BENDIX TU-FLO 501 AIR COMPRESSOR Specifications

BENDIX TU-FLO 501 AIR COMPRESSOR Specifications
SD-01-337*
®
TU-FLO® 501 AIR COMPRESSOR
*Formerly SD-01-3
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
General
The function of the air compressor is to provide and maintain
air under pressure to operate devices in the air brake and/
or auxiliary air systems.
Description
The Tu-Flo 501 is a two cylinder, single stage, reciprocating
compressor with a rated displacement of 12 cubic feet of
air per minute at 1250 R.P.M.
The Tu-Flo 501 is constructed from two major assemblies,
the head and the crankcase. The head houses the discharge
valving and is installed on the upper portion of the crankcase.
The crankcase is a one piece casting combining the cylinder
block and the crankcase. The upper portion of the casting
houses the cylinder bores and inlet valving; and the lower
portion, the crankshaft and main bearings. Various mounting
and drive configurations, required by the numerous vehicle
engine designs, are obtained by bolting different mounting
flanges, end covers, and base adapters to the crankcase.
Two horizontal governor mounting pads are located on either
side of the upper portion of the crankcase to provide
convenient governor mounting.
Two methods are employed for cooling the Tu-Flo 501 during
operation. The cylinder head is connected to the engine’s
cooling system, while the cylinder bore portion of the
crankcase has external fins for efficient air cooling.
1
D-1
D-2
D-3
FIGURE 1 - VARIOUS COMPRESSOR MOUNTINGS
All Tu-Flo 501 compressors utilize the engine’s pressurized
oil system to lubricate the internal moving parts.
A nameplate is attached to the crankcase to identify the
compressor. The nameplate displays a Bendix piece number
or in some cases an engine or vehicle manufacturer’s piece
number, along with a serial number.
open inlet valve and into the cylinder (see Fig. 3). As the
piston begins its upward stroke, the air that was drawn into
the cylinder on the down stroke is being compressed. Air
pressure on top of the inlet valve plus the force of its spring,
returns the inlet valve to its seat. The piston continues the
upward stroke and compressed air then flows by the open
discharge valve, into the discharge line and on to the
reservoirs (see Fig. 4). As the piston reaches the top of its
stroke and starts down, the discharge valve spring and air
pressure in the discharge line returns the discharge valve
to its seat. This prevents the compressed air in the discharge
line from returning to the cylinder bore as the intake and
compression cycle is repeated.
Non-Compression of Air (Unloaded)
FIGURE 2 - COMPRESSOR NAMEPLATE
OPERATION
General
The compressor is driven by the vehicle engine and is
operating continuously while the engine is running. Actual
compression of air is controlled by the compressor unloading
mechanism and the governor. The governor is generally
mounted on the compressor and maintains the brake system
air pressure to a preset maximum and minimum pressure
level.
Intake and Compression of Air (Loaded)
During the down stroke of the piston, a slight vacuum is
created between the top of the piston and the head, causing
the flat circular inlet valve to move up and off its seat. (Note
the flat square discharge valve remains on its seat.)
Atmospheric air is drawn through the air strainer by the
2
When air pressure in the reservoir reaches the cut-out setting
of the governor, the governor allows air to pass from the
reservoir into the cavity beneath the unloader pistons. This
lifts the unloader pistons and plungers. The plungers move
up and hold the inlet valves off their seats (see Fig. 5).
With the inlet valves held off their seats by the unloader
pistons and plungers, air is pumped back and forth between
the two cylinders. When air is used from the reservoir and
the pressure drops to the cut- in setting of the governor, the
governor closes and exhausts the air from beneath the
unloader pistons. The unloader saddle spring forces the
saddle, pistons and plungers down and the inlet valves return
to their seats. Compression is then resumed.
Lubrication
TO RESERVOIR
INLET VALVE
DISCHARGE
VALVE
UNLOADER
PLUNGER
INTAKE
STRAINER
PISTON
TO GOVERNOR
STROKE
Since all Tu-Flo 501 Compressors are connected to the
engine’s pressurized oil system, a continuous flow of oil is
provided to the compressor, which is eventually returned to
the engine.
Oil is fed into the compressor in various ways, for example:
through the rear end cover, the drive end of the crankshaft
or through the front flange adapter. An oil passage in the
crankshaft conducts pressurized oil to the precision sleeve
main bearings and to the connecting rod bearings. Splash
lubrication of the cylinder bores, connecting rod wrist pin
bushings, and the ball type main bearings, on some models,
is obtained as oil is forced out around the crankshaft journals
by engine oil pressure.
Cooling
FIGURE 3 - INTAKE
TO RESERVOIR
INLET VALVE
UNLOADER
PLUNGER
DISCHARGE
VALVE
Air flowing through the engine compartment from the action
of the engine’s fan and the movement of the vehicle assists
in cooling the crankcase. Coolant flowing from the engine’s
cooling system through connecting lines enters the head
and passes through the head’s water jacket and back to
the engine. Proper cooling is important in maintaining
discharge air temperatures below the maximum 400°F
recommended.
INTAKE
STRAINER
PISTON
TO GOVERNOR
STROKE
FIGURE 4 - COMPRESSION
FIGURE 6 - POLYURETHANE SPONGE STRAINER
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
TO RESERVOIR
INLET VALVE
DISCHARGE
VALVE
UNLOADER
PLUNGER
PISTON
INTAKE
STRAINER
STROKE
TO GOVERNOR
FIGURE 5 - UNLOADING
Every month, 300 operating hours or after each 10,000 miles,
depending on the operating conditions, experience and the
type of strainer used, service the air strainer.
POLYURETHANE SPONGE STRAINER EVERY
5000 MILES OR 150 OPERATING HOURS
Remove and wash all of the parts. The strainer element
should be cleaned or replaced. If the element is cleaned, it
should be washed in a commercial solvent or a detergent
and water solution. The element should be saturated in clean
engine oil, then squeezed dry before replacing it in the
strainer. Be sure to replace the air strainer gasket if the
entire air strainer is removed from the compressor intake.
3
discharge line must be cleaned or replaced and the
compressor checked more thoroughly, paying special
attention to the air induction system, oil supply and return
system, and proper cooling. If necessary, repair or replace
the compressor. Check for proper belt and pulley alignment
and belt tension. Adjust if necessary, paying special
attention not to over tighten the belt tension. Check for noisy
compressor operation, which could indicate a worn drive
gear coupling or a loose pulley. Adjust and/or replace as
necessary. Check all compressor mounting bolts and
retighten evenly if necessary. Check for leakage and proper
unloader mechanism operation. Replace if defective in any
way.
FIGURE 7- PAPER AIR STRAINER
DRY ELEMENT-PLEATED
EVERY 24 MONTHS, 7200 OPERATING HOURS
OR AFTER EACH 200,000 MILES
Perform a thorough inspection as indicated below and
depending upon the results of this inspection or experience,
disassemble the compressor, clean and inspect all parts
thoroughly, repair or replace all worn or damaged parts
using only genuine Bendix replacements or replace the
compressor with a genuine Bendix remanufactured unit.
FIGURE 8- COMPRESSOR INTAKE ADAPTER
IMPORTANT - Should it be necessary to drain the engine
cooling system to prevent damage from freezing, the
cylinder head of the compressor must also be drained.
DRY ELEMENT-PLEATED PAPER AIR
STRAINER
GENERAL SERVICE CHECKS
EVERY 20,000 MILES OR 800 OPERATING HOURS
It is of the utmost importance that the compressor receives
a clean supply of air. The air strainer must be properly
installed and kept clean. If the compressor intake is
connected to the engine air cleaner, supercharger, etc.,
these connections must be properly installed and
maintained. Check the compressor mountings to be sure
they are secure. Check the drive for proper alignment, belt
tension, etc.
Remove the spring clips from either side of mounting baffle
and remove the cover. Replace the pleated paper filter and
remount the cleaned cover making sure the filter is in
position. Be sure to replace the air strainer gasket if the
entire air strainer is removed from the compressor intake.
(NOTE: Some compressors are fitted with compressor intake
adapters which allow the compressor intake to be
connected to the engine air cleaner.)
In this case, the compressor receives a supply of clean air
from the engine air cleaner. When the engine air filter is
changed, the compressor intake adapter should be checked.
If it is loose, remove the intake adapter, clean the strainer
plate, if applicable, and replace the intake adapter gasket,
and reinstall the adapter securely. Check line connections
both at the compressor intake adapter and at the engine air
cleaner. Inspect the connecting line for ruptures and replace
it if necessary.
EVERY 6 MONTHS, 1800 OPERATING HOURS
OR AFTER EACH 50,000 MILES
Remove the discharge head fittings and inspect the
compressor discharge port and discharge line for excessive
carbon deposits. If excessive buildup is noted in either, the
4
Inspection
Inspect the oil supply and return lines. Be sure these lines
are properly installed and that the compressor is getting
the proper supply of oil, and just as important, that the oil is
returning to the engine. Check the coolant lines to and
from the compressor and see that the cooling fins on the
crankcase are not clogged with dirt, grease, etc. Check
the unloader mechanism for proper and prompt operation.
Operating Tests
Vehicles manufactured after the effective date of FMVSS
121, with the minimum required reservoir volume, must have
a compressor capable of raising air system pressure from
85-100 P.S.I. in 25 seconds or less. This test is performed
with the engine operating at maximum governed speed.
The vehicle manufacturer must certify this performance on
gear puller. Inspect the pulley or gear and associated parts
for visible wear or damage. Since these parts are precision
fitted, they must be replaced if they are worn or damaged.
DISASSEMBLY
General
Remove road dirt and grease from the exterior of the
compressor with a cleaning solvent. Before the compressor
is disassembled, the following items should be marked to
show their relationship when the compressor is assembled.
Mark both the front and rear end cover in relation to the
crankcase. Mark the drive end of the crankshaft in relation
to the front end cover and the crankcase. Mark the cylinder
head in relation to the crankcase. Mark the base plate or
base adapter in relation to the crankcase.
FIGURE 9- TU-FLO 501 COMPRESSOR (THRU DRIVE)
EXPLODED VIEW
new vehicles with appropriate allowances for air systems
with greater than the minimum required reservoir volume.
Air Leakage Tests
Leakage past the discharge valves can be detected by
removing the discharge line, applying shop air back through
the discharge port and listening for escaping air. Also, the
discharge valves and the unloader pistons can be checked
for leakage by building up the air system until the governor
cuts out, then stopping the engine. With the engine stopped,
listen for escaping air at the compressor intake. To pinpoint
leakage if noted, apply a small quantity of oil around the
unloader pistons. If there is no noticeable leakage at the
unloader pistons, the discharge valves may be leaking. If
the compressor does not function as described above, or
leakage is excessive, it is recommended that it be returned
to the nearest authorized Bendix Distributor for a factory
remanufactured compressor. If this is not possible, the
compressor can be repaired using genuine Bendix
replacement parts, in which case, the following information
should prove helpful.
REMOVING AND DISASSEMBLY
Removing
These instructions are general and are intended to be a
guide, in some cases additional preparations and
precautions are necessary. Chock the wheels of the vehicle
and drain the air pressure from all the reservoirs in the
system. Drain the engine cooling system and the cylinder
head of the compressor. Disconnect all air, water and oil
lines leading to and from the compressor. Remove the drive
gear(s) or pulley from the compressor crankshaft using a
A convenient method to indicate the above relationship is
to use a metal scribe to mark the parts with numbers or
lines. Do not use a marking method that can be wiped off
or obliterated during rebuilding, such as chalk. Remove all
compressor attachments such as governors, air strainers
or inlet fittings, discharge fittings and pipe plugs.
Cylinder Head
Remove the six cylinder head cap screws and tap the head
with a soft mallet to break the gasket seal. Remove the inlet
valve springs from the head and inlet valves from their guides
in the crankcase. Remove inlet valve guides from around
the inlet valve seats on the crankcase taking care not to
damage seats. Scrape off any gasket material from the
cylinder head and crankcase. Unscrew the discharge valve
seats from the head and remove the discharge valves and
springs. Inspect the discharge valve seats for nicks, cracks,
and excessive wear and replace if necessary.
The discharge valve stops should be inspected for wear
and replaced if excessive peening has occurred. To
determine if excessive peening has occurred, measure the
discharge valve travel. Discharge valve travel must not
exceed .057 inches. To remove the discharge valve stops,
support the machined surface of the cylinder head on an
arbor press bed and gently press the stops from the top of
the head and out the bottom. Be sure to allow sufficient
clearance for the stops between the press bed and the
bottom of the cylinder head. The valve stop bores in the
cylinder head must be inspected for excessive scoring. A
new head body must be used if scoring is excessive.
Discard the inlet valves and springs, the discharge valves
and springs and the discharge valve seats if defective.
Crankcase Base Plate or Adapter
Remove the cap screws securing the base plate or base
adapter. Tap with soft mallet to break the gasket seal. Scrape
off any gasket material from crankcase and plate or adapter.
5
Connecting Rod Assemblies
(Note: Before removing the connecting rods, mark each
connecting rod and its cap. Each connecting rod is
matched to its own cap for proper bearing fit, and
these parts must not be interchanged.)
Straighten the prongs of the connecting rod bolt lock strap
and remove the bolts and bearing caps. Push the piston
with the connecting rods attached out the top of the cylinders
of the crankcase. Replace the bearing caps on their
respective connecting rods. Remove the piston rings from
the pistons. If the pistons are to be removed from the
connecting rods, remove the wrist pin lock wires or teflon
plugs and press the wrist pins from the pistons and
connecting rods.
If the pistons are removed from the rod, inspect the bronze
wrist pin bushing. Press out and replace the bushing if it is
excessively worn. (See inspection of Parts) Discard the
piston rings and the connecting rod journal bearings.
Discard the wrist pin bushings if they were removed.
Crankcase
Remove the key or keys from the crankshaft and any burrs
from the crankshaft where the key or keys were removed.
(Note: Through Drive Compressors may have a crankshaft
key at both ends.)
Remove the four cap screws securing front or drive-end
end cover or flange adapter. Remove the end cover, taking
care not to damage the crankshaft oil seal or front main
bearing, if any. Remove both of the small seal rings from
the crankcase, and the O-Ring from around the front end
cover. Remove the four cap screws securing the rear end
cover and remove the rear end cover taking care not to
damage the rear main bearing, if any. Remove both of the
small seal rings from the crankcase and the O-Ring from
around the end cover. If the compressor has ball type main
bearings, press the crankshaft and ball bearings from the
crankcase, then press the ball bearings from the crankshaft
Remove the unloader spring, spring saddle, and spring seat
from the inlet cavity of the crankcase, using long nose pliers.
Remove the unloader plungers and guides. Cover the inlet
cavity with a shop rag and apply air pressure to the governor
mounting pad unloader port to blow the unloader pistons
out of their bores and into the inlet cavity.
cylinder head body. Scrape all the foreign matter from the
body surfaces and use shop air pressure to blow the dirt
particles from all the cavities.
Crankcase
Clean the carbon and dirt from the inlet and unloader
passages. Use shop air pressure to blow the carbon and
dirt deposits from the unloader passages.
Oil Passages
Thoroughly clean all oil passages through the crankshaft,
crankcase, end covers, and base plate or base adapter.
Inspect the passages with a wire to be sure. Blow the
loosened foreign matter out with air pressure.
INSPECTION OF PARTS
Cylinder Head Body
Inspect the cylinder head for cracks or damage. Apply
shop air pressure to one of the coolant ports with all others
plugged, and check for leakage by applying a soap solution
to the exterior of the body. If leakage is detected, replace
the head.
End Covers
Check for cracks and external damage. If the crankshaft
main bearings are installed in the end cover, check for
excessive wear and flat spots and replace them if necessary.
If the compressor has an oil seal in the end cover, it should
be removed by pressing it out of the end cover.
Crankcase
Check all crankcase surfaces for cracks and damage. On
compressors where ball bearing main bearings are used
the difference between the O.D. of the outer race and the
I.D. of the crankcase hole should be .0000 in. to .0015 in.
loose. This is to maintain the correct press fit. The crankcase
must be replaced if the fit is too loose.
CLEANING OF PARTS
General
All parts should be cleaned in a good commercial grade
solvent and dried prior to inspection.
Cylinder Head
Remove all the carbon deposits from the discharge cavities
and all the rust and scale from the cooling cavities of the
6
FIGURE 10 - MEASURING CYLINDER BORES
On compressors fitted with precision, sleeve main bearings,
the difference between the O.D. of the crankshaft journal
and the main bearing I.D. must not exceed .0065 in. If the
clearance is greater than .0065 in., the end cover or main
bearing must be replaced.
Check the unloader bore bushings to be sure they are not
worn, rusted, or damaged. If these bushings are to be
replaced, they can be removed by running a 1/8 in. pipe
thread tap into the bushing, and inserting a 1/8 in. pipe
threaded rod and pulling the bushing straight up and out.
Do not use an easy-out for removing these bushings. If the
inlet valve seats are worn or damaged, so they cannot be
reclaimed by facing, they should be replaced. Cylinder
bores should be checked with inside micrometers or
calipers. (Fig. 10). Cylinder bores which are scored or out of
round by more than .001 in. or tapered more than .002 in.
should be rebored or honed oversize. Oversized pistons and
piston rings are available in .010 in., .020 in. and .030 in.
oversizes. Cylinder bores must be smooth, straight, and
round. Clearance between the cast iron pistons and cylinder
bores should be between .002 in. minimum and .004 in.
maximum.
PISTON RING
OIL RING
PISTON RING
.002”
.004”
.001”
.003”
Check the crankshaft threads, keyways, tapered ends and
all machined and ground surfaces for wear, scores, or
damage. Standard crankshaft journals are 1.1250 in.
1.1242in. in diameter. If the crankshaft journals are
excessively scored or worn or out of round and cannot be
reground, the crankshaft must be replaced. Connecting
rod bearing inserts are available in .010 in., .020 in. and
.030 in. undersizes for compressors with reground
crankshafts. Main bearing journals must be maintained so
the ball bearings are a snug fit or so that no more than
.0065 in. clearance exists between the precision sleeve
main bearing and the main bearing journals on the
crankshaft. In crankshafts fitted with oil seal rings, the oil
seal ring groove or grooves must not be worn. The ring
groove walls must have a good finish and they must be
square. Check to be sure the oil passages are open through
the crankshaft.
Connecting Rod Bearings
Used bearing inserts must be replaced. Connecting rod
caps are not interchangeable. The locking slots of the
connecting rod and cap should be positioned adjacent to
each other. Clearance between the connecting journal and
the connecting rod bearing must not be less than .0003 in.
or more than .0021 in. after rebuilding.
REPAIRS
CORRECT GAP CLEARANCE
WITH RINGS IN CYLINDER
OIL RING
EXPANDER RING
Crankshaft
.002”
.010”
FIGURE 11 - CORRECT GROOVE CLEARANCE
Pistons
Check the pistons for scores, cracks, or enlarged ring
grooves; replace the pistons if any of these conditions are
found. Measure each piston with a micrometer in relation
to the cylinder bore diameter to be sure the diametral
clearance is between .002 in. minimum and .004 in.
maximum.
Check the fit of the wrist pins to the pistons and connecting
rod bushings. The wrist pin should be a light press fit in the
piston. If the wrist pin is a loose fit, the piston and pin
assembly should be replaced. Check the fit of the wrist pin
in the connecting rod bushing by rocking the piston. This
clearance should not exceed .0007 in. Replace the wrist
pin bushings if excessive clearance is found. Wrist pin
bushings should be reamed to between .5314 in. and .5317
in. after being pressed into the connecting rods.
Check the fit of the piston rings in the piston ring grooves.
Check the ring gap with the rings installed in the cylinder
bores. Refer to Fig. 11 for correct gap and groove clearances.
Discharge Valves, Valve Stops and Seats
If the discharge valve seats merely show signs of slight
wear, they can be dressed by using a lapping stone, grinding
compound and grinding tool. If the discharge valve stops
are to be replaced, an application of a sealer is required,
such as “Locktite Retaining Compound #75.” Be sure that
the press fit between the discharge valve stop outside
diameter and the valve stop bore in the cylinder head is a
minimum of .0008 in. and a maximum of .0028 in. If this fit
can not be maintained, a new cylinder head body must be
used. Be sure to completely support the outside top of the
cylinder head casting, while pressing in the replacement
stops. Install the new discharge valve springs and valves.
Screw in the discharge valve seats. Discharge valve travel
should be between .041 in. to .057 in.
To test for leakage by the discharge valves, apply 100 pounds
of air pressure through the cylinder head discharge port
and apply a soap solution to the discharge valves and seats.
A slight leakage in the form of soap bubbles is permissible.
If excessive leakage is found, leave the air pressure applied
and with the use of a fibre or hardwood dowel and a hammer,
tap the discharge valves off their seats several times. This
will help the valves to seat and should reduce the leakage.
With the air pressure still applied at the discharge port of
7
If the compressor uses a ball type main bearing, press the
ball bearing onto the correct end of the crankshaft. Position
the ball bearing and the crankshaft in the crankcase, making
sure the drive end of the crankshaft is positioned in the
crankcase as marked before disassembly. Carefully press
the crankshaft and ball bearing into the crankcase using
an arbor press.
In the case of compressors with a front ball bearing, place
two small seal rings in the counter-sunk holes at the front of
the crankcase, as well as an end cover gasket Install the
front end cover in the proper position as marked before
disassembly, taking care not to damage the new oil seal.
FIGURE 12 - DISCHARGE
VALVE, VALVE STOP AND
SEAT
FIGURE 13 - INLET VALVE
AND SEAT
the cylinder head, check for leakage around the discharge
valve stops exposed on the top of the cylinder head casting.
No leakage is permitted.
In the case of compressors with a rear ball bearing, place
two small seal rings in the counter-bore at the rear of the
crankcase. In one case a gasket is used and in another a
large O-Ring is placed in the counterbore at the rear of the
crankcase. These are in addition to the seal rings. Install
the rear end cover in the proper position as marked before
Inlet Valves and Seats
SEAL RING
Inlet valves and springs should be replaced, if the inlet valve
seats show signs of slight nicks or scratches. They can be
redressed with a fine piece of emery cloth or by lapping
with a lapping stone, grinding compound and grinding tool.
If the seats are damaged to the extent that they cannot be
reclaimed, they must be replaced. The dimension from the
top of the cylinder block to the inlet valve seat should not
exceed .113 in. nor be less than .101 in.
OLD
O-RING RETAINER
ASSEMBLY
SEAL RING
General Note: All torques specified in this manual are
assembly torques and can be expected to fall off after
assembly is accomplished. Do not retorque after initial
assembly torques fall.
To convert inch pounds of torque to foot pounds of torque,
divide inch pounds by 12.
NEW
inch pounds ÷ 12 = foot pounds
To convert foot pounds of torque to inch pounds of torque,
multiply foot pounds by 12.
foot pounds x 12 = inch pounds
Installing the Crankshaft
Cautionary Note:
All flange mounted compressors must be assembled without
a gasket between the crankcase and flange adapter and
some compressors do not require gaskets on the end cover.
Install the new crankcase gaskets only where they were
removed during disassembly. In service failure of the
compressor will occur if gaskets are used in disregard of
the preceding.
8
FIGURE 14
disassembly. Since June, 1978, the two small seal rings
have been increased slightly in cross section and a retaining
ring added, as shown in Figure 14.
In the case of compressors with a sleeve bearing either
front or rear, place the two small seal rings in the counter-sunk
holes in the crankcase. Caution: An end cover gasket must
not be used. Place the O-Ring seal in the groove around the
flange adapter or the end cover, and affix the thrust washer.
Install the flange adapter or end cover in the proper position
as marked before disassembly, taking care not to damage
the sleeve bearing.
Secure the flange adapter, front or rear end cover to the
crankcase by tightening the four cap screws. See note below
for torque.
Note: For cast iron flange adapters, torque the four 7/16
in. cap screws to 38-45 foot pounds. For die cast
aluminum end covers, torque the four 7/16 in. cap
screws to 25-30 foot pounds. All end covers using
5/16 in. cap screws or stud and nuts are torqued
to 15-18 foot pounds. For through drive compressors
with a cast iron end cover, torque the four 7/16 in.
cap screws to 25-30 foot pounds.
Pistons and Connecting Rods
If new wrist pin bushings are to be used, they should be
pressed into the connecting rods so that the oil hole in the
bushing lines up with the one in the rod. The new bushings
should then be reamed or honed to provide between .0001
in. (.00254 mm) and .0006 in. (.01524 mm) clearance on
the wrist pin. Position the connecting rod in the piston and
press in the wrist pin.
Pistons installed in compressors manufactured prior to
November, 1976, will have the wrist pin secured in the piston
by a lock wire extending through matching holes in wrist
pin and piston boss, anchored in a hole in the side wall of
the piston. If the original pistons are used the wrist pin must
be pressed in so the hole in the wrist pin aligns with that of
the piston and secure same by inserting the new lockwire
through the hole in piston and wrist pin and lock the wire by
snapping the short 900 section into the lockwire hole in the
bottom of the piston.
Compressors built after November, 1976, will have the wrist
pin secured by Teflon buttons in either end of the wrist pin,
allowing the wrist pin to float. The Teflon buttons pc. no.
292392 may be used with either new or old wrist pins. The
later design pistons have two rings above the wrist pin and
one below. Install the piston rings in the correct location
with the ring pipmarks up. Stagger the position of the ring
gaps. Pre-lubricate the piston, piston rings, wrist pins and
connecting rod.
Unloader
A new unloader kit should used when rebuilding. (Figure
13). (Piece Number 279615). The unloader pistons in the kit
are pre-lubricated with a special lubricant piece number
239379 and need no additional lubrication. Install the unloader
pistons in their bores being careful not to cut the O-Rings.
Position the unloader plungers in their guides and slip them
in and over the tops of the pistons. Install the unloader spring
seat in the crankcase inlet cavity; a small hole is drilled in
the crankcase for this purpose. Position the saddle between
the unloader piston guides, so its forks are centered on the
guides. Install the unloader spring, making sure it seats
over the spring seats both in the crankcase and on the saddle.
Position and install the inlet valve guides, then drop the inlet
valves in their guides. The inlet valves should be a loose
sliding fit in the guides.
FIGURE 15 - UNLOADER MECHANISM
Cylinder Head
Install the inlet valve springs in the cylinder head by applying
a turning motion to the spring after it is in the head. The
turning motion should dig the spring wire into the spring
seat in the bottom of the spring bore in the head. Should
this procedure fail after repeated attempts, use a very small
quantity of grease to hold them in place, just enough to
keep the springs from failing out. Place the cylinder head
gasket on the cylinder block. Carefully align the cylinder
head assembly on the block and install the cap screws,
tightening them evenly to a torque of 25-30 foot pounds.
Base Plate or Base Adapter
Position the base plate or base adapter gasket on the
crankcase and install the base plate or base adapter as
marked before disassembly. Tighten the six cap screws
securing the cast iron base adapter evenly to a torque of
38-45 foot pounds, and 12-16 foot pounds for base plate or
aluminum cover.
Testing Rebuilt Compressor
In order to properly test a compressor under operating
conditions, a test rack for correct mounting, cooling,
lubricating, and driving the compressor is necessary. Such
tests are not compulsory if the unit has been carefully rebuilt
by an experienced person. A compressor efficiency or
build-up test can be run which is not too difficult. An engine
lubricated compressor must be connected to an oil supply
line of at least 15 P.S.I. pressure during the test and an oil
return line must be installed to keep the crankcase drained.
Connect to the compressor discharge port, a reservoir with
a volume of 1500 cubic inches, including the volume of
connecting line. With the compressor operating at 2100
R.P.M., the time required to raise the reservoir(s) pressure
from 85 P.S.I. to 100 P.S.I. should not exceed 7 seconds.
During this test, the compressor should be checked for
gasket leakage and noisy operation, as well as unloader
operation and leakage.
9
INSPECTION OF REBUILT UNIT
Check to be sure that covers, plugs, or masking tape are
used to protect all ports if compressor is not to be installed
immediately. Fit the end of all crankshafts with keys, nuts,
and cotter pins as required and then protect the ends against
damage by wrapping with masking tape or friction tape. The
open bottom of a vertical engine lubricated compressors
should be protected against the entrance of dirt during
handling or storage, by installing a temporary cover over
the base.
IMPORTANT! PLEASE READ:
When working on or around air brake systems and
components, the following precautions should be observed:
1 . Always block vehicle wheels. Stop engine when working
under a vehicle. Depleting vehicle air system pressure
may cause vehicle to roll. Keep hands away from
chamber push rods and slack adjusters; they may
automatically apply as system pressure drops.
2. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line containing
air pressure. It may whip as air escapes. Never remove
a component or pipe plug unless you are certain all
system pressure has been depleted.
3. Never exceed recommended air pressure and always
wear safety glasses when working with air pressure.
Never look into air jets or direct them at anyone.
4. Never attempt to disassemble a component until you
have read and understand recommended procedures.
Some components contain powerful springs and injury
can result if not properly disassembled. Use only proper
tools and observe all precautions pertaining to use of
those tools.
5. Use only genuine Bendix replacement parts and
components.
A. Only components, devices, mounting and attaching
hardware specifically designed for use In air brake
systems should be used.
B. Replacement hardware, tubing, hose, fittings, etc.
should be of equivalent size, type length, and strength
as the original equipment.
6. Devices with stripped threads or damaged parts should
be replaced. Repairs requiring machining should not
be attempted.
TABULATED DATA
Number of cylinders
Bore size
Stroke
Piston displacement at 1250 RPM
Piston displacement per revolution
Maximum recommended RPM
(naturally aspirated)
Minimum coolant flow at maximum RPM
Horsepower required at 3000 RPM
against 100 PSI head pressure
Recommended minimum discharge
line size
Recommended minimum oil return
line size
Recommended minimum oil supply
line size
Recommended minimum unloader
line size
Recommended minimum inlet cavity line
size (when compressor is
connected to engine air cleaner)
Recommended minimum coolant line
size
Recommended maximum inlet air
temperature
Recommended maximum discharge
air temperature
Minimum pressure required to unload
2
2.625 in.
1.50 in.
12 cu. ft.
16.5 cu. in.
3000
2.5 gal./min.
4.9 H.P.
5/8 in. OD
Copper Tube
5/8 in. OD Tubing
1/4 in. OD Tubing
1/4 in. OD Tubing
5/8 in. ID minimum
1/2 in. OD Tubing
250°F
400°F
60 PSI
COMPRESSOR TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
1. Compressor passes
excessive oil as evidenced
by presence of oil at exhaust
ports of valving or seeping
from airstrainer.
A. Restricted air
intake.
B. Restricted oil return
(to engine)
10
A. Check engine or compressor air
cleaner and replace if necessary.
Check compressor air inlet line for
kinks, excessive bends and be certain
inlet lines have the minimum specified
inside diameter. Recommended
minimum inlet line inside diameter is
5/8". Recommended maximum air inlet
restriction is 25" of water.
B. Oil return to the engine should not be in
any way restricted. Check for excessive
bends, kinks, and restrictions in the oil
return line. Minimum recommended oil
return line size is 5/8" O.D. tubing or
equivalent I.D. (1/2" minimum). Return
line must CONSTANTLY DESCEND
from the compressor to the engine
crankcase. Make certain oil drain
passages in the compressor and
SYMPTOMS
2.
Noisy compressor operation.
CAUSE
C. Poorly filtered inlet air.
C.
D. Insufficient compressor
cooling (compressor runs
hot).
D.
E. Contaminants not being
regularly drained from
system reservoirs.
E.
F.
F.
Compressor runs loaded
an excessive amount of
time.
G. Excessive engine
crankcase pressure.
G.
H. Excessive engine oil
pressure.
H.
I.
I.
Faulty compressor.
A. Loose drive gear or pulley.
A.
REMEDY
mating engine surfaces are unobstructed
and aligned. Special care must be taken
when sealants are used with, or instead
of, gaskets.
Check for damaged, defective or dirty air
filter on engine or compressor. Check for
leaking, damaged or defective
compressor air intake components (e.g.,
induction line, fittings, gaskets, filter
bodies, etc). The compressor intake
should not be connected to any part of the
exhaust gas recirculation (E.G.R.) system
on the engine.
For air-cooled compressor or air-cooled
portions of the compressor:
1. Remove accumulated grease, grime,
or dirt from the cooling fins. Replace
components found damaged.
2. Check for damaged cooling fins.
Replace components found damaged.
3. Air-cooled compressors should not be
used on engines equipped with fan clutches.
For water-cooled compressor or water
cooled portions of the compressor:
1 . Check for proper coolant line sizes.
Minimum recommended size is 1/2" O.D.
tubing.
2. Check the coolant flow through the
compressor. Minimum allowable flow is 2.5
gallons per minute at engine governed
speed. If low coolant flow is detected,
inspect the coolant lines and fittings for
accumulated rust scale, kinks and
restrictions.
3. Water temperature should not exceed
200°F.
4. Optimum cooling is achieved when
engine coolant flows into the com ` pressor
cylinder block at one end and out the
compressor cylinder head at the opposite
end.
Check reservoir drain valves to insure that
they are functioning properly. It is
recommended that the vehicle should be
equipped with functioning automatic drain
valves, or have all reservoirs drained to
zero (0) psi daily, or optimally to be
equipped with a desiccant-type air dryer
prior to the reservoir system.
Vehicle system leakage should not
exceed industry standards of 1 psi
pressure drop per minute without brakes
applied, and 3 psi pressure drop per
minute with brakes applied. If leakage is
excessive, check for system leaks and
repair.
Test for excessive engine crankcase
pressure and replace or repair crankcase
ventilation components as necessary. (An
indication of crankcase pressure is a
loose or partially lifted dipstick.)
Check the engine oil pressure with a test
gauge and compare the reading to the
engine specifications. Bendix does not
recommend restricting the compressor
oil supply line because of the possibility
of plugging the restriction with oil
contaminants. Minimum oil supply line
size is 1/4" O.D. tubing.
Replace or repair the compressor only after
making certain none of the preceding
installation defects exist.
Inspect the fit of the drive gear on pulley
on the compressor crankshaft. The pulley
on gear must be completely seated and
the crankshaft nut must be tight. If the
compressor crankshaft surface or its
keyway are damaged, it is an indication of
11
SYMPTOMS
3. Excessive build-up and
recovery time. Compressor should
be capable of building air system
from 85-100 psi in 40 seconds
with engine at full governed rpm.
Minimum compressor
performance is certified to meet
Federal requirements by the
vehicle manufacturer. Do not
downsize the original equipment
compressor.
CAUSE
B. Excessively worn drive
couplings or gears.
B.
C. Compressor cylinder head
or discharge line
restrictions.
C.
D. Worn or burned out
bearings.
D.
E. Faulty compressor.
E.
A. Dirty induction air filter.
A.
B. Restricted induction line.
B.
C. Restricted discharge line or
compressor discharge
cavity.
C.
D. Slipping drive components.
D.
E. Excessive air system
leakage.
E.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
F.
12
Sticking unloader pistons
F.
REMEDY
loose drive components. If damage to the
compressor crankshaft is detected,
replace the compressor or the crankshaft.
When in stalling the drive gear or pulley,
torque the crankshaft nut to 100 foot
pounds. DO NOT BACK OFF THE
CRANKSHAFT NUT TO ALIGN THE
COTTER PIN AND CASTELLATED NUT.
(Some compressors do not use
castellated nuts.) DO NOT USE IMPACT
WRENCHES.
Inspect drive gear and couplings and
engine for excessive wear. Replace as
necessary. (Nonmetallic gears should be
replaced when the compressor is
changed.) 501 drive gear should be
metal-type on Detroit Diesel engine.
Inspect the compressor discharge port
and discharge line for carbon build-up. If
carbon is detected, check for proper
cooling to the compressor. (See Cause
and Remedy (D) under Symptom #1.)
Inspect the discharge line for kinks and
restrictions. Replace discharge line as
necessary.
Check for proper oil pressure in the
compressor. Minimum required oil
pressure, 5 psi engine idling, 15 psi
maximum governed engine rpm. Check
for excessive oil temperature - should not
exceed 240° F.
Replace or repair the compressor after
determining none of the preceding
installation defects exist.
Inspect engine or compressor air filter
and replace if necessary.
Inspect the compressor air induction line
for for kinks and restrictions and replace
as necessary.
Inspect the compressor discharge port
and compressor discharge cavity. line for
restrictions and carbon build-up. If a
carbon build-up is found, check for proper
compressor cooling. Replace faulty
sections of the discharge line.
Check for faulty drive gears and couplings
and replace as necessary. Check the
condition of drive belts and replace or
tighten, whichever is appropriate.
Test for excessive system leakage and
repair as necessary. Use the following as
a guide: Build system pressure to
governor cutout and allow the pressure to
stabilize for one minute. Using the dash
gauge, note the system pressure and the
pressure drop after two minutes. The
pressure drop for Pre-1975 vehicles
should not exceed:
4 psi for a single vehicle.
6 psi for a tractor trailer.
10 psi for a tractor and 2 trailers. The
pressure drop for Post-1975 vehicles should
not exceed:
2 psi in each reservoir for a single vehicle.
6 psi in each reservoir for a tractor and trailer.
8 psi in each reservoir for a tractor and 2
trailers.
Check the operation of the unloading
pistons in the inlet cavity of the
compressor. Both pistons should have
the plunger flanges resting on the inlet
cavity floor when the compressor is
loaded (pumping air). If the pistons and
plunger are not fully retracted, check for
proper operation of the compressor air
governor. If the governor is operating
properly, replace the unloader pistons
SYMPTOMS
4.
5.
CAUSE
Compressor fails to unload.
Compressor leaks oil.
6. Compressor constantly cycles
(compressor remains unloaded for a
very short time.)
G. Faulty compressor.
G.
A. Faulty governor or
governor installation.
A.
B. Faulty or worn unloader
pistons or bores.
B.
A. Damaged mounting
gasket.
A.
B. Cracked crankcase,
cylinder block or end
cover.
B.
C. Loose end cover or
cylinder block cap screws.
D. Loose oil supply or return
line fittings.
E. Porous compressor
casting.
F. Mounting flange or end
cover, O-Ring or
gasketmissing, cut, or
damaged.
A. Leaking compressor
unloader pistons.
C.
B. Faulty governor.
C. Excessive system
leakage.
7.
Compressor leaks coolant.
D. Excessive reservoir
contaminants.
A. Improperly installed plugs
and coolant line fittings.
B. Freeze cracks due to
improper anti-freeze
strength.
C. Faulty compressor
(porous castings).
8.
Compressor head gasket failure.
A. Restricted discharge line.
B. Loose head bolts.
C. Faulty compressor or
head gasket.
D.
E.
F.
REMEDY
and plungers and inspect their bores in the
cylinder block. Clean lubricate as
necessary. Inspect for bent, kinked or
blocked tubing leading to or from the
governor.
Replace or repair the compressor after
determining none of the preceding
installation defects exist.
Test the governor for proper operation and
inspect air lines to and from the governor for
kinks or restrictions. Replace or repair the
governor or its connecting air lines.
Inspect for worn, dirty or corroded unloader
pistons and their cylinder block bores.
Replace as necessary.
Check the compressor mounting bolt
torque. If the mounting bolt torque is low,
replace the compressor mounting gasket
before retorquing the mounting bolts.
Visually inspect the compressor exterior for
cracked or broken components. Cracked or
broken crankcases or mounting flanges
can be caused by loose mounting bolts.
The end cover can be cracked by over
torquing fitting or plugs installed in the end
cover. Replace or repair the compressor as
necessary.
Check the cap screw torques and tighten as
necessary.
Check the torque of external oil line fittings
and tighten as necessary.
Replace the compressor if porosity is
found.
Replace as necessary.
A. Remove the compressor inlet air strainer or
fitting. With the compressor unloaded (not
compressing air), check for air leakage
around the unloader pistons. Replace as
necessary.
B. Test the governor for proper operation and
repair or replace as necessary.
C. Test for excessive system leakage as
instructed in Symptom 3, Remedy E.
Reduce leakage wherever possible.
D. Drain reservoirs. contaminants.
A. Check torque of fittings and plugs and
tighten as necessary. Over-torque fittings
and plugs can crack the head or block
casting.
B. Test anti-freeze and strengthen as improper
anti-freeze necessary. Check coolant flow
through compressor to assure the proper
anti-freeze mixture reaches the compressor.
C. If casting porosity is detected, replace the
compressor.
A. Clear restriction or replace line.
B. Tighten evenly to a torque of 25-30 foot
pounds.
C. Check for rough or poorly machined head or
block surfaces. Replace necessary
components.
BW1421 © 2002 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC All rights reserved. 3/2002 Printed in U.S.A
13
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement