Microcontroller Core Features: Pin Diagram

Microcontroller Core Features: Pin Diagram
PIC16C62B/72A
28-Pin 8-Bit CMOS Microcontrollers
Pin Diagram
• High-performance RISC CPU
• Only 35 single word instructions to learn
• All single cycle instructions except for program
branches, which are two cycle
• Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input
DC - 200 ns instruction cycle
• 2K x 14 words of Program Memory,
128 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM)
• Interrupt capability
• Eight level deep hardware stack
• Direct, indirect, and relative addressing modes
• Power-on Reset (POR)
• Power-up Timer (PWRT) and
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
• Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC
oscillator for reliable operation
• Brown-out detection circuitry for
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Programmable code-protection
• Power saving SLEEP mode
• Selectable oscillator options
• Low-power, high-speed CMOS EPROM
technology
• Fully static design
• In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP)
• Wide operating voltage range: 2.5V to 5.5V
• High Sink/Source Current 25/25 mA
• Commercial, Industrial and Extended temperature
ranges
• Low-power consumption:
- < 2 mA @ 5V, 4 MHz
- 22.5 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz
- < 1 µA typical standby current
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
SDIP, SOIC, SSOP, Windowed CERDIP
MCLR/VPP
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2
RA3/AN3/VREF
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS/AN4
VSS
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
•1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
PIC16C72A
Microcontroller Core Features:
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
VDD
VSS
RC7
RC6
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
Peripheral Features:
• Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler
• Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler,
can be incremented during sleep via external
crystal/clock
• Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period
register, prescaler and postscaler
• Capture, Compare, PWM module
• Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns,
Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns,
PWM maximum resolution is 10-bit
• 8-bit multi-channel Analog-to-Digital converter
• Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with Enhanced
SPI and I2C
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 1
PIC16C62B/72A
Pin Diagrams
MCLR/VPP
RA0
RA1
RA2
RA3
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS
VSS
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
•1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
PIC16C62B
SDIP, SOIC, SSOP, Windowed CERDIP
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
VDD
VSS
RC7
RC6
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
Key Features
PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual
(DS33023)
PIC16C62B
PIC16C72A
Operating Frequency
DC - 20 MHz
DC - 20 MHz
Resets (and Delays)
POR, BOR (PWRT, OST)
POR, BOR (PWRT, OST)
Program Memory (14-bit words)
2K
2K
Data Memory (bytes)
128
128
Interrupts
7
8
I/O Ports
Ports A,B,C
Ports A,B,C
Timers
3
3
Capture/Compare/PWM modules
1
1
Serial Communications
SSP
8-bit Analog-to-Digital Module
DS35008B-page 2
SSP
—
Preliminary
5 input channels
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.0 Memory Organization ............................................................................................................................................. 7
3.0 I/O Ports ............................................................................................................................................................... 19
4.0 Timer0 Module ..................................................................................................................................................... 25
5.0 Timer1 Module ..................................................................................................................................................... 27
6.0 Timer2 Module ..................................................................................................................................................... 31
7.0 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) Module ............................................................................................................... 33
8.0 Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) Module ............................................................................................................... 39
9.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module ............................................................................................................ 49
10.0 Special Features of the CPU................................................................................................................................ 55
11.0 Instruction Set Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 67
12.0 Development Support........................................................................................................................................... 75
13.0 Electrical Characteristics ...................................................................................................................................... 81
14.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables................................................................................................. 103
15.0 Packaging Information........................................................................................................................................ 105
Appendix A: Revision History ................................................................................................................................... 111
Appendix B: Conversion Considerations .................................................................................................................. 111
Appendix C: Migration from Base-line to Mid-Range Devices .................................................................................. 112
Index ........................................................................................................................................................................... 113
On-Line Support.......................................................................................................................................................... 117
Reader Response ....................................................................................................................................................... 118
PIC16C62B/72A Product Identification System .......................................................................................................... 119
To Our Valued Customers
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 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 3
PIC16C62B/72A
NOTES:
DS35008B-page 4
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
1.0
DEVICE OVERVIEW
ommended reading for a better understanding of the
device architecture and operation of the peripheral
modules.
This document contains device-specific information.
Additional information may be found in the PICmicro™
Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023), which may
be obtained from your local Microchip Sales Representative or downloaded from the Microchip website. The
Reference Manual should be considered a complementary document to this data sheet, and is highly rec-
FIGURE 1-1:
There are two devices (PIC16C62B, PIC16C72A) covered by this datasheet. The PIC16C62B does not have
the A/D module implemented.
Figure 1-1 is the block diagram for both devices. The
pinouts are listed in Table 1-1.
PIC16C62B/PIC16C72A BLOCK DIAGRAM
13
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
PORTA
RA0/AN0(2)
RA1/AN1(2)
RA2/AN2(2)
RA3/AN3/VREF(2)
RA4/T0CKI
RA5/SS/AN4(2)
EPROM
2K x 14
Program
Memory
Program
Bus
RAM
128 x 8
File
Registers
8 Level Stack
(13-bit)
14
RAM Addr(1)
PORTB
9
Addr MUX
Instruction reg
Direct Addr
7
8
RB0/INT
Indirect
Addr
RB7:RB1
FSR reg
STATUS reg
8
3
MUX
Power-up
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Timing
Generation
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
ALU
Power-on
Reset
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6
RC7
8
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
MCLR
PORTC
W reg
VDD, VSS
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
CCP1
Synchronous
Serial Port
A/D(2)
Note 1: Higher order bits are from the STATUS register.
2: The A/D module is not available on the PIC16C62B.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 5
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 1-1
PIC16C62B/PIC16C72A PINOUT DESCRIPTION
DIP
Pin#
SOIC
Pin#
I/O/P
Type
OSC1/CLKIN
9
9
I
OSC2/CLKOUT
10
10
O
—
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in
crystal oscillator mode. In RC mode, the OSC2 pin outputs
CLKOUT which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and denotes
the instruction cycle rate.
MCLR/VPP
1
1
I/P
ST
Master clear (reset) input or programming voltage input. This
pin is an active low reset to the device.
RA0/AN0(4)
2
2
I/O
TTL
RA0 can also be analog input 0
RA1/AN1(4)
3
3
I/O
TTL
RA1 can also be analog input 1
4
4
I/O
TTL
RA2 can also be analog input 2
5
5
I/O
TTL
RA3 can also be analog input 3 or analog reference voltage
RA4/T0CKI
6
6
I/O
ST
RA4 can also be the clock input to the Timer0 module.
Output is open drain type.
RA5/SS/AN4(4)
7
7
I/O
TTL
RA5 can also be analog input 4 or the slave select for the
synchronous serial port.
Pin Name
Buffer
Type
Description
ST/CMOS(3) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input.
PORTA is a bi-directional I/O port.
RA2/AN2(4)
RA3/AN3/VREF
(4)
PORTB is a bi-directional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs.
RB0/INT
21
21
I/O
TTL/ST(1)
RB1
22
22
I/O
TTL
RB2
23
23
I/O
TTL
RB3
24
24
I/O
TTL
RB4
25
25
I/O
TTL
Interrupt on change pin.
RB5
26
26
I/O
TTL
Interrupt on change pin.
RB6
27
27
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
RB7
28
28
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
RB0 can also be the external interrupt pin.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming clock.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming data.
PORTC is a bi-directional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
11
11
I/O
ST
RC0 can also be the Timer1 oscillator output or Timer1
clock input.
RC1/T1OSI
12
12
I/O
ST
RC1 can also be the Timer1 oscillator input.
RC2/CCP1
13
13
I/O
ST
RC2 can also be the Capture1 input/Compare1 output/
PWM1 output.
RC3/SCK/SCL
14
14
I/O
ST
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock input/output
for both SPI and I2C modes.
RC4/SDI/SDA
15
15
I/O
ST
RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or
data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5/SDO
16
16
I/O
ST
RC5 can also be the SPI Data Out (SPI mode).
RC6
17
17
I/O
ST
ST
RC7
18
18
I/O
VSS
8, 19
8, 19
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD
20
20
P
—
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
Legend: I = input
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power or program
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
The A/D module is not available on the PIC16C62B.
DS35008B-page 6
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
2.0
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
FIGURE 2-1:
There are two memory blocks in each of these microcontrollers. Each block (Program Memory and Data
Memory) has its own bus, so that concurrent access
can occur.
PC<12:0>
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
Additional information on device memory may be found
in the PICmicro Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
2.1
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK
13
Stack Level 1
Program Memory Organization
Stack Level 8
The reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
User Memory
Space
The PIC16C62B/72A devices have a 13-bit program
counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program
memory space. Each device has 2K x 14 words of program memory. Accessing a location above 07FFh will
cause a wraparound.
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
On-chip Program
Memory
07FFh
0800h
1FFFh
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 7
PIC16C62B/72A
2.2
Data Memory Organization
FIGURE 2-2:
The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks
which contain the General Purpose Registers and the
Special Function Registers. Bits RP1 and RP0 are the
bank select bits.
RP1(1)
= 00 →
= 01 →
= 10 →
= 11 →
RP0
REGISTER FILE MAP
File
Address
(STATUS<6:5>)
Bank0
Bank1
Bank2 (not implemented)
Bank3 (not implemented)
File
Address
00h
INDF(1)
01h
TMR0
INDF(1)
80h
OPTION_REG 81h
02h
PCL
PCL
82h
03h
STATUS
STATUS
83h
04h
FSR
FSR
84h
05h
PORTA
TRISA
85h
06h
PORTB
TRISB
86h
Note 1: Maintain this bit clear to ensure upward compatibility with future products.
07h
PORTC
TRISC
87h
08h
—
—
88h
Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower
locations of each bank are reserved for the Special
Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as
static RAM. All implemented banks contain Special
Function Registers. Some “high use” Special Function
Registers from one bank may be mirrored in another
bank for code reduction and quicker access.
09h
—
—
89h
0Ah
PCLATH
PCLATH
8Ah
0Bh
INTCON
INTCON
8Bh
0Ch
PIR1
PIE1
8Ch
0Dh
—
—
8Dh
0Eh
TMR1L
PCON
8Eh
0Fh
TMR1H
—
8Fh
10h
T1CON
—
90h
11h
TMR2
—
91h
12h
T2CON
PR2
92h
13h
SSPBUF
SSPADD
93h
14h
SSPCON
SSPSTAT
94h
15h
CCPR1L
—
95h
16h
CCPR1H
—
96h
17h
CCP1CON
—
97h
18h
—
—
98h
19h
—
—
99h
1Ah
—
—
9Ah
1Bh
—
—
9Bh
1Ch
—
—
9Ch
1Dh
—
—
9Dh
1Eh
ADRES(2)
—
9Eh
1Fh
ADCON0(2)
ADCON1(2)
9Fh
General
Purpose
Registers
A0h
—
C0h
2.2.1
GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE
The register file can be accessed either directly, or indirectly through the File Select Register FSR
(Section 2.5).
20h
General
Purpose
Registers
BFh
—
7Fh
—
Bank 0
FFh
Bank 1
Unimplemented data memory locations,
read as ’0’.
Note 1: Not a physical register.
2: These registers are not implemented on the
PIC16C62B, read as ’0’.
DS35008B-page 8
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
2.2.2
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The Special Function Registers are registers used by
the CPU and Peripheral Modules for controlling the
desired operation of the device. These registers are
implemented as static RAM. A list of these registers is
given in Table 2-1.
TABLE 2-1
Addr
The Special Function Registers can be classified into
two sets; core (CPU) and peripheral. Those registers
associated with the core functions are described in
detail in this section. Those related to the operation of
the peripheral features are described in detail in the
peripheral feature section.
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(4)
Bank 0
00h
INDF(1)
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 0000 0000
01h
TMR0
Timer0 module’s register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
02h
PCL(1)
Program Counter's (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000 0000 0000
03h
STATUS
04h
FSR(1)
(1)
IRP(5)
RP1(5)
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
(6,7)
—
—
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read
05h
PORTA
06h
PORTB(6,7)
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
07h
(6,7)
PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTC
08h-09h
—
(1,2)
0Ah
PCLATH
0Bh
INTCON(1)
0Ch
Unimplemented
—
—
—
—
—
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
ADIF
(3)
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
—
GIE
—
PIR1
0Dh
--0x 0000 --0u 0000
Unimplemented
---0 0000 ---0 0000
—
—
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
13h
SSPBUF
14h
SSPCON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (LSB)
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register1 (MSB)
17h
CCP1CON
18h-1Dh
—
—
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
Timer2 module’s register
—
1Eh
ADRES(3)
1Fh
ADCON0(3)
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
WCOL
—
SSPOV
—
SSPEN
CCP1X
CKP
CCP1Y
SSPM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
--00 0000 --00 0000
—
A/D Result Register
ADCS0
0000 0000 0000 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Unimplemented
ADCS1
--00 0000 --uu uuuu
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0 0000 00-0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ’0’,
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ’0’.
Note 1: These registers can be addressed from either bank.
2: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for PC<12:8> whose contents
are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
3: A/D not implemented on the PIC16C62B, maintain as ’0’.
4: Other (non power-up) resets include: external reset through MCLR and the Watchdog Timer Reset.
5: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved. Always maintain these bits clear.
6: On any device reset, these pins are configured as inputs.
7: This is the value that will be in the port output latch.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 9
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 2-1
Addr
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (Cont.’d)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
(4)
Bank 1
80h
INDF(1)
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 0000 0000
81h
OPTION_REG
82h
PCL(1)
83h
STATUS
84h
FSR(1)
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte
(1)
IRP
(5)
(5)
RP1
RP0
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
—
—
1111 1111 1111 1111
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
PORTA Data Direction Register
85h
TRISA
86h
TRISB
PORTB Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
88h-89h
—
Unimplemented
(1,2)
8Ah
PCLATH
8Bh
INTCON(1)
8Ch
8Eh
—
—
—
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
ADIE
(3)
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
—
—
—
—
Unimplemented
PCON
8Fh-91h
—
GIE
—
PIE1
8Dh
--11 1111 --11 1111
—
---0 0000 ---0 0000
—
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR
Unimplemented
—
---- --qq ---- --uu
—
—
92h
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
93h
SSPADD
Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
94h
SSPSTAT
95h-9Eh
9Fh
—
ADCON1
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
Unimplemented
(3)
—
—
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
—
---- -000
---- -000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ’0’,
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ’0’.
Note 1: These registers can be addressed from either bank.
2: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for PC<12:8> whose contents
are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
3: A/D not implemented on the PIC16C62B, maintain as ’0’.
4: Other (non power-up) resets include: external reset through MCLR and the Watchdog Timer Reset.
5: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved. Always maintain these bits clear.
6: On any device reset, these pins are configured as inputs.
7: This is the value that will be in the port output latch.
DS35008B-page 10
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
2.2.2.1
STATUS REGISTER
It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF,
SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the
STATUS register, because these instructions do not
affect the Z, C or DC bits from the STATUS register. For
other instructions, not affecting any status bits, see the
"Instruction Set Summary."
The STATUS register, shown in Register 2-1, contains
the arithmetic status of the ALU, the RESET status and
the bank select bits for data memory.
The STATUS register can be the destination for any
instruction, as with any other register. If the STATUS
register is the destination for an instruction that affects
the Z, DC or C bits, the write to these three bits is disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. The TO and PD bits are not writable. The
result of an instruction with the STATUS register as
destination may be different than intended.
Note 1: The IRP and RP1 bits are reserved. Maintain these bits clear to ensure upward
compatibility with future products.
Note 2: The C and DC bits operate as a borrow
and digit borrow bit, respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions.
For example, CLRF STATUS will clear the upper-three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register
as 000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).
REGISTER 2-1:
R/W-0
IRP
R/W-0
RP1
STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 03h, 83h)
R/W-0
RP0
R-1
TO
R-1
PD
R/W-x
Z
R/W-x
DC
bit7
bit 7:
R/W-x
C
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
IRP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing)
(reserved, maintain clear)
bit 6-5: RP1:RP0: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing)
01 = Bank 1 (80h - FFh)
00 = Bank 0 (00h - 7Fh)
Each bank is 128 bytes
Note: RP1 is reserved, maintain clear
bit 4:
TO: Time-out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction, or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3:
PD: Power-down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2:
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1:
DC: Digit carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions) (for borrow, the polarity is reversed)
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result
bit 0:
C: Carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions) (for borrow, the polarity is reversed)
1 = A carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred
Note: For borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s complement of the
second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low order bit of
the source register.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 11
PIC16C62B/72A
2.2.2.2
OPTION_REG REGISTER
Note:
The OPTION_REG register is a readable and writable
register, which contains various control bits to configure
the TMR0 prescaler/WDT postscaler (single assignable register known as the prescaler), the External INT
Interrupt, TMR0 and the weak pull-ups on PORTB.
REGISTER 2-2:
To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for
the TMR0 register, assign the prescaler to
the Watchdog Timer.
OPTION_REG REGISTER (ADDRESS 81h)
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
bit7
bit0
bit 7:
RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled for all PORTB inputs
bit 6:
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5:
T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT)
bit 4:
T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
bit 3:
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 2-0: PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Bit Value
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
DS35008B-page 12
TMR0 Rate
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
WDT Rate
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
2.2.2.3
INTCON REGISTER
Note:
The INTCON Register is a readable and writable register, which contains various interrupt enable and flag
bits for the TMR0 register overflow, RB Port change
and External RB0/INT pin interrupts.
REGISTER 2-3:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an
interrupt.
INTCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Bh, 8Bh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-x
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7:
GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6:
PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
bit 5:
T0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt
bit 4:
IINTE: RB0/INT External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB0/INT external interrupt
0 = Disables the RB0/INT external interrupt
bit 3:
RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt
0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt
bit 2:
T0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (software must clear bit)
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 1:
INTF: RB0/INT External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The RB0/INT external interrupt occurred (software must clear bit)
0 = The RB0/INT external interrupt did not occur
bit 0:
RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 input pins have changed state (clear by reading PORTB)
0 = None of the RB7:RB4 input pins have changed state
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 13
PIC16C62B/72A
2.2.2.4
PIE1 REGISTER
Note:
This register contains the individual enable bits for the
peripheral interrupts.
REGISTER 2-4:
Bit PEIE (INTCON<6>) must be set to
enable any peripheral interrupt.
PIE1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Ch)
U-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
ADIE(1)
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
bit7
bit0
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6:
ADIE(1): A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the A/D interrupt
0 = Disables the A/D interrupt
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 5-4: Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3:
SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the SSP interrupt
0 = Disables the SSP interrupt
bit 2:
CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 1:
TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0:
TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
Note 1: The PIC16C62B does not have an A/D module. This bit location is reserved on these devices. Always maintain this
bit clear.
DS35008B-page 14
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
2.2.2.5
PIR1 REGISTER
Note:
This register contains the individual flag bits for the
Peripheral interrupts.
REGISTER 2-5:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling an
interrupt.
PIR1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Ch)
U-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
ADIF(1)
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
bit7
bit0
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6:
ADIF(1): A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = An A/D conversion completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The A/D conversion is not complete
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 5-4: Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3:
SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The transmission/reception is complete (must be cleared in software)
0 = Waiting to transmit/receive
bit 2:
CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture Mode
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare Mode
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM Mode
Unused in this mode
bit 1:
TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred
bit 0:
TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR1 register did not overflow
Note 1: The PIC16C62B does not have an A/D module. This bit location is reserved on these devices. Always maintain this
bit clear.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 15
PIC16C62B/72A
2.2.2.6
PCON REGISTER
Note:
The Power Control register (PCON) contains flag bits to
allow differentiation between a Power-on Reset (POR),
Brown-Out Reset (BOR) and resets from other
sources. .
REGISTER 2-6:
On Power-on Reset, the state of the BOR
bit is unknown and is not predictable.
If the BODEN bit in the configuration word
is set, the user must first set the BOR bit on
a POR, and check it on subsequent resets.
If BOR is cleared while POR remains set,
a Brown-out reset has occurred.
If the BODEN bit is clear, the BOR bit may
be ignored.
PCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Eh)
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-q
—
—
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-2: Unimplemented: Read as ’0’
bit 1:
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = No Power-on Reset occurred
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0:
BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs)
DS35008B-page 16
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
2.3
PCL and PCLATH
2.4
The program counter (PC) specifies the address of the
instruction to fetch for execution. The PC is 13 bits
wide. The low byte is called the PCL register and is
readable and writable. The high byte is called the PCH
register. This register contains the PC<12:8> bits and
is not directly accessible. All updates to the PCH register go through the PCLATH register.
2.3.1
STACK
The stack allows any combination of up to 8 program
calls and interrupts to occur. The stack contains the
return address from this branch in program execution.
Program Memory Paging
The CALL and GOTO instructions provide 11 bits of
address to allow branching within any 2K program
memory page. When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction,
the upper bit of the address is provided by
PCLATH<3>. The user must ensure that the page
select bit is programmed to address the proper program memory page. If a return from a CALL instruction
(or interrupt) is executed, the entire 13-bit PC is popped
from the stack. Therefore, manipulation of the
PCLATH<3> bit is not required for the return instructions.
Mid-range devices have an 8 level deep hardware
stack. The stack space is not part of either program or
data space and the stack pointer is not accessible. The
PC is PUSHed onto the stack when a CALL instruction
is executed or an interrupt causes a branch. The stack
is POPed in the event of a RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction execution. PCLATH is not modified
when the stack is PUSHed or POPed.
After the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth
push overwrites the value that was stored from the first
push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and
so on).
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 17
PIC16C62B/72A
2.5
Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR
Registers
EXAMPLE 2-1:
The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing INDF actually addresses the register whose
address is contained in the FSR register (FSR is a
pointer).
NEXT
Reading INDF itself indirectly (FSR = 0) will produce
00h. Writing to the INDF register indirectly results in a
no-operation (although STATUS bits may be affected).
;initialize pointer
; to RAM
;clear INDF register
;inc pointer
;all done?
;NO, clear next
:
;YES, continue
An effective 9-bit address is obtained by concatenating
the 8-bit FSR register and the IRP bit (STATUS<7>), as
shown in Figure 2-3. However, IRP is not used in the
PIC16C62B/72A.
DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING
Direct Addressing
RP1:RP0
0x20
FSR
INDF
FSR
FSR,4
NEXT
CONTINUE
A simple program to clear RAM locations 20h-2Fh
using indirect addressing is shown in Example 2-1.
FIGURE 2-3:
movlw
movwf
clrf
incf
btfss
goto
HOW TO CLEAR RAM
USING INDIRECT
ADDRESSING
6
Indirect Addressing
from opcode
0
IRP
(1)
7
FSR register
0
(1)
bank select
bank select
location select
00
00h
01
80h
10
100h
location select
11
180h
not used
(2)
(2)
Data
Memory
7Fh
Bank 0
FFh
17Fh
Bank 1
1FFh
Bank 2
Bank 3
Note 1: Maintain clear for upward compatibility with future products.
2: Not implemented.
DS35008B-page 18
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
3.0
I/O PORTS
FIGURE 3-1:
Some I/O port pins are multiplexed with an alternate
function for the peripheral features on the device. In
general, when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not
be used as a general purpose I/O pin.
Additional information on I/O ports may be found in the
PICmicro™
Mid-Range
Reference
Manual,
(DS33023).
Data
Bus
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA3:RA0 AND RA5 PINS
D
Q
VDD
WR
Port
Q
CK
P
Data Latch
3.1
PORTA and the TRISA Register
D
PORTA is a 6-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Setting a
TRISA bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin
an input, i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
hi-impedance mode. Clearing a TRISA bit (=0) will
make the corresponding PORTA pin an output, (i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
WR
TRIS
Pin RA5 is multiplexed with the SSP to become the
RA5/SS pin.
On the PIC16C72A device, other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and analog VREF input. The
operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the
control bits in the ADCON1 register (A/D Control
Register1).
Note:
I/O pin(1)
VSS
Q
CK
Analog
input
mode
(72A
only)
TRIS Latch
TTL
input
buffer
RD TRIS
The PORTA register reads the state of the pins,
whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All write
operations are read-modify-write operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the port pins are read,
this value is modified, and then written to the port data
latch.
Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock
input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. The RA4/T0CKI
pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open drain output.
All other RA port pins have TTL input levels and full
CMOS output drivers.
N
Q
Q
D
EN
RD PORT
To A/D Converter (72A only)
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and
VSS.
FIGURE 3-2:
Data
Bus
WR
PORT
On a Power-on Reset, pins with analog
functions are configured as analog inputs
with digital input buffers disabled . A digital
read of these pins will return ’0’.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA4/T0CKI PIN
D
Q
CK
Q
N
I/O pin(1)
Data Latch
The TRISA register controls the direction of the RA
pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs.
The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are
maintained set when using them as analog inputs.
WR
TRIS
D
Q
CK
Q
VSS
Schmitt
Trigger
input
buffer
TRIS Latch
RD TRIS
Q
D
EN
EN
RD PORT
TMR0 clock input
Note 1: I/O pin has protection diodes to VSS only.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 19
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 3-1
PORTA FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer
Function
RA0/AN0
bit0
TTL
Input/output or analog input(1)
RA1/AN1
bit1
TTL
Input/output or analog input(1)
RA2/AN2
bit2
TTL
Input/output or analog input(1)
RA3/AN3/VREF
bit3
TTL
RA4/T0CKI
bit4
ST
Input/output or analog input(1) or VREF(1)
Input/output or external clock input for Timer0
Output is open drain type
RA5/SS/AN4
bit5
TTL
Input/output or slave select input for synchronous serial port or analog input(1)
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: The PIC16C62B does not implement the A/D module.
TABLE 3-2
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Address Name
05h
PORTA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
--xx xxxx
--uu uuuu
--11 1111
--11 1111
---- -000
---- -000
(for PIC16C72A only)
05h
PORTA
(for PIC16C62B only)
85h
TRISA
—
—
9Fh
ADCON1(1)
—
—
PORTA Data Direction Register
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as ’0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
Note 1: The PIC16C62B does not implement the A/D module. Maintain this register clear.
DS35008B-page 20
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
3.2
PORTB and the TRISB Register
PORTB is an 8-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a
TRISB bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin
an input, (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
hi-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISB bit (=0) will
make the corresponding PORTB pin an output, (i.e.,
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Four of PORTB’s pins, RB7:RB4, have an interrupt on
change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can
cause this interrupt to occur (i.e. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupt on
change comparison). The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are
compared with the old value latched on the last read of
PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB7:RB4 are
OR’ed together to generate the RB Port Change Interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>).
Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). The
weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port
pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset.
This interrupt can wake the device from SLEEP. The
user, in the interrupt service routine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner:
FIGURE 3-3:
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.
Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB3:RB0 PINS
VDD
RBPU(2)
Data Bus
WR Port
weak
P pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
I/O
pin(1)
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRIS
Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit RBIF.
b)
The interrupt on change feature is recommended for
wake-up on key depression operation and operations
where PORTB is only used for the interrupt on change
feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while
using the interrupt on change feature.
RB0/INT is an external interupt pin and is configured
using the INTEDG bit (OPTION_REG<6>). RB0/INT is
discussed in detail in Section 10.10.1.
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
a)
FIGURE 3-4:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB7:RB4 PINS
VDD
RD TRIS
Q
RD Port
D
RBPU(2)
EN
Data Bus
WR Port
RB0/INT
Schmitt Trigger
Buffer
Data Latch
D
Q
I/O
pin(1)
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
RD Port
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s)
and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION_REG<7>).
weak
P pull-up
WR TRIS
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
RD TRIS
Q
Latch
D
EN
RD Port
ST
Buffer
Q1
Set RBIF
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
Q
D
RD Port
EN
Q3
RB7:RB6 in serial programming mode
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s)
and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION_REG<7>).
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 21
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 3-3
PORTB FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer
Function
RB0/INT
bit0
TTL/ST(1)
Input/output pin or external interrupt input.
Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB1
bit1
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB2
bit2
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB3
bit3
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB4
bit4
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change).
Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB5
bit5
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change).
Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change).
RB6
bit6
TTL/ST(2)
Internal software programmable weak pull-up. Serial programming clock.
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change).
RB7
bit7
TTL/ST(2)
Internal software programmable weak pull-up. Serial programming data.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
TABLE 3-4
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
06h
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
86h
TRISB
1111 1111
1111 1111
81h
OPTION_REG
1111 1111
1111 1111
PORTB Data Direction Register
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.
DS35008B-page 22
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
3.3
PORTC and the TRISC Register
PORTC is an 8-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. Setting a
TRISC bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin
an input, (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
hi-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (=0) will
make the corresponding PORTC pin an output, (i.e.,
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions
(Table 3-5). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input
buffers.
When enabling peripheral functions, care should be
taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some
peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to
make a pin an input. Since the TRIS bit override maybe
in effect while the peripheral is enabled, read-modifywrite instructions (BSF, BCF, XORWF) with TRISC as
destination should be avoided. The user should refer to
the corresponding peripheral section for the correct
TRIS bit settings.
FIGURE 3-5:
PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PERIPHERAL OUTPUT
OVERRIDE)
PORT/PERIPHERAL Select(2)
Peripheral Data Out
Data Bus
WR
PORT
D
VDD
0
Q
P
1
CK
Q
Data Latch
WR
TRIS
D
CK
I/O
pin(1)
Q
Q
N
TRIS Latch
VSS
Schmitt
Trigger
RD TRIS
Peripheral
OE(3)
Q
RD
PORT
Peripheral input
D
EN
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: Port/Peripheral select signal selects between port
data and peripheral output.
3: Peripheral OE (output enable) is only activated if
peripheral select is active.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 23
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 3-5
PORTC FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
bit0
Buffer
Function
Type
ST
TRISC
Override
Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator output/Timer1 clock input
Yes
RC1/T1OSI
bit1
ST
Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator input
Yes
RC2/CCP1
bit2
ST
Input/output port pin or Capture1 input/Compare1 output/PWM1
output
No
RC3/SCK/SCL
bit3
ST
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock for both SPI and I2C
modes.
No
RC4/SDI/SDA
bit4
ST
RC4 can also be the SPI Data In (SPI mode) or data I/O (I2C mode).
No
RC5/SDO
bit5
ST
Input/output port pin or Synchronous Serial Port data output
No
RC6
bit6
ST
Input/output port pin
No
RC7
bit7
ST
Input/output port pin
No
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input
TABLE 3-6
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC
Address Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
07h
PORTC
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
87h
TRISC
1111 1111
1111 1111
PORTC Data Direction Register
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged.
DS35008B-page 24
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
4.0
TIMER0 MODULE
Additional information on external clock requirements
is available in the Electrical Specifications section of
this manual, and in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023).
The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following features:
• 8-bit timer/counter
- Read and write
- INT on overflow
• 8-bit software programmable prescaler
• INT or EXT clock select
- EXT clock edge select
4.2
An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the
Timer0 module, or as a postscaler for the Watchdog
Timer, respectively (Figure 4-2). For simplicity, this
counter is being referred to as “prescaler” throughout
this data sheet. There is only one prescaler available
which is shared between the Timer0 module and the
Watchdog Timer. A prescaler assignment for the
Timer0 module means that there is no prescaler for the
Watchdog Timer, and vice-versa.
Figure 4-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer0
module.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
4.1
The prescaler is not readable or writable.
The PSA and PS2:PS0 bits (OPTION_REG<3:0>)
determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio.
Timer0 Operation
Timer0 can operate as a timer or as a counter.
Clearing bit PSA will assign the prescaler to the Timer0
module. When the prescaler is assigned to the Timer0
module, prescale values of 1:2, 1:4, ..., 1:256 are
selectable.
Timer mode is selected by clearing bit T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In timer mode, the Timer0 module will increment every instruction cycle (without prescaler). If the TMR0 register is written, the increment is
inhibited for the following two instruction cycles. The
user can work around this by writing an adjusted value
to the TMR0 register.
Setting bit PSA will assign the prescaler to the Watchdog Timer (WDT). When the prescaler is assigned to
the WDT, prescale values of 1:1, 1:2, ..., 1:128 are
selectable.
Counter mode is selected by setting bit T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In counter mode, Timer0 will
increment either on every rising or falling edge of pin
RA4/T0CKI. The incrementing edge is determined by
the Timer0 Source Edge Select bit T0SE
(OPTION_REG<4>). Clearing bit T0SE selects the rising edge. Restrictions on the external clock input are
discussed below.
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g. CLRF 1, MOVWF 1,
BSF
1,x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When
assigned to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the
prescaler along with the WDT.
Note:
When an external clock input is used for Timer0, it must
meet certain requirements. The requirements ensure
the external clock can be synchronized with the internal
phase clock (TOSC). Also, there is a delay in the actual
incrementing of Timer0 after synchronization.
FIGURE 4-1:
Prescaler
Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is
assigned to Timer0 will clear the prescaler
count, but will not change the prescaler
assignment or ratio.
TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
FOSC/4
0
PSout
1
1
Programmable
Prescaler
RA4/T0CKI
pin
0
8
Sync with
Internal
clocks
TMR0
PSout
(TCY delay)
T0SE
3
PS2, PS1, PS0
PSA
T0CS
Set interrupt
flag bit T0IF
on overflow
Note 1: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 (OPTION_REG<5:0>).
2: The prescaler is shared with Watchdog Timer (refer to Figure 4-2 for detailed block diagram).
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 25
PIC16C62B/72A
4.2.1
4.3
SWITCHING PRESCALER ASSIGNMENT
The prescaler assignment is fully under software control, (i.e., it can be changed “on-the-fly” during program
execution).
Note:
The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow sets bit
T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be masked by
clearing bit T0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit T0IF must be
cleared in software by the Timer0 module interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The
TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the processor from
SLEEP since the timer is shut off during SLEEP.
To avoid an unintended device RESET, a
specific instruction sequence (shown in the
PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, DS33023) must be executed when
changing the prescaler assignment from
Timer0 to the WDT. This sequence must
be followed even if the WDT is disabled.
FIGURE 4-2:
Timer0 Interrupt
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER
Data Bus
CLKOUT (= Fosc/4)
0
RA4/T0CKI
pin
8
M
U
X
1
M
U
X
0
1
SYNC
2
TCY
TMR0 reg
T0SE
T0CS
Set flag bit T0IF
on Overflow
PSA
Prescaler
0
1
Watchdog
Timer
8-bit Prescaler
M
U
X
8
8 - to - 1MUX
PS2:PS0
PSA
1
0
WDT Enable bit
MUX
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 are (OPTION_REG<5:0>).
TABLE 4-1
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Address
Name
01h
TMR0
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
81h
OPTION_REG
85h
TRISA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Timer0 module’s register
GIE
PEIE
RBPU INTEDG
—
—
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
PORTA Data Direction Register
Value on:
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
0000 000x
0000 000u
1111 1111
1111 1111
--11 1111
--11 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by Timer0.
DS35008B-page 26
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
5.0
TIMER1 MODULE
5.1
The Timer1 module timer/counter has the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
16-bit timer/counter
Readable and writable
Internal or external clock select
Interrupt on overflow from FFFFh to 0000h
Reset from CCP module trigger
Timer1 Operation
Timer1 can operate in one of these modes:
• As a timer
• As a synchronous counter
• As an asynchronous counter
The operating mode is determined by the clock select
bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>).
Timer1 has a control register, shown in Register 5-1.
Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing
control bit TMR1ON (T1CON<0>).
Figure 5-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer1
module.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
In timer mode, Timer1 increments every instruction
cycle. In counter mode, it increments on every rising
edge of the external clock input.
When the Timer1 oscillator is enabled (T1OSCEN is
set), the RC1/T1OSI and RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI pins
become inputs. That is, the TRISC<1:0> value is
ignored.
Timer1 also has an internal “reset input”. This reset can
be generated by the CCP module as a special event
trigger (Section 7.0).
REGISTER 5-1:T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 10h)
U-0
U-0
—
—
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
R/W-0
R/W-0
TMR1CS TMR1ON
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as ’0’
bit 5-4: T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 3:
T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control bit
1 = Oscillator is enabled (TRISC<1:0> ignored)
0 = Oscillator is shut off
(The oscillator is turned off to reduce power drain
bit 2:
T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
TMR1CS = 1
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
TMR1CS = 0
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.
bit 1:
TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0:
TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 27
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 5-1:
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Set flag bit
TMR1IF on
Overflow
0
TMR1
TMR1H
Synchronized
clock input
TMR1L
1
TMR1ON
on/off
T1SYNC
T1OSC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI
1
T1OSCEN FOSC/4
Enable
Internal
Oscillator(1) Clock
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
Synchronize
det
0
2
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0
TMR1CS
SLEEP input
Note 1: When the T1OSCEN bit is cleared, the inverter and feedback resistor are turned off. This eliminates power drain.
DS35008B-page 28
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
5.2
5.3
Timer1 Oscillator
Timer1 Interrupt
A crystal oscillator circuit is built-in between pins T1OSI
(input) and T1OSO (amplifier output). It is enabled by
setting control bit T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). When the
Timer1 oscillator is enabled, RC0 and RC1 pins
become T1OSO and T1OSI inputs, overriding
TRISC<1:0>.
The TMR1 Register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments
from 0000h to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. The
TMR1 Interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow
and is latched in interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
This interrupt can be enabled by setting TMR1 interrupt
enable bit TMR1IE (PIE1<0>).
The oscillator is a low power oscillator rated up to 200
kHz. It will continue to run during SLEEP. It is primarily
intended for a 32 kHz crystal. Table 5-1 shows the
capacitor selection for the Timer1 oscillator.
5.4
If the CCP module is configured in compare mode to
generate a “special event trigger" (CCP1M3:CCP1M0
= 1011), this signal will reset Timer1 and start an A/D
conversion (if the A/D module is enabled).
The Timer1 oscillator is identical to the LP oscillator.
The user must provide a software time delay to ensure
proper oscillator start-up.
TABLE 5-1
Note:
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
THE TIMER1 OSCILLATOR
Osc Type
Freq
C1
C2
LP
32 kHz
100 kHz
200 kHz
33 pF
15 pF
15 pF
33 pF
15 pF
15 pF
The special event trigger from the CCP1
module will not set interrupt flag bit
TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
Timer1 must be configured for either timer or synchronized counter mode to take advantage of this feature. If
Timer1 is running in asynchronous counter mode, this
reset operation may not work.
In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a special event trigger from CCP1, the write will take precedence.
These values are for design guidance only.
Crystals Tested:
32.768 kHz Epson C-001R32.768K-A ± 20 PPM
100 kHz
Epson C-2 100.00 KC-P
± 20 PPM
200 kHz
STD XTL 200.000 kHz
± 20 PPM
Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of oscillator but also increases the start-up
time.
2: Since each resonator/crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult the
resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of external components.
TABLE 5-2
Resetting Timer1 using a CCP Trigger
Output
In this mode of operation, the CCPR1H:CCPR1L registers pair effectively becomes the period register for
Timer1.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Address Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
8Ch
PIE1
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
—
—
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 29
PIC16C62B/72A
NOTES:
DS35008B-page 30
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
6.0
TIMER2 MODULE
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
The Timer2 module timer has the following features:
• 8-bit timer (TMR2 register)
- Readable and writable
• 8-bit period register (PR2)
- Readable and writable
• Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4, 1:16)
• Software programmable postscaler (1:1 to 1:16)
• Interrupt on match (TMR2 = PR2)
• Timer2 can be used by SSP and CCP
FIGURE 6-1:
Sets flag
bit TMR2IF
TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR2
output (1)
Reset
Postscaler
1:1 to 1:16
Timer2 has a control register, shown in Register 6-1.
Timer2 can be shut off by clearing control bit TMR2ON
(T2CON<2>) to minimize power consumption.
EQ
4
Figure 6-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer2
module.
TMR2 reg
Comparator
Prescaler
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
FOSC/4
2
PR2 reg
Note 1: TMR2 register output can be software selected
by the SSP Module as a baud clock.
REGISTER 6-1:T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 12h)
U-0
—
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON
R/W-0
R/W-0
T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
bit7
bit0
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 6-3:
TOUTPS3:TOUTPS0: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscale
0001 = 1:2 Postscale
0010 = 1:3 Postscale
•
•
•
1111 = 1:16 Postscale
bit 2:
TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit
1 = Timer2 is on
0 = Timer2 is off
bit 1-0:
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
1x = Prescaler is 16
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
DS35008B-page 31
PIC16C62B/72A
6.1
Timer2 Operation
6.2
The Timer2 output is also used by the CCP module to
generate the PWM "On-Time", and the PWM period
with a match with PR2.
The TMR2 register is readable and writable, and is
cleared on any device reset.
The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option of 1:1,
1:4
or
1:16,
selected
by
control
bits
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 (T2CON<1:0>).
The match output of TMR2 goes through a 4-bit
postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling) to generate a TMR2 interrupt (latched in flag bit TMR2IF,
(PIR1<1>)).
Timer2 Interrupt
The Timer2 module has an 8-bit period register PR2.
Timer2 increments from 00h until it matches PR2 and
then resets to 00h on the next increment cycle. PR2 is
a readable and writable register. The PR2 register is initialized to FFh upon reset.
6.3
Output of TMR2
The output of TMR2 (before the postscaler) is fed to the
Synchronous Serial Port module, which optionally uses
it to generate shift clock.
The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
when any of the following occurs:
• a write to the TMR2 register
• a write to the T2CON register
• any device reset (Power-on Reset, MCLR reset,
Watchdog Timer reset or Brown-out Reset)
TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written.
TABLE 6-1
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
-00- 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
-0-- 0000 0000 0000
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
92h
PR2
Legend:
0000 0000 0000 0000
Timer2 module’s register
—
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
Timer2 Period Register
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module.
DS35008B-page 32
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
7.0
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM
(CCP) MODULE
Additional information on the CCP module is available
in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
The CCP (Capture/Compare/PWM) module contains a
16-bit register, which can operate as a 16-bit capture
register, as a 16-bit compare register or as a PWM
master/slave duty cycle register. Table 7-1 shows the
timer resources of the CCP module modes.
TABLE 7-1
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (CCPR1) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte) and
CCPR1H (high byte). The CCP1CON register controls
the operation of CCP1. All are readable and writable.
TABLE 7-2
CCP MODE - TIMER
RESOURCE
CCP Mode
Timer Resource
Capture
Compare
PWM
Timer1
Timer1
Timer2
INTERACTION OF TWO CCP MODULES
CCPx Mode CCPy Mode
Interaction
Capture
Capture
Same TMR1 time-base.
Capture
Compare
The compare should be configured for the special event trigger, which clears TMR1.
Compare
Compare
The compare(s) should be configured for the special event trigger, which clears TMR1.
PWM
PWM
The PWMs will have the same frequency and update rate (TMR2 interrupt).
PWM
Capture
None.
PWM
Compare
None.
REGISTER 7-1:CCP1CON REGISTER (ADDRESS 17h)
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
CCP1X CCP1Y CCP1M3
R/W-0
CCP1M2
R/W-0
R/W-0
CCP1M1 CCP1M0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read
as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 5-4: CCP1X:CCP1Y: PWM Least Significant bits
Capture Mode: Unused
Compare Mode: Unused
PWM Mode: These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPR1L.
bit 3-0: CCP1M3:CCP1M0: CCP1 Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets CCP1 module)
0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode, set output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
1001 = Compare mode, clear output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCP1IF bit is set, CCP1 pin is unaffected)
1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (CCP1IF bit is set; CCP1 resets TMR1 and starts an A/D
conversion (if A/D module is enabled))
11xx = PWM mode
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 33
PIC16C62B/72A
7.1
Capture Mode
7.1.4
In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the
16-bit value of the TMR1 register, when an event
occurs on pin RC2/CCP1. An event is defined as:
•
•
•
•
every falling edge
every rising edge
every 4th rising edge
every 16th rising edge
An event is selected by control bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0
(CCP1CON<3:0>). When a capture is made, the interrupt request flag bit ,CCP1IF (PIR1<2>), is set. It must
be cleared in software. If another capture occurs before
the value in register CCPR1 is read, the old captured
value will be lost.
FIGURE 7-1:
CAPTURE MODE OPERATION
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Prescaler
÷ 1, 4, 16
Set flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
RC2/CCP1
Pin
CCPR1H
and
edge detect
CCP PRESCALER
There are four prescaler settings, specified by bits
CCP1M3:CCP1M0. Whenever the CCP module is
turned off, or the CCP module is not in capture mode,
the prescaler counter is cleared. This means that any
reset will clear the prescaler counter.
Switching from one capture prescaler to another may
generate an interrupt. Also, the prescaler counter will
not be cleared, therefore the first capture may be from
a non-zero prescaler. Example 7-1 shows the recommended method for switching between capture prescalers. This example also clears the prescaler counter
and will not generate the “false” interrupt.
EXAMPLE 7-1:
CHANGING BETWEEN
CAPTURE PRESCALERS
CLRF
MOVLW
CCP1CON
NEW_CAPT_PS
MOVWF
CCP1CON
;Turn CCP module off
;Load the W reg with
; the new prescaler
; mode value and CCP ON
;Load CCP1CON with this
; value
CCPR1L
Capture
Enable
TMR1H
TMR1L
CCP1CON<3:0>
Q’s
7.1.1
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
In Capture mode, the RC2/CCP1 pin should be configured as an input by setting the TRISC<2> bit.
Note:
7.1.2
If the RC2/CCP1 is configured as an output, a write to the port can cause a capture
condition.
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in timer mode or synchronized
counter mode for the CCP module to use the capture
feature. In asynchronous counter mode, the capture
operation may not work consistently.
7.1.3
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT
When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture
interrupt may be generated. The user should clear
CCP1IE (PIE1<2>) before changing the capture mode
to avoid false interrupts. Clear the interrupt flag bit,
CCP1IE before setting CCP1IE.
DS35008B-page 34
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
7.2
7.2.1
Compare Mode
In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is
constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair
value. When a match occurs, the RC2/CCP1 pin is:
• driven High
• driven Low
• remains Unchanged
FIGURE 7-2:
COMPARE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode if the CCP module is using the
compare feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the
compare operation may not work.
7.2.4
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
In this mode, an internal hardware trigger is generated,
which may be used to initiate an action.
Set flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
CCPR1H CCPR1L
Q S Output
Logic
match
RC2/CCP1
R
Pin
TRISC<2>
Output Enable CCP1CON<3:0>
Mode Select
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the RC2/CCP1 compare output latch to the
default low level. This is not the data latch.
When a generated software interrupt is chosen, the
CCP1 pin is not affected. Only a CCP interrupt is generated (if enabled).
Special Event Trigger
Address
Note:
7.2.3
Special event trigger will:
reset Timer1, but not set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF (PIR1<0>),
and set bit GO/DONE (ADCON0<2>), which starts an A/D
conversion
TABLE 7-3
The user must configure the RC2/CCP1 pin as an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit.
7.2.2
The action on the pin is based on the value of control
bits CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCP1CON<3:0>). The interrupt flag bit, CCP1IF, is set on all compare matches.
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
Comparator
TMR1H
TMR1L
The special event trigger output of CCP1 resets the
TMR1 register pair. This allows the CCPR1 register to
effectively be a 16-bit programmable period register for
Timer1.
The special trigger output of CCP1 resets the TMR1
register pair and starts an A/D conversion (if the A/D
module is enabled).
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE, AND TIMER1
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
all other
resets
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
0Ch
PIR1
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF -0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
8Ch
PIE1
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE -0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
17h
Legend:
CCP1CON
—
—
—
—
RBIF
Value on
POR,
BOR
0000 000x 0000 000u
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3
CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as ’0’. Shaded cells are not used by Capture and Timer1.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 35
PIC16C62B/72A
7.3
PWM Mode
7.3.1
In Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode, the CCP1 pin
produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since
the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTC data latch,
the TRISC<2> bit must be cleared to make the CCP1
pin an output.
Note:
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the CCP1 PWM output latch to the default
low level. This is not the PORTC I/O data
latch.
Figure 7-3 shows a simplified block diagram of the CCP
module in PWM mode.
For a step by step procedure on how to set up the CCP
module for PWM operation, see Section 7.3.3.
FIGURE 7-3:
SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Duty Cycle Registers
PWM PERIOD
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula:
PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • TOSC •
(TMR2 prescale value)
PWM frequency is defined as 1 / [PWM period].
When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events
occur on the next increment cycle:
• TMR2 is cleared
• The CCP1 pin is set (exception: if PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into
CCPR1H
Note:
CCP1CON<5:4>
CCPR1L
7.3.2
CCPR1H (Slave)
R
Comparator
Q
RC2/CCP1
TMR2
(Note 1)
S
Clear Timer,
CCP1 pin and
latch D.C.
PR2
A PWM output (Figure 7-4) has a time base (period)
and a time that the output stays high (on-time). The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period
(1/period).
PWM OUTPUT
The PWM on-time is specified by writing to the
CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up
to 10-bit resolution is available. CCPR1L contains eight
MSbs and CCP1CON<5:4> contains two LSbs. This
10-bit
value
is
represented
by
CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The following equation is
used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time:
CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any
time, but the on-time value is not latched into CCPR1H
until after a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs (i.e.,
the period is complete). In PWM mode, CCPR1H is a
read-only register.
Note 1: 8-bit timer is concatenated with 2-bit internal Q clock
or 2 bits of the prescaler to create 10-bit time-base.
FIGURE 7-4:
PWM ON-TIME
PWM on-time = (CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) •
Tosc • (TMR2 prescale value)
TRISC<2>
Comparator
The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 6.0) is
not used in the determination of the PWM
frequency. The postscaler could be used to
have a servo update rate at a different frequency than the PWM output.
The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double buffer the PWM on-time. This double
buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation.
When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2 concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or 2 bits of the
TMR2 prescaler, the CCP1 pin is cleared.
Maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM
frequency:
Period
log (
Resolution =
On-Time
Fosc
Fpwm )
bits
log(2)
TMR2 = PR2
Note:
TMR2 = Duty Cycle
TMR2 = PR2
If the PWM on-time value is larger than the
PWM period, the CCP1 pin will not be
cleared.
For an example PWM period and on-time calculation,
see the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
DS35008B-page 36
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
7.3.3
SET-UP FOR PWM OPERATION
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the CCP module for PWM operation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register.
Set the PWM on-time by writing to the CCPR1L
register and CCP1CON<5:4> bits.
Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the
TRISC<2> bit.
Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2
by writing to T2CON.
Configure the CCP1 module for PWM operation.
TABLE 7-4
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS AT 20 MHz
PWM Frequency
1.22 kHz 4.88 kHz 19.53 kHz 78.12 kHz 156.3 kHz 208.3 kHz
Timer Prescaler (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
TABLE 7-5
16
0xFF
10
4
0xFF
10
1
0xFF
10
1
0x3F
8
1
0x1F
7
1
0x17
5.5
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM AND TIMER2
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
8Ch
PIE1
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
-0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
11h
TMR2
Timer2 module’s register
0000 0000 0000 0000
92h
PR2
Timer2 module’s period register
1111 1111 1111 1111
12h
T2CON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM register1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
17h
Legend:
CCP1CON
—
—
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by PWM and Timer2.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 37
PIC16C62B/72A
NOTES:
DS35008B-page 38
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
8.0
SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL PORT
(SSP) MODULE
8.1
SSP Module Overview
The Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) module is a serial
interface useful for communicating with other peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral
devices may be Serial EEPROMs, shift registers, display drivers, A/D converters, etc. The SSP module can
operate in one of two modes:
• Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
• Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C)
For more information on SSP operation (including an
I2C Overview), refer to the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023). Also, refer to Application
Note AN578, “Use of the SSP Module in the I 2C MultiMaster Environment.”
8.2
ister, and then set bit SSPEN. This configures the SDI,
SDO, SCK and SS pins as serial port pins. For the pins
to behave as the serial port function, they must have
their data direction bits (in the TRISC register) appropriately programmed. That is:
• SDI must have TRISC<4> set
• SDO must have TRISC<5> cleared
• SCK (master operation) must have TRISC<3>
cleared
• SCK (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> set
• SS must have TRISA<5> set (if used)
Note:
When the SPI is in Slave Mode with SS pin
control enabled, (SSPCON<3:0> = 0100)
the SPI module will reset if the SS pin is set
to VDD.
Note:
If the SPI is used in Slave Mode with
CKE = '1', then the SS pin control must be
enabled.
SPI Mode
This section contains register definitions and operational characteristics of the SPI module.
FIGURE 8-1:
Additional information on SPI operation may be found
in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
8.2.1
SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(SPI MODE)
Internal
Data Bus
Read
OPERATION OF SSP MODULE IN SPI
MODE
Write
SSPBUF reg
A block diagram of the SSP Module in SPI Mode is
shown in Figure 8-1.
The SPI mode allows 8-bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simultaneously. To
accomplish communication, three pins are used:
• Serial Data Out (SDO)RC5/SDO
• Serial Data In (SDI)RC4/SDI/SDA
• Serial Clock (SCK)RC3/SCK/SCL
SSPSR reg
RC4/SDI/SDA
Shift
Clock
bit0
RC5/SDO
Additionally, a fourth pin may be used when in a slave
mode of operation:
SS Control
Enable
RA5/SS/AN4
• Slave Select (SS)RA5/SS/AN4
When initializing the SPI, several options need to be
specified. This is done by programming the appropriate
control bits in the SSPCON register (SSPCON<5:0>)
and SSPSTAT<7:6>. These control bits allow the following to be specified:
•
•
•
•
Master Operation (SCK is the clock output)
Slave Mode (SCK is the clock input)
Clock Polarity (Idle state of SCK)
Clock Edge (Output data on rising/falling edge of
SCK)
• Clock Rate (master operation only)
• Slave Select Mode (Slave mode only)
Edge
Select
2
Clock Select
SSPM3:SSPM0
4
Edge
Select
RC3/SCK/
SCL
TMR2 output
2
Prescaler TCY
4, 16, 64
TRISC<3>
To enable the serial port, SSP Enable bit, SSPEN
(SSPCON<5>) must be set. To reset or reconfigure SPI
mode, clear bit SSPEN, re-initialize the SSPCON reg-
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 39
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 8-1
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0Ch
PIR1
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF -0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
PIE1
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE -0-- 0000 -0-- 0000
8Ch
13h
SSPBUF
14h
SSPCON WCOL
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
94h
SSPSTAT
85h
TRISA
87h
TRISC
SSPOV SSPEN
SMP
CKE
—
—
D/A
0000 000x 0000 000u
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
0000 0000 0000 0000
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
0000 0000 0000 0000
PORTA Data Direction Register
PORTC Data Direction Register
--11 1111 --11 1111
1111 1111 1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by the SSP in SPI mode.
DS35008B-page 40
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
8.3
SSP I 2C Operation
The SSP module in I 2C mode fully implements all slave
functions, except general call support, and provides
interrupts on start and stop bits in hardware to support
firmware implementations of the master functions. The
SSP module implements the standard mode specifications, as well as 7-bit and 10-bit addressing.
Two pins are used for data transfer. These are the
RC3/SCK/SCL pin, which is the clock (SCL), and the
RC4/SDI/SDA pin, which is the data (SDA). The user
must configure these pins as inputs or outputs through
the TRISC<4:3> bits.
The SSP module functions are enabled by setting SSP
Enable bit SSPEN (SSPCON<5>).
FIGURE 8-2:
SSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(I2C MODE)
SSPSR reg
MSb
LSb
Match detect
Addr Match
When an address is matched or the data transfer after
an address match is received, the hardware automatically will generate the acknowledge (ACK) pulse, and
load the SSPBUF register with the received value in the
SSPSR register.
There are certain conditions that will cause the SSP
module not to give this ACK pulse. This happens if
either of the following conditions occur:
SSPADD reg
Start and
Stop bit detect
Set, Reset
S, P bits
(SSPSTAT reg)
a)
b)
The SSP module has five registers for I2C operation.
These are the:
•
•
•
•
•
SLAVE MODE
In slave mode, the SCL and SDA pins must be configured as inputs (TRISC<4:3> set). The SSP module will
override the input state with the output data when
required (slave-transmitter).
shift
clock
RC4/
SDI/
SDA
Selection of any I 2C mode, with the SSPEN bit set,
forces the SCL and SDA pins to be operated as open
drain outputs, provided these pins are programmed to
inputs by setting the appropriate TRISC bits.
8.3.1
Write
SSPBUF reg
RC3/SCK/SCL
• I 2C Slave mode (7-bit address)
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit address)
• I 2C Slave mode (7-bit address), with start and
stop bit interrupts enabled for firmware master
mode support
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit address), with start and
stop bit interrupts enabled for firmware master
mode support
• I 2C start and stop bit interrupts enabled for firmware master mode support, slave mode idle
Additional information on SSP I2C operation may be
found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
Internal
Data Bus
Read
The SSPCON register allows control of the I 2C operation. Four mode selection bits (SSPCON<3:0>) allow
one of the following I 2C modes to be selected:
SSP Control Register (SSPCON)
SSP Status Register (SSPSTAT)
Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer (SSPBUF)
SSP Shift Register (SSPSR) - Not accessible
SSP Address Register (SSPADD)
The buffer full bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) was set
before the transfer was completed.
The overflow bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) was set
before the transfer was completed.
In this case, the SSPSR register value is not loaded
into the SSPBUF, but bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) is set.
Table 8-2 shows what happens when a data transfer
byte is received, given the status of bits BF and SSPOV.
The shaded cells show the condition where user software did not properly clear the overflow condition. Flag
bit BF is cleared by reading the SSPBUF register, while
bit SSPOV is cleared through software.
The SCL clock input must have a minimum high and
low for proper operation. The high and low times of the
I2C specification, as well as the requirement of the SSP
module, is shown in timing parameter #100, THIGH, and
parameter #101, TLOW.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 41
PIC16C62B/72A
8.3.1.1
ADDRESSING
Once the SSP module has been enabled, it waits for a
START condition to occur. Following the START condition, 8 bits are shifted into the SSPSR register. All
incoming bits are sampled with the rising edge of the
clock (SCL) line. The value of register SSPSR<7:1> is
compared to the value of the SSPADD register. The
address is compared on the falling edge of the eighth
clock (SCL) pulse. If the addresses match and the BF
and SSPOV bits are clear, the following events occur:
a)
b)
c)
d)
The SSPSR register value is loaded into the
SSPBUF register.
The buffer full bit, BF is set.
An ACK pulse is generated.
SSP interrupt flag bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>), is set
(interrupt is generated if enabled) on the falling
edge of the ninth SCL pulse.
In 10-bit address mode, two address bytes need to be
received by the slave. The five Most Significant bits
(MSbs) of the first address byte specify if this is a 10-bit
address. Bit R/W (SSPSTAT<2>) must specify a write
so the slave device will receive the second address
byte. For a 10-bit address, the first byte would equal
TABLE 8-2
‘1111 0 A9 A8 0’, where A9 and A8 are the two MSbs
of the address. The sequence of events for 10-bit
address is as follows, with steps 7- 9 for slave-transmitter:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Receive first (high) byte of Address (bits SSPIF,
BF, and bit UA (SSPSTAT<1>) are set).
Update the SSPADD register with second (low)
byte of Address (clears bit UA and releases the
SCL line).
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
Receive second (low) byte of Address (bits
SSPIF, BF, and UA are set).
Update the SSPADD register with the first (high)
byte of Address, if match releases SCL line, this
will clear bit UA.
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
Receive repeated START condition.
Receive first (high) byte of Address (bits SSPIF
and BF are set).
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
DATA TRANSFER RECEIVED BYTE ACTIONS
Status Bits as Data
Transfer is Received
Set bit SSPIF
(SSP Interrupt occurs
if enabled)
BF
SSPOV
SSPSR → SSPBUF
Generate ACK
Pulse
0
0
Yes
Yes
Yes
1
0
No
No
Yes
1
1
No
No
Yes
0
1
Yes
No
Yes
Note: Shaded cells show the conditions where the user software did not properly clear the overflow condition.
DS35008B-page 42
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
8.3.1.2
RECEPTION
When the address byte overflow condition exists, then
no acknowledge (ACK) pulse is given. An overflow condition is defined as either bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) is set
or bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) is set.
When the R/W bit of the address byte is clear and an
address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPSTAT register is cleared. The received address is loaded into the
SSPBUF register.
I 2C WAVEFORMS FOR RECEPTION (7-BIT ADDRESS)
FIGURE 8-3:
Receiving Address
Receiving Data
R/W=0
Receiving Data
ACK
ACK
ACK
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
SDA
SCL
An SSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. Flag bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) must be cleared in software. The SSPSTAT register is used to determine the
status of the byte.
S
1
2
3
4
5
6
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
Cleared in software
9
P
Bus Master
terminates
transfer
SSPBUF register is read
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>)
Bit SSPOV is set because the SSPBUF register is still full.
ACK is not sent.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 43
PIC16C62B/72A
8.3.1.3
TRANSMISSION
shifted out on the falling edge of the SCL input. This
ensures that the SDA signal is valid during the SCL
high time (Figure 8-4).
When the R/W bit of the incoming address byte is set
and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the
SSPSTAT register is set. The received address is
loaded into the SSPBUF register. The ACK pulse will
be sent on the ninth bit and the CKP will be cleared by
hardware, holding SCL low. Slave devices cause the
master to wait by holding the SCL line low. The transmit
data is loaded into the SSPBUF register, which in turn
loads the SSPSR register. When bit CKP (SSPCON<4>) is set, pin RC3/SCK/SCL releases SCL.
When the SCL line goes high, the master may resume
operating the SCL line and receiving data. The master
must monitor the SCL pin prior to asserting another
clock pulse. The slave devices may be holding off the
master by stretching the clock. The eight data bits are
Receiving Address
SCL
A7
S
As a slave-transmitter, the ACK pulse from the masterreceiver is latched on the rising edge of the ninth SCL
input pulse. If the SDA line was high (not ACK), then the
data transfer is complete. When the ACK is latched by
the slave, the slave logic is reset (resets SSPSTAT register) and the slave then monitors for another occurrence of the START bit. If the SDA line was low (ACK),
the transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register, which also loads the SSPSR register. Then pin
RC3/SCK/SCL should be enabled by setting bit CKP.
I 2C WAVEFORMS FOR TRANSMISSION (7-BIT ADDRESS)
FIGURE 8-4:
SDA
An SSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. Flag bit SSPIF must be cleared in software, and
the SSPSTAT register used to determine the status of
the byte. Flag bit SSPIF is set on the falling edge of the
ninth clock pulse.
A6
1
2
Data in
sampled
R/W = 1
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
ACK
Transmitting Data
ACK
D7
1
SCL held low
while CPU
responds to SSPIF
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
P
cleared in software
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPBUF is written in software
From SSP interrupt
service routine
CKP (SSPCON<4>)
Set bit after writing to SSPBUF
(the SSPBUF must be written-to
before the CKP bit can be set)
DS35008B-page 44
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
8.3.2
8.3.3
MASTER OPERATION
MULTI-MASTER OPERATION
In multi-master operation, the interrupt generation on
the detection of the START and STOP conditions
allows the determination of when the bus is free. The
STOP (P) and START (S) bits are cleared from a reset
or when the SSP module is disabled. The STOP (P)
and START (S) bits will toggle based on the START and
STOP conditions. Control of the I 2C bus may be taken
when bit P (SSPSTAT<4>) is set, or the bus is idle and
both the S and P bits clear. When the bus is busy,
enabling the SSP Interrupt will generate the interrupt
when the STOP condition occurs.
Master operation is supported in firmware using interrupt generation on the detection of the START and
STOP conditions. The STOP (P) and START (S) bits
are cleared by a reset or when the SSP module is disabled. The STOP (P) and START (S) bits will toggle
based on the START and STOP conditions. Control of
the I 2C bus may be taken when the P bit is set, or the
bus is idle and both the S and P bits are clear.
In master operation, the SCL and SDA lines are manipulated in software by clearing the corresponding
TRISC<4:3> bit(s). The output level is always low, irrespective of the value(s) in PORTC<4:3>. So when
transmitting data, a ’1’ data bit must have the
TRISC<4> bit set (input) and a ’0’ data bit must have
the TRISC<4> bit cleared (output). The same scenario
is true for the SCL line with the TRISC<3> bit.
In multi-master operation, the SDA line must be monitored to see if the signal level is the expected output
level. This check only needs to be done when a high
level is output. If a high level is expected and a low level
is present, the device needs to release the SDA and
SCL lines (set TRISC<4:3>). There are two stages
where this arbitration can be lost, these are:
The following events will cause SSP Interrupt Flag bit,
SSPIF, to be set (SSP Interrupt if enabled):
• Address Transfer
• Data Transfer
• START condition
• STOP condition
• Byte transfer completed
When the slave logic is enabled, the slave continues to
receive. If arbitration was lost during the address transfer stage, communication to the device may be in
progress. If addressed, an ACK pulse will be generated. If arbitration was lost during the data transfer
stage, the device will need to re-transfer the data at a
later time.
Master operation can be done with either the slave
mode idle (SSPM3:SSPM0 = 1011) or with the slave
active. When both master operation and slave modes
are used, the software needs to differentiate the
source(s) of the interrupt.
For more information on master operation, see AN554
- Software Implementation of I2C Bus Master.
For more information on master operation, see AN578
- Use of the SSP Module in the of I2C Multi-Master
Environment.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH I2C OPERATION
TABLE 8-3
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on
all other
resets
0Bh, 8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF
-0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
8Ch
PIE1
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE
-0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
13h
SSPBUF Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
93h
SSPADD Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register
0000 0000
0000 0000
14h
SSPCON
WCOL
SSPOV SSPEN
0000 0000
0000 0000
94h
SSPSTAT
SMP(1)
CKE(1)
0000 0000
0000 0000
87h
TRISC
1111 1111
1111 1111
D/A
CKP
P
SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0
S
R/W
PORTC Data Direction register
UA
BF
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'.
Shaded cells are not used by SSP module in SPI mode.
Note 1:
Maintain these bits clear in I2C mode.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 45
PIC16C62B/72A
REGISTER 8-1:
R/W-0 R/W-0
SMP
CKE
SSPSTAT: SYNC SERIAL PORT STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 94h)
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read
as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
SMP: SPI data input sample phase
SPI Master Operation
1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time
0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time
SPI Slave Mode
SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in slave mode
I2C Mode
This bit must be maintained clear
bit 6:
CKE: SPI Clock Edge Select
SPI Mode
CKP = 0
1 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK
0 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK
CKP = 1
1 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK
0 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK
I2C Mode
This bit must be maintained clear
bit 5:
D/A: Data/Address bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data
0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address
bit 4:
P: Stop bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, or when the Start bit is
detected last, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a stop bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Stop bit was not detected last
bit 3:
S: Start bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the SSP module is disabled, or when the Stop bit is
detected last, SSPEN is cleared)
1 = Indicates that a start bit has been detected last (this bit is '0' on RESET)
0 = Start bit was not detected last
bit 2:
R/W: Read/Write bit information (I2C mode only)
This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is only valid from the
address match to the next start bit, stop bit, or ACK bit.
1 = Read
0 = Write
bit 1:
UA: Update Address (10-bit I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register
0 = Address does not need to be updated
bit 0:
BF: Buffer Full Status bit
Receive (SPI and I2C modes)
1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty
Transmit (I2C mode only)
1 = Transmit in progress, SSPBUF is full
0 = Transmit complete, SSPBUF is empty
DS35008B-page 46
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
REGISTER 8-2:
SSPCON: SYNC SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 14h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
bit7
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read
as ‘0’
- n =Value at POR reset
bit 7:
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit
1 = The SSPBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word
(must be cleared in software)
0 = No collision
bit 6:
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit
In SPI mode
1 = A new byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case of overflow,
the data in SSPSR is lost. Overflow can only occur in slave mode. The user must read the SSPBUF, even
if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow. In master operation, the overflow bit is not set since
each new reception (and transmission) is initiated by writing to the SSPBUF register.
0 = No overflow
In I2C mode
1 = A byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous byte. SSPOV is a "don’t care"
in transmit mode. SSPOV must be cleared in software in either mode.
0 = No overflow
bit 5:
SSPEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
In SPI mode
1 = Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, and SDI as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In I2C mode
1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDA and SCL pins as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In both modes, when enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output.
bit 4:
CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit
In SPI mode
1 = Idle state for clock is a high level
0 = Idle state for clock is a low level
In I2C mode
SCK release control
1 = Enable clock
0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch)
bit 3-0: SSPM3:SSPM0: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
0000 = SPI master operation, clock = FOSC/4
0001 = SPI master operation, clock = FOSC/16
0010 = SPI master operation, clock = FOSC/64
0011 = SPI master operation, clock = TMR2 output/2
0100 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control enabled.
0101 = SPI slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control disabled. SS can be used as I/O pin
0110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address
0111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address
1011 = I2C firmware controlled master operation (slave idle)
1110 = I2C slave mode, 7-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
1111 = I2C slave mode, 10-bit address with start and stop bit interrupts enabled
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 47
PIC16C62B/72A
NOTES:
DS35008B-page 48
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
9.0
Note:
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE
This section applies to the PIC16C72A
only.
Additional information on the A/D module is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
The A/D module has three registers. These registers
are:
The analog-to-digital (A/D) converter module has five
input channels.
The A/D allows conversion of an analog input signal to
a corresponding 8-bit digital number (refer to Application Note AN546 for use of A/D Converter). The output
of the sample and hold is the input into the converter,
which generates the result via successive approximation. The analog reference voltage is software selectable to either the device’s positive supply voltage (VDD)
or the voltage level on the RA3/AN3/VREF pin.
The A/D converter has the feature of being able to
operate while the device is in SLEEP mode. To operate
in sleep, the A/D conversion clock must be derived from
the A/D’s internal RC oscillator.
• A/D Result Register (ADRES)
• A/D Control Register 0 (ADCON0)
• A/D Control Register 1 (ADCON1)
A device reset forces all registers to their reset state.
This forces the A/D module to be turned off, and any
conversion is aborted.
The ADCON0 register, shown in Figure 9-1, controls
the operation of the A/D module. The ADCON1 register, shown in Figure 9-2, configures the functions of the
port pins. The port pins can be configured as analog
inputs (RA3 can also be a voltage reference) or as digital I/O.
REGISTER 9-1:ADCON0 REGISTER (ADDRESS 1Fh)
R/W-0 R/W-0
ADCS1 ADCS0
bit7
R/W-0
CHS2
R/W-0
CHS1
R/W-0
CHS0
R/W-0
GO/DONE
U-0
—
R/W-0
ADON
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7-6: ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits
00 = FOSC/2
01 = FOSC/8
10 = FOSC/32
11 = FRC (clock derived from an internal RC oscillator)
bit 5-3: CHS2:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits
000 = channel 0, (RA0/AN0)
001 = channel 1, (RA1/AN1)
010 = channel 2, (RA2/AN2)
011 = channel 3, (RA3/AN3)
100 = channel 4, (RA5/AN4)
bit 2:
GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit
If ADON = 1
1 = A/D conversion in progress (setting this bit starts the A/D conversion)
0 = A/D conversion not in progress (This bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D
conversion is complete)
bit 1:
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 0:
ADON: A/D On bit
1 = A/D converter module is operating
0 = A/D converter module is shutoff and consumes no operating current
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 49
PIC16C62B/72A
REGISTER 9-2:ADCON1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 9Fh)
U-0
—
bit7
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
U-0
—
R/W-0
PCFG2
R/W-0
PCFG1
R/W-0
PCFG0
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR
reset
bit 7-3: Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 2-0: PCFG2:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits
PCFG2:PCFG0
000
001
010
011
100
101
11x
RA0
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
RA1
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
RA2
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
RA5
A
A
A
A
D
D
D
RA3
A
VREF
A
VREF
A
VREF
D
VREF
VDD
RA3
VDD
RA3
VDD
RA3
VDD
A = Analog input
D = Digital I/O
DS35008B-page 50
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
When the A/D conversion is complete, the result is
loaded into the ADRES register, the GO/DONE bit,
ADCON0<2>, is cleared, and the A/D interrupt flag bit,
ADIF, is set. The block diagram of the A/D module is
shown in Figure 9-1.
1.
The value that is in the ADRES register is not modified
for a Power-on Reset. The ADRES register will contain
unknown data after a Power-on Reset.
2.
After the A/D module has been configured as desired,
the selected channel must be acquired before the conversion is started. The analog input channels must
have their corresponding TRIS bits selected as an
input. To determine acquisition time, see Section 9.1.
After this acquisition time has elapsed, the A/D conversion can be started. The following steps should be followed for doing an A/D conversion:
3.
4.
5.
Configure the A/D module:
• Configure analog pins / voltage reference /
and digital I/O (ADCON1)
• Select A/D input channel (ADCON0)
• Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON0)
• Turn on A/D module (ADCON0)
Configure A/D interrupt (if desired):
• Clear ADIF bit
• Set ADIE bit
• Set GIE bit
Wait the required acquisition time.
Start conversion:
• Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0)
Wait for A/D conversion to complete, by either:
• Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared
OR
6.
7.
FIGURE 9-1:
• Waiting for the A/D interrupt
Read A/D Result register (ADRES), clear bit
ADIF if required.
For next conversion, go to step 1 or step 2 as
required. The A/D conversion time per bit is
defined as TAD. A minimum wait of 2TAD is
required before next acquisition starts.
A/D BLOCK DIAGRAM
CHS2:CHS0
100
RA5/AN4
VIN
011
(Input voltage)
RA3/AN3/VREF
010
RA2/AN2
A/D
Converter
001
RA1/AN1
000
VDD
000
010
100
11x
001
011
101
VREF
(Reference
voltage)
RA0/AN0
or
or
or
or
or
PCFG2:PCFG0
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 51
PIC16C62B/72A
9.1
A/D Acquisition Requirements
For the A/D converter to meet its specified accuracy,
the charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed
to fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The
analog input model is shown in Figure 9-2. The source
impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS)
impedance directly affect the time required to charge
the capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS)
impedance varies over the device voltage (VDD). The
source impedance affects the offset voltage at the analog input (due to pin leakage current). The maximum
recommended impedance for analog sources is 10
kΩ. After the analog input channel is selected
(changed), this acquisition must pass before the conversion can be started.
To calculate the minimum acquisition time, TACQ, see
Equation 9-1. This equation calculates the acquisition
time to within 1/2 LSb error (512 steps for the A/D). The
1/2 LSb error is the maximum error allowed for the A/D
to meet its specified accuracy.
Note:
When the conversion is started, the holding capacitor is disconnected from the
input pin.
In general;
= 10kΩ
Assuming RS
Vdd
= 3.0V (RSS = 10kΩ)
Temp. = 50°C (122°F)
TACQ ≈ 13.0 µSec
By increasing VDD and reducing RS and Temp., TACQ
can be substantially reduced.
FIGURE 9-2:
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
Rs
ANx
CPIN
5 pF
VA
Sampling
Switch
VT = 0.6V
VT = 0.6V
RIC ≤ 1k
SS
RSS
CHOLD
= DAC capacitance
= 51.2 pF
I leakage
± 500 nA
VSS
Legend CPIN
= input capacitance
VT
= threshold voltage
I leakage = leakage current at the pin due to
various junctions
RIC
SS
CHOLD
= interconnect resistance
= sampling switch
= sample/hold capacitance (from DAC)
VDD
6V
5V
4V
3V
2V
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
RSS
(kΩ)
EQUATION 9-1:
TACQ
ACQUISITION TIME
=
Amplifier Settling Time +
Hold Capacitor Charging Time +
Temperature Coefficient
=
TAMP + TC + TCOFF
TAMP = 5µS
TC = - (51.2pF)(1kΩ + RSS + RS) In(1/511)
TCOFF = (Temp -25°C)(0.05µS/°C)
DS35008B-page 52
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
9.2
Selecting the A/D Conversion Clock
The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. The
A/D conversion requires 9.5TAD per 8-bit conversion.
The source of the A/D conversion clock is software
selectable. The four possible options for TAD are:
•
•
•
•
2TOSC
8TOSC
32TOSC
Internal RC oscillator
The A/D module can operate during sleep mode, but
the RC oscillator must be selected as the A/D clock
source prior to the SLEEP instruction.
Table 9-1 shows the resultant TAD times derived from
the device operating frequencies and the A/D clock
source selected.
The ADCON1 and TRISA registers control the operation of the A/D port pins. The port pins that are desired
as analog inputs must have their corresponding TRIS
bits set (input). If the TRIS bit is cleared (output), the
digital output level (VOH or VOL) will be converted.
Note 1: When reading the port register, all pins
configured as analog input channels will
read as cleared (a low level). Pins configured as digital inputs, will convert an analog input. Analog levels on a digitally
configured input will not affect the conversion accuracy.
Note 2: Analog levels on any pin that is defined as
a digital input (including the AN4:AN0
pins) may cause the input buffer to consume current that is out of the devices
specification.
TAD vs. DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES
AD Clock Source (TAD)
Operation
ADCS1:ADCS0
2TOSC
00
8TOSC
01
32TOSC
Configuring Analog Port Pins
The A/D operation is independent of the state of the
CHS2:CHS0 bits and the TRIS bits.
For correct A/D conversions, the A/D conversion clock
(TAD) must be selected to ensure a minimum TAD time
of 1.6 µs.
TABLE 9-1
9.3
10
Device Frequency
20 MHz
100
ns(2)
ns(2)
400
1.6 µs
5 MHz
ns(2)
400
1.6 µs
6.4 µs
1.25 MHz
333.33 kHz
1.6 µs
6 µs
6.4 µs
24 µs(3)
25.6
µs(3)
96 µs(3)
2 - 6 µs(1,4)
2 - 6 µs(1,4)
2 - 6 µs(1)
2 - 6 µs(1,4)
Shaded cells are outside of recommended range.
The RC source has a typical TAD time of 4 µs.
These values violate the minimum required TAD time.
For faster conversion times, the selection of another clock source is recommended.
When device frequency is greater than 1 MHz, the RC A/D conversion clock source is recommended for
sleep operation only.
5: For extended voltage devices (LC), please refer to Electrical Specifications section.
RC(5)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
11
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 53
PIC16C62B/72A
9.4
Note:
9.5
A/D Conversions
GO/DONE bit will be set, starting the A/D conversion,
and the Timer1 counter will be reset to zero. Timer1 is
reset to automatically repeat the A/D acquisition period
with minimal software overhead. The appropriate analog input channel must be selected and the minimum
acquisition time must pass before the “special event
trigger” sets the GO/DONE bit (starts a conversion).
The GO/DONE bit should NOT be set in
the same instruction that turns on the A/D.
Use of the CCP Trigger
An A/D conversion can be started by the “special event
trigger” of the CCP1 module. This requires that the
CCP1M3:CCP1M0 bits (CCP1CON<3:0>) be programmed as 1011 and that the A/D module be enabled
(ADON bit is set). When the trigger occurs, the
TABLE 9-2
SUMMARY OF A/D REGISTERS
Address Name
0Bh,8Bh
If the A/D module is not enabled (ADON is cleared),
then the “special event trigger” will be ignored by the
A/D module, but will still reset the Timer1 counter.
INTCON
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other Resets
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
—
ADIF
—
—
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF TMR1IF -0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
—
ADIE
—
—
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE TMR1IE -0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
—
ADON
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
—
—
—
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
---- -000
---- -000
RA0
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
--11 1111
--11 1111
0Ch
PIR1
8Ch
PIE1
1Eh
ADRES
1Fh
ADCON0 ADCS1 ADCS0
9Fh
ADCON1
A/D Result Register
—
—
05h
PORTA
—
—
85h
TRISA
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
PORTA Data Direction Register
RA2
RA1
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used for A/D conversion.
DS35008B-page 54
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
10.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE
CPU
other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a
fixed delay on power-up only and is designed to keep
the part in reset while the power supply stabilizes. With
these two timers on-chip, most applications need no
external reset circuitry.
The PIC16C62B/72A devices have a host of features
intended to maximize system reliability, minimize cost
through elimination of external components, provide
power saving operating modes and offer code protection. These are:
SLEEP mode is designed to offer a very low current
power-down mode. The user can wake-up from SLEEP
through external reset, Watchdog Timer Wake-up, or
through an interrupt. Several oscillator options are also
made available to allow the part to fit the application.
The RC oscillator option saves system cost while the
LP crystal option saves power. A set of configuration
bits are used to select various options.
• Oscillator Mode Selection
• Reset
- Power-on Reset (POR)
- Power-up Timer (PWRT)
- Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
- Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Interrupts
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• SLEEP
• Code protection
• ID locations
• In-circuit serial programming™ (ICSP)
Additional information on special features is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
10.1
Configuration Bits
The configuration bits can be programmed (read as '0')
or left unprogrammed (read as '1') to select various
device configurations. These bits are mapped in program memory location 2007h.
These devices have a Watchdog Timer, which can be
shut off only through configuration bits. It runs off its
own RC oscillator for added reliability. There are two
timers that offer necessary delays on power-up. One is
the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep
the chip in reset until the crystal oscillator is stable. The
The user will note that address 2007h is beyond the
user program memory space. In fact, it belongs to the
special test/configuration memory space (2000h 3FFFh), which can be accessed only during programming.
FIGURE 10-1: CONFIGURATION WORD
CP1
CP0
CP1
CP0
CP1
CP0
—
BODEN
CP1
CP0
PWRTE
bit13
WDTE
FOSC1
FOSC0
bit0
bit 13-8
5-4:
CP1:CP0: Code Protection bits (2)
11 = Code protection off
10 = Upper half of program memory code protected
01 = Upper 3/4th of program memory code protected
00 = All memory is code protected
bit 7:
Unimplemented: Read as ’1’
bit 6:
BODEN: Brown-out Reset Enable bit (1)
1 = BOR enabled
0 = BOR disabled
bit 3:
PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit (1)
1 = PWRT disabled
0 = PWRT enabled
bit 2:
WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 1-0:
FOSC1:FOSC0: Oscillator Selection bits
11 = RC oscillator
10 = HS oscillator
01 = XT oscillator
00 = LP oscillator
Register:
Address:
CONFIG
2007h
Note 1: Enabling Brown-out Reset automatically enables Power-up Timer (PWRT), regardless of the value of bit PWRTE.
All of the CP1:CP0 pairs must be given the same value to enable the code protection scheme listed.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 55
PIC16C62B/72A
10.2
Oscillator Configurations
10.2.1
OSCILLATOR TYPES
TABLE 10-1
Ranges Tested:
The PIC16CXXX can be operated in four different oscillator modes. The user can program two configuration
bits (FOSC1 and FOSC0) to select one of these four
modes:
•
•
•
•
LP
XT
HS
RC
10.2.2
Low Power Crystal
Crystal/Resonator
High Speed Crystal/Resonator
Resistor/Capacitor
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
8.0 MHz
16.0 MHz
OSC2
To
internal
logic
Note1: See Table 10-1 and Table 10-2 for recommended values of C1 and C2.
2: A series resistor (RS) may be required for
AT strip cut crystals.
3: RF varies with the crystal chosen.
FIGURE 10-3: EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT
OPERATION (HS, XT OR LP
OSC CONFIGURATION)
OSC1
Clock from
ext. system
PIC16CXXX
Open
OSC2
Preliminary
± 0.3%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
Osc Type
Crystal
Freq
Cap. Range
C1
Cap. Range
C2
LP
32 kHz
33 pF
33 pF
XT
HS
200 kHz
15 pF
15 pF
200 kHz
47-68 pF
47-68 pF
1 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
8 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
20 MHz
15-33 pF
15-33 pF
These values are for design guidance only. See
notes at bottom of page.
PIC16CXXX
C2(1)
Panasonic EFO-A455K04B
Murata Erie CSA2.00MG
Murata Erie CSA4.00MG
Murata Erie CSA8.00MT
Murata Erie CSA16.00MX
TABLE 10-2
SLEEP
RS(2)
OSC2
68 - 100 pF
15 - 68 pF
15 - 68 pF
10 - 68 pF
10 - 22 pF
Resonators did not have built-in capacitors.
OSC1
RF(3)
OSC1
68 - 100 pF
15 - 68 pF
15 - 68 pF
10 - 68 pF
10 - 22 pF
Resonators Used:
FIGURE 10-2: CRYSTAL/CERAMIC
RESONATOR OPERATION
(HS, XT OR LP
OSC CONFIGURATION)
XTAL
Freq
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
8.0 MHz
16.0 MHz
These values are for design guidance only. See
notes at bottom of page.
In XT, LP or HS modes, a crystal or ceramic resonator
is connected to the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT
pins to establish oscillation (Figure 10-2). The
PIC16CXXX oscillator design requires the use of a parallel cut crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may give a
frequency out of the crystal manufacturers specifications. When in XT, LP or HS modes, the device can use
an external clock source to drive the OSC1/CLKIN pin
(Figure 10-3).
DS35008B-page 56
Mode
XT
HS
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR/CERAMIC
RESONATORS
C1(1)
CERAMIC RESONATORS
Crystals Used
32 kHz
Epson C-001R32.768K-A
± 20 PPM
200 kHz
STD XTL 200.000KHz
± 20 PPM
1 MHz
ECS ECS-10-13-1
± 50 PPM
4 MHz
ECS ECS-40-20-1
± 50 PPM
8 MHz
EPSON CA-301 8.000M-C
± 30 PPM
20 MHz
EPSON CA-301 20.000M-C
± 30 PPM
Note 1:
Higher capacitance increases the stability of the
oscillator, but also increases the start-up time.
2: Since each resonator/crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the resonator/crystal manufacturer for appropriate values of
external components.
3: Rs may be required in HS mode, as well as XT
mode, to avoid overdriving crystals with low drive
level specification.
4: Oscillator performance should be verified when
migrating between devices (including
PIC16C62A to PIC16C62B and PIC16C72 to
PIC16C72A)
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
10.2.3
RC OSCILLATOR
10.3
For timing insensitive applications, the “RC” device
option offers additional cost savings. The RC oscillator
frequency is a function of the supply voltage, the resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values, and the operating temperature. In addition to this, the oscillator
frequency will vary from unit to unit due to normal process parameter variation. Furthermore, the difference
in lead frame capacitance between package types will
also affect the oscillation frequency, especially for low
CEXT values. The user also needs to take into account
variation due to tolerance of external R and C components used. Figure 10-4 shows how the R/C combination is connected to the PIC16CXXX.
FIGURE 10-4: RC OSCILLATOR MODE
VDD
Rext
OSC1
Cext
Internal
clock
PIC16CXX
VSS
Fosc/4
Recommended values:
OSC2/CLKOUT
3 kΩ ≤ Rext ≤ 100 kΩ
Cext > 20pF
Reset
The PIC16CXXX differentiates between various kinds
of reset:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset (POR)
MCLR reset during normal operation
MCLR reset during SLEEP
WDT Reset (during normal operation)
WDT Wake-up (during SLEEP)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Some registers are not affected in any reset condition;
their status is unknown on POR and unchanged by any
other reset. Most other registers are reset to a “reset
state” on Power-on Reset (POR), on the MCLR and
WDT Reset, on MCLR reset during SLEEP, and on
Brown-out Reset (BOR). They are not affected by a
WDT Wake-up from SLEEP, which is viewed as the
resumption of normal operation. The TO and PD bits
are set or cleared depending on the reset situation, as
indicated in Table 10-4. These bits are used in software
to determine the nature of the reset. See Table 10-6 for
a full description of reset states of all registers.
A simplified block diagram of the on-chip reset circuit is
shown in Figure 10-5.
The PICmicro devices have a MCLR noise filter in the
MCLR reset path. The filter will ignore small pulses.
However, a valid MCLR pulse must meet the minimum
pulse width (TmcL, Specification #30).
No internal reset source (WDT, BOR, POR) willdrive
the MCLR pin low.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 57
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 10-5: SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
External
Reset
MCLR
WDT
Module
SLEEP
WDT
Time-out
Reset
VDD rise
detect
Power-on Reset
VDD
Brown-out
Reset
S
BODEN
OST/PWRT
OST
Chip_Reset
R
10-bit Ripple counter
Q
OSC1
(1)
On-chip
RC OSC
PWRT
10-bit Ripple counter
Enable PWRT
Enable OST
Note 1:
This is a separate oscillator from the RC oscillator of the CLKIN pin.
DS35008B-page 58
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
10.4
10.5
Power-On Reset (POR)
A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip when
VDD rise is detected (in the range of 1.5V - 2.1V). To
take advantage of the POR, just tie the MCLR pin
directly (or through a resistor) to VDD. This will eliminate external RC components usually needed to create
a Power-on Reset. A maximum rise time for VDD is
specified (SVDD, parameter D004). For a slow rise
time, see Figure 10-6.
When the device starts normal operation (exits the
reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage,
frequency, temperature,...) must be met to ensure operation. If these conditions are not met, the device must
be held in reset until the operating conditions are met.
Brown-out Reset may be used to meet the start-up conditions.
FIGURE 10-6: EXTERNAL POWER-ON
RESET CIRCUIT (FOR SLOW
VDD POWER-UP)
VDD
D
Power-up Timer (PWRT)
The Power-up Timer provides a fixed nominal time-out
(TPWRT, parameter #33) from the POR. The Power-up
Timer operates on an internal RC oscillator. The chip is
kept in reset as long as the PWRT is active. The
PWRT’s time delay allows VDD to rise to an acceptable
level. A configuration bit is provided to enable/disable
the PWRT.
The power-up time delay will vary from chip-to-chip due
to VDD, temperature and process variation. See DC
parameters for details.
10.6
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) provides a delay of
1024 oscillator cycles (from OSC1 input) after the
PWRT delay is over (TOST, parameter #32). This
ensures that the crystal oscillator or resonator has
started and stabilized.
The OST time-out is invoked only for XT, LP and HS
modes and only on Power-on Reset or wake-up from
SLEEP.
Note:
The OST delay may not occur when the
device wakes from SLEEP.
R
R1
10.7
MCLR
C
PIC16CXX
Note 1: External Power-on Reset circuit is required
only if VDD power-up slope is too slow. The
diode D helps discharge the capacitor
quickly when VDD powers down.
2: R < 40 kΩ is recommended to make sure
that voltage drop across R does not violate
the device’s electrical specification.
3: R1 = 100Ω to 1 kΩ will limit any current
flowing into MCLR from external capacitor
C in the event of MCLR/VPP pin breakdown due to Electrostatic Discharge
(ESD) or Electrical Overstress (EOS).
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Brown-Out Reset (BOR)
The configuration bit, BODEN, can enable or disable
the Brown-Out Reset circuit. If VPP falls below Vbor
(parameter #35, about 100µS), the brown-out situation
will reset the device. If VDD falls below VBOR for less
than TBOR, a reset may not occur.
Once the brown-out occurs, the device will remain in
brown-out reset until VDD rises above VBOR. The
power-up timer then keeps the device in reset for
TPWRT (parameter #33, about 72mS). If VDD should fall
below VBOR during TPWRT, the brown-out reset process will restart when VDD rises above VBOR with the
power-up timer reset. The power-up timer is always
enabled when the brown-out reset circuit is enabled,
regardless of the state of the PWRT configuration bit.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 59
PIC16C62B/72A
10.8
Time-out Sequence
Table 10-5 shows the reset conditions for the STATUS,
PCON and PC registers, while Table 10-6 shows the
reset conditions for all the registers.
When a POR reset occurs, the PWRT delay starts (if
enabled). When PWRT ends, the OST counts 1024
oscillator cycles (LP, XT, HS modes only). When OST
completes, the device comes out of reset. The total
time-out will vary based on oscillator configuration and
the status of the PWRT. For example, in RC mode with
the PWRT disabled, there will be no time-out at all.
10.9
Power Control/Status Register
(PCON)
The BOR bit is unknown on Power-on Reset. If the
Brown-out Reset circuit is used, the BOR bit must be
set by the user and checked on subsequent resets to
see if it was cleared, indicating a Brown-out has
occurred.
If MCLR is kept low long enough, the time-outs will
expire. Bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately. This is useful for testing purposes or to synchronize more than one PIC16CXXX device operating in
parallel.
POR (Power-on Reset Status bit) is cleared on a
Power-on Reset and unaffected otherwise. The user
Status Register
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
POR
BOR
PCON Register
TABLE 10-3
TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS
Power-up
Oscillator Configuration
Brown-out
Wake-up from
SLEEP
PWRTE = 0
PWRTE = 1
XT, HS, LP
72 ms + 1024TOSC
1024TOSC
72 ms + 1024TOSC
1024TOSC
RC
72 ms
—
72 ms
—
TABLE 10-4
STATUS BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
POR
BOR
TO
PD
0
x
1
1
Power-on Reset
0
x
0
x
Illegal, TO is set on POR
0
x
x
0
Illegal, PD is set on POR
1
0
1
1
Brown-out Reset
1
1
0
1
WDT Reset
1
1
0
0
WDT Wake-up
1
1
u
u
MCLR Reset during normal operation
1
1
1
0
MCLR Reset during SLEEP or interrupt wake-up from SLEEP
TABLE 10-5
RESET CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS
Program
Counter
STATUS
Register
PCON
Register
Power-on Reset
000h
0001 1xxx
---- --0x
MCLR Reset during normal operation
000h
000u uuuu
---- --uu
MCLR Reset during SLEEP
000h
0001 0uuu
---- --uu
WDT Reset
000h
0000 1uuu
---- --uu
PC + 1
uuu0 0uuu
---- --uu
000h
0001 1uuu
---- --u0
uuu1 0uuu
---- --uu
Condition
WDT Wake-up
Brown-out Reset
Interrupt wake-up from SLEEP
PC +
1(1)
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit read as '0'.
Note 1:
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h).
DS35008B-page 60
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 10-6
Register
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS
Applicable
Devices
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Resets
WDT Reset
Wake-up via WDT or
Interrupt
W
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
INDF
62B
72A
N/A
N/A
N/A
TMR0
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCL
62B
72A
0000h
0000h
PC + 1(2)
STATUS
62B
72A
0001 1xxx
000q quuu(3)
uuuq quuu(3)
FSR
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTA(4)
62B
72A
--0x 0000
--0u 0000
--uu uuuu
PORTB(5)
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTC(5)
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCLATH
62B
72A
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
INTCON
62B
72A
0000 000x
0000 000u
uuuu uuuu(1)
62B
72A
---- 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu(1)
62B
72A
-0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
-u-- uuuu(1)
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PIR1
TMR1L
TMR1H
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
T1CON
62B
72A
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
--uu uuuu
TMR2
62B
72A
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
T2CON
62B
72A
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
SSPBUF
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
SSPCON
62B
72A
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1L
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1H
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP1CON
62B
72A
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
ADRES
62B
72A
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADCON0
62B
72A
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
uuuu uu-u
OPTION_REG
62B
72A
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
62B
72A
--11 1111
--11 1111
--uu uuuu
TRISB
62B
72A
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISC
62B
72A
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
62B
72A
---- 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu
PIE1
62B
72A
-0-- 0000
-0-- 0000
-u-- uuuu
PCON
62B
72A
---- --0q
---- --uq
---- --uq
PR2
62B
72A
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
SSPADD
62B
72A
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSPSTAT
62B
72A
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ADCON1
62B
72A
---- -000
---- -000
---- -uuu
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, read as ’0’, q = value depends on condition
One or more bits in INTCON and/or PIR1 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h).
See Table 10-5 for reset value for specific condition.
On any device reset, these pins are configured as inputs.
This is the value that will be in the port output latch.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 61
PIC16C62B/72A
10.10
Interrupts
The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the special function registers PIR1 and PIR2. The corresponding interrupt enable bits are contained in special
function registers PIE1 and PIE2, and the peripheral
interrupt enable bit is contained in special function register INTCON.
The interrupt control register (INTCON) records individual interrupt requests in flag bits. It also has individual
and global interrupt enable bits.
Note:
Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of their corresponding
mask bit or the GIE bit.
When an interrupt is responded to, the GIE bit is
cleared to disable any further interrupts, the return
address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded
with 0004h. Once in the interrupt service routine, the
source of the interrupt can be determined by polling the
interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bit must be cleared
in software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid recursive interrupts.
A global interrupt enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>)
enables or disables all interrupts. When bit GIE is
enabled, and an interrupt’s flag bit and mask bit are set,
the interrupt will vector immediately. Individual interrupts can be disabled through their corresponding
enable bits in various registers. Individual interrupt flag
bits are set regardless of the status of the GIE bit. The
GIE bit is cleared on reset.
For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or
PORTB change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be
three or four instruction cycles, depending on when the
interrupt event occurs. The latency is the same for one
or two cycle instructions. Individual interrupt flag bits
are set regardless of the status of their corresponding
mask bit or the GIE bit
The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits
the interrupt routine and sets the GIE bit, which reenables interrupts.
The RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt
and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in
the INTCON register.
FIGURE 10-7: INTERRUPT LOGIC
T0IF
T0IE
INTF
INTE
ADIF(1)
ADIE(1)
SSPIF
SSPIE
CCP1IF
CCP1IE
Wake-up (If in SLEEP mode)
Interrupt to CPU
RBIF
RBIE
PEIE
GIE
TMR2IF
TMR2IE
TMR1IF
TMR1IE
Note 1: The A/D module is not implemented on the PIC16C62B.
DS35008B-page 62
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
10.10.1 INT INTERRUPT
10.11
The external interrupt on RB0/INT pin is edge triggered: either rising, if bit INTEDG (OPTION_REG<6>)
is set, or falling, if the INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid
edge appears on the RB0/INT pin, flag bit INTF
(INTCON<1>) is set. This interrupt can be disabled by
clearing enable bit INTE (INTCON<4>). Flag bit INTF
must be cleared in software in the interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The INT interrupt
can wake-up the processor from SLEEP, if bit INTE was
set prior to going into SLEEP. The status of global interrupt enable bit GIE decides whether or not the processor branches to the interrupt vector following wake-up.
See Section 10.13 for details on SLEEP mode.
During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved
on the stack. Typically, users may wish to save key registers during an interrupt, (i.e., W register and STATUS
register). This will have to be implemented in software.
10.10.2 TMR0 INTERRUPT
An overflow (FFh → 00h) in the TMR0 register will set
flag bit T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit T0IE
(INTCON<5>). (Section 4.0)
Example 10-1 stores and restores the W and STATUS
registers. The register, W_TEMP, must be defined in
each bank and must be defined at the same offset from
the bank base address (i.e., if W_TEMP is defined at
0x20 in bank 0, it must also be defined at 0xA0 in bank
1).
The example:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
10.10.3 PORTB INTCON CHANGE
Context Saving During Interrupts
Stores the W register.
Stores the STATUS register in bank 0.
Stores the PCLATH register.
Executes the interrupt service routine code
(User-generated).
Restores the STATUS register (and bank select
bit).
Restores the W and PCLATH registers.
An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit RBIF
(INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled
by setting/clearing enable bit RBIE (INTCON<4>).
(Section 3.2)
EXAMPLE 10-1: SAVING STATUS, W, AND PCLATH REGISTERS IN RAM
MOVWF
SWAPF
CLRF
MOVWF
:
:(ISR)
:
SWAPF
W_TEMP
STATUS,W
STATUS
STATUS_TEMP
;Copy
;Swap
;bank
;Save
STATUS_TEMP,W
MOVWF
SWAPF
SWAPF
STATUS
W_TEMP,F
W_TEMP,W
;Swap STATUS_TEMP register into W
;(sets bank to original state)
;Move W into STATUS register
;Swap W_TEMP
;Swap W_TEMP into W
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
W to TEMP register, could be bank one or zero
status to be saved into W
0, regardless of current bank, Clears IRP,RP1,RP0
status to bank zero STATUS_TEMP register
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 63
PIC16C62B/72A
10.12
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
The WDT time-out period (TWDT, parameter #31) is
multiplied by the prescaler ratio, when the prescaler is
assigned to the WDT. The prescaler assignment
(assigned to either the WDT or Timer0) and prescaler
ratio are set in the OPTION_REG register.
The Watchdog Timer is a free running on-chip RC oscillator which does not require any external components.
This RC oscillator is separate from the RC oscillator of
the OSC1/CLKIN pin. The WDT will run, even if the
clock on the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT pins of
the device has been stopped, for example, by execution
of a SLEEP instruction.
During normal operation, a WDT time-out generates a
device RESET (Watchdog Timer Reset). If the device is
in SLEEP mode, a WDT time-out causes the device to
wake-up and continue with normal operation (Watchdog Timer Wake-up). The TO bit in the STATUS register
will be cleared upon a Watchdog Timer time-out.
Note:
The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear
the WDT and the postscaler, if assigned to
the WDT, and prevent it from timing out and
generating a device RESET condition.
Note:
When a CLRWDT instruction is executed
and the prescaler is assigned to the WDT,
the prescaler count will be cleared, but the
prescaler assignment is not changed.
.
The WDT can be permanently disabled by clearing
configuration bit WDTE (Section 10.1).
FIGURE 10-8: WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
From TMR0 Clock Source
(Figure 4-2)
0
WDT Timer
Postscaler
M
U
X
1
8
8 - to - 1 MUX
PS2:PS0
PSA
WDT
Enable Bit
To TMR0 (Figure 4-2)
0
1
MUX
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note: PSA and PS2:PS0 are bits in the OPTION_REG register.
FIGURE 10-9: SUMMARY OF WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTERS
Address
Name
2007h
Config. bits
81h
OPTION_REG
Bit 7
RBPU
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
BODEN
CP1
CP0
PWRTE
WDTE
FOSC1
FOSC0
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Legend: Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer.
DS35008B-page 64
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
10.13
Power-down Mode (SLEEP)
Power-down mode is entered by executing a SLEEP
instruction.
If enabled, the Watchdog Timer will be cleared but
keeps running, the PD bit (STATUS<3>) is cleared, the
TO (STATUS<4>) bit is set, and the oscillator driver is
turned off. The I/O ports maintain the status they had,
before the SLEEP instruction was executed (driving
high, low or hi-impedance).
For lowest current consumption in this mode, place all
I/O pins at either VDD or VSS, ensure no external circuitry is drawing current from the I/O pin, power-down
the A/D and disable external clocks. Pull all I/O pins
that are hi-impedance inputs, high or low externally, to
avoid switching currents caused by floating inputs. The
T0CKI input should also be at VDD or VSS for lowest
current consumption. The contribution from on-chip
pull-ups on PORTB should be considered.
The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level (VIHMC,
parameter D042).
10.13.1 WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The device can wake up from SLEEP through one of
the following events:
1.
2.
3.
External reset input on MCLR pin.
Watchdog Timer Wake-up (if WDT was
enabled).
Interrupt from INT pin, RB port change, or some
Peripheral Interrupts.
External MCLR Reset will cause a device reset. All
other events are considered a continuation of program
execution and cause a "wake-up". The TO and PD bits
in the STATUS register can be used to determine the
cause of device reset. The PD bit, which is set on
power-up, is cleared when SLEEP is invoked. The TO
bit is cleared if a WDT time-out occurred (and caused
wake-up).
regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE bit is
clear (disabled), the device resumes execution at the
instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit is
set (enabled), the device executes the instruction after
the SLEEP instruction and then branches to the interrupt address (0004h). In cases where the execution of
the instruction following SLEEP is not desirable, a NOP
should follow the SLEEP instruction.
10.13.2 WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS
When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and
any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit
and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur:
• If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a
SLEEP instruction, the SLEEP instruction will complete as a NOP. Therefore, the WDT and WDT
postscaler will not be cleared, the TO bit will not
be set and PD bits will not be cleared.
• If the interrupt occurs during or after the execution of a SLEEP instruction, the device will immediately wake up from sleep. The SLEEP instruction
will be completely executed before the wake-up.
Therefore, the WDT and WDT postscaler will be
cleared, the TO bit will be set and the PD bit will
be cleared.
Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a
SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to
become set before the SLEEP instruction completes. To
determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed, test
the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction
was executed as a NOP.
To ensure that the WDT is cleared, a CLRWDT instruction should be executed before a SLEEP instruction.
The following peripheral interrupts can wake the device
from SLEEP:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
TMR1 interrupt. Timer1 must be operating as
an asynchronous counter.
CCP capture mode interrupt.
Special event trigger (Timer1 in asynchronous
mode using an external clock. CCP1 is in compare mode).
SSP (Start/Stop) bit detect interrupt.
SSP transmit or receive in slave mode (SPI/I2C).
USART RX or TX (synchronous slave mode).
Other peripherals cannot generate interrupts since during SLEEP, no on-chip clocks are present.
When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next
instruction (PC + 1) is pre-fetched. For the device to
wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding
interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up is
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 65
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 10-10: WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3
Q4
OSC1
TOST(2)
CLKOUT(4)
INT pin
INTF flag
(INTCON<1>)
Interrupt Latency
(Note 2)
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
Processor in
SLEEP
INSTRUCTION FLOW
PC
PC
Instruction
fetched
Inst(PC) = SLEEP
Instruction
executed
Inst(PC - 1)
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
10.14
PC+1
PC+2
PC+2
Inst(PC + 1)
Inst(PC + 2)
SLEEP
Inst(PC + 1)
PC + 2
Dummy cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
Dummy cycle
Inst(0004h)
XT, HS or LP oscillator mode assumed.
TOST = 1024TOSC (drawing not to scale) This delay will not be there for RC osc mode.
GIE = ’1’ assumed. In this case after wake- up, the processor jumps to the interrupt routine. If GIE = ’0’, execution will continue in-line.
CLKOUT is not available in these osc modes, but shown here for timing reference.
Program Verification/Code Protection
If the code protection bits have not been programmed,
the on-chip program memory can be read out for verification purposes.
Note:
10.15
Microchip does not recommend code protecting windowed devices.
ID Locations
Four memory locations (2000h - 2003h) are designated
as ID locations where the user can store checksum or
other code-identification numbers. These locations are
not accessible during normal execution, but are readable and writable during program/verify. It is recommended that only the 4 least significant bits of the ID
location are used.
For ROM devices, these values are submitted along
with the ROM code.
10.16
In-Circuit Serial Programming™
PIC16CXXX microcontrollers can be serially programmed while in the end application circuit. This is
simply done with two lines for clock and data, and three
more lines for power, ground and the programming voltage. This allows customers to manufacture boards with
unprogrammed devices, and then program the microcontroller just before shipping the product. This also
allows the most recent firmware or a custom firmware
to be programmed.
For complete details of serial programming, please
refer to the In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP™)
Guide, DS30277.
DS35008B-page 66
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
11.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
Each PIC16CXXX instruction is a 14-bit word divided
into an OPCODE which specifies the instruction type
and one or more operands which further specify the
operation of the instruction. The PIC16CXX instruction
set summary in Table 11-2 lists byte-oriented, bit-oriented, and literal and control operations. Table 11-1
shows the opcode field descriptions.
For byte-oriented instructions, ’f’ represents a file register designator and ’d’ represents a destination designator. The file register designator specifies which file
register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If ’d’ is zero, the result is
placed in the W register. If ’d’ is one, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
For bit-oriented instructions, ’b’ represents a bit field
designator which selects the number of the bit affected
by the operation, while ’f’ represents the number of the
file in which the bit is located.
execution time is 1 µs. If a conditional test is true or the
program counter is changed as a result of an instruction, the instruction execution time is 2 µs.
Table 11-2 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASM assembler.
Figure 11-1 shows the general formats that the instructions can have.
Note:
All examples use the following format to represent a
hexadecimal number:
0xhh
where h signifies a hexadecimal digit.
FIGURE 11-1: GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8 7 6
OPCODE
d
f (FILE #)
For literal and control operations, ’k’ represents an
eight or eleven bit constant or literal value.
TABLE 11-1
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
7 6
OPCODE
b (BIT #)
f (FILE #)
Description
f
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
W
Working register (accumulator)
b
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
k
Literal field, constant data or label
x
Don’t care location (= 0 or 1)
The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the
recommended form of use for compatibility with all
Microchip software tools.
d
Program Counter
0
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
Literal and control operations
General
13
Destination select; d = 0: store result in W,
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1
PC
0
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
To maintain upward compatibility with
future PIC16CXXX products, do not use
the OPTION and TRIS instructions.
8
7
OPCODE
0
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
TO
Time-out bit
PD
Power-down bit
Z
Zero bit
DC
Digit Carry bit
OPCODE
C
Carry bit
k = 11-bit immediate value
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
The instruction set is highly orthogonal and is grouped
into three basic categories:
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
11
10
0
k (literal)
A description of each instruction is available in the
PICmicro™
Mid-Range
Reference
Manual,
(DS33023).
All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction.
In this case, the execution takes two instruction cycles
with the second cycle executed as a NOP. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. Thus, for
an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the normal instruction
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 67
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 11-2
PIC16CXXX INSTRUCTION SET
Mnemonic,
Operands
Description
Cycles
14-Bit Opcode
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ANDWF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
DECFSZ
INCF
INCFSZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
NOP
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SWAPF
XORWF
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
Add W and f
AND W with f
Clear f
Clear W
Complement f
Decrement f
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Increment f
Increment f, Skip if 0
Inclusive OR W with f
Move f
Move W to f
No Operation
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Right f through Carry
Subtract W from f
Swap nibbles in f
Exclusive OR W with f
1
1
1
1
1
1
1(2)
1
1(2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
0111
0101
0001
0001
1001
0011
1011
1010
1111
0100
1000
0000
0000
1101
1100
0010
1110
0110
dfff
dfff
lfff
0000
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xx0
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
0011
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
0000
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
C,DC,Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
C
C
C,DC,Z
Z
1,2
1,2
2
1,2
1,2
1,2,3
1,2
1,2,3
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
BCF
BSF
BTFSC
BTFSS
f, b
f, b
f, b
f, b
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
1
1
1 (2)
1 (2)
01
01
01
01
00bb
01bb
10bb
11bb
bfff
bfff
bfff
bfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
11
11
10
00
10
11
11
00
11
00
00
11
11
111x
1001
0kkk
0000
1kkk
1000
00xx
0000
01xx
0000
0000
110x
1010
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0100
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
1001
kkkk
1000
0011
kkkk
kkkk
1,2
1,2
3
3
LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS
ADDLW
ANDLW
CALL
CLRWDT
GOTO
IORLW
MOVLW
RETFIE
RETLW
RETURN
SLEEP
SUBLW
XORLW
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
Add literal and W
AND literal with W
Call subroutine
Clear Watchdog Timer
Go to address
Inclusive OR literal with W
Move literal to W
Return from interrupt
Return with literal in W
Return from Subroutine
Go into standby mode
Subtract W from literal
Exclusive OR literal with W
C,DC,Z
Z
TO,PD
Z
TO,PD
C,DC,Z
Z
Note 1:
When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself ( e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1), the value used will be that value present
on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ’1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external
device, the data will be written back with a ’0’.
2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned
to the Timer0 Module.
3: If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is
executed as a NOP.
DS35008B-page 68
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
11.1
Instruction Descriptions
ADDLW
Add Literal and W
ANDWF
AND W with f
Syntax:
[label] ADDLW
Syntax:
[label] ANDWF
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) .AND. (f) → (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
AND the W register with register 'f'. If
'd' is 0, the result is stored in the W
register. If 'd' is 1, the result is stored
back in register 'f'.
k
Operation:
(W) + k → (W)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Description:
The contents of the W register are
added to the eight bit literal ’k’ and the
result is placed in the W register.
f,d
BCF
Bit Clear f
Syntax:
[label] BCF
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operation:
(W) + (f) → (destination)
Operation:
0 → (f<b>)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Add the contents of the W register
with register ’f’. If ’d’ is 0, the result is
stored in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the
result is stored back in register ’f’.
Description:
Bit 'b' in register 'f' is cleared.
ANDLW
AND Literal with W
BSF
Bit Set f
Syntax:
[label] ANDLW
Syntax:
[label] BSF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operation:
1 → (f<b>)
ADDWF
Add W and f
Syntax:
[label] ADDWF
Operands:
f,d
k
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) .AND. (k) → (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of W register are
AND’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'.
The result is placed in the W register.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
f,b
f,b
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Bit 'b' in register 'f' is set.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 69
PIC16C62B/72A
BTFSS
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
CLRF
Clear f
Syntax:
[label] BTFSS f,b
Syntax:
[label] CLRF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b<7
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
Operation:
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 1
00h → (f)
1→Z
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
If bit ’b’ in register ’f’ is ’0’, then the next
instruction is executed.
If bit ’b’ is ’1’, then the next instruction
is discarded and a NOP is executed
instead, making this a 2TCY instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ’f’ are cleared
and the Z bit is set.
BTFSC
Bit Test, Skip if Clear
CLRW
Clear W
Syntax:
[label] BTFSC f,b
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRW
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operands:
None
Operation:
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 0
00h → (W)
1→Z
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
If bit ’b’ in register ’f’ is ’1’, then the next
instruction is executed.
If bit ’b’ in register ’f’ is ’0’, then the next
instruction is discarded, and a NOP is
executed instead, making this a 2TCY
instruction.
Description:
W register is cleared. Zero bit (Z) is
set.
CALL
Call Subroutine
CLRWDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Syntax:
[ label ] CALL k
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRWDT
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 2047
Operands:
None
Operation:
(PC)+ 1→ TOS,
k → PC<10:0>,
(PCLATH<4:3>) → PC<12:11>
Operation:
00h → WDT
0 → WDT prescaler,
1 → TO
1 → PD
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Call Subroutine. First, return address
(PC+1) is pushed onto the stack. The
eleven bit immediate address is loaded
into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of
the PC are loaded from PCLATH.
CALL is a two cycle instruction.
DS35008B-page 70
f
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
CLRWDT instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. It also resets the prescaler
of the WDT. Status bits TO and PD
are set.
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
COMF
Complement f
GOTO
Unconditional Branch
Syntax:
[ label ] COMF
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 2047
Operation:
(f) → (destination)
Operation:
k → PC<10:0>
PCLATH<4:3> → PC<12:11>
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The contents of register ’f’ are complemented. If ’d’ is 0, the result is stored
in W. If ’d’ is 1, the result is stored
back in register ’f’.
Description:
GOTO is an unconditional branch. The
eleven bit immediate value is loaded
into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of
PC are loaded from PCLATH<4:3>.
GOTO is a two cycle instruction.
DECF
Decrement f
INCF
Increment f
Syntax:
[label] DECF f,d
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - 1 → (destination)
Operation:
(f) + 1 → (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
Decrement register ’f’. If ’d’ is 0, the
result is stored in the W register. If ’d’
is 1, the result is stored back in register ’f’.
Description:
The contents of register ’f’ are incremented. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed
in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is
placed back in register ’f’.
DECFSZ
Decrement f, Skip if 0
INCFSZ
Increment f, Skip if 0
Syntax:
[ label ] DECFSZ f,d
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - 1 → (destination);
skip if result = 0
Operation:
(f) + 1 → (destination),
skip if result = 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The contents of register ’f’ are decremented. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed in
the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is
placed back in register ’f’.
If the result is 1, the next instruction, is
executed. If the result is 0, then a NOP is
executed instead making it a 2TCY
instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ’f’ are incremented. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed
in the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is
placed back in register ’f’.
If the result is 1, the next instruction is
executed. If the result is 0, a NOP is
executed instead making it a 2TCY
instruction.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
f,d
Preliminary
GOTO k
INCF f,d
INCFSZ f,d
DS35008B-page 71
PIC16C62B/72A
IORLW
Inclusive OR Literal with W
MOVLW
Move Literal to W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) .OR. k → (W)
Operation:
k → (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The contents of the W register is
OR’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'. The
result is placed in the W register.
Description:
The eight bit literal 'k' is loaded into W
register. The don’t cares will assemble as 0’s.
IORLW k
MOVLW k
IORWF
Inclusive OR W with f
MOVWF
Move W to f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
(W) .OR. (f) → (destination)
Operation:
(W) → (f)
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
Description:
Inclusive OR the W register with register 'f'. If 'd' is 0, the result is placed in
the W register. If 'd' is 1, the result is
placed back in register 'f'.
Move data from W register to register
'f'.
MOVF
Move f
NOP
No Operation
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
None
Operation:
No operation
Operation:
(f) → (destination)
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
No operation.
Description:
The contents of register f is moved to
a destination dependant upon the status of d. If d = 0, destination is W register. If d = 1, the destination is file
register f itself. d = 1 is useful to test a
file register since status flag Z is
affected.
DS35008B-page 72
IORWF
f,d
MOVF f,d
Preliminary
MOVWF
f
NOP
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
RETFIE
Return from Interrupt
RLF
Rotate Left f through Carry
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
TOS → PC,
1 → GIE
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
See description below
None
Status Affected:
C
Description:
The contents of register ’f’ are rotated
one bit to the left through the Carry
Flag. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed in
the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is
stored back in register ’f’.
Status Affected:
RETFIE
RLF
C
f,d
Register f
RETLW
Return with Literal in W
RRF
Rotate Right f through Carry
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
Operation:
k → (W);
TOS → PC
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
C
Description:
The W register is loaded with the eight
bit literal ’k’. The program counter is
loaded from the top of the stack (the
return address). This is a two cycle
instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ’f’ are rotated
one bit to the right through the Carry
Flag. If ’d’ is 0, the result is placed in
the W register. If ’d’ is 1, the result is
placed back in register ’f’.
RETLW k
RRF f,d
C
RETURN
Return from Subroutine
SLEEP
Register f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operands:
None
Operation:
TOS → PC
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Return from subroutine. The stack is
POPed and the top of the stack (TOS)
is loaded into the program counter.
This is a two cycle instruction.
00h → WDT,
0 → WDT prescaler,
1 → TO,
0 → PD
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
The power-down status bit, PD is
cleared. Time-out status bit, TO is
set. Watchdog Timer and its prescaler are cleared.
The processor is put into SLEEP
mode with the oscillator stopped.
See Section 10.13 for more details.
RETURN
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
SLEEP
DS35008B-page 73
PIC16C62B/72A
SUBLW
Subtract W from Literal
XORLW
Exclusive OR Literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[label]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
k - (W) → (W)
Operation:
(W) .XOR. k → (W)
Status Affected: C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The W register is subtracted (2’s complement method) from the eight bit literal 'k'. The result is placed in the W
register.
Description:
The contents of the W register are
XOR’ed with the eight bit literal 'k'.
The result is placed in the W register.
SUBWF
Subtract W from f
XORWF
Exclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[label]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - (W) → (destination)
Operation:
(W) .XOR. (f) → (destination)
Status
Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
Description:
Subtract (2’s complement method) W
register from register 'f'. If 'd' is 0, the
result is stored in the W register. If 'd' is
1, the result is stored back in register 'f'.
Exclusive OR the contents of the W
register with register 'f'. If 'd' is 0, the
result is stored in the W register. If 'd'
is 1, the result is stored back in register 'f'.
SUBLW k
SUBWF f,d
SWAPF
Swap Nibbles in f
Syntax:
[ label ] SWAPF f,d
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f<3:0>) → (destination<7:4>),
(f<7:4>) → (destination<3:0>)
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The upper and lower nibbles of register 'f' are exchanged. If 'd' is 0, the
result is placed in W register. If 'd' is 1,
the result is placed in register 'f'.
DS35008B-page 74
Preliminary
XORLW k
XORWF
f,d
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
12.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
®
MPLAB allows you to:
The PICmicro microcontrollers are supported with a
full range of hardware and software development tools:
• Integrated Development Environment
- MPLAB™ IDE Software
• Assemblers/Compilers/Linkers
- MPASM Assembler
- MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18 C Compilers
- MPLINK/MPLIB Linker/Librarian
• Simulators
- MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator
• Emulators
- MPLAB-ICE Real-Time In-Circuit Emulator
- PICMASTER®/PICMASTER-CE In-Circuit
Emulator
- ICEPIC™
• In-Circuit Debugger
- MPLAB-ICD for PIC16F877
• Device Programmers
- PRO MATE II Universal Programmer
- PICSTART Plus Entry-Level Prototype
Programmer
• Low-Cost Demonstration Boards
- SIMICE
- PICDEM-1
- PICDEM-2
- PICDEM-3
- PICDEM-17
- SEEVAL
- KEELOQ
12.1
•
•
•
•
•
•
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
- The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of
software development previously unseen in
the 8-bit microcontroller market. MPLAB is a
Windows-based application which contains:
Multiple functionality
- editor
- simulator
- programmer (sold separately)
- emulator (sold separately)
A full featured editor
A project manager
Customizable tool bar and key mapping
A status bar
On-line help
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
• Edit your source files (either assembly or ‘C’)
• One touch assemble (or compile) and download
to PICmicro tools (automatically updates all
project information)
• Debug using:
- source files
- absolute listing file
- object code
The ability to use MPLAB with Microchip’s simulator,
MPLAB-SIM, allows a consistent platform and the ability to easily switch from the cost-effective simulator to
the full featured emulator with minimal retraining.
12.2
MPASM Assembler
MPASM is a full featured universal macro assembler for
all PICmicro MCU’s. It can produce absolute code
directly in the form of HEX files for device programmers, or it can generate relocatable objects for
MPLINK.
MPASM has a command line interface and a Windows
shell and can be used as a standalone application on a
Windows 3.x or greater system. MPASM generates
relocatable object files, Intel standard HEX files, MAP
files to detail memory usage and symbol reference, an
absolute LST file which contains source lines and generated machine code, and a COD file for MPLAB
debugging.
MPASM features include:
• MPASM and MPLINK are integrated into MPLAB
projects.
• MPASM allows user defined macros to be created
for streamlined assembly.
• MPASM allows conditional assembly for multi purpose source files.
• MPASM directives allow complete control over the
assembly process.
12.3
MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18
C Compilers
The MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18 Code Development
Systems are complete ANSI ‘C’ compilers and integrated development environments for Microchip’s
PIC17CXXX and PIC18CXXX family of microcontrollers, respectively. These compilers provide powerful
integration capabilities and ease of use not found with
other compilers.
For easier source level debugging, the compilers provide symbol information that is compatible with the
MPLAB IDE memory display.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 75
PIC16C62B/72A
12.4
MPLINK/MPLIB Linker/Librarian
MPLINK is a relocatable linker for MPASM and
MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18. It can link relocatable
objects from assembly or C source files along with precompiled libraries using directives from a linker script.
MPLIB is a librarian for pre-compiled code to be used
with MPLINK. When a routine from a library is called
from another source file, only the modules that contains
that routine will be linked in with the application. This
allows large libraries to be used efficiently in many different applications. MPLIB manages the creation and
modification of library files.
MPLINK features include:
• MPLINK works with MPASM and MPLAB-C17
and MPLAB-C18.
• MPLINK allows all memory areas to be defined as
sections to provide link-time flexibility.
MPLIB features include:
• MPLIB makes linking easier because single libraries can be included instead of many smaller files.
• MPLIB helps keep code maintainable by grouping
related modules together.
• MPLIB commands allow libraries to be created
and modules to be added, listed, replaced,
deleted, or extracted.
12.5
MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator
The MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC host environment by simulating
the PICmicro series microcontrollers on an instruction
level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be
examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from
a file or user-defined key press to any of the pins. The
execution can be performed in single step, execute until
break, or trace mode.
MPLAB-SIM fully supports symbolic debugging using
MPLAB-C17 and MPLAB-C18 and MPASM. The Software Simulator offers the flexibility to develop and
debug code outside of the laboratory environment making it an excellent multi-project software development
tool.
12.6
MPLAB-ICE High Performance
Universal In-Circuit Emulator with
MPLAB IDE
The MPLAB-ICE Universal In-Circuit Emulator is
intended to provide the product development engineer
with a complete microcontroller design tool set for
PICmicro microcontrollers (MCUs). Software control of
MPLAB-ICE is provided by the MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE), which allows editing,
“make” and download, and source debugging from a
single environment.
DS35008B-page 76
Interchangeable processor modules allow the system
to be easily reconfigured for emulation of different processors. The universal architecture of the MPLAB-ICE
allows expansion to support new PICmicro microcontrollers.
The MPLAB-ICE Emulator System has been designed
as a real-time emulation system with advanced features that are generally found on more expensive development tools. The PC platform and Microsoft® Windows
3.x/95/98 environment were chosen to best make these
features available to you, the end user.
MPLAB-ICE 2000 is a full-featured emulator system
with enhanced trace, trigger, and data monitoring features. Both systems use the same processor modules
and will operate across the full operating speed range
of the PICmicro MCU.
12.7
PICMASTER/PICMASTER CE
The PICMASTER system from Microchip Technology is
a full-featured, professional quality emulator system.
This flexible in-circuit emulator provides a high-quality,
universal platform for emulating Microchip 8-bit
PICmicro microcontrollers (MCUs). PICMASTER systems are sold worldwide, with a CE compliant model
available for European Union (EU) countries.
12.8
ICEPIC
ICEPIC is a low-cost in-circuit emulation solution for the
Microchip Technology PIC16C5X, PIC16C6X,
PIC16C7X, and PIC16CXXX families of 8-bit one-timeprogrammable (OTP) microcontrollers. The modular
system can support different subsets of PIC16C5X or
PIC16CXXX products through the use of
interchangeable personality modules or daughter
boards. The emulator is capable of emulating without
target application circuitry being present.
12.9
MPLAB-ICD In-Circuit Debugger
Microchip’s In-Circuit Debugger, MPLAB-ICD, is a powerful, low-cost run-time development tool. This tool is
based on the flash PIC16F877 and can be used to
develop for this and other PICmicro microcontrollers
from the PIC16CXXX family. MPLAB-ICD utilizes the
In-Circuit Debugging capability built into the
PIC16F87X. This feature, along with Microchip’s In-Circuit Serial Programming protocol, offers cost-effective
in-circuit flash programming and debugging from the
graphical user interface of the MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment. This enables a designer to
develop and debug source code by watching variables,
single-stepping and setting break points. Running at
full speed enables testing hardware in real-time. The
MPLAB-ICD is also a programmer for the flash
PIC16F87X family.
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
12.10
PRO MATE II Universal Programmer
The PRO MATE II Universal Programmer is a full-featured programmer capable of operating in stand-alone
mode as well as PC-hosted mode. PRO MATE II is CE
compliant.
The PRO MATE II has programmable VDD and VPP
supplies which allows it to verify programmed memory
at VDD min and VDD max for maximum reliability. It has
an LCD display for instructions and error messages,
keys to enter commands and a modular detachable
socket assembly to support various package types. In
stand-alone mode the PRO MATE II can read, verify or
program PICmicro devices. It can also set code-protect
bits in this mode.
12.11
PICSTART Plus Entry Level
Development System
The PICSTART programmer is an easy-to-use, lowcost prototype programmer. It connects to the PC via
one of the COM (RS-232) ports. MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment software makes using the
programmer simple and efficient.
PICSTART Plus supports all PICmicro devices with up
to 40 pins. Larger pin count devices such as the
PIC16C92X, and PIC17C76X may be supported with
an adapter socket. PICSTART Plus is CE compliant.
12.12
SIMICE Entry-Level
Hardware Simulator
SIMICE is an entry-level hardware development system designed to operate in a PC-based environment
with Microchip’s simulator MPLAB-SIM. Both SIMICE
and MPLAB-SIM run under Microchip Technology’s
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
software. Specifically, SIMICE provides hardware simulation for Microchip’s PIC12C5XX, PIC12CE5XX, and
PIC16C5X families of PICmicro 8-bit microcontrollers.
SIMICE works in conjunction with MPLAB-SIM to provide non-real-time I/O port emulation. SIMICE enables
a developer to run simulator code for driving the target
system. In addition, the target system can provide input
to the simulator code. This capability allows for simple
and interactive debugging without having to manually
generate MPLAB-SIM stimulus files. SIMICE is a valuable debugging tool for entry-level system development.
12.13
PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PICmicro
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-1 is a simple board which demonstrates
the capabilities of several of Microchip’s microcontrollers. The microcontrollers supported are: PIC16C5X
(PIC16C54 to PIC16C58A), PIC16C61, PIC16C62X,
PIC16C71, PIC16C8X, PIC17C42, PIC17C43 and
PIC17C44. All necessary hardware and software is
included to run basic demo programs. The users can
program the sample microcontrollers provided with
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
the PICDEM-1 board, on a PRO MATE II or
PICSTART-Plus programmer, and easily test firmware. The user can also connect the PICDEM-1
board to the MPLAB-ICE emulator and download the
firmware to the emulator for testing. Additional prototype area is available for the user to build some additional hardware and connect it to the microcontroller
socket(s). Some of the features include an RS-232
interface, a potentiometer for simulated analog input,
push-button switches and eight LEDs connected to
PORTB.
12.14
PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-2 is a simple demonstration board that
supports the PIC16C62, PIC16C64, PIC16C65,
PIC16C73 and PIC16C74 microcontrollers. All the
necessary hardware and software is included to
run the basic demonstration programs. The user
can program the sample microcontrollers provided
with the PICDEM-2 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART-Plus, and easily test firmware.
The MPLAB-ICE emulator may also be used with the
PICDEM-2 board to test firmware. Additional prototype
area has been provided to the user for adding additional hardware and connecting it to the microcontroller
socket(s). Some of the features include a RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a Serial EEPROM to demonstrate
usage of the I2C bus and separate headers for connection to an LCD module and a keypad.
12.15
PICDEM-3 Low-Cost PIC16CXXX
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-3 is a simple demonstration board that
supports the PIC16C923 and PIC16C924 in the PLCC
package. It will also support future 44-pin PLCC
microcontrollers with a LCD Module. All the necessary hardware and software is included to run the
basic demonstration programs. The user can program the sample microcontrollers provided with
the PICDEM-3 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART Plus with an adapter socket, and
easily test firmware. The MPLAB-ICE emulator may
also be used with the PICDEM-3 board to test firmware. Additional prototype area has been provided to
the user for adding hardware and connecting it to the
microcontroller socket(s). Some of the features include
an RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a thermistor and
separate headers for connection to an external LCD
module and a keypad. Also provided on the PICDEM-3
board is an LCD panel, with 4 commons and 12 segments, that is capable of displaying time, temperature
and day of the week. The PICDEM-3 provides an additional RS-232 interface and Windows 3.1 software for
showing the demultiplexed LCD signals on a PC. A simple serial interface allows the user to construct a hardware demultiplexer for the LCD signals.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 77
PIC16C62B/72A
12.16
PICDEM-17
The PICDEM-17 is an evaluation board that demonstrates the capabilities of several Microchip microcontrollers,
including
PIC17C752,
PIC17C756,
PIC17C762, and PIC17C766. All necessary hardware
is included to run basic demo programs, which are supplied on a 3.5-inch disk. A programmed sample is
included, and the user may erase it and program it with
the other sample programs using the PRO MATE II or
PICSTART Plus device programmers and easily debug
and test the sample code. In addition, PICDEM-17 supports down-loading of programs to and executing out of
external FLASH memory on board. The PICDEM-17 is
also usable with the MPLAB-ICE or PICMASTER emulator, and all of the sample programs can be run and
modified using either emulator. Additionally, a generous prototype area is available for user hardware.
12.17
SEEVAL Evaluation and Programming
System
The SEEVAL SEEPROM Designer’s Kit supports all
Microchip 2-wire and 3-wire Serial EEPROMs. The kit
includes everything necessary to read, write, erase or
program special features of any Microchip SEEPROM
product including Smart Serials and secure serials.
The Total Endurance Disk is included to aid in tradeoff analysis and reliability calculations. The total kit can
significantly reduce time-to-market and result in an
optimized system.
12.18
KEELOQ Evaluation and
Programming Tools
KEELOQ evaluation and programming tools support
Microchips HCS Secure Data Products. The HCS evaluation kit includes an LCD display to show changing
codes, a decoder to decode transmissions, and a programming interface to program test transmitters.
DS35008B-page 78
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Software Tools
Emulators
Programmers Debugger
á
á
á
PIC16C5X
á
á á á á
á
á
PIC14000
á
á á á
á
á
PIC12CXXX
á
á á á á
á
á
PICSTARTPlus
Low-Cost Universal Dev. Kit
PRO MATE II
Universal Programmer
á á
á
á
PIC16C8X
á
á á á á
á
á
PIC16C7XX
á
á á á á
á
á
PIC16C7X
á
á á á á
á
á
PIC16F62X
á
á á
PIC16CXXX
á
á á á á
PIC16C6X
á
á á á á
á
á
á
Preliminary
á
á á
á
á
á
á
á
á á
á
á
á
á á
á
á
* Contact the Microchip Technology Inc. web site at www.microchip.com for information on how to use the MPLAB-ICD In-Circuit Debugger (DV164001) with PIC16C62, 63, 64, 65, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77
** Contact Microchip Technology Inc. for availability date.
† Development tool is available on select devices.
†
á
MCP2510 CAN Developer’s Kit
PIC16F8XX
á
†
MCRFXXX
á á á
13.56 MHz Anticollision microID
Developer’s Kit
á
125 kHz Anticollision microID
Developer’s Kit
á
125 kHz microID Developer’s Kit
á á á á
microID™ Programmer’s Kit
PIC16C9XX
á
KEELOQ Transponder Kit
á
KEELOQ® Evaluation Kit
á
PICDEM-17
á á á
á
PICDEM-14A
PIC17C4X
á á
á
†
á
PICDEM-3
á
á á á
**
24CXX/
25CXX/
93CXX
á
PICDEM-2
á
**
á
PICDEM-1
á á á
*
PIC17C7XX
á á
**
HCSXXX
á
SIMICE
MPLAB-ICD In-Circuit Debugger
ICEPIC Low-Cost
In-Circuit Emulator
PICMASTER/PICMASTER-CE
MPLAB™-ICE
MPASM/MPLINK
MPLAB C18 Compiler
PIC18CXX2
á
*
á
MPLAB C17 Compiler
TABLE 12-1:
Demo Boards and Eval Kits
MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment
PIC16C62B/72A
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS FROM MICROCHIP
MCP2510
á
DS35008B-page 79
PIC16C62B/72A
NOTES:
DS35008B-page 80
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
13.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Absolute Maximum Ratings (†)
Ambient temperature under bias.............................................................................................................-55°C to +125°C
Storage temperature .............................................................................................................................. -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR, and RA4).......................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ......................................................................................................... -0.3V to +7.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 2).......................................................................................... 0V to +13.25V
Voltage on RA4 with respect to Vss ............................................................................................................... 0V to +8.5V
Total power dissipation (Note 1)................................................................................................................................1.0W
Maximum current out of VSS pin ...........................................................................................................................300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ..............................................................................................................................250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)...................................................................................................................... ±20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD) .............................................................................................................. ±20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin..........................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin ....................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA and PORTB (combined) .................................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA and PORTB (combined)............................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTC........................................................................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTC ..................................................................................................................200 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD-VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL)
2: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR/VPP pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up.
Thus, a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR/VPP pin, rather
than pulling this pin directly to VSS.
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 81
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-1: PIC16C62B/72A-20 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH
6.0 V
5.5 V
Voltage
5.0 V
PIC16CXXX
PIC16CXXX-20
4.5 V
4.0 V
3.5 V
3.0 V
2.5 V
2.0 V
20 MHz
Frequency
FIGURE 13-2: PIC16LC62B/72A AND PIC16C62B/72A/JW VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH
6.0 V
5.5 V
Voltage
5.0 V
4.5 V
4.0 V
PIC16LCXXX-04
3.5 V
3.0 V
2.5 V
2.0 V
4 MHz
10 MHz
Frequency
FMAX = (12.0 MHz/V) (VDDAPPMIN - 2.5 V) + 4 MHz
Note: VDDAPPMIN is the minimum voltage of the PICmicro® device in the application.
Fmax is no greater than 10 MHz.
DS35008B-page 82
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-3: PIC16C62B/72A-04 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH
6.0 V
5.5 V
Voltage
5.0 V
PIC16CXXX-04
4.5 V
4.0 V
3.5 V
3.0 V
2.5 V
2.0 V
4 MHz
Frequency
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 83
PIC16C62B/72A
13.1
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C62B/72A-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C62B/72A-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤+125°C for extended
Min
Typ†
Max Units
4.0
4.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
V
V
V
Conditions
D001
D001A
VDD
Supply Voltage
VBOR*
-
D002*
VDR
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD Start Voltage to
ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
SVDD
D004A*
VDD Rise Rate to
ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
0.05
TBD
-
-
D005
VBOR
Brown-out Reset
voltage trip point
3.65
-
4.35
V
D010
IDD
Supply Current
(Note 2, 5)
-
2.7
5
mA
XT, RC osc modes
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 5.5V (Note 4)
-
10
20
mA
HS osc mode
FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
D021
D021B
-
10.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
42
16
19
19
µA
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 4.0V, WDT enabled,-40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, 0°C to +70°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled,-40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled,-40°C to +125°C
Module Differential
Current (Note 6)
D022*
∆IWDT Watchdog Timer
D022A* ∆IBOR Brown-out Reset
-
6.0
TBD
20
200
µA
µA
WDTE BIT SET, VDD = 4.0V
BODEN bit set, VDD = 5.0V
D013
D020
IPD
Power-down Current
(Note 3, 5)
XT, RC and LP osc mode
HS osc mode
BOR enabled (Note 7)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms PWRT enabled (PWRTE bit clear)
PWRT disabled (PWRTE bit set)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
BODEN bit set
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD,
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
3: The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
4: For RC osc mode, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by
the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
5: Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
6: The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
7: This is the voltage where the device enters the Brown-out Reset. When BOR is enabled, the device will
perform a brown-out reset when VDD falls below VBOR.
DS35008B-page 84
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
13.2
DC Characteristics:
PIC16LC62B/72A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Min
Typ†
Max Units
2.5
VBOR*
-
5.5
5.5
V
V
Conditions
LP, XT, RC osc modes (DC - 4 MHz)
BOR enabled (Note 7)
D001
VDD
Supply Voltage
D002*
VDR
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
-
1.5
-
V
D003
VPOR
VDD Start Voltage to
ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
-
VSS
-
V
D004*
SVDD
D004A*
VDD Rise Rate to
ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
0.05
TBD
-
-
D005
VBOR
Brown-out Reset
voltage trip point
3.65
-
4.35
V
D010
IDD
Supply Current
(Note 2, 5)
-
2.0
3.8
mA
XT, RC osc modes
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 3.0V (Note 4)
-
22.5
48
µA
LP OSC MODE
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled
-
7.5
0.9
0.9
30
5
5
µA
µA
µA
VDD = 3.0V, WDT enabled, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, 0°C to +70°C
VDD = 3.0V, WDT disabled, -40°C to +85°C
-
6.0
TBD
20
200
µA
µA
WDTE BIT SET, VDD = 4.0V
BODEN bit set, VDD = 5.0V
D010A
D020
D021
D021A
IPD
Power-down Current
(Note 3, 5)
Module Differential
Current (Note 6)
D022*
∆IWDT Watchdog Timer
D022A* ∆IBOR Brown-out Reset
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms PWRT enabled (PWRTE bit clear)
PWRT disabled (PWRTE bit set)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
BODEN bit set
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD,
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
3: The power-down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
4: For RC osc mode, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by
the formula Ir = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
5: Timer1 oscillator (when enabled) adds approximately 20 µA to the specification. This value is from characterization and is for design guidance only. This is not tested.
6: The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD or IPD measurement.
7: This is the voltage where the device enters the Brown-out Reset. When BOR is enabled, the device will
perform a brown-out reset when VDD falls below VBOR.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 85
PIC16C62B/72A
13.3
DC Characteristics:
PIC16C62B/72A-04 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16C62B/72A-20 (Commercial, Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LC62B/72A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤+125°C for extended
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 13.1
and Section 13.2
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Input Low Voltage
VIL
I/O ports
D030
D030A
with TTL buffer
VSS
Vss
-
0.15VDD
0.8V
V
V
For entire VDD range
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
D031
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
VSS
-
0.2VDD
V
D032
MCLR, OSC1 (in RC mode)
Vss
-
0.2VDD
V
D033
OSC1 (in XT, HS and LP
modes)
Vss
-
0.3VDD
V
Note1
2.0
-
VDD
V
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
0.25VD
+ 0.8V
-
Vdd
V
For entire VDD range
For entire VDD range
Input High Voltage
VIH
D040
I/O ports
-
with TTL buffer
D040A
D
D041
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
0.8VDD
-
VDD
V
D042
MCLR
0.8VDD
-
VDD
V
D042A
OSC1 (XT, HS and LP modes)
0.7VDD
-
VDD
V
D043
OSC1 (in RC mode)
0.9VDD
-
Vdd
V
I/O ports
-
-
±1
µA
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD,
Pin at hi-impedance
D061
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
-
-
±5
µA
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
D063
OSC1
-
-
±5
µA
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD,
XT, HS and LP osc modes
50
250
400
µA
VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS
-
-
0.6
V
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
Note1
Input Leakage Current
(Notes 2, 3)
D060
IIL
D070
IPURB
D080
VOL
PORTB weak pull-up current
Output Low Voltage
I/O ports
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator mode, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
device be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR/VPP pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified
levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
DS35008B-page 86
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym
D083
Characteristic
OSC2/CLKOUT
(RC osc mode)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤+125°C for extended
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 13.1
and Section 13.2
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
-
-
0.6
V
IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
-
-
0.6
V
IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
-
-
0.6
V
IOL = 1.2 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
VDD-0.7
-
-
V
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
VDD-0.7
-
-
V
IOH = -2.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
VDD-0.7
-
-
V
IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
VDD-0.7
-
-
V
IOH = -1.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
-
-
8.5
V
RA4 pin
In XT, HS and LP modes when
external clock is used to drive
OSC1.
Output High Voltage
D090
VOH
D092
D150*
I/O ports (Note 3)
OSC2/CLKOUT (RC osc
mode)
VOD
Open-Drain High Voltage
Capacitive Loading Specs
on Output Pins
D100
COSC2 OSC2 pin
-
-
15
pF
D101
CIO
All I/O pins and OSC2 (in RC
mode)
-
-
50
pF
D102
Cb
SCL, SDA in I2C mode
-
-
400
pF
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator mode, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
device be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR/VPP pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified
levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 87
PIC16C62B/72A
13.4
AC (Timing) Characteristics
13.4.1
TIMING PARAMETER SYMBOLOGY
The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
3. TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
2. TppS
4. Ts
(I2C specifications only)
T
Time
osc
OSC1
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
ck
CLKOUT
rd
RD
cs
CS
rw
RD or WR
di
SDI
sc
SCK
do
SDO
ss
SS
dt
Data in
t0
T0CKI
io
I/O port
t1
T1CKI
mc
MCLR
wr
WR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
P
Period
H
High
R
Rise
I
Invalid (Hi-impedance)
V
Valid
L
Low
Z
Hi-impedance
AA
output access
High
High
BUF
Bus free
Low
Low
Hold
SU
Setup
DAT
DATA input hold
STO
STOP condition
STA
START condition
I2C only
TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
CC
HD
ST
DS35008B-page 88
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
13.4.2
TIMING CONDITIONS
The temperature and voltages specified in Table 13-1
apply to all timing specifications unless otherwise
noted. Figure 13-4 specifies the load conditions for the
timing specifications.
TABLE 13-1:
TEMPERATURE AND VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS - AC
AC CHARACTERISTICS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C for commercial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤+125°C for extended
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 13.1 and Section 13.2.
LC parts operate for commercial/industrial temp’s only.
FIGURE 13-4: LOAD CONDITIONS FOR DEVICE TIMING SPECIFICATIONS
Load condition 2
Load condition 1
VDD/2
RL
CL
Pin
VSS
CL
Pin
RL = 464Ω
VSS
CL = 50 pF
15 pF
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
for all pins except OSC2/CLKOUT
for OSC2 output
DS35008B-page 89
PIC16C62B/72A
13.4.3
TIMING DIAGRAMS AND SPECIFICATIONS
FIGURE 13-5: EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1
3
1
3
4
4
2
CLKOUT
TABLE 13-2:
Param
No.
1A
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Fosc
Characteristic
External CLKIN Frequency
(Note 1)
Oscillator Frequency
(Note 1)
1
Tosc
External CLKIN Period
(Note 1)
Oscillator Period
(Note 1)
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
DC
—
4
MHz
RC and XT osc modes
DC
—
4
MHz
HS osc mode (-04)
DC
—
20
MHz
HS osc mode (-20)
DC
—
200
kHz
LP osc mode
DC
—
4
MHz
RC osc mode
0.1
—
4
MHz
XT osc mode
4
—
20
MHz
HS osc mode
5
—
200
kHz
250
—
—
ns
RC and XT osc modes
LP osc mode
250
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
50
—
—
ns
HS osc mode (-20)
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
250
—
—
ns
RC osc mode
250
—
10,000
ns
XT osc mode
250
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-04)
50
—
250
ns
HS osc mode (-20)
5
—
—
µs
LP osc mode
2
TCY
Instruction Cycle Time (Note 1)
200
—
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
3*
TosL,
TosH
External Clock in (OSC1) High
or Low Time
100
—
—
ns
XT oscillator
4*
TosR,
TosF
External Clock in (OSC1) Rise
or Fall Time
2.5
—
—
µs
LP oscillator
15
—
—
ns
HS oscillator
—
—
25
ns
XT oscillator
—
—
50
ns
LP oscillator
—
—
15
ns
HS oscillator
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-base period. All specified values are
based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the
device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or
higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at "min." values with an external
clock applied to the OSC1/CLKIN pin.
When an external clock input is used, the "Max." cycle time limit is "DC" (no clock) for all devices.
DS35008B-page 90
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-6: CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
CLKOUT
13
19
14
12
18
16
I/O Pin
(input)
15
17
I/O Pin
(output)
new value
old value
20, 21
Note: Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-3:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Param Sym
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
10*
TosH2ckL OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
11*
TosH2ckH OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑
—
75
200
ns
Note 1
12*
TckR
CLKOUT rise time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
13*
TckF
CLKOUT fall time
—
35
100
ns
Note 1
14*
TckL2ioV
CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid
—
—
0.5TCY + 20
ns
Note 1
15*
TioV2ckH Port in valid before CLKOUT ↑
Tosc + 200
—
—
ns
Note 1
16*
TckH2ioI
Note 1
17*
TosH2ioV OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to Port out valid
18*
TosH2ioI
18A*
Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑
OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to Port
input invalid (I/O in hold
time)
0
—
—
ns
—
50
150
ns
PIC16CXX
100
—
—
ns
PIC16LCXX
200
—
—
ns
19*
TioV2osH Port input valid to OSC1↑ (I/O in setup time)
0
—
—
ns
20*
TioR
Port output rise time
PIC16CXX
—
10
40
ns
PIC16LCXX
—
—
80
ns
TioF
Port output fall time
PIC16CXX
—
10
40
ns
—
—
80
ns
22††*
Tinp
INT pin high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
23††*
Trbp
RB7:RB4 change INT high or low time
TCY
—
—
ns
20A*
21*
PIC16LCXX
21A*
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and
are not tested.
††These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edge.
Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC Mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 91
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-7: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
OSC
Time-out
Internal
RESET
Watchdog
Timer
RESET
31
34
34
I/O Pins
Note: Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
FIGURE 13-8: BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING
BVDD
VDD
TABLE 13-4:
Param
No.
35
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER
AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
30
TmcL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2
—
—
µs
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +125°C
31*
Twdt
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(No Prescaler)
7
18
33
ms
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +125°C
32
Tost
Oscillator Start-up Timer Period
—
1024
TOSC
—
—
TOSC = OSC1 period
33*
Tpwrt
Power-up Timer Period
28
72
132
ms
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +125°C
34
TIOZ
I/O Hi-impedance from MCLR
Low or WDT reset
—
—
2.1
µs
35
TBOR
Brown-out Reset Pulse Width
100
—
—
µs
VDD ≤ BVDD (D005)
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
DS35008B-page 92
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-9: TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
T0CKI
41
40
42
T1OSO/T1CKI
46
45
47
48
TMR0 or
TMR1
Note: Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-5:
Param
No.
40*
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Tt0H
Characteristic
T0CKI High Pulse Width
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
TCY + 40
—
—
ns
Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
N = prescale value
(2, 4,..., 256)
Must also meet
parameter 47
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
41*
Tt0L
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
42*
Tt0P
T0CKI Period
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
45*
46*
47*
Tt1H
Tt1L
Tt1P
T1CKI High Time
T1CKI Low Time
T1CKI input period
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
Synchronous,
Prescaler =
2,4,8
PIC16CXX
15
—
—
ns
PIC16LCXX
25
—
—
ns
Asynchronous
PIC16CXX
30
—
—
ns
PIC16LCXX
50
—
—
ns
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
Synchronous,
Prescaler =
2,4,8
PIC16CXX
15
—
—
ns
PIC16LCXX
25
—
—
ns
Asynchronous
PIC16CXX
30
—
—
ns
PIC16LCXX
50
—
—
ns
—
—
ns
Synchronous
Asynchronous
48
PIC16CXX
GREATER OF:
30 OR TCY + 40
N
PIC16LCXX
GREATER OF:
50 OR TCY + 40
N
60
—
—
ns
PIC16LCXX
100
—
—
ns
DC
—
200
kHz
2Tosc
—
7Tosc
—
Timer1 oscillator input frequency range
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
TCKEZtmr1
Delay from external clock edge to timer increment
Must also meet
parameter 42
Must also meet
parameter 42
Must also meet
parameter 47
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
PIC16CXX
Ft1
Conditions
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 93
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-10: CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS
CCP1
(Capture Mode)
50
51
52
CCP1
(Compare or PWM Mode)
53
54
Note: Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-6:
Param
No.
50*
51*
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS
Sym
TccL
TccH
Characteristic
CCP1 input low
time
CCP1 input high
time
Min
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
PIC16CXX
10
—
—
ns
PIC16LCXX
20
—
—
ns
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
PIC16CXX
PIC16LCXX
52*
TccP
CCP1 input period
53*
TccR
CCP1 output rise time
54*
TccF
CCP1 output fall time
Typ† Max Units
20
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
PIC16CXX
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LCXX
—
25
45
ns
PIC16CXX
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LCXX
—
25
45
ns
Conditions
N = prescale
value (1,4, or 16)
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS35008B-page 94
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-11: EXAMPLE SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
BIT6 - - - - - -1
MSb
SDO
LSb
75, 76
SDI
MSb IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSb IN
74
73
Note:
Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-7:
Param.
No.
EXAMPLE SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS (MASTER MODE, CKE = 0)
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
70
TssL2scH, SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
TssL2scL
TCY
71
TscH
71A
72
TscL
72A
Typ† Max Units
—
—
ns
SCK input high time
(slave mode)
Continuous
1.25TCY + 30
—
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
—
ns
SCK input low time
(slave mode)
Continuous
1.25TCY + 30
—
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
—
ns
100
—
—
ns
73
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK edge
73A
TB2B
Last clock edge of Byte1 to the 1st clock
edge of Byte2
1.5TCY + 40
—
—
ns
74
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK edge
100
—
—
ns
75
TdoR
SDO data output rise time PIC16CXX
—
10
25
ns
—
20
45
ns
76
TdoF
SDO data output fall time
—
10
25
ns
78
TscR
SCK output rise time
(master mode)
PIC16CXX
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LCXX
—
20
45
ns
PIC16LCXX
79
TscF
80
TscH2doV, SDO data output valid
TscL2doV after SCK edge
SCK output fall time (master mode)
Conditions
—
10
25
ns
PIC16CXX
—
—
50
ns
PIC16LCXX
—
—
100
ns
Note 1
Note 1
Note 1
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: Specification 73A is only required if specifications 71A and 72A are used.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 95
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-12: EXAMPLE SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
SS
81
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
79
73
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
78
MSb
SDO
LSb
BIT6 - - - - - -1
75, 76
SDI
MSb IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSb IN
74
Note:
TABLE 13-8:
Param.
No.
71
EXAMPLE SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS (MASTER MODE, CKE = 1)
Symbol
TscH
71A
72
Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
TscL
72A
Characteristic
Min
Typ† Max Units
SCK input high time
(slave mode)
Continuous
1.25TCY + 30
—
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
—
ns
SCK input low time
(slave mode)
Continuous
1.25TCY + 30
—
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
—
ns
100
—
—
ns
73
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK
edge
73A
TB2B
Last clock edge of Byte1 to the 1st clock
edge of Byte2
1.5TCY + 40
—
—
ns
74
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK edge
100
—
—
ns
75
TdoR
SDO data output rise
time
—
10
25
ns
20
45
ns
76
TdoF
SDO data output fall time
—
10
25
ns
78
TscR
SCK output rise time
(master mode)
—
10
25
ns
20
45
ns
—
10
25
ns
—
—
50
ns
—
100
ns
—
—
ns
79
TscF
80
TscH2doV, SDO data output valid
TscL2doV after SCK edge
81
PIC16CXX
PIC16LCXX
PIC16CXX
PIC16LCXX
SCK output fall time (master mode)
PIC16CXX
PIC16LCXX
TdoV2scH, SDO data output setup to SCK edge
TdoV2scL
TCY
Conditions
Note 1
Note 1
Note 1
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: Specification 73A is only required if specifications 71A and 72A are used.
DS35008B-page 96
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-13: EXAMPLE SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
83
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
MSb
SDO
LSb
BIT6 - - - - - -1
77
75, 76
SDI
MSb IN
BIT6 - - - -1
LSb IN
74
73
Note:
TABLE 13-9:
Param.
No.
Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
EXAMPLE SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS (SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
70
TssL2scH, SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
TssL2scL
TCY
71
TscH
71A
72
TscL
72A
Typ† Max Units
—
—
ns
SCK input high time
(slave mode)
Continuous
1.25TCY + 30
—
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
—
ns
SCK input low time
(slave mode)
Continuous
1.25TCY + 30
—
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
—
ns
100
—
—
ns
73
TdiV2scH,
TdiV2scL
Setup time of SDI data input to SCK edge
73A
TB2B
Last clock edge of Byte1 to the 1st clock
edge of Byte2
1.5TCY + 40
—
—
ns
74
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK edge
100
—
—
ns
75
TdoR
SDO data output rise time PIC16CXX
—
10
25
ns
20
45
ns
PIC16LCXX
76
TdoF
SDO data output fall time
—
10
25
ns
77
TssH2doZ
SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance
10
—
50
ns
78
TscR
SCK output rise time
(master mode)
—
10
25
ns
20
45
ns
—
10
25
ns
—
—
50
ns
—
100
ns
—
—
ns
79
TscF
80
TscH2doV, SDO data output valid
TscL2doV after SCK edge
83
PIC16CXX
PIC16LCXX
SCK output fall time (master mode)
PIC16CXX
PIC16LCXX
TscH2ssH, SS ↑ after SCK edge
TscL2ssH
1.5TCY + 40
Conditions
Note 1
Note 1
Note 1
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: Specification 73A is only required if specifications 71A and 72A are used.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 97
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-14: EXAMPLE SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
82
SS
SCK
(CKP = 0)
70
83
71
72
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
MSb
SDO
BIT6 - - - - - -1
LSb
75, 76
SDI
MSb IN
77
BIT6 - - - -1
LSb IN
74
NOTE: Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-10: EXAMPLE SPI SLAVE MODE REQUIREMENTS (CKE = 1)
Param.
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
TCY
Typ† Max Units
70
TssL2scH,
TssL2scL
SS↓ to SCK↓ or SCK↑ input
71
TscH
SCK input high time
(slave mode)
Continuous
1.25TCY + 30
—
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
—
ns
SCK input low time
(slave mode)
Continuous
1.25TCY + 30
—
—
ns
Single Byte
40
—
—
ns
Note 1
Note 1
71A
72
TscL
72A
—
—
Conditions
ns
73A
TB2B
Last clock edge of Byte1 to the 1st clock
edge of Byte2
1.5TCY + 40
—
—
ns
74
TscH2diL,
TscL2diL
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK edge
100
—
—
ns
75
TdoR
SDO data output rise
time
—
10
25
ns
20
45
ns
76
TdoF
SDO data output fall time
—
10
25
ns
77
TssH2doZ
SS↑ to SDO output hi-impedance
10
—
50
ns
78
TscR
SCK output rise time
(master mode)
—
10
25
ns
79
TscF
SCK output fall time (master mode)
80
TscH2doV, SDO data output valid
TscL2doV after SCK edge
TssL2doV
82
83
SDO data output valid
after SS↓ edge
TscH2ssH, SS ↑ after SCK edge
TscL2ssH
PIC16CXX
PIC16LCXX
PIC16CXX
—
20
45
ns
—
10
25
ns
PIC16CXX
—
—
50
ns
PIC16LCXX
—
—
100
ns
PIC16CXX
—
—
50
ns
PIC16LCXX
—
—
100
ns
1.5TCY + 40
—
—
ns
PIC16LCXX
Note 1
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: Specification 73A is only required if specifications 71A and 72A are used.
DS35008B-page 98
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-15: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCL
91
93
90
92
SDA
STOP
Condition
START
Condition
Note:
Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-11: I2C BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
90*
TSU:STA
91*
THD:STA
92*
TSU:STO
93
THD:STO
*
Characteristic
START condition
100 kHz mode
Min
Ty Max Unit
p
s
4700
—
—
Setup time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
START condition
100 kHz mode
4000
—
—
Hold time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
STOP condition
100 kHz mode
4700
—
—
Setup time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
STOP condition
100 kHz mode
4000
—
—
Hold time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for repeated
START condition
ns
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
ns
ns
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 99
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-16: I2C BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCL
90
106
107
91
92
SDA
In
110
109
109
SDA
Out
Note:
Refer to Figure 13-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 13-12: I2C BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
Param.
No.
100*
Sym
THIGH
Characteristic
Clock high time
Min
Max
Units
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
1.5TCY
—
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
µs
Device must operate at a minimum of 10 MHz
1.5TCY
—
SSP Module
101*
TLOW
Clock low time
SSP Module
102*
103*
90*
91*
106*
107*
92*
109*
110*
TR
TF
TSU:STA
THD:STA
THD:DAT
TSU:DAT
TSU:STO
TAA
TBUF
Cb
Conditions
SDA and SCL rise
time
100 kHz mode
—
1000
ns
400 kHz mode
20 + 0.1Cb
300
ns
SDA and SCL fall
time
100 kHz mode
—
300
ns
400 kHz mode
20 + 0.1Cb
300
ns
Cb is specified to be from
10-400 pF
START condition
setup time
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
µs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
Only relevant for repeated
START condition
START condition hold
time
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
µs
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
µs
Data input hold time
100 kHz mode
0
—
ns
400 kHz mode
0
0.9
µs
100 kHz mode
250
—
ns
400 kHz mode
100
—
ns
STOP condition setup 100 kHz mode
time
400 kHz mode
4.7
—
µs
0.6
—
µs
Output valid from
clock
100 kHz mode
—
3500
ns
400 kHz mode
—
—
ns
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
µs
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
µs
—
400
pF
Data input setup time
Bus free time
Bus capacitive loading
Cb is specified to be from
10-400 pF
After this period the first clock
pulse is generated
Note 2
Note 1
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission
can start
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Note 1: As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region (min. 300 ns) of the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of START or STOP conditions.
2: A fast-mode (400 kHz) I2C-bus device can be used in a standard-mode (100 kHz) I2C-bus system, but the requirement Tsu:DAT ≥
250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does not stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal. If
such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line TR
max.+tsu;DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to the standard-mode I2C bus specification) before the SCL line is released.
DS35008B-page 100
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
TABLE 13-13: A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS:
PIC16C72A-04 (COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL, EXTENDED)
PIC16C72A-20 (COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL, EXTENDED)
PIC16LC72A-04 (COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL)
Param Sym
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
—
—
8-bits
bit
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A01
NR
A02
EABS Total Absolute error
—
—
<±1
LSB
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A03
EIL
Integral linearity error
—
—
<±1
LSB
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A04
EDL
Differential linearity error
—
—
<±1
LSB
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A05
EFS
Full scale error
—
—
<±1
LSB
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A06
EOFF Offset error
—
—
<±1
LSB
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
A10
—
—
guaranteed
(Note 3)
—
—
A20
VREF Reference voltage
A25
VAIN
Analog input voltage
A30
ZAIN
Recommended impedance of
analog voltage source
A40
IAD
A/D conversion
current (VDD)
A50
IREF
Resolution
Monotonicity
2.5V
—
VDD + 0.3
V
VSS - 0.3
—
VREF + 0.3
V
—
—
10.0
kΩ
PIC16CXX
—
180
—
µA
PIC16LCXX
—
90
—
µA
10
—
1000
µA
—
—
10
µA
VREF input current (Note 2)
VSS ≤ VAIN ≤ VREF
Average current consumption when A/D is
on. (Note 1)
During VAIN acquisition. Based on differential of VHOLD to
VAIN to charge
CHOLD, see
Section 9.1.
During A/D conversion cycle
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and
are not tested.
Note 1: When A/D is off, it will not consume any current other than minor leakage current.
The power-down current spec includes any such leakage from the A/D module.
2: VREF current is from RA3 pin or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input.
3: The A/D conversion result never decreases with an increase in the Input Voltage and has no missing codes.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 101
PIC16C62B/72A
FIGURE 13-17: A/D CONVERSION TIMING
BSF ADCON0, GO
134
1 TCY
(Tosc/2) (1)
131
Q4
130
132
A/D CLK
7
A/D DATA
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
NEW_DATA
OLD_DATA
ADRES
ADIF
GO
DONE
SAMPLING STOPPED
SAMPLE
Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This
allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed.
TABLE 13-14: A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Param Sym
No.
130
TAD
Characteristic
A/D clock period
Min
Typ†
Max
Unit
s
PIC16CXX
1.6
—
—
µs
TOSC based, VREF ≥ 3.0V
PIC16LCXX
2.0
—
—
µs
TOSC based, VREF full range
PIC16CXX
2.0
4.0
6.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
PIC16LCXX
3.0
6.0
9.0
µs
A/D RC Mode
11
—
11
TAD
Note 2
20
—
µs
5*
—
—
µs
The minimum time is the
amplifier settling time. This
may be used if the "new" input
voltage has not changed by
more than 1 LSb (i.e., 20.0 mV
@ 5.12V) from the last sampled voltage (as stated on
CHOLD).
—
TOSC/2
—
—
If the A/D clock source is
selected as RC, a time of TCY
is added before the A/D clock
starts. This allows the SLEEP
instruction to be executed.
1.5
—
—
TAD
131
TCNV Conversion time (not including S/H
time) (Note 1)
132
TACQ Acquisition time
134
135
TGO
Q4 to A/D clock start
Tswc Switching from convert → sample
time
Conditions
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle.
2: See Section 9.1 for min conditions.
DS35008B-page 102
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
14.0
DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES
The graphs and tables provided in this section are for design guidance and are not tested.
In some graphs or tables, the data presented are outside specified operating range (i.e., outside specified VDD
range). This is for information only and devices are guaranteed to operate properly only within the specified range.
The data presented in this section is a statistical summary of data collected on units from different lots over a period
of time and matrix samples. ’Typical’ represents the mean of the distribution at 25°C. ’Max’ or ’min’ represents
(mean + 3σ) or (mean - 3σ) respectively, where σ is standard deviation, over the whole temperature range.
Graphs and Tables not available at this time.
Data is not available at this time but you may reference the PIC16C72 Series Data Sheet (DS39016,) DC and AC characteristic section, which contains data similar to what is expected.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 103
PIC16C62B/72A
NOTES:
DS35008B-page 104
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
15.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
15.1
Package Marking Information
28-Lead PDIP (Skinny DIP)
Example
MMMMMMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
28-Lead CERDIP Windowed
PIC16C72A-04/SP
9917HAT
Example
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
PIC16C72A/JW
9917CAT
Example
28-Lead SOIC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
28-Lead SSOP
PIC16C62B-20/SO
9910/SAA
Example
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
PIC16C62B
20I/SS025
AABBCDE
Legend: MM...M
XX...X
AA
BB
C
D
E
Note:
*
9917SBP
Microchip part number information
Customer specific information*
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Facility code of the plant at which wafer is manufactured
O = Outside Vendor
C = 5” Line
S = 6” Line
H = 8” Line
Mask revision number
Assembly code of the plant or country of origin in which
part was assembled
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of available characters
for customer specific information.
Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, facility code, mask
rev#, and assembly code. For OTP marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check with
your Microchip Sales Office. For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 105
PIC16C62B/72A
15.2
28-Lead Skinny Plastic Dual In-line (SP) – 300 mil (PDIP)
E1
D
2
n
1
α
E
A2
A
L
c
β
B1
A1
eB
p
B
Units
Dimension Limits
n
p
MIN
INCHES*
NOM
28
.100
.150
.130
MAX
MILLIMETERS
NOM
28
2.54
3.56
3.81
3.18
3.30
0.38
7.62
7.94
7.09
7.80
34.16
34.67
3.18
3.30
0.20
0.29
1.02
1.33
0.41
0.48
8.13
8.89
5
10
5
10
MIN
Number of Pins
Pitch
Top to Seating Plane
A
.140
.160
Molded Package Thickness
A2
.125
.135
Base to Seating Plane
A1
.015
Shoulder to Shoulder Width
E
.300
.313
.325
Molded Package Width
E1
.279
.307
.335
Overall Length
D
1.345
1.365
1.385
Tip to Seating Plane
L
.125
.130
.135
c
Lead Thickness
.008
.012
.015
Upper Lead Width
B1
.040
.053
.065
Lower Lead Width
B
.016
.019
.022
Overall Row Spacing
eB
.320
.350
.430
α
Mold Draft Angle Top
5
10
15
β
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
5
10
15
*Controlling Parameter
Notes:
Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed
.010” (0.254mm) per side.
JEDEC Equivalent: MO-095
Drawing No. C04-070
DS35008B-page 106
Preliminary
MAX
4.06
3.43
8.26
8.51
35.18
3.43
0.38
1.65
0.56
10.92
15
15
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
15.3
28-Lead Ceramic Dual In-line with Window (JW) – 300 mil (CERDIP)
E1
D
W2
2
n
1
W1
E
A2
A
c
L
Units
Dimension Limits
n
p
Number of Pins
Pitch
Top to Seating Plane
Ceramic Package Height
Standoff
Shoulder to Shoulder Width
Ceramic Pkg. Width
Overall Length
Tip to Seating Plane
Lead Thickness
Upper Lead Width
Lower Lead Width
Overall Row Spacing
Window Width
Window Length
*Controlling Parameter
JEDEC Equivalent: MO-058
Drawing No. C04-080
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
B1
B
A1
eB
A
A2
A1
E
E1
D
L
c
B1
B
eB
W1
W2
MIN
.170
.155
.015
.300
.285
1.430
.135
.008
.050
.016
.345
.130
.290
INCHES*
NOM
28
.100
.183
.160
.023
.313
.290
1.458
.140
.010
.058
.019
.385
.140
.300
Preliminary
MAX
.195
.165
.030
.325
.295
1.485
.145
.012
.065
.021
.425
.150
.310
p
MILLIMETERS
MIN
NOM
28
2.54
4.32
4.64
3.94
4.06
0.38
0.57
7.62
7.94
7.24
7.37
36.32
37.02
3.43
3.56
0.20
0.25
1.27
1.46
0.41
0.47
8.76
9.78
3.30
3.56
7.37
7.62
MAX
4.95
4.19
0.76
8.26
7.49
37.72
3.68
0.30
1.65
0.53
10.80
3.81
7.87
DS35008B-page 107
PIC16C62B/72A
15.4
28-Lead Plastic Small Outline (SO) – Wide, 300 mil (SOIC)
E
E1
p
D
B
2
1
n
h
α
45°
c
A2
A
φ
β
L
Units
Dimension Limits
n
p
A1
MIN
INCHES*
NOM
28
.050
.099
.091
.008
.407
.295
.704
.020
.033
4
.011
.017
12
12
MAX
MILLIMETERS
NOM
28
1.27
2.36
2.50
2.24
2.31
0.10
0.20
10.01
10.34
7.32
7.49
17.65
17.87
0.25
0.50
0.41
0.84
0
4
0.23
0.28
0.36
0.42
0
12
0
12
MIN
Number of Pins
Pitch
Overall Height
A
.093
.104
Molded Package Thickness
A2
.088
.094
Standoff
A1
.004
.012
Overall Width
E
.394
.420
Molded Package Width
E1
.288
.299
Overall Length
D
.695
.712
Chamfer Distance
h
.010
.029
Foot Length
L
.016
.050
φ
Foot Angle Top
0
8
c
Lead Thickness
.009
.013
Lead Width
B
.014
.020
α
Mold Draft Angle Top
0
15
β
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
0
15
*Controlling Parameter
Notes:
Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed
.010” (0.254mm) per side.
JEDEC Equivalent: MS-013
Drawing No. C04-052
DS35008B-page 108
Preliminary
MAX
2.64
2.39
0.30
10.67
7.59
18.08
0.74
1.27
8
0.33
0.51
15
15
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
15.5
28-Lead Plastic Shrink Small Outline (SS) – 209 mil, 5.30 mm (SSOP)
E
E1
p
D
B
2
1
n
α
A
c
A2
φ
A1
L
β
Units
Dimension Limits
n
p
MIN
INCHES
NOM
28
.026
.073
.068
.006
.309
.207
.402
.030
.007
4
.013
5
5
MAX
MILLIMETERS*
NOM
MAX
28
0.66
1.73
1.85
1.98
1.63
1.73
1.83
0.05
0.15
0.25
7.59
7.85
8.10
5.11
5.25
5.38
10.06
10.20
10.34
0.56
0.75
0.94
0.10
0.18
0.25
0.00
101.60
203.20
0.25
0.32
0.38
0
5
10
0
5
10
MIN
Number of Pins
Pitch
Overall Height
A
.068
.078
Molded Package Thickness
A2
.064
.072
Standoff
A1
.002
.010
Overall Width
E
.299
.319
Molded Package Width
E1
.201
.212
Overall Length
D
.396
.407
Foot Length
L
.022
.037
c
Lead Thickness
.004
.010
φ
Foot Angle
0
8
Lead Width
B
.010
.015
α
Mold Draft Angle Top
0
10
β
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
0
10
*Controlling Parameter
Notes:
Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed
.010” (0.254mm) per side.
JEDEC Equivalent: MS-150
Drawing No. C04-073
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 109
PIC16C62B/72A
NOTES:
DS35008B-page 110
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY
Version
Date
A
7/98
Revision Description
This is a new data sheet. However, the devices described in this data sheet are the upgrades to
the devices found in the PIC16C6X Data Sheet, DS30234, and the PIC16C7X Data Sheet,
DS30390.
APPENDIX B: CONVERSION
CONSIDERATIONS
Considerations for converting from previous versions of
devices to the ones listed in this data sheet are listed in
Table B-1.
TABLE B-1:
CONVERSION CONSIDERATIONS
Difference
PIC16C62A/72
PIC16C62B/72A
Voltage Range
2.5V - 6.0V
2.5V - 5.5V
SSP module
Basic SSP (2 mode SPI)
SSP (4 mode SPI)
CCP module
CCP does not reset TMR1 when in special
event trigger mode.
N/A
Timer1 module
Writing to TMR1L register can cause overflow in TMR1H register.
N/A
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 111
PIC16C62B/72A
APPENDIX C: MIGRATION FROM
BASE-LINE TO
MID-RANGE DEVICES
This section discusses how to migrate from a baseline
device (i.e., PIC16C5X) to a mid-range device (i.e.,
PIC16CXXX).
The following are the list of modifications over the
PIC16C5X microcontroller family:
1.
Instruction word length is increased to 14-bits.
This allows larger page sizes both in program
memory (2K now as opposed to 512 before) and
register file (128 bytes now versus 32 bytes
before).
2. A PC high latch register (PCLATH) is added to
handle program memory paging. Bits PA2, PA1,
PA0 are removed from STATUS register.
3. Data memory paging is redefined slightly.
STATUS register is modified.
4. Four new instructions have been added:
RETURN, RETFIE, ADDLW, and SUBLW.
Two instructions TRIS and OPTION are being
phased out although they are kept for compatibility with PIC16C5X.
5. OPTION_REG and TRIS registers are made
addressable.
6. Interrupt capability is added. Interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
7. Stack size is increased to 8 deep.
8. Reset vector is changed to 0000h.
9. Reset of all registers is revisited. Five different
reset (and wake-up) types are recognized. Registers are reset differently.
10. Wake up from SLEEP through interrupt is
added.
DS35008B-page 112
11. Two separate timers, Oscillator Start-up Timer
(OST) and Power-up Timer (PWRT) are
included for more reliable power-up. These timers are invoked selectively to avoid unnecessary
delays on power-up and wake-up.
12. PORTB has weak pull-ups and interrupt on
change feature.
13. T0CKI pin is also a port pin (RA4) now.
14. FSR is made a full eight bit register.
15. “In-circuit serial programming” is made possible.
The user can program PIC16CXX devices using
only five pins: VDD, VSS, MCLR/VPP, RB6 (clock)
and RB7 (data in/out).
16. PCON status register is added with a Power-on
Reset status bit (POR).
17. Code protection scheme is enhanced such that
portions of the program memory can be protected, while the remainder is unprotected.
18. Brown-out protection circuitry has been added.
Controlled by configuration word bit BODEN.
Brown-out reset ensures the device is placed in
a reset condition if VDD dips below a fixed setpoint.
To convert code written for PIC16C5X to PIC16CXXX,
the user should take the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Preliminary
Remove any program memory page select
operations (PA2, PA1, PA0 bits) for CALL, GOTO.
Revisit any computed jump operations (write to
PC or add to PC, etc.) to make sure page bits
are set properly under the new scheme.
Eliminate any data memory page switching.
Redefine data variables to reallocate them.
Verify all writes to STATUS, OPTION, and FSR
registers since these have changed.
Change reset vector to 0000h.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
INDEX
A
A/D ..................................................................................... 49
A/D Converter Enable (ADIE Bit) ............................... 14
A/D Converter Flag (ADIF Bit) ............................ 15, 51
A/D Converter Interrupt, Configuring ......................... 51
ADCON0 Register ................................................ 9, 49
ADCON1 Register ........................................10, 49, 50
ADRES Register .............................................9, 49, 51
Analog Port Pins .......................................................... 6
Analog Port Pins, Configuring ................................... 53
Block Diagram ........................................................... 51
Block Diagram, Analog Input Model .......................... 52
Channel Select (CHS2:CHS0 Bits) ............................ 49
Clock Select (ADCS1:ADCS0 Bits) ........................... 49
Configuring the Module ............................................. 51
Conversion Clock (TAD) ............................................. 53
Conversion Status (GO/DONE Bit) ..................... 49, 51
Conversions ............................................................... 54
Converter Characteristics ........................................ 101
Module On/Off (ADON Bit) ........................................ 49
Port Configuration Control (PCFG2:PCFG0 Bits) ...... 50
Sampling Requirements ............................................ 52
Special Event Trigger (CCP) .............................. 35, 54
Timing Diagram ....................................................... 102
Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................... 81
ADCON0 Register ........................................................ 9, 49
ADCS1:ADCS0 Bits ................................................... 49
ADON Bit ................................................................... 49
CHS2:CHS0 Bits ....................................................... 49
GO/DONE Bit ..................................................... 49, 51
ADCON1 Register ................................................10, 49, 50
PCFG2:PCFG0 Bits ................................................... 50
ADRES Register .....................................................9, 49, 51
Architecture
PIC16C62B/PIC16C72A Block Diagram ..................... 5
Assembler
MPASM Assembler ................................................... 75
B
Banking, Data Memory ................................................. 8, 11
Brown-out Reset (BOR) .......................... 55, 57, 59, 60, 61
BOR Enable (BODEN Bit) ......................................... 55
BOR Status (BOR Bit) ............................................... 16
Timing Diagram ......................................................... 92
C
Capture (CCP Module) ...................................................... 34
Block Diagram ........................................................... 34
CCP Pin Configuration .............................................. 34
CCPR1H:CCPR1L Registers .................................... 34
Changing Between Capture Prescalers .................... 34
Software Interrupt ...................................................... 34
Timer1 Mode Selection .............................................. 34
Capture/Compare/PWM
Interaction of Two CCP Modules ............................... 33
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) ......................................... 33
CCP1CON Register .............................................. 9, 33
CCPR1H Register ................................................ 9, 33
CCPR1L Register ................................................. 9, 33
Enable (CCP1IE Bit) .................................................. 14
Flag (CCP1IF Bit) ...................................................... 15
RC2/CCP1 Pin ............................................................. 6
Timer Resources ....................................................... 33
Timing Diagram ......................................................... 94
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
CCP1CON Register .......................................................... 33
CCP1M3:CCP1M0 Bits ............................................. 33
CCP1X:CCP1Y Bits .................................................. 33
Code Protection ...........................................................55, 66
CP1:CP0 Bits ............................................................ 55
Compare (CCP Module) .................................................... 35
Block Diagram ........................................................... 35
CCP Pin Configuration .............................................. 35
CCPR1H:CCPR1L Registers .................................... 35
Software Interrupt ...................................................... 35
Special Event Trigger ................................... 29, 35, 54
Timer1 Mode Selection ............................................. 35
Configuration Bits .............................................................. 55
Conversion Considerations ............................................. 111
D
Data Memory ....................................................................... 8
Bank Select (RP1:RP0 Bits) ..................................8, 11
General Purpose Registers ......................................... 8
Register File Map ........................................................ 8
Special Function Registers ......................................... 9
DC Characteristics ......................................................84, 86
Development Support ........................................................ 75
Direct Addressing .............................................................. 18
E
Electrical Characteristics ................................................... 81
Errata ................................................................................... 3
External Power-on Reset Circuit ....................................... 59
F
Firmware Instructions ........................................................ 67
I
I/O Ports ............................................................................ 19
I2C (SSP Module) .............................................................. 41
ACK Pulse .......................................41, 42, 43, 44, 45
Addressing ................................................................ 42
Block Diagram ........................................................... 41
Buffer Full Status (BF Bit) ......................................... 46
Clock Polarity Select (CKP Bit) ................................. 47
Data/Address (D/A Bit) .............................................. 46
Master Mode ............................................................. 45
Mode Select (SSPM3:SSPM0 Bits) .......................... 47
Multi-Master Mode .................................................... 45
Read/Write Bit Information (R/W Bit) .... 42, 43, 44, 46
Receive Overflow Indicator (SSPOV Bit) .................. 47
Reception .................................................................. 43
Reception Timing Diagram ........................................ 43
Slave Mode ............................................................... 41
Start (S Bit) ..........................................................45, 46
Stop (P Bit) ..........................................................45, 46
Synchronous Serial Port Enable (SSPEN Bit) .......... 47
Timing Diagram, Data ............................................. 100
Timing Diagram, Start/Stop Bits ................................ 99
Transmission ............................................................. 44
Update Address (UA Bit) ........................................... 46
ID Locations ................................................................55, 66
In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) .........................55, 66
Indirect Addressing ............................................................ 18
FSR Register .................................................... 8, 9, 18
INDF Register ............................................................. 9
Instruction Format ............................................................. 67
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 113
PIC16C62B/72A
Instruction Set .................................................................... 67
ADDLW ...................................................................... 69
ADDWF ...................................................................... 69
ANDLW ...................................................................... 69
ANDWF ...................................................................... 69
BCF ............................................................................ 69
BSF ............................................................................ 69
BTFSC ....................................................................... 70
BTFSS ....................................................................... 70
CALL .......................................................................... 70
CLRF ......................................................................... 70
CLRW ......................................................................... 70
CLRWDT ................................................................... 70
COMF ........................................................................ 71
DECF ......................................................................... 71
DECFSZ .................................................................... 71
GOTO ........................................................................ 71
INCF .......................................................................... 71
INCFSZ ...................................................................... 71
IORLW ....................................................................... 72
IORWF ....................................................................... 72
MOVF ........................................................................ 72
MOVLW ..................................................................... 72
MOVWF ..................................................................... 72
NOP ........................................................................... 72
RETFIE ...................................................................... 73
RETLW ...................................................................... 73
RETURN .................................................................... 73
RLF ............................................................................ 73
RRF ........................................................................... 73
SLEEP ....................................................................... 73
SUBLW ...................................................................... 74
SUBWF ...................................................................... 74
SWAPF ...................................................................... 74
XORLW ...................................................................... 74
XORWF ..................................................................... 74
Summary Table ......................................................... 68
INTCON Register .......................................................... 9, 13
GIE Bit ....................................................................... 13
INTE Bit ..................................................................... 13
INTF Bit ...................................................................... 13
PEIE Bit ..................................................................... 13
RBIE Bit ..................................................................... 13
RBIF Bit .............................................................. 13, 21
T0IE Bit ...................................................................... 13
T0IF Bit ...................................................................... 13
Interrupt Sources ........................................................ 55, 62
A/D Conversion Complete ......................................... 51
Block Diagram ........................................................... 62
Capture Complete (CCP) ........................................... 34
Compare Complete (CCP) ......................................... 35
Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4 ) ............................... 21
RB0/INT Pin, External ........................................... 6, 63
SSP Receive/Transmit Complete .............................. 39
TMR0 Overflow ................................................... 26, 63
TMR1 Overflow ................................................... 27, 29
TMR2 to PR2 Match .................................................. 32
TMR2 to PR2 Match (PWM) ............................... 31, 36
Interrupts, Context Saving During ...................................... 63
Interrupts, Enable Bits
A/D Converter Enable (ADIE Bit) ............................... 14
CCP1 Enable (CCP1IE Bit) ....................................... 14
Global Interrupt Enable (GIE Bit) ........................ 13, 62
Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4)
Enable (RBIE Bit) ................................................ 13, 63
Peripheral Interrupt Enable (PEIE Bit) ....................... 13
DS35008B-page 114
RB0/INT Enable (INTE Bit) ........................................ 13
SSP Enable (SSPIE Bit) ............................................ 14
TMR0 Overflow Enable (T0IE Bit) ............................. 13
TMR1 Overflow Enable (TMR1IE Bit) ....................... 14
TMR2 to PR2 Match Enable (TMR2IE Bit) ................ 14
Interrupts, Flag Bits
A/D Converter Flag (ADIF Bit) .............................15, 51
CCP1 Flag (CCP1IF Bit) .............................. 15, 34, 35
Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4)
Flag (RBIF Bit) .............................................. 13, 21, 63
RB0/INT Flag (INTF Bit) ............................................ 13
SSP Flag (SSPIF Bit) ................................................ 15
TMR0 Overflow Flag (T0IF Bit) ...........................13, 63
TMR1 Overflow Flag (TMR1IF Bit) ............................ 15
TMR2 to PR2 Match Flag (TMR2IF Bit) .................... 15
K
KeeLoq Evaluation and Programming Tools .................. 78
M
Master Clear (MCLR) .......................................................... 6
MCLR Reset, Normal Operation .................. 57, 60, 61
MCLR Reset, SLEEP ................................... 57, 60, 61
Memory Organization
Data Memory ............................................................... 8
Program Memory ......................................................... 7
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software .. 75
O
OPCODE Field Descriptions ............................................. 67
OPTION_REG Register ..............................................10, 12
INTEDG Bit ................................................................ 12
PS2:PS0 Bits .......................................................12, 25
PSA Bit ................................................................12, 25
RBPU Bit ................................................................... 12
T0CS Bit ..............................................................12, 25
T0SE Bit ..............................................................12, 25
OSC1/CLKIN Pin ................................................................. 6
OSC2/CLKOUT Pin .............................................................. 6
Oscillator Configuration ...............................................55, 56
HS .......................................................................56, 60
LP ........................................................................56, 60
RC .................................................................. 6, 57, 60
Selection (FOSC1:FOSC0 Bits).................................. 55
XT ........................................................................56, 60
Oscillator, Timer1 ........................................................27, 29
Oscillator, WDT ................................................................. 64
P
Packaging ........................................................................ 105
Paging, Program Memory .............................................7, 17
PCON Register ............................................................16, 60
BOR Bit ..................................................................... 16
POR Bit ..................................................................... 16
PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PICmicro Demo Board .................... 77
PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX Demo Board ................. 77
PICDEM-3 Low-Cost PIC16CXXX Demo Board ............... 77
PICSTART Plus Entry Level Development System ........ 77
PIE1 Register ..............................................................10, 14
ADIE Bit ..................................................................... 14
CCP1IE Bit ................................................................ 14
SSPIE Bit ................................................................... 14
TMR1IE Bit ................................................................ 14
TMR2IE Bit ................................................................ 14
Pinout Descriptions
PIC16C62B/PIC16C72A ............................................. 6
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
PIR1 Register ............................................................... 9, 15
ADIF Bit ..................................................................... 15
CCP1IF Bit ................................................................. 15
SSPIF Bit ................................................................... 15
TMR1IF Bit ................................................................ 15
TMR2IF Bit ................................................................ 15
Pointer, FSR ...................................................................... 18
PORTA ................................................................................ 6
Analog Port Pins .......................................................... 6
PORTA Register ................................................... 9, 19
RA3:RA0 and RA5 Port Pins ..................................... 19
RA4/T0CKI Pin ..................................................... 6, 19
RA5/SS/AN4 Pin ................................................... 6, 39
TRISA Register ................................................... 10, 19
PORTB ................................................................................ 6
PORTB Register ................................................... 9, 21
Pull-up Enable (RBPU Bit) ......................................... 12
RB0/INT Edge Select (INTEDG Bit) .......................... 12
RB0/INT Pin, External .......................................... 6, 63
RB3:RB0 Port Pins .................................................... 21
RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change ................................... 63
RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change
Enable (RBIE Bit) ............................................... 13, 63
RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change
Flag (RBIF Bit) ..............................................13, 21, 63
RB7:RB4 Port Pins .................................................... 21
TRISB Register ................................................... 10, 21
PORTC ................................................................................ 6
Block Diagram ........................................................... 23
PORTC Register ................................................... 9, 23
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI Pin ............................................... 6
RC1/T1OSI Pin ............................................................ 6
RC2/CCP1 Pin ............................................................. 6
RC3/SCK/SCL Pin ................................................ 6, 39
RC4/SDI/SDA Pin ................................................. 6, 39
RC5/SDO Pin ....................................................... 6, 39
RC6 Pin ....................................................................... 6
RC7 Pin ....................................................................... 6
TRISC Register .................................................. 10, 23
Postscaler, Timer2
Select (TOUTPS3:TOUTPS0 Bits) ............................ 31
Postscaler, WDT ................................................................ 25
Assignment (PSA Bit) ......................................... 12, 25
Block Diagram ........................................................... 26
Rate Select (PS2:PS0 Bits) ................................ 12, 25
Switching Between Timer0 and WDT ........................ 26
Power-on Reset (POR) ........................... 55, 57, 59, 60, 61
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) .......................... 55, 59
POR Status (POR Bit) ............................................... 16
Power Control (PCON) Register ................................ 60
Power-down (PD Bit) .......................................... 11, 57
Power-on Reset Circuit, External .............................. 59
Power-up Timer (PWRT) .................................... 55, 59
PWRT Enable (PWRTE Bit) ...................................... 55
Time-out (TO Bit) ................................................ 11, 57
Time-out Sequence ................................................... 60
Timing Diagram ......................................................... 92
Prescaler, Capture ............................................................. 34
Prescaler, Timer0 .............................................................. 25
Assignment (PSA Bit) ......................................... 12, 25
Block Diagram ........................................................... 26
Rate Select (PS2:PS0 Bits) ................................ 12, 25
Switching Between Timer0 and WDT ........................ 26
Prescaler, Timer1 .............................................................. 28
Select (T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0 Bits)............................... 27
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Prescaler, Timer2 .............................................................. 36
Select (T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 Bits) ............................. 31
PRO MATE II Universal Programmer ............................. 77
Program Counter
PCL Register .........................................................9, 17
PCLATH Register ........................................... 9, 17, 63
Reset Conditions ....................................................... 60
Program Memory ................................................................. 7
Interrupt Vector ........................................................... 7
Paging ...................................................................7, 17
Program Memory Map ................................................ 7
Reset Vector ............................................................... 7
Program Verification .......................................................... 66
Programming Pin (Vpp) ....................................................... 6
Programming, Device Instructions .................................... 67
PWM (CCP Module) .......................................................... 36
Block Diagram ........................................................... 36
CCPR1H:CCPR1L Registers .................................... 36
Duty Cycle ................................................................. 36
Example Frequencies/Resolutions ............................ 37
Output Diagram ......................................................... 36
Period ........................................................................ 36
Set-Up for PWM Operation ....................................... 37
TMR2 to PR2 Match ............................................31, 36
TMR2 to PR2 Match Enable (TMR2IE Bit) ................ 14
TMR2 to PR2 Match Flag (TMR2IF Bit) .................... 15
Q
Q-Clock ............................................................................. 36
R
Register File ........................................................................ 8
Register File Map ................................................................ 8
Reset ...........................................................................55, 57
Block Diagram ........................................................... 58
Reset Conditions for All Registers ............................ 61
Reset Conditions for PCON Register ........................ 60
Reset Conditions for Program Counter ..................... 60
Reset Conditions for STATUS Register .................... 60
Timing Diagram ......................................................... 92
Revision History .............................................................. 111
S
SEEVAL Evaluation and Programming System ............. 78
SLEEP .................................................................. 55, 57, 65
Software Simulator (MPLAB-SIM) ..................................... 76
Special Features of the CPU ............................................. 55
Special Function Registers .................................................. 9
Speed, Operating ................................................................ 1
SPI (SSP Module)
Block Diagram ........................................................... 39
Buffer Full Status (BF Bit) ......................................... 46
Clock Edge Select (CKE Bit) ..................................... 46
Clock Polarity Select (CKP Bit) ................................. 47
Data Input Sample Phase (SMP Bit) ......................... 46
Mode Select (SSPM3:SSPM0 Bits) .......................... 47
Receive Overflow Indicator (SSPOV Bit) .................. 47
Serial Clock (RC3/SCK/SCL) .................................... 39
Serial Data In (RC4/SDI/SDA) .................................. 39
Serial Data Out (RC5/SDO) ...................................... 39
Slave Select (RA5/SS/AN4) ...................................... 39
Synchronous Serial Port Enable (SSPEN Bit) .......... 47
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 115
PIC16C62B/72A
SSP .................................................................................... 39
Enable (SSPIE Bit) .................................................... 14
Flag (SSPIF Bit) ......................................................... 15
RA5/SS/AN4 Pin .......................................................... 6
RC3/SCK/SCL Pin ....................................................... 6
RC4/SDI/SDA Pin ........................................................ 6
RC5/SDO Pin ............................................................... 6
SSPADD Register ...................................................... 10
SSPBUF Register ........................................................ 9
SSPCON Register ................................................ 9, 47
SSPSTAT Register ............................................. 10, 46
TMR2 Output for Clock Shift ...................................... 32
Write Collision Detect (WCOL Bit) ............................. 47
SSPCON Register ............................................................. 47
CKP Bit ...................................................................... 47
SSPEN Bit ................................................................. 47
SSPM3:SSPM0 Bits .................................................. 47
SSPOV Bit ................................................................. 47
WCOL Bit ................................................................... 47
SSPSTAT Register ............................................................ 46
BF Bit ......................................................................... 46
CKE Bit ...................................................................... 46
D/A Bit ........................................................................ 46
P bit ..................................................................... 45, 46
R/W Bit ................................................... 42, 43, 44, 46
S Bit .................................................................... 45, 46
SMP Bit ...................................................................... 46
UA Bit ......................................................................... 46
Stack .................................................................................. 17
STATUS Register ...................................................9, 11, 63
C Bit ........................................................................... 11
DC Bit ........................................................................ 11
IRP Bit ........................................................................ 11
PD Bit .................................................................. 11, 57
RP1:RP0 Bits ............................................................. 11
TO Bit .................................................................. 11, 57
Z Bit ........................................................................... 11
T
T1CON Register ........................................................... 9, 27
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0 Bits ........................................... 27
T1OSCEN Bit ............................................................. 27
T1SYNC Bit ............................................................... 27
TMR1CS Bit ............................................................... 27
TMR1ON Bit .............................................................. 27
T2CON Register ........................................................... 9, 31
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 Bits ........................................... 31
TMR2ON Bit .............................................................. 31
TOUTPS3:TOUTPS0 Bits .......................................... 31
Timer0 ................................................................................ 25
Block Diagram ........................................................... 25
Clock Source Edge Select (T0SE Bit) ................ 12, 25
Clock Source Select (T0CS Bit) .......................... 12, 25
Overflow Enable (T0IE Bit) ........................................ 13
Overflow Flag (T0IF Bit) ...................................... 13, 63
Overflow Interrupt ............................................... 26, 63
RA4/T0CKI Pin, External Clock ................................... 6
Timing Diagram ......................................................... 93
TMR0 Register ............................................................. 9
DS35008B-page 116
Timer1 ............................................................................... 27
Block Diagram ........................................................... 28
Capacitor Selection ................................................... 29
Clock Source Select (TMR1CS Bit) ........................... 27
External Clock Input Sync (T1SYNC Bit) .................. 27
Module On/Off (TMR1ON Bit) ................................... 27
Oscillator .............................................................27, 29
Oscillator Enable (T1OSCEN Bit) .............................. 27
Overflow Enable (TMR1IE Bit) .................................. 14
Overflow Flag (TMR1IF Bit) ....................................... 15
Overflow Interrupt ................................................27, 29
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI Pin ............................................... 6
RC1/T1OSI .................................................................. 6
Special Event Trigger (CCP) ...............................29, 35
T1CON Register ....................................................9, 27
Timing Diagram ......................................................... 93
TMR1H Register .......................................................... 9
TMR1L Register .......................................................... 9
Timer2
Block Diagram ........................................................... 32
PR2 Register ................................................ 10, 31, 36
SSP Clock Shift ......................................................... 32
T2CON Register ....................................................9, 31
TMR2 Register ......................................................9, 31
TMR2 to PR2 Match Enable (TMR2IE Bit) ................ 14
TMR2 to PR2 Match Flag (TMR2IF Bit) .................... 15
TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt ...................... 31, 32, 36
Timing Diagrams
I2C Reception (7-bit Address) ................................... 43
Wake-up from SLEEP via Interrupt ........................... 66
Timing Diagrams and Specifications ................................. 90
A/D Conversion ....................................................... 102
Brown-out Reset (BOR) ............................................ 92
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) ................................. 94
CLKOUT and I/O ....................................................... 91
External Clock ........................................................... 90
I2C Bus Data ........................................................... 100
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits .............................................. 99
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ................................. 92
Power-up Timer (PWRT) ........................................... 92
Reset ........................................................................... 2
Timer0 and Timer1 .................................................... 93
Watchdog Timer (WDT) ............................................ 92
W
W Register ......................................................................... 63
Wake-up from SLEEP .................................................55, 65
Interrupts .............................................................60, 61
MCLR Reset .............................................................. 61
Timing Diagram ......................................................... 66
WDT Reset ................................................................ 61
Watchdog Timer (WDT) ..............................................55, 64
Block Diagram ........................................................... 64
Enable (WDTE Bit) ..............................................55, 64
Programming Considerations .................................... 64
RC Oscillator ............................................................. 64
Timing Diagram ......................................................... 92
WDT Reset, Normal Operation .................... 57, 60, 61
WDT Reset, SLEEP ..................................... 57, 60, 61
WWW, On-Line Support ...................................................... 3
Preliminary
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
ON-LINE SUPPORT
Systems Information and Upgrade Hot Line
Microchip provides on-line support on the Microchip
World Wide Web (WWW) site.
The web site is used by Microchip as a means to make
files and information easily available to customers. To
view the site, the user must have access to the Internet
and a web browser, such as Netscape or Microsoft
Explorer. Files are also available for FTP download
from our FTP site.
The Systems Information and Upgrade Line provides
system users a listing of the latest versions of all of
Microchip's development systems software products.
Plus, this line provides information on how customers
can receive any currently available upgrade kits.The
Hot Line Numbers are:
1-800-755-2345 for U.S. and most of Canada, and
1-480-786-7302 for the rest of the world.
Connecting to the Microchip Internet Web Site
981103
The Microchip web site is available by using your
favorite Internet browser to attach to:
www.microchip.com
The file transfer site is available by using an FTP service to connect to:
ftp://ftp.microchip.com
The web site and file transfer site provide a variety of
services. Users may download files for the latest
Development Tools, Data Sheets, Application Notes,
User’s Guides, Articles and Sample Programs. A variety of Microchip specific business information is also
available, including listings of Microchip sales offices,
distributors and factory representatives. Other data
available for consideration is:
• Latest Microchip Press Releases
• Technical Support Section with Frequently Asked
Questions
• Design Tips
• Device Errata
• Job Postings
• Microchip Consultant Program Member Listing
• Links to other useful web sites related to
Microchip Products
• Conferences for products, Development Systems, technical information and more
• Listing of seminars and events
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
Trademarks: The Microchip name, logo, PIC, PICmicro,
PICSTART, PICMASTER and PRO MATE are registered
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries. FlexROM, MPLAB and fuzzyLAB are trademarks and SQTP is a service mark of Microchip in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of
their respective companies.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 117
PIC16C62B/72A
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation
can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (480) 786-7578.
Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this Data Sheet.
To:
Technical Publications Manager
RE:
Reader Response
Total Pages Sent
From: Name
Company
Address
City / State / ZIP / Country
Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________
FAX: (______) _________ - _________
Application (optional):
Would you like a reply?
Device: PIC16C62B/72A
Y
N
Literature Number: DS35008B
Questions:
1. What are the best features of this document?
2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this data sheet easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the data sheet do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the data sheet could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)?
7. How would you improve this document?
8. How would you improve our software, systems, and silicon products?
DS35008B-page 118
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16C62B/72A
PIC16C62B/72A PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
Examples
PART NO. -XX X /XX XXX
Pattern:
QTP, SQTP, Code or Special Requirements
Package:
JW
SO
SP
P
SS
=
=
=
=
=
Temperature
Range:
I
E
= 0°C to +70°C
= -40°C to +85°C
= -40°C to +125°C
Frequency
Range:
04
10
20
= 4 MHz
= 10 MHz
= 20 MHz
Device
PIC16C62B:
PIC16C62BT:
PIC16LC62B:
PIC16LC62BT:
Windowed CERDIP
SOIC
Skinny plastic dip
PDIP
SSOP
a)
PIC16C72A-04/P 301
Commercial Temp.,
PDIP Package, 4 MHz,
normal VDD limits, QTP
pattern #301
b)
VDD range 4.0V to 5.5V
VDD range 4.0V to 5.5V (Tape/Reel)
VDD range 2.5V to 5.5V
VDD range 2.5V to 5.5V (Tape/Reel)
* JW Devices are UV erasable and can be programmed to any device configuration. JW Devices meet the electrical requirement of
each oscillator type (including LC devices).
Sales and Support
Data Sheets
Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following:
1.
2.
3.
Your local Microchip sales office
The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 786-7277
The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com)
Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using.
New Customer Notification System
Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35008B-page 119
WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE
AMERICAS
AMERICAS (continued)
Corporate Office
Toronto
Singapore
Microchip Technology Inc.
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
Chandler, AZ 85224-6199
Tel: 480-786-7200 Fax: 480-786-7277
Technical Support: 480-786-7627
Web Address: http://www.microchip.com
Microchip Technology Inc.
5925 Airport Road, Suite 200
Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1W1, Canada
Tel: 905-405-6279 Fax: 905-405-6253
Microchip Technology Singapore Pte Ltd.
200 Middle Road
#07-02 Prime Centre
Singapore 188980
Tel: 65-334-8870 Fax: 65-334-8850
Atlanta
Microchip Asia Pacific
Unit 2101, Tower 2
Metroplaza
223 Hing Fong Road
Kwai Fong, N.T., Hong Kong
Tel: 852-2-401-1200 Fax: 852-2-401-3431
Microchip Technology Inc.
500 Sugar Mill Road, Suite 200B
Atlanta, GA 30350
Tel: 770-640-0034 Fax: 770-640-0307
Boston
Microchip Technology Inc.
5 Mount Royal Avenue
Marlborough, MA 01752
Tel: 508-480-9990 Fax: 508-480-8575
Chicago
Microchip Technology Inc.
333 Pierce Road, Suite 180
Itasca, IL 60143
Tel: 630-285-0071 Fax: 630-285-0075
Dallas
Microchip Technology Inc.
4570 Westgrove Drive, Suite 160
Addison, TX 75248
Tel: 972-818-7423 Fax: 972-818-2924
Dayton
Microchip Technology Inc.
Two Prestige Place, Suite 150
Miamisburg, OH 45342
Tel: 937-291-1654 Fax: 937-291-9175
Detroit
Microchip Technology Inc.
Tri-Atria Office Building
32255 Northwestern Highway, Suite 190
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
Tel: 248-538-2250 Fax: 248-538-2260
Los Angeles
Microchip Technology Inc.
18201 Von Karman, Suite 1090
Irvine, CA 92612
Tel: 949-263-1888 Fax: 949-263-1338
New York
Microchip Technology Inc.
150 Motor Parkway, Suite 202
Hauppauge, NY 11788
Tel: 631-273-5305 Fax: 631-273-5335
San Jose
Microchip Technology Inc.
2107 North First Street, Suite 590
San Jose, CA 95131
Tel: 408-436-7950 Fax: 408-436-7955
ASIA/PACIFIC
Hong Kong
ASIA/PACIFIC (continued)
Taiwan, R.O.C
Microchip Technology Taiwan
10F-1C 207
Tung Hua North Road
Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
Tel: 886-2-2717-7175 Fax: 886-2-2545-0139
EUROPE
Beijing
United Kingdom
Microchip Technology, Beijing
Unit 915, 6 Chaoyangmen Bei Dajie
Dong Erhuan Road, Dongcheng District
New China Hong Kong Manhattan Building
Beijing 100027 PRC
Tel: 86-10-85282100 Fax: 86-10-85282104
Arizona Microchip Technology Ltd.
505 Eskdale Road
Winnersh Triangle
Wokingham
Berkshire, England RG41 5TU
Tel: 44 118 921 5858 Fax: 44-118 921-5835
India
Denmark
Microchip Technology Inc.
India Liaison Office
No. 6, Legacy, Convent Road
Bangalore 560 025, India
Tel: 91-80-229-0061 Fax: 91-80-229-0062
Microchip Technology Denmark ApS
Regus Business Centre
Lautrup hoj 1-3
Ballerup DK-2750 Denmark
Tel: 45 4420 9895 Fax: 45 4420 9910
Japan
France
Microchip Technology Intl. Inc.
Benex S-1 6F
3-18-20, Shinyokohama
Kohoku-Ku, Yokohama-shi
Kanagawa 222-0033 Japan
Tel: 81-45-471- 6166 Fax: 81-45-471-6122
Arizona Microchip Technology SARL
Parc d’Activite du Moulin de Massy
43 Rue du Saule Trapu
Batiment A - ler Etage
91300 Massy, France
Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20 Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
Korea
Germany
Microchip Technology Korea
168-1, Youngbo Bldg. 3 Floor
Samsung-Dong, Kangnam-Ku
Seoul, Korea
Tel: 82-2-554-7200 Fax: 82-2-558-5934
Arizona Microchip Technology GmbH
Gustav-Heinemann-Ring 125
D-81739 München, Germany
Tel: 49-89-627-144 0 Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
Shanghai
Arizona Microchip Technology SRL
Centro Direzionale Colleoni
Palazzo Taurus 1 V. Le Colleoni 1
20041 Agrate Brianza
Milan, Italy
Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883
Microchip Technology
RM 406 Shanghai Golden Bridge Bldg.
2077 Yan’an Road West, Hong Qiao District
Shanghai, PRC 200335
Tel: 86-21-6275-5700 Fax: 86 21-6275-5060
Italy
11/15/99
Microchip received QS-9000 quality system
certification for its worldwide headquarters,
design and wafer fabrication facilities in
Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999. The
Company’s quality system processes and
procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its
PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs and microperipheral
products. In addition, Microchip’s quality
system for the design and manufacture of
development systems is ISO 9001 certified.
All rights reserved. © 1999 Microchip Technology Incorporated. Printed in the USA. 11/99
Printed on recycled paper.
Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended for suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed
by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products
as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights. The Microchip
logo and name are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Inc. in the U.S.A. and other countries. All rights reserved. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective companies.
 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.
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