GNU Calc Reference Card

GNU Calc Reference Card
GNU Calc Reference Card
(for version 2.02 of January 1992)
Starting and Stopping
start/stop standard Calc
start/stop X keypad Calc
start/stop either: M-# # or M-# M-#
stop standard Calc
M-# c
M-# k
Calc tutorial
run Calc in other window
quick calculation in minibuffer
M-# t
M-# o
M-# q
q
Getting Help
The h prefix key is Calc’s analogue of C-h in Emacs.
quick summary of keys
describe key briefly
describe key fully
describe function or command
read on-line manual
read full Calc summary
?
h
h
h
h
h
c
k
f
i or M-# i
s or M-# s
Error Recovery
abort command in progress
display recent error messages
undo last operation
redo last operation
recall last arguments
edit top of stack
reset Calc to default state
C-g
w
U
D
M-RET
‘
M-# 0 (zero)
Transferring Data
grab
grab
grab
grab
region from a buffer
rectangle from a buffer
rectangle, summing columns
rectangle, summing rows
yank data to a buffer
M-#
M-#
M-#
M-#
g
r
:
_
Arithmetic
add, subtract, multiply, divide
raise to a power, nth root
change sign
reciprocal 1/x
√
square root x
+, -, *, /
^, I ^
n
&
Q
set precision
round off last two digits
convert to fraction, float
p
c2
c F, c f
enter using algebraic notation
refer to previous result
refer to higher stack entries
finish alg entry without evaluating
set mode where alg entry used by default
’ 2+3*4
’ 3*$^2
’ $1*$2^2
LFD
ma
Stack Commands
Here Sn is the nth stack entry, and N is the size of the stack.
key
no prefix
prefix n
prefix −n
RET
copy S1
copy S1..n
copy Sn
LFD
copy S2
copy Sn
copy S1..n
DEL
delete S1
delete S1..n
delete Sn
M-DEL
delete S2
delete Sn
delete S1..n
TAB
swap S1 ↔S2
roll S1 to Sn
roll Sn to SN
M-TAB
roll S3 to S1
roll Sn to S1
roll SN to Sn
With a 0 prefix, these copy, delete, or reverse S1..N .
Display
scroll horizontally, vertically
home cursor
line numbers on/off
trail display on/off
< >, { }
o
dl
td
scientific notation
fixed-point notation
floating-point (normal) notation
group digits with commas
d
d
d
d
M-# y
Notations
Examples
scientific notation
minus sign in numeric entry
fractions
complex numbers
polar complex numbers
vectors (commas optional)
matrices (or nested vectors)
error forms (p key)
interval forms
modulo forms (M key)
HMS forms
date forms
infinity, indeterminate
In RPN, enter numbers first, separated by RET if necessary,
then type the operator. To enter a calculation in algebraic
form, press the apostrophe first.
RPN
2 RET
2 RET
2 RET
3 RET
P 3 /
s
f
n
g
For display mode commands, H prefix prevents screen redraw
and I prefix temporarily redraws top of stack.
Also, try C-k/C-y or X cut and paste.
Example:
Example:
Example:
Example:
Example:
Scientific Functions
style:
3 +
3 + 4 *
3 RET 4 + *
6 + Q 3 ^
n S
algebraic style:
’ 2+3 RET
’ (2+3)*4 RET
’ 2*(3+4) RET
’ sqrt(3+6)^3 RET
’ sin(-pi/3) RET =
ln, log10 , logb
exponential ex , 10x
sin, cos, tan
arcsin, arccos, arctan
inverse, hyperbolic prefix keys
two-argument arctan
degrees, radians modes
pi (π)
L, H L, B
E, H E
S, C, T
I S, I C, I T
I, H
fT
m d, m r
P
factorial, double factorial
combinations, permutations
prime factorization
next prime, previous prime
GCD, LCM
random number, shuffle
minimum, maximum
!, k
k c,
kf
k n,
k g,
k r,
f n,
d
Hk c
I
k
k
f
k n
l
h
x
error functions erf, erfc
gamma, beta functions
incomplete gamma, beta functions
Bessel Jν , Yν functions
f
f
f
f
I
f
f
f
f e
b
B
y
complex magnitude, arg, conjugate
real, imaginary parts
convert polar/rectangular
A, G, J
f r, f i
cp
Financial Functions
enter percentage
convert to percentage
percentage change
M-%
c%
b%
present value
future value
rate of return
number of payments
size of payments
net present value, int. rate of return
b
b
b
b
b
b
P
F
T
#
M
N, b I
Above computations assume payments at end of period. Use I
prefix for beginning of period, or H for a lump sum investment.
straight-line depreciation
sum-of-years’-digits
double declining balance
bS
bY
bD
Units
6.02e23
_23 or 23 n
3:4
(x, y)
(r; θ)
[1, 2, 3]
[1, 2; 3, 4]
100 +/- 0.5
[2 .. 5)
6 mod 24
5@ 30’ 0"
<Jul 4, 1992>
inf, nan
enter with units
convert to new units, base units
convert temperature units
simplify units expression
view units table
2
’
u
u
u
u
55 mi/hr
c, u b
t
s
v
Common units:
distance: m, cm, mm, km; in, ft, mi, mfi; point, lyr
volume: l or L, ml; gal, qt, pt, cup, floz, tbsp, tsp
mass: g, mg, kg, t; lb, oz, ton
time: s or sec, ms, us, ns, min, hr, day, wk
temperature: degC, degF, K
c 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permissions on back. v2.02
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e,
g,
G,
j,
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GNU Calc Reference Card
Programmer’s Functions
Selections
Algebra
enter an algebraic formula
enter an equation
’ 2x+3y^2
’ 2x^2=18
binary, octal, hex display
decimal, other radix display
display leading zeros
entering non-decimal numbers
d 2, d 8, d 6
d 0, d r
dz
16#7FFF
symbolic (vs. numeric) mode
fractions (vs. float) mode
suppress evaluation of formulas
simplify formulas automatically
return to default evaluation rules
m
m
m
m
m
s
f
O
S
D
binary word size
binary AND, OR, XOR
binary DIFF, NOT
left shift
logical right shift
arithmetic right shift
b
b
b
b
b
b
“Big” display mode
C, Pascal, FORTRAN modes
TEX, eqn modes
Unformatted mode
Normal language mode
d
d
d
d
d
B
C, d P, d F
T, d E
U
N
integer quotient, remainder
integer square root, logarithm
floor, ceiling, round to integer
\, %
f Q, f I
F, I F, R
w
a, b o, b x
d, b n
l
r
R
Variables
Variable names are single digits or whole words.
store to variable
store and keep on stack
recall from variable
shorthands for digit variables
unstore, exchange variable
edit variable
s
s
s
t
s
s
t
s
r
n, s n, r n
u, s x
e
Vector Operations
vector of 1, 2, . . . , n
vector of n counts from a by b
vector of copies of a value
concatenate into vector
pack many stack items into vector
unpack vector or object
vx n
C-u v x
vb
|
vp
vu
length of vector (list)
reverse vector
sort, grade vector
histogram of vector data
extract vector element
v
v
V
V
v
l
v
S, V G
H
r
matrix determinant, inverse
matrix transpose, trace
cross, dot products
identity matrix
extract matrix row, column
V
v
V
v
v
D,
t,
C,
i
r,
intersection, union, diff of sets
cardinality of set
V ^, V V, V V#
add vectors elementwise (i.e., map +)
sum elements in vector (i.e., reduce +)
sum rows in matrix
sum columns in matrix
sum elements, accumulate results
V
V
V
V
V
M
R
R
R
U
&
VT
*
vc
+
+
_+
:+
+
simplify formula
as
put formula into rational form
an
evaluate variables in formula
=
evaluate numerically
N
let variable equal a value in formula
s l x =val
declare properties of variable
sd
Common decls: pos, int, real, scalar, [a..b ].
expand, collect terms
factor, partial fractions
polynomial quotient, remainder, GCD
derivative, integral
taylor series
a
a
a
a
a
x,
f,
\,
d,
t
principal solution to equation(s)
list of solutions
generic solution
apply function to both sides of eqn
a
a
H
a
S
P
a S
M
a
a
a
a
c
a
%, a g
i
rewrite formula
ar
Example: a r a*b + a*c := a*(b+c)
Example: a r sin(x)^2 := 1-cos(x)^2
Example: a r cos(n pi) := 1 :: integer(n) :: n%2 = 0
Example: a r [f(0) := 1, f(n) := n f(n-1) :: n > 0]
Put rules in EvalRules to have them apply automatically.
Put rules in AlgSimpRules to apply during a s command.
Common markers: opt, plain, quote, eval, let, remember.
Numerical Computations
sum formula over a range
product of formula over a range
tabulate formula over a range
integrate numerically over a range
find zero of formula or equation
find local min, max of formula
fit data to line or curve
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
+
*
T
I
R
N, a X
F
mean of data in vector or variable
median of data
geometric mean of data
sum, product of data
minimum, maximum of data
sample, pop. standard deviation
u
H
u
u
u
u
M
u M
G
+, u *
N, u X
S, I u S
select subformula under cursor
select nth subformula
select more
unselect this, all formulas
j
j
j
j
copy indicated subformula
delete indicated subformula
j RET
j DEL
commute selected terms
commute term leftward, rightward
distribute, merge selection
isolate selected term in equation
negate, invert term in context
rewrite selected term
j
j
j
j
j
j
C
L, j R
D, j M
I
N, j &
r
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
f
F
p
P
a
N
s, g S
l, g L
r, g R
q
s
n
m
u, j c
Graphics
graph function or data
graph 3D function or data
replot current graph
print current graph
add curve to graph
set number of data points
set line, point styles
set log vs. linear x, y axis
set range for x, y axis
close graphics window
Programming
begin, end recording a macro
replay keyboard macro
read region as written-out macro
if, else, endif
equal to, less than, member of
repeat n times, break from loop
“for” loop: start, end; body, step
save, restore mode settings
display message during macro
query user during macro
put finished macro on a key
C-x (,
X
M-# m
Z [, Z
a =, a
Z <, Z
Z (, Z
Z ‘, Z
Z=
Z#
ZK
define function with formula
edit definition
ZF
ZE
record user-defined command permanently
record variable value permanently
record mode settings permanently
ZP
sp
mm
C-x )
:, Z ]
<, a {
>, Z /
)
’
c 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Copyright designed by Dave Gillespie and Stephen Gildea, v2.02
for GNU Emacs Calc version 2.02 (January 1992)
Permission is granted to make and distribute copies of this card provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on
all copies.
For copies of the GNU Emacs Calc manual, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 675 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge MA 02139.
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