters is required.
o
For a Security Level of priv, select the Privacy Protocol (DES or AES) and the Privacy Password. AES is
recommended as it provides stronger privacy but requires more intense calculations. A password of at least 8
characters is required.
Click Apply
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
Setup serial ports and devices as per operational requirements such as UPS, RPC/PDU and EMD

Copy the mibs from /etc/snmp/mibs on the Opengear product to a local directory using scp or Winscp. For
example:
scp [email protected]:/etc/snmp/mibs/*

Using the snmpwalk and snmpget commands, the status information can be retrieved from any console server.
For example:
snmpwalk -Oa -v1 -M .:/usr/share/snmp/mibs -c public im4004 OG-STATUS-MIB::ogStatus
snmpget -Oa -v1 -M .:/usr/share/snmp/mibs -c public im4004 OG-STATUSMIB::
ogSerialPortStatusSpeed.2
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noauth
snmpwalk -Oa –v3 –l noAuthNoPriv –u readonlyusername -M .:/usr/share/snmp/mibs im4004 OG-STATUSMIB::ogStatus
auth
snmpwalk -Oa –v3 –l authNoPriv –u readonlyusername –a SHA –A “authpassword” -M .:/usr/share/snmp/mibs
im4004 OG-STATUS-MIB::ogStatus
priv
snmpwalk -Oa –v3 –l authNoPriv –u readonlyusername –a SHA –A “authpassword” –x DES –X “privpassword” -M
.:/usr/share/snmp/mibs im4004 OG-STATUS-MIB::ogStatus
-l
-u
-a
-A
-x
-X
Security Level
Security Name or Read Only Username
Authentication Protocol – SHA or MD5
Authentication Password
Privacy Protocol – DES or AES
Privacy Password
A mib browser may be used to explore the Opengear enterprise MIB structure. For example, the ogStatus tree is shown
below:
15.5.4 Adding multiple remote SNMP managers
You can add multiple SNMP servers for alert traps add the first and second SNMP servers using the Management
Console (refer Chapter 7) or the command line config tool. Further SNMP servers must be added manually using config.
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Log in to the console server’s command line shell as root or an admin user. Refer back to the Management Console UI or
user documentation for descriptions of each field.
To set the SNMP Manager Address field:
config –set="config.system.snmp.address3=w.x.y.z"
.. replacing w.x.y.z with the IP address or DNS name.
To set the Manager Trap Port field
config --set=”config.system.snmp.trapport3=162”
.. replacing 162 with the TCP/UDP port number
To set the SNMP Manager Protocol field:
config --set="config.system.snmp.protocol3=UDP" or
config --set="config.system.snmp.protocol3=TCP"
To set the SNMP Manager Version field:
config --set="config.system.snmp.version3=3"
To set the SNMP Manager v1 & v2c community field:
config --set="config.system.snmp.community3=public"
To set the SNMP Manager v3 Engine ID field:
config –set="config.system.snmp.engineid3=0x8000000001020304"
.. replacing 0x8000000001020304 with the hex Engine-ID
To set the SNMP Manager v3 Security Level field:
config --set="config.system.snmp.seclevel3=noAuthNoPriv" or
config --set="config.system.snmp.seclevel3=authNoPriv" or
config --set="config.system.snmp.seclevel3=authPriv"
To set the SNMP Manager v3 Username field:
config --set="config.system.snmp.username3=username"
To set the SNMP Manager v3 Auth. Protocol and password fields:
config –set="config.system.snmp.authprotocol3=SHA" or
config --set="config.system.snmp.authprotocol3=MD5"
config --set="config.system.snmp.authpassword3=password 1"
To set the SNMP Manager v3 Privacy Protocol and password fields:
config –set="config.system.snmp.privprotocol3=AES" or
config –set="config.system.snmp.privprotocol3=DES"
config --set="config.system.snmp.privpassword3=password 2"
Once the fields are set, apply the configuration with the following command:
config --run snmp
You can add a third or more SNMP servers by incrementing the "2" in the above commands, e.g.
config.system.snmp.protocol3, config.system.snmp.address3, etc
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15.6 Secure Shell (SSH) Public Key Authentication This section covers how to generate public and private keys in a Linux and Windows environment and configure SSH for public key authentication. The steps to use in a Clustering environment are: - Generate a new public and private key pair. - Upload the keys to the Master and to each Slave console server. - Fingerprint each connection to validate. 15.6.1 SSH Overview Popular TCP/IP applications such as telnet, rlogin, ftp, and others transmit their passwords unencrypted. Doing this across pubic networks like the Internet can have catastrophic consequences. It leaves the door open for eavesdropping, connection hijacking, and other network-­‐level attacks. Secure Shell (SSH) is a program to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to move files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and secure communications over insecure channels. OpenSSH, the de facto open source SSH application, encrypts all traffic (including passwords) to effectively eliminate these risks. Additionally, OpenSSH provides a myriad of secure tunneling capabilities, as well as a variety of authentication methods. OpenSSH is the port of OpenBSD's excellent OpenSSH[0] to Linux and other versions of Unix. OpenSSH is based on the last free version of Tatu Ylonen's sample implementation with all patent-­‐encumbered algorithms removed (to external libraries), all known security bugs fixed, new features reintroduced, and many other clean-­‐ups. http://www.openssh.com/ The only changes in the Black Box SSH implementation are: -
PAM support -
EGD[1]/PRNGD[2] support and replacements for OpenBSD library functions that are absent from other versions of UNIX -
The config files are now in /etc/config. e.g.  /etc/config/sshd_config instead of /etc/sshd_config  /etc/config/ssh_config instead of /etc/ssh_config  /etc/config/users/<username>/.ssh/ instead of /home/<username>/.ssh/ 15.6.2 Generating Public Keys (Linux) To generate new SSH key pairs use the Linux ssh-­‐keygen command. This will produce an RSA or DSA public/private key pair and you will be prompted for a path to store the two key files, for example, id_dsa.pub (the public key) and id_dsa (the private key). For example: $ ssh-­‐keygen -­‐t [rsa|dsa] Generating public/private [rsa|dsa] key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa]): Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa]. Your public key has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].pub. The key fingerprint is: 28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected] $ _____________________________________________________________________
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Create a new directory to store your generated keys. You can also name the files after the device they will be used for. For example: $ mkdir keys $ ssh-­‐keygen -­‐t rsa Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): /home/user/keys/control_room Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room Your public key has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room.pub. The key fingerprint is: 28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected] $ Make sure that there is no password associated with the keys. If there is a password, then the Black Box devices will have no way to supply it as runtime. Full documentation for the ssh-­‐keygen command can be found at http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-­‐bin/man.cgi?query=ssh-­‐
keygen 15.6.3 Installing the SSH Public/Private Keys (Clustering) For Black Box console servers, the keys can be simply uploaded through the web interface, on the System: Administration page. This enables you to upload stored RSA or DSA Public Key pairs to the Master and apply the Authorized key to the slave and is described in Chapter 4. Once complete, you then proceed to Fingerprinting as described below. 15.6.4 Installing SSH Public Key Authentication (Linux) Alternately, the public key can be installed on the unit remotely from the linux host with the scp utility as follows. Assuming the user on the Management Console is called "fred"; the IP address of the console server is 192.168.0.1 (default); and the public key is on the linux/unix computer in ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub. Execute the following command on the linux/unix computer: scp ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub \ _____________________________________________________________________
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[email protected]:/etc/config/users/fred/.ssh/authorized_keys The authorized_keys file on the console server needs to be owned by "fred", so login to the Management Console as root and type: chown fred /etc/config/users/fred/.ssh/authorized_keys If the Black Box device selected to be the server will only have one client device, then the authorized_keys file is simply a copy of the public key for that device. If one or more devices will be clients of the server, then the authorized_keys file will contain a copy of all of the public keys. RSA and DSA keys may be freely mixed in the authorized_keys file. For example, assume we already have one server, called bridge_server, and two sets of keys, for the control_room and the plant_entrance: $ ls /home/user/keys control_room control_room.pub plant_entrance plant_entrance.pub $ cat /home/user/keys/control_room.pub /home/user/keys/plant_entrance.pub > /home/user/keys/authorized_keys_bridge_server _____________________________________________________________________
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More documentation on OpenSSH can be found at: http://openssh.org/portable.html http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-­‐bin/man.cgi?query=ssh&sektion=1 http://www openbsd.org/cgi-­‐bin/man.cgi?query=sshd. 15.6.5 Generating public/private keys for SSH (Windows) This section describes how to generate and configure SSH keys using Windows. First create a new user from the Black Box Management (the following example uses a user called "testuser") making sure it is a member of the "users" group. If you do not already have a public/private key pair you can generate them now using ssh-­‐keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool: PuTTYgen: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html OpenSSH: http://www.openssh.org/ OpenSSH (Windows): http://sshwindows.sourceforge.net/download/ For example, using PuTTYgen, make sure you have a recent version of the puttygen.exe (available from http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html) Make sure you have a recent version of WinSCP (available from http://winscp.net/eng/download.php ) To generate a SSH key using PuTTY http://sourceforge.net/docs/F02/#clients: _____________________________________________________________________
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-
Execute the PUTTYGEN.EXE program. -
Select the desired key type SSH2 DSA (you may use RSA or DSA) within the Parameters section. -
It is important that you leave the passphrase field blank. -
Click on the Generate button. -
Follow the instruction to move the mouse over the blank area of the program in order to create random data used by PUTTYGEN to generate secure keys. Key generation will occur once PUTTYGEN has collected sufficient random data. -
Create a new file " authorized_keys " (with notepad) and copy your public key data from the "Public key for pasting into OpenSSH authorized_keys file" section of the PuTTY Key Generator, and paste the key data to the "authorized_keys" file. Make sure there is only one line of text in this file. -
Use WinSCP to copy this "authorized_keys" file into the users home directory: e.g. /etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys of the Black Box gateway which will be the SSH server. You will need to make sure this file is in the correct format with the correct permissions with the following commands: # dos2unix \ /etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys && chown testuser \ /etc/config/users/testuser/.ssh/authorized_keys -
Using WinSCP copy the attached sshd_config over /etc/config/sshd_config on the server (Makes sure public key authentication is enabled). -
Test the Public Key by logging in as "testuser" Test the Public Key by logging in as "testuser" to the client Black Box device and typing (you should not need to enter anything): # ssh -­‐o StrictHostKeyChecking=no <server-­‐ip> To automate connection of the SSH tunnel from the client on every power-­‐up you need to make the clients /etc/config/rc.local look like the following: _____________________________________________________________________
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#!/bin/sh ssh -­‐L9001:127.0.0.1:4001 -­‐N -­‐o StrictHostKeyChecking=no [email protected]<server-­‐ip> & This will run the tunnel redirecting local port 9001 to the server port 4001. 15.6.6 Fingerprinting Fingerprints are used to ensure you are establishing an SSH session to who you think you are. On the first connection to a remote server you will receive a fingerprint that you can use on future connections. This fingerprint is related to the host key of the remote server. Fingerprints are stored in ~/.ssh/known_hosts. To receive the fingerprint from the remote server, log in to the client as the required user (usually root) and establish a connection to the remote host: # ssh remhost The authenticity of host 'remhost (192.168.0.1)' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is 8d:11:e0:7e:8a:6f:ad:f1:94:0f:93:fc:7c:e6:ef:56. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? At this stage, answer yes to accept the key. You should get the following message: Warning: Permanently added 'remhost,192.168.0.1' (RSA) to the list of known hosts. You may be prompted for a password, but there is no need to log in— you have received the fingerprint and can Ctrl-­‐C to cancel the connection. If the host key changes you will receive the following warning, and not be allowed to connect to the remote host: @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @ WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! @ @ IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-­‐in-­‐the-­‐middle attack)! It is also possible that the RSA host key has just been changed. The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is ab:7e:33:bd:85:50:5a:43:0b:e0:bd:43:3f:1c:a5:f8. Please contact your system Administrator. Add correct host key in /.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message. Offending key in /.ssh/known_hosts:1 RSA host key for remhost has changed and you have requested strict checking. Host key verification failed. If the host key has been legitimately changed, it can be removed from the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file and the new fingerprint added. If it has not changed, this indicates a serious problem that should be investigated immediately. 15.6.7 SSH tunneled serial bridging You have the option to apply SSH tunneling when two Black Box console servers are configured for serial bridging. _____________________________________________________________________
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As detailed in Chapter 4, the Server console server is setup in Console server mode with either RAW or RFC2217 enabled and the Client console server is set up in Serial Bridging Mode with the Server Address, and Server TCP Port (4000 + port for RAW or 5000 + port # for RFC2217) specified: 
Select SSH Tunnel when configuring the Serial Bridging Setting. Next, you will need to set up SSH keys for each end of the tunnel and upload these keys to the Server and Client console servers. Client Keys: The first step in setting up ssh tunnels is to generate keys. Ideally, you will use a separate, secure, machine to generate and store all keys to be used on the console servers. If this is not ideal for your situation, keys may be generated on the console servers themselves. It is possible to generate only one set of keys, and reuse them for every SSH session. While we do not recommend this, each organization will need to balance the security of separate keys against the additional administration they bring. Generated keys may be one of two types—RSA or DSA (and it is beyond the scope of this document to recommend one over the other). RSA keys will go into the files id_rsa and id_rsa.pub. DSA keys will be stored in the files id_dsa and id_dsa.pub. For simplicity going forward, the term private key will be used to refer to either id_rsa or id_dsa and public key to refer to either id_rsa.pub or id_dsa.pub. _____________________________________________________________________
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To generate the keys using OpenBSD's OpenSSH suite, we use the ssh-­‐keygen program: $ ssh-­‐keygen -­‐t [rsa|dsa] Generating public/private [rsa|dsa] key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa]): Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa]. Your public key has been saved in /home/user/.ssh/id_[rsa|dsa].pub. The key fingerprint is: 28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected] $ It is advisable to create a new directory to store your generated keys. It is also possible to name the files after the device they will be used for. For example: $ mkdir keys $ ssh-­‐keygen -­‐t rsa Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa): /home/user/keys/control_room Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room Your public key has been saved in /home/user/keys/control_room.pub. The key fingerprint is: 28:aa:29:38:ba:40:f4:11:5e:3f:d4:fa:e5:36:14:d6 [email protected] $ You should ensure there is no password associated with the keys. If there is a password, then the console servers will have no way to supply it as runtime. Authorized Keys: If the console server selected to be the server will only have one client device, then the authorized_keys file is simply a copy of the public key for that device. If one or more devices will be clients of the server, then the authorized_keys file will contain a copy of all of the public keys. RSA and DSA keys may be freely mixed in the authorized_keys file. _____________________________________________________________________
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For example, assume we already have one server, called bridge_server, and two sets of keys, for the control_room and the plant_entrance: $ ls /home/user/keys control_room control_room.pub plant_entrance plant_entrance.pub $ cat /home/user/keys/control_room.pub /home/user/keys/plant_entrance.pub > /home/user/keys/authorized_keys_bridge_server Uploading Keys: The keys for the server can be uploaded through the web interface, on the System: Administration page as detailed earlier. If only one client will be connecting, then simply upload the appropriate public key as the authorized keys file. Otherwise, upload the authorized keys file constructed in the previous step. Each client will then need its own set of keys uploaded through the same page. Take care to ensure that the correct type of keys (DSA or RSA) go in the correct spots, and that the public and private keys are in the correct spot. 15.6.8 SDT Connector Public Key Authentication SDT Connector can authenticate against a console servers using your SSH key pair, rather than requiring you to enter your password (i.e. public key authentication). 
To use public key authentication with SDT Connector, you must first create an RSA or DSA key pair (using ssh-­‐keygen, PuTTYgen or a similar tool) and add the public part of your SSH key pair to the Black Box gateway—as described in the earlier section. 
Next, add the private part of your SSH key pair (this file is typically named id_rsa or id_dsa) to SDT Connector client. Click Edit -­‐> Preferences -­‐> Private Keys -­‐> Add, locate the private key file and click OK. You do not have to add the public part of your SSH key pair, it is calculated using the private key. SDT Connector will now use public key authentication when SSH connecting through the console server. You may have to restart SDT Connector to shut down any existing tunnels that were established using password authentication. If you have a host behind the console server that you connect to by clicking the SSH button in SDT Connector, you can also configure it for public key authentication. Essentially what you are using is SSH over SSH, and the two SSH connections are entirely separate, and the host configuration is entirely independent of SDT Connector and the console server. You must configure the SSH client that SDT Connector launches (e.g. Putty, OpenSSH) and the host’s SSH server for public key authentication. 15.7 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Support Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL works by using a private key to encrypt data that's transferred over the SSL connection. The console server includes OpenSSL. The OpenSSL Project is a collaborative effort to develop a robust, commercial-­‐
grade, full-­‐featured, and Open Source toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols as well as a full-­‐strength general purpose cryptography library. The project is managed by a worldwide community of volunteers that use the Internet to communicate, plan, and develop the OpenSSL toolkit and its related documentation. _____________________________________________________________________
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OpenSSL is based on the excellent SSLeay library developed by Eric A. Young and Tim J. Hudson. The OpenSSL toolkit is licensed under an Apache-­‐style licence, which basically means that you are free to get and use it for commercial and non-­‐commercial purposes subject to some simple license conditions. In the console server, OpenSSL is used primarily in conjunction with ‘http’ to have secure browser access to the GUI management console across insecure networks. More documentation on OpenSSL is available from: http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/openssl.html http://www.openssl.org/docs/HOWTO/certificates.txt 15.8 HTTPS The Management Console can be served using HTTPS by running the webserver via sslwrap. The server can be launched on request using inetd. The HTTP server provided is a slightly modified version of the fnord-­‐httpd from http://www.fefe.de/fnord/ The SSL implementation is provided by the sslwrap application compiled with OpenSSL support. You can find more detailed documentation at http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ If your default network address is changed or the unit is to be accessed via a known Domain Name, you can use the following steps to replace the default SSL Certificate and Private Key with ones tailored for your new address. 15.8.1 Generating an encryption key To create a 1024 bit RSA key with a password, issue the following command on the command line of a linux host with the openssl utility installed: openssl genrsa -­‐des3 -­‐out ssl_key.pem 1024 15.8.2 Generating a self-­‐signed certificate with OpenSSL This example shows how to use OpenSSL to create a self-­‐signed certificate. OpenSSL is available for most Linux distributions via the default package management mechanism. (Windows users can check http://www.openssl.org/related/binaries.html) To create a 1024 bit RSA key and a self-­‐signed certificate, issue the following openssl command from the host you have openssl installed on: openssl req -­‐x509 -­‐nodes -­‐days 1000 \ -­‐newkey rsa:1024 -­‐keyout ssl_key.pem -­‐out ssl_cert.pem You will be prompted to enter a lot of information. Most of it doesn’t matter, but the "Common Name" should be the domain name of your computer (e.g. test.Black Box.com). When you have entered everything, the certificate will be created in a file called ssl_cert.pem. 15.8.3 Installing the key and certificate We recommend that you use an SCP (Secure Copying Protocol) client to copy files securely to the console server unit. The scp utility is distributed with OpenSSH for most Unix distributions, while Windows users can use something like the PSCP command line utility available with PuTTY. You can install remotely the files created in the steps above with the scp utility as follows: scp ssl_key.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/ scp ssl_cert.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/ _____________________________________________________________________
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or using PSCP: pscp -­‐scp ssl_key.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/ pscp -­‐scp ssl_cert.pem [email protected]<address of unit>:/etc/config/ PuTTY and the PSCP utility can be downloaded from: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html More detailed documentation on the PSCP can be found: http://the.earth.li/~sgtatham/putty/0.58/htmldoc/Chapter5.html#pscp 15.8.4 Launching the HTTPS Server Note that the easiest way to enable the HTTPS server is from the web Management Console. Simply click the appropriate checkbox in Network -­‐> Services -­‐> HTTPS Server and the HTTPS server will be activated (assuming the ssl_key.pem & ssl_cert.pem files exist in the /etc/config directory). Alternatively inetd can be configured to launch the secure fnord server from the command line of the unit as follows. Edit the inetd configuration file. From the unit command line: vi /etc/config/inetd.conf Append a line: 443 stream tcp nowait root sslwrap -­‐cert /etc/config/ssl_cert.pem -­‐key /etc/config/ssl_key.pem -­‐exec /bin/httpd /home/httpd" Save the file and signal inetd of the configuration change. kill -­‐HUP `cat /var/run/inetd.pid` The HTTPS server should be accessible from a web client at a URL similar to this: https://<common name of unit> More detailed documentation about the openssl utility can be found at the website: http://www.openssl.org/ 15.9 Power Strip Control The console server supports a growing list of remote power-­‐control devices (RPCs) that you can configure using the Management Console as described in Chapter 8. These RPCs are controlled using the open source PowerMan and Network UPS Tools and with Black Box’s pmpower utility. 15.9.1 The PowerMan tool PowerMan provides power management in a data center or compute cluster environment. It performs operations such as power on, power off, and power cycle via remote power controller (RPC) devices. Synopsis powerman [-­‐option] [targets] pm [-­‐option] [targets] Options -­‐1, -­‐-­‐on Power ON targets. -­‐0, -­‐-­‐off Power OFF targets. -­‐c, -­‐-­‐cycle Power cycle targets. -­‐r, -­‐-­‐reset Assert hardware reset for targets (if implemented by RPC). _____________________________________________________________________
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-­‐f, -­‐-­‐flash Turn beacon ON for targets (if implemented by RPC). -­‐u, -­‐-­‐unflash Turn beacon OFF for targets (if implemented by RPC). -­‐l, -­‐-­‐list List available targets. If possible, output will be compressed into a host range (see TARGET SPECIFICATION below). -­‐q, -­‐-­‐query Query plug status of targets. If none specified, query all targets. Status is not cached; each time this option is used, powermand queries the appropriate RPC's. Targets connected to RPC's that could not be contacted (e.g. due to network failure) are reported as status "unknown". If possible, output will be compressed into host ranges. -­‐n, -­‐-­‐node Query node power status of targets (if implemented by RPC). If no targets specified, query all targets. In this context, a node in the OFF state could be ON at the plug but operating in standby power mode. -­‐b, -­‐-­‐beacon Query beacon status (if implemented by RPC). If no targets are specified, query all targets. -­‐t, -­‐-­‐temp Query node temperature (if implemented by RPC). If no targets are specified, query all targets. Temperature information is not interpreted by powerman and is reported as received from the RPC on one line per target, prefixed by target name. -­‐h, -­‐-­‐help Display option summary. -­‐L, -­‐-­‐license Show powerman license information. -­‐d, -­‐-­‐destination host[:port] Connect to a powerman daemon on non-­‐default host and optionally port. -­‐V, -­‐-­‐version Display the powerman version number and exit. -­‐D, -­‐-­‐device Displays RPC status information. If targets are specified, only RPC's matching the target list are displayed. -­‐T, -­‐-­‐telemetry Causes RPC telemetry information to be displayed as commands are processed. Useful for debugging device scripts. -­‐x, -­‐-­‐exprange Expand host ranges in query responses. For more details refer http://linux.die.net/man/1/powerman Also refer powermand (http://linux.die.net/man/1/powermand) documentation and powerman.conf (http://linux.die.net/man/5/powerman.conf) Target Specification powerman target hostnames may be specified as comma separated or space separated hostnames or host ranges. Host ranges are of the general form: prefix[n-­‐m,l-­‐k,...], where n < m and l < k, etc., This form should not be confused with regular expression character classes (also denoted by ''[]''). For example, foo[19] does not represent foo1 or foo9, but rather represents a degenerate range: foo19. This range syntax is meant only as a convenience on clusters with a prefix NN naming convention and specification of ranges should not be considered necessary—the list foo1,foo9 could be specified as such, or by the range foo[1,9]. Some examples of powerman targets follows. Power on hosts bar,baz,foo01,foo02,...,foo05: powerman -­‐-­‐on bar baz foo[01-­‐05] Power on hosts bar,foo7,foo9,foo10: powerman -­‐-­‐on bar,foo[7,9-­‐10] Power on foo0,foo4,foo5: powerman -­‐-­‐on foo[0,4-­‐5] As a reminder to the reader, some shells will interpret brackets ([ and ]) for pattern matching. Depending on your shell, you might need to enclose ranged lists within quotes. For example, in tcsh, the last example above should be executed as: powerman -­‐-­‐on "foo[0,4-­‐5]" _____________________________________________________________________
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15.9.2 The pmpower tool The pmpower utility is a high level tool for manipulating remote preconfigured power devices connected to the console server either via a serial or network connection. The PDU UPS and IPMI power devices are variously controlled using the open source PowerMan, IPMItool or Network UPS Tools and Black Box’s pmpower utility arches over these tools so the devices can be controlled through one command line: pmpower [-­‐?h] [-­‐l device | -­‐r host] [-­‐o outlet] [-­‐u username] [-­‐p password] action -­‐?/-­‐h This help message. -­‐l The serial port to use. -­‐o The outlet on the power target to apply to -­‐r The remote host address for the power target -­‐u Override the configured username -­‐p Override the configured password on This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) on off This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) off cycle This action switches the specified device or outlet(s) off and on again status This action retrieves the current status of the device or outlet Examples: To turn outlet 4 of the power device connected to serial port 2 on: # pmpower -­‐l port02 -­‐o 4 on To turn an IPMI device off located at IP address 192.168.1.100 (where username is 'root' and password is 'calvin': # pmpower -­‐r 192.168.1.100 -­‐u root -­‐p calvin off Default system Power Device actions are specified in /etc/powerstrips.xml. Custom Power Devices can be added in /etc/config/powerstrips.xml. If an action is attempted which has not been configured for a specific Power Device, pmpower will exit with an error. 15.9.3 Adding new RPC devices There are a number of simple paths to adding support for new RPC devices. The first is to have scripts to support the particular RPC included in either the open source PowerMan project (http://sourceforge.net/projects/powerman) or the open source NUT UPS Tools project. The PowerMan device specifications are rather weird and it is suggested that you leave the actual writing of these scripts to the PowerMan authors. Documentation on how they work can be found at http://linux.die.net/man/5/powerman.dev. The Network UPS Tools (NUT) project has recently moved on from its UPS management origins to also cover SNMP PDUs (and embrace PowerMan). Black Box progressively includes the updated PowerMan and NUT build into the console server firmware releases. The second path is to directly add support for the new RPC devices (or to customize the existing RPC device support) on your particular console server. The Manage: Power page uses information contained in /etc/powerstrips.xml to configure and control devices attached to a serial port. The configuration also looks for (and loads) /etc/config/powerstrips.xml if it exists. The user can add their own support for more devices by putting definitions for them into /etc/config/powerstrips.xml. This file can be created on a host system and copied to the Management Console device using scp. Alternatively, login to the Management Console and use ftp or wget to transfer files. Here is a brief description of the elements of the XML entries in /etc/config/powerstrips.xml. _____________________________________________________________________
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<powerstrip> <id>Name or ID of the device support</id> <outlet port="port-­‐id-­‐1">Display Port 1 in menu</outlet> <outlet port="port-­‐id-­‐2">Display Port 2 in menu</outlet> ... <on>script to turn power on</on> <off>script to power off</off> <cycle>script to cycle power</cycle> <status>script to write power status to /var/run/power-­‐status</status> <speed>baud rate</speed> <charsize>character size</charsize> <stop>stop bits</stop> <parity>parity setting</parity> </powerstrip> The id appears on the web page in the list of available devices types to configure. The outlets describe targets that the scripts can control. For example, a power control board may control several different outlets. The port-­‐id is the native name for identifying the outlet. This value will be passed to the scripts in the environment variable outlet, allowing the script to address the correct outlet. There are four possible scripts: on, off, cycle and status. When a script is run, its standard input and output is redirected to the appropriate serial port. The script receives the outlet and port in the outlet and port environment variables respectively. The script can be anything that can be executed within the shell. All of the existing scripts in /etc/powerstrips.xml use the pmchat utility. pmchat works just like the standard unix "chat" program, only it ensures interoperation with the port manager. The final options, speed, charsize, stop and parity define the recommended or default settings for the attached device. 15.10 IPMItool The console server includes the ipmitool utility for managing and configuring devices that support the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) version 1.5 and version 2.0 specifications. IPMI is an open standard for monitoring, logging, recovery, inventory, and control of hardware that is implemented independent of the main CPU, BIOS, and OS. The service processor (or Baseboard Management Controller, BMC) is the brain behind platform management and its primary purpose is to handle the autonomous sensor monitoring and event logging features. The ipmitool program provides a simple command-­‐line interface to this BMC. It features the ability to read the sensor data repository (SDR) and print sensor values, display the contents of the System Event Log (SEL), print Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) inventory information, read and set LAN configuration parameters, and perform remote chassis power control. SYNOPSIS ipmitool [-­‐c|-­‐h|-­‐v|-­‐V] -­‐I open <command> ipmitool [-­‐c|-­‐h|-­‐v|-­‐V] -­‐I lan -­‐H <hostname> [-­‐p <port>] [-­‐U <username>] [-­‐A <authtype>] _____________________________________________________________________
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[-­‐L <privlvl>] [-­‐a|-­‐E|-­‐P|-­‐f <password>] [-­‐o <oemtype>] <command> ipmitool [-­‐c|-­‐h|-­‐v|-­‐V] -­‐I lanplus -­‐H <hostname> [-­‐p <port>] [-­‐U <username>] [-­‐L <privlvl>] [-­‐a|-­‐E|-­‐P|-­‐f <password>] [-­‐o <oemtype>] [-­‐C <ciphersuite>] <command> DESCRIPTION This program lets you manage Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) functions of either the local system, via a kernel device driver, or a remote system, using IPMI V1.5 and IPMI v2.0. These functions include printing FRU information, LAN configuration, sensor readings, and remote chassis power control. IPMI management of a local system interface requires a compatible IPMI kernel driver to be installed and configured. On Linux, this driver is called OpenIPMI and it is included in standard distributions. On Solaris, this driver is called BMC and is inclued in Solaris 10. Management of a remote station requires the IPMI-­‐over-­‐LAN interface to be enabled and configured. Depending on the particular requirements of each system, it may be possible to enable the LAN interface using ipmitool over the system interface. OPTIONS -­‐a Prompt for the remote server password. -­‐A <authtype> Specify an authentication type to use during IPMIv1.5 lan session activation. Supported types are NONE, PASSWORD, MD5, or OEM. -­‐c Present output in CSV (comma separated variable) format. This is not available with all commands. -­‐C <ciphersuite> The remote server authentication, integrity, and encryption algorithms to use for IPMIv2 lanplus connections. See table 22-­‐19 in the IPMIv2 specification. The default is 3 which specifies RAKP-­‐HMAC-­‐SHA1 authentication, HMAC-­‐SHA1-­‐96 integrity, and AES-­‐CBC-­‐128 encryption algorightms. -­‐E The remote server password is specified by the environment variable IPMI_PASSWORD. -­‐f <password_file> Specifies a file containing the remote server password. If this option is absent, or if password_file is empty, the password will default to NULL. -­‐h Get basic usage help from the command line. -­‐H <address> Remote server address, can be IP address or hostname. This option is required for lan and lanplus interfaces. -­‐I <interface> Selects IPMI interface to use. Supported interfaces that are compiled in are visible in the usage help output. -­‐L <privlvl> Force session privilege level. Can be CALLBACK, USER, OPERATOR, ADMIN. Default is ADMIN. -­‐m <local_address> Set the local IPMB address. The default is 0x20 and there should be no need to change it for normal operation. _____________________________________________________________________
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-­‐o <oemtype> Select OEM type to support. This usually involves minor hacks in place in the code to work around quirks in various BMCs from various manufacturers. Use -­‐o list to see a list of current supported OEM types. -­‐p <port> Remote server UDP port to connect to. Default is 623. -­‐P <password> Remote server password is specified on the command line. If supported it will be obscured in the process list. Note! Specifying the password as a command line option is not recommended. -­‐t <target_address> Bridge IPMI requests to the remote target address. -­‐U <username> Remote server username, default is NULL user. -­‐v Increase verbose output level. This option may be specified multiple times to increase the level of debug output. If given three times you will get hexdumps of all incoming and outgoing packets. -­‐V Display version information. If no password method is specified, then ipmitool will prompt the user for a password. If no password is entered at the prompt, the remote server password will default to NULL. SECURITY The ipmitool documentation highlights that there are several security issues to be considered before enabling the IPMI LAN interface. A remote station has the ability to control a system's power state as well as being able to gather certain platform information. To reduce vulnerability, we strongly advise that the IPMI LAN interface only be enabled in 'trusted' environments where system security is not an issue or where there is a dedicated secure 'management network' or access has been provided through an console server. Further, we strongly advise that you do not enable IPMI for remote access without setting a password, and that that password should not be the same as any other password on that system. When an IPMI password is changed on a remote machine with the IPMIv1.5 lan interface, the new password is sent across the network as clear text. This could be observed and then used to attack the remote system. We recommend that IPMI password management only be done over IPMIv2.0 lanplus interface or the system interface on the local station. For IPMI v1.5, the maximum password length is 16 characters. Passwords longer than 16 characters will be truncated. For IPMI v2.0, the maximum password length is 20 characters; longer passwords are truncated. COMMANDS help This can be used to get command-­‐line help on ipmitool commands. It may also be placed at the end of commands to get option usage help. ipmitool help Commands: raw Send a RAW IPMI request and print response lan Configure LAN Channels _____________________________________________________________________
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chassis Get chassis status and set power state event Send pre-­‐defined events to MC mc Management Controller status and global enables sdr Print Sensor Data Repository entries and readings sensor Print detailed sensor information fru Print built-­‐in FRU and scan SDR for FRU locators sel Print System Event Log (SEL) pef Configure Platform Event Filtering (PEF) sol Configure IPMIv2.0 Serial-­‐over-­‐LAN isol Configure IPMIv1.5 Serial-­‐over-­‐LAN user Configure Management Controller users channel Configure Management Controller channels session Print session information exec Run list of commands from file set Set runtime variable for shell and exec ipmitool chassis help Chassis Commands: status, power, identify, policy, restart_cause, poh, bootdev ipmitool chassis power help chassis power Commands: status, on, off, cycle, reset, diag, soft You will find more details on ipmitools at http://ipmitool.sourceforge.net/manpage.html 15.11 Custom Development Kit (CDK) As detailed in this manual customers can copy scripts, binaries, and configuration files directly to the console server. Black Box also freely provides a development kit that allows changes to be made to the software in console server firmware image. The customer can use the CDK to: 
generate a firmware image without certain programs, such as telnet, which may be banned by company policy. 
generate an image with new programs, such as custom Nagios plug-­‐in binaries or company specific binary utilities. 
generate an image with custom defaults e.g. it may be required that the console server be configured to have a specific default serial port profile which is reverted to even in event of a factory reset. 
place configuration files into the firmware image, which cannot then be modified e.g. # /bin/config –-­‐set= tools update the configuration files in /etc/config which are read/write, whereas the files in /etc are read only and cannot be modified _____________________________________________________________________
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The CDK essentially provides a snapshot of the Black Box build process (taken after the programs have been compiled and copied to a temporary directory romfs) just before the compressed file systems are generated. You can obtain a copy of the Black Box CDK for the particular appliance you are working with from Black Box Note The CDK is free. 15.12 Scripts for Managing Slaves When the console servers are cascaded the Master is in control of the serial ports on the Slaves, and the Master’s Management Console provides a consolidated view of the settings for its own and all the Slave’s serial ports. The Master does not provide a fully consolidated view, for example, Status: Active Users only displays those users active on the Master’s ports and you will need to write a custom bash script that parses the port logs if you want to find out who’s logged in to cascaded serial ports from the master. You will probably also want to enable remote or USB logging, because local logs only buffer 8K of data and don’t persist between reboots. This script would, for example, parse each port log file line by line, each time it sees 'LOGIN: username', it adds username to the list of connected users for that port, each time it sees 'LOGOUT: username' it removes it from the list. The list can then be nicely formatted and displayed. You can run the script on the remote log server. To enable log storage and connection logging: -­‐ Select Alerts & Logging: Port Log -­‐ Configure log storage -­‐ Select Serial & Network: Serial Port, Edit the serial port(s) -­‐ Under Console server, select Logging Level 1 and click Apply There’s a useful tutorial on creating a bash script CGI at http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialCgiShellScript.html Similarly, the Master does maintain a view of the status of the slaves: -­‐ Select Status: Support Report -­‐ Scroll down to Processes -­‐ Look for: /bin/ssh -­‐MN -­‐o ControlPath=/var/run/cascade/%h slavename -­‐ These are the slaves that are connected -­‐ Note the end of the Slaves' names will be truncated, so the first 5 characters must be unique Alternatively, you can write a custom CGI script as described above. The currently connected Slaves can be determined by running: ls /var/run/cascade and the configured slaves can be displayed by running: config -­‐g config.cascade.slaves 15.13 SMS Server Tools
Firmware releases V3.1 and later include the SMS Server Tools software which provides an SMS Gateway which can
send and receive short messages through GSM modems and mobile phones.
You can send short messages by simply storing text files into a special spool directory. The program monitors this
directory and sends new files automatically. It also stores received short messages into another directory as text files.
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Binary messages (including Unicode text) are also supported, for example ring tone messages. It's also possible to send a
WAP Push message to the WAP / MMS capable mobile phone.
The program can be run as a SMS daemon which can be started automatically when the operating system starts. High
availability can be ensured by using multiple GSM devices (currently up to 64, this limit is easily changeable).
The program can run other external programs or scripts after events like reception of a new message, successful sending
and also when the program detects a problem. These programs can inspect the related text files and perform automatic
actions
The SMS Server Tools software needs a GSM modem (or mobile phone) with SMS command set according to the
European specifications GSM 07.05 (=ETSI TS 300 585) and GSM 03.38 (=ETSI TS 100 900). AT command set is
supported. Devices can be connected with serial port, infrared or USB.
For more information refer http://smstools3.kekekasvi.com or the online Opengear faq.html
15.14 Multicast
By default, all Opengear console servers come with Multicasting enabled. Multicasting provides Opengear products with
the ability to simultaneously transmit information from a single device to a select group of hosts.
Multicasting can be disabled and re-enabled from the command line (Firmware releases V3.1 and later). To disable
multicasting type:
ifconfig eth0 -multicast
To re-enable multicasting from the command line type:
ifconfig eth0 multicast
IPv6 may need to be restarted when toggling between multicast states.
15.15 Bulk Provisioning
Black Box appliances include wizard scripts to facilitate configuration and deployment en masse. These wizards operate
at the command line level, so knowledge of the Linux command line and shell scripting is useful, but not necessary – they
aim to be user-friendly enough for remote hands to manage. This bulk provisioning feature is supported by firmware
version 3.9.1 or later, and Lighthouse version 4.4.0 and later (optional).
Both the bulk provisioning of Opengear appliances and bulk enrollment of these appliances into Lighthouse central
management system(s) is supported. These features may be used separately or in conjunction.
Using this method, an Opengear appliance can be fully configured and enrolled into Lighthouse with minimal interaction,
in under 5 minutes. The basic steps are:
1.
Configure an individual “golden master” appliance with the baseline configuration shared by all Opengear
appliances. This may be a minimal configuration if the installs are quite diverse, or a complete configuration when
dealing with replicated installs.
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2.
Use make-template to turn the golden master’s active configuration into a template configuration that may be
applied to other appliances.
3.
Create an OPG backup of the templated golden master appliance.
4.
Restore this configuration to each target devices via the CLI, web UI or using a USB thumb drive.
5.
Login via the CLI to complete configuration using setup-wizard.
6.
(Optional) On Lighthouse, use enrollment-wizard to automatically place appliances under management. This may
be local/routable appliances, or remote appliances that have automatically Call Home using callhome-wizard.
Note: Steps 5 and 6 may be reversed for remote setup via Lighthouse
Note: Full details for the above steps can be found in the Knowledge Base
15.16 Zero Touch Provisioning
Zero Touch Provisioning (ZTP) was introduced with firmware release 3.15.1 to allow Opengear appliances to be
provisioned during their initial boot from a DHCP server.
15.16.1 Preparation
These are typical steps for configuration over a trusted network:
1. Configure a same-model Opengear device.
2. Optionally use the Bulk Provisioning wizard scripts to remove any appliance-specific settings (i.e. create a
template configuration) and/or prepare the configuration for automated Lighthouse enrollment, see the section
entitled Bulk Provisioning in this document.
3. Save the configuration as an Opengear backup (.opg) file under System: Configuration Backup in the web UI, or
via config -e in the CLI. Alternatively, you can save the XML configuration as a file ending in .xml.
4. Publish the .opg or.xml file on a fileserver that understands one of the HTTPS, HTTP, FTP or TFTP protocols.
5. Configure your DHCP server to include a "vendor specific" option for Opengear devices. The option text should be
a URL to the location of the .opg or .xml file. The option text should not exceed 250 characters in length. It must
end in either .opg or .xml.
6. Connect a new Opengear device (either at defaults from the factory, or config erased) to the network and apply
power.
7. It may take up to 5 minutes for the device to find the .opg or .xml file via DHCP, download, install the file and
reboot itself.
15.16.2 Example ISC DHCP server configuration
The following is an example of an ISC DHCP server configuration fragment for serving an .opg configuration image:
option space opengear
code width 1
length width 1;
option opengear.config-url code 1 = text;
class "opengear-ztp" {
match if option vendor-class-identifier ~~ "^Opengear/";
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vendor-option-space opengear;
option opengear.config-url "https://example.com/opg/${class}.opg";
}
For other DHCP servers, please consult their documentation on specifying "Vendor Specific" option fields. We use suboption 1 to hold the URL text.
15.16.3 Setup for an untrusted LAN
If network security is a concern, and you can have remote hands insert a trusted USB flash drive into the Opengear
device during provisioning, then follows are a summary of the steps required for deploying configuration in an untrusted
network:
1. Generate an X.509 certificate for the client. Place it and its private key file onto a USB flash drive (concatenated
as a single file, client.pem).
2. Set up a HTTPS server that restricts access to the .opg or .xml file for HTTPS onnections providing the client
certificate.
3. Put a copy of the CA cert (that signed the HTTP server's certificate) onto the USB flash drive as well (cabundle.crt).
4. Insert the USB flash drive into the Opengear device before attaching power or network.
5. Continue with the steps above, but using only a https URL.
6. A detailed step-by-step document for preparing a USB flash drive and using OpenSSL to create keys is at Howto:
set up a USB key for authenticated restore
15.16.4 How it works
This section explains in detail how the Opengear device uses DHCP to obtain its initial configuration.
First, an Opengear console manager is either configured or unconfigured. ZTP needs it to be in an unconfigured state,
which is only obtained in the following ways:
•
Firmware programming at factory
•
Pressing the Config Erase button twice during operation
•
Selecting Config Erase under System: Administration in the web UI, and rebooting
•
Creating the file /etc/config/.init and then rebooting (command-line)
When an unconfigured Opengear boots, it performs these steps to find a configuration:
•
The Opengear device transmits a DHCP DISCOVER request onto its primary Network Interface (wan). This
DHCP request will carry a Vendor Class Identifier of the form Opengear/model-name (for example,
Opengear/ACM5003-M) and its parameter request list will include option 43 (Vendor-Specific Information).
•
On receipt of a DHCP OFFER, the device will use the information in the offer to assign an IPv4 address to its
primary Network Interface, add a default route, and prepare its DNS resolver.
•
If the offer also contained an option 43 with sub-option 1, the device interprets the sub-option as a whitespaceseparated list of URLs to configuration files to try to restore.
•
If an NTP server option was provided in the DHCP offer, the system clock is (quickly) synchronized with the NTP
server.
•
The system now searches all attached USB storage devices for two optional certificate files. The first file is named
ca-bundle.crt and the second one is whichever one of the following filenames is found first:
o
client-AABBCCDDEEFF.pem (where AABBCCDDEEFF is the MAC address of the primary network
interace); or
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o
client-MODEL.pem (where MODEL is the (vendor class) model name in lowercase, truncated to before
the first hyphen); or
o
client.pem
•
If both files are found (ca-bundle.crt and a client.pem), then secure mode is enabled for the next section.
•
Each URL in the list obtained from option 43 sub-option 1 is tried in sequence until one succeeds:
o
The URL undergoes substring replacement from the following table:
Substring
Replaced by
Example
${mac}
the 12-digit MAC address of the device, lowercase
0013b600b669
${model}
the full model name, in lowercase
acm5504-5-g-w-i
${class}
the firmware hardware class
ACM550x
${version}
the firmware version number
3.15.1
o
The resulting URL must end in .opg or .xml (an optional ?query-string is permitted). It is doesn't, then it is
skipped and the next URL is tried.
o
In secure mode, the URL must use the https scheme or it is skipped.
o
Otherwise the available schemes are: http https tftp ftp ftps
o
The curl program is used to download the URL.
o
In secure mode, the server's certificate must validate against the ca-bundle.crt. The (reqiured) client.pem
file is provided to authenticate the client to the server. Please see the curl documentation for the format of
these files.
•
The URL is downloaded. For .opg files its header is checked to see if it is compatible with the current device. For
.xml files, a parse check is made. If the check fails, the downloaded file is abandoned and the next URL is tried.
•
The file is imported into the current configuration.
•
The system checks to see if a hostname has been set in the config. If not, it is set to ${model}-${mac}.
•
The system checks to see if it is still in an unconfigured state. If it is, then the network interface mode is set to
DHCP. This effectively forces the system into a configured state, preventing a future reboot loop.
•
The system reboots
Note: If all the URLs were skipped or failed, the system will wait for 30 seconds before retrying again. It will retry all the
URLs up to 10 times. After the 10th retry, the system reboots. If the system has been manually configured in the
meantime, the retries stop and ZTP is disabled.
Note: If no option 43 is received over DHCP, no URLs are downloaded and no reboots occur: the system must be
manually configured. Once configured (manually or by ZTP), an Opengear will no longer request option 43 from the
DHCP server, and it will ignore any option 43 configuration URLs presented to it.
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Appendix A
Linux Commands & Source Code
The console server platform is a dedicated Linux computer, optimized to provide monitoring and secure access to serial and network consoles of critical server systems and their supporting power and networking infrastructure. Black Box console servers are built on the 2.4 uCLinux kernel as developed by the uCLinux project. This is GPL code and source can be found at http://cvs.uclinux.org. Some uCLinux commands have config files that can be altered (e.g. portmanager, inetd, init, ssh/sshd/scp/sshkeygen, ucd-­‐snmpd, samba, fnord, sslwrap). Other commands you can run and do neat stuff with (e.g. loopback, bash (shell), ftp, hwclock, iproute, iptables, netcat, ifconfig, mii-­‐tool, netstat, route, ping, portmap, pppd, routed, setserial, smtpclient, stty, stunel, tcpdump, tftp, tip, traceroute) Below are most of the standard uCLinux and BusyBox commands (and some custom Black Box commands) that are in the default build tree. The Administrator can use these to configure the console server, and monitor and manage attached serial console and host devices: addgroup * adduser * agetty arp arping bash busybox cat * chat chgrp * chmod * chown * config cp * date * dd * deluser * df * dhcpd discard dmesg * echo * erase eraseall false * find flashw flatfsd ftp Add a group or add an user to a group Add an user alternative Linux getty Manipulate the system ARP cache Send ARP requests/replies GNU Bourne-­‐Again Shell Swiss army knife of embedded Linux commands Concatenate FILE(s) and print them to stdout Useful for interacting with a modem connected to stdin/stdout Change file access permissions Change file access permissions Change file owner and group Black Box tool to manipulate and query the system configuration from the command line Copy files and directories Print or set the system date and time Convert and copy a file Delete USER from the system Report filesystem disk space usage Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server Network utility that listens on the discard port Print or control the kernel ring buffer Print the specified ARGs to stdout Tool for erasing MTD partitions Tool for erasing entire MTD partitions Do nothing, unsuccessful Search for files Write data to individual flash devices Daemon to save RAM file systems back to FLASH Internet file transfer program _____________________________________________________________________
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gen-­‐keys getopt * gettyd grep * gunzip * gzip * hd hostname * httpd hwclock inetd inetd-­‐echo init ip ipmitool iptables ip6tables iptables-­‐
restore iptables-­‐save kill * ln * login loopback loopback1 loopback2 loopback8 loopback16 loopback48 ls * mail mkdir * mkfs.jffs2 mknod * more * mount * msmtp mv * nc netflash netstat ntpd pgrep pidof ping SSH key generation program Parses command options Getty daemon Print lines matching a pattern Compress or expand files Compress or expand files ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump Get or set hostname or DNS domain name Listen for incoming HTTP requests Query and set hardware clock (RTC) Network super-­‐server daemon Network echo utility Process control initialization Show or manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels Linux IPMI manager Administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT Administration tool for IPv6 packet filtering Restore IP Tables Save IP Tables Send a signal to a process to end gracefully Make links between files Begin session on the system Black Box loopback diagnostic command Black Box loopback diagnostic command Black Box loopback diagnostic command Black Box loopback diagnostic command Black Box loopback diagnostic command Black Box loopback diagnostic command List directory contents Send and receive mail Make directories Create an MS-­‐DOS file system under Linux Make block or character special files File perusal filter for crt viewing Mount a file system SMTP mail client Move (rename) files TCP/IP Swiss army knife Upgrade firmware on ucLinux platforms using the blkmem interface Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics etc Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon Display process(es) selected by regex pattern Find the process ID of a running program Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts _____________________________________________________________________
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ping6 pkill pmchat pmdeny pminetd pmloggerd pmshell pmusers portmanager portmap pppd ps * pwd * reboot * rm * rmdir * routed routed routef routel rtacct rtmon scp sed * setmac setserial sh showmac sleep * smbmnt smbmount smbumount snmpd snmptrap sredird ssh ssh-­‐keygen sshd sslwrap stty stunnel sync * sysctl syslogd IPv6 ping Sends a signal to process(es) selected by regex pattern Black Box command similar to the standard chat command (via portmanager) Black Box command similar to the standard tip or cu but all serial port access is directed via the portmanager. Black Box command to query portmanager for active user sessions Black Box command that handles all serial port access DARPA port to RPC program number mapper Point-­‐to-­‐Point protocol daemon Report a snapshot of the current processes Print name of current/working directory Soft reboot Remove files or directories Remove empty directories Show or manipulate the IP routing table Show or manipulate the IP routing table IP Route tool to flush IPv4 routes IP Route tool to list routes Applet printing /proc/net/rt_acct RTnetlink listener Secure copy (remote file copy program) Text stream editor Sets the MAC address Sets and reports serial port configuration Shell Shows MAC address Delay for a specified amount of time Helper utility for mounting SMB file systems Mount an SMBFS file system SMBFS umount for normal users SNMP daemon Sends an SNMP notification to a manager RFC 2217 compliant serial port redirector OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) Authentication key generation, management, and conversion OpenSSH SSH daemon Program that allows plain services to be accessed via SSL Change and print terminal line settings Universal SSL tunnel Flush file system buffers Configure kernel parameters at runtime System logging utility _____________________________________________________________________
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tar * tc tcpdump telnetd tftp tftpd tip top touch * traceroute traceroute6 true * umount * uname * usleep * vconfig * vi * w zcat * The tar archiving utility Show traffic control settings Dump traffic on a network Telnet protocol server Client to transfer a file from/to tftp server Trivial file Transfer Protocol (tftp) server Simple terminal emulator/cu program for connecting to modems and serial devices Provide a view of process activity in real time Change file timestamps Print the route packets take to network host Traceroute for IPv6 Returns an exit code of TRUE (0) Unmount file systems Print system information Delay for a specified amount of time Create and remove virtual ethernet devices Busybox clone of the VI text editor Show who is logged on and what they are doing Identical to gunzip -­‐c Commands above which are appended with '*' come from BusyBox (the Swiss Army Knife of embedded Linux) http://www.busybox.net/downloads/BusyBox.html. Others are generic Linux commands and most commands the -­‐h or -­‐
-­‐help argument to provide a terse runtime description of their behavior. More details on the generic Linux commands can found online at http://en.tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-­‐INDEX/howtos.html and http://www.faqs.org/docs/Linux-­‐
HOWTO/Remote-­‐Serial-­‐Console-­‐HOWTO.html An updated list of the commands may found using ls command to view all the commands actually available in the /bin directory in your console server. There were a number of Black Box tools listed above that make it simple to configure the console server and make sure the changes are stored in the console server's flash memory, etc. These commands are covered in the previous chapters and include: •
config which allows manipulation and querying of the system configuration from the command line. With config a new configuration can be activated by running the relevant configurator, which performs the action necessary to make the configuration changes live. •
portmanager which provides a buffered interface to each serial port. It is supported by the pmchat and pmshell commands which ensure all serial port access is directed via the portmanager. •
pmpower is a configurable tool for manipulating remote power devices that are serially or network connected to the console server. •
SDT Connector is a java client applet that provides point-­‐and-­‐click SSH tunneled connections to the console server and Managed Devices. There are also a number of other CLI commands related to other open source tools embedded in the console server including: •
PowerMan provides power management for many preconfigured remote power controller (RPC) devices. For CLI details refer http://linux.die.net/man/1/powerman _____________________________________________________________________
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•
Network UPS Tools (NUT) provides reliable monitoring of UPS and PDU hardware and ensure safe shutdowns of the systems which are connected -­‐ with a goal to monitor every kind of UPS and PDU. For CLI details refer http://www.networkupstools.org •
Nagios is a popular enterprise-­‐class management tool that provides central monitoring of the hosts and services in distributed networks. For CLI details refer http://www.nagios.org Many components of the console server software are licensed under the GNU General Public License (version 2), which Black Box supports. You may obtain a copy of the GNU General Public License at http://www.fsf.org/copyleft/gpl.html. Black Box will provide source code for any of the components of the software licensed under the GNU General Public License upon request. The console server also embodies the okvm console management software. This is GPL code and the full source is available from http://okvm.sourceforge.net. The console server BIOS (boot loader code) is a port of uboot, which is also a GPL package with source openly available. The console server CGIs (the html code, xml code and web config tools for the Management Console) are proprietary to Black Box, however the code will be provided to customers, under NDA. Also inbuilt in the console server is a Port Manager application and Configuration tools as described in Chapters 14 and 15. These both are proprietary to Black Box, but open to customers (as above). The console server also supports GNU bash shell script enabling the Administrator to run custom scripts. GNU bash, version 2.05.0(1)-­‐release (arm-­‐Black Box-­‐linux-­‐gnu) offers the following shell commands:
alias [-p] [name[=value] ... ]
bg [job_spec]
bind [-lpvsPVS] [-m keymap] [-f fi break [n]
builtin [shell-builtin [arg ...]]
case WORD in [PATTERN [| PATTERN]
cd [-PL] [dir]
command [-pVv]
command [arg ...]
compgen [-abcdefjkvu] [-o option]
complete [-abcdefjkvu] [-pr] [-o o]
continue [n]
declare [-afFrxi] [-p] name[=value]
dirs [-clpv] [+N] [-N]
disown [-h] [-ar] [jobspec ...]
echo [-neE] [arg ...]
enable [-pnds] [-a] [-f filename]
eval [arg ...]
exec [-cl] [-a name] file [redirec]
exit [n]
export [-nf] [name ...] or export
false
fc [-e ename] [-nlr] [first] [last]
fg [job_spec]
for NAME [in WORDS ... ;] do COMMA
function NAME { COMMANDS ; } or NA
getopts optstring name [arg]
local name[=value] ...
logout
popd [+N | -N] [-n]
printf format [arguments]
pushd [dir | +N | -N] [-n]
pwd [-PL]
read [-ers] [-t timeout] [-p promp]
readonly [-anf] [name ...] or read return [n]
select NAME [in WORDS ... ;] do
COMMANDS
set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o opti]
shift [n]
shopt [-pqsu] [-o long-option] opt
source filename
suspend [-f]
test [expr]
time [-p] PIPELINE
times
trap [arg] [signal_spec ...]
true
type [-apt] name [name ...]
typeset [-afFrxi] [-p] name[=value ulimit [SHacdflmnpstuv] [limit]
umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
unalias [-a] [name ...]
unset [-f] [-v] [name ...]
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hash [-r] [-p pathname] [name ...]
help [-s] [pattern ...]
history [-c] [-d offset] [n] or hi
if COMMANDS; then COMMANDS; [ elif
jobs [-lnprs] [jobspec ...] or job kill [-s
sigspec | -n signum | -si let arg [arg ...]
until COMMANDS; do COMMANDS; done
variables - Some variable names an wait
[n]
while COMMANDS; do COMMANDS;
done { COMMANDS ; }
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Appendix B
Hardware Specifications
FEATURE VALUE Dimensions LES1408A/16A/32A/48A, LES1308A/16A/32A/48A, LES1208A-­‐R2/16A-­‐R2/32A/48A-­‐R2: 17 x 12 x 1.75 in (43.2 x 31.3. x 4.5 cm) LES1508A/16A/32A/48A: 17 x 6.9 x 1.75 in (17.5 x 43.2 x 4.5 cm) LES1408A/16A/32A/48A, LES1308A/16A/32A/48A, LES1208A-­‐R2/16A-­‐R2/32A/48A-­‐R2: 5.4 kg (11.8 lbs) LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A: 4 kg (9 lbs) 5°C to 50°C (41°F to 122°F) -­‐30°C to +60°C (-­‐20°F to +140°F) Weight Ambient operating temperature Non operating storage temperature Humidity Power Power Consumption CPU Memory Serial Connectors Serial Baud Rates Ethernet Connectors 5% to 90% Refer to Chapter 2 for various models All less than 30W LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A: Marvell 88F6W11 All other models: Micrel KS8695P controller LES1408A/16A/32A/48A, LES1308A/16A/32A/48A, LES1208A-­‐R2/16A-­‐R2/32A/48A-­‐R2: 64MB SDRAM 16MB Flash 16GB USB Flash LES1116A/32A/48A: 64MB SDRAM 16MB Flash LES1508A/16A/32A/48A: 256MB SDRAM 32MB Embedded Flash 32 MB internal USB Flash LES1508A: 8 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports with Cisco pinout LES1516A: 16 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports with Cisco pinout LES1532A: 32 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports with Cisco pinout LES1548A: 48 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports with Cisco pinout LES1408A, LES1308A, LES1208A-­‐R2: 8 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports LES1416A, LES1316A, LES1216A-­‐R2: 16 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports LES1432A, LES1332A, LES1232A: 32 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports LES1448A, LES1348A, LES1248A-­‐R2: 48 RJ-­‐45 RS-­‐232 serial ports All models: 1 DB-­‐9 RS-­‐232 console/ modem serial port RJ-­‐45 ports -­‐ 50 to 230,400bps DB9 port -­‐ 2400 to 115,200 bps LES1508A/16A/32A/48A, LES1408A/16A/32A/48A, LES1308A/16A/32A/48A, LES1208A-­‐R2/16A-­‐R2/32A/48A-­‐R2: Two RJ-­‐45 10/100Base-­‐T Ethernet ports _____________________________________________________________________
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Appendix C
Safety & Certifications
Please take care to follow the safety precautions below when installing and operating the console server: - Do not remove the metal covers. There are no operator serviceable components inside. Opening or removing the cover may expose you to dangerous voltage which may cause fire or electric shock. Refer all service to Black Box qualified personnel. - To avoid electric shock the power cord protective grounding conductor must be connected through to ground. - Always pull on the plug, not the cable, when disconnecting the power cord from the socket. Do not connect or disconnect the console server during an electrical storm. We recommend that you use a surge suppressor or UPS to protect the equipment from transients. FCC Warning Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation of this device is subject to the following conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference that may cause undesired operation. WEEE Statement
The symbol on the product or its packaging indicates that this product must not be disposed of with your other household
waste. Instead, it is your responsibility to dispose of your waste equipment by handing it over to a designated collection
point for the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment. The separate collection and recycling of your waste
equipment at the time of disposal will help conserve natural resources and ensure that it is recycled in a manner that
protects human health and the environment. For more information about where you can drop off your waste for recycling,
please contact your local authority, or where you purchased your product.
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Appendix D
Connectivity, TCP Ports and Serial I/O
Pin-out standards exist for both DB9 and DB25 connectors; however there are not pin-out standards for serial connectivity
using RJ45 connectors. Most console servers and serially managed servers / router / switches / power devices have
adopted their own unique pin-out; so custom connectors and cables may be required to interconnect your console server.
Serial Port Pinout
Black Box console servers come with one to forty eight serial connectors (notated SERIAL or SERIAL PORTS) for the
RS-232 serial ports:
-
The LES1101A-R2 and LES1102A models have DB9 serial port connectors, all other models have RJ-45 serial
port connectors
-
The RJ-45 serial ports are located on the front face of the LES1508A; on the front panel of the rackmount
LES1200/LES1300/LES1400 series; and on the rear panel of the rackmount LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A.
-
The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, and LES1548A have Cisco straight serial pinouts on its RJ45
connectors.
-
The other LES1200/LES1300/LES1400 SERIES console servers are available with a selection of alternate RJ45
pinouts (which must be specified in the part number at the time of order).
-
The LES1208A-R2, LES1216A-R2, LES1232A, and LES1248A-R2 have Cisco Rolled RJ-45.
Cisco Straight RJ-45 pinout (option -X2)
Straight through RJ-45 cable to equipment such as Cisco, Juniper, SUN, and more...
PIN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SIGNAL
CTS
DSR
RXD
GND
GND
TXD
DTR
RTS
DEFINITION
Clear To Send
Data Set Ready
Receive Data
Signal Ground
Signal Ground
Transmit Data
Data Terminal Ready
Request To Send
DIRECTION
Input
Input
Input
NA
NA
Output
Output
Output
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Classic (X0) RJ-45 pinout
This is the same RJ45 pinout as the Avocent /Equinox brand console server:
PIN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SIGNAL
RTS
DSR
DCD
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
CTS
DEFINITION
Request To Send
Data Set Ready
Data Carrier Detect
Receive Data
Transmit DataCTS
Signal Ground
Data Terminal Ready
Clear To Send
DIRECTION
Output
Input
Input
Input
Output
NA
Output
Input
Cisco Rolled RJ-45 pinout (option -X1)
Easy to replace Avocent/Cyclades products, for use with rolled RJ-45 cable:
PIN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SIGNAL
RTS
DTR
TXD
GND
CTS
RXD
DCD
DSR
DEFINITION
Request To Send
Data Terminal Ready
Transmit Data
Signal Ground
Clear To Send
Receive Data
Data Carrier Detect
Data Set Ready
DIRECTION
Output
Output
Output
NA
Input
Input
Input
Input
Local Console Port
Console servers with a dedicated LOCAL console/modem port use a standard DB9 connector for this port.
To connect to the LOCAL modem/console port on the console servers using a computer or terminal device use the DB9 F
to RJ-45 or DB25 M to RJ-45 adapters with standard UTP Cat 5 cable.
To connect the LOCAL console ports to modems (for out of band access) use the 319004 adapter with standard UTP Cat
5 cable.
Each Black Box console server is supplied with UTP Cat 5 cables.
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RS-232 Standard Pinouts
The RS-232 pinout standards for the DB9 (and DB25) connectors are tabled below:
DB25
SIGNAL
DB9
1
DEFINITION
Protective Ground
2
TXD
3
Transmitted Data
3
RXD
2
Received Data
4
RTS
7
Request To Send
5
CTS
8
Clear To Send
6
DSR
6
Data Set Ready
7
GND
5
Signal Ground
8
CD
1
Received Line Signal Detector
9
Reserved for data set testing
10
Reserved for data set testing
11
Unassigned
12
SCF
Secondary Rcvd Line Signal Detector
13
SCB
Secondary Clear to Send
14
SBA
Secondary Transmitted Data
15
DB
Transmission Signal Timing
16
SBB
Secondary Received Data
17
DD
Receiver Signal Element Timing
18
Unassigned
19
SCA
20
DTR
21
CG
22
Secondary Request to Send
4
Data Terminal Ready
Signal Quality Detector
9
Ring Indicator
23
CH/CI
Data Signal Rate Selector
24
DA
Transmit Signal Element Timing
25
Unassigned
FEMALE
MALE
25 pin DB25
9 pin DB9
8 pin RJ45
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Connectors included in console server
The LES1508A, LES1516A, LES1532A, LES1548A have the Cisco pinout by default and ship with “cross-over”/“straight”
RJ-45-DB9 connectors:
DB9F-RJ45S straight
connector
Part #
LES1316A25FT
DB9F-RJ45S crossover connector
The LES1200/LES1300/LES1400 all have the Opengear Classic pinout and ship with a “cross-over” and a “straight”
RJ45-DB9 connector for connecting to other vendor’s products: E
DB9F-RJ45S straight
connector
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DB9F-RJ45S crossover connector
Other available connectors and adapters
Opengear also supplies a range of cables and adapters that will enable you to easily connect to the more popular servers
and network appliances. More detailed information can be found online at http://www.opengear.com/cabling.html
For Local/Console connection:
These adapters connect the console server LOCAL/Console port (via standard UTP Cat 5 cable) to modem devices (for
out-of-band access):
• DB9F to RJ45 straight console server LOCAL Console Port to Modem
• DB25M to RJ45 straight console server LOCAL Console Port to Modem
For console server Serial Port connection, the Opengear connectors and adapters detailed below are specified to work
with standard UTP Cat 5 cable.
For console servers with Cisco pinouts:
• DB9F to RJ-45 straight Console server with Cisco pinout to IP Power and other serial device
• DB9F to RJ-45 crossover DCE Adapter - Console server with Cisco pinout to X86 and other
• DB9M to RJ-45 straight DTE Adapter - Console server with Cisco pinout to Netscreen and Dell
• DB9M to RJ-45 straight DTE Adapter - Console server OOB modem connection
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TCP/UDP Port Numbers
Port numbers are divided into three ranges: Well Known Ports, Registered Ports and Dynamic and/or Private Ports. Well
Known Ports are those from 0 through 1023. Registered Ports are those from 1024 through 49151. Dynamic and/or
Private Ports are those from 49152 through 65535.
Well Known Ports are assigned by IANA, and on most systems, can only be used by system processes or by programs
executed by privileged users. Table below shows some of the well-known port numbers. For more details, please visit the
IANA website: http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
Port
Number
21
22
23
25
37
39
49
53
67
68
v69
70
79
80
110
119
161/162
443
Protocol
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
SSH (Secure Shell)
Telnet
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
Time
RLP (Resource Location Protocol)
TACACS, TACACS+
DNS
BOOTP server
BOOTP client
TFTP
Gopher
Finger
HTTP
POP3
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
SNMP
HTTPS
TCP/UDP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP, UCP
UDP
UDP
UDP
UDP
UDP
UDP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
UDP
TCP
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Serial Port Pinouts –LES1508A
Each serial RJ-45 ports on these models can be software selected to be RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485.
•
For RS232 they have the Cisco pinout
•
For RS-422 mode it’s 4-wire full duplex transmit
on TX+/TX- pair, receive on RX+/RX- pair with
the following pinout
•
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Signal
RX+
N/C
RXGND
GND
TX+
N/C
TX-
Direction
Input
RS422 Signal Description
Receive Data
Receive Data
Input
Output
Transmit Data
Output
Transmit Data
For RS-485 it’s 2-wire half duplex
For the RS-485 option, to provide half duplex ‘party-line’ communications over a 2-wire bus (D+/D-), two short
cable loops are required between the RX+/TX+ pins (pins 1 and 6) and RX-/TX- pins (pins 3 and 8) on the serial
RJ-45 cable connector. This is because the -I model uses universal differential transceivers that support 4-wire
(RS-422) and 2-wire (RS-485) operation. In RS-485 mode, the -I model listens on the 2-wire bus for receive data
until it is required to send data. In RS-485 send mode it stops receiving, enables its transmitters when there is
data to be sent, transmits the data and returns to receive mode. This eliminates the possibility of collisions with
other devices which share the RS-485 bus and avoids receiving bogus stale echoed data.
Serial Port Pinouts –LES1102A
The LES1102A supports (by default) two RS232 ports on Port 1 and Port 2 DB9 connectors. Port 2 on the LES1102A can
also be software selected to be an RS485 or RS422 port connected through the screw terminal block (shown below):
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+V DC IN
GND
RX+
RXTX+
TX+3.3V DC OUT
GND
•
RS-422 uses a full duplex transmit on TX+/TX- pair, receive on RX+/RX- pair
•
RS-485 uses half duplex over single pair. The LES1102A supports half duplex ‘party-line’ communications over a
2-wire RS-485 bus (D+/D-). This is enabled by choosing the RS-485 option (instead of RS-232 or RS-422) for
“Signaling Protocol” from the “Serial Port: Configuration” link on the Web management console. In addition two
short cable loops are required between the RX+/TX+ pins and RX-/TX- pins. This is because the LES1102A uses
universal differential transceivers that support 4-wire (RS-422) and 2-wire (RS-485) operation. In RS-485 mode,
Port2 on the LES1102A listens on the 2-wire bus for receive data until it is required to send data. In RS-485 send
mode it stops receiving, enables its transmitters when there is data to be sent, transmits the data and returns to
receive mode. This eliminates the possibility of collisions with other devices which share the RS-485 bus and
avoids receiving stale echoed data.
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Serial Port Pinouts –LES1101A-R2
The LES1101A-R2 has one DB9 serial port that can selected to be an RS232, RS485 or RS422 port. By default the
LES1101A-R2 is configured in RS232 mode (with a vertical jumper in place on the left hand SEL pins).
To set the port in RS-422 or RS-485 mode you must remove the SEL jumper and then configure the Signaling
Protocol using the Management Console.
The DB9 pin-out is:
Pin:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
RS232 RS422
DCD
DCD+
RXD RX TXD
TX +
DTR
DTR+
GND
GND
DSR
RX +
RTS
TX CTS
DCDDTR-
RS485
D+
GND
D-
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RS-422 uses a full duplex transmit on TX+ (Transmit Data +) / TX- (Transmit Data -) pair, receive on RX+ (Receive Data +) /
RX- (Receive Data –) pair.
RS-485 uses half duplex over single pair. For RS-485 which is a 2-wire bus that drives D+ and D- from a native 4-wire
interface you need to loop 3-6 and 2-7 on the DB-9.
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Appendix E
Terminology
TERM MEANING 3G
Third-generation cellular technology. The standards that determine 3G call for greater bandwidth and higher speeds for
cellular networks
AES
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a new block cipher standard to replace DES, developed by NIST, the US
National Institute of Standards and Technology. AES ciphers use a 128-bit block and 128-, 192-, or 256-bit keys. The
larger block size helps resist birthday attacks while the large key size prevents brute force attacks.
APN
Access Point Name (APN) is used by carriers to identify an IP packet data network that a mobile data user wants to
communicate with and the type of wireless service
Authentication
Authentication is the technique by which a process verifies that its communication partner is who it is supposed to be
and not an imposter. Authentication confirms that data is sent to the intended recipient and assures the recipient that
the data originated from the expected sender and has not been altered on route
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System is the built-in software in a computer that are executed on startup (boot) and that determine
what the computer can do without accessing programs from a disk. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to
control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions
Bonding
Ethernet Bonding or Failover is the ability to detect communication failure transparently, and switch from one LAN
connection to another.
BOOTP
Bootstrap Protocol. A protocol that allows a network user to automatically receive an IP address and have an operating
system boot without user interaction. BOOTP is the basis for the more advanced DHCP
Certificates
A digitally signed statement that contains information about an entity and the entity's public key, thus binding these two
pieces of information together. A certificate is issued by a trusted organization (or entity) called a Certification Authority
(CA) after the CA has verified that the entity is who it says it is.
Certificate
A Certificate Authority is a trusted third party, which certifies public key's to truly belong to their claimed owners. It is a
key part of any Public Key Infrastructure, since it allows users to trust that a given public key is the one they wish to
use, either to send a private message to its owner or to verify the signature on a message sent by that owner.
Authority
Certificate
Revocation List
A list of certificates that have been revoked by the CA before they expired. This may be necessary if the private key
certificate has been compromised or if the holder of the certificate is to be denied the ability to establish a connection to
the console server.
CHAP
Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is used to verify a user's name and password for PPP Internet
connections. It is more secure than PAP, the other main authentication protocol.
DES
The Data Encryption Standard is a block cipher with 64-bit blocks and a 56-bit key.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A communications protocol that assigns IP addresses to computers when they
are connected to the network.
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DNS
Domain Name System that allocates Internet domain names and translates them into IP addresses. A domain name is
a meaningful and easy to remember name for an IP address.
DUN
Dial Up Networking
Encryption
The technique for converting a readable message (plaintext) into apparently random material (ciphertext) which cannot
be read if intercepted. The proper decryption key is required to read the message.
Ethernet
A physical layer protocol based upon IEEE standards
Firewall
A network gateway device that protects a private network from users on other networks. A firewall is usually installed to
allow users on an intranet access to the public Internet without allowing public Internet users access to the intranet.
Gateway
A machine that provides a route (or pathway) to the outside world.
Hub
A network device that allows more than one computer to be connected as a LAN, usually using UTP cabling.
Internet
A worldwide system of computer networks - a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining network of networks accessible to
hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The Internet is technically distinguished because it uses the TCP/IP set of
protocols.
Intranet
A private TCP/IP network within an enterprise.
IPMI
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) is a set of common interfaces to a computer system which system
administrators can use to monitor system health and manage the system. The IPMI standard defines the protocols for
interfacing with a service processor embedded into a server platform.
Key lifetimes
The length of time before keys are renegotiated
LAN
Local Area Network
LDAP
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is based on the X.500 standard, but significantly simpler and more
readily adapted to meet custom needs. The core LDAP specifications are all defined in RFCs. LDAP is a protocol used
to access information stored in an LDAP server.
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
MAC address
Every piece of Ethernet hardware has a unique number assigned to it called its MAC address. Ethernet is used locally
to connect the console server to the Internet, and it may share the local network with many other appliances. The MAC
address is used by the local Internet router in order to direct console server traffic to it rather than somebody else in the
local area. It is a 48-bit number usually written as a series of 6 hexadecimal octets, e.g. 00:d0:cf:00:5b:da. A console
server has a MAC address listed on a label underneath the device.
MSCHAP
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MSCHAP) is authentication for PPP connections between a
computer using a Microsoft Windows operating system and a network access server. It is more secure than PAP or
CHAP, and is the only option that also supports data encryption.
NAT
Network Address Translation. The translation of an IP address used on one network to an IP address on another
network. Masquerading is one particular form of NAT.
Net mask
The way that computers know which part of a TCP/IP address refers to the network, and which part refers to the host
range.
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NFS
Network File System is a protocol that allows file sharing across a network. Users can view, store, and update files on a
remote computer.
NTP
Network Time Protocol (NTP) used to synchronize clock times in a network of computers
OUT OF BAND
Out-of-Band (OOB) management is any management done over channels and interfaces that are separate from those
used for user/customer data. Examples would include a serial console interface or a network interface connected to a
dedicated management network that is not used to carry customer traffic, or to a BMC/service processor. Any
management done over the same channels and interfaces used for user/customer data is In Band.
PAP
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is the usual method of user authentication used on the internet: sending a
username and password to a server where they are compared with a table of authorized users. Whilst most common,
PAP is the least secure of the authentication options.
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol. A networking protocol for establishing simple links between two peers.
RADIUS
The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol was developed by Livingston Enterprises as an
access server authentication and accounting protocol. The RADIUS server can support a variety of methods to
authenticate a user. When it is provided with the username and original password given by the user, it can support
PPP, PAP or CHAP, UNIX login, and other authentication mechanisms.
Router
A network device that moves packets of data. A router differs from hubs and switches because it is "intelligent" and can
route packets to their final destination.
SIM
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card stores unique serial numbers and security authentication used to identify a
subscriber on mobile telephony devices
SMASH
Systems Management Architecture for Server Hardware is a standards-based protocols aimed at increasing
productivity of the management of a data center. The SMASH Command Line Protocol (SMASH CLP) specification
provides an intuitive interface to heterogeneous servers independent of machine state, operating system or OS state,
system topology or access method. It is a standard method for local and remote management of server hardware using
out-of-band communication
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. console server includes, SMTPclient, a minimal SMTP client that takes an email
message body and passes it on to a SMTP server (default is the MTA on the local host).
SOL
Serial Over LAN (SOL) enables servers to transparently redirect the serial character stream from the baseboard
universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) to and from the remote-client system over a LAN. With SOL
support and BIOS redirection (to serial) remote managers can view the BIOS/POST output during power on, and
reconfigured.
SSH
Secure Shell is secure transport protocol based on public-key cryptography.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer is a protocol that provides authentication and encryption services between a web server and a
web browser.
TACACS+
The Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) security protocol is a more recent protocol
developed by Cisco. It provides detailed accounting information and flexible administrative control over the
authentication and authorization processes. TACACS+ allows for a single access control server (the TACACS+
daemon) to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services independently. Each service can be tied into
its own database to take advantage of other services available on that server or on the network, depending on the
capabilities of the daemon. There is a draft RFC detailing this protocol.
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TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The basic protocol for Internet communication.
TCP/IP address
Fundamental Internet addressing method that uses the form nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn.
Telnet
Telnet is a terminal protocol that provides an easy-to-use method of creating terminal connections to a network.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time.
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair cabling. A type of Ethernet cable that can operate up to 100Mb/s. Also known as Category 5 or
CAT 5.
VNC
Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is a desktop protocol to remotely control another computer. It transmits the keyboard
presses and mouse clicks from one computer to another relaying the screen updates back in the other direction, over a
network.
VPN
Virtual Private Network (VPN) a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure and Internet, to provide
remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network
WAN
Wide Area Network
WINS
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) that manages the association of workstation names and locations with IP
addresses
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Appendix F
End User License Agreement
READ BEFORE USING THE ACCOMPANYING SOFTWARE
YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE USING THE
ACCOMPANYING SOFTWARE, THE USE OF WHICH IS LICENSED FOR USE ONLY AS SET FORTH BELOW. IF
YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT, DO NOT USE THE
SOFTWARE. IF YOU USE ANY PART OF THE SOFTWARE, SUCH USE WILL INDICATE THAT YOU ACCEPT
THESE TERMS.
You have acquired a product that includes Black Box (“Black Box”) proprietary software and/or proprietary software
licensed to Black Box. This Black Box End User License Agreement (“EULA”) is a legal agreement between you
(either an individual or a single entity) and Black Box for the installed software product of Black Box origin, as well as
associated media, printed materials, and “online” or electronic documentation (“Software”). By installing, copying,
downloading, accessing, or otherwise using the Software, you agree to be bound by the terms of this EULA. If you
do not agree to the terms of this EULA, Black Box is not willing to license the Software to you. In such event, do not
use or install the Software. If you have purchased the Software, promptly return the Software and all accompanying
materials with proof of purchase for a refund.
Products with separate end user license agreements that may be provided along with the Software are licensed to
you under the terms of those separate end user license agreements.
LICENSE GRANT. Subject to the terms and conditions of this EULA, Black Box grants you a nonexclusive right and
license to install and use the Software on a single CPU, provided that, (1) you may not rent, lease, sell, sublicense or
lend the Software; (2) you may not reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or modify the Software, except and
only to the extent that such activity is expressly permitted by applicable law notwithstanding this limitation; and (3)
you may not transfer rights under this EULA unless such transfer is part of a permanent sale or transfer of the
Product, you transfer at the same time all copies of the Software to the same party or destroy such materials not
transferred, and the recipient agrees to this EULA.
No license is granted in any of the Software’s proprietary source code. This license does not grant you any rights to
patents, copyright, trade secrets, trademarks or any other rights with respect to the Software.
You may make a reasonable number of copies of the electronic documentation accompanying the Software for each
Software license you acquire, provided that, you must reproduce and include all copyright notices and any other
proprietary rights notices appearing on the electronic documentation. Black Box reserves all rights not expressly
granted herein.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. The Software is protected by copyright laws, international copyright treaties,
and other intellectual property laws and treaties. Black Box and its suppliers retain all ownership of, and intellectual
property rights in (including copyright), the Software components and all copies thereof, provided however, that (1)
certain components of the Software, including SDT Connector, are components licensed under the GNU General
Public License Version 2, which Black Box supports, and (2) the SDT Connector includes code from JSch, a pure
Java implementation of SSH2 which is licensed under BSD style license. Copies of these licenses are detailed below
and Black Box will provide source code for any of the components of the Software licensed under the GNU General
Public License upon request.
EXPORT RESTRICTIONS. You agree that you will not export or re-export the Software, any part thereof, or any
process or service that is the direct product of the Software in violation of any applicable laws or regulations of the
United States or the country in which you obtained them.
U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS. The Software and related documentation are provided with Restricted
Rights. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions set forth in subparagraph (c) (1)
(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c) (1)
and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software – Restricted Rights at 48 C.F.R. 52.227-19, as applicable, or any
successor regulations.
TERM AND TERMINATION. This EULA is effective until terminated. The EULA terminates immediately if you fail to
comply with any term or condition. In such an event, you must destroy all copies of the Software. You may also
terminate this EULA at any time by destroying the Software.
GOVERNING LAW AND ATTORNEY’S FEES. This EULA is governed by the laws of the State of Utah, USA,
excluding its conflict of law rules. You agree that the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International
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Sale of Goods is hereby excluded in its entirety and does not apply to this EULA. If you acquired this Software in a
country outside of the United States, that country’s laws may apply. In any action or suit to enforce any right or
remedy under this EULA or to interpret any provision of this EULA, the prevailing party will be entitled to recover its
costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees.
ENTIRE AGREEMENT. This EULA constitutes the entire agreement between you and Black Box with respect to the
Software, and supersedes all other agreements or representations, whether written or oral. The terms of this EULA
can only be modified by express written consent of both parties. If any part of this EULA is held to be unenforceable
as written, it will be enforced to the maximum extent allowed by applicable law, and will not affect the enforceability of
any other part.
Should you have any questions concerning this EULA, or if you desire to contact Black Box for any reason, please
contact the Black Box representative serving your company.
THE FOLLOWING DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY IS INCORPORATED INTO THIS
EULA BY REFERENCE. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT FAULT TOLERANT. YOU HAVE INDEPENDENTLY
DETERMINED HOW TO USE THE SOFTWARE IN THE DEVICE, AND BLACK BOX HAS RELIED UPON YOU TO
CONDUCT SUFFICIENT TESTING TO DETERMINE THAT THE SOFTWARE IS SUITABLE FOR SUCH USE.
LIMITED WARRANTY Black Box warrants the media containing the Software for a period of ninety (90) days from the
date of original purchase from Black Box or its authorized retailer. Proof of date of purchase will be required. Any
updates to the Software provided by Black Box (which may be provided by Black Box at its sole discretion) shall be
governed by the terms of this EULA. In the event the product fails to perform as warranted, Black Box’s sole
obligation shall be, at Black Box’s discretion, to refund the purchase price paid by you for the Software on the
defective media, or to replace the Software on new media. Black Box makes no warranty or representation that its
Software will meet your requirements, will work in combination with any hardware or application software products
provided by third parties, that the operation of the software products will be uninterrupted or error free, or that all
defects in the Software will be corrected.
BLACK BOX DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. OTHER THAN AS STATED HEREIN, THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO SATISFACTORY QUALITY,
PERFORMANCE, ACCURACY, AND EFFORT IS WITH YOU. ALSO, THERE IS NO WARRANTY AGAINST
INTERFERENCE WITH YOUR ENJOYMENT OF THE SOFTWARE OR AGAINST INFRINGEMENT. IF YOU HAVE
RECEIVED ANY WARRANTIES REGARDING THE DEVICE OR THE SOFTWARE, THOSE WARRANTIES DO
NOT ORIGINATE FROM, AND ARE NOT BINDING ON, BLACK BOX.
NO LIABILITY FOR CERTAIN DAMAGES. EXCEPT AS PROHIBITED BY LAW, BLACK BOX SHALL HAVE NO
LIABILITY FOR COSTS, LOSS, DAMAGES OR LOST OPPORTUNITY OF ANY TYPE WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOST OR ANTICIPATED PROFITS, LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF DATA, OR ANY
INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER UNDER CONTRACT, TORT,
WARRANTY OR OTHERWISE ARISING FROM OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS EULA OR THE USE OR
PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE. IN NO EVENT SHALL BLACK BOX BE LIABLE FOR ANY AMOUNT IN
EXCESS OF THE LICENSE FEE PAID TO BLACK BOX UNDER THIS EULA. SOME STATES AND COUNTRIES
DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES, SO THIS LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
JSch License
SDT Connector includes code from JSch, a pure Java implementation of SSH2. JSch is licensed under BSD style
license and it is:
Copyright (c) 2002, 2003, 2004 Atsuhiko Yamanaka, JCraft,Inc. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
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2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. The names of the authors may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT
NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL JCRAFT, INC. OR ANY CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS
SOFTWARE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
SDT Connector License
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying
it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such
program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under
copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications
and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term
"modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope.
The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents
constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is
true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium,
provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and
give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection
in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the
Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you
also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of
any change.
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b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the
Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this
License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started
running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an
appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and
that users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work
based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from
the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License,
and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute
the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on
the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and
every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the
intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on
the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable
form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under
the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than
your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding
source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. (This
alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or
executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable
work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface
definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special
exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or
binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the
executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering
equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even
though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License.
Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate
your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will
not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you
permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do
not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program),
you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or
modifying the Program or works based on it.
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6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives
a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not
responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited
to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the
conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as
to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a
consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free
redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you
could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the
section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest
validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution
system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the
wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to
the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted
interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical
distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus
excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time
to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new
problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License
which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that
version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are
different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software
Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be
guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
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OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
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