EVAL-AD7944EBZ скачать даташит

EVAL-AD7944EBZ скачать даташит
14-Bit, 2.5 MSPS, PulSAR
15.5 mW ADC in LFCSP
AD7944
FEATURES
APPLICATION DIAGRAM
14-bit resolution with no missing codes
Throughput: 2.5 MSPS (TURBO high), 2.0 MSPS (TURBO low)
Low power dissipation
15.5 mW at 2.5 MSPS, with external reference
28 mW at 2.5 MSPS, with internal reference
INL: ±0.25 LSB typical, ±1.0 LSB maximum
SNR
84 dB, with on-chip reference
84.5 dB, with external reference
4.096 V internal reference: typical drift of ±10 ppm/°C
Pseudo differential analog input voltage range
0 V to VREF with VREF up to 5.0 V
Allows use of any input range
No pipeline delay
Logic interface: 1.8 V/2.5 V/2.7 V
Serial interface: SPI-/QSPI-/MICROWIRE-/DSP-compatible
Ability to daisy-chain multiple ADCs with busy indicator
20-lead, 4 mm × 4 mm LFCSP (QFN)
5V
0V
TO
2.5V
1.8V
TO
2.7V
VIO
BVDD AVDD,
DVDD TURBO
IN+
VREF
AD7944
IN–
SDI
SCK
SDO
CNV
GND REF
VIO
3- OR 4-WIRE
INTERFACE:
SPI, CS,
DAISY CHAIN
(TURBO = LOW)
04658-001
10µF
NOTES
1. GND REFERS TO REFGND, AGND, AND DGND.
Figure 1.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The AD7944 is a 14-bit, 2.5 MSPS successive approximation
analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC). It contains a low power,
high speed, 14-bit sampling ADC, an internal conversion clock,
an internal reference (and buffer), error correction circuits, and
a versatile serial interface port. On the rising edge of CNV, the
AD7944 samples an analog input, IN+, between 0 V and VREF
with respect to a ground sense, IN−. The AD7944 features a
very high sampling rate turbo mode (TURBO high) and a
reduced power normal mode (TURBO low) for low power
applications where the power is scaled with the throughput.
APPLICATIONS
Battery-powered equipment
Communications
ATE
Data acquisition systems
Medical instruments
In normal mode (TURBO low), the SPI-compatible serial interface also features the ability, using the SDI input, to daisy-chain
several ADCs on a single 3-wire bus and provide an optional busy
indicator. The serial interface is compatible with 1.8 V, 2.5 V,
and 2.7 V supplies using the separate VIO supply.
The AD7944 is available in a 20-lead LFCSP with operation
specified from −40°C to +85°C.
Table 1. MSOP, LFCSP, 14-/16-/18-Bit PulSAR® ADCs1
Type
14-Bit
16-Bit
18-Bit
100 kSPS
AD7940
AD7680
AD7683
AD7684
250 kSPS
AD79422
AD76852
AD76872
AD7694
AD76912
400 kSPS to 500 kSPS
AD79462
AD76862
AD76882
AD76932
AD76902
≥1000 kSPS
AD79443
AD79802
AD79832
AD79853
AD79822
AD79842
AD79863
ADC Driver
ADA4941-1
ADA4841-x
AD8021
ADA4941-1
ADA4841-x
AD8021
See www.analog.com for the latest selection of PulSAR ADCs and ADC drivers.
Pin-for-pin compatible with all other parts marked with this endnote.
3
The AD7944, AD7985, and AD7986 are pin-for-pin compatible.
1
2
Rev. A
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
www.analog.com
Tel: 781.329.4700
Fax: 781.461.3113 ©2009-2010 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
AD7944
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1
Analog Inputs.............................................................................. 15
Applications ....................................................................................... 1
Driver Amplifier Choice ........................................................... 15
Application Diagram ........................................................................ 1
Voltage Reference Input ............................................................ 16
General Description ......................................................................... 1
Power Supply............................................................................... 16
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
Digital Interface .............................................................................. 17
Specifications..................................................................................... 3
Data Reading Options ............................................................... 18
Timing Specifications .................................................................. 5
CS Mode, 3-Wire Without Busy Indicator ............................. 19
Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................................ 6
CS Mode, 3-Wire with Busy Indicator .................................... 20
ESD Caution .................................................................................. 6
CS Mode, 4-Wire Without Busy Indicator ............................. 21
Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions ............................. 7
CS Mode, 4-Wire with Busy Indicator .................................... 22
Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 9
Chain Mode Without Busy Indicator ...................................... 23
Terminology .................................................................................... 12
Chain Mode with Busy Indicator ............................................. 24
Theory of Operation ...................................................................... 13
Applications Information .............................................................. 25
Circuit Information .................................................................... 13
Layout .......................................................................................... 25
Converter Operation .................................................................. 13
Evaluating AD7944 Performance............................................. 25
Conversion Modes of Operation .............................................. 13
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 27
Typical Connection Diagram.................................................... 14
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 27
REVISION HISTORY
8/10—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Changes to Table 4, Conversion Time: CNV Rising Edge
to Data Available ............................................................................... 5
10/09—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. A | Page 2 of 28
AD7944
SPECIFICATIONS
AVDD = DVDD = 2.5 V, BVDD = 5 V, VIO = 1.8 V to 2.7 V, VREF = 4.096 V, TA = −40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 2.
Parameter
RESOLUTION
ANALOG INPUT
Voltage Range
Absolute Input Voltage
Leakage Current at 25°C
Input Impedance
ACCURACY
No Missing Codes
Differential Nonlinearity Error, DNL
Integral Nonlinearity Error, INL
Transition Noise
Gain Error2
Gain Error Temperature Drift
Zero Error2
Zero Error Temperature Drift
Power Supply Sensitivity3
THROUGHPUT
Conversion Rate
Transient Response
AC ACCURACY3
Dynamic Range
Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range, SFDR
Total Harmonic Distortion, THD4
Signal-to-Noise-and-Distortion Ratio,
SINAD
SAMPLING DYNAMICS
−3 dB Input Bandwidth
Aperture Delay
Test Conditions/Comments
Min
14
(IN+) − (IN−)
IN+
IN−
Acquisition phase
0
−0.1
−0.1
Typ
Unit
Bits
VREF
VREF + 0.1
+0.1
V
V
V
nA
250
See the Analog Inputs section
14
−0.90
−1.00
TMIN to TMAX
−15
TMIN to TMAX
−0.65
AVDD = 2.5 V ± 5%
±0.25
±0.25
0.9
±2
±0.8
±0.08
0.55
84.3
0
+0.90
+1.00
+15
+0.65
2.5
100
Full-scale step
VREF = 4.096 V, internal reference
VREF = 5.0 V, external reference
fIN = 20 kHz
VREF = 4.096 V, internal reference
VREF = 5.0 V, external reference
fIN = 20 kHz
fIN = 20 kHz, VREF = 4.096 V, internal
reference
fIN = 20 kHz, VREF = 4.096 V
Max
Bits
LSB1
LSB1
LSB1
LSB1
ppm/°C
mV
ppm/°C
dB
MSPS
ns
83.5
84
84.5
85
dB
dB
83.5
84
84
84.5
103
−102
dB
dB
dB
dB
84
dB
19
0.7
MHz
ns
LSB means least significant bit. With the ±4.096 V input range, one LSB is 250 µV.
See the Terminology section. These specifications include full temperature range variation but not the error contribution from the external reference.
All specifications expressed in decibels are referred to a full-scale input FSR and tested with an input signal at 0.5 dB below full scale, unless otherwise specified.
4
Tested fully in production at fIN = 1 kHz.
1
2
3
Rev. A | Page 3 of 28
AD7944
Table 3.
Parameter
INTERNAL REFERENCE
Output Voltage
Temperature Drift
Line Regulation
Turn-On Settling Time
REFIN Output Voltage
REFIN Output Resistance
EXTERNAL REFERENCE
Voltage Range
Current Drain
REFERENCE BUFFER
REFIN Input Voltage
REFIN Input Current
DIGITAL INPUTS
Logic Levels
VIL
VIH
IIL
IIH
DIGITAL OUTPUTS
Data Format
Pipeline Delay
Test Conditions/Comments
PDREF is low
TA = 25°C
−40°C to +85°C
AVDD = 2.5 V ± 5%
CREF = 10 μF, CREFIN = 0.1 μF
REFIN at 25°C
VOL
VOH
POWER SUPPLIES
AVDD, DVDD
BVDD
VIO
Standby Current1, 2
Power Dissipation
With Internal Reference
ISINK = +500 µA
ISOURCE = −500 µA
With External Reference
TEMPERATURE RANGE3
Specified Performance
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
4.081
4.096
±10
±50
40
1.2
6
4.111
V
ppm/°C
ppm/V
ms
V
kΩ
5.1
500
V
µA
1.2
160
V
µA
PDREF is high, REFIN is low
2.4
−0.3
0.9 × VIO
−1
−1
Specified performance
AVDD = DVDD = VIO = 2.5 V
Serial 14 bits, straight binary
Conversion results available immediately
after completed conversion
0.4
VIO − 0.3
2.375
4.75
1.8
2.5 MSPS throughput
2.0 MSPS throughput
2.5 MSPS throughput
2.0 MSPS throughput
TMIN to TMAX
−40
With all digital inputs forced to VIO or GND as required.
During acquisition phase.
3
Contact an Analog Devices, Inc., sales representative for the extended temperature range.
1
2
Rev. A | Page 4 of 28
+0.1 × VIO
VIO + 0.3
+1
+1
V
V
µA
µA
V
V
2.5
5.0
2.5
1.0
2.625
5.25
2.7
V
V
V
µA
28
25
15.5
12
33
30
17
13
mW
mW
mW
mW
+85
°C
AD7944
TIMING SPECIFICATIONS
AVDD = DVDD = 2.5 V, BVDD = 5 V, VIO = 1.8 V to 2.7 V, VREF = 4.096 V, TA = −40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted.1
Table 4.
Parameter
Conversion Time: CNV Rising Edge
to Data Available
Acquisition Time
Time Between Conversions
CNV Pulse Width
Data Read During Conversion
Quiet Time During Acquisition from Last SCK
Falling Edge to CNV Rising Edge
SCK Period
SCK Low Time
SCK High Time
SCK Falling Edge to Data Remains Valid
SCK Falling Edge to Data Valid Delay
CNV or SDI Low to SDO D13 MSB Valid
CNV or SDI High or Last SCK Falling Edge
to SDO High Impedance
SDI Valid Setup Time from CNV Rising Edge
SDI Valid Hold Time from CNV Rising Edge
Test Conditions/Comments
Turbo mode
tCONV
tACQ
tCYC
tCYC
tCNVH
tDATA
tDATA
tQUIET
Normal mode
tSCK
tSCK
tSCKL
tSCKH
tHSDO
tDSDO
tEN
tDIS
tSSDICNV
tHSDICNV
tHSDICNV
tSSCKCNV
tHSCKCNV
tSSDISCK
tHSDISCK
tDSDOSDI
SCK Valid Setup Time from CNV Rising Edge
SCK Valid Hold Time from CNV Rising Edge
SDI Valid Setup Time from SCK Falling Edge
SDI Valid Hold Time from SCK Falling Edge
SDI High to SDO High
Min
Typ
Max
320
Unit
ns
420
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
80
400
500
10
Turbo mode
Normal mode
CS mode
Turbo mode
Normal mode
190
290
20
CS mode
Chain mode
9
11
3.5
3.5
2
CS mode
CS mode
Chain mode
Chain mode
Chain mode
Chain mode
Chain mode
Chain mode with busy indicator
4
5
8
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
15
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
4
0
0
5
5
2
3
See Figure 2 and Figure 3 for load conditions.
10% VIO
IOL
90% VIO
tDELAY
tDELAY
VIH1
VIL1
1.4V
TO SDO
CL
20pF
500µA
IOH
VIH1
VIL1
1MINIMUM
VIH AND MAXIMUM VIL USED. SEE DIGITAL INPUTS
SPECIFICATIONS IN TABLE 3.
Figure 2. Load Circuit for Digital Interface Timing
Figure 3. Voltage Levels for Timing
Rev. A | Page 5 of 28
04658-003
500µA
04658-002
1
Symbol
tCONV
AD7944
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Table 5.
Parameter
Analog Inputs
IN+, IN− to GND 1
Supply Voltage
REF, BVDD to GND, REFGND
AVDD, DVDD, VIO to GND
AVDD, DVDD to VIO
Digital Inputs to GND
Digital Outputs to GND
Storage Temperature Range
Junction Temperature
θJA Thermal Impedance
20-Lead LFCSP (QFN)
Lead Temperatures
Vapor Phase (60 sec)
Infrared (15 sec)
1
Rating
−0.3 V to VREF + 0.3 V
or ±130 mA
−0.3 V to +6.0 V
−0.3 V to +2.7 V
−6 V to +3 V
−0.3 V to VIO + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VIO + 0.3 V
−65°C to +150°C
150°C
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
ESD CAUTION
30.4°C/W
215°C
220°C
See the Analog Inputs section for an explanation of IN+ and IN −.
Rev. A | Page 6 of 28
AD7944
20
19
18
17
16
REFIN
BVDD
AGND
AGND
AVDD
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
1
2
3
4
5
PIN 1
INDICATOR
AD7944
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
15 TURBO
14 SDI
13 CNV
12 SCK
11 DVDD
NOTES
1. THE EXPOSED PAD IS NOT CONNECTED
INTERNALLY. FOR INCREASED
RELIABILITY OF THE SOLDER JOINTS, IT
IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE PAD BE
SOLDERED TO THE SYSTEM
GROUND PLANE.
04658-004
IN+
PDREF
VIO
SDO
DGND
6
7
8
9
10
REF
REF
REFGND
REFGND
IN–
Figure 4. Pin Configuration
Table 6. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
1, 2
Mnemonic
REF
Type1
AI
3, 4
5
6
REFGND
IN−
IN+
AI
AI
AI
7
PDREF
DI
8
VIO
P
9
10
11
12
13
SDO
DGND
DVDD
SCK
CNV
DO
P
P
DI
DI
14
SDI
DI
15
TURBO
DI
16
17, 18
AVDD
AGND
P
P
Description
Reference Output/Input Voltage.
When PDREF is low, the internal reference and buffer are enabled, producing 4.096 V on this pin.
When PDREF is high, the internal reference and buffer are disabled, allowing an externally supplied
voltage reference up to 5.0 V.
Decoupling is required with or without the internal reference and buffer. This pin is referred to the
REFGND pins and should be decoupled closely to the REFGND pins with a 10 µF capacitor.
Reference Input Analog Ground.
Analog Input Ground Sense. Connect this pin to the analog ground plane or to a remote ground sense.
Analog Input. This pin is referred to IN −. The voltage range, that is, the difference between IN+ and IN−,
is 0 V to VREF.
Internal Reference Power-Down Input. When this pin is low, the internal reference is enabled. When this
pin is high, the internal reference is powered down and an external reference must be used.
Input/Output Interface Digital Power. Nominally at the same supply voltage as the host interface
(1.8 V, 2.5 V, or 2.7 V).
Serial Data Output. The conversion result is output on this pin. It is synchronized to SCK.
Digital Power Ground.
Digital Power. Nominally at 2.5 V.
Serial Data Clock Input. When the part is selected, the conversion result is shifted out by this clock.
Convert Input. This input has multiple functions. On its rising edge, it initiates the conversions
and selects the interface mode of the part: chain mode or CS mode. In CS mode, the SDO pin is
enabled when CNV is low. In chain mode, the data should be read when CNV is high.
Serial Data Input. This input has multiple functions. It selects the interface mode of the ADC as follows.
Chain mode is selected if SDI is low during the CNV rising edge. In chain mode, SDI is used as a data
input to daisy-chain the conversion results of two or more ADCs onto a single SDO line. The digital data
level on SDI is output on SDO with a delay of 14 SCK cycles.
CS mode is selected if SDI is high during the CNV rising edge. In CS mode, either SDI or CNV can enable
the serial output signals when low. If SDI or CNV is low when the conversion is complete, the busy
indicator feature is enabled.
Conversion Mode Selection. When TURBO is high, the maximum throughput (2.5 MSPS) is achieved,
and the ADC does not power down between conversions. When TURBO is low, the maximum throughput
is lower (2.0 MSPS), and the ADC powers down between conversions.
Input Analog Power. Nominally at 2.5 V.
Analog Power Ground.
Rev. A | Page 7 of 28
AD7944
Pin No.
19
Mnemonic
BVDD
Type1
P
20
REFIN
AI/O
EP
Exposed Pad
EP
1
Description
Reference Buffer Power. Nominally at 5.0 V. If an external reference buffer is used to achieve the maximum
SNR performance with a 5 V reference, the reference buffer must be powered down by connecting the
REFIN pin to ground. The external reference buffer must be connected to the BVDD pin.
Internal Reference Output/Reference Buffer Input.
When PDREF is low, the internal band gap reference produces a 1.2 V (typical) voltage on this pin,
which needs external decoupling (0.1 µF typical).
When PDREF is high, use an external reference to provide 1.2 V (typical) to this pin.
When PDREF is high and REFIN is low, the on-chip reference buffer and the band gap reference are
powered down. An external reference must be connected to REF and BVDD.
The exposed pad is not connected internally. For increased reliability of the solder joints, it is
recommended that the pad be soldered to the system ground plane.
AI = analog input, AI/O = bidirectional analog, DI = digital input, DO = digital output, and P = power.
Rev. A | Page 8 of 28
AD7944
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
AVDD = DVDD = VIO = 2.5 V, BVDD = 5.0 V, VREF = 5.0 V, external reference (PDREF is high, REFIN is low), unless otherwise noted.
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0
–0.2
0
–0.2
–0.4
–0.4
–0.6
–0.6
–0.8
–0.8
0
4096
8192
12,288
16,384
CODE
–1.0
04658-105
–1.0
POSITIVE DNL = +0.11LSB
NEGATIVE DNL = –0.11LSB
0.8
DNL (LSB)
INL (LSB)
1.0
POSITIVE INL = +0.12 LSB
NEGATIVE INL = –0.20 LSB
0
4096
8192
12,288
16,384
CODE
04658-108
1.0
Figure 8. Differential Nonlinearity vs. Code
Figure 5. Integral Nonlinearity vs. Code
80,000
140,000
126,022
67,766
70,000
120,000
62,982
60,000
100,000
COUNT
COUNT
50,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
30,000
40,000
20,000
20,000
2
8188
8189
8190
4899
8191
8192
149
0
0
0
8193
8194
8195
8196
CODE IN HEX
0
Figure 6. Histogram of DC Input at Code Center (External Reference)
0
0
324
8188
8189
8190
8191
8192
0
0
0
8193
8194
8195
CODE IN HEX
04658-109
0
04658-106
0
10,000
0
Figure 9. Histogram of DC Input at Code Transition (External Reference)
140,000
80,000
124,396
67,825
70,000
120,000
63,238
60,000
100,000
COUNT
COUNT
50,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
30,000
40,000
20,000
20,000
2
8188
8189
8190
5236
8191
8192
1438
0
0
0
8193
8194
8195
8196
CODE IN HEX
0
Figure 7. Histogram of DC Input at Code Center (Internal Reference)
0
0
7
8189
8190
8191
8192
8193
CODE IN HEX
2
0
0
8194
8195
8196
04658-107
0
04658-110
0
10,000
0
Figure 10. Histogram of DC Input at Code Transition (Internal Reference)
Rev. A | Page 9 of 28
AD7944
–40
–40
AMPLITUDE (dB)
–60
–80
–100
–120
–60
–80
–100
–120
–140
–140
–160
–160
0
250
500
750
1000
1250
FREQUENCY (kHz)
–180
04658-111
–180
fS = 2.5MSPS
fIN = 20kHz
SNR = 84dB
THD = –102dB
SINAD = 84dB
–20
SNR = 84.65dB
THD = –100dB
SINAD = 84.5dB
0
250
14.5
–101
81
13.5
ENOB
80
13.0
79
12.5
3.5
4.0
4.5
THD (dB)
14.0
ENOB (Bits)
82
–102
–103
–104
12.0
5.0
–105
2.50
04658-112
SNR, SINAD (dB)
SINAD
3.0
1250
–100
15.0
83
2.5
1000
Figure 14. FFT Plot (Internal Reference)
SNR
78
750
FREQUENCY (kHz)
Figure 11. FFT Plot (External Reference)
84
500
04658-114
–20
AMPLITUDE (dB)
0
fS = 2.5MSPS
fIN = 20kHz
REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V)
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
4.25
4.50
4.75
5.00
REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 12. SNR, SINAD, and ENOB vs. Reference Voltage
04658-115
0
Figure 15. THD vs. Reference Voltage
85.0
–80
84.5
–85
84.0
–90
THD (dB)
83.0
82.5
82.0
–95
–100
81.5
81.0
–105
80.0
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (kHz)
1000
Figure 13. SINAD vs. Frequency
–110
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (kHz)
Figure 16. THD vs. Frequency
Rev. A | Page 10 of 28
1000
04658-116
80.5
04658-113
SINAD (dB)
83.5
AD7944
2.0
89
1.8
88
1.6
OPERATING CURRENT (mA)
90
86
85
84
83
82
81
1.2
1.0
0.8
IREF
0.4
–8
–7
–6
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
0
–55
–35
–15
5
25
45
65
85
105
125
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 17. SNR vs. Input Level
04658-119
–9
INPUT LEVEL (dBFS)
Figure 19. Operating Current vs. Temperature
14
2.0
1.8
IAVDD
12
1.6
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
IDVDD
1.4
IVIO
1.2
1.0
0.8
IBVDD
0.6
IREF
10
8
6
4
IAVDD + IDVDD + IVIO
0.4
2
0.2
0
2.375
2.425
2.475
2.525
2.575
AVDD AND DVDD VOLTAGE (V)
2.625
04658-118
OPERATING CURRENT (mA)
IBVDD
0.6
0.2
04658-117
80
–10
1.4
Figure 18. Operating Current vs. Supply Voltage
0
–55
–35
–15
5
25
45
65
85
105
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 20. Power-Down Current vs. Temperature
Rev. A | Page 11 of 28
125
04658-120
SNR (dB)
87
IAVDD
AD7944
TERMINOLOGY
Aperture Delay
Aperture delay is the measure of the acquisition performance. It
is the time between the rising edge of the CNV input and when
the input signal is held for a conversion.
Differential Nonlinearity Error (DNL)
In an ideal ADC, code transitions are 1 LSB apart. DNL is the
maximum deviation from this ideal value. It is often specified in
terms of resolution for which no missing codes are guaranteed.
Dynamic Range
Dynamic range is the ratio of the rms value of the full scale to
the total rms noise measured with the inputs shorted together.
The value for dynamic range is expressed in decibels. It is measured with a signal at −60 dBFS so that it includes all noise
sources and DNL artifacts.
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
ENOB is a measurement of the resolution with a sine wave
input. It is expressed in bits and is related to SINAD as follows:
ENOB = (SINADdB − 1.76)/6.02
Effective Resolution
Effective resolution is expressed in bits and is calculated as follows:
Effective Resolution = log2(2N/RMS Input Noise)
Gain Error
The last transition (from 111 … 10 to 111 … 11) should occur
for an analog voltage 1½ LSB below the nominal full scale
(4.999542 V for the 0 V to 5 V range). The gain error is the
deviation of the difference between the actual level of the last
transition and the actual level of the first transition from the
difference between the ideal levels.
Integral Nonlinearity Error (INL)
INL refers to the deviation of each individual code from a line
drawn from negative full scale through positive full scale. The
point used as negative full scale occurs ½ LSB before the first
code transition. Positive full scale is defined as a level 1½ LSB
beyond the last code transition. The deviation is measured from
the middle of each code to the true straight line (see Figure 22).
Noise-Free Code Resolution
Noise-free code resolution is the number of bits beyond which it
is impossible to distinctly resolve individual codes. It is expressed
in bits and is calculated as follows:
Noise-Free Code Resolution = log2(2N/Peak-to-Peak Noise)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
SNR is the ratio of the rms value of the actual input signal to
the rms sum of all other spectral components below the Nyquist
frequency, excluding harmonics and dc. The value for SNR is
expressed in decibels.
Signal-to-Noise-and-Distortion (SINAD) Ratio
SINAD is the ratio of the rms value of the actual input signal to
the rms sum of all other spectral components below the Nyquist
frequency, including harmonics but excluding dc. The value for
SINAD is expressed in decibels.
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
SFDR is the difference, in decibels (dB), between the rms
amplitude of the input signal and the peak spurious signal.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
THD is the ratio of the rms sum of the first five harmonic
components to the rms value of a full-scale input signal and
is expressed in decibels.
Transient Response
Transient response is the time required for the ADC to accurately
acquire its input after a full-scale step function is applied.
Zero Error
Zero error is the difference between the ideal midscale voltage
(0 V) and the actual voltage producing the midscale output code,
that is, 0 LSB.
Rev. A | Page 12 of 28
AD7944
THEORY OF OPERATION
IN+
MSB
LSB
8192C
4096C
4C
2C
C
SWITCHES CONTROL
SW+
C
BUSY
REF
COMP
REFGND
8192C
4096C
4C
2C
C
CONTROL
LOGIC
OUTPUT CODE
C
LSB
MSB
SW–
04658-005
CNV
IN–
Figure 21. ADC Simplified Schematic
CIRCUIT INFORMATION
The AD7944 is a fast, low power, single-supply, precise, 14-bit
ADC using a successive approximation architecture. The AD7944
features different modes to optimize performance according to the
application. In turbo mode, the AD7944 is capable of converting
2,500,000 samples per second (2.5 MSPS).
The AD7944 provides the user with an on-chip track-and-hold
and does not exhibit any pipeline delay or latency, making it
ideal for multiple multiplexed channel applications.
The AD7944 can be interfaced to any 1.8 V to 2.7 V digital logic
family. It is available in a space-saving 20-lead LFCSP that allows
flexible configurations. It is pin-for-pin compatible with the
16-bit AD7985 and the 18-bit AD7986.
CONVERTER OPERATION
When the conversion phase begins, SW+ and SW− are opened
first. The two capacitor arrays are then disconnected from the
analog inputs and connected to the REFGND input. Therefore,
the differential voltage between the IN+ and IN − inputs captured
at the end of the acquisition phase is applied to the comparator
inputs, causing the comparator to become unbalanced. By switching each element of the capacitor array between REFGND and
REF, the comparator input varies by binary-weighted voltage
steps (VREF/2, VREF/4, … VREF/16,384). The control logic toggles
these switches, starting with the MSB, to bring the comparator
back into a balanced condition. After the completion of this
process, the part returns to the acquisition phase, and the control
logic generates the ADC output code and a busy signal indicator.
Because the AD7944 has an on-board conversion clock, the
serial clock, SCK, is not required for the conversion process.
CONVERSION MODES OF OPERATION
The AD7944 is a successive approximation ADC based on a
charge redistribution DAC. Figure 21 shows the simplified
schematic of the ADC. The capacitive DAC consists of two
identical arrays of 14 binary-weighted capacitors that are
connected to the two comparator inputs.
During the acquisition phase, the terminals of the array tied to
the input of the comparator are connected to AGND via SW+
and SW−. All independent switches are connected to the analog
inputs. Therefore, the capacitor arrays are used as sampling
capacitors and acquire the analog signal on the IN+ and IN−
inputs. When the acquisition phase is completed and the CNV
input goes high, a conversion phase is initiated.
The AD7944 features two conversion modes of operation:
turbo and normal. Turbo conversion mode (TURBO high)
allows the fastest conversion rate of up to 2.5 MSPS and does
not power down between conversions. The first conversion in
turbo mode should be ignored because it contains meaningless
data. For applications that require lower power and slightly
slower sampling rates, the normal conversion mode (TURBO
low) allows a maximum conversion rate of 2.0 MSPS and
powers down between conversions. The first conversion in
normal mode contains meaningful data.
Rev. A | Page 13 of 28
AD7944
Transfer Functions
Table 7. Output Codes and Ideal Input Voltages
Description
FSR − 1 LSB
Midscale + 1 LSB
Midscale
Midscale − 1 LSB
−FSR + 1 LSB
−FSR
111 ... 111
111 ... 110
111 ... 101
1
2
000 ... 010
000 ... 000
–FSR
Analog Input,
VREF = 4.096 V
4.09575 V
2.04825 V
2.048 V
2.04775 V
250 µV
0V
Digital Output
Code (Hex)
0x3FFF1
0x2001
0x2000
0x1FFF
0x0001
0x00002
This is also the code for an overranged analog input (VIN+ − VIN− above
VREF − REFGND).
This is also the code for an underranged analog input (VIN+ − VIN− below
REFGND).
TYPICAL CONNECTION DIAGRAM
000 ... 001
–FSR + 1 LSB
–FSR + 0.5 LSB
+FSR – 1 LSB
+FSR – 1.5 LSB
ANALOG INPUT
Figure 23 shows an example of the recommended connection
diagram for the AD7944 when multiple supplies are available.
04658-006
Figure 22. ADC Ideal Transfer Function
5V
V+
BVDD AVDD,
DVDD
15Ω
0V TO VREF
2.5V
IN+
AD7944
2.7nF
IN–
V–
1.8V
TO
2.7V
VIO
TURBO
SDI
SCK
SDO
REF
GND
CNV
VIO
3- OR 4-WIRE
INTERFACE:
SPI, CS,
DAISY CHAIN
(TURBO = LOW)
10µF
NOTES
1. GND REFERS TO REFGND, AGND, AND DGND.
Figure 23. Typical Application Diagram with Multiple Supplies
Rev. A | Page 14 of 28
04658-007
ADC CODE (STRAIGHT BINARY)
The ideal transfer characteristic for the AD7944 is shown in
Figure 22 and Table 7.
AD7944
ANALOG INPUTS
DRIVER AMPLIFIER CHOICE
Figure 24 shows an equivalent circuit of the analog input
structure of the AD7944.
Although the AD7944 is easy to drive, the driver amplifier must
meet the following requirements:
The two diodes, D1 and D2, provide ESD protection for the
analog inputs, IN+ and IN−. Care must be taken to ensure that
the analog input signal does not exceed the reference input
voltage (VREF) by more than 0.3 V. If the analog input signal
exceeds this level, the diodes become forward-biased and start
conducting current. These diodes can handle a forward-biased
current of 130 mA maximum. However, if the supplies of the
input buffer (for example, the V+ and V− supplies of the buffer
amplifier in Figure 23) are different from those of REF, the
analog input signal may eventually exceed the supply rails by
more than 0.3 V. In such a case (for example, an input buffer
with a short circuit), the current limitation can be used to
protect the part.
•


225
SNR LOSS (dB) = 20log 

π
2
 225 + f −3 dB (Ne N )2
2

RIN
CIN
IN+ OR IN–
D2
04658-008
CPIN
REFGND
Figure 24. Equivalent Analog Input Circuit
The analog input structure allows the sampling of the true
differential signal between IN+ and IN−. By using these
differential inputs, signals common to both inputs are rejected.
During the acquisition phase, the impedance of the analog inputs
(IN+ and IN−) can be modeled as a parallel combination of
Capacitor CPIN and the network formed by the series connection
of RIN and CIN. CPIN is primarily the pin capacitance. RIN is typically
400 Ω and is a lumped component composed of serial resistors
and the on resistance of the switches. CIN is typically 30 pF and
is mainly the ADC sampling capacitor.
During the sampling phase, where the switches are closed, the
input impedance is limited to CPIN. RIN and CIN make a one-pole,
low-pass filter that reduces undesirable aliasing effects and
limits noise.
When the source impedance of the driving circuit is low, the
AD7944 can be driven directly. Large source impedances
significantly affect the ac performance, especially THD. The
dc performances are less sensitive to the input impedance. The
maximum source impedance depends on the amount of THD
that can be tolerated. The THD degrades as a function of the
source impedance and the maximum input frequency.






where:
f−3 dB is the input bandwidth, in MHz, of the AD7944
(19 MHz) or the cutoff frequency of the input filter, if
one is used.
N is the noise gain of the amplifier (for example, 1 in buffer
configuration).
eN is the equivalent input noise voltage of the op amp, in
nV/√Hz.
REF
D1
The noise generated by the driver amplifier must be kept as
low as possible to preserve the SNR and transition noise
performance of the AD7944. The noise from the driver is
filtered by the AD7944 analog input circuit’s one-pole, lowpass filter, made by RIN and CIN, or by the external filter, if
one is used. Because the typical noise of the AD7944 is
225 µV rms, the SNR degradation due to the amplifier is
•
•
For ac applications, the driver should have a THD performance commensurate with that of the AD7944.
For multichannel multiplexed applications, the driver
amplifier and the AD7944 analog input circuit must settle
for a full-scale step onto the capacitor array at a 14-bit level
(0.0061%, 61 ppm). In the data sheet of the driver amplifier,
settling at 0.1% to 0.01% is more commonly specified. This
value can differ significantly from the settling time at a
14-bit level and should be verified prior to driver selection.
Table 8. Recommended Driver Amplifiers
Amplifier
AD8021
AD8022
ADA4899-1
AD8014
Rev. A | Page 15 of 28
Typical Application
Very low noise and high frequency
Low noise and high frequency
Ultralow noise and high frequency
Low power and high frequency
AD7944
VOLTAGE REFERENCE INPUT
Reference Decoupling
The AD7944 allows the choice of a very low temperature drift
internal voltage reference, an external reference, or an external
buffered reference.
The AD7944 voltage reference input, REF, has a dynamic input
impedance that requires careful decoupling between the REF
and REFGND pins. The Layout section describes how this can
be done.
To use the internal reference, the PDREF input must be low.
This enables the on-chip band gap reference and buffer, resulting in a 4.096 V reference on the REF pin (1.2 V on REFIN).
The internal reference is temperature compensated to
4.096 V ± 15 mV. The reference is trimmed to provide
a typical drift of 10 ppm/°C.
The output resistance of REFIN is 6 kΩ when the internal
reference is enabled. It is necessary to decouple this pin with a
ceramic capacitor of at least 100 nF. The output resistance of
REFIN and the decoupling capacitor form an RC filter, which
helps to reduce noise.
Because the output impedance of REFIN is typically 6 kΩ,
relative humidity (among other industrial contaminants) can
directly affect the drift characteristics of the reference. A guard
ring is typically used to reduce the effects of drift under such
circumstances. However, the fine pitch of the AD7944 makes
this difficult to implement. One solution, in these industrial
and other types of applications, is to use a conformal coating,
such as Dow Corning® 1-2577 or HumiSeal® 1B73.
External 1.2 V Reference and Internal Buffer (PDREF High)
To use an external reference along with the internal buffer, PDREF
must be high. This powers down the internal reference and allows
the 1.2 V reference to be applied to REFIN, producing 4.096 V
(typically) on the REF pin.
External Reference (PDREF High, REFIN Low)
To apply an external reference voltage directly to the REF pin, tie
PDREF high and tie REFIN low. BVDD should also be driven to
the same potential as REF. For example, if REF = 2.5 V, BVDD
should be tied to 2.5 V.
If an unbuffered reference voltage is used, the decoupling value
depends on the reference used. For example, a 22 µF (X5R,
1206 size) ceramic chip capacitor is appropriate for optimum
performance using a low temperature drift ADR43x reference.
If desired, a reference decoupling capacitor with a value as small
as 2.2 µF can be used with minimal impact on performance,
especially DNL.
In any case, there is no need for an additional, lower value
ceramic decoupling capacitor (for example, 100 nF) between
the REF and REFGND pins.
POWER SUPPLY
The AD7944 has four power supply pins: an analog supply
(AVDD), a buffer supply (BVDD), a digital supply (DVDD), and
a digital input/output interface supply (VIO). VIO allows a direct
interface to any logic from 1.8 V to 2.7 V. To reduce the number
of supplies needed, the VIO, DVDD, and AVDD pins can be
tied together. The power supplies do not need to be started in a
particular sequence. In addition, the AD7944 is very insensitive
to power supply variations over a wide frequency range.
In normal mode, the AD7944 powers down automatically at
the end of each conversion phase and, therefore, the power
scales linearly with the sampling rate. This makes the part ideal
for low sampling rates (even of a few SPS) and battery-powered
applications.
The advantages of directly using an external voltage reference
are as follows:
•
SNR and dynamic range improvement (about 1.7 dB)
resulting from the use of a larger reference voltage (5 V)
instead of a typical 4.096 V reference when the internal
reference is used. This is calculated by
4.096 
SNR = 20 log 

 5. 0 
•
10
1
0.1
IBVDD
IAVDD
IDVDD
IVIO
IVREF
0.01
0.1
1
SAMPLING RATE (MSPS)
Power savings when the internal reference is powered
down (PDREF high).
Figure 25. Operating Current vs. Sampling Rate in Normal Mode
Rev. A | Page 16 of 28
04658-121
Internal Reference, REF = 4.096 V (PDREF Low)
When using an external reference, a very low impedance source
(for example, a reference buffer using the AD8031 or the AD8605)
and a 10 µF (X5R, 0805 size) ceramic chip capacitor are appropriate for optimum performance.
OPERATING CURRENT (mA)
The internal reference of the AD7944 provides excellent
performance and can be used in almost all applications.
AD7944
DIGITAL INTERFACE
Although the AD7944 has a reduced number of pins, it offers
flexibility in its serial interface modes.
In CS mode, the AD7944 is compatible with SPI, MICROWIRE™,
QSPI™, and digital hosts. In CS mode, the AD7944 can use either
a 3-wire or a 4-wire interface. A 3-wire interface that uses the
CNV, SCK, and SDO signals minimizes wiring connections,
which is useful, for example, in isolated applications. A 4-wire
interface that uses the SDI, CNV, SCK, and SDO signals allows
CNV, which initiates conversions, to be independent of the
readback timing (SDI). This is useful in low jitter sampling or
simultaneous sampling applications.
In chain mode, the AD7944 provides a daisy-chain feature that
uses the SDI input for cascading multiple ADCs on a single data
line similar to a shift register. Chain mode is available only in
normal conversion mode (TURBO low).
The mode in which the part operates depends on the SDI level
when the CNV rising edge occurs. CS mode is selected if SDI
is high, and chain mode is selected if SDI is low. The SDI hold
time is such that when SDI and CNV are connected together,
chain mode is always selected.
In normal mode operation, the AD7944 offers the option of
forcing a start bit in front of the data bits. This start bit can be
used as a busy signal indicator to interrupt the digital host and
trigger the data reading. Otherwise, without a busy indicator,
the user must time out the maximum conversion time prior to
readback.
The busy indicator feature is enabled in CS mode if CNV or
SDI is low when the ADC conversion ends (see Figure 29 and
Figure 33). TURBO must be kept low for both digital interfaces.
Table 9 lists the availability of each serial interface mode, with
and without the busy indicator, for the two conversion modes.
Table 9. Serial Interface Modes (CS and Chain Mode) for
Each Conversion Mode (Turbo and Normal)
Serial Interface Mode
CS Mode, 3-Wire
Without Busy Indicator
With Busy Indicator
CS Mode, 4-Wire
Without Busy Indicator
With Busy Indicator
Chain Mode
Without Busy Indicator
With Busy Indicator
Conversion Mode
Turbo Mode
Normal Mode
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
When CNV is low, readback can occur during conversion or
acquisition, or it can be split across acquisition and conversion,
as described in the following sections.
A discontinuous SCK is recommended because the part is selected
with CNV low, and SCK activity begins to clock out data.
Note that in the following sections, the timing diagrams indicate
digital activity (SCK, CNV, SDI, and SDO) during the conversion.
However, due to the possibility of performance degradation,
digital activity should occur only prior to the safe data reading
time, tDATA, because the AD7944 provides error correction
circuitry that can correct for an incorrect bit decision during
this time. From tDATA to tCONV, there is no error correction, and
conversion results may be corrupted.
Similarly, tQUIET, the time from the last falling edge of SCK to
the rising edge of CNV, must remain free of digital activity.
The user should configure the AD7944 and initiate the busy
indicator (if desired in normal mode) prior to tDATA.
It is also possible to corrupt the sample by having SCK near the
sampling instant. Therefore, it is recommended that the digital
pins be kept quiet for approximately 20 ns before and 10 ns after
the rising edge of CNV, using a discontinuous SCK whenever
possible to avoid any potential performance degradation.
Rev. A | Page 17 of 28
AD7944
DATA READING OPTIONS
There are three different data reading options for the AD7944.
There is the option to read during conversion, to split the read
across acquisition and conversion (see Figure 28 and Figure 29),
and, in normal mode, to read during acquisition. The desired
SCK frequency largely determines the reading option to use.
To determine how to split the read for a particular SCK frequency,
follow these examples to read data from conversion (n − 1).
For turbo mode (2.5 MSPS)
fSCK = 50 MHz; tDATA = 190 ns
Number_SCK_Edges = 50 MHz × 190 ns = 9.5
Reading During Conversion, Fast Host (Turbo or
Normal Mode)
Nine bits are read during conversion (n), and five bits are read
during acquisition (n).
When reading during conversion (n), conversion results are for
the previous (n − 1) conversion. Reading should occur only up
to tDATA and, because this time is limited, the host must use a
fast SCK.
For normal mode (2.0 MSPS)
The required SCK frequency is calculated by
f SCK ≥
Number _ SCK _ Edges
t DATA
fSCK = 40 MHz; tDATA = 290 ns
Number_SCK_Edges = 40 MHz × 290 ns = 11.6
Eleven bits are read during conversion (n), and three bits are
read during acquisition (n).
For slow throughputs, the time restriction is dictated by the
throughput required by the user; the host is free to run at any
speed. Similar to reading during acquisition, data access for
slow hosts must take place during the acquisition phase with
additional time into the conversion.
To determine the minimum SCK frequency, follow these
examples to read data from conversion (n − 1).
For turbo mode (2.5 MSPS)
Note that data access spanning conversion requires the CNV
pin to be driven high to initiate a new conversion, and data
access is not allowed when CNV is high. Thus, the host must
perform two bursts of data access when using this method.
Number_SCK_Edges = 14; tDATA = 190 ns
fSCK = 14/190 ns = 73.7 MHz
For normal mode (2.0 MSPS)
Reading During Acquisition, Any Speed Host (Turbo or
Normal Mode)
Number_SCK_Edges = 14; tDATA = 290 ns
fSCK = 14/290 ns = 48.3 MHz
The time between tDATA and tCONV is an I/O quiet time during
which digital activity should not occur, or sensitive bit decisions
may be corrupted.
Split Reading, Any Speed Host (Turbo or Normal Mode)
To allow for a slower SCK, there is the option of a split read,
where data access starts at the current acquisition (n) and spans
into the conversion (n). Conversion results are for the previous
(n − 1) conversion.
Similar to reading during conversion, split reading should
occur only up to tDATA. For the maximum throughput, the
only time restriction is that split reading take place during the
tACQ (minimum) + (tDATA − tQUIET) time. The time between the
falling edge of SCK and CNV rising is an acquisition quiet
time, tQUIET.
When reading during acquisition (n), conversion results are
for the previous (n − 1) conversion. Maximum throughput is
achievable in normal mode (2.0 MSPS); however, in turbo
mode, 2.5 MSPS throughput is not achievable.
For the maximum throughput, the only time restriction is that
reading take place during the tACQ (minimum) time. For slow
throughputs, the time restriction is dictated by the throughput
required by the user; the host is free to run at any speed. Thus,
for slow hosts, data access must take place during the acquisition phase.
Rev. A | Page 18 of 28
AD7944
CS MODE, 3-WIRE WITHOUT BUSY INDICATOR
minimum conversion time elapses and then held high for the
maximum possible conversion time to avoid the generation of
the busy signal indicator.
This mode is usually used when a single AD7944 is connected
to an SPI-compatible digital host. The connection diagram is
shown in Figure 26, and the corresponding timing is given in
Figure 27.
When the conversion is complete, the AD7944 enters the
acquisition phase and, if the part is in normal mode (TURBO
low), powers down. When CNV goes low, the MSB is output
onto SDO. The remaining data bits are clocked by subsequent
SCK falling edges. The data is valid on both SCK edges. Although
the rising edge can be used to capture the data, a digital host
using the SCK falling edge allows a faster reading rate, provided
that it has an acceptable hold time. After the 14th SCK falling
edge or when CNV goes high (whichever occurs first), SDO
returns to high impedance.
With SDI tied to VIO, a rising edge on CNV initiates a conversion, selects CS mode, and forces SDO to high impedance.
When a conversion is initiated, it continues until completion,
irrespective of the state of CNV. This can be useful, for example,
to bring CNV low to select other SPI devices, such as analog
multiplexers; however, CNV must be returned high before the
CONVERT
DIGITAL HOST
CNV
VIO
SDI
AD7944
DATA IN
SDO
04658-009
SCK
CLK
Figure 26. CS Mode, 3-Wire Without Busy Indicator Connection Diagram (SDI High)
tCYC
>tCONV
tCONV
tDATA
tCNVH
SDI = 1
tCONV
tDATA
CNV
tACQ
ACQUISITION
(n – 1)
CONVERSION (n – 1)
(I/O QUIET
TIME)
ACQUISITION (n)
(I/O QUIET
TIME)
(I/O QUIET
TIME)
CONVERSION (n)
ACQUISITION
(n + 1)
tQUIET
12
13
1
14
12
2
13
tHSDO
tEN
SDO
tDSDO
tEN
2
1
tDIS END DATA (n – 2)
0
13
tDIS
14
tSCK
12
11
BEGIN DATA (n – 1)
2
Figure 27. CS Mode, 3-Wire Without Busy Indicator Serial Interface Timing (SDI High)
Rev. A | Page 19 of 28
1
tDIS END DATA (n – 1)
0
tDIS
04658-010
SCK
AD7944
CS MODE, 3-WIRE WITH BUSY INDICATOR
When the conversion is complete, SDO goes from high impedance to low impedance. With a pull-up on the SDO line, this
transition can be used as an interrupt signal to initiate the data
readback controlled by the digital host. The AD7944 then enters
the acquisition phase and powers down. The data bits are then
clocked out, MSB first, by subsequent SCK falling edges. The
data is valid on both SCK edges. Although the rising edge can
be used to capture the data, a digital host using the SCK falling
edge allows a faster reading rate, provided that it has an acceptable
hold time. After the optional 15th SCK falling edge, SDO returns
to high impedance.
This mode is usually used when a single AD7944 is connected
to an SPI-compatible digital host that has an interrupt input. It
is available only in normal conversion mode (TURBO low).
The connection diagram is shown in Figure 28, and the corresponding timing is given in Figure 29.
With SDI tied to VIO, a rising edge on CNV initiates a conversion, selects CS mode, and forces SDO to high impedance.
SDO is maintained in high impedance until the completion of
the conversion, irrespective of the state of CNV. Prior to the
minimum conversion time, CNV can be used to select other SPI
devices, such as analog multiplexers, but CNV must be returned
low before the minimum conversion time elapses and then held
low for the maximum possible conversion time to guarantee the
generation of the busy signal indicator.
If multiple AD7944 devices are selected at the same time, the
SDO output pin handles this contention without damage or
induced latch-up. Meanwhile, it is recommended that this
contention be kept as short as possible to limit extra power
dissipation.
CONVERT
VIO
CNV
VIO
DIGITAL HOST
47kΩ
SDI
AD7944
DATA IN
SDO
IRQ
TURBO
04658-011
SCK
CLK
Figure 28. CS Mode, 3-Wire with Busy Indicator Connection Diagram (SDI High)
TURBO = 0
SDI = 1
tCYC
tCNVH
CNV
ACQUISITION
tCONV
tACQ
CONVERSION
ACQUISITION
(I/O QUIET
TIME)
tSCK
tQUIET
tSCKL
1
2
3
13
tHSDO
14
15
tSCKH
tDSDO
SDO
D13
D12
tDIS
D1
D0
Figure 29. CS Mode, 3-Wire with Busy Indicator Serial Interface Timing (SDI High)
Rev. A | Page 20 of 28
04658-012
SCK
AD7944
CS MODE, 4-WIRE WITHOUT BUSY INDICATOR
conversion time elapses and then held high for the maximum
possible conversion time to avoid the generation of the busy
signal indicator.
This mode is usually used when multiple AD7944 devices are
connected to an SPI-compatible digital host. A connection diagram example using two AD7944 devices is shown in Figure 30,
and the corresponding timing is given in Figure 31.
When the conversion is complete, the AD7944 enters the
acquisition phase and, if the part is in normal mode (TURBO
low), powers down. Each ADC result can be read by bringing its
SDI input low, which consequently outputs the MSB onto SDO.
The remaining data bits are then clocked by subsequent SCK
falling edges. The data is valid on both SCK edges. Although the
rising edge can be used to capture the data, a digital host using
the SCK falling edge allows a faster reading rate, provided that it
has an acceptable hold time. After the 14th SCK falling edge, SDO
returns to high impedance and another AD7944 can be read.
With SDI high, a rising edge on CNV initiates a conversion,
selects CS mode, and forces SDO to high impedance. In this
mode, CNV must be held high during the conversion phase
and the subsequent data readback. (If SDI and CNV are low,
SDO is driven low.) Prior to the minimum conversion time,
SDI can be used to select other SPI devices, such as analog multiplexers, but SDI must be returned high before the minimum
CS2
CS1
CONVERT
CNV
CNV
AD7944
SDO
AD7944
SDI
SCK
DIGITAL HOST
SDO
SCK
04658-013
SDI
DATA IN
CLK
Figure 30. CS Mode, 4-Wire Without Busy Indicator Connection Diagram
tCYC
tCONV
tCONV
tDATA
tDATA
CNV
tACQ
ACQUISITION
(n – 1)
CONVERSION (n – 1)
(I/O QUIET
TIME)
ACQUISITION (n)
(I/O QUIET
TIME)
(I/O QUIET
TIME)
CONVERSION (n)
ACQUISITION
(n + 1)
tHSDICNV
SDI
tSSDICNV
tQUIET
12
13
1
14
2
12
13
tHSDO
tEN
SDO
tDSDO
tEN
2
1
END DATA (n – 2)
0
13
tHSDO
14
tSCK
12
11
BEGIN DATA (n – 1)
2
Figure 31. CS Mode, 4-Wire Without Busy Indicator Serial Interface Timing
Rev. A | Page 21 of 28
1
tDIS END DATA (n – 1)
0
tDIS
04658-014
SCK
AD7944
CS MODE, 4-WIRE WITH BUSY INDICATOR
used to select other SPI devices, such as analog multiplexers, but
SDI must be returned low before the minimum conversion time
elapses and then held low for the maximum possible conversion
time to guarantee the generation of the busy signal indicator.
This mode is usually used when a single AD7944 is connected
to an SPI-compatible digital host with an interrupt input and
when it is desired to keep CNV, which is used to sample the
analog input, independent of the signal used to select the data
reading. This independence is particularly important in applications where low jitter on CNV is desired. This mode is available
only in normal conversion mode (TURBO low). The connection
diagram is shown in Figure 32, and the corresponding timing is
given in Figure 33.
When the conversion is complete, SDO goes from high impedance to low impedance. With a pull-up on the SDO line, this
transition can be used as an interrupt signal to initiate the data
readback controlled by the digital host. The AD7944 then enters
the acquisition phase and powers down. The data bits are then
clocked out, MSB first, by subsequent SCK falling edges. The
data is valid on both SCK edges. Although the rising edge can
be used to capture the data, a digital host using the SCK falling
edge allows a faster reading rate, provided that it has an acceptable hold time. After the optional 15th SCK falling edge or when
SDI goes high (whichever occurs first), SDO returns to high
impedance.
With SDI high, a rising edge on CNV initiates a conversion,
selects CS mode, and forces SDO to high impedance. In this
mode, CNV must be held high during the conversion phase and
the subsequent data readback. (If SDI and CNV are low, SDO is
driven low.) Prior to the minimum conversion time, SDI can be
CS1
CONVERT
VIO
DIGITAL HOST
CNV
47kΩ
AD7944
SCK
DATA IN
SDO
IRQ
TURBO
04658-015
SDI
CLK
Figure 32. CS Mode, 4-Wire with Busy Indicator Connection Diagram
TURBO = 0
tCYC
CNV
ACQUISITION
tCONV
tACQ
CONVERSION
ACQUISITION
(I/O QUIET
TIME)
tSSDICNV
SDI
tSCK
tHSDICNV
tSCKL
1
2
3
tHSDO
13
14
15
tSCKH
tDSDO
tDIS
tEN
SDO
D13
D12
D1
Figure 33. CS Mode, 4-Wire with Busy Indicator Serial Interface Timing
Rev. A | Page 22 of 28
D0
04658-016
SCK
tQUIET
AD7944
CHAIN MODE WITHOUT BUSY INDICATOR
When the conversion is complete, the MSB is output onto SDO,
and the AD7944 enters the acquisition phase and powers down.
The remaining data bits stored in the internal shift register are
clocked by subsequent SCK falling edges. For each ADC, SDI
feeds the input of the internal shift register and is clocked by the
SCK falling edge. Each ADC in the chain outputs its data MSB
first, and 14 × N clocks are required to read back the N ADCs.
The data is valid on both SCK edges. Although the rising edge
can be used to capture the data, a digital host using the SCK
falling edge allows a faster reading rate and, consequently, more
AD7944 devices in the chain, provided that the digital host has
an acceptable hold time. The maximum conversion rate may be
reduced due to the total readback time.
This mode can be used to daisy-chain multiple AD7944 devices on
a 3-wire serial interface. It is available only in normal conversion
mode (TURBO is low). This feature is useful for reducing component count and wiring connections, for example, in isolated
multiconverter applications or for systems with a limited interfacing capacity. Data readback is analogous to clocking a shift
register. A connection diagram example using two AD7944
devices is shown in Figure 34, and the corresponding timing is
given in Figure 35.
When SDI and CNV are low, SDO is driven low. With SCK low,
a rising edge on CNV initiates a conversion, selects chain mode,
and disables the busy indicator. In this mode, CNV is held high
during the conversion phase and the subsequent data readback.
CONVERT
SDI
AD7944
A
SCK
CNV
SDO
SDI
DIGITAL HOST
AD7944
B
SCK
TURBO
DATA IN
SDO
TURBO
04658-017
CNV
CLK
Figure 34. Chain Mode Without Busy Indicator Connection Diagram
TURBO = 0
SDIA = 0
tCYC
CNV
ACQUISITION
tCONV
tACQ
CONVERSION
ACQUISITION
tSCK
tSCKL
tQUIET
SCK
1
2
3
12
13
tSSDISCK
tHSCKCNV
14
15
16
DA13
DA12
26
27
28
D A1
DA 0
tSCKH
tHSDISCK
tEN
SDOA = SDIB
DA13
DA12
DA11
DA 1
DA 0
DB13
DB12
DB11
DB1
DB0
SDOB
Figure 35. Chain Mode Without Busy Indicator Serial Interface Timing
Rev. A | Page 23 of 28
04658-018
tHSDO
tDSDO
AD7944
CHAIN MODE WITH BUSY INDICATOR
When all ADCs in the chain have completed their conversions, the
SDO pin of the ADC closest to the digital host (see the AD7944
ADC labeled C in Figure 36) is driven high. This transition on
SDO can be used as a busy indicator to trigger the data readback controlled by the digital host. The AD7944 then enters the
acquisition phase and powers down. The data bits stored in the
internal shift register are clocked out, MSB first, by subsequent SCK
falling edges. For each ADC, SDI feeds the input of the internal
shift register and is clocked by the SCK falling edge. Each ADC
in the chain outputs its data MSB first, and 14 × N + 1 clocks
are required to read back the N ADCs. Although the rising edge
can be used to capture the data, a digital host using the SCK
falling edge allows a faster reading rate and, consequently, more
AD7944 devices in the chain, provided that the digital host has
an acceptable hold time.
This mode can be used to daisy-chain multiple AD7944 devices
on a 3-wire serial interface while providing a busy indicator. It
is available only in normal conversion mode (TURBO low).
This feature is useful for reducing component count and wiring
connections, for example, in isolated multiconverter applications
or for systems with a limited interfacing capacity. Data readback
is analogous to clocking a shift register. A connection diagram
example using three AD7944 devices is shown in Figure 36, and
the corresponding timing is given in Figure 37.
When SDI and CNV are low, SDO is driven low. With SCK high,
a rising edge on CNV initiates a conversion, selects chain mode,
and enables the busy indicator. In this mode, CNV is held high
during the conversion phase and the subsequent data readback.
CONVERT
SDI
CNV
AD7944
A
SCK
SDO
SDI
CNV
AD7944
B
SCK
TURBO
SDO
SDI
DIGITAL HOST
AD7944
C
SCK
TURBO
SDO
DATA IN
IRQ
TURBO
04658-019
CNV
CLK
Figure 36. Chain Mode with Busy Indicator Connection Diagram
TURBO = 0
tCYC
ACQUISITION
tCONV
tACQ
ACQUISITION
CONVERSION
tSSCKCNV
SCK
tSCKH
1
2
tSSDISCK
tHSCKCNV
tEN
SDOA = SDIB
3
4
tSCK
13
14
16
17
27
28
29
30
31
tSCKL
tHSDISCK
DA13 DA12 DA11
15
DA1
SDOB = SDIC
43
tDSDOSDI
tDSDOSDI
DB13 DB12 DB11
DB1
DB0 DA13 DA12
DA1
DA0
DC13 DC12 DC11
D C1
DC0 DB13 DB12
D B1
DB0 DA13 DA12
tDSDOSDI
SDOC
42
DA0
tHSDO
tDSDO
tDSDOSDI
41
tDSDOSDI
Figure 37. Chain Mode with Busy Indicator Serial Interface Timing
Rev. A | Page 24 of 28
DA1
DA0
04658-020
CNV = SDIA
AD7944
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
LAYOUT
The printed circuit board (PCB) that houses the AD7944
should be designed so that the analog and digital sections
are separated and confined to certain areas of the board.
The pinout of the AD7944, with its analog signals on the left
side and its digital signals on the right side, eases this task.
Avoid running digital lines under the device because they
couple noise onto the die, unless a ground plane under the
AD7944 is used as a shield. Fast switching signals, such as
CNV or clocks, should not run near analog signal paths.
Avoid crossover of digital and analog signals.
At least one ground plane should be used. It can be common or
split between the digital and analog sections. In the latter case,
the planes should be joined underneath the AD7944 devices.
Finally, the power supplies, VDD and VIO of the AD7944,
should be decoupled with ceramic capacitors, typically 100 nF,
placed close to the AD7944 and connected using short, wide
traces to provide low impedance paths and to reduce the effect
of glitches on the power supply lines.
EVALUATING AD7944 PERFORMANCE
Other recommended layouts for the AD7944 are outlined
in the documentation for the AD7944 evaluation board
(EVAL-AD7944EBZ). The evaluation board package includes
a fully assembled and tested evaluation board, documentation,
and software for controlling the board from a PC via the
EVAL-CED1Z board.
The AD7944 voltage reference inputs (REF) have a dynamic
input impedance and should be decoupled with minimal
parasitic inductances. This is done by placing the reference
decoupling ceramic capacitor close to, ideally right up against,
the REF and REFGND pins and connecting them with wide,
low impedance traces.
Rev. A | Page 25 of 28
AD7944
AVDD
BVDD
REF
REF
REF
PADDLE
1
2
GND
GND
GND
GND
3
4
DVDD
5
6
GND
04658-030
GND
VIO
Figure 38. Example Layout of the AD7944 (Top Layer)
5V
EXTERNAL
REFERENCE
(ADR435 OR ADR445)
REF
REF
AVDD CAVDD
CBVDD BVDD
REF
GND
CREF
GND
GND
GND
GND
CDVDD
DVDD
GND
GND
GND
VIO
CVIO
04658-031
GND
Figure 39. Example Layout of the AD7944 (Bottom Layer)
Rev. A | Page 26 of 28
AD7944
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
0.60 MAX
4.00
BSC SQ
0.60 MAX
15
PIN 1
INDICATOR
20
16
1
PIN 1
INDICATOR
3.75
BSC SQ
0.50
BSC
2.65
2.50 SQ
2.35
EXPOSED
PAD
(BOTTOM VIEW)
5
10
1.00
0.85
0.80
12° MAX
0.80 MAX
0.65 TYP
0.30
0.23
0.18
SEATING
PLANE
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.05 MAX
0.02 NOM
COPLANARITY
0.08
0.20 REF
0.25 MIN
FOR PROPER CONNECTION OF
THE EXPOSED PAD, REFER TO
THE PIN CONFIGURATION AND
FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
SECTION OF THIS DATA SHEET.
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-220-VGGD-1
090408-B
TOP VIEW
6
11
Figure 40. 20-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
4 mm × 4 mm Body, Very Thin Quad
(CP-20-4)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
Model1, 2, 3
AD7944BCPZ
AD7944BCPZ-RL7
EVAL-AD7944EBZ
EVAL-CED1Z
Temperature Range
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
Package Description
20-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ], Tray
20-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ], 7” Tape
and Reel
Evaluation Board
Converter Evaluation and Development Board
1
Package
Option
CP-20-4
CP-20-4
Z = RoHS Compliant Part.
The EVAL-AD7944EBZ can be used as a standalone evaluation board or in conjunction with the EVAL-CED1Z for evaluation/demonstration purposes.
3
The EVAL-CED1Z allows a PC to control and communicate with all Analog Devices evaluation boards ending in the EB designator.
2
Rev. A | Page 27 of 28
Ordering
Quantity
490
1,500
AD7944
NOTES
©2009-2010 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
D04658-0-8/10(A)
Rev. A | Page 28 of 28
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