Tutorial 2

Tutorial 2
SimMechanics™
Getting Started Guide
R2013b
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SimMechanics™ Getting Started Guide
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Revision History
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September 2012
March 2013
September 2013
Online
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New for Version 4.0 (Release R2012a)
Revised for Version 4.1 (Release R2012b)
Revised for Version 4.2 (Release R2013a)
Revised for Version 4.3 (Release R2013b)
Contents
Introduction to SimMechanics Software
1
SimMechanics Product Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
1-2
Required and Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SimMechanics Visualization Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support for Recorded Animations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
Representing Machines with SimMechanics Blocks . . .
Open the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Explore the Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-5
1-5
1-5
........................
1-7
Multibody Model Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Model Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Forces and Torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensing Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-8
1-8
1-11
1-13
Multibody Modeling Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Rigid Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assemble Multibody Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Forces, Torques, and Motion Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulate and Analyze model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-16
1-16
1-21
1-24
1-28
Model Simple Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Build Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visualize Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Simple Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-32
1-32
1-33
1-34
1-35
1-36
1-36
Start New Multibody Model
iii
iv
Contents
Model Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Build Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specify Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Motion Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guide Model Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assemble and Simulate Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1-37
1-38
1-39
1-40
1-41
1-41
1-43
Modeling with SimMechanics First and Second
Generations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-44
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Introduction to
SimMechanics Software
• “SimMechanics Product Description” on page 1-2
• “Required and Related Products” on page 1-3
• “Representing Machines with SimMechanics Blocks” on page 1-5
• “Start New Multibody Model” on page 1-7
• “Multibody Model Anatomy” on page 1-8
• “Multibody Modeling Workflow” on page 1-16
• “Model Simple Link” on page 1-32
• “Model Pendulum” on page 1-37
• “Modeling with SimMechanics First and Second Generations” on page 1-44
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
SimMechanics Product Description
Model and simulate multibody mechanical systems
SimMechanics™ provides a multibody simulation environment for 3D
mechanical systems, such as robots, vehicle suspensions, construction
equipment, and aircraft landing gear. You model the multibody system using
blocks representing bodies, joints, constraints, and force elements, and then
SimMechanics formulates and solves the equations of motion for the complete
mechanical system. Models from CAD systems, including mass, inertia,
joint, constraint, and 3D geometry, can be imported into SimMechanics. An
automatically generated 3D animation lets you visualize the system dynamics.
You can parameterize your models using MATLAB® variables and
expressions, and design control systems for your multibody system in
Simulink®. You can add electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and other
components to your mechanical model using Simscape™ and test them all in
a single simulation environment. To deploy your models to other simulation
environments, including hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems, SimMechanics
supports C-code generation (with Simulink Coder™).
Key Features
• Blocks and modeling constructs for simulating and analyzing 3D
mechanical systems in Simulink
• Rigid body definition using standard geometry and custom extrusions
defined in MATLAB
• Automatic calculation of mass and inertia tensor
• Simulation modes for analyzing motion and calculating forces
• Visualization and animation of multibody system dynamics with 3D
geometry
• SimMechanics Link utility, providing an interface to Pro/ENGINEER®,
SolidWorks®, and Autodesk Inventor, and an API for interfacing with other
CAD platforms
• Support for C-code generation (with Simulink Coder)
1-2
Required and Related Products
Required and Related Products
In this section...
“SimMechanics Visualization Requirements” on page 1-3
“Support for Recorded Animations” on page 1-3
“Related Products” on page 1-3
SimMechanics Visualization Requirements
SimMechanics visualization requires Silicon Graphics OpenGL® graphics
support on your system to display and animate SimMechanics models.
You can improve your speed and graphics resolution by adding a graphics
accelerator hardware card to your system. Animation of simulations
is sensitive to central processor and graphics card speed and memory.
Experiment with graphics hardware and system settings to find a reasonable
compromise between quality and speed for your system.
Support for Recorded Animations
You can record simulation animations in Microsoft Audio Video Interleave®
(AVI) format using SimMechanics visualization. Animations are recorded
as compressed AVI files with the default Motion JPEG codec. This codec is
available on most operating systems.
To play back AVI files, you need an AVI-compatible media application.
MATLAB has an internal movie player compatible with AVI. You can also use
an external AVI-compatible player.
Note SimMechanics visualization does not support uncompressed AVI
recording.
Related Products
You can extend the capability of SimMechanics using other physical modeling
products found in the Simscape family. Each physical modeling product gives
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
you a set of block libraries with which you can model common components
found in industry and academia: rigid bodies, gears, valves, solenoids, etc.
With the physical modeling products, you can model not only mechanical
systems, but also electrical, hydraulic, and power systems. You can model
each system separately, and then integrate the systems into a single
multiphysics model where you can analyze combined system performance.
Physical Modeling Product Family
The physical modeling family includes five products:
• SimDriveline™, for modeling and simulating drivetrain systems
• SimElectronics®, for modeling and simulating electronic systems
• SimHydraulics®, for modeling and simulating hydraulic systems
• SimMechanics, for modeling and simulating three-dimensional mechanical
systems
• SimPowerSystems™, for modeling and simulating electrical power systems
1-4
Representing Machines with SimMechanics™ Blocks
Representing Machines with SimMechanics Blocks
To model a 3-D multibody system, you use the SimMechanics block library.
This library contains seven sublibraries that you represent the different
model components with. Components that you can represent include rigid
bodies, joints, gear and general kinematic constraints, forces and torques,
and motion sensors.
Open the Library
To open the SimMechanics block library, at the MATLAB command line enter
sm_lib. The SimMechanics block library opens in a new window. The figure
shows the library that opens.
SimMechanics™ Product Library
Explore the Library
The table provides an overview of the SimMechanics sublibraries. Open each
sublibrary to explore its blocks. For detailed information about a block, see
its reference page. You can do this by double-clicking the block, then clicking
Help in the block dialog box.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Related
Examples
1-6
Sublibrary
Description
Body Elements
Represent the solid properties of a
rigid body
Constraints
Constrain the relative motion
between two rigid body frames
Forces and Torques
Apply internal and external forces
and torques on or between rigid body
frames
Gears, Couplings and Drives
Couple the motion of two rigid body
frames
Joints
Represent the mechanical degrees
of freedom between two rigid body
frames
Utilities
Represent the external environment
of a multibody system
• “Start New Multibody Model” on page 1-7
Start New Multibody Model
Start New Multibody Model
You can start a new multibody model from the MATLAB command line. To do
this, enter smnew. A new model window opens with commonly used blocks.
The SimMechanics block library also opens. The figure shows the new model
window that you see. Drag blocks from the library into the model window to
begin modeling a new multibody system.
Concepts
• “Representing Machines with SimMechanics Blocks” on page 1-5
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Multibody Model Anatomy
In this section...
“Basic Model Components” on page 1-8
“Applying Forces and Torques” on page 1-11
“Sensing Motion” on page 1-13
With SimMechanics, you represent a multibody system using blocks. Like all
physical modeling products, each block represents a physical component or
an abstract entity fundamental to physical modeling, e.g. frames and frame
transforms.
By connecting the blocks with connection lines, you define the relationships
that unite the physical components into a single system (or subsystem). In a
basic model, these physical components include rigid bodies and joints. You
can also add forces and torques, motion sensors, and kinematic constraints
such as gears.
Basic Model Components
The figure shows the block diagram of a multibody system—the four-bar
linkage. This model contains subsystem blocks to represent the links and
pivot mounts. These represent the rigid bodies of the model. The model
contains also four Revolute Joint blocks. These represent the joints in the
model. Combined, these blocks form the foundation of this model.
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Multibody Model Anatomy
While important, rigid body subsystem and joint blocks are not sufficient
to represent the four-bar linkage. Other blocks serve important purposes.
These include World Frame, Rigid Transform, Mechanism Configuration,
and Solver Configuration blocks. The table summarizes their purpose in a
multibody model.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Block
Purpose
World Frame
Provides the ultimate reference
frame in a model. All remaining
frames are defined with respect
to this frame. It is inertial and it
defines absolute rest.
Rigid Transform
Applies a fixed spatial relationship
between frames. This block defines
the offset distance and angle between
two frames.
Mechanism Configuration
Identifies the gravity vector in a
model.
Solver Configuration
Provides essential simulation
parameters required to simulate the
model.
The figure breaks the four-bar model into its logical components. These are
the physical components and abstract entities that you need in order to
represent this system.
Each rigid body subsystem contains SimMechanics blocks that represent
solids and their spatial relationships˙. The blocks are Solid and Rigid
Transform. The figure shows the blocks that model one of the binary links.
Three Solid blocks represent the three solid sections of this rigid body—main,
peg, and hole sections. Two Rigid Transform blocks represent the fixed spatial
1-10
Multibody Model Anatomy
relationships between the three solids. You use them to position the peg and
hole sections at the ends of the main section.
Applying Forces and Torques
You can actuate a model by applying a force or torque to a rigid body or to a
joint. To represent forces and torques acting on a rigid body, SimMechanics
provides a Forces and Torques library. Drag a block from this library and
connect it to the rigid body frame(s) that you want to apply the force or torque
to.
One block represents an external force or torque—External Force and Torque.
The other blocks represent internal forces between two rigid body frames.
You can represent a general internal force, using the Internal Force block,
or a specific internal force type, using Spring and Damper Force and Inverse
Square Law Force blocks. The figure shows how you can use the External
Force block to actuate the crank link of the four-bar model.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
To represent forces and torques acting at a joint, SimMechanics provides a
selection of actuation inputs in each Joint block. Each joint primitive—the
basic component of a joint block—provides a selection of actuation inputs that
you can select. You can represent a torque acting on a revolute or spherical
joint primitive, or a force acting on a prismatic joint primitive. The figure
shows how you can use the base-crank revolute joint block to actuate the
joint directly.
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Multibody Model Anatomy
Sensing Motion
You can sense motion between two arbitrary rigid body frames. For this task,
SimMechanics provides the Transform Sensor block, which you find in the
Frames and Transforms library. This block provides the broadest motion
sensing capability in SimMechanics. With it, you can sense position, velocity,
and acceleration, both rotational and translational, between any two frames
in a model. The figure shows how you can use the Transform Sensor block
to sense the position coordinates of the coupler link reference frame with
respect to the World frame.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
To sense motion directly between two rigid body frames connected at a joint,
SimMechanics provides a selection of sensing outputs in each joint block.
Each joint primitive provides a selection of sensing outputs that you can
select. You can sense rotational position, velocity, and acceleration using
revolute and spherical joint primitives. You can also sense translational
position, velocity, and acceleration using prismatic joint primitives. The
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Multibody Model Anatomy
figure shows how you can sense the angular position of the coupler-rocker
revolute joint directly from the joint block.
Related
Examples
• “Model Simple Link” on page 1-32
• “Model Pendulum” on page 1-37
Concepts
• “Multibody Modeling Workflow” on page 1-16
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Multibody Modeling Workflow
In this section...
“Model Rigid Bodies” on page 1-16
“Assemble Multibody Model” on page 1-21
“Add Forces, Torques, and Motion Sensors” on page 1-24
“Simulate and Analyze model” on page 1-28
The multibody modeling process contains a set of well-defined, sequential
steps. Before you begin, define the intent of the model. Then, select a
modeling approach and define the model requirements.
SimMechanics supports two modeling approaches:
• Manually build model — most common modeling approach. The following
sections outline the manual approach.
• Automatically generate model from CAD assembly — for users wishing to
simulate a CAD assembly in a physical modeling environment. Approach
requires access to supported CAD software and assembly files. See “CAD
Translation”.
Model Rigid Bodies
Rigid bodies are the building blocks of a multibody system. Before you can
connect rigid bodies with joints and constraints, you must model the rigid
bodies. You can create two types of rigid bodies:
• Simple — Use a single Solid block to model the rigid body. Simple rigid
bodies are quicker to model. Use simple rigid bodies to quickly produce
proof-of-concept models, before you create more detailed rigid body
subsystems.
A simple cylinder is a simple rigid body.
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Multibody Modeling Workflow
• Compound — Rigidly connect multiple Solid blocks to model the rigid body.
Compound rigid bodies require more time to model, but provide the most
accurate representation of a rigid body that you can manually build.
A detailed binary link is a compound rigid body.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
A complete rigid body subsystem contains the following:
• Frames — Construct with position and orientation in space.
• Physical properties — Geometry, inertia, and graphic parameters of a solid.
Add Frames
To add frames to a rigid body subsystem, you use the Rigid Transform block.
The block rotates and/or translates a base frame to obtain a follower frame. A
chain of Rigid Transform blocks represents a chain of frames. Connect the
reference frame port of a Solid block to a frame port or line to give the frame a
position and orientation in space. See “Representing Frames”.
The binary link subsystem contains three Solid blocks rigidly connected
with two Rigid Transform blocks. Each Rigid Transform block translates a
local reference frame, located at the center of the link, by an amount equal
to half the link length along the length axis. The two end frames serve as
joint connection frames.
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Multibody Modeling Workflow
Add Geometry, Inertia, and Graphic Properties
To add geometry, inertia, and graphic properties to a rigid body, you use the
Solid block. In the dialog box of the block, you can specify the numerical
values for each parameter set:
• Geometry — 3-D shape of the rigid body. Required for assembly,
visualization and simulation.
• Inertia — Mass or density and inertia tensor. Required for simulation.
• Graphic — Color of the rigid body. Required for visualization.
In the binary link subsystem, three Solid blocks provide the physical
properties of three elementary pieces:
• Peg — Cylinder shape
• Main body — General Extrusion shape
• Hole Section — general Extrusion shape
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
In the Inertia menu of the Solid dialog box, you can specify the density if the
link material — e.g. 2.70 g/cm^3 for Aluminum. SimMechanics provides the
option to automatically calculate the moments and products of inertia from
geometry. To provide a uniform density to the binary link, the three Solid
block contain the same value in the Density field.
In the Graphic menu of the Solid dialog box, you can specify the color of the
link material. In this example, the color is orange with RGB vector [0.8
0.45 0]. To provide a single color to the binary link, the three Solid blocks
contain the same RGB vector in the Color parameter.
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Multibody Modeling Workflow
Assemble Multibody Model
Once you have created the rigid body subsystems, you can assemble the
subsystems into a mechanism or machine. In a mechanism or machine, joints
and constraints provide well-defined degrees of freedom that constrain rigid
body motion. Two types of motion are possible:
• Rotation about one or more axes
• Translation along one or more axes
Connect Joints
To assemble rigid body subsystems into complete multibody systems, connect
the with joints. SimMechanics provides a library with fourteen joint blocks.
Each block provides a different number and/or type of mechanical degrees of
freedom. Exactly two rigid body frames connect to each joint, with each frame
belonging to a different rigid body.
Joints are composed of joint primitives — elementary joints that you can
combine to create more complex joints. SimMechanics contains three joint
primitives:
• Prismatic — one translational degree of freedom along an axis
• Revolute — one rotational degree of freedom about an axis
• Spherical — three concurrent degrees of freedom about three axes
The following table identifies the joint primitives associated with each joint.
Prismatic Primitives
Revolute 0
Primitives
1
0
1
2
Weld Joint
Prismatic
Joint
Rectangular Cartesian
Joint
Joint
Revolute
Joint
Cylindrical Planar
Joint
Joint
3
—
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Prismatic Primitives
0
1
2
3
2
Universal
Joint
—
—
—
3
Gimbal
Joint
Bearing
Joint
—
6–DOF
Joint
Spherical
Joint
Telescoping —
Joint
Spherical 1
Primitives
Bushing
Joint
The four-bar system contains four rigid bodies connected with four revolute
joints. The block diagram for this model contains four rigid body subsystems
connected with four Revolute Joint blocks. The following figures show the
Mechanics Explorer display of a four-bar model and the associated block
diagram.
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Multibody Modeling Workflow
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Specify Joint State Targets
To specify the initial configuration of a multibody assembly, use the State
Targets menu of the joint dialog box. You can specify values for the initial
joint position and velocity, and assign different priorities for the state targets.
SimMechanics attempts to meet the state target. If the state targets make
assembly impossible, SimMechanics tries to use an approximate value that
allows assembly.
Add Forces, Torques, and Motion Sensors
You can add force and torques to, or between, rigid body frames. The following
table summarizes the force/torque types that you can add to a model. The
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Multibody Modeling Workflow
Procedure column identifies the steps required to add each force/torque
type to a model.
Force/Torque Type
Description
Joint actuation
Force or torque between
base and follower
frames along or about
joint primitive axis
Procedure
1 In the Actuation
menu of the joint
dialog box, select the
desired actuation
mode.
2 Connect a physical
signal line to each
exposed physical
signal port.
Joint internal
mechanics
Rigid body actuation
Spring and damper
force or torque between
base and follower
frames along or about
joint primitive axis
Force or torque acting
on a rigid body frame
not connected to a joint
1 In the Internal
Mechanics menu
of joint dialog box,
enter the spring and
damper parameters
for the joint.
1 Connect an External
Force and Torque
block to the rigid
body frame you wish
to actuate.
2 In the dialog box
of the block, select
the force and torque
components you wish
to specify and the
frame in which you
wish to resolve the
components.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Force/Torque Type
Description
Procedure
3 Connect a physical
signal line to each
exposed physical
signal port.
Rigid Body Internal
Forces
Force acting between
two rigid body frames,
one frame per rigid
body
1 Connect the Inverse
Square Law Force or
Spring and Damper
Force block between
the two rigid body
frames.
2 In the dialog box of
the block, enter the
force constants.
You can also add mechanical sensing between frames. Force sensing is
limited Inverse Square Law Force or Spring and Damper Force blocks. The
following table summarizes the types of motion and force sensing you can
add to a model. The Procedure column identifies the steps required to add
each sensing type to a model.
Sensing
Description
Joint Motion
Sensing of position,
velocity, and
acceleration
parameters of joint
follower frame with
respect to base frame
Procedure
1 In the Sensing
menu of the joint
dialog box, select
the desired motion
parameter.
2 Connect a physical
signal to each
exposed physical
signal port.
Rigid Body Motion
Sensing of position,
velocity, and
1 Connect the
Transform Sensor
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Multibody Modeling Workflow
Sensing
Description
acceleration
parameters of one
rigid body frame with
respect to any other
frame in a model
Procedure
block to two rigid
body frames.
2 In the dialog box
of the Transform
Sensor block,
select the motion
parameters you wish
to sense.
3 Connect a physical
signal to each
exposed physical
signal port.
Force Input
Sensing of force
magnitude in Inverse
Square Law Force and
Spring and Damper
Force blocks
1 In the dialog box of
the force block, select
Sense Force.
2 Connect physical
signal to the exposed
fm physical signal
port.
The following figure shows an application of joint actuation inputs. The
Base-Crank joint of a four-bar model receives a torque input indirectly from
the Simulink block Signal Builder. The Simulink-PS Converter block converts
the Simulink signal into a physical signal compatible with SimMechanics
blocks.
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Simulate and Analyze model
Run the simulation to examine the dynamic behavior of the model. Simulink
provides a set of model simulation options that you can adjust for your
application. Before running simulation:
• Check the choice of solver. SimMechanics models require a continuous
solver. Variable-step solvers provide the best performance. Use ode45
(Dormand-Prince) as a first try for most models.
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Multibody Modeling Workflow
• Check the solver step sizes and tolerances. Smaller values for both
parameters produce more accurate results at the cost of increased
simulation time.
• Check the simulation time span. To let a simulation run indefinitely,
specify inf in the Stop time field.
The Mechanics Explorer utility provides 3-D visualization for SimMechanics
models. By default, the utility opens the first time you update a model, and
refreshes for all subsequent model updates. The following figure shows the
Mechanics Explorer display of a double-pendulum model.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Multibody Modeling Workflow
During simulation, you can open any scope blocks in the model to examine
the dynamic behavior of the model. The following figure shows the angular
position and velocity of the bottom frame of a damped double-pendulum
model as functions of time.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Model Simple Link
In this section...
“Model Overview” on page 1-32
“Build Model” on page 1-33
“Generate Subsystem” on page 1-34
“Visualize Model” on page 1-35
“Save Model” on page 1-36
“Model Simple Pendulum” on page 1-36
Model Overview
Mechanical links are common building blocks in linkages, mechanisms, and
machines. The simple pendulum is an example with one link. In this tutorial,
you model a simple link with two end frames that you can later connect to
joints. Rigid Transform blocks provide the end frames, while a Solid block
provides geometry, inertia, and color. For simplicity, the model assumes
the link has a brick shape.
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Model Simple Link
Build Model
1 At the MATLAB command line, enter smnew. The SimMechanics block
library and a new model open up.
2 In the model, copy the Rigid Transform block and paste a copy in the model.
3 Delete these blocks: Simulink-PS Converter, PS-Simulink Converter, and
Scope.
4 Connect the blocks as shown in the figure.
Note The base (B) frame ports of both Rigid Transform blocks must face
the Solid block.
5 In the dialog box for the Solid block, specify these parameters.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Parameter
Value
Geometry > Dimensions
[L W H] cm
Inertia > Density
rho kg/m^3
Graphic > Visual
Properties > Color
rgb
6 In the dialog boxes for the Rigid Transform blocks, specify these
parameters.
Parameter
Rigid Transform1
Rigid Transform
Translation > Method Standard Axis
Standard Axis
Translation > Axis
-X
+X
Translation > Offset
L/2 cm
L/2 cm
Generate Subsystem
1 Select the Solid block and the two Rigid Transform blocks.
2 Press Ctrl+G to enclose the blocks in a subsystem.
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Model Simple Link
3 Click the Subsystem block and press Ctrl+M to create a subsystem mask.
4 In the Parameters & Dialog tab of the Mask Editor window, drag
edit boxes
parameters.
inside the Parameters group and specify the following
Prompt
Name
Length (cm):
L
Width (cm):
W
Thickness (cm):
H
Density (kg/m^3):
rho
Color [R G B]:
rgb
5 In the Subsystem block dialog box, specify these parameters.
Parameter
Value
Length (cm):
20
Width (cm):
1
Thickness (cm):
1
Density (cm):
2700
Color [R G B]:
[0.25 0.40 0.70]
Visualize Model
In the model window, press Ctrl+D. Mechanics Explorer opens with a 3-D
display of the simple link. In the Mechanics Explorer toolstrip, click the
isometric view button
to see the 3-D view.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Save Model
To use it in later tutorials, save the link subsystem as a custom library block.
Name the block Link, and then drag it to a custom library in a convenient
folder.
Model Simple Pendulum
Using the link block, you can model a simple pendulum. See “Model
Pendulum” on page 1-37.
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Model Pendulum
Model Pendulum
In this section...
“Model Overview” on page 1-37
“Build Model” on page 1-38
“Specify Gravity” on page 1-39
“Add Motion Sensing” on page 1-40
“Guide Model Assembly” on page 1-41
“Assemble and Simulate Model” on page 1-41
“Save Model” on page 1-43
Model Overview
The pendulum is the simplest mechanical system you can model. This system
contains two rigid bodies, a link and a fixed pivot, connected by a revolute
joint. In this tutorial, you model and simulate this system using the custom
link block you created in “Model Simple Link” on page 1-32. A Revolute Joint
block represents the joint connecting the link to the fixed pivot.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Build Model
1 At the MATLAB command line, enter smnew. The SimMechanics block
library and a new model open up.
2 In the model, delete all blocks except Solver Configuration, World Frame,
and Mechanism Configuration.
3 Drag the custom Link block into the model.
This is the block you created in the tutorial “Model Simple Link” on page
1-32.
4 Drag the following SimMechanics blocks into the model.
Block
Library
Quantity
Revolute Joint
SimMechanics
Second Generation
(SM 2G) > Joints
1
Solid
SimMechanics
Second Generation
(SM 2G) > Body
Elements
1
5 Connect the blocks as shown in the figure.
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Model Pendulum
6 In the Solid block dialog box, specify these parameters.
Parameter
Value
Geometry > Dimensions
[4 4 4] cm
Graphic > Visual
Properties > Color
[0.80 0.45 0]
Specify Gravity
The Revolute Joint block sets the common Z axis of its base and follower
frames as the rotation axis. To ensure gravity acts in an orthogonal direction
to the rotation axis, you must change the gravity vector. In this procedure,
you specify gravity so it acts along the -Y axis.
1 Double-click the Mechanism Configuration block.
2 In Gravity, enter [0 -9.81 0] and click OK.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Add Motion Sensing
For model analysis, you can sense joint motion directly from the joint block.
In this procedure, you sense the angular position of the joint. This position is
the angle of the joint follower frame with respect to the base frame.
1 Double-click the Revolute Joint block.
2 Select Sensing > Position and click OK.
3 Drag the following blocks into the model.
Block
Library
Quantity
PS-Simulink
Converter
Simscape > Utilities
1
Scope
Simulink > Sinks
1
4 Connect the blocks as shown in the figure.
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Model Pendulum
Guide Model Assembly
Set the initial angle at the revolute joint between the link and the fixed pivot.
1 Double-click the Revolute Joint block.
2 Select State Targets > Specify Position Target.
3 In Value, enter -60 and click OK.
Assemble and Simulate Model
In the model window, press Ctrl+D. SimMechanics assembles the model
in its initial configuration. Mechanics Explorer displays a 3-D view of this
configuration with the Z axis pointing up. Since gravity acts along the -Y axis,
it helps to change the view convention so the Y axis points up.
1 In Mechanics Explorer, set View convention to Y up (XY Front).
2 Click any of the view buttons
to refresh the
viewpoint. The figure shows the pendulum model in the isometric view.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
3 Simulate the model. Mechanics Explorer plays a 3-D animation of the
model simulation.
4 Double-click the Scope block to analyze the angular position of the revolute
joint.
The figure shows the angular position plot in radian units. Click the autoscale
button to view the full plot.
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Model Pendulum
Save Model
So that you can reuse the simple pendulum model, save it as simple_pendulum
in a convenient folder.
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Introduction to SimMechanics™ Software
Modeling with SimMechanics First and Second Generations
SimMechanics software contains two technologies: First Generation and
Second Generation. First-generation technology includes the block library
and visualization utility found in SimMechanics releases prior to R2012a.
Second-generation technology introduces a simpler modeling paradigm
with a new block library, a powerful computational engine, an advanced
visualization utility based on OpenGL computer graphics, and tighter
integration with Simscape products.
SimMechanics first- and second-generation technologies have different sets
of capabilities. Which technology to use depends on the effects you need to
model. Use first-generation technology for models requiring variable gravity,
certain complex constraints, or to measure reaction or constraint forces. In
nearly all other cases, use second-generation technology.
The table provides a detailed comparison between first- and second-generation
technologies.
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Feature
SimMechanics First
Generation
SimMechanics
Second Generation
Mass/Inertia
Calculation
Manual only
Automatic or manual
Solid Geometry
No
Yes
Animation Replay
No
Yes
3-D Model Exploration
Limited
Yes
Initial State Targets
Limited
Yes
Simscape Logging
No
Yes
Code Generation
Yes
Yes
CAD Import
Yes
Yes2
Motion Actuation
Yes
Yes
Force/Torque Sensing
Yes
Yes
Complex Constraints1
Yes
Gears only
Variable Mass/Gravity
Yes
No
3
Modeling with SimMechanics™ First and Second Generations
1
Point-curve, Gear, Velocity, and Screw constraints
2
CAD update supported only in SimMechanics First Generation
3
Actuation forces/torques only
SimMechanics continues to support first-generation technology. You can
maintain and simulate legacy models built with first-generation blocks. You
also can still create a new first-generation model using the SimMechanics
First Generation block library.
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