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LM4995

November 19, 2009

1.3 W Audio Power Amplifier

General Description

The LM4995 is an audio power amplifier primarily designed for demanding applications in mobile phones and other portable communication device applications. It is capable of delivering 1.2W of continuous average power to an 8

BTL load with less than 1% distortion (THD+N) from a 5V

DC supply.

power

Boomer audio power amplifiers were designed specifically to provide high quality output power with a minimal amount of external components. The LM4995 does not require output coupling capacitors or bootstrap capacitors, and therefore is ideally suited for mobile phone and other low voltage applications where minimal power consumption is a primary requirement.

The LM4995 features a low-power consumption shutdown mode, which is achieved by driving the shutdown pin with logic low. Additionally, the LM4995 features an internal thermal shutdown protection mechanism.

The LM4995 contains advanced pop & click circuitry which eliminates noise which would otherwise occur during turn-on and turn-off transitions.

The LM4995 is unity-gain stable and can be configured by external gain-setting resistors.

Key Specifications

■ 

PSRR at 3.6V (217Hz & 1kHz)

■ 

Output Power at 5.0V, 1% THD+N, 8

■ 

Output Power at 3.6V, 1% THD+N, 8

■ 

Shutdown Current

75dB

1.3W (typ)

Features

Available in space-saving 0.4mm pitch

μ

SMD package

Ultra low current shutdown mode

BTL output can drive capacitive loads

Improved pop & click circuitry eliminates noise during turnon and turn-off transitions

2.4 - 5.5V operation

No output coupling capacitors, snubber networks or bootstrap capacitors required

Unity-gain stable

External gain configuration capability

LLP package: 0.5mm pitch, 3 x 3 mm

Applications

Mobile Phones

PDAs

Portable electronic devices

625mW (typ)

0.01µA (typ)

Typical Application

FIGURE 1. Typical Audio Amplifier Application Circuit

201599d3

Boomer® is a registered trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation.

© 2009 National Semiconductor Corporation 201599 www.national.com

Connection Diagrams

TM Package TM Marking

20159903

Top View

Order Number LM4995TM

See NS Package Number TMD09AAA

SD Package

Top View

Order Number LM4995SD

See NS Package Number SDA08A

20159957

Top View

X - Date Code

V - Die Traceability

G - Boomer Family

G8 - LM4995TM

SD Marking

20159949

Top View

Z - Assembly Plant code

XY - 2 Digit date code

TT - Die Traceability

L4995 - LM4995SD

20159999 www.national.com

2

Absolute Maximum Ratings

(

Note 2

)

If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/

Distributors for availability and specifications.

Supply Voltage (

Note 10

)

Storage Temperature

Input Voltage

Power Dissipation (

Note 3

,

Note

11

)

ESD Susceptibility (

Note 4

)

ESD Susceptibility (

Note 5

)

6.0V

−65°C to +150°C

−0.3V to V

DD

+0.3V

Internally Limited

2000V

200V

Junction Temperature

Thermal Resistance

 θ

JA

(TM)

 θ

JA

(SD)

Operating Ratings

Temperature Range

T

MIN

T

A

T

MAX

Supply Voltage

150°C

96.5°C/W

56°C/W

−40°C

T

A

85°C

2.4V

V

DD

5.5V

I

DD

I

SD

V

OS

P o

Electrical Characteristics V

DD

= 5V

(

Note 1

,

Note 2

)

The following specifications apply for the circuit shown in Figure 1, unless otherwise specified. Limits apply for T

A

= 25°C.

Symbol

T

WU

THD+N

PSRR

V

SDIH

V

SDIL

Parameter

Quiescent Power Supply Current

Shutdown Current

Output Offset Voltage

Output Power

Wake-up time

Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise

Power Supply Rejection Ratio

Shutdown Voltage Input High

Shutdown Voltage Input Low

Conditions

V

IN

= 0V, I o

= 0A, No Load

V

IN

= 0V, I o

= 0A, 8

Load

V

SD

= V

GND

No Load

THD+N = 1% (max); f = 1 kHz

P o

= 500mW

RMS

; f = 1kHz

V ripple

= 200mV sine p-p

Input terminated to GND

Typical

(

Note 6

)

LM4995

Limit

(

Note 7

,

Note

8

)

1.5

2.5

1.8

0.01

5

1.3 (TM)

1.25 (SD)

165

0.08

73 (f = 217Hz)

73 (f = 1kHz)

1.5

1.2

1

26

Units

(Limits)

mA (max) mA

µA (max) mV (max)

W ms

% dB

V

V

Symbol

I

DD

I

SD

V

OS

P o

Electrical Characteristics V

DD

= 3.6V

(

Note 1

,

Note 2

)

The following specifications apply for the circuit shown in Figure 1, unless otherwise specified. Limits apply for T

A

= 25°C.

T

WU

THD+N

PSRR

V

SDIH

V

SDIL

Parameter

Quiescent Power Supply Current

Shutdown Current

Output Offset Voltage

Output Power

Wake-up time

Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise

Power Supply Rejection Ratio

Shutdown Voltage Input High

Shutdown Voltage Input Low

Conditions

V

IN

= 0V, I o

= 0A, No Load

V

IN

= 0V, I o

= 0A, 8

Load

V

SD

= V

GND

No Load

THD+N = 1% (max); f = 1 kHz

P o

= 300mW

RMS

; f = 1kHz

V ripple

= 200mV sine p-p

Input terminated to GND

LM4995

Typical

(

Note 6

)

Limit

(

Note 7

,

Note

8

)

1.3

2.3

1.6

0.01

5

625 (TM)

610 (SD)

130

0.07

75 (f = 217Hz)

76 (f = 1kHz)

1.3

1

1

26

Units

(Limits)

mA (max) mA

µA (max) mV (max) mW ms

% dB

V

V

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Electrical Characteristics V

DD

= 3.0V

(

Note 1

,

Note 2

)

The following specifications apply for the circuit shown in Figure 1, unless otherwise specified. Limits apply for T

A

= 25°C.

Symbol Parameter Conditions

Typical

(

Note 6

)

LM4995

Limit

(

Note 7

,

Note

8

)

1.3

I

DD

I

SD

V

OS

P o

T

WU

THD+N

Quiescent Power Supply Current

Shutdown Current

Output Offset Voltage

Output Power

Wake-up time

Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise

V

IN

= 0V, I o

= 0A, No Load

V

IN

= 0V, I o

= 0A, 8

Load

V

SD

= V

GND

No Load

THD+N = 1% (max); f = 1 kHz

1.6

0.01

5

400

110

0.07

Units

(Limits)

mA mA

µA mV mW ms

%

PSRR

V

SDIH

V

SDIL

Power Supply Rejection Ratio

Shutdown Voltage Input High

Shutdown Voltage Input Low

P o

= 250mW

RMS

; f = 1kHz

V ripple

= 200mV sine p-p

Input terminated to GND

74 (f = 217Hz)

75 (f = 1kHz)

1.2

1 dB

V

V

Note 1:

All voltages are measured with respect to the ground pin, unless otherwise specified.

Note 2:

Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits. Electrical Characteristics state DC and AC electrical specifications under particular test conditions which guarantee specific performance limits. This assumes that the device is within the Operating Ratings. Specifications are not guaranteed for parameters where no limit is given, however, the typical value is a good indication of device performance.

Note 3:

The maximum power dissipation must be derated at elevated temperatures and is dictated by T

JMAX

, θ

JA

, and the ambient temperature T

A

. The maximum allowable power dissipation is P

DMAX curves for additional information.

= (T

JMAX

–T

A

)/θ

JA

or the number given in Absolute Maximum Ratings, whichever is lower. For the LM4995, see power derating

Note 4:

Human body model, 100pF discharged through a 1.5k

resistor.

Note 5:

Machine Model, 220pF–240pF discharged through all pins.

Note 6:

Typicals are measured at 25°C and represent the parametric norm.

Note 7:

Limits are guaranteed to National's AOQL (Average Outgoing Quality Level).

Note 8:

Datasheet min/max specification limits are guaranteed by design, test, or statistical analysis.

Note 9:

R

OUT

is measured from the output pin to ground. This value represents the parallel combination of the 10k

output resistors and the two 20k

resistors.

Note 10:

If the product is in Shutdown mode and V

DD

exceeds 6V (to a max of 8V V

DD

), then most of the excess current will flow through the ESD protection circuits. If the source impedance limits the current to a max of 10mA, then the device will be protected. If the device is enabled when V

DD

is greater than 5.5V

and less than 6.5V, no damage will occur, although operation life will be reduced. Operation above 6.5V with no current limit will result in permanent damage.

Note 11:

Maximum power dissipation in the device (P

DMAX

) occurs at an output power level significantly below full output power. P

DMAX

can be calculated using

Equation 1 shown in the Application Information section. It may also be obtained from the power dissipation graphs.

External Components Description

(

Figure 1

)

Components Functional Description

1.

2.

3.

4.

R i

C i

R f

C

S

Inverting input resistance which sets the closed-loop gain in conjunction with R f

. This resistor also forms a high pass filter with C i

at f

C

= 1/(2

π

R i

C i

).

Input coupling capacitor which blocks the DC voltage at the amplifiers input terminals. Also creates a highpass filter with R i

at f

C

= 1/(2

π

R i

C i

). Refer to the section, Proper Selection of External Components, for an explanation of how to determine the value of C i

.

Feedback resistance which sets the closed-loop gain in conjunction with R i

.

Supply bypass capacitor which provides power supply filtering. Refer to the Power Supply Bypassing section for information concerning proper placement and selection of the supply bypass capacitor.

5.

C

B

Bypass pin capacitor which provides half-supply filtering. Refer to the section, Proper Selection of External

Components

, for information concerning proper placement and selection of C

B

.

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4

Typical Performance Characteristics

THD+N vs Output Power

V

DD

= 3V, R

L

= 8Ω

THD+N vs Output Power

V

DD

= 3.6V, R

L

= 8Ω

THD+N vs Output Power

V

DD

= 5V, R

L

= 8Ω

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THD+N vs Frequency

V

DD

= 3V, R f = 1kHz, P

O

L

= 8Ω,

= 250mW

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20159919

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THD+N vs Frequency

V

DD

= 3.6V, R f = 1kHz, P

O

L

= 8Ω,

= 300mW

THD+N vs Frequency

V

DD

= 5V, R f = 1kHz, P

L

= 8Ω,

O

= 500mW

PSRR vs Frequency

V

DD

= 3V, R

L

= 8Ω

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PSRR vs Frequency

V

DD

= 3.6V, R

L

= 8Ω

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PSRR vs Frequency

V

DD

= 5V, R

L

= 8Ω

Power Dissipation vs Output Power

V

DD

= 3V, R

L

= 8Ω

Power Dissipation vs Output Power

V

DD

= 3.6V, R

L

= 8Ω

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Power Dissipation vs Output Power

V

DD

= 5V, R

L

= 8Ω

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Output Level vs Frequency Response

(Three different caps)

Shutdown Voltage V

SDIH

V

DD

= 3V

Shutdown Voltage V

SDIH

V

DD

= 3.6V

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Shutdown Voltage V

SDIH

V

DD

= 5V

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Shutdown Voltage V

SDIL

V

DD

= 3V

Shutdown Voltage V

SDIL

V

DD

= 3.6V

Shutdown Voltage V

SDIL

V

DD

= 5V

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Output Power vs Supply Voltage

R

L

= 8Ω

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Application Information

BRIDGE CONFIGURATION EXPLANATION

As shown in

Figure 1

, the LM4995 has two internal operational amplifiers. The first amplifier's gain is externally configurable, while the second amplifier is internally fixed in a unitygain, inverting configuration. The closed-loop gain of the first amplifier is set by selecting the ratio of R f

to R i

while the second amplifier's gain is fixed by the two internal 20k

resistors.

Figure 1

shows that the output of amplifier one serves as the

input to amplifier two which results in both amplifiers producing signals identical in magnitude, but out of phase by 180°.

Consequently, the differential gain for the IC is

A

VD

= 2 *(R f

/R i

)

By driving the load differentially through outputs Vo1 and Vo2, an amplifier configuration commonly referred to as “bridged mode” is established. Bridged mode operation is different from the classical single-ended amplifier configuration where one side of the load is connected to ground.

A bridge amplifier design has a few distinct advantages over the single-ended configuration, as it provides differential drive to the load, thus doubling output swing for a specified supply voltage. Four times the output power is possible as compared to a single-ended amplifier under the same conditions. This increase in attainable output power assumes that the amplifier is not current limited or clipped. In order to choose an amplifier's closed-loop gain without causing excessive clipping, please refer to the Audio Power Amplifier Design section.

A bridge configuration, such as the one used in LM4995, also creates a second advantage over single-ended amplifiers.

Since the differential outputs, Vo1 and Vo2, are biased at halfsupply, no net DC voltage exists across the load. This eliminates the need for an output coupling capacitor which is required in a single supply, single-ended amplifier configuration. Without an output coupling capacitor, the half-supply bias across the load would result in both increased internal IC power dissipation and also possible loudspeaker damage.

POWER DISSIPATION

Power dissipation is a major concern when designing a successful amplifier, whether the amplifier is bridged or singleended. A direct consequence of the increased power delivered to the load by a bridge amplifier is an increase in internal power dissipation. Since the LM4995 has two operational amplifiers in one package, the maximum internal power dissipation is 4 times that of a single-ended amplifier. The maximum power dissipation for a given application can be derived from the power dissipation graphs or from Equation

1.

P

DMAX

= 4*(V

DD

)

2

/(2

π

2

R

L

) (1)

It is critical that the maximum junction temperature T

JMAX

150°C is not exceeded. T

JMAX

of

can be determined from the power derating curves by using P

DMAX

and the PC board foil area. By adding copper foil, the thermal resistance of the application can be reduced from the free air value of

θ ing in higher P

DMAX

JA

, result-

values without thermal shutdown protection circuitry being activated. Additional copper foil can be added to any of the leads connected to the LM4995. It is especially effective when connected to V

DD

, GND, and the www.national.com

10 output pins. Refer to the application information on the

LM4995 reference design board for an example of good heat sinking. If T

JMAX

still exceeds 150°C, then additional changes must be made. These changes can include reduced supply voltage, higher load impedance, or reduced ambient temperature. Internal power dissipation is a function of output power.

Refer to the Typical Performance Characteristics curves for power dissipation information for different output powers and output loading.

POWER SUPPLY BYPASSING

As with any amplifier, proper supply bypassing is critical for low noise performance and high supply rejection. The capacitor location on both the bypass and power supply pins should be as close to the device as possible. A ceramic 0.1

μ

F placed in parallel with the tantalum 2.2

μ

F bypass (C

B

) capacitor will aid in supply stability. This does not eliminate the need for bypassing the power supply pins of the LM4995. The selection of a bypass capacitor, especially C

B

, is dependent upon

PSRR requirements, click and pop performance (as explained in the section, Proper Selection of External Com-

ponents

), system cost, and size constraints.

SHUTDOWN FUNCTION

In order to reduce power consumption while not in use, the

LM4995 contains shutdown circuitry that is used to turn off the amplifier's bias circuitry. This shutdown feature turns the amplifier off when logic low is placed on the shutdown pin. By switching the shutdown pin to GND, the LM4995 supply current draw will be minimized in idle mode. Idle current is measured with the shutdown pin connected to GND. The trigger point for shutdown is shown as a typical value in the

Shutdown Hysteresis Voltage graphs in the Typical Perfor-

mance Characteristics

section. It is best to switch between ground and supply for maximum performance. While the device may be disabled with shutdown voltages in between ground and supply, the idle current may be greater than the typical value of 0.01µA. In either case, the shutdown pin should be tied to a definite voltage to avoid unwanted state changes.

In many applications, a microcontroller or microprocessor output is used to control the shutdown circuitry, which provides a quick, smooth transition to shutdown. Another solution is to use a single-throw switch in conjunction with an external pull-up resistor. This scheme guarantees that the shutdown pin will not float, thus preventing unwanted state changes.

PROPER SELECTION OF EXTERNAL COMPONENTS

Proper selection of external components in applications using integrated power amplifiers is critical to optimize device and system performance. While the LM4995 is tolerant of external component combinations, consideration to component values must be used to maximize overall system quality.

The LM4995 is unity-gain stable which gives the designer maximum system flexibility. The LM4995 should be used in low gain configurations to minimize THD+N values, and maximize the signal to noise ratio. Low gain configurations require large input signals to obtain a given output power. Input signals equal to or greater than 1 Vrms are available from sources such as audio codecs. Please refer to the section,

Audio Power Amplifier Design

, for a more complete explanation of proper gain selection.

Besides gain, one of the major considerations is the closedloop bandwidth of the amplifier. To a large extent, the band-

width is dictated by the choice of external components shown

in

Figure 1

. The input coupling capacitor, C i

, forms a first order high pass filter which limits low frequency response. This value should be chosen based on needed frequency response for a few distinct reasons.

Selection Of Input Capacitor Size

Large input capacitors are both expensive and space hungry for portable designs. Clearly, a certain sized capacitor is needed to couple in low frequencies without severe attenuation. But in many cases the speakers used in portable systems, whether internal or external, have little ability to reproduce signals below 100Hz to 150Hz. Thus, using a large input capacitor may not increase actual system performance.

In addition to system cost and size, click and pop performance is effected by the size of the input coupling capacitor, C i.

A larger input coupling capacitor requires more charge to reach its quiescent DC voltage (nominally 1/2 V

DD

). This charge comes from the output via the feedback and is apt to create pops upon device enable. Thus, by minimizing the capacitor size based on necessary low frequency response, turn-on pops can be minimized.

Besides minimizing the input capacitor size, careful consideration should be paid to the bypass capacitor value. Bypass capacitor, C

B

, is the most critical component to minimize turnon pops since it determines how fast the LM4995 turns on.

The slower the LM4995's outputs ramp to their quiescent DC voltage (nominally 1/2 V

DD

), the smaller the turn-on pop.

Choosing C

B

equal to 1.0µF along with a small value of C i

(in the range of 0.1µF to 0.39µF), should produce a virtually clickless and popless shutdown function. While the device will function properly, (no oscillations or motorboating), with C

B equal to 0.1µF, the device will be much more susceptible to turn-on clicks and pops. Thus, a value of C

B

equal to 1.0µF is recommended in all but the most cost sensitive designs.

AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN

A 1W/8

Audio Amplifier

Given:

Power Output

Load Impedance

Input Level

Input Impedance

Bandwidth

1 Wrms

8Ω

1 Vrms

20 k

100 Hz–20 kHz ± 0.25 dB

A designer must first determine the minimum supply rail to obtain the specified output power. By extrapolating from the

Output Power vs Supply Voltage graphs in the Typical Per-

formance Characteristics

section, the supply rail can be easily found.

5V is a standard voltage in most applications, it is chosen for the supply rail. Extra supply voltage creates headroom that allows the LM4995 to reproduce peaks in excess of 1W without producing audible distortion. At this time, the designer must make sure that the power supply choice along with the output impedance does not violate the conditions explained in the Power Dissipation section.

Once the power dissipation equations have been addressed, the required differential gain can be determined from Equation 2.

(2)

R f

/R i

= A

VD

/2

From Equation 2, the minimum A

VD

is 2.83; use A

VD

= 3.

Since the desired input impedance was 20 k

, and with a

A

VD

impedance of 2, a ratio of 1.5:1 of R allocation of R i

= 20 k

and R f f

to R i

results in an

= 30 k

. The final design step is to address the bandwidth requirements which must be stated as a pair of −3 dB frequency points. Five times away from a −3 dB point is 0.17 dB down from passband response which is better than the required ±0.25 dB specified.

f

L

= 100Hz/5 = 20Hz

f

H

= 20kHz * 5 = 100kHz

As stated in the External Components section, R i junction with C i

create a highpass filter.

in con-

C i

1/(2

π

*20 k

*20 Hz) = 0.397 µF; use 0.39 µF

The high frequency pole is determined by the product of the desired frequency pole, f

H a A

VD

= 3 and f

H

, and the differential gain, A

VD

. With

= 100kHz, the resulting GBWP = 300kHz which is much smaller than the LM4995 GBWP of 2.5MHz.

This figure displays that if a designer has a need to design an amplifier with a higher differential gain, the LM4995 can still be used without running into bandwidth limitations.

The LM4995 is unity-gain stable and requires no external components besides gain-setting resistors, an input coupling capacitor, and proper supply bypassing in the typical application. However, if a closed-loop differential gain of greater than 10 is required, a feedback capacitor (C4) may be needed as shown in Figure 2 to bandwidth limit the amplifier. This feedback capacitor creates a low pass filter that eliminates possible high frequency oscillations. Care should be taken when calculating the -3dB frequency in that an incorrect combination of R

3

and C

4

will cause rolloff before 20kHz. A typical combination of feedback resistor and capacitor that will not produce audio band high frequency rolloff is R

3

C

4

= 20k

and

= 25pf. These components result in a -3dB point of approximately 320kHz.

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FIGURE 2. HIGHER GAIN AUDIO AMPLIFIER

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FIGURE 3. DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION FOR LM4995

12

201599d5

FIGURE 4. REFERENCE DESIGN BOARD SCHEMATIC

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PCB LAYOUT GUIDELINES

This section provides practical guidelines for mixed signal

PCB layout that involves various digital/analog power and ground traces. Designers should note that these are only

"rule-of-thumb" recommendations and the actual results will depend heavily on the final layout.

GENERAL MIXED SIGNAL LAYOUT RECOMMENDATION

Power and Ground Circuits

For 2 layer mixed signal design, it is important to isolate the digital power and ground trace paths from the analog power and ground trace paths. Star trace routing techniques (bringing individual traces back to a central point rather than daisy chaining traces together in a serial manner) can have a major impact on low level signal performance. Star trace routing refers to using individual traces to feed power and ground to each circuit or even device. This technique will require a greater amount of design time but will not increase the final price of the board. The only extra parts required will be some jumpers.

Single-Point Power / Ground Connections

The analog power traces should be connected to the digital traces through a single point (link). A "Pi-filter" can be helpful in minimizing High Frequency noise coupling between the analog and digital sections. It is further recommended to put digital and analog power traces over the corresponding digital and analog ground traces to minimize noise coupling.

Placement of Digital and Analog Components

All digital components and high-speed digital signal traces should be located as far away as possible from analog components and circuit traces.

Avoiding Typical Design / Layout Problems

Avoid ground loops or running digital and analog traces parallel to each other (side-by-side) on the same PCB layer.

When traces must cross over each other do it at 90 degrees.

Running digital and analog traces at 90 degrees to each other from the top to the bottom side as much as possible will minimize capacitive noise coupling and cross talk.

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14

Revision History

Rev

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

Date

04/05/06

05/17/06

08/07/06

08/22/06

09/11/07

Description

Initial WEB released of the datasheet.

Added the SD package.

Text edits.

Edited the THD+N Typical values on the 3 EC tables, then re-released the D/

S to the WEB (per Allan S.).

Updated the SD pkg. diagram.

15 www.national.com

Physical Dimensions

inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted

TM Package

Order Number LM4995TM

NS Package Number TMD09AAA

X1 = 1.215± 0.03mm X2 = 1.215 ± 0.03mm X3 = 0.6 ± 0.075mm

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SDPackage

Order Number LM4995SD

NS Package Number SDA08A

16

Notes

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Notes

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LIFE SUPPORT POLICY

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SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS PRIOR WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER AND GENERAL

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As used herein:

Life support devices or systems are devices which (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. A critical component is any component in a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system or to affect its safety or effectiveness.

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