GNU Calc Reference Card (for version 2.02 of January 1992) Starting and Stopping start/stop standard Calc start/stop X keypad Calc start/stop either: M-# # or M-# M-# stop standard Calc M-# c M-# k Calc tutorial run Calc in other window quick calculation in minibuffer M-# t M-# o M-# q q Getting Help The h prefix key is Calc’s analogue of C-h in Emacs. quick summary of keys describe key briefly describe key fully describe function or command read on-line manual read full Calc summary ? h h h h h c k f i or M-# i s or M-# s Error Recovery abort command in progress display recent error messages undo last operation redo last operation recall last arguments edit top of stack reset Calc to default state C-g w U D M-RET ‘ M-# 0 (zero) Transferring Data grab grab grab grab region from a buffer rectangle from a buffer rectangle, summing columns rectangle, summing rows yank data to a buffer M-# M-# M-# M-# g r : _ Arithmetic add, subtract, multiply, divide raise to a power, nth root change sign reciprocal 1/x √ square root x +, -, *, / ^, I ^ n & Q set precision round off last two digits convert to fraction, float p c2 c F, c f enter using algebraic notation refer to previous result refer to higher stack entries finish alg entry without evaluating set mode where alg entry used by default ’ 2+3*4 ’ 3*$^2 ’ $1*$2^2 LFD ma Stack Commands Here Sn is the nth stack entry, and N is the size of the stack. key no prefix prefix n prefix −n RET copy S1 copy S1..n copy Sn LFD copy S2 copy Sn copy S1..n DEL delete S1 delete S1..n delete Sn M-DEL delete S2 delete Sn delete S1..n TAB swap S1 ↔S2 roll S1 to Sn roll Sn to SN M-TAB roll S3 to S1 roll Sn to S1 roll SN to Sn With a 0 prefix, these copy, delete, or reverse S1..N . Display scroll horizontally, vertically home cursor line numbers on/off trail display on/off < >, { } o dl td scientific notation fixed-point notation floating-point (normal) notation group digits with commas d d d d M-# y Notations Examples scientific notation minus sign in numeric entry fractions complex numbers polar complex numbers vectors (commas optional) matrices (or nested vectors) error forms (p key) interval forms modulo forms (M key) HMS forms date forms infinity, indeterminate In RPN, enter numbers first, separated by RET if necessary, then type the operator. To enter a calculation in algebraic form, press the apostrophe first. RPN 2 RET 2 RET 2 RET 3 RET P 3 / s f n g For display mode commands, H prefix prevents screen redraw and I prefix temporarily redraws top of stack. Also, try C-k/C-y or X cut and paste. Example: Example: Example: Example: Example: Scientific Functions style: 3 + 3 + 4 * 3 RET 4 + * 6 + Q 3 ^ n S algebraic style: ’ 2+3 RET ’ (2+3)*4 RET ’ 2*(3+4) RET ’ sqrt(3+6)^3 RET ’ sin(-pi/3) RET = ln, log10 , logb exponential ex , 10x sin, cos, tan arcsin, arccos, arctan inverse, hyperbolic prefix keys two-argument arctan degrees, radians modes pi (π) L, H L, B E, H E S, C, T I S, I C, I T I, H fT m d, m r P factorial, double factorial combinations, permutations prime factorization next prime, previous prime GCD, LCM random number, shuffle minimum, maximum !, k k c, kf k n, k g, k r, f n, d Hk c I k k f k n l h x error functions erf, erfc gamma, beta functions incomplete gamma, beta functions Bessel Jν , Yν functions f f f f I f f f f e b B y complex magnitude, arg, conjugate real, imaginary parts convert polar/rectangular A, G, J f r, f i cp Financial Functions enter percentage convert to percentage percentage change M-% c% b% present value future value rate of return number of payments size of payments net present value, int. rate of return b b b b b b P F T # M N, b I Above computations assume payments at end of period. Use I prefix for beginning of period, or H for a lump sum investment. straight-line depreciation sum-of-years’-digits double declining balance bS bY bD Units 6.02e23 _23 or 23 n 3:4 (x, y) (r; θ) [1, 2, 3] [1, 2; 3, 4] 100 +/- 0.5 [2 .. 5) 6 mod 24 5@ 30’ 0" <Jul 4, 1992> inf, nan enter with units convert to new units, base units convert temperature units simplify units expression view units table 2 ’ u u u u 55 mi/hr c, u b t s v Common units: distance: m, cm, mm, km; in, ft, mi, mfi; point, lyr volume: l or L, ml; gal, qt, pt, cup, floz, tbsp, tsp mass: g, mg, kg, t; lb, oz, ton time: s or sec, ms, us, ns, min, hr, day, wk temperature: degC, degF, K c 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permissions on back. v2.02 1 e, g, G, j, 3 GNU Calc Reference Card Programmer’s Functions Selections Algebra enter an algebraic formula enter an equation ’ 2x+3y^2 ’ 2x^2=18 binary, octal, hex display decimal, other radix display display leading zeros entering non-decimal numbers d 2, d 8, d 6 d 0, d r dz 16#7FFF symbolic (vs. numeric) mode fractions (vs. float) mode suppress evaluation of formulas simplify formulas automatically return to default evaluation rules m m m m m s f O S D binary word size binary AND, OR, XOR binary DIFF, NOT left shift logical right shift arithmetic right shift b b b b b b “Big” display mode C, Pascal, FORTRAN modes TEX, eqn modes Unformatted mode Normal language mode d d d d d B C, d P, d F T, d E U N integer quotient, remainder integer square root, logarithm floor, ceiling, round to integer \, % f Q, f I F, I F, R w a, b o, b x d, b n l r R Variables Variable names are single digits or whole words. store to variable store and keep on stack recall from variable shorthands for digit variables unstore, exchange variable edit variable s s s t s s t s r n, s n, r n u, s x e Vector Operations vector of 1, 2, . . . , n vector of n counts from a by b vector of copies of a value concatenate into vector pack many stack items into vector unpack vector or object vx n C-u v x vb | vp vu length of vector (list) reverse vector sort, grade vector histogram of vector data extract vector element v v V V v l v S, V G H r matrix determinant, inverse matrix transpose, trace cross, dot products identity matrix extract matrix row, column V v V v v D, t, C, i r, intersection, union, diff of sets cardinality of set V ^, V V, V V# add vectors elementwise (i.e., map +) sum elements in vector (i.e., reduce +) sum rows in matrix sum columns in matrix sum elements, accumulate results V V V V V M R R R U & VT * vc + + _+ :+ + simplify formula as put formula into rational form an evaluate variables in formula = evaluate numerically N let variable equal a value in formula s l x =val declare properties of variable sd Common decls: pos, int, real, scalar, [a..b ]. expand, collect terms factor, partial fractions polynomial quotient, remainder, GCD derivative, integral taylor series a a a a a x, f, \, d, t principal solution to equation(s) list of solutions generic solution apply function to both sides of eqn a a H a S P a S M a a a a c a %, a g i rewrite formula ar Example: a r a*b + a*c := a*(b+c) Example: a r sin(x)^2 := 1-cos(x)^2 Example: a r cos(n pi) := 1 :: integer(n) :: n%2 = 0 Example: a r [f(0) := 1, f(n) := n f(n-1) :: n > 0] Put rules in EvalRules to have them apply automatically. Put rules in AlgSimpRules to apply during a s command. Common markers: opt, plain, quote, eval, let, remember. Numerical Computations sum formula over a range product of formula over a range tabulate formula over a range integrate numerically over a range find zero of formula or equation find local min, max of formula fit data to line or curve a a a a a a a + * T I R N, a X F mean of data in vector or variable median of data geometric mean of data sum, product of data minimum, maximum of data sample, pop. standard deviation u H u u u u M u M G +, u * N, u X S, I u S select subformula under cursor select nth subformula select more unselect this, all formulas j j j j copy indicated subformula delete indicated subformula j RET j DEL commute selected terms commute term leftward, rightward distribute, merge selection isolate selected term in equation negate, invert term in context rewrite selected term j j j j j j C L, j R D, j M I N, j & r g g g g g g g g g g f F p P a N s, g S l, g L r, g R q s n m u, j c Graphics graph function or data graph 3D function or data replot current graph print current graph add curve to graph set number of data points set line, point styles set log vs. linear x, y axis set range for x, y axis close graphics window Programming begin, end recording a macro replay keyboard macro read region as written-out macro if, else, endif equal to, less than, member of repeat n times, break from loop “for” loop: start, end; body, step save, restore mode settings display message during macro query user during macro put finished macro on a key C-x (, X M-# m Z [, Z a =, a Z <, Z Z (, Z Z ‘, Z Z= Z# ZK define function with formula edit definition ZF ZE record user-defined command permanently record variable value permanently record mode settings permanently ZP sp mm C-x ) :, Z ] <, a { >, Z / ) ’ c 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Copyright designed by Dave Gillespie and Stephen Gildea, v2.02 for GNU Emacs Calc version 2.02 (January 1992) Permission is granted to make and distribute copies of this card provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. For copies of the GNU Emacs Calc manual, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge MA 02139. 4 5 6

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