Planning guide for Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010

Planning guide for Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010
Planning guide for
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010
Microsoft Corporation
Published: November 2010
Author: Microsoft Office System and Servers Team ([email protected])
Abstract
This book provides information and guidelines to lead a team through the steps of planning the
deployment of a solution based on Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. The audiences for this book are
business application specialists, line-of-business specialists, information architects, IT generalists,
program managers, and infrastructure specialists who are planning a solution based on SharePoint
Server 2010.
The content in this book is a copy of selected content in the SharePoint Server 2010 technical library
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=181463) as of the publication date. For the most current content,
see the technical library on the Web.
2
This document is provided “as-is”. Information and views expressed in this document, including URL
and other Internet Web site references, may change without notice. You bear the risk of using it.
Some examples depicted herein are provided for illustration only and are fictitious. No real association
or connection is intended or should be inferred.
This document does not provide you with any legal rights to any intellectual property in any Microsoft
product. You may copy and use this document for your internal, reference purposes.
© 2010 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Microsoft, Access, Active Directory, Backstage, Excel, Groove, Hotmail, InfoPath, Internet Explorer,
Outlook, PerformancePoint, PowerPoint, SharePoint, Silverlight, Windows, Windows Live, Windows
Mobile, Windows PowerShell, Windows Server, and Windows Vista are either registered trademarks or
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the
issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market
conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft
cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.
ii
Contents
Getting help ......................................................................................................................................xxx
Planning and architecture for SharePoint Server 2010....................................................................... 1
Downloadable resources ..................................................................................................................... 1
Planning articles .................................................................................................................................. 2
Technical diagrams (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................................... 3
Models ................................................................................................................................................. 3
Tips for printing posters ..................................................................................................................... 13
Plan for sites and solutions (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................................................... 14
Fundamental site planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ...................................................................... 16
Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ......................................................... 17
Site collections overview ................................................................................................................... 17
Sites overview ................................................................................................................................... 18
Site templates included in SharePoint Server 2010.......................................................................... 18
Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................. 24
About planning sites and site collections .......................................................................................... 24
Determine types of sites .................................................................................................................... 24
Plan sites by organizational hierarchy ........................................................................................ 24
Plan application sites .................................................................................................................. 25
Plan Internet presence sites ....................................................................................................... 25
Plan publishing sites ................................................................................................................... 26
Plan other sites ........................................................................................................................... 26
Determine site collections ................................................................................................................. 27
Site planning data worksheet ............................................................................................................ 27
Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ......................................................................... 29
Navigation controls overview ............................................................................................................ 29
Navigation controls on master pages ................................................................................................ 30
Top link bar navigation................................................................................................................ 30
Quick Launch navigation ............................................................................................................ 31
Breadcrumb navigation ............................................................................................................... 31
Tree view navigation ................................................................................................................... 31
Metadata navigation ................................................................................................................... 31
Navigation controls on page layouts ................................................................................................. 31
Summary Links ........................................................................................................................... 32
Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................... 32
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Content Query ............................................................................................................................ 32
Navigation Web Parts ....................................................................................................................... 33
Plan site navigation (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................................. 34
About planning navigation ................................................................................................................. 34
Plan the user experience .................................................................................................................. 34
Plan navigation on pages .................................................................................................................. 35
Site planning data worksheet ............................................................................................................ 35
Themes overview (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................................................... 36
About using themes .......................................................................................................................... 36
Ways to use themes .......................................................................................................................... 36
Using a preinstalled theme ......................................................................................................... 37
Modifying a preinstalled theme ................................................................................................... 37
Uploading your own custom themes to the theme gallery .......................................................... 37
Plan for using themes (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................................. 38
About planning for using themes....................................................................................................... 38
Decide whether to use themes .......................................................................................................... 38
Determine how many themes are needed ........................................................................................ 39
Decide who makes the themes ......................................................................................................... 39
Site planning data worksheet ............................................................................................................ 39
Plan for multilingual sites (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................................ 40
About planning multilingual sites ....................................................................................................... 40
Determine language and locale requirements .................................................................................. 41
Determine whether to use site variations .......................................................................................... 41
Determine language pack requirements ........................................................................................... 42
Determine requirements for word breakers and stemmers .............................................................. 43
Multilingual user interface overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................ 45
Use and benefits of the multilingual user interface ........................................................................... 45
How the multilingual user interface works ......................................................................................... 46
What is supported by the multilingual user interface ........................................................................ 47
Adding and modifying application content ........................................................................................ 47
Exporting and importing translated content ...................................................................................... 48
Using the multilingual user interface with managed metadata ......................................................... 48
Limitations of the multilingual user interface ..................................................................................... 49
Plan for the multilingual user interface (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................... 50
Determine language requirements for your sites .............................................................................. 50
Plan for translating content ............................................................................................................... 50
Plan for installing service packs ........................................................................................................ 51
Security planning for sites and content (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................... 52
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Plan site permissions (SharePoint Server 2010) .............................................................................. 53
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 53
About site permissions ...................................................................................................................... 53
About assigning permissions ............................................................................................................ 55
About permission inheritance ............................................................................................................ 55
Permission inheritance and fine-grained permissions ................................................................ 55
Permission inheritance and subsites .......................................................................................... 56
About effective permissions .............................................................................................................. 56
Choose permission levels ................................................................................................................. 57
Plan for permission inheritance ......................................................................................................... 57
Determine permission levels and groups (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................ 59
Review available default groups ....................................................................................................... 59
Review available permission levels................................................................................................... 60
Determine whether you need additional permission levels or groups .............................................. 61
Do you need custom groups? ..................................................................................................... 61
Do you need custom permission levels? .................................................................................... 62
Choose security groups (SharePoint Server 2010) .......................................................................... 63
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 63
Determine which Windows security groups and accounts to use for granting access to sites ......... 63
Decide whether to allow access for all authenticated users ............................................................. 64
Decide whether to allow access for anonymous users ..................................................................... 64
Choose administrators and owners for the administration hierarchy (SharePoint Server 2010) ...... 66
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 66
Levels of administration .................................................................................................................... 66
Best practices for using fine-grained permissions (white paper) (SharePoint Server 2010) ............ 68
Site and solution governance (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................................. 69
Governance overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................................. 70
About governance ............................................................................................................................. 70
What should be governed? ............................................................................................................... 70
Who should determine governance policies? ................................................................................... 72
How should governance be implemented? ....................................................................................... 73
Governance features (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................................... 75
Managing SharePoint installation in an enterprise ............................................................................ 75
IT service features ............................................................................................................................. 75
Site templates ............................................................................................................................. 76
Quotas ........................................................................................................................................ 76
Locks........................................................................................................................................... 76
Workflows ................................................................................................................................... 76
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Features ...................................................................................................................................... 76
Self-service site creation............................................................................................................. 77
Web application permissions and policies .................................................................................. 77
SharePoint Designer ................................................................................................................... 77
Sandboxing ................................................................................................................................. 78
Site collection auto-deletion ........................................................................................................ 78
Policies for user profiles and My Site Web sites ........................................................................ 78
Information management .................................................................................................................. 79
Document management ............................................................................................................. 79
Records management ................................................................................................................ 81
Digital asset management .......................................................................................................... 81
eDiscovery .................................................................................................................................. 81
Information management policies ............................................................................................... 82
Information architecture features ...................................................................................................... 82
Content types .............................................................................................................................. 83
Site Content and Structure page ................................................................................................ 83
Information rights management .................................................................................................. 83
Blocked file types ........................................................................................................................ 83
Web content management (publishing sites) ............................................................................. 84
Taxonomy and managed metadata ............................................................................................ 84
Establishing and governing a SharePoint service (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................. 85
What is a SharePoint service? .......................................................................................................... 85
Elements of a successful service ...................................................................................................... 85
What to govern in a SharePoint service ............................................................................................ 86
Creating multiple services ................................................................................................................. 88
Service-level agreements .................................................................................................................. 89
Implementing and governing information architecture (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................ 91
What is information architecture?...................................................................................................... 91
Governing information architecture ................................................................................................... 92
Governing content ...................................................................................................................... 92
Governing information access .................................................................................................... 94
The governance team ................................................................................................................. 94
Resources for planning information architecture .............................................................................. 95
Case study: Governing information architecture to eliminate content chaos .................................... 96
Plan for sandboxed solutions (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................ 100
In this section .................................................................................................................................. 100
Sandboxed solutions overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................. 101
Deploying and running a sandboxed solution ................................................................................. 101
Isolating sandboxed solutions ......................................................................................................... 102
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What a sandboxed solution cannot contain .................................................................................... 103
Comparison of sandboxed and farm solutions ................................................................................ 103
Benefits of using sandboxed solutions ............................................................................................ 104
Plan sandboxed solutions (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................................................... 105
Determine when to use sandboxed solutions ................................................................................. 105
Plan to load balance sandboxed solution code ............................................................................... 106
Determine where to deploy sandboxed solutions ........................................................................... 106
Determine who can deploy sandboxed solutions ............................................................................ 106
Determine which site collections will run sandboxed solutions using quotas ................................. 107
Plan resource usage quotas for sandboxed solutions .................................................................... 107
Plan sandboxed solutions governance ........................................................................................... 108
Book excerpt: SharePoint Development and Governance Using COBIT 4.1: A Practical Approach
..................................................................................................................................................... 109
Authors ............................................................................................................................................ 110
Introduction (SharePoint Development and Governance Using COBIT 4.1) .................................. 111
1. Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 111
The SharePoint Effect............................................................................................................... 112
Shared Services and the SharePoint Effect ............................................................................. 112
SharePoint Governance ........................................................................................................... 112
Reason for the Guide................................................................................................................ 113
Guiding SharePoint Governance Axiom ................................................................................... 114
What Is CobiT? ......................................................................................................................... 114
Why COBIT? ............................................................................................................................. 116
The Benefits of Governance Using COBIT ............................................................................... 116
Advantages of the CobiT Framework ....................................................................................... 117
Mindbites and a Preview........................................................................................................... 117
COBIT and SharePoint ................................................................................................................... 119
Author‘s Mindbite—SharePoint is like cable TV ....................................................................... 119
The ―White Space‖—Another Uncomfortable Truth ................................................................. 120
The Need for Governance ........................................................................................................ 120
Author‘s Mindbite—Where else do we see governance?......................................................... 120
Faltering First Steps .................................................................................................................. 121
Methodology ............................................................................................................................. 121
Mitigation and Compensation ................................................................................................... 122
Compliance Considerations ...................................................................................................... 123
Description of Phases ............................................................................................................... 123
Framework Risks/Concerns...................................................................................................... 124
Scorecard ................................................................................................................................. 125
Tools ......................................................................................................................................... 125
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SharePoint Already Deployed? ................................................................................................ 125
The Road Ahead ....................................................................................................................... 125
SharePoint Governance--Scope Phase .......................................................................................... 126
Guiding principle: Do not ―build it and they will come.‖............................................................ 126
Overview ................................................................................................................................... 126
PO1 Define a Strategic IT Plan ................................................................................................ 127
Steering Committee—Some Thoughts ..................................................................................... 127
Author‘s Mindbite—The steering committee is like launch control. .......................................... 127
Steering Committee—Leadership ............................................................................................ 128
Steering Committee—Mission Statement................................................................................. 128
Steering Committee—Scope .................................................................................................... 128
Suggested Steering—Committee Team ................................................................................... 128
Steering Committee—Communication ..................................................................................... 129
PO2 Define the Information Architecture .................................................................................. 130
Author‘s Mindbite—Content control and Janet Jackson? ......................................................... 132
SharePoint in the Cloud (SharePoint Development and Governance Using COBIT 4.1) .............. 136
Why Is SharePoint So Important to Enterprises Considering the Cloud? ................................ 136
SharePoint 2010 Governance Planning (white paper).................................................................... 138
Implementing Governance in SharePoint 2010 (white paper) ........................................................ 139
Plan for social computing and collaboration (SharePoint Server 2010) ......................................... 140
User Profile service overview .......................................................................................................... 140
Plan user profiles............................................................................................................................. 141
Plan policies for user profiles .......................................................................................................... 141
Plan for profile synchronization ....................................................................................................... 141
Plan for audiences and content targeting ....................................................................................... 141
Plan My Site Web sites overview .................................................................................................... 141
Plan for My Site Web sites .............................................................................................................. 142
Social tagging overview .................................................................................................................. 142
Privacy and security implications of social tagging ......................................................................... 142
Enterprise Wikis overview ............................................................................................................... 142
Enterprise Wiki planning ................................................................................................................. 143
Collaboration site planning .............................................................................................................. 143
User Profile service overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................ 144
Uses and benefits of the User Profile service ................................................................................. 144
Architecture ..................................................................................................................................... 145
Related services .............................................................................................................................. 145
Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................................................. 146
About user profiles .......................................................................................................................... 146
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User profile properties ..................................................................................................................... 147
User profile policies ......................................................................................................................... 151
Memberships and colleagues ......................................................................................................... 151
Locating people and expertise ........................................................................................................ 151
Synchronizing profile properties ...................................................................................................... 152
Plan policies for user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................ 154
Default policies ................................................................................................................................ 154
Policies for user profile properties ................................................................................................... 155
Plan for profile synchronization (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................. 158
About Profile Synchronization ......................................................................................................... 158
Identify directory services and business systems ........................................................................... 159
Plan permissions ............................................................................................................................. 160
Determine which containers to synchronize ................................................................................... 162
Define Profile Synchronization connection filters ............................................................................ 162
Map profile properties ..................................................................................................................... 162
Define synchronization schedule .................................................................................................... 165
My Site Web sites overview (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................................. 166
Uses and benefits of My Site Web sites.......................................................................................... 166
My Site Web sites architecture ........................................................................................................ 166
Related features .............................................................................................................................. 167
Plan for My Site Web sites (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................................... 168
About planning My Site Web sites .................................................................................................. 168
Design My Site Web site architecture ............................................................................................. 168
Determine users and user permissions .......................................................................................... 169
Synchronize user profile information ............................................................................................... 170
Plan to locate people and expertise ................................................................................................ 170
Plan My Site features ...................................................................................................................... 171
Plan policies and privacy ................................................................................................................. 172
Audience and content targeting planning (SharePoint Server 2010) .............................................. 173
What are audiences? ...................................................................................................................... 173
Planning for audiences and content targeting ................................................................................. 174
Plan key audiences ................................................................................................................... 174
Plan how to target content to audiences .................................................................................. 175
Example: Configuring audiences for a personalization site ...................................................... 179
Social tagging overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................................ 180
About using social tagging features ................................................................................................ 180
Social tagging features .................................................................................................................... 180
Social tags ................................................................................................................................ 181
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Note Board ................................................................................................................................ 181
Ratings ...................................................................................................................................... 181
Bookmarklets ............................................................................................................................ 182
Use and benefits of social tagging .................................................................................................. 182
Business benefits ...................................................................................................................... 182
IT benefits ................................................................................................................................. 182
Impacts of social tagging ................................................................................................................. 183
Security and privacy ................................................................................................................. 183
Performance and capacity ........................................................................................................ 183
Privacy and security implications of social tagging (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................... 184
How social tagging information is hidden ........................................................................................ 184
Private tags ............................................................................................................................... 184
Ratings control .......................................................................................................................... 184
Security trimming ...................................................................................................................... 184
How social tagging information is displayed ................................................................................... 185
My Profile pages ....................................................................................................................... 185
Following ................................................................................................................................... 185
Web pages ................................................................................................................................ 186
What information is still exposed ..................................................................................................... 186
Recommendations .......................................................................................................................... 186
Enterprise Wikis overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................................................... 188
Comparison of Enterprise Wikis with Team Sites ........................................................................... 188
Uses and benefits of Enterprise Wikis ............................................................................................ 189
Limitations of Enterprise Wikis ........................................................................................................ 189
Example: Fabrikam Enterprise Wiki ................................................................................................ 189
Enterprise wiki planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................................ 190
About planning an Enterprise Wiki .................................................................................................. 190
Decide whether to use an Enterprise Wiki ...................................................................................... 190
Evaluate prerequisites ..................................................................................................................... 192
Choose a location for hosting an Enterprise Wiki ........................................................................... 192
Collaboration site planning (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................................... 193
Determine number of collaboration sites ........................................................................................ 193
Specific paths .................................................................................................................................. 193
Additional paths ............................................................................................................................... 194
Integration with Microsoft SharePoint Workspace 2010 ................................................................. 194
Enterprise content management planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................ 195
Document management planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ......................................................... 196
Document management overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................ 198
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The elements of a document management system ........................................................................ 198
The planning process ...................................................................................................................... 198
Identify users and analyze document usage (SharePoint Server 2010) ......................................... 200
Identify users ................................................................................................................................... 200
Analyze document usage ................................................................................................................ 201
Worksheets ............................................................................................................................... 203
Metadata-based routing and storage overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................... 204
About metadata-based routing and storage .................................................................................... 204
Content Organizer Settings ............................................................................................................. 205
Content Organizer Rules ................................................................................................................. 205
Activating the Content Organizer Feature for a site ........................................................................ 206
Metadata-based routing and storage planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................... 207
Planning for metadata-based routing and storage .......................................................................... 207
Determine how content is submitted ............................................................................................... 208
Plan drop-off libraries ...................................................................................................................... 208
Plan content organizer settings ....................................................................................................... 208
Content redirection ................................................................................................................... 208
Sending to another site ............................................................................................................. 209
Folder partitioning ..................................................................................................................... 209
Duplicate submissions .............................................................................................................. 210
Preserve context ....................................................................................................................... 210
Rule managers ......................................................................................................................... 210
Plan content organizer rules ........................................................................................................... 211
Determine rule name ................................................................................................................ 211
Determine rule status and priority ............................................................................................. 211
Determine content type............................................................................................................. 212
Plan conditions ......................................................................................................................... 213
Plan the target location ............................................................................................................. 213
Plan target location properties ........................................................................................................ 213
Metadata navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010) .............................................................. 215
About metadata navigation in SharePoint Server 2010 .................................................................. 215
Metadata navigation user controls .................................................................................................. 215
List owner controls .......................................................................................................................... 216
Automatic indexing .......................................................................................................................... 216
Indexed Queries .............................................................................................................................. 217
Fallback queries .............................................................................................................................. 217
Document library planning (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................................... 218
Plan document libraries ................................................................................................................... 218
Determine library type ............................................................................................................... 218
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Plan the flow of content ............................................................................................................ 221
Promoting document libraries from Office client applications ................................................... 222
Worksheet ....................................................................................................................................... 223
Enterprise content storage planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................................... 224
Understanding enterprise content storage ...................................................................................... 224
Typical large-scale content management scenarios ....................................................................... 225
Large-scale authoring environment .......................................................................................... 225
Large-scale content archive...................................................................................................... 225
Extremely large-scale content archive...................................................................................... 226
Storage levels: content storage benefits and considerations ......................................................... 226
Site collections .......................................................................................................................... 226
Sites .......................................................................................................................................... 227
Libraries .................................................................................................................................... 227
Folders ...................................................................................................................................... 228
Routing and storing enterprise content based on metadata ........................................................... 228
Navigating and filtering enterprise content by using metadata ....................................................... 228
List views ......................................................................................................................................... 229
Additional resources ........................................................................................................................ 230
Document Sets planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ....................................................................... 231
About documents sets ..................................................................................................................... 231
Administering Document Sets ......................................................................................................... 232
Planning Document Set content types ............................................................................................ 232
Worksheets ..................................................................................................................................... 234
Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................................... 235
Plan content types ........................................................................................................................... 235
What are content types? ........................................................................................................... 235
Plan workflows ................................................................................................................................ 244
Worksheets ..................................................................................................................................... 245
Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................. 246
Information management policies and policy features .................................................................... 246
Information management policy reporting ....................................................................................... 248
Information management policy integration with Office system applications.................................. 248
Policy features available in SharePoint Server 2010 ...................................................................... 248
Plan document policies ................................................................................................................... 249
Worksheet ....................................................................................................................................... 250
Versioning, content approval, and check-out planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ......................... 251
About versioning, content approval, and check-outs ...................................................................... 251
Plan versioning ................................................................................................................................ 251
Plan content approval ..................................................................................................................... 252
xii
Plan check-out and check-in ........................................................................................................... 253
Worksheet ....................................................................................................................................... 254
Co-authoring overview (SharePoint Server 2010) .......................................................................... 255
Co-authoring functionality in SharePoint Server 2010 .................................................................... 255
Understanding the end-user experience ......................................................................................... 256
Important considerations ................................................................................................................. 256
OneNote Notebooks ........................................................................................................................ 257
Software Version Requirements ..................................................................................................... 258
Co-Authoring in a mixed Office environment .................................................................................. 258
Mixed environment that has Microsoft Office PowerPoint and Word 2007 .............................. 258
Mixed environment that has Microsoft Office OneNote 2007 ................................................... 258
Performance and scalability ............................................................................................................ 258
Records management planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................ 260
Records management overview (SharePoint Server 2010)............................................................ 261
Elements of a records management system ................................................................................... 261
Overview of records management planning ................................................................................... 263
Create a file plan to manage records in SharePoint Server 2010 .................................................. 265
Identify kinds of records .................................................................................................................. 265
Complete the file plan ..................................................................................................................... 266
Worksheet ....................................................................................................................................... 268
Plan how records are collected (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................. 269
Techniques for converting active documents to records ................................................................ 269
Creating records manually ........................................................................................................ 269
Defining a policy ....................................................................................................................... 270
Creating a workflow .................................................................................................................. 270
Using a custom solution............................................................................................................ 270
Completing your plan ...................................................................................................................... 271
Physical records planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................................................... 272
Identify record types ........................................................................................................................ 272
Identify properties of each record type ............................................................................................ 272
Organize content types ................................................................................................................... 273
Organize the records archive .......................................................................................................... 274
Worksheet ....................................................................................................................................... 274
Planning for eDiscovery (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................................ 275
How SharePoint Server 2010 supports eDiscovery ........................................................................ 275
Auditing ........................................................................................................................................... 276
Expiration ........................................................................................................................................ 276
Search ............................................................................................................................................. 276
xiii
Using a records archive versus managing records in place (SharePoint Server 2010) ................. 277
Designing for in-place records management .................................................................................. 279
Overview of in-place records management planning ...................................................................... 279
Folders or content types? ................................................................................................................ 280
Defining content types ..................................................................................................................... 281
Organizing folders for in-place records management ..................................................................... 281
Option 1: Users decide where they want to store documents .................................................. 281
Option 2: Use the Content Organizer to determine where to store documents ....................... 282
General records management planning tasks ................................................................................ 282
Worksheets ..................................................................................................................................... 283
Digital asset management planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ...................................................... 284
Digital asset management overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................................... 285
About digital asset management ..................................................................................................... 285
Users of a digital asset management system ................................................................................. 286
Digital asset management in SharePoint Server 2010 ................................................................... 286
Scenarios for using the asset library ............................................................................................... 287
Plan digital asset management (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................. 289
Asset library overview ..................................................................................................................... 289
Plan for asset libraries ..................................................................................................................... 290
Identify digital asset management roles ................................................................................... 290
Analyze asset usage ................................................................................................................. 290
Plan organization of asset libraries ........................................................................................... 291
Plan content types .................................................................................................................... 291
Plan content governance for digital assets ............................................................................... 292
Plan workflows .......................................................................................................................... 292
Plan policies .............................................................................................................................. 292
Other uses for an asset library ................................................................................................. 292
Plan for permissions and security ................................................................................................... 293
Plan for storage and performance................................................................................................... 293
Plan for metadata and Search ........................................................................................................ 294
Plan for Web Parts and Web pages ................................................................................................ 294
Plan for client support ..................................................................................................................... 295
Digital asset management topology and architecture (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................... 296
Logical architecture for digital asset management .......................................................................... 296
Components of a digital asset management topology .................................................................... 299
Typical digital asset management topology .................................................................................... 300
Scaling topologies for digital asset management ............................................................................ 301
Plan Web content management (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................ 302
xiv
Publishing features overview .......................................................................................................... 303
About publishing sites ..................................................................................................................... 303
About publishing features ................................................................................................................ 304
SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure features ..................................................................... 304
Site templates ........................................................................................................................... 304
Groups and permission levels .................................................................................................. 304
Site settings .............................................................................................................................. 305
Navigation ................................................................................................................................. 305
Theme changes ........................................................................................................................ 305
Master pages and page layouts ............................................................................................... 306
Images and style sheets ........................................................................................................... 306
Document libraries and lists ..................................................................................................... 306
Content types ............................................................................................................................ 307
Columns .................................................................................................................................... 307
Web Parts ................................................................................................................................. 307
Page editing menu .................................................................................................................... 308
Timer jobs ................................................................................................................................. 308
SharePoint Server Publishing features ........................................................................................... 309
Site settings .............................................................................................................................. 309
Regional settings ...................................................................................................................... 310
Document libraries and lists ..................................................................................................... 310
Page editing menu .................................................................................................................... 310
Other changes .......................................................................................................................... 311
Other publishing features ................................................................................................................ 311
Plan Web pages .............................................................................................................................. 313
Web pages overview ....................................................................................................................... 313
Master pages ............................................................................................................................ 314
Page layouts ............................................................................................................................. 315
Content pages .......................................................................................................................... 315
Plan master pages .......................................................................................................................... 316
Plan page layouts ............................................................................................................................ 316
Plan content pages ......................................................................................................................... 318
Using page layouts to restrict authoring .......................................................................................... 319
Setting restrictions on field controls .......................................................................................... 320
Allowing or restricting Web Part zones ..................................................................................... 320
Web page planning worksheet ........................................................................................................ 321
Plan Web page authoring (SharePoint Server 2010)...................................................................... 322
About planning Web page authoring ............................................................................................... 322
Plan ribbon authoring experience ................................................................................................... 322
Plan managed metadata ................................................................................................................. 324
Plan reusable content ..................................................................................................................... 325
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Plan dictionary customizations ........................................................................................................ 325
Plan additional resources ................................................................................................................ 326
Web page authoring planning worksheet ........................................................................................ 326
Plan content approval and scheduling ............................................................................................ 327
About planning content approval and content scheduling .............................................................. 327
Plan content approval ..................................................................................................................... 327
Plan content scheduling .................................................................................................................. 328
Using content deployment with content approval and scheduling .................................................. 328
Plan for caching and performance (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................ 330
Disk-based BLOB caching .............................................................................................................. 330
BLOB cache overview .............................................................................................................. 330
Decide whether to use the BLOB cache ................................................................................... 331
Store the BLOB cache .............................................................................................................. 331
Enable the BLOB cache ........................................................................................................... 332
Specify the size of the BLOB cache ......................................................................................... 332
Bit Rate Throttling............................................................................................................................ 332
Bit Rate Throttling overview ...................................................................................................... 332
Decide to use Bit Rate Throttling .............................................................................................. 332
Enable Bit Rate Throttling ......................................................................................................... 333
Maximum upload file size ................................................................................................................ 333
Maximum upload file size overview .......................................................................................... 333
Decide maximum upload file size ............................................................................................. 333
Configure the maximum upload file size ................................................................................... 334
Plan for large Pages libraries (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................ 335
About large Pages libraries ............................................................................................................. 335
Determine whether to use a large Pages library ............................................................................. 336
Decide how to manage pages......................................................................................................... 336
Plan for navigation........................................................................................................................... 337
Planning the Global Navigation and the Current Navigation menus ........................................ 337
Planning other Web parts for navigation .................................................................................. 337
Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................... 339
What is content deployment? .......................................................................................................... 339
About deployment paths and jobs ................................................................................................... 340
Content deployment paths ........................................................................................................ 340
Content deployment jobs .......................................................................................................... 341
About content deployment security ................................................................................................. 342
How content deployment works ...................................................................................................... 343
Important considerations in content deployment ............................................................................ 346
Plan content deployment (SharePoint Server 2010) ....................................................................... 348
xvi
About planning content deployment ................................................................................................ 348
Determine whether to use content deployment .............................................................................. 348
Determine how many server farms you need ................................................................................. 349
Plan the export and import servers ................................................................................................. 349
Plan content deployment paths ....................................................................................................... 350
Plan job scheduling ......................................................................................................................... 350
Plan for large jobs ........................................................................................................................... 351
Content deployment planning worksheet ........................................................................................ 351
Design content deployment topology .............................................................................................. 352
Elements of content deployment topologies ................................................................................... 352
Typical content deployment topologies ........................................................................................... 352
Two-farm topology .................................................................................................................... 352
Three-stage topology ................................................................................................................ 353
Single-farm topology ................................................................................................................. 354
Variations overview ......................................................................................................................... 356
Use and benefits of variations ......................................................................................................... 356
Scenarios for using variations ......................................................................................................... 357
Elements of variations ..................................................................................................................... 357
Understanding variations ................................................................................................................ 358
Variation labels ......................................................................................................................... 358
Variation settings ...................................................................................................................... 359
Variations timer jobs ................................................................................................................. 360
Understanding source variation and target variation site creation .................................................. 361
Understanding site and page creation ............................................................................................ 361
Site creation .............................................................................................................................. 361
Page creation ............................................................................................................................ 362
Limitations of variations ................................................................................................................... 363
Plan variations ................................................................................................................................. 364
About planning variations ................................................................................................................ 364
Important items to consider when planning to use variations ......................................................... 365
Content approval ...................................................................................................................... 365
Site navigation .......................................................................................................................... 366
Content deployment .................................................................................................................. 366
Web Parts ................................................................................................................................. 366
Multilingual sites ....................................................................................................................... 367
Determine the types of variations needed ...................................................................................... 367
Select the variation root site ............................................................................................................ 367
Specify the source variation site ..................................................................................................... 368
Plan target variation sites ................................................................................................................ 368
Plan custom master pages, layout pages or style sheets ........................................................ 368
xvii
Plan custom content types........................................................................................................ 368
Decide how sites and pages will be created on target variation sites ............................................. 369
Plan variations timer job scheduling................................................................................................ 370
Variations planning worksheet ........................................................................................................ 370
Plan information architecture for Web content management .......................................................... 371
General planning recommendations ............................................................................................... 371
Plan the structure of your site ......................................................................................................... 372
Plan for social computing and collaboration ................................................................................... 372
Plan for managed metadata ............................................................................................................ 373
Plan for business intelligence and business data ........................................................................... 373
Plan for search ................................................................................................................................ 373
Plan managed metadata (SharePoint Server 2010) ....................................................................... 375
Managed metadata overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................ 376
Understanding managed metadata ................................................................................................. 376
Terms and term sets ................................................................................................................. 376
Managed terms, enterprise keywords, and the term store ....................................................... 377
Working with managed metadata.................................................................................................... 377
Creating terms .......................................................................................................................... 377
Using terms ............................................................................................................................... 379
Entering terms .......................................................................................................................... 379
Entering enterprise keywords ................................................................................................... 380
Benefits of using managed metadata.............................................................................................. 381
More consistent use of terminology .......................................................................................... 381
Better search results ................................................................................................................. 381
Dynamic .................................................................................................................................... 381
Managed metadata service application overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................. 382
Managed metadata services ........................................................................................................... 382
Managed metadata connections ..................................................................................................... 382
Permissions for accessing a managed metadata service ............................................................... 383
Example scenario ............................................................................................................................ 384
Design ....................................................................................................................................... 384
Permissions .............................................................................................................................. 386
Connection parameters ............................................................................................................ 386
Managed metadata roles (SharePoint Server 2010) ...................................................................... 389
Roles and capabilities ..................................................................................................................... 389
Plan terms and term sets (SharePoint Server 2010) ...................................................................... 391
Plan: now or later ............................................................................................................................ 391
About planning managed metadata ................................................................................................ 391
xviii
Identify term sets ............................................................................................................................. 392
Identify term set owners .................................................................................................................. 393
Determine term set groups .............................................................................................................. 393
Define term sets .............................................................................................................................. 394
Identify the terms ...................................................................................................................... 394
Organize the terms ................................................................................................................... 394
Identify who can add terms ....................................................................................................... 395
Managed metadata planning worksheets ....................................................................................... 395
Plan to import managed metadata (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................ 396
About planning to import managed metadata ................................................................................. 396
Locating existing data ..................................................................................................................... 397
Organizing the data into managed metadata .................................................................................. 397
Cleaning up the data ....................................................................................................................... 397
Formatting the data to be imported ................................................................................................. 398
Importing the managed metadata ................................................................................................... 398
Merging terms ................................................................................................................................. 398
Plan to share terminology and content types (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................ 399
About planning managed metadata services and connections ...................................................... 399
Identify managed metadata services .............................................................................................. 400
Identify managed metadata connections ........................................................................................ 400
Determine service account permissions ......................................................................................... 401
Managed metadata services planning worksheet ........................................................................... 402
Multilingual term sets (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................................ 403
Defining terms ................................................................................................................................. 403
Using terms (tagging) ...................................................................................................................... 404
How terms are displayed ................................................................................................................. 405
Recommendations .......................................................................................................................... 405
Business intelligence planning ........................................................................................................ 407
Business intelligence basics ........................................................................................................... 408
Choosing a business intelligence tool in SharePoint Server .......................................................... 409
Services in SharePoint Server for business intelligence................................................................. 410
Excel 2010 ................................................................................................................................ 410
Excel Services .......................................................................................................................... 410
Visio Services ........................................................................................................................... 410
PerformancePoint Services ...................................................................................................... 410
Matching a tool with a broad scenario ...................................................................................... 411
SQL Server Reporting Services in SharePoint Server .................................................................... 411
PowerPivot for Excel 2010 .............................................................................................................. 412
xix
Architecture for business intelligence in SharePoint Server 2010 .................................................. 413
Secure Store for Business Intelligence service applications .......................................................... 416
Secure Store Service ...................................................................................................................... 416
Data connection files ....................................................................................................................... 417
The Unattended Service Account ................................................................................................... 418
Data access from client and server ................................................................................................. 418
Excel Services and Visio Services .................................................................................................. 418
Excel Services .......................................................................................................................... 418
Visio Services ........................................................................................................................... 419
PerformancePoint Services ............................................................................................................. 419
Summary of differences .................................................................................................................. 419
Overview of documentation for SQL Server Reporting Services reports in SharePoint ................. 421
Overview of Reporting Services in SharePoint integrated mode .................................................... 421
Planning and architecture for Reporting Services in SharePoint integrated mode ......................... 421
Configuration for Reporting Services in SharePoint integrated mode ............................................ 422
Overview of PowerPivot documentation (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................... 423
Overview of PowerPivot for Excel and SharePoint ......................................................................... 423
Planning and architecture for PowerPivot in SharePoint and Excel Services ................................ 423
Deployment for PowerPivot in Excel Services and SharePoint 2010 Products .............................. 424
Data warehousing, OLAP, and Analysis Services for SharePoint 2010 ......................................... 425
Overview of data warehousing, OLAP, and PowerPivot and relation to SharePoint 2010 ............. 425
Excel Services overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ....................................................................... 427
What is Excel Services? .................................................................................................................. 427
Overview of Excel Services architecture ......................................................................................... 429
Excel Services Components ........................................................................................................... 429
Performance and Scalability ..................................................................................................... 430
Plan Excel Services data sources and external connections ......................................................... 431
Connections and Excel workbooks ................................................................................................. 431
Embedded and linked connections ........................................................................................... 431
Data providers .......................................................................................................................... 432
Authentication to external data ................................................................................................. 432
Data connection libraries and managed connections ............................................................... 436
Excel Services security and external data ................................................................................ 439
Plan Excel Services data providers (SharePoint Server 2010) ...................................................... 444
Data providers ................................................................................................................................. 444
Trusted data providers .............................................................................................................. 444
xx
Plan Excel Services authentication (SharePoint Server 2010) ....................................................... 445
About Excel Services security ......................................................................................................... 445
Plan user authentication .................................................................................................................. 446
Plan communication among servers ............................................................................................... 446
Plan external data authentication .................................................................................................... 447
Integrated Windows authentication .......................................................................................... 447
Secure Store Service authentication ........................................................................................ 447
None ......................................................................................................................................... 448
Unattended service account ..................................................................................................... 448
Security settings ....................................................................................................................... 449
File access method ................................................................................................................... 449
Connection encryption .............................................................................................................. 450
Trusted file locations ................................................................................................................. 450
Trusted data providers .............................................................................................................. 452
Trusted data connection libraries ............................................................................................. 452
View Only permissions ............................................................................................................. 453
External data connections ........................................................................................................ 453
.odc files .................................................................................................................................... 453
Managing .odc files ................................................................................................................... 454
User-defined function assemblies ............................................................................................ 454
Excel Services capacity planning .................................................................................................... 455
High Performance Computing Services for Excel 2010 .................................................................. 455
Plan for PerformancePoint Services (SharePoint Server 2010) ..................................................... 456
PerformancePoint Services overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................... 458
PerformancePoint Services ............................................................................................................. 458
New features and enhancements ............................................................................................. 458
Retired features ............................................................................................................................... 459
Overview of PerformancePoint Services architecture..................................................................... 460
PerformancePoint Services topology .............................................................................................. 460
PerformancePoint Services as a service application ............................................................... 460
Estimate performance and capacity requirements for PerformancePoint Services ....................... 462
Test farm characteristics ................................................................................................................. 462
Test scenarios and processes ........................................................................................................ 463
Hardware setting and topology ....................................................................................................... 464
Test results ...................................................................................................................................... 465
2M and 3M topologies ..................................................................................................................... 467
4M+ results for Unattended Service Account authentication .......................................................... 470
4M+ Results for per-user authentication ......................................................................................... 470
Recommendations .......................................................................................................................... 471
xxi
Analysis Services ............................................................................................................................ 473
Common bottlenecks and their causes ........................................................................................... 473
Performance monitoring .................................................................................................................. 474
Client hardware and software requirements for PerformancePoint Dashboard Designer .............. 476
Hardware requirements ................................................................................................................... 476
Software requirements .................................................................................................................... 476
Plan for importing PerformancePoint Server 2007 dashboard content to SharePoint Server 2010
(SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................................................................ 477
Reports types not supported in PerformancePoint Services .......................................................... 477
Planning permissions and roles ...................................................................................................... 477
Roles and permissions .................................................................................................................... 478
Running the wizard.......................................................................................................................... 479
Post-migration tasks for the PerformancePoint dashboard author ................................................. 481
Post-migration tasks for the dashboard author ............................................................................... 481
Plan for PerformancePoint Services security (SharePoint Server 2010)........................................ 483
Authentication.................................................................................................................................. 483
Trusted Locations ............................................................................................................................ 483
Trusted data content libraries .......................................................................................................... 484
Trusted Lists for Dashboard Content .............................................................................................. 484
Data source security ....................................................................................................................... 485
The Secure Store Service and Unattended Service Accounts ....................................................... 485
Claims-based authentication ........................................................................................................... 485
Authorization and permissions in PerformancePoint Services (SharePoint Server 2010) ............. 487
Planning permissions and roles ...................................................................................................... 487
Roles and permissions .................................................................................................................... 487
Planning for PerformancePoint data sources (PerformancePoint Services) .................................. 489
Tabular Data Sources ..................................................................................................................... 489
SharePoint Lists ........................................................................................................................ 489
Excel Services .......................................................................................................................... 489
SQL Server tables .................................................................................................................... 490
Excel workbooks ....................................................................................................................... 490
Multidimensional Data Sources ....................................................................................................... 490
Analysis Services ...................................................................................................................... 490
PowerPivot for Excel ....................................................................................................................... 490
Best practices for SQL Server 2005 and 2008 OLAP cube design and MDX querying ................. 492
SQL Server 2008 enhancements for business intelligence ............................................................ 492
Best practices for Analysis Services ............................................................................................... 492
xxii
Overview of PerformancePoint Services components .................................................................... 494
Dashboard Designer ................................................................................................................. 494
Web Parts ................................................................................................................................. 494
PerformancePoint Site collections ............................................................................................ 495
PerformancePoint Sites ............................................................................................................ 495
Plan to customize PerformancePoint Services ............................................................................... 496
Development scenarios for PerformancePoint Services................................................................. 496
Plan a dashboard to show organizational performance .................................................................. 497
Create a plan for your PerformancePoint dashboard ..................................................................... 498
Step 1: Identify the users and the kinds of information that they want to see ................................ 498
Step 2: Make sure that the data is available ................................................................................... 498
Step 3: Select the kinds of scorecards and reports that you want to use ....................................... 498
Step 4: Decide what kinds of filters that you want to include .......................................................... 499
Step 5: Create a sketch or mockup of your dashboard................................................................... 499
Overview of PerformancePoint strategy maps ................................................................................ 500
Strategy maps and the Balanced Scorecard .................................................................................. 500
Overview of PerformancePoint analytic charts and grids ............................................................... 502
Interactive functionality in analytic charts and grids ........................................................................ 502
Data sources for analytic charts and grids ...................................................................................... 503
Overview of Web Page reports in Dashboard Designer ................................................................. 504
Limitations of Web Page reports ..................................................................................................... 504
Overview of connecting filters to reports or scorecards .................................................................. 505
Comparing PerformancePoint filters to SharePoint Server filters ................................................... 505
Connecting Web Parts .................................................................................................................... 507
Selecting filters that will work with your dashboard item(s) ............................................................ 508
PerformancePoint Services and PowerPivot for Excel (white paper) ............................................. 509
Plan for Visio Services (SharePoint Server 2010) .......................................................................... 510
Visio Services overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................................................................ 511
Use and benefits of Visio Services.................................................................................................. 511
Data sources supported by Visio Services ..................................................................................... 511
Published Visio drawings ................................................................................................................ 512
Plan Visio Services deployment ...................................................................................................... 513
Visio Services performance ............................................................................................................ 513
Visio Graphics Service applications ................................................................................................ 514
Using a pilot deployment ................................................................................................................. 514
xxiii
Monitoring ........................................................................................................................................ 514
Backup and recovery of data .......................................................................................................... 515
Visio Professional 2010 and Visio Premium 2010 deployment ...................................................... 515
Plan Visio Services security (SharePoint Server 2010) .................................................................. 516
Web drawings that are not connected to data ................................................................................ 516
Visio Web drawings that are connected to data .............................................................................. 516
Visio Web drawings that are connected to SharePoint lists ..................................................... 517
Visio Web drawings that are connected to Excel Services ...................................................... 517
Visio Web drawings that are connected to SQL Server databases ......................................... 517
Data authentication for Visio Services ............................................................................................ 519
Connecting to data hosted on SharePoint Server ........................................................................... 520
Connecting to Excel workbooks ............................................................................................... 520
Connecting to SharePoint lists ................................................................................................. 520
Connecting to external data ............................................................................................................ 520
Data connections ...................................................................................................................... 521
Windows authentication ............................................................................................................ 523
SQL Server Authentication ....................................................................................................... 529
Authentication against OLEDB/ODBC data sources ................................................................ 529
Data refresh..................................................................................................................................... 529
Visio Services resources ................................................................................................................. 531
Documentation, references, and white papers ............................................................................... 531
Blog posts ........................................................................................................................................ 531
Video demonstrations ..................................................................................................................... 531
Plan for Business Intelligence Indexing Connector (SharePoint Server 2010) .............................. 532
Introduction to Business Intelligence Indexing Connector .............................................................. 533
Features of Business Intelligence Indexing Connector ................................................................... 533
Overview of Business Intelligence Indexing Connector search tab interface ................................. 535
Reports tab ...................................................................................................................................... 535
Results description .......................................................................................................................... 535
Document thumbnail ....................................................................................................................... 536
Preview, duplicates, View in Browser ............................................................................................. 536
Refinement categories .................................................................................................................... 536
Determine software requirements for Business Intelligence Indexing Connector .......................... 538
Software requirements for Business Intelligence Indexing Connector: back end ........................... 538
Installing software prerequisites ...................................................................................................... 538
Software requirements for Business Intelligence Indexing Connector: front end ........................... 539
Install Microsoft Business Intelligence Indexing Connector — front end and back end ................. 539
xxiv
Overview of Business Intelligence Indexing Connector architecture .............................................. 540
Setup for FAST Search Server 2010 for SharePoint (back end) .................................................... 540
Setup for SharePoint Server 2010 (front end) ................................................................................ 541
Logical architecture ......................................................................................................................... 541
Understanding planning solutions and scenarios (white paper) ..................................................... 542
Business data and processes planning (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................ 543
Plan for Business Connectivity Services (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................... 544
Business Connectivity Services overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................. 545
Typical solutions based on Business Connectivity Services .......................................................... 545
Business Connectivity Services architecture .................................................................................. 547
Business Connectivity Services security overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................... 549
About this article .............................................................................................................................. 549
Business Connectivity Services security architecture ..................................................................... 549
Accessing external data from a Web browser .......................................................................... 549
Accessing external data from an Office client application ........................................................ 551
Business Connectivity Services authentication overview ............................................................... 552
Configuring Business Connectivity Services for credentials authentication ............................. 552
Configuring Business Connectivity Services for claims-based authentication ......................... 556
Business Connectivity Service permissions overview .................................................................... 558
What can permissions be set on? ............................................................................................ 558
Special permissions on the Business Data Connectivity service ............................................. 562
Common tasks and their related permissions .......................................................................... 562
Securing Business Connectivity Services ....................................................................................... 564
Service account ........................................................................................................................ 564
Server to server communication ............................................................................................... 564
Applications that use FileBackedMetadataCatalog .................................................................. 564
Business Data Connectivity service administration overview (SharePoint Server 2010) ............... 565
The Business Data Connectivity service ......................................................................................... 565
What can be administered in the Business Data Connectivity service? ......................................... 566
Plan Business Connectivity Services client integration (SharePoint Server 2010) ........................ 568
Prerequisites ................................................................................................................................... 568
Installing deployment packages ...................................................................................................... 569
ClickOnce applications and trust-prompt behavior ................................................................... 569
Secure Store Service group mappings ..................................................................................... 570
Sign in as Different User ........................................................................................................... 571
Security considerations ................................................................................................................... 571
Secure communications ........................................................................................................... 571
External list permissions ........................................................................................................... 571
xxv
Outlook Web Access Web Parts .............................................................................................. 571
Client throttle limits ................................................................................................................... 571
Diagnostic logging in Business Connectivity Services overview (SharePoint Server 2010) .......... 575
Diagnostic logging in Business Connectivity Services .................................................................... 575
About Activity IDs ............................................................................................................................ 577
Diagnostic logging on servers ......................................................................................................... 578
Diagnostic logging on Office 2010 clients ....................................................................................... 578
Example: using diagnostic logging .................................................................................................. 579
Plan to upgrade to Business Connectivity Services (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................. 581
The Business Data Catalog, Application Registry, and Business Data Connectivity service ......... 581
How Business Connectivity Services upgrade works ..................................................................... 582
Upgrading by using database attach............................................................................................... 583
Solution-specific upgrade considerations ....................................................................................... 584
Models ...................................................................................................................................... 584
Web Parts ................................................................................................................................. 585
Search....................................................................................................................................... 585
Single sign-on ........................................................................................................................... 585
Maintaining service databases on separate servers ................................................................ 586
Maintaining parent and child farm relationships ....................................................................... 586
Plan InfoPath Forms Services (SharePoint Server 2010)............................................................... 587
About forms in SharePoint Server 2010 ......................................................................................... 588
InfoPath forms overview .................................................................................................................. 588
Role of forms in SharePoint solutions ............................................................................................. 589
Types of InfoPath forms .................................................................................................................. 589
InfoPath components ................................................................................................................ 589
Web browser vs. Filler-only forms ............................................................................................ 590
Web browser forms................................................................................................................... 590
SharePoint list forms................................................................................................................. 590
External list forms ..................................................................................................................... 591
Form library forms..................................................................................................................... 591
Workflow forms ......................................................................................................................... 591
Deploying forms .............................................................................................................................. 591
Publishing browser forms without code .................................................................................... 591
Publishing browser forms with code ......................................................................................... 592
Filling out forms ............................................................................................................................... 594
Browser vs. Filler forms ............................................................................................................ 594
Offline form-filling ...................................................................................................................... 594
InfoPath Form Web Part ........................................................................................................... 594
Plan a forms-driven application ....................................................................................................... 595
xxvi
Structure of a form-driven application ............................................................................................. 595
About planning a common form-driven application ......................................................................... 596
Identifying the key piece of information ........................................................................................... 596
Using a list or a form library ............................................................................................................ 596
Workflow.......................................................................................................................................... 597
Additional data sources ................................................................................................................... 597
Portals ............................................................................................................................................. 598
Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 599
Plan for user form templates (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................................................. 600
About user form templates .............................................................................................................. 600
Browser-enabled user form templates ............................................................................................ 600
Plan external data access ............................................................................................................... 601
Cross-domain access ............................................................................................................... 601
InfoPath Forms Services Web service proxy............................................................................ 601
Authentication information in data connection files .................................................................. 602
Data connection library ................................................................................................................... 602
Plan to upgrade form templates during an upgrade to SharePoint Server 2010 ............................ 604
About upgrading forms during an upgrade to SharePoint Server 2010 .......................................... 604
Upgrade form templates during a database attach upgrade to SharePoint Server 2010 ............... 604
Export and import administrator-approved form template files between configuration databases
............................................................................................................................................... 606
Update form template links to the server .................................................................................. 606
Upgrade form templates during an in-place upgrade to SharePoint Server 2010 .......................... 607
InfoPath 2010 Enhanced Integration with SharePoint Server 2010 and Its Implications When
Designing Forms for Applications (white paper) .......................................................................... 608
Plan workflows (SharePoint Server 2010) ...................................................................................... 609
Workflows overview (SharePoint Server 2010) .............................................................................. 610
Workflow overview .......................................................................................................................... 610
Benefits of using workflows ............................................................................................................. 610
Automating business processes ............................................................................................... 611
Workflows improve collaboration .............................................................................................. 612
Predefined workflows ...................................................................................................................... 612
Sample workflow scenario .............................................................................................................. 613
Workflow types: Declarative and compiled ..................................................................................... 615
Workflow templates ......................................................................................................................... 615
Workflow associations ..................................................................................................................... 616
Office client interoperability ............................................................................................................. 616
Choose a workflow authoring tool (SharePoint Server 2010) ......................................................... 618
xxvii
Authoring workflows with Visual Studio 2010 and WF Workflow Designer .................................... 618
Authoring workflows with Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 ..................................................... 621
Authoring tool comparison .............................................................................................................. 623
Plan for approval and review processes in workflows (SharePoint Server 2010) .......................... 625
Workflow approval overview ........................................................................................................... 625
How the Approval workflow works .................................................................................................. 625
Example — Manage the document approval process by using a workflow ............................. 626
Hybrid review model ........................................................................................................................ 627
Plan for workflow security and user management (SharePoint Server 2010) ................................ 628
List manager, administrator, and developer roles and responsibilities ........................................... 628
Workflow developers ................................................................................................................ 628
Site administrators .................................................................................................................... 628
List administrators (anyone with Manage List or Web Designer permissions)......................... 628
Running workflows as an administrator .......................................................................................... 629
Workflow configuration settings ...................................................................................................... 629
Required permissions to start a workflow ................................................................................. 629
Central Administration settings ................................................................................................. 629
Information disclosure in task and workflow history lists................................................................. 632
Spoofing and tampering attacks in the task and workflow history lists ........................................... 633
Security issues in the workflow history list................................................................................ 633
User-Impersonation Step type for declarative workflows ................................................................ 634
Approval Workflow: A Scenario (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................ 636
Authoring a workflow ....................................................................................................................... 636
Associating a workflow .................................................................................................................... 636
Associating a workflow with a site ................................................................................................... 637
Starting a workflow .......................................................................................................................... 637
Interacting with a workflow .............................................................................................................. 638
Summarizing the process ................................................................................................................ 639
Approval workflow scenario ............................................................................................................ 639
Access Services planning ............................................................................................................... 641
Introduction to Access Services (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................................ 642
Who should use Access Services? ................................................................................................. 642
Features of Access Services ........................................................................................................... 642
Improving the reach and manageability of Access 2010 database applications with Access Services
(white paper) ................................................................................................................................ 643
Plan site creation and maintenance (SharePoint Server 2010) ...................................................... 644
Plan process for creating sites (SharePoint Server 2010) .............................................................. 645
xxviii
Determine who can create sites and a method for site creation ..................................................... 645
Plan for Self-Service Site Management .......................................................................................... 646
Plan for custom site creation processes ......................................................................................... 647
Worksheet ....................................................................................................................................... 647
Plan site maintenance and management (SharePoint Server 2010) .............................................. 648
Plan for site maintenance ................................................................................................................ 648
Plan for managing site collections ................................................................................................... 649
Plan site collection quotas ........................................................................................................ 649
Plan site use confirmation and deletion .................................................................................... 649
Worksheet ....................................................................................................................................... 650
Plan quota management (SharePoint Server 2010) ....................................................................... 651
About planning quota management ................................................................................................ 651
Determine quota template settings ................................................................................................. 651
Determine recycle bin settings ........................................................................................................ 652
Delete unused Web sites ................................................................................................................ 653
Reporting and usage analysis overview ......................................................................................... 654
Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 654
Reporting ......................................................................................................................................... 654
Traffic reports ............................................................................................................................ 655
Search reports .......................................................................................................................... 656
Inventory reports ....................................................................................................................... 658
Web Analytics workflow .................................................................................................................. 660
Web Analytics Web Part ................................................................................................................. 660
Plan e-mail integration (SharePoint Server 2010) .......................................................................... 661
Plan for server farms and environments (SharePoint Server 2010) ............................................... 662
Planning worksheets for SharePoint Server 2010 .......................................................................... 663
Planning worksheets by task ........................................................................................................... 663
Planning worksheets by title ............................................................................................................ 667
xxix
Getting help
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this book. This content is also available online in
the Office System TechNet Library, so if you run into problems you can check for updates at:
http://technet.microsoft.com/office
If you do not find your answer in our online content, you can send an e-mail message to the Microsoft
Office System and Servers content team at:
[email protected]
If your question is about Microsoft Office products, and not about the content of this book, please
search the Microsoft Help and Support Center or the Microsoft Knowledge Base at:
http://support.microsoft.com
xxx
Planning and architecture for SharePoint Server
2010
IT pros can use the content in the planning and architecture guides to develop conceptual, logical, and
physical designs for configuring Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 features, servers, and topologies.
This section also provides recommendations for system designs based on customer scenarios and
includes information to help IT pros design a highly reliable, consistently available, and scalable
system.
Downloadable resources

Technical diagrams

Planning worksheets for SharePoint Server 2010

Video demos and training for SharePoint Server 2010
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/7bd43d63-26e9-45b7-b1bb-f8775a260709(Office.14).aspx)
1
Planning articles
Site and solution
Server and farm environment planning
planning

Fundamental site
components

System requirements (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/64233599f18c-4081-a3ce-450e878a1b9f(Office.14).aspx)

Security for sites
and content

Services architecture (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/e9874ee4-6f3446c1-8516-a7b8af300820(Office.14).aspx)

Governance


Social computing
and collaboration
Logical architecture (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/aaed3a01-f4dc4353-abda-0beced2080b6(Office.14).aspx)

Enterprise content
management
Authentication (http://technet.microsoft.com/hi-in/library/ee794879(enus).aspx)

Web content
management
Security hardening (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/763613ac-83f4424e-99d0-32efd0667bd9(Office.14).aspx)

Business continuity management
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/9aafbcc8-c1f0-4037-a249b465d301bd43(Office.14).aspx)

Performance and capacity management
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/8dd52916-f77d-4444-b5931f7d6f330e5f(Office.14).aspx)

Virtualization (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/71c203cd-7534-47b09122-657d72ff0080(Office.14).aspx)



Managed metadata

Business
intelligence

Business data and
processes

Access Services

Quota
management
2
Technical diagrams (SharePoint Server 2010)
Many of these resources are visual representations of recommended solutions. They include postersized documents available in formats including Microsoft Office Visio 2007 or Microsoft Visio 2010 files
(.vsd), PDF files, and XPS files. You might need extra software to view these files. See the following
table for information about opening these files.
File
Software
type
.vsd
Office Visio 2007, Microsoft Visio 2010, or the free Visio viewer
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=118761&clcid=0x409)
If you use the Visio viewer, right-click the VSD link, click Save Target As, save the file to your
computer, and then open the file from your computer.
.pdf
Any PDF viewer, such as Adobe Reader
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=134751&clcid=0x409)
.xps
Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP with .NET Framework 3.0, or XPS Essentials Pack
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=134750&clcid=0x409)
Models
Models are 34-by-44-inch posters that detail a specific technical area. These models are intended to be
used with corresponding articles on TechNet. These models are created by using Office Visio 2007.
You can modify the Visio files to illustrate how you plan to incorporate Microsoft SharePoint 2010
Products in your own environment.
Title
Description
Design Sample: Corporate Portal with Classic
Authentication
Illustrate a typical corporate deployment,
with the most common types of sites
represented. The two samples differ only in
the mode of authentication that is
implemented.
Use these design samples with the
following article: Design sample: Corporate
deployment (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/1cffb27
8-6497-46fc-abd03dd652064c89(Office.14).aspx)
3
Title
Description
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=196969)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=196970)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=196971)
Design Sample: Corporate Portal with Claims-based
Authentication
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=196972)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=196973)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=196974)
SharePoint 2010 Products Deployment
Presents such deployment-related
information as the different deployment
stages and environments, plus a flowchart
that illustrates the steps for installing and
configuring SharePoint 2010 Products.
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=183024)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=183025)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=183026)
Services in SharePoint 2010 Products
Describes and illustrates the services
architecture, including common ways to
deploy services in your overall solution
design.
Use this diagram with the following articles:

Services architecture planning
(SharePoint Foundation 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/217
4
Title
Description
0a997-9340-42ad-8d6a41f9b4dccdfd(Office.14).aspx)

Services architecture planning
(SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/e98
74ee4-6f34-46c1-8516a7b8af300820(Office.14).aspx)
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167090)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167092)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167091)
Cross-farm Services in SharePoint 2010 Products
Illustrates how to deploy services across
farms to provide centralized administration
of services.
Use this diagram with the following articles:
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167093)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167095)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167094)
Topologies for SharePoint Server 2010

Services architecture planning
(SharePoint Foundation 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/217
0a997-9340-42ad-8d6a41f9b4dccdfd(Office.14).aspx)

Services architecture planning
(SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/e98
74ee4-6f34-46c1-8516a7b8af300820(Office.14).aspx)
Describes common ways to build and scale
farm topologies, including planning which
servers to start services on.
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167087)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167089)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167088)
5
Title
Description
Extranet Topologies for SharePoint 2010 Products
Illustrates the specific extranet topologies
that have been tested with SharePoint 2010
Products. Provides a comparison of ISA
Server, Forefront TMG, Forefront UAG
when used as a firewall or gateway product
with SharePoint 2010 Products.
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=187987)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=187988)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=187986)
Hosting Environments in SharePoint 2010 Products
Summarizes the support for hosting
environments and illustrates common
hosting architectures.
For more information on designing and
deploying hosting environments, see the
following: White paper: SharePoint 2010 for
hosters (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/b74fb2
4f-0f9a-405e-992deb83d09be0fe(Office.14).aspx).
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167084)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167086)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167085)
Search Technologies for SharePoint 2010 Products
Compares and contrasts the search
technologies that work with SharePoint
Products 2010:

SharePoint Foundation 2010

Search Server 2010 Express

Search Server 2010

SharePoint Server 2010

FAST Search Server 2010 for
SharePoint
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167731)
6
Title
Description
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167733)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167732)
Search Environment Planning for Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010
Walks through primary architecture design
decisions for search environments.
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167734)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167736)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167735)
Search Architectures for Microsoft SharePoint Server
2010
Details the physical and logical architecture
components that make up a search system
and illustrates common search
architectures.
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167737)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167739)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167738)
Design Search Architectures for Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010
Walks through the initial design steps to
determine a basic design for a SharePoint
Server 2010 search architecture.
7
Title
Description
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167740)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167742)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167741)
Business Connectivity Services Model
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165565)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=165566)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165571)
Microsoft Business Connectivity Services
are a set of services and features in
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 and
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 that
support integrating data from external
systems into solutions based on Microsoft
SharePoint Server and Microsoft
SharePoint Foundation. This model poster
describes the architecture of Microsoft
Business Connectivity Services in
SharePoint Server 2010 and provides
information about how to create solutions
that are based on the service.
Use this model with the following article:
Business Connectivity Services overview
(SharePoint Server 2010)
Content Deployment in SharePoint Server 2010
Visio
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=179391&clcid=0x
Describes the content deployment feature
in SharePoint Server 2010. It includes
information about the following:

Overview of content deployment

Description of content deployment
paths and jobs

When to use content deployment

Alternatives to content deployment

Illustrates common content deployment
farm topologies

Illustrates and explains the overall
content deployment process
8
Title
Description
409)
PDF
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=179523&clcid=0x
409)
XPS
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=179524&clcid=0x
409)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 Upgrade Planning
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167098)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167099)
Covers planning for an upgrade from
Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 to
SharePoint Server 2010. It includes
information about the following:

Upgrade requirements: Hardware,
operating system, and database

Upgrade process: specific steps to
follow before, during, and after the
upgrade
Use this model with the following article:
Upgrading to SharePoint Server 2010
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/396c85
d9-4b86-484e-9cc5f6c4d725c578(Office.14).aspx)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167100)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 Upgrade
Approaches
Helps you understand the in-place,
database attach, and hybrid approaches to
upgrading from Office SharePoint Server
2007 to SharePoint Server 2010.

See the farm topologies before, during,
and after upgrade

Compare the advantages of each type
of upgrade approach
Use this model with the following articles:
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167101)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167102)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167103)

Determine upgrade approach
(SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/f11
e6c4f-dc2a-4d17-a2c89455792b4b9b(Office.14).aspx)

Upgrade process overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/4d7
a8038-4b27-4bd8-a855585db4e924a8(Office.14).aspx)
9
Title
Description
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 — Test Your
Upgrade Process
Explains the methodology for testing the
upgrade process before upgrading from
Office SharePoint Server 2007 to
SharePoint Server 2010.
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167104)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167105)

Understand the goals for testing your
upgrade process: customizations,
hardware, timing, planning

See specific steps to follow for testing
your upgrade process
Use this model with the following article:
Use a trial upgrade to find potential issues
(SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/2b5d38
25-adba-4185-84f2ef59e8110fac(Office.14).aspx)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167106)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 — Services
Upgrade
Covers upgrading services from Office
SharePoint Server 2007 to SharePoint
Server 2010.

Considerations for specific services:
Personalization, Search, InfoPath
Forms, Excel, Business Data Catalog,
Single Sign-on

In-place upgrade with services

Database attach upgrade with services
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167107)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167108)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167109)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 — Upgrading
Parent and Child Farms
Covers the process for and considerations
to keep in mind when you upgrade farms
that share services (parent and child
farms).
10
Title
Description
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=190984)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=190985)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=190986)
Getting started with business intelligence in
SharePoint Server 2010
Covers an overview of business intelligence
in SharePoint Server and provides you with
the following information.

An overview of each business
intelligence service and when you
might use the service.

Architecture for application of the
business intelligence services and how
they work together in a topology.

A list of possible data sources for each
business intelligence service.
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167082)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167170)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=167171)
Databases That Support SharePoint 2010 Products
Describes the Microsoft SQL Server
databases on which SharePoint Server
2010 runs.
11
Title
Description
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=187970)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=187969)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=187971)
SharePoint 2010 Products: Virtualization Process
Provides guidance related to virtualization
and the various stages of deployment, as
well as requirements and examples.
Use this diagram with the articles in the
following chapters:

Virtualization planning (SharePoint
Foundation 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/3b8
1b666-cd81-42d2-85e4d9f759377d61(Office.14).aspx)

Virtualization planning (SharePoint
Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/71c
203cd-7534-47b0-9122657d72ff0080(Office.14).aspx)
Visio (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=195021)
PDF (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=195022)
XPS (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=195023)
Governance for SharePoint Server 2010
Illustrates how to develop a governance
plan that includes IT governance,
information management governance, and
application management governance.
Use this diagram with the following articles:

Governance overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)

Governance features (SharePoint
12
Title
Description
Server 2010)
Visio
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=200532&clcid=0x4
09)
PDF
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=200533&clcid=0x4
09)
XPS
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=200534&clcid=0x4
09)
Tips for printing posters
If you have a plotter, you can print these posters in their full size. If you don't have plotter, use the
following steps to print on smaller paper.
Print posters on smaller paper
1. Open the poster in Visio.
2. On the File menu, click Page Setup.
3. On the Print Setup tab, in the Printer paper section, select the size of paper you want to print
on.
4. On the Print Setup tab, in the Print zoom section, click Fit to, and then enter 1 sheet across
by 1 sheet down.
5. On the Page Size tab, click Size to fit drawing contents, and then click OK.
6. On the File menu, click Print.
13
Plan for sites and solutions (SharePoint Server
2010)
This section contains articles that will help you plan your Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 site and
solution components.

Fundamental site planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will guide you in planning sites that use SharePoint Server 2010
features.

Security planning for sites and content (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will help you plan permissions that control access to your sites and
content.

Site and solution governance (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will help you plan how to set up your environment to host IT services and
sandboxed solutions, and how to define the most appropriate information architecture for your
business needs.

Plan for sandboxed solutions (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will help you plan sandboxed solutions that run in restricted
execution environments within your enterprise.

Governance overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Introduces governance as an essential part of a successful Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010
deployment and explains why both information architecture and IT services are key
components of a governance plan.

Plan for social computing and collaboration (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will guide you in planning solutions that implement social computing and
collaboration capabilities in your enterprise.

Enterprise content management planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section cover conceptual information about document management, records
management, and digital asset management.

Document management planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will help you plan document management solutions for your
organization.

Records management planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section describe records management in SharePoint Server 2010 and
provide guidelines for planning your records management solution.

Plan digital asset management (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will guide you in planning solutions for sites that include digital
assets such as video, audio, and images.

Plan Web content management (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will guide you in planning Web content management sites by using
SharePoint Server 2010 features.
14

Plan managed metadata (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section explain key concepts about managed metadata and provide guidance
about how to use managed metadata in your SharePoint solution.

Business intelligence planning
The articles in this section will guide you in planning Business Intelligence solutions on your
enterprise data.

Business intelligence basics
The articles in this section provide basic overview information about business intelligence
capabilities in SharePoint Server 2010.

Plan for PerformancePoint Services (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section help you plan your implementation of PerformancePoint Services
and BI Dashboards.

Excel Services overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section help you plan your implementation of Excel Services in your
enterprise environment.

Plan for Visio Services (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section help you plan your implementation of Visio Services.

Business data and processes planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will guide you in planning solutions that implement business processes
on your enterprise‘s data.

Plan for Business Connectivity Services (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will help you plan solutions that connect your enterprise‘s external
data to information workers who use SharePoint Web sites and Office 2010 applications.

Plan InfoPath Forms Services (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will help you plan solutions that use InfoPath forms to collect,
customize, and validate business data used by workers to improve key business processes.

Plan workflows (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section will help you plan and implement business processes in your
SharePoint solutions.

Access Services planning
The articles in this section help you plan your implementation of Access Services.

Plan site creation and maintenance (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section contain guidance about how to create, maintain, and delete sites, as well
as how to determine settings for quota templates and recycle bins.

Plan e-mail integration (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section explain how to implement incoming e-mail and features that rely on
outgoing e-mail.
See Also
Plan for server farms and environments (SharePoint Server 2010)
15
Fundamental site planning (SharePoint Server
2010)
This section provides information that helps IT pros plan sites that use Microsoft SharePoint Server
2010 features.
The effectiveness of a site or a group of sites depends on many factors, but one of the most important
factors is the ability to predictably locate the site and the content that you need within the site. The
structure of a site or a group of sites and the navigation inside and among sites are important for
helping users find and share information and work together.
In this section:

Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010) describes site collections and sites,
and it contains information about the site templates that are used to create sites in SharePoint
Server 2010.

Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010) describes the process and important
considerations for planning SharePoint Server 2010 sites and site collections.

Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010) provides an overview of the types of navigation
that are available in a site.

Plan site navigation (SharePoint Server 2010) helps you design the navigation for your site.

Themes overview (SharePoint Server 2010) provides an overview of themes and how they work.

Plan for using themes (SharePoint Server 2010) discusses how to plan for using themes across
your sites, and it includes important steps to plan how to use themes for your sites.

Plan for multilingual sites (SharePoint Server 2010) discusses how to plan for multilingual
SharePoint Server 2010 sites.

Multilingual user interface overview (SharePoint Server 2010) describes the multilingual user
interface in SharePoint Server 2010.

Plan for the multilingual user interface (SharePoint Server 2010) describes how to plan for using
the multilingual user interface in your SharePoint Server 2010 site solution.
16
Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
A Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 site collection is a hierarchical site structure that is made up of one
top-level site and any sites below it. This article describes site collections and sites and contains
information about the site templates that are used to create sites in SharePoint Server 2010.
In this article:

Site collections overview

Sites overview

Site templates included in SharePoint Server 2010
Site collections overview
The sites in a site collection have shared administration settings, common navigation, and other
common features and elements. Each site collection contains a top-level site and (usually) one or more
sites below it in a hierarchical structure.
You must group your site's content and features into a site collection. This provides the following
benefits:

For site designers, a site collection's galleries and libraries (such as the master page gallery or the
site collection images library) provide a means for creating a unified, branded user experience
across all sites in the site collection.

For site collection administrators, a site collection provides a unified mechanism and scope for
administration. For example, security, policies, and features can be managed for a whole site
collection; Site Collection Web Analytics Reports, audit log reports, and other data can help
administrators track site collection security and performance.

For farm administrators, site collections provide scalability for growth based on how much content
is stored. Because each site collection can use a unique content database, administrators can
easily move them to separate servers.

For site authors, a site collection's shared site columns, content types, Web Parts, authoring
resources, workflows, and other features provide a consistent authoring environment.

For site users, a site collection's unified navigation, branding, and search tools provide a unified
Web site experience.
The following list includes some examples of solutions that benefit from being implemented as site
collections:

Team site A site collection to support authoring and collaboration tasks for people in your
organization who are working together to produce content useful for your organizational goals.
Often, this kind of site includes collaborative content that is not published but only used internally,
and content intended for publication to an outside audience.

Publishing site A site collection configured to let site members view, author, and interact with the
site's content. Publishing sites are often implemented as two site collections — a production site
collection and an authoring site collection. The production site collection is the published site that
17
the content audience uses. The authoring site collection is a mirror of the production site, and it is
used by the authoring team to create and view site content and test site features. SharePoint
Server 2010 includes a content deployment feature that copies content from an authoring site
collection to a production site collection. For information about content deployment, see Content
deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Sites overview
A site collection consists of a top-level site and one or more sites below it. Each top-level site and any
sites below it in the site structure are based on a site template and can have other unique settings and
unique content. Partition your site collection content into separate sites to obtain finer control of the
appearance, content, and features of the various pages in your site collection. The following list
includes site features that you can configure uniquely:

Templates You can make each site have a unique template. For more information, see Site
templates included in SharePoint Server 2010.

Language If language packs have been installed on the Web server, you can select a languagespecific site template when you create a new site. Text that appears on the site is displayed in the
site template‘s language. For more information, see Deploy language packs (SharePoint Server
2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/26c07867-0150-463d-b21aa6d42aecf05a(Office.14).aspx).

Security You can define unique user groups and permissions for each site.

Navigation You can fine-tune your site's navigation experience by configuring unique navigation
links in each part of your site's hierarchy. Site navigation reflects the relationships among the sites
in a site collection. Therefore, planning navigation and planning sites structures are closely related
activities. For more information, see Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010).

Web pages You can make each site have a unique welcome page and other pages. For more
information, see Plan Web pages.

Site layouts You can make unique layouts or master pages available in a site. For more
information, see Plan Web pages.

Themes You can change colors and fonts on a site. For more information, see Plan for using
themes (SharePoint Server 2010).

Regional settings You can change the regional settings, such as locale, time zone, sort order,
time format and calendar type.

Search You can make each site have unique search settings. For example, you can specify that a
particular site never appears in search results.

Content types You can make each site have unique content types and site columns. For more
information, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010).

Workflows You can make each site have unique workflows. For more information, see Plan
workflows (SharePoint Server 2010).
Site templates included in SharePoint Server 2010
The following section contains information about the site templates that are included in SharePoint
Server 2010. Although you can use a site template with its default configuration, you can also change
the site‘s default settings by using the site administration pages, and then saving the site as a new
18
template. In addition, you can modify a template's design and features by using Microsoft SharePoint
Designer 2010 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.
The following table lists every site template, describes the purpose of each, and indicates whether the
template is available at the site collection level, site level, or both. The category that is used to group
the templates might be different, depending on the level at which a site is created.
Template
Purpose
Category in
Category in
Site Collection
Site
< Select template An empty site for which you can select a template
later>
later.
Custom
N/A
Assets Web
Database
An assets database to keep track of assets,
including asset details and owners.
N/A
Web
Databases
Basic Meeting
Workspace
A site on which you can plan, organize, and
capture the results of a meeting. It provides lists
for managing the agenda, meeting attendees, and
documents.
Meetings
Meetings
Basic Search
Center
A site that provides the search functionality. The
site includes pages for search results and
advanced searches.
Enterprise
Search
Blank Meeting
Workspace
A blank meeting site that you can customize
based on your requirements.
Meetings
Meetings
Blank Site
A blank site that you can customize based on your
requirements.
Collaboration
Blank &
Custom
Blog
A site on which a person or team can post ideas,
observations, and expertise that site visitors can
comment on.
Collaboration
Content
Business
Intelligence
Center
A site for presenting business intelligence data. It
Enterprise
provides document libraries for storing documents,
images, data connections, and dashboard Web
Parts. It also provides lists for linking content from
PerformancePoint Services in Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010.
Data
Charitable
Contributions
Web Database
A database to track information about fundraising
campaigns including donations made by
contributors, campaign-related events, and
pending tasks.
N/A
Web
Databases
Contacts Web
Database
A contacts database to manage information about
people that your team works with, such as
customers and partners.
N/A
Web
Databases
Decision Meeting
A site on which you can track status or make
decisions at meetings. It provides lists to create
Meetings
Meetings
19
Template
Category in
Category in
Site Collection
Site
Document Center A site on which you can centrally manage
documents in your enterprise.
Enterprise
Content
Document
Workspace
A site on which colleagues can work together on a
document. It provides a document library for
storing the primary document and supporting files,
a tasks list for assigning to-do items, and a links
list to point to resources that are related to the
document.
Collaboration
Collaboration,
Content
Enterprise
Search Center
A site that provides the search functionality. The
welcome page includes a search box that has two
tabs: one for general searches and another for
searches for information about people. You can
add and customize tabs to focus on other search
scopes or result types.
Enterprise
Search
Enterprise Wiki
A site on which you can publish knowledge that
you capture and want to share across the
enterprise. It provides an easy content editing
experience in a single location for co-authoring
content, for discussions, and for managing
projects.
Publishing
Collaboration,
Content
FAST Search
Center
A site for delivering the FAST search experience.
The welcome page includes a search box with two
tabs: one for general searches and another for
searches for information about people. You can
add and customize tabs to focus on other search
scopes or result types.
Group Work Site
This template provides a groupware solution that
teams can use to create, organize, and share
information. It includes the Group Calendar,
Circulation, Phone-Call Memo, the document
library and the other basic lists.
Collaboration
Collaboration
Issues Web
Database
An issues database to manage a set of issues or
problems. You can assign, prioritize, and follow
the progress of issues from start to finish.
N/A
Web
Databases
Microsoft Project
Site
A site that supports team collaboration on
projects. This site includes Project Documents,
Project Issues, Project Risks, and Project
Deliverables lists that might be linked to tasks in
Microsoft Project Server 2010.
Collaboration
Tracking
Workspace
Purpose
tasks, store documents, and record decisions.
Search
20
Template
Purpose
Category in
Category in
Site Collection
Site
Multipage
Meeting
Workspace
A site on which you can plan a meeting and
capture the meeting's decisions and other results.
It provides lists for managing the agenda and
meeting attendees. It also provides two blank
pages that you can customize based on your
requirements.
Meetings
Meetings
My Site Host
A site that hosts personal sites (My Sites) and the
public People Profile page. This template has to
be provisioned only once per User Profile Service
Application.
Enterprise
N/A
N/A
Blank &
Custom
PowerPoint
A site for hosting Microsoft PowerPoint 2010
Broadcast Center broadcasts. Presenters can connect to the site
and create a link for remote viewers to watch a
slide show in a Web browser.
Enterprise
N/A
Projects Web
Database
A project tracking database to track multiple
projects, and assign tasks to different people.
N/A
Web
Databases
Publishing Portal
A starter site hierarchy that you can use for an
Enterprise
Internet site or a large intranet portal. You can use
distinctive branding to customize this site. It
includes a home page, a sample press releases
site, a Search Center, and a logon page. Typically,
this site has many more readers than contributors,
and it is used to publish the Web pages by using
approval workflows.
This template is available only at the site collection
level.
Personalization
Site
A site for delivering personalized views, data, and
navigation from this site collection to My Site. It
includes Web Parts that are specific to
personalization and navigation that is optimized
for My Site sites.
This template is available only at the site level.
N/A
This site enables content approval workflows, by
default, for a more formal and controlled
publishing process. It also restricts the rights of
anonymous users so that they can see only
content pages, and they cannot see SharePoint
Server 2010 application pages.
This template is available only at the site collection
level.
21
Template
Purpose
Category in
Category in
Site Collection
Site
Publishing Site
A blank site for expanding your Web site and
quickly publishing Web pages. Contributors can
work on draft versions of pages and publish them
to make them visible to readers. This site includes
document and image libraries for storing Web
publishing assets.
N/A
Content
Publishing Site
with Workflow
A site for publishing Web pages on a schedule by
using approval workflows. It includes document
and image libraries for storing Web publishing
assets. By default, only sites that have this
template can be created under this site.
N/A
Content
This template is available only at the site level
when the Publishing Portal template is used to
create the top-level site.
Records Center
A site that is designed for records management.
Records managers can configure the routing table
to direct incoming files to specific locations. The
site also enables you to manage whether records
can be deleted or modified after they are added to
the repository.
Enterprise
Data
Social Meeting
Workspace
A site on which you can plan social occasions. It
provides lists for tracking attendees, providing
directions, and storing pictures of the event.
Meetings
Meetings
Team Site
A site on which a team can organize, author, and
share information. It provides a document library,
and lists for managing announcements, calendar
items, tasks, and discussions.
Collaboration
Collaboration
Visio Process
Repository
A site on which teams can view, share, and store
Visio process diagrams. It provides a versioned
document library for storing process diagrams,
and lists for managing announcements, tasks, and
review discussions.
Collaboration
Content
Some Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 site templates, such as the site directory, news, and
collaboration portal templates, are not available as an option in SharePoint Server 2010. These
templates can still be accessed and used programmatically by developers. These templates are also
still available as options in the UI if the SharePoint Server 2010 farm is upgraded from Office
SharePoint Server 2007. Otherwise use the social tagging features in SharePoint Server 2010 to get
much of the functionality provided in these templates.
22
See Also
Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010)
Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan site navigation (SharePoint Server 2010)
23
Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint
Server 2010)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 sites are made up of a site collection, which is a hierarchical
structure that includes one top-level site and any sites below it. This article describes the process and
important considerations for planning SharePoint Server 2010 sites and site collections, and it
recommends a method for recording your site structure decisions. For information about sites and site
collections, and the site templates that are used to create sites in SharePoint Server 2010, see Sites
and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

About planning sites and site collections

Determine types of sites

Plan sites by organizational hierarchy

Plan application sites

Plan Internet presence sites

Plan publishing sites

Plan other sites

Determine site collections

Site planning data worksheet
About planning sites and site collections
In general, you plan your sites and site collections in the following order:

Determine the number and types of top-level sites and any sites below them in the hierarchy that
are needed.

Determine the number and types of site collections into which the sites will be organized.
Determine types of sites
The first step in planning a solution that is based on SharePoint Server 2010 is to determine the types
of sites your organization and its customers need. Determining the types of sites affects later planning
decisions, such as where the sites will be implemented in your server topology, what features to plan
for each site, how processes that span multiple sites are implemented, and how information is made
available across one or more sites. This section contains information about how to plan different kinds
of sites.
Plan sites by organizational hierarchy
Plan the basic sites that you need based on the scale and structure of your organization. Each of these
sites can contain information that is needed for a project or division within your larger organization, and
each will link to collaboration sites that are relevant to that project or division. Some sites for larger
24
divisions or projects will also aggregate information that is found on all the smaller sites that are
devoted to smaller divisions or projects.
Use the following guidelines when you plan sites that are based on your organizational structure:
Divisional or team sites Plan to create one site for a small organization or one site for every division
or project of 50–100 people in a medium to large organization. In large organizations, there might be
several levels of sites, with each site focusing on the content that is created and managed at its level of
the organization.
You can design a site for members of your organization to collaborate on content related to your
business or organizational goals. These can be self-contained or they can work with other sites as part
of a publishing process. Often, these sites will have a mixture of collaborative content that is used
internally and content that is intended for publication to an audience.
Rollup sites A rollup site contains general cross-organization content. It makes it possible for users
across divisions to find information, experts, and access to organization-wide processes. It often
contains sites that are related to the overall organizational information architecture and that are usually
mapped to the structure of the divisional or project sites. For each organization, plan to create a
centralized rollup site that uses an aggregated view of all related sites.
Plan application sites
An application site organizes team processes and provides mechanisms for running them. Application
sites often include digital dashboards and other features to view and manipulate data that is related to
the site‘s purpose. The information that is presented in an application site usually comes from diverse
sources, such as databases or other SharePoint sites.
For example, the human resources organization in an organization could design an application site to
provide employees with:

Access to general information, such as employee handbooks and career opportunities.

Ways to do common tasks, such as submitting timecards and expense reports.

Dashboards to view personalized information, such as an employee's salary and benefits history.
As another example, the internal technical support group in an organization could design a Help Desk
application site to provide technical support to members of the organization. Features of the application
site could include the following:

Access to a knowledge base of past support incidents and best-practices documentation.

Ways to do common tasks, such as starting a support incident or reviewing the status of an
ongoing incident.

Integration with communications features that support online meetings and discussions.

Personalized views of data. For example, support managers could view dashboards that provide
views of their team members' productivity and customer satisfaction ratings. Support engineers
could view their current unresolved incidents.
Plan Internet presence sites
Internet presence sites are customer-facing sites. They are usually branded and are characterized by
consistent stylistic elements, such as colors, fonts, and logos in addition to structural elements such as
navigation features and the structure of site pages. Although the appearance of an Internet presence
site is tightly controlled, the content of the site can be dynamic and can frequently change.
25
For example, a corporate Internet presence site communicates important company information to
customers, partners, investors, and potential employees. This includes descriptions of products and
services, company news, annual reports, public filings, and job openings. As another example, an
online news Internet site provides frequently updated information, together with interactive features
such as stock tickers and blogs.
Because an Internet presence site represents your organization to an external audience, you might
stage and test the site and then publish it — either based on a schedule or as needed — to its public
"production" location. A staging site is a mirror of the authoring site that you use to test content before it
is published to the production site. By using a staging site, you help ensure that published content
meets strict standards. Staging sites also make it possible for content authors to work on servers that
are located on your company's intranet while Internet users are using production servers in your
perimeter network. A built-in content deployment feature makes it easy to move content from the
authoring server to the staging server and then to the production server. For more information about
content deployment, see Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan publishing sites
By using a publishing site, authors can create and modify content in the form of Web pages and
documents, and they can use an approval process to make the content available to users who have the
appropriate levels of viewing permissions. The publishing process involves creating content and then
submitting it for approval. After content is approved, it is made available, or published, to the Web site
for readers. This publishing occurs according to either a default schedule or a customized schedule,
based on the needs of the project. Publishing sites can be used as intranet, extranet, or Internet sites,
depending on the audience.
For example, you might use a publishing site for an Internet-facing site that publishes press releases.
The public relations team creates press releases, uses the publishing workflow to approve new content,
and specifies when it should be made available to consumers. As another example, you might use a
publishing site for a corporate intranet site, where company news is made available to employees.
Page authors can specify the target audience for their content, which makes the content viewable by
only the members of the designated groups.
Like Internet presence sites, you can also use the built-in content deployment feature to move content
from a staging site to a production site. The production site might be an Internet-facing site, or it might
be another intranet site within your organization, depending on the size of your organization and the
complexity of your publishing needs.
Plan other sites
You can plan to make it possible for site users to create additional sites. For example, you can plan to
give a My Site to each team member who uses a site. A My Site is a team site that is based on
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 and has public and private views. You can also make it possible
for team members to create other sites, such as Document Workspace sites, when they collaborate on
documents and other projects. Similarly, you can give users of an Internet site access to collaboration
sites as part of a Web-based service. For example, you can give them permissions to create Meeting
Workspace sites and participate in online meetings as part of their experience of using your site.
For information about the kinds of sites you can create, see Sites and site collections overview
(SharePoint Server 2010).
26
Determine site collections
After you determine what types of sites your solution requires, the next step is to plan how these sites
are implemented across site collections. A site collection is a hierarchical set of sites that can be
managed together. Sites in a site collection have common features, such as shared permissions,
galleries for templates, content types, and Web Parts, and they often share a common navigation. A
site is often implemented as a site collection with the top-level site as the home page of the site
collection.
In general, when you plan a solution that is based on SharePoint Server 2010, put the following kinds of
sites in separate site collections:

Internet sites (staging)

Internet sites (production)

All team sites related to a divisional site or Internet site

Document Center sites

Records Center sites
All sites in a site collection are stored together in the same SQL database. This can potentially affect
site and server performance, depending on how your site collections and sites are structured, and
depending on the purpose of the sites. Be aware of the following limits when you plan how to allocate
your content across one or more site collections:

Keep extremely active sites in separate site collections. For example, a knowledge base site on the
Internet that allows anonymous browsing could generate lots of database activity. If other sites use
the same database, their performance could be affected. By putting the knowledge base site in a
separate site collection with its own database, you can make resources available for other sites that
no longer have to compete with it for database resources.

Because all content in a site collection is stored in the same content database, the performance of
database operations — such as backing up and restoring content — will depend on the amount of
content across the site collection; the size of the database; the speed of the servers hosting the
database; and other factors. Depending on the amount of content and the configuration of the
database, you might have to divide a site collection into multiple site collections to meet servicelevel agreements for backing up and restoring, throughput, or other requirements. It is beyond the
scope of this article to provide prescriptive guidance about how to manage the size and
performance of databases.

Creating too many sites below a top-level site in a site collection might affect performance and
usability. Limit the number of sites of any top-level site to a maximum of 2,000.

If you plan to use content deployment to move content between an authoring site collection and a
production site collection, the site collections must be either in separate Web applications, or they
must use separate content databases within the same Web application. For information about
content deployment, see Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Site planning data worksheet
Download an Excel version of the Site planning data
worksheet(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167837&clcid=0x409). Use this worksheet to record
your site structure.
27
See Also
Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan site navigation (SharePoint Server 2010)
28
Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server
2010)
Site navigation provides the primary interface for site users to move around on the sites and pages on
your site. Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 includes a set of customizable and extensible navigation
features that help orient users of your site so they can move around on its sites and pages. This article
describes the navigation controls that are available in SharePoint Server 2010. It does not explain how
to add navigation controls to Web pages, how to configure navigation controls, or how to create custom
navigation controls.
In this article:

Navigation controls overview

Navigation controls on master pages



Top link bar navigation

Quick Launch navigation

Breadcrumb navigation

Tree view navigation

Metadata navigation
Navigation controls on page layouts

Summary Links

Table of Contents

Content Query
Navigation Web Parts
Navigation controls overview
Navigation controls can be displayed on master pages, page layouts, and—by using Web Part zones—
directly in a page's content.
SharePoint Server 2010 bases its navigation model on the hierarchical structure of the site collection.
By using the navigation features, you can link to the following:

Sites below the current site

A site's peer sites

Sites higher in the site structure

Web pages in a site
Additionally, you can create links to arbitrary locations, such as to an external Web site.
Navigation links in SharePoint Server 2010 are security-sensitive. If a site user does not have
permissions to a SharePoint Server 2010 site or page that is linked from the site navigation, the user
cannot see the link. Other content which has had links manually added to the navigation are still visible
to users. Also, pages, sites, and links that are manually added to navigation can be configured to be
available only to members of a particular audience. Users who are not members of that audience
cannot see links to sites and pages that are targeted to that audience.
29
SharePoint Server 2010 navigation is based on the ASP.NET features in the .NET Framework version
3.5, which you can use to customize the following:

The site map provider.

The data source, which anchors and filters the structure that is provided by the site map provider.

The menus, which control the visual appearance of the navigation elements and how deep a
hierarchy to display.
Navigation controls on master pages
A master page defines the outer frame of the Web pages in a site. Master pages contain the elements
that you want all pages in your site to share, such as branding information; common commands, such
as Search; and navigation elements that you want to be available throughout the site. This includes top
link bar navigation, and Quick Launch navigation.
Master pages also provide the menu style of the navigation controls. You can configure master-page
menu style by using Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.
Top link bar navigation
The top link bar is a navigation menu which typically links to the sites that are one level below the
current site in a site hierarchy. It is common for the top link bar to appear at the top of each page in a
site. By default, all sites that are one level below the current site are added to the top link bar, and each
site has its own unique top link bar for navigation. Site administrators can customize the navigation for a
specific site by removing a site from the top link bar. They can also configure the top link bar so that
only the home page link is shown and no other sites in the site hierarchy are displayed.
Site administrators can choose to inherit the top link bar from the parent site. This approach allows
users to switch from one site to another from anywhere within the site collection, by allowing the top link
bar to stay the same in all the sites in the site collection. For example, an Internet site that is used to
market an organization's products could have a site for each line of its products. By displaying each
product's site in the top link bar of each site, site designers can make it possible for users to easily
switch from one site to another without having to return to the site home page.
Other top link bar configuration features include the following:

Linking to the Web pages of all the top-level sites.

Linking to specified external sites.

Linking to specified sites or pages that are anywhere in the site.

Organizing links under headings.

Manually sorting the items on the top link bar.

Restricting the maximum number of items to show at the global navigation level.
All top link bar features, such as linking to external, can be defined uniquely for each site.
By using SharePoint Designer 2010 or Visual Studio 2010, you can additionally customize the
appearance and functionality of the top link bar. For example, you can do the following:

Customize the cascading style sheets to change the appearance of the top link bar.

Modify the data source, for example to decrease the number of sites that are displayed in the top
link bar.
30

Modify the menu style of the navigation. For example, you can select submenus or specify how
many levels of the site hierarchy to display in the navigation.
Quick Launch navigation
The Quick Launch navigation typically highlights the important content in the current site, such as lists
and libraries. It is common for Quick Launch navigation to appear on the left of each page in a site.
Quick Launch navigation configuration features include the following:

Linking to sites that are on the same level of the site hierarchy as the current site.

Linking to specific external sites or to pages in the current site.

Organizing links under headings.

Manually sorting the items in the Quick Launch navigation.

Restricting the maximum number of items to show at the Quick Launch navigation level.
Just as you customize the top link bar, you can also customize the appearance and functionality of
Quick Launch navigation by using SharePoint Designer 2010 or Visual Studio 2010.
Breadcrumb navigation
Breadcrumb navigation displays a dynamically generated set of links at the top of Web pages, to show
users their current position in the site hierarchy. By using SharePoint Designer 2010 or Visual Studio
2010, you can configure the breadcrumb navigation control. For example, you can specify a custom
navigation provider, and you can remove breadcrumb navigation from a page layout.
Tree view navigation
Tree view navigation displays site content, such as lists, libraries, and sites that are below the current
site, in a hierarchical structure. It is common for tree view navigation to appear on the left of each page
in a site.
By default, tree view navigation is turned off. Site administrators can add tree view navigation to a site
by using the Tree View page.
Metadata navigation
Metadata navigation displays metadata about library and list content in tree view navigation, and makes
it possible for users to filter library or list content based on specified fields. Site administrators can
configure metadata navigation by using the Metadata Navigation Settings page for a list or library to
configure the navigation hierarchies and key filters that are available to users. Metadata navigation is
displayed only when a user views the list or library for which metadata navigation has been configured.
Navigation controls on page layouts
A page layout defines a layout for a Web page by providing Microsoft ASP.NET controls in which the
contents of pages are displayed. You can add navigation controls to a page layout to support navigation
links in Web pages by using SharePoint Designer 2010 or Visual Studio 2010.
When a navigation control is inserted on a page layout, Web pages that use that page layout display
the control together with the content of the page. For example, you can define a page layout that
31
includes a Summary Links navigation control so that a set of links to relevant pages and sites always
appears when a page is displayed. For more information, see Summary Links.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes the following navigation controls that can be added to page layouts:

Summary Links

Table of Contents

Content Query
Summary Links
You can use the Summary Links control to add a set of links to a page. You can control the
appearance, organization, and presentation of the links that you add to a Summary Link control.
You can add a Summary Link control to a page layout in three ways:

You can add the control directly to the page layout and configure the links. When you do this, any
page that uses the page layout displays the links.

You can add the control as a field control on the page layout. When you do this, you can choose to
configure the links, and you can also choose to allow authors to modify the links and add new ones.

You can add the control as a Web Part to a Web Part zone. When you do this, authors can modify
the links, add new ones, and delete the Summary Link control.
For example, in a site in which you publish topics from a technical support knowledge base, you can
add a Summary Link control to the page layouts that are used for articles, to provide links to related
sites that contain relevant information, and you can give authors the ability to add links to content that is
related to a particular page's content.
Table of Contents
You can use the Table of Contents control to add a table of contents of all or part of your site to a page
layout so that top link bar and Quick Launch navigation is included in the master pages of the site.
When you add a Table of Contents control to a page layout, you specify which part of your site
collection the control should display, how the links are presented, and how they are organized.
You can add a Table of Contents control to a page layout in two ways:

You can add the control directly to the page layout and configure it. When you do this, any page
that uses the page layout displays the table of contents.

You can add the control as a Web Part to a Web Part zone. When you do this, authors can modify
the scope of the Table of Contents control.
For example, if you are presenting a set of articles in an online news site, you can add a Table of
Contents control directly to the layout of the article pages so that users can switch from one article to
another from any article page.
Content Query
You can use a Content Query control to link to pages or other items that are displayed based on a
query that you design. For example, if you are presenting articles in an online news site, you could add
a Content Query control to the Welcome Page layout of your site so that new articles are highlighted on
that page. You can build complex queries by using the Content Query control. For example, you can
32
specify which sites in your site collection to query, which lists to use, and what audience to target. You
can also filter queries that are based on items in a library or list.
You can add a Content Query control to a page layout in two ways:

You can add the control directly to the page layout and configure it. When you do this, any page
that uses the page layout displays the results of the query.

You can add the control as a Web Part to a Web Part zone. When you do this, authors can modify
the query or delete the Content Query control.
Navigation Web Parts
A Web Part is a control that authors can insert into a Web Part zone on a page and configure. The
Summary Links, Table of Contents, and Content Query controls each have Web Part counterparts that
page authors can insert into Web Part zones on pages. The Web Parts have the same configuration
features and the same functionality as their related controls, but they can be configured when the writer
inserts them on the page instead of when the site designer inserts them on the layout of the page. To
make navigation Web Parts available for page authors to insert on a page, you can include one or more
Web Part zones on a page layout, or you can include a Rich Text Editor control on a page, which will
allow users to add Web Parts directly to the Rich Text Editor Web part.
The following navigation Web parts are available only for non-Publishing sites:

Categories Displays categories from the Site Directory.

Site Aggregator Displays sites of your choice.

Site in Category Displays sites from the Site Directory within a specific category.

Tag Cloud Displays the most popular subjects being tagged inside your organization.
The following navigation Web parts are available only on Publishing sites:

Summary Links Allows authors to create links that can be grouped and styled.

Table of Contents Displays the navigation hierarchy of your site.
If you make it possible for authors to insert navigation Web Parts on pages, you reduce the control that
you have over your site's navigation because authors can then control part of the navigation experience
of site users. This might be appropriate in a loosely controlled environment, such as a collaboration site
in an organization, where individual authors have to be able to point users to content that is related to
the author's work. It is less appropriate in a more tightly controlled environment, such as an Internet
presence site, in which the navigation experience is planned and implemented in a consistent,
controlled way by the designers and planners of the site.
Note:
If you want to include Web Part zones on page layouts but prevent authors from inserting
navigation Web Parts into these zones, you can change the permissions that are required to
use navigation Web Parts in the Web Parts gallery of your site to make those Web Parts
unavailable to authors based on their permission level.
See Also
Plan site navigation (SharePoint Server 2010)
Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010)
33
Plan site navigation (SharePoint Server 2010)
Site navigation provides the primary interface for site users to move around the sites and pages in your
site. Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 includes a set of navigation features that can be customized and
extended to help orient the users of your site so they can move around its sites and pages. This article
contains general guidance about how to plan site navigation for your SharePoint Server 2010 sites.
This article does not describe the types of navigation controls that are available in SharePoint Server
2010, nor does it explain how to add navigation controls to Web pages, how to configure navigation
controls, or how to create custom navigation controls. For information about site navigation controls,
see Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

About planning navigation

Plan the user experience

Plan navigation on pages

Site planning data worksheet
About planning navigation
Navigation planning includes planning the user experience that you want to create in your site and
deciding whether authors will be able to insert navigation elements directly onto their pages.
Pages in sites that are based on SharePoint Server 2010 are composed of three elements: master
pages, page layouts, and page content. When you plan your site's navigation, you can make decisions
about all these elements:

You configure global (top link bar) navigation elements and site-level (Quick Launch) navigation
elements on master pages.

You can add navigation elements that provide tables of contents, dynamic access to content based
on a query, or authored links to page layouts.

You can allow page content to contain tables of contents, dynamic access to content based on a
query, or authored links. Be aware that if you allow authors to add navigation elements to page
content, site designers will have less control of a site's navigation experience.

You can use breadcrumbs to display a set of links that show the site hierarchy, starting from the
current page up to the top-level site.
Plan the user experience
Your navigation decisions are closely related to your decisions about the structure of sites in your site
hierarchy. For each site in your site hierarchy, you can choose to have it inherit the top link bar or the
Quick Launch navigation from its parent site, or you can plan unique settings.
The decisions that you make about your site's navigation reflect its unique purpose and structure. When
you plan navigation, consider the tradeoff between having too many navigation links, which could make
your site confusing, and having too few, which could make it difficult for site users to locate important
information. Also remember the following:
34

Inheriting the parent site's navigation can place the current site in a larger context. In an intranet
site, this inheritance can help information workers use the other sites in the site collection to
complete their tasks. If site users do not have to use other sites to complete their tasks, consider
defining a unique top link bar at the site so that site users are not distracted by irrelevant navigation
links. For example, records managers who are using a Records Center site might not have to go
outside the Records Center to accomplish their tasks and so would not benefit from a set of
inherited top link bar navigation links.

Displaying peer sites on the Quick Launch navigation can imply that the peer sites have a purpose
that is similar to that of the current site. For example, in an Internet site that markets a set of
products, peer sites on the Quick Launch navigation can help site users find descriptions of related
products and services. However, if site users are unlikely to want to visit peer sites, consider not
displaying them in the current navigation. For example, a university's Internet site that has sites for
each graduate school could omit peer links from the current navigation of each parent site because
students who are interested in a particular graduate school, such as Business Administration, are
unlikely to want to visit sites related to other graduate schools, such as Nursing.
Plan navigation on pages
If you are using the publishing feature, you can add navigation controls to page layouts. You can also
add Web Part zones to page layouts and give authors the ability to add navigation Web Parts to these
zones. As with other page element planning decisions, you should plan navigation on pages based on
how much control you want to have over the page-viewing experience:

To tightly control site navigation, you can put navigation controls directly on page layouts and
eliminate Web Part zones from page layouts, or restrict the use of navigation Web Parts in those
zones. For example, in a corporate Internet presence site that has millions of site users, you might
decide to restrict authors from inserting navigation controls.

You can provide a more varied site navigation by putting Web Part zones on page layouts, and by
giving authors the ability to insert navigation Web Parts onto their pages. For example, in an
intranet site in which authors and site users are part of the same workgroup, you might decide to
give authors the ability to control the navigation experience of their content by adding navigation
Web Parts to their pages. For more information, see Plan Web pages.
Site planning data worksheet
Download an Excel version of the Site planning data worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167837&clcid=0x409). Use this worksheet to help record your
decisions about site navigation.
See Also
Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010)
35
Themes overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Themes provide a quick and easy way to apply colors and fonts to sites in Microsoft SharePoint Server
2010. When a theme is applied to a site, the color of most page elements — such as background
images, text, and hyperlinks — changes. The fonts used for some page elements, such as titles, also
change. Themes can be used with the standard SharePoint Server 2010 site templates, or with custom
master pages, and then themes can be created that site owners can apply to their sites. This article
includes an overview of themes and how they work. This article does not describe how to create
custom themes by using Microsoft Office 2010 applications, or how to upload and manage themes in a
theme library. It also does not discuss how to plan for the overall branding of sites by using master
pages or cascading style sheets. For more information, see Web Content Management and Branding
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=201008&clcid=0x409).
In this article:

About using themes

Ways to use themes
About using themes
Themes enable lightweight branding of a SharePoint Server 2010 site by allowing a site owner or a
user with designer rights to make changes to the colors and fonts of user interface elements of a site.
Themes are applied and customized directly in the user interface, and do not require knowledge of
cascading style sheets or master pages.
An advantage of using themes is that developer resources are not needed for site owners and users
with designer rights to make basic changes to a site. Themes are a simple method of branding a site;
they do not affect the layout of a site.
By default, a theme is only applied to the site for which a specific theme is selected. If the site is a
publishing site — or if the publishing feature was enabled for a site — when configuring the theme for a
site, you can choose to either inherit the theme from the parent site, or specify a theme that will be used
by the site and all sites that inherit from it. When an alternate theme is selected and applied to a site,
you can choose to apply the theme only to that site, or to that site and all sites below it in the site
hierarchy. This will override any unique themes that those sites may have applied.
Note:
Themes in SharePoint Server 2010 have been redesigned to simplify the process of generating
themes. Themes created in Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 are not compatible with
SharePoint Server 2010. If you are upgrading from Office SharePoint Server 2007 to
SharePoint Server 2010, you can use Visual Upgrade to continue to use sites in the old user
interface. However, we recommend that you use the new user interface in SharePoint Server
2010 to create themes and apply them to your sites.
Ways to use themes
There are three ways to use themes on a site:

Use a preinstalled theme.
36

Modify a preinstalled theme.

Upload a custom theme to the theme library.
Using a preinstalled theme
SharePoint Server 2010 comes with preinstalled themes, including the default SharePoint theme. When
a new site is created, it will use the default SharePoint theme. If you want the site to use the theme of
the parent site, configure the theme to inherit from the parent site.
Modifying a preinstalled theme
When a preinstalled theme is modified, a new theme called Custom is created automatically after the
theme changes have been applied. There can only be one Custom theme for a site. SharePoint Server
2010 does not provide a way to save themes within the user interface. If you modify a preinstalled
theme, apply the changes (thereby creating a new theme called Custom), and then modify a second
preinstalled theme, the second preinstalled theme becomes the Custom theme when the settings are
applied. To have multiple custom themes, you must create and upload your own custom themes to the
theme gallery for the site collection.
Uploading your own custom themes to the theme gallery
You can create custom themes by modifying styles in an Office 2010 application, such as Microsoft
PowerPoint 2010, and saving the theme. This creates a .thmx file that you can upload to the theme
gallery for a site collection. Customized themes in the theme gallery are available to all sites in that site
collection.
See Also
Plan for using themes (SharePoint Server 2010)
37
Plan for using themes (SharePoint Server 2010)
Themes provide a quick and easy way to apply colors and fonts to sites in Microsoft SharePoint Server
2010. When a theme is applied to a site, the color of most page elements — such as background
images, text, and hyperlinks — changes. The fonts used for some page elements, such as titles, also
change. Themes can be used with the standard SharePoint Server 2010 site templates, or with custom
master pages, and then themes can be created that site owners can apply to their sites. For more
information, see Themes overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
This article discusses how to plan for using themes across your SharePoint Server 2010 sites, and
includes key steps in planning to use themes for your sites. This article does not describe how to create
custom themes by using Microsoft Office 2010 applications, or how to upload and manage themes in a
theme library. It also does not discuss how to plan for the overall branding of sites by using master
pages or cascading style sheets. For more information, see Web Content Management and Branding
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=201008&clcid=0x409).
Before reading this article, be sure to read the article Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server
2010).
In this article:

About planning for using themes

Decide whether to use themes

Determine how many themes are needed

Decide who makes the themes

Site planning data worksheet
About planning for using themes
There are three primary decisions to make as you plan to use themes:

Decide whether or not to use themes.

If you are going to use themes, determine how many themes are needed.

Decide who will make the custom themes.
The remainder of this article will explain these decisions and describe additional planning
considerations.
Decide whether to use themes
The first step to planning for using themes is to decide whether or not themes are the appropriate
option for your scenario. Other options for customizing a site include using an alternate CSS file and
creating custom master pages. These options require the skills of either a designer or a developer to
implement, and so they may not be appropriate for your scenario.
To decide whether or not to use themes, determine how much change to the existing look and feel is
needed for your sites, and then choose the option that most closely fits what you want to do. You can
use a combination of one or more of these options, depending on the customization that you want to do
38
for your sites. The following table describes different levels of customization and recommends the
option best suited for each level.
If you want to
Then use
Allow site owners to change colors and fonts
Themes
Make changes to other design elements such as font size and spacing Cascading style sheets
Completely change the page structure and design
Master Pages
If you decide to use themes, continue reading the rest of this article.
Determine how many themes are needed
After deciding to use themes, you must determine how many themes are needed for your sites.
Consider whether the themes that are installed with SharePoint Server 2010 are sufficient for your
purposes, or if you will need to create custom themes to be used across sites. If you will be creating
custom themes, you must also determine how many themes will be needed and decide which sites will
use which themes.
Use the site planning data worksheet to record which sites should use a theme, and to determine how
many unique themes are needed.
Decide who makes the themes
If you will be using custom themes, you must determine who will be responsible for creating the *.thmx
files. Because custom themes are created in an Office 2010 application such as PowerPoint, you do not
need a graphic designer to make a theme; however, you may want to include a graphic designer during
the planning phase to provide guidance on color values and font styles that will be used in the themes.
You must also decide who will be responsible for uploading the themes to the theme gallery. Will the
person who creates the themes also be responsible for uploading the *.thmx files to the theme gallery,
or will they save the theme files to a directory for a site collection administrator to upload? A user must
have either administrator or designer privileges for the site collection that contains the theme gallery in
order to upload *.thmx files to the gallery.
Site planning data worksheet
Download an Excel version of the Site planning data worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167837&clcid=0x409). Use this worksheet to help record your
decisions about themes.
See Also
Themes overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010)
39
Plan for multilingual sites (SharePoint Server
2010)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 has several features that enable you to support users in different
regions or users who speak different languages. You can use these features to create Web sites in
different languages and configure site variation settings that make it easy to track site updates and
changes across several duplicate sites.
This article discusses how to plan for multilingual SharePoint Server 2010 sites. This article does not
describe how to create multilingual sites or how to install language packs. For information about
creating multilingual sites, see Create sites in different languages from the default language
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=198972&clcid=0x409). For information about language packs,
see Deploy language packs (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/26c078670150-463d-b21a-a6d42aecf05a(Office.14).aspx).
In this article:

About planning multilingual sites

Determine language and locale requirements

Determine whether to use site variations

Determine language pack requirements

Determine requirements for word breakers and stemmers
About planning multilingual sites
If your organization has to support users in different regions or users who speak different languages,
you must determine what your multilingual requirements are and plan for multilingual site deployment
when you plan your overall site structure and navigation.
To determine your multilingual requirements, you must:

Determine the languages and locales that you have to support.

Determine whether you want to use the site variations feature.
To plan for multilingual site deployment, you must determine which language features and components
to install or configure on your servers. These can include:

Language packs.

Word breaker support.
Note:
Although Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 supported internationalized domain names
(IDNs), SharePoint Server 2010 does not. If you currently use IDNs with Office SharePoint
Server 2007 and you plan to upgrade or migrate to SharePoint Server 2010, you must stop
using IDNs, delete any IDN settings, and set up a non-IDN environment before you upgrade or
migrate to SharePoint Server 2010.
40
Determine language and locale requirements
You might have to create sites in multiple languages for any of the following reasons:

You want to provide Web site content to users in different regions.

You are required by government regulation or organizational policy to provide Web site content in
more than one language.
Be sure to consult all potential site owners when you determine your language requirements, and be
sure to list all languages that you might have to support in the future. It is easier to install language
support during initial deployment instead of waiting to install language support when your servers are
running in a full production environment. After a site has been created for a specific language, the
default language of the site cannot be changed. However, a user who is logged on to the site can use
the multilingual user interface to select an alternative language in which to display the site. This
changes the way the site user interface is displayed to the user, but it does not change the site content.
For example, if the site was provisioned in French, and the Spanish language pack has also been
installed on the server, a site user can change the language to Spanish so that when they view the site,
the user interface will be in Spanish. This changes the user interface for that user only and does not
affect how the site is displayed to other users. Also, any content that was created in French will still be
displayed in French. For more information about the multilingual user interface, see Multilingual user
interface overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Note:
If a user changes their personal site settings to display the site in an alternative language,
some site elements, such as column names, might still be displayed in the default site
language.
Do not assume that you have to create a Web site or a site collection in multiple languages only
because a document library contains documents in multiple languages. A document library can contain
documents in multiple languages without requiring you to create Web sites or site collections in multiple
languages. For example, the document library for an English site collection can contain documents that
are written in French and documents that are written in Japanese. For publishing sites, content can be
created in any language. You do not have to create a Web site in specific language in order to display
pages that contain content in other languages.
When you are planning multilingual sites, you should also consider what locales are necessary to
support your sites. Locale is a regional setting that specifies the way numbers, dates and times are
displayed on a site. However, locale does not change the language in which the site is displayed. For
example, selecting the Thai locale changes the default sort order of list items and uses the Buddhist
calendar instead of the default calendar. The locale is a setting that is configured independently of the
language specified when a site is created, but unlike the language, the locale can be changed at any
time. For more information about translation of the user interface, see Determine language pack
requirements.
Determine whether to use site variations
The SharePoint Server 2010 variations feature enables site administrators to make the same
information available to specific audiences across different sites by maintaining customizable copies of
the content from the source variation in each target variation. A variation consists of a set of labels that
is used to create a set of sites in a site collection. For example, if you want four language variations of
41
your site, you must create four labels, one for each language. The variations feature will create four
sites, one for each label. The site administrator selects one label to be the source label. The
corresponding source site is where most of the new content enters the system. The remaining labels
are the target labels, which the variations feature creates as target sites. For a multilingual site, you
might want to use the primary language of your organization as the source label. There can be only one
source label, and after the source label has been specified, it cannot be changed. For more information
about variations, see Variations overview.
To ensure seamless synchronization, when a change is made to a page within the source site, you can
configure the variations feature so that the updated page is copied either manually or automatically to
the target sites. The change can be as minor as correcting a spelling error or as major as a complete
rewrite of the content. The copy appears as a new draft item on the target site; it does not replace the
existing content. The content owner on the target site makes the decision to accept the change as is,
translate the change, or ignore the change. The same applies if a user on the source site creates a new
site below the source site or publishes a new page. Site administrators can decide to create a
variation's corresponding site and pages either automatically or manually.
When you plan for multilingual sites, consider whether you have to create content that will be shared
across sites, but must be modified to meet regional requirements or translated to meet language
requirements. For more information, see Plan variations.
Determine language pack requirements
Based on the language requirements of your Web site, determine the language packs that have to be
installed on your front-end Web servers. Language packs enable you to create sites and site collections
in multiple languages without requiring separate installations of SharePoint Server 2010. Language
packs are installed on the front-end Web servers in your server farm and contain language-specific site
templates. When you create a site or a site collection that is based on a language-specific site template,
the user interface text that appears on the site or the site collection is displayed in the language of the
specified site template. For example, when you decide to create a site in French, the toolbars,
navigation bars, lists, and column headings for that site will appear in French. Likewise, if you decide to
create a site in Arabic, the toolbars, navigation bars, lists, and column headings for that site will appear
in Arabic, and the default left-to-right orientation of the site changes to a right-to-left orientation to
properly display Arabic text.
If your site will have users who cannot work in the default language that you plan to use for the site, you
should also install language packs that will enable users to work in their chosen language by using the
multilingual user interface. If you do not provide support for additional languages, users might find it
difficult to use site features in their non-native language. Language packs provide language-specific
translation of user interface elements such as the following:

Ribbon elements

List and site column headers

Site settings interface

Templates for new lists, document libraries, and sites

Managed metadata tagging.

Relevant search indexing of content that is not in the default language of the site.
42
Note:
Language packs provide translation only of the user interface. They do not translate content
that is created and displayed in content pages or Web Parts.
The list of available languages that you can use to create a site or site collection, and which users can
select in the multilingual user interface, is generated by the language packs that are installed on the
front-end Web servers of your server farm. By default, sites and site collections are created in the
language in which SharePoint Server 2010 was installed. For example, if you install the Spanish
version of SharePoint Server 2010, the default language for sites, site collections, and Web pages is
Spanish. If you have to create sites, site collections, or Web pages in a language other than the default
SharePoint Server 2010 language, you must first install the language pack for that other language on
the front-end Web servers before you can select another language in which to create a site. For
example, if you are running the French version of SharePoint Server 2010 and you want to create sites
in French, English, and Spanish, then you must install the English and Spanish language packs on the
front-end Web servers before you can create the English and Spanish sites.
Language packs for SharePoint Server 2010 are not bundled or grouped into multilingual installation
packages: you must install a specific language pack for each language that you want to support. Also,
language packs must be installed on every front-end Web server in the server farm to ensure that each
Web server can render content in the specified language. For information about what language packs
are available, see Language packs (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/e318ac04-1b3c-478a-957c-4684ee5c7965(Office.14).aspx). For
information about how to deploy language packs, see Deploy language packs (SharePoint Server
2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/26c07867-0150-463d-b21a-a6d42aecf05a(Office.14).aspx).
Even though you specify a language for a site, some user interface elements such as error messages,
notifications, or dialog boxes might not appear in the language that you choose. This is because
SharePoint Server 2010 relies on several supporting technologies — such as the .NET Framework,
Microsoft Windows Workflow Foundation, ASP.NET, and Microsoft SQL Server — and some of these
supporting technologies are localized into only a limited number of languages. If a user interface
element is generated by one of the supporting technologies, and if the supporting technology is not
localized into the language that the site administrator specified for the site, the user interface element
appears in English.
In addition, some text might originate from the original installation language, which can create a mixedlanguage experience. This type of mixed-language experience is typically seen only by content creators
or site administrators and is not seen by site users.
Note:
Error logs that SharePoint Server 2010 stores on the server are always in English.
For more information about installing language packs, see Deploy language packs (SharePoint Server
2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/26c07867-0150-463d-b21a-a6d42aecf05a(Office.14).aspx).
Determine requirements for word breakers and
stemmers
Word breakers and stemmers are components that are part of the indexing and querying processes. A
word breaker is a component that is used to break strings of text into individual words during the
indexing and querying processes. A stemmer is a component that finds the root word of a term and can
43
also generate variations of that term. The rules for word breaking and stemming differ for different
languages, and you can specify different rules for different languages. Word breakers for each
language enable the resulting terms to be more accurate for that language. Where there is a word
breaker for a language family, but not for a specific sub-language, the major language is used. For
example, the French word breaker is used to handle text that is French Canadian. If no word breaker is
available for a particular language, the neutral word breaker is used. With the neutral word breaker,
words are broken at neutral characters such as spaces and punctuation marks.
If you install any language packs or supplemental language support, we recommend that you install the
appropriate word breaker and stemmer for each of the languages that you have to support. Word
breakers and stemmers must be installed on all servers that are running the Search service. For a list of
the languages for which SharePoint Server 2010 provides word breakers and stemmers, see
Languages for word breakers and stemmers (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/a55fc113-5589-4523-a682-9d6bc6604f78(Office.14).aspx).
See Also
Multilingual term sets (SharePoint Server 2010)
Multilingual user interface overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan for the multilingual user interface (SharePoint Server 2010)
44
Multilingual user interface overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
This article discusses the new multilingual user interface feature in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010.
Previously, in Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007, when you created a site collection or site, if
language packs were installed on the server, you could also choose the language in which to display
the site user interface. However, after the language for a site had been set, it could not be changed.
The multilingual user interface feature introduces the concept of secondary languages that users can
select. This feature is used to display the site user interface in a secondary language that the user
selects and that is different from the primary language that was chosen when the site was created.
This article describes the multilingual user interface in SharePoint Server 2010. This article does not
describe how to deploy the language packs that are required to use the multilingual user interface or
how to configure site settings to enable users to set their preferred language. It also does not discuss
how to plan for using the multilingual user interface in your site solution. For information about how to
let individual users change the language that is used to display their site's user interface, see Make
multiple languages available for your site's user interface
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=198969&clcid=0x409). For more information about planning to
use the multilingual user interface, see Plan for the multilingual user interface (SharePoint Server
2010).
In this article:

Use and benefits of the multilingual user interface

How the multilingual user interface works

What is supported by the multilingual user interface

Adding and modifying application content

Exporting and importing translated content

Using the multilingual user interface with managed metadata

Limitations of the multilingual user interface
Use and benefits of the multilingual user interface
The multilingual user interface enables users to collaborate in a single site by using their selected
secondary language, regardless of which language was selected when the site was created. When you
create a new site, if language packs have been installed on the server, you can specify the primary
language for the site. The site will use that primary language to display the site user interface, such as
site navigation and administrative pages. If you want site users to be able to view the site user interface
in a secondary language, you can specify which languages are available to users by using the
Language Settings page. A user who is logged on to the site can use the Select Display Language
option on the user menu to select a secondary language in which to display the site user interface. After
the user selects a language, all sites within that domain name are displayed in their preferred language.
However, this does not change the default, primary language of the site. Other users who view the site
still see the site user interface displayed in the primary language. The site user interface is changed
only for those users who have selected a different, secondary language in which to display the site.
45
By using the multilingual user interface, team members can work on documents and projects in a
shared, common language, while they are viewing the site and performing tasks in their preferred
language. In addition to team collaboration, the multilingual user interface enables farm and site
administrators to perform administrative tasks in their preferred language. For example, farm
administrators can change the primary language of the Central Administration Web site so that the
administrative links and instructions are displayed in their preferred language.
Note:
The multilingual user interface displays only site user interface elements in another language. It
does not translate or display content such as documents or list items in another language.
In addition to letting users change the primary language for a site, the multilingual user interface also
enables users to make changes to new and existing application content, such as list or library titles and
descriptions, and it enables users to have those changes be reflected in the user interface for other
users of other languages. For example, a team member who uses English as the preferred language
creates a new document library named "Team Reports." Another team member who has the preferred
language set to German, logs on to the site and changes the library title to "Mannschaftsberichte." The
next time that a user, who has the preferred language set to German, logs on to the site, the name of
the document library is displayed as "Mannschaftsberichte." However, a user who has the preferred
language set to English still sees the document library name displayed as "Team Reports."
SharePoint Server 2010 provides three methods that you can use to translate certain application
content, such as list or library titles and descriptions: by using the user interface, by exporting and
importing translations for a site, and by using the object model.
How the multilingual user interface works
By default, when a new site is created, it is created in the default language of the SharePoint Server
2010 installation on the server. A farm administrator must install language packs on the server before
sites can be created in languages other than the default language. For more information, see Deploy
language packs (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/26c07867-0150-463db21a-a6d42aecf05a(Office.14).aspx).
After language packs have been installed on the server, the Language Settings link is added to the
Site Settings page. Site administrators use the Language Settings page to specify which secondary
languages the site will support. After the site administrator has enabled secondary languages for a site,
users can log on to the site and use the Select Display Language option on the user menu to change
the display language when they browse to any page in the site collection. When a user changes the
display language of a page, the new display language becomes the user's preferred language for the
whole site collection.
SharePoint Server 2010 selects the language in which to display pages of a site collection by using the
first of the following rules that applies:
1. Does the user have a preferred language for this site collection on this computer? If so, use the
user's preferred language.
2. Is the language preference that is specified in the Web browser one of the supported languages for
the page? If so, use the preferred language of the browser.
3. Otherwise, use the default language for the site collection.
46
SharePoint Server 2010 provides three methods that you can use to modify certain application content,
such as list or library titles and descriptions: by using the user interface, by exporting and importing
translations for a site, and by using the SPUserResource class in the Microsoft.SharePoint namespace.
Not all user interface elements can be changed directly in the user interface. For example, user actions
and commands can be changed only by using the SPUserResource class. For more information, see
SPUserResource class (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=193203&clcid=0x409).
What is supported by the multilingual user interface
When a user views a site in a secondary language, certain elements of the user interface are provided
in the preferred language. The following list includes examples of items that are supported by the
multilingual user interface:

Settings pages, such as those in the _layouts and the _admin virtual directories.

Help.

Application content, such as menus, controls, site actions, site title and description, list or library
titles and descriptions, top link bar links, Quick Launch links, local breadcrumbs, site and list
content types, and site and list columns.

Developer content, such as features, and solutions.
However, not all user interface elements are translated. The following list includes examples of items
that are not supported by the multilingual user interface:

Web Parts (except those that are linked to lists or libraries).

Global breadcrumbs.

User created content, such as list item data, documents and Web pages in libraries, permissions
levels, groups, views, and Web Parts.
Although most site templates are supported by the multilingual user interface, the following site
templates are not supported:

The Blog template.

Any of the meeting workspace templates.

Any of the Web database templates.
Adding and modifying application content
A user can add or modify application content, such as list titles or column names and descriptions, in
one of two ways: by adding or modifying content in the primary language or by adding or modifying
content in one or more secondary languages.
When a user views a site by using the primary language of the site, any new application content that is
created is displayed in the primary language, even when the site is viewed in a secondary language.
For example, if the primary language for a site is English, when a user views the site in the primary
language and creates a new document library called "Team Documents", the library title is still
displayed as "Team Documents" when a user views the site in any secondary language. To translate
new user interface strings into a secondary language, a user must change the user preferences to
display the site in a secondary language and then make the change to the user interface element.
When a user views a site by using a secondary language, any new application content that is created is
displayed in that language even when the site is viewed in the primary language or in any other
47
secondary language. For example, if the primary language for a site is English, and a user views the
site in German and adds a document library called "Mannschaftsdokumente", the library title is
displayed as "Mannschaftsdokumente" even when the site is viewed in English. To translate new user
interface strings into the primary language or to other secondary languages, the user must change the
user preferences to display the site in the required language and then make the change to the user
interface. The Language Settings page contains an Overwrite Translations option that affects how
changes to existing application content are made to other languages for the site. If the Overwrite
Translations option is enabled, any changes that are made to the user interface in the primary
language overwrite any changes that have been made to user interface elements in secondary
languages.
By default, when a user views a site by using the primary language of the site, any changes that are
made to existing application content are changed for that language only. The strings that are associated
with that user interface element in the secondary languages remain unchanged. However, if the
Overwrite Translations option is enabled, the strings that are associated with that user interface
element for every language are replaced with the new primary language string. For example, if the
primary language for a site is English, and a user changes the title of the "Shared Documents" library to
"Team Documents", by default, the title is changed only for the primary language of the site. However, if
the Overwrite Translations option is enabled, the title is changed to "Team Documents" for every
secondary language, and it must be retranslated.
When a user views a site by using a secondary language, any changes that are made to existing
application content are changed for that language only. The strings that are associated with that user
interface element in the primary language and other secondary languages remain unchanged. To
translate user interface strings into the primary language, or to other secondary languages, the user
must change the user preferences to display the site in the required language and then make the
change to the user interface.
Exporting and importing translated content
The multilingual user interface feature lets you export and import application content for bulk translation.
Instead of translating application content one item at a time, you can export the strings for any new or
modified application content in the primary language or in one of the secondary languages. To export
content, you use the Export Translations link on the Site Settings page. When you export application
content for a secondary language, you can decide to export all content or only content that has not
been translated.
When the application content is exported, it is saved as a .resx file, which can be opened by using a
text editor or any third-party tool that can open resource files. For more information, see Resources in
.Resx File Format (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=193206&clcid=0x409). After the resource
strings have been translated, you use the Import Translations link on the Site Settings page to import
the .resx file.
Using the multilingual user interface with managed
metadata
You can create multilingual managed metadata for use with a SharePoint Server 2010 solution. By
using the Term Store Management Tool, you can create a term set, and associate multiple labels, one
for each language that you want to support, with each term in the set. When a user changes the
48
preferred language for a site, the terms are displayed using the labels that correspond to the selected
language. For more information about how to use multilingual managed metadata with a site, see
Multilingual term sets (SharePoint Server 2010).
Limitations of the multilingual user interface
As mentioned previously, not all user interface elements are supported by the multilingual user
interface. The following list describes additional limitations that apply when you use the multilingual user
interface:

Search Search indexes content in the default language of the SharePoint installation. Even if
content is provided in secondary languages, that content is only searchable by using the default
language of the site. For example, if your preferred language is German, but the primary language
for the site is English, a search for "Freigegebene Dokumente" does not return any search results.
However, a search for "Shared Documents" does return search results.

Web Parts Web Part titles and descriptions do not change in the user interface, unless a Web
Part is a list-based Web Part. For example, the title and description for Web Parts that display list
and library data, such as Announcements and Shared Documents, are displayed in a user's
preferred language, whereas the title and description for other Web Parts, such as the Content
Editor and the Content Query Web Parts, are displayed only in the primary site language.
See Also
Plan for the multilingual user interface (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan for multilingual sites (SharePoint Server 2010)
49
Plan for the multilingual user interface
(SharePoint Server 2010)
The new multilingual user interface feature in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 introduces the concept
of a secondary language that the user can select. This feature displays the site user interface in a
secondary language that the user selects and that is different from the primary language that was
chosen when the site was created.
This article describes how to plan for using the multilingual user interface in your SharePoint Server
2010 site solution. This article does not describe how to deploy the language packs that are required to
use the multilingual user interface or how to configure site settings to enable users to set their preferred
language. For information about how to let individual users change the language that is used to display
their site's user interface, see Make multiple languages available for your site's user interface
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=198969&clcid=0x409). For more information about the
multilingual user interface, see Multilingual user interface overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

Determine language requirements for your sites

Plan for translating content

Plan for installing service packs
Determine language requirements for your sites
Before you can use the multilingual user interface in your SharePoint sites, the farm administrator must
deploy language packs to the server so that they are available for use on sites. Decide which language
packs are needed and when they will be deployed to the server. Site administrators must configure the
language settings for individual sites to make specific languages available to site users. You should
decide which languages are needed for each site and plan to have the site administrators enable
specific languages for the sites they manage. For information about planning multilingual sites, see
Plan for multilingual sites (SharePoint Server 2010). For information about deploying language packs,
see Deploy language packs (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/26c078670150-463d-b21a-a6d42aecf05a(Office.14).aspx).
Plan for translating content
If you will enable the multilingual user interface on your site to provide users a way to collaborate while
they are using their preferred language, you must decide whether using the default multilingual user
interface will be sufficient or whether application content will have to be translated. If you have
application content that has to be translated, you should consider the following questions:

How will new and existing application content be translated? Will individual team members
translate application content directly in the user interface as it becomes necessary, or will you
export resource files in the languages that are needed for the site and have them all translated at
once? If users create new application content in a secondary language, you must plan for who will
translate that content into the primary language of the site and for the other secondary languages. If
you plan to create complex pages, such as new menu pages, or develop custom solutions, such as
50
features that create lists, you must plan to use the object model to provide translations in secondary
languages.

Who will translate the application content? Will the translation of resource files be done by
someone within your organization, or will you need to have a third-party translate them for you?

How will updates to the application content be handled? Will changes to the user interface be
translated as changes are made, or will changes be made on a periodic schedule? This might
depend on the size and scale of the sites and the content that is included.

How should translation overwrites be handled? Do you want changes in the primary language
to overwrite string values in secondary languages? If so, then you must enable the Overwrite
Translations option on the Language Settings page.

What column names must be changed? What column names must be translated, and for which
languages? Will the column names be at the list level or at the site level?
Plan for installing service packs
If language packs are updated as part of a service pack release for SharePoint, you must update the
language packs on the server when the service pack is installed. You should plan to coordinate with the
farm administrator to monitor the release of service packs and any associated language packs so that
you are aware of updated language packs that need to be installed for your users.
See Also
Multilingual user interface overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan for multilingual sites (SharePoint Server 2010)
51
Security planning for sites and content
(SharePoint Server 2010)
Some of the sites in your enterprise probably contain content that should not be available to all users.
For example, proprietary technical information should be accessible only on a need-to-know basis. An
intranet portal for employee benefits should be available only to full-time employees, whereas the home
page of an Internet Web site is accessible by anonymous clients.
Permissions control access to your sites and site content. You can manage permissions by using
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 groups, which control membership, and fine-grained permissions,
which help to secure content at the item and document level. This section describes permissions for
sites and site content and provides considerations for choosing permissions.
In this section:

Plan site permissions (SharePoint Server 2010)
Helps you understand how permissions are assigned and helps you choose the appropriate
permissions to use in your site collection or subsite.

Determine permission levels and groups (SharePoint Server 2010)
Reviews the available permission levels and groups, and helps you determine whether you need
additional permission levels or groups.

Choose security groups (SharePoint Server 2010)
Helps you determine which Microsoft Windows security groups and user accounts to use to grant
access to sites, decide whether to use the Authenticated Users group, and decide whether to allow
anonymous access.

Choose administrators and owners for the administration hierarchy (SharePoint Server 2010)
Defines the levels of administration from the server level to the subsite level and helps you choose
administrators for each level.

Best practices for using fine-grained permissions (white paper) (SharePoint Server 2010) provides
guidance for using fine-grained permissions in SharePoint 2010 Products.
52
Plan site permissions (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article helps you plan access control at the site collection, site, and subsite levels. This article also
describes permission inheritance and fine-grained permissions, and explains how to determine effective
permissions for users and groups at different scopes within a site collections hierarchy.
In this article:

About site permissions

About assigning permissions

About permission inheritance

About effective permissions

Choose permission levels

Plan for permission inheritance
Introduction
Site and content access is controlled by giving users and groups a set of permissions for a specific site,
list or library, folder, document, or item. When you develop your plan for site and content access, you
should consider the following issues:

How tightly you want to control permissions for the site or site content. For example, you might
want to control access at the site level, or you might need more restrictive security settings for a
specific list, folder, or item.

How to use groups to categorize and manage your users. Groups do not have any permissions
until they are assigned a permission level for a specific site or for specific site content. When you
assign permission levels to SharePoint groups at the site collection level, by default, all sites and
site content inherit those permission levels. For more information about using groups to help
manage permissions, see Choose security groups (SharePoint Server 2010).
This article describes site permissions and helps you determine which sites or site content will require
unique permissions. This article does not address planning the security of your entire server or server
farm.
About site permissions
You should understand the following concepts before you configure access to sites and site content:

Individual user permissions Individual permissions grant a user the ability to perform specific
actions. For example, the View Items permission allows a user to view items in a list or folder, but
not to add or remove items. For more information about available permissions, see User
permissions and permission levels (SharePoint Server 2010).

Permission level This predefined set of permissions allows users to perform a set of related
tasks. For example, the Read permission level includes the View Items, Open Items, View Pages,
and View Versions permissions (among others), all of which are needed to read documents, items,
and pages of a SharePoint site. Individual permissions can be included in more than one
permission level. Permission levels can be customized by any user or group whose permission
53
level includes the Manage Permissions permission. The default permission levels are Limited
Access, Read, Contribute, Design, and Full Control. For more information about default permission
levels and which permissions are included in them, see User permissions and permission levels
(SharePoint Server 2010).

Group A group can be either a Windows security group or a SharePoint group, such as Site
Owners, Site Members, or Site Visitors. Groups are created and managed at the site collection
level. Each SharePoint group is assigned a default permission level, but the permission level for
any group can be customized. Anyone assigned to a permission level that includes the Create
Groups permission, which is included in the Full Control permission level by default, can create
custom SharePoint groups. For more information about customizing permission levels, see
Configure custom permissions (SharePoint Server 2010).

User A user is a person with a user account that can be authenticated by the same authentication
method that was used for the server. We recommend that you assign permissions to groups
instead of users, although you can directly give individual users permissions to a site or specific
content or directly assign a permission level to a user. Because it is inefficient to maintain individual
user accounts, you should assign permissions on a per-user basis only as an exception. For more
information about user account types, see User permissions and permission levels (SharePoint
Server 2010).

Securable object A securable object is a site, list, library, folder, document, or item for which
permission levels can be assigned to users or groups. By default, all lists and libraries within a site
inherit permissions from the site. You can use list-level, folder-level, and item-level permissions to
have more control over which users can view or interact with site content. For example, if a
permission level for a specific securable object includes the Manage Permissions permission,
anyone who is assigned that permission level can change the permissions for that securable object.
You can resume inheriting permissions from a parent list, the site as a whole, or a parent site at any
time.
54
About assigning permissions
You can assign a user or group a permission level for a specific securable object. Individual users or
groups can have different permission levels for different securable objects. The following diagram
illustrates how users and groups are assigned specific permission levels for a securable object.
About permission inheritance
Permissions on securable objects within a site are inherited from the site itself by default. You can use
fine-grained permissions — unique permissions on the list or library, folder, or item or document level
— to gain more control of the actions users can take on your site. However, using too many finegrained permissions can complicate permissions management.
Permission inheritance and fine-grained permissions
You can break permission inheritance for any securable object at a lower level in the site hierarchy by
creating a fine-grained permission on that securable object. For example, you can edit the permissions
for a document library, which breaks the inheritance from the site. However, the inheritance is broken
only for the specific securable object for which you changed permissions; the rest of the site's
permissions are unchanged. You can resume inheriting permissions from the parent list or site at any
time.
Tip:
55
If you are using fine-grained permissions, you should use groups to avoid having to track
individual user accounts. For example, because people move in and out of teams and change
responsibilities frequently, tracking those changes and updating the permissions for uniquely
secured objects would be time-consuming and error-prone.
The following securable objects can accept fine-grained permission assignments:

Site: Controls access to the site as a whole.

List or library: Controls access to a specific list or library.

Folder: Controls access to a folder's properties (such as the name of the folder).

Item or document: Controls access to a specific list item or document.
Permission inheritance and subsites
Inheriting permissions is the default behavior and is the easiest way to manage a group of Web sites.
However, if a subsite inherits permissions from its parent, that set of permissions is shared with the
parent. If the subsite‘s owners edit its permissions, the site‘s permissions will also change, which could
compromise security or prevent users from accessing content.
If you want to change permissions for the subsite only, you must first stop inheriting permissions from
the site and then create fine-grained permissions on the subsite. For example, if specific lists, libraries,
folders, items, or documents contain sensitive data that requires an increased level of protection, you
can create fine-grained permissions for a specific group or individual user who requires access.
Creating unique permissions copies the groups, users, and permission levels from the parent site to the
subsite and then breaks the inheritance. If you restore inherited permissions, the subsite will inherit its
users, groups, and permission levels from the parent site, and you will lose any users, groups, or
permission levels that were unique to the subsite.
Note:
As a best practice, you should arrange sites and subsites so they can share most of their
permissions, and do the same for lists and libraries. Place any sensitive data into separate lists,
libraries, or subsites.
About effective permissions
Configuring security settings or performing bulk operations requires accurate information about user
and group permissions on site resources. For example, many SharePoint sites give all authenticated
users (the NTAUTHORITY\AUTHENTICATED USERS domain group) access to at least some site
content. If you want more restricted access, you must determine exactly which permissions
authenticated users have, and on which site content.
Tracing inherited permissions and areas where inheritance is broken complicates the process of
determining the correct permissions. SharePoint Server 2010 uses effective permissions to determine a
user or group‘s permissions on all resources within a site collection. You can now find both the user's
directly assigned permissions and the permissions assigned to any groups of which the user is a
member.
Important:
Effective permissions make it easier to find permissions in a site collection. However, they
should never be used as a substitute for a carefully planned permissions structure.
56
Choose permission levels
When you create permissions, you must balance ease of administration and performance against the
need to control access to individual items. If you use fine-grained permissions extensively, you will
spend more time managing the permissions, and users may experience slower performance when they
try to access site content.
Use the following guidelines to configure site permissions:

Follow the principle of least privilege: Users should have only the permission levels or individual
permissions they need to perform their assigned tasks.

Use standard groups (such as Members, Visitors, and Owners) and control permissions at the site
level.

Make most users members of the Members or Visitors groups. By default, users in the Members
group can contribute to the site by adding or removing items or documents, but cannot change the
structure, site settings, or appearance of the site. The Visitors group has read-only access to the
site, which means that they can see pages and items, and open items and documents, but cannot
add or remove pages, items, or documents.

Limit the number of people in the Owners group. Only those users you trust to change the
structure, settings, or appearance of the site should be in the Owners group.
You can create additional SharePoint groups and permission levels if you need more control over the
actions that your users can take. For example, if you do not want the Read permission level on a
specific subsite to include the Create Alerts permission, break the inheritance and customize the Read
permission level for that subsite.
Plan for permission inheritance
It is much easier to manage permissions when there is a clear hierarchy of permissions and inherited
permissions. It becomes more difficult when some lists within a site have fine-grained permissions
applied, and when some sites have subsites with unique permissions and others with inherited
permissions.
For example, it is much easier to manage a site that has permission inheritance, as described in the
following table.
Securable object
Description
Unique or inherited permissions
SiteA
Group home page
Unique
SiteA/SubsiteA
Sensitive group
Unique
SiteA/SubsiteA/ListA
Sensitive data
Unique
SiteA/SubsiteA/LibraryA Sensitive documents
Unique
SiteA/SubsiteB
Group shared project information Inherited
SiteA/SubsiteB/ListB
Non-sensitive data
SiteA/SubsiteB/LibraryB Non-sensitive documents
Inherited
Inherited
57
However, it is not as easy to manage a site that has permission inheritance, as shown in the following
table.
Securable object
Description
Unique or inherited permissions
SiteA
Group home page
Unique
SiteA/SubsiteA
Sensitive group
Unique
SiteA/SubsiteA/ListA
Non-sensitive data
Unique, but same permissions as
SiteA
SiteA/SubsiteA/LibraryA Non-sensitive documents, but with one
or two sensitive documents
Inherited, with unique permissions
at the document level
SiteA/SubsiteB
Group shared project information
Inherited
SiteA/SubsiteB/ListB
Non-sensitive data, but with one or two
sensitive items
Inherited, with unique permissions
at the item level
SiteA/SubsiteB/LibraryB Non-sensitive documents, but with a
special folder that contains sensitive
documents
Inherited, with unique permissions
at the folder and document level
58
Determine permission levels and groups
(SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes default groups and permission levels and helps you decide whether to use them
as they are, customize them, or create different groups and permission levels.
In this article:

Review available default groups

Review available permission levels

Determine whether you need additional permission levels or groups
The most important decision about your site and content security in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010
is how to categorize your users and which permission levels to assign.
Review available default groups
SharePoint groups enable you to manage sets of users instead of individual users. These groups can
contain many individual users, or they can include the contents of any corporate identity system,
including Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), LDAPv3-based directories, application-specific
databases, and new user-centric identity models, such as LiveID. SharePoint groups do not confer
specific rights to the site; they are a way to designate a set of users. You can organize users into any
number of groups, depending on the size and complexity of your organization or Web site. SharePoint
groups cannot be nested.
The following table displays default groups that are created for team sites in SharePoint Server 2010.
Group name
Default permission level
Viewers
View Only
Visitors
Read
Members
Contribute
Designers
Design
Owners
Full Control
If you use a site template other than the team site template, you will see a different list of default
SharePoint groups. For example, the following table shows the additional groups provided by a
publishing site template.
Group name
Default permission level
Restricted Readers
Restricted Read to the site, plus Limited Access to specific lists
Style Resource Readers
Read to the Master Page Gallery and Restricted Read to the Style Library
59
Group name
Default permission level
Quick Deploy Users
Contribute to the Quick Deploy Items library, plus Limited Access to the rest
of the site
Approvers
Approve, plus Limited Access
Hierarchy Managers
Manage Hierarchy, plus Limited Access
In addition, the following special users and groups are available for higher-level administration tasks:

Site collection administrators You can designate one or more users as primary and secondary
site collection administrators. These users are recorded in the database as the contacts for the site
collection, have full control of all sites within the site collection, can audit all site content, and
receive any administrative alerts (such as verifying whether the site is still being used). Site
collection administrators are designated when a site is created, but you can change them as
needed by using the Central Administration site or Site Settings pages of the site collection. AD DS
groups and roles cannot be added as site collection administrators.
Note:
Site collection administrators have full rights to all sites within a site collection. They can
add or delete sites or change the settings for any site within a site collection. Additionally,
they can view, add, delete, or change all content within those sites. They can add and
remove users from sites and send invitations to those sites. Site collection owners are the
only users who receive e-mail notifications for events, such as the pending automatic
deletion of inactive sites. By default, site collection owners also receive requests for access
from users who have been denied access.

Farm administrators This group controls which users can manage server and server farm
settings. Farm administrators have no access to site content by default; they must take ownership
of the site if they want to view any content. The Farm Administrators group is used in Central
Administration only, and is not available for any sites.

Administrators Members of the Administrators group on the local server can perform all farm
administrator actions and other actions, including the following:

Installing new products or applications.

Deploying Web Parts and new features to the global assembly cache.

Creating new Web applications and new IIS Web sites.

Starting services.
Like the Farm Administrators group, members of the Administrators group on the local server have
no access to site content by default.
After you determine the groups that you need, determine the permission levels to assign to each group
on your site.
Review available permission levels
The ability to view, change, or manage a site is determined by the permission level that you assign to a
user or group. This permission level controls all permissions for the site and for any subsites, lists,
document libraries, folders, and items or documents that inherit the site's permissions. Without the
60
appropriate permission levels, your users might be unable to perform their tasks, or they might be able
to perform tasks that you did not intend them to perform.
By default, the following permission levels are available:

Limited Access Includes permissions that enable users to view specific lists, document libraries,
list items, folders, or documents, without giving access to all the elements of a site. You cannot edit
this permission level directly.
Note:
If this permission level is removed, group members might be unable to navigate the site to
access items, even if they have the correct permissions for an item within the site.

Read Includes permissions that enable users to view items on the site pages.

Contribute Includes permissions that enable users to add or change items on the site pages or in
lists and document libraries.

Design Includes permissions that enable users to change the layout of site pages by using the
browser or Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010.

Full Control Includes all permissions.
The following additional permission levels are provided with the publishing template by default:

View Only Includes permissions that enable users to view pages, list items, and documents.

Approve Includes permissions to edit and approve pages, list items, and documents.

Manage Hierarchy Includes permissions to sites and edit pages, list items, and documents.

Restricted Read Includes permissions to view pages and documents, but not historical versions
or user rights information.
Determine whether you need additional permission
levels or groups
The default groups and permission levels provide a general framework for permissions, covering many
different organization types and roles within those organizations. However, they might not map exactly
to how your users are organized or to the many different tasks that your users perform on your sites. If
the default groups and permission levels do not suit your organization, you can create custom groups,
change the permissions included in specific permission levels, or create custom permission levels.
Do you need custom groups?
The decision to create custom groups is fairly straightforward and has little effect on your site's security.
You should create custom groups instead of using the default groups if either of the following situations
applies:

You have more (or fewer) user roles within your organization than are apparent in the default
groups. For example, if in addition to Approvers, Designers, and Hierarchy Managers, you have a
set of people who are tasked with publishing content to the site, you might want to create a
Publishers group.

There are well-known names for unique roles within your organization that perform very different
tasks in the sites. For example, if you are creating a public site to sell your organization's products,
you might want to create a Customers group that replaces Visitors or Viewers.
61

You want to preserve a one-to-one relationship between Windows security groups and the
SharePoint groups. For example, if your organization has a security group called Web Site
Managers, you might want to use that name as a SharePoint group name for easy identification
when managing the site.

You prefer other group names.
Do you need custom permission levels?
The decision to customize permission levels is less straightforward than the decision to customize
SharePoint groups. If you customize the permissions assigned to a permission level, you must keep
track of that change, verify that it works for all groups and sites affected by the change, and ensure that
the change does not adversely affect your security or your server capacity or performance.
For example, if you customize the Contribute permission level to include the Create Subsites
permission that is typically part of the Full Control permission level, members of the Contributors group
can create and own subsites, and can potentially invite malicious users to their subsites or post
unapproved content. If you customize the Read permission level to include the View Usage Data
permission that is typically part of the Full Control permission level, all members of the Visitors group
can see usage data, which might cause performance issues.
You should customize the default permission levels if either of the following situations applies:

A default permission level includes all permissions except one that your users need to do their jobs,
and you want to add that permission.

A default permission level includes a permission that your users do not need.
Important:
You should not customize the default permission levels if your organization has security or
other concerns about a specific permission that is part of the permission level. If you want
to make that permission unavailable for all users assigned to the permission level or levels
that include that permission, turn off the permission for all Web applications in your server
farm, rather than change all of the permission levels.
If you need to make several changes to a permission level, create a custom permission level that
includes all of the permissions you need.
You might want to create additional permission levels if either of the following situations applies:

You want to exclude several permissions from a particular permission level.

You want to define a unique set of permissions for a new permission level.
To create a permission level, you can copy an existing permission level and then make changes, or you
can create a permission level and then select the permissions that you want to include.
Note:
Some permissions depend on other permissions. If you clear a permission that another
permission depends on, the other permission is also cleared.
62
Choose security groups (SharePoint Server
2010)
This article describes the security and distribution groups that are included in Active Directory Domain
Services (AD°DS). This article also provides recommendations for using those groups to organize the
users of your SharePoint sites.
In this article:

Determine which Windows security groups and accounts to use for granting access to sites

Decide whether to allow access for all authenticated users

Decide whether to allow access for anonymous users
Introduction
Managing users of SharePoint sites is easier if you assign site permissions to groups instead of to
individual users. In AD°DS, the following groups are typically used to organize users:

Distribution group A group that is used only for e-mail distribution and that is not securityenabled. Distribution groups cannot be listed in discretionary access control lists (DACLs), which
are used to define permissions on resources and objects.

Security group A group that can be listed in DACLs. A security group can also be used as an email entity.
You can use security groups to control permissions for your site by directly adding the security group to
the site and granting permissions to the entire group. You cannot directly add distribution groups, but
you can expand a distribution group and add the individual members to a SharePoint group. If you use
this method, you must manually keep the SharePoint group synchronized with the distribution group. If
you use security groups, you do not need to manage the individual users in the SharePoint application.
Because you included the security group itself and not the individual members of the group, AD°DS
manages the users for you.
Security groups that contain the following items may be more difficult to manage:

Nested security groups.

Contacts or distribution lists.
Determine which Windows security groups and
accounts to use for granting access to sites
Each organization sets up its Windows security groups differently. For easier permission management,
security groups should be:

Large and stable enough that you are not continually adding groups to your SharePoint sites.

Small enough that you can assign appropriate permissions.
For example, a security group called "all users in building 2" is probably not small enough to assign
permissions, unless all users in building 2 have the same job function, such as accounts receivable
63
clerks. This is rarely the case, so you should look for a smaller, more specific set of users, such as
―Accounts Receivable.‖
Decide whether to allow access for all authenticated
users
If you want all users within your domain to be able to view content on your site, consider granting
access to all authenticated users (the Domain Users Windows security group). This special group
enables all members of your domain to access a Web site (at the permission level that you choose),
without your having to enable anonymous access.
Decide whether to allow access for anonymous users
You can enable anonymous access to let users view pages anonymously. Most Internet Web sites
allow for anonymous viewing of a site, but might ask for authentication when someone wants to edit the
site or buy an item on a shopping site. Anonymous access must be granted at the Web application level
at the time that the Web application is created.
If anonymous access is enabled for the Web application, site administrators can decide whether to:

Grant anonymous access to a site.

Grant anonymous access only to lists and libraries.

Block anonymous access to a site completely.
Anonymous access relies on the anonymous user account on the Web server. This account is created
and maintained by Internet Information Services (IIS), not by your SharePoint site. By default in IIS, the
anonymous user account is IUSR.
When you enable anonymous access, you are in effect granting that account access to the SharePoint
site. Allowing access to a site, or to lists and libraries, grants the View Items permission to the
anonymous user account. However, even with the View Items permission, there are restrictions on what
anonymous users can do. Anonymous users cannot:

Open sites for editing in Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010. In other words, they cannot use the
remote procedure call (RPC).

View the site in My Network Places; in other words, they cannot use Web Distributed Authoring and
Versioning (WebDAV), the Web Folders protocol in Windows.

Upload or edit documents in document libraries, including wiki libraries.
Important:
To improve security for sites, lists, or libraries, do not enable anonymous access. Enabling
anonymous access lets users to contribute to lists, discussions, and surveys, which may
reduce server disk space and adversely affect other resources. Anonymous access also
enables anonymous users to discover site information, including user e-mail addresses and
any content posted to lists, and libraries, and discussions.
You can set permission policies for the anonymous user for different zones (Internet, Extranet, Intranet,
Other), if you have the same Web application serving content in those different zones. The following list
describes the policies:
64

None No policy. This is the default option. No additional permission restrictions or additions are
applied to a site‘s anonymous users.

Read Anonymous users can read content, unless the site administrator turns off anonymous
access.

Deny Write Anonymous users cannot write content, even if the site administrator specifically
attempts to grant the anonymous user account that permission.

Deny All Anonymous users cannot have any access, even if site administrators specifically
attempt to grant the anonymous user account access to their sites.
65
Choose administrators and owners for the
administration hierarchy (SharePoint Server
2010)
This article describes the administrator roles that correspond to the Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010
server and site hierarchy. Many people can be involved in managing SharePoint Server 2010.
Administration of SharePoint Server 2010 occurs at the following levels:

Server farm

Shared services

Sites

Document library or list

Individual items
In this article:

Levels of administration
Introduction
Most levels of the server and site hierarchy have a corresponding administration group. The Web
application level does not have a unique administrator group, but farm administrators control the Web
applications within their scope. Members of the Farm Administrators group and members of the
Administrators group on the local server can define a policy to grant individual users permissions at the
Web application level.
Levels of administration
The following groups of users have administrative permissions at different levels of the administration
hierarchy:

Server or server farm level

Farm Administrators group Members of the Farm Administrators group have permissions to
and responsibility for all servers in the server farm. Members can perform all administrative
tasks in Central Administration for the server or server farm. Members of this group can also
use Windows PowerShell to create and manage configuration database objects. They can
assign administrators to manage service applications, which are instances of shared services.
This group does not have access to individual sites or their content.

Administrators group Members of the Farm Administrators group have permissions to and
responsibility for all servers in the server farm. Members can perform all administrative tasks in
Central Administration for the server or server farm. Members of this group can also use
Windows PowerShell to create and manage configuration database objects. They can assign
administrators to manage service applications, which are instances of shared services. This
group does not have access to individual sites or their content.
66
Note:
Farm administrators and local administrators can take ownership of specific site
collections, if it is necessary. For example, if a site administrator leaves the
organization and a new administrator must be added, the farm administrator or a
member of the local Administrators group can take ownership of the site collection to
make the change.


Shared services level

Service administrators These administrators are delegated by the farm administrator. They
can configure settings for a specific service application within a farm. However, these
administrators cannot create service applications, access any other service applications in the
farm, or perform any farm-level operations, including topology changes. For example, the
service application administrator for a Search service application in a farm can configure
settings for that Search service application only.

Feature administrators A feature administrator is associated with a specific feature or
features of a service application. These administrators can manage a subset of service
application settings, but not the entire service application. For example, a Feature administrator
might manage the Audiences feature of the User Profile service application.
Site level

Site collection administrators These administrators have the Full Control permission level
on all Web sites within a site collection. They have access to content in all sites in that site
collection, even if they do not have explicit permissions on that site.

Site owners By default, members of the Owners group for a site have the Full Control
permission level on that site. They can perform administration tasks for the site, and for any list
or library within that site. They receive e-mail notifications for events, such as the pending
automatic deletion of inactive sites and requests for site access.
67
Best practices for using fine-grained
permissions (white paper) (SharePoint Server
2010)
This white paper describes best practices for fine-grained permissions (FGP) and how to use them
within your organization when implementing Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010.
Download the white paper from the following link: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=201596
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=201596)
68
Site and solution governance (SharePoint
Server 2010)
This section provides information about governing sites and solutions for both production and
sandboxed Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 environments.
Governance is the set of policies, roles, responsibilities, and processes that guide, direct, and control
how an organization's business divisions and IT teams cooperate to achieve business goals.
Sandboxed solutions restrict access to network and local resources to provide greater security and
stability. You can use sandboxed solutions for load balancing solutions, for solutions that have not been
fully tested, and for deploying user solutions in a hosted environment. Sandboxed solutions run in a
separate worker thread so that they cannot access resources that belong to other solutions, and they
have limited access to local and network resources.
In this section:

Governance overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article introduces governance as an essential part of a successful SharePoint Server 2010
deployment and explains the various components of an enterprise governance plan.

Governance features (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article reviews a set of SharePoint Server 2010 features that an organization can use to help
govern an IT service, information management, and information architecture.

Establishing and governing a SharePoint service (SharePoint Server 2010)
Learn about key factors in governing a SharePoint service and what to include in a service-level
agreement.

Implementing and governing information architecture (SharePoint Server 2010)
Learn how to plan an effective information architecture to ensure that your solution meets your
business needs.

Plan for sandboxed solutions (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article explains how to plan to use sandboxed solutions in a SharePoint environment.

Book excerpt: SharePoint Development and Governance Using COBIT 4.1: A Practical Approach
These book excerpts are from "SharePoint Deployment and Governance Using COBIT® 4.1: A
Practical Approach."

SharePoint 2010 Governance Planning (white paper)
This white paper focuses on the ―front end‖ of the SharePoint environment – the business aspect of
governance - the areas that effect business users. It uses a fictitious company to provide guidance
for the necessary governance planning and implementation of SharePoint Server 2010.

Implementing Governance in SharePoint 2010 (white paper)
This white paper focuses on the ―back end‖ of SharePoint governance – the technical
implementation. It provides high-level guidance on the many configuration options that SharePoint
Server 2010 provides to enable you to manage the environment for the benefit of all.
69
Governance overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article introduces governance as an essential part of a successful Microsoft SharePoint Server
2010 deployment and explains why both information architecture and IT services are key components
of a governance plan.
The articles in this section emphasize the need for governance of SharePoint Server 2010
deployments. These articles also provide general guidance and examples of the Microsoft SharePoint
Server activities and processes your organization should consider governing.
In this article:

About governance

What should be governed?

Who should determine governance policies?

How should governance be implemented?
About governance
Governance is the set of policies, roles, responsibilities, and processes that guide, direct, and control
how an organization's business divisions and IT teams cooperate to achieve business goals. A
comprehensive governance plan can benefit your organization by:

Streamlining the deployment of products and technologies, such as SharePoint Server 2010.

Helping protect your enterprise from security threats or noncompliance liability.

Helping ensure the best return on your investment in technologies, for example, by enforcing best
practices in content management or information architecture.
What should be governed?
Every organization has unique needs and goals that influence its approach to governance. For
example, larger organizations will probably require more — and more detailed — governance than
smaller organizations.
A successful SharePoint Server 2010 deployment requires the following elements:

Information architecture
The goal of information architecture is to create a system that helps users collect, store, retrieve,
and use the information that is needed to achieve business objectives. A Web site‘s information
architecture determines how the information in that site — its Web pages, documents, lists, and
data — is organized and presented to the site‘s users.
A comprehensive assessment of your organization's information architecture can help you identify
potential inefficiencies, such as the following:

Inconsistent use of metadata that can make it difficult to search for and compare related data or
content.

Poorly designed and managed storage of content that can result in multiple versions of
documents with no way to identify the authoritative version.
70


Poorly catalogued and managed storage of data that can cause decision-makers to find and
rely on the wrong data.

Poorly designed navigation or poorly presented information that can make it difficult to find
important sites and information.
IT Service hosting SharePoint Server
SharePoint Server 2010 includes many new features that should be addressed by a
comprehensive governance plan. Some of these features are as follows:

A new service application architecture, built into Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010, that
replaces the SSP model.

Backup and restore improvements.

Multitenancy, which creates a true hosting environment and makes it possible to share service
resources across customers (tenants) while partitioning data based on site subscriptions.

Managed accounts that automate password changes.

Windows PowerShell, the new command-line interface and scripting language that was
designed specifically for system administrators.
Unless you have a governance plan, the rapid and uncontrolled growth of individually managed
Web servers running SharePoint Server can have unanticipated results. These include the
following:

Isolated servers hosting a loosely organized group of sites that do not have a common search
index, navigation, or security scheme. If you want to support self-service site creation, you
should have a plan that covers content disposition and site archival.

Servers hosting applications that are not secure, which may compromise the integrity of your
content.

Requests for technical support for local servers that are running SharePoint Server without the
support team's knowledge.

Critical activities, such as regulatory compliance, that may be administered inconsistently
across servers.

Regular maintenance activities, such as backing up and restoring data or installing product
updates, that may not be performed correctly because of poor training or inconsistent server
configuration.

Changes in site ownership that raise questions about content ownership or cause sites to be
locked.
As the use of SharePoint Server 2010 increases in your enterprise, your IT department should
implement a set of well-governed hosting services that makes SharePoint Server 2010 available
and establishes control over its use and configuration.
For effective and manageable SharePoint Server 2010 solutions, your organization should consider
governing one or more of the following additional areas:

Customization policy
SharePoint Server 2010 includes customizable features and capabilities that span multiple product
areas, such as business intelligence, forms, workflow, and content management. Customization
introduces risks to the stability, maintenance, and security of the SharePoint Server 2010
environment. To support customization while controlling its scope, you should develop a
customization policy that addresses the following considerations:
71

Approved customization tools. For example, you should decide whether to allow the use of
Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 and specify which site elements can be customized, and
by whom.

Ways to manage source code, such as a source control system, and standards for
documenting the code.

Development standards, such as coding best practices.

Testing and verification standards.

Required packaging and installation methods. You should control the use of sandboxing, which
enables site owners to host custom solutions in a partially trusted context so they do not affect
the rest of your SharePoint implementation.

The kinds of customizations supported. For example, you might want to allow the use of Web
parts to integrate Microsoft Silverlight 3 applications together with SharePoint sites.
For more information about processes for managing customizations, see the white paper
SharePoint Products and Technologies customization policy
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=92311).

Branding
If you are designing an information architecture and a set of sites for use across an enterprise,
consider including branding in your governance plan. A formal set of branding policies helps ensure
that sites consistently use enterprise imagery, fonts, themes, and other design elements. For
example, in SharePoint Server 2010, you can import a Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 theme directly
into a SharePoint site, which automatically applies the theme to all subsites.

Training
Although SharePoint Server 2010 has an intuitive, Web-based interface and includes online help,
using and especially administering sites based on SharePoint Server 2010 can be a challenge for
some users. Additionally, the set of governance policies your IT and business divisions implement
may require explanation. By training your user community appropriately, you can increase
satisfaction with your implementation of SharePoint Server 2010 and reduce support costs.
Who should determine governance policies?
A successful deployment of SharePoint Server 2010 requires ongoing communication and partnership
among business managers, IT professionals, and information workers. When you create a governance
committee, you should include representatives from as many of the following groups and roles as
possible:
Note:
Your organization might not have an equivalent role, or might use a different title.

Executive stakeholders: Key executives should define the overall goals of the governance
committee, provide it with authority, and periodically evaluate the success of the implemented
practices and policies.

Financial stakeholders: Financial officers should ensure that governance rules and processes help
increase the return on the enterprise's investment in SharePoint products and technologies.
72

IT leaders: IT leaders must help develop their service offerings and determine how to achieve their
IT responsibilities (for example, improving security and maintaining reliability) while they support the
features required by the business teams.

Business division leaders: Business leaders represent the teams that do the primary work of the
enterprise and drive the architectural and functional requirements of the SharePoint Server 2010
deployment. They must work with information architects to determine the enterprise's information
architecture and organizational taxonomy standards. Business leaders must also work with IT
leaders to create service-level agreements and other support policies.

Information architects or taxonomists: Members of these groups have extensive experience in
planning and designing information systems and taxonomies. Based on their analysis of the
information needs of the audience, they develop plans that support organizational objectives and
define site architecture and navigation.

Compliance officers: Governance includes making sure that an enterprise meets its regulatory and
legal requirements and manages its corporate knowledge. If your enterprise has roles that are
responsible for compliance or legal oversight, include representatives from those disciplines in your
governance committee.

Development leaders: Leaders in your software development organization should help determine
which customization tools are approved, how to verify code security, and other code-related best
practices.

Information workers: The members of your organization who do the day-to-day work should help
ensure that the SharePoint Server 2010 services and information architecture meet their needs.

Trainers: Instructional experts should be responsible for developing a training plan and conducting
all appropriate training and education.
How should governance be implemented?
An effective governance plan anticipates the needs and goals of your organization's business divisions
and IT teams. Because every enterprise is unique, you must determine the best way to implement a
governance plan that is tailored to your environment.
Consider the following suggested stages of a governance implementation for your organization:
1. Determine initial principles and goals.
The governance committee should develop a governance vision, policies, and standards that can
be measured to track compliance and to quantify the benefit to the enterprise. For example, the
plan should identify service delivery requirements for both technical and business aspects of the
SharePoint Server 2010 deployment.
2. Classify the business information/content.
Organize your information according to an existing taxonomy, or create a custom taxonomy that
includes all content required to support your business solution. After your information is organized,
design an information architecture to manage your enterprise content. Then, determine the most
appropriate IT services to support the information architecture.
3. Develop an education strategy.
The human element is, after the governance plan itself, the most important ingredient in the
success or failure of a SharePoint Server 2010 deployment. A comprehensive training plan should
show how to use SharePoint Server 2010 according to the standards and practices that you are
73
implementing and explain why those standards and practices are important. The plan should cover
the kinds of training required for specific user groups and describe appropriate training tools. For
example, your IT department might maintain a frequently asked questions (FAQ) page about its
SharePoint Server 2010 service offerings, or your business division might provide online training
that shows how to set up and use a new document management process.
4. Develop an ongoing plan.
Successful governance is an iterative process. The governance committee should meet regularly to
consider incorporating new requirements in the governance plan, reevaluate and adjust
governance principles, or resolve conflicts among business divisions for IT resources. The
committee should provide regular reports to its executive sponsors to promote accountability and to
help enforce compliance across the enterprise. Consider that, although this process seems
complicated, its goals are to increase the return on your investment in SharePoint Server 2010,
take full advantage of the usefulness of your SharePoint Server 2010 solution, and improve the
productivity of your enterprise.
See Also
Governance Resource Center (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=133502)
74
Governance features (SharePoint Server 2010)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 includes features that an organization can use to help govern a
SharePoint Server 2010 IT service, an enterprise's information management, or an enterprise‘s
information architecture. Links to related articles can help you plan and use each feature.
Note:
Governance is the set of policies, roles, responsibilities, and processes that guide, direct, and
control how an organization's business divisions and IT teams cooperate to achieve business
goals. For information, see Governance overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

Managing SharePoint installation in an enterprise

IT service features

Information management

Information architecture features
Managing SharePoint installation in an enterprise
Because SharePoint deployments are managed at the farm level, a single SharePoint deployment has
no information about other SharePoint deployments that might exist in the same enterprise.
Administrators need this information to manage and control all deployments in the enterprise. For
example, administrators need to know whether a deployment was configured according to
organizational requirements, or how many unauthorized deployments exist in the enterprise. Microsoft
SharePoint 2010 Products provides the following ways to lock down, track, and even block random
installations of SharePoint Server

The following Group Policy object disables the installation of SharePoint Server and related
products:
HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Shared Tools\Web Server Extensions\14.0\
SharePoint\DWORD DisableInstall
To block installation, set DWORD DisableInstall=00000001.
When this registry key is set, users who try to install SharePoint Server receive the following error
message: SharePoint installation is blocked in your organization. Please contact your
network administrator for more details.

An Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) Marker identifies the SharePoint servers in an
organization. By default, the marker contains the URL for the topology service application.
For more information about setting the group policy object and the AD DS marker, see Track or block
SharePoint Server 2010 installations (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/c8dfb182-2cd9-45f2-9e42baa522a9c33d(Office.14).aspx).
IT service features
A SharePoint service is an IT service that offers hosted sites and portals based on SharePoint Server.
An IT service can include the following components:
75

Sites and portals at a scope, such as site collection, Web application, or server farm

Backup and restoration

Content storage

Support for customizations

Security

Services levels that are based on speed or availability
This section describes features in SharePoint Server 2010 that are useful in maintaining and governing
a SharePoint Server service.
Site templates
Site templates are a set of customizations that are applied to a site definition. By using a site template,
a SharePoint Server service can promote consistent branding, site structure, and layout in the sites that
users create. You can create customized site templates for provisioning sites and use them instead of
the templates that are included in SharePoint Server as part of a SharePoint Server service.
For more information, see Working with site templates and definitions
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=184756&clcid=0x409).
Quotas
A quota specifies limits to the amount of storage that a site collection can use. This process prevents
users from adding content when the limit is reached. For more information, see Plan quota
management (SharePoint Server 2010).
Locks
Locks prevent users from either adding content to a site collection or using the site collection. For
example, you can lock a site that violates a usage policy or exceeds a quota. For more information, see
Lock or unlock site collections (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/c5d39627dfa6-4122-8571-a38bdd3ab4d9(Office.14).aspx).
Workflows
Workflows are programs that implement business processes for users of a SharePoint Server site.
They are associated with items in the site, such as documents, forms, or list items. Workflows have
many applications as part of an IT service. For example, you can use a workflow to provision a new
site, track a support issue, or take action when a site collection's quota is exceeded. For more
information, see Plan workflows (SharePoint Server 2010).
Features
A feature, which is a container for various defined extensions for SharePoint Server 2010 and
SharePoint Foundation 2010, is composed of a set of XML files that are deployed to Web servers. You
can deploy a feature as a part of a site definition or a solution package, and you can individually
activate a feature.
A site administrator can transform a SharePoint site's functionality by toggling a feature on or off in the
user interface. Features make it easier to activate or deactivate functionality in the course of a
76
deployment, and help administrators to easily transform the template or definition of a site. Features
can be hidden, which prevents site users from manually deactivating them.
When you implement new site functionality as features, you make it easier for administrators to control
sites and enforce a governance plan. A technique named feature stapling enables you to attach a
feature to all new instances of sites that use a given site definition without modifying the site definition.
This lets you control the features that users of your service can access. For more information, see
Using Features (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=183450&clcid=0x409).
Self-service site creation
You can enable users to create their own site collections by using the Self-Service Site Creation
feature. A key decision in governing self-service site creation is to determine the level of service that
supports self-service site creation. By default, this permission is enabled in SharePoint Server 2010 for
all authenticated users.
For more information, see Turn on or turn off self-service site creation (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/01a853c9-6fa0-40b4-8551-fe7ba70045a2(Office.14).aspx).
Web application permissions and policies
Permissions for a Web application are comprehensive settings that apply to all users and groups for all
site collections within a Web application. You can control user actions by enabling or disabling the
associated permission on the Web application. For example, if you do not want users to be able to add
pages to a Web site, you can disable the Add and Customize Pages permission that is one of the siterelated permissions. After you disable a specific permission for a Web application, the permission
cannot be granted to any user of a site on the Web application. You can control access to a specific
URL or zone. You can also specify the level of access that you want for anonymous users. For more
information, see Manage permissions for a Web application (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/28a53440-2adc-4957-84bd-99ed97f0c430(Office.14).aspx).
Permission policies provide a centralized way to configure and manage a set of permissions that
applies to only a subset of users or groups in a Web application. For example, you might want to create
a permission policy level for users of a site collection who will be allowed to add items to a list, edit
items in a list, delete items from a list, open a list, view items, view lists, or view pages. However, you
might want to prevent the same users from creating or deleting lists, which would require the Manage
Lists permission. For more information, see Manage permission policies for a Web application
(SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/cba65279-cba5-46cb-aea1f095365ed83a(Office.14).aspx).
SharePoint Designer
You can manage how Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 is used in an organization at either the Web
application level or the site collection level. You can control the following types of access to SharePoint
Designer 2010:

Enable or disable SharePoint Designer 2010 use for an entire application or site collection.
If you want to ensure that all designers and owners within a specific site collection can use
SharePoint Designer 2010, enable this setting at the site collection level.

Enable or disable the ability to detach pages from the site definition.
77
If you want to preserve the branding for all sites in a site collection, you should not allow users to
make changes that would result in detaching the page from the site definition.

Enable or disable master pages and page layouts in SharePoint Designer 2010.
If you do not want users to see the master pages and page layouts for a site, you should disable
this setting.

Enable or disable the site URL structure and its contents.
If you do not want users to view and edit any file on the site, you should disable this setting.
Sandboxing
A sandbox is a restricted execution environment that enables programs to access only certain
resources, and that keeps problems that occur in the sandbox from affecting the rest of the server
environment. Solutions that you deploy in a sandbox are called sandboxed solutions. Code Access
Security (CAS) limits the operations that these solutions can perform.
A member of the Farm Administrators group must implement the sandboxed environment before any
sandboxed solutions can be uploaded. Site collection administrators can upload and activate
sandboxed solutions. If the solution does not contain an assembly, a user who has full control at the
root of the site collection can also activate the solution.
You can increase isolation by using remote load balancing and by running the sandboxing service on
only specific servers. In a production environment, we recommend that you use remote load balancing
and dedicate a separate server to running sandboxed solutions. Only members of the Farm
Administrators group can block sandboxed solutions, configure load balancing, and reset exceeded
quotas.
For more information, see Plan sandboxed solutions (SharePoint Server 2010).
Site collection auto-deletion
Automatic deletion helps to control the number of unused Web sites on a server without requiring any
administrative intervention and without any backup mechanism. By default, site confirmation is
automatically enabled. Automatic site deletion can be set at the server and server farm level or at the
Web application level.
Policies for user profiles and My Site Web sites
Policies are sets of rules that administrators of the User Profile service assign to users or groups.
These rules enable administrators to specify user profile properties that control both the site content
that users can see and how users can interact with that content.
By default, most user profile properties are visible to everyone, but sensitive information can be
configured to have limited visibility. Policies that are less restrictive allow more users to view public
profiles more frequently, which affects how often you must update user profiles and compile audiences.
In organizations that have many users, frequent updating could affect performance and capacity
planning. For more information, see Plan policies for user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010).
By default, all authenticated users can create a My Site Web site. We recommend that you use security
groups to manage permissions for My Site Web sites. My Site features store or use personally
identifiable information. Before you deploy My Site Web sites, make sure that you have planned how to
78
control the behavior of these features — or turn off the features — to help protect the security of this
information.
By default, all authenticated users can add ratings and social tags to documents, to other SharePoint
Server items, and to other items, such as external Web pages and blog posts. Users can also leave
impromptu notes on profile pages of a My Site Web site or any SharePoint Server page. You can use
one or more security groups to grant the Use Social Features permission to a subset of users in an
organization.
By default, all authenticated users can edit their profiles, add or edit colleagues, and add or edit
memberships. You can use one or more security groups to grant the User Personal Features
permission to a subset of users in an organization.
Although e-mail analysis can be enabled for all users in Outlook or just for specific groups by using
group policy, users can opt out of this feature. If e-mail analysis is disabled for all users, individual users
can still opt in.
Information management
Information management in SharePoint Server 2010 comprises organizing, retrieving, acquiring, and
maintaining information.
This section describes SharePoint Server 2010 features that are useful for managing documents,
records, and digital assets, and for planning eDiscovery.
Document management
Document management controls the lifecycle of documents in an organization — how they are created,
reviewed, and published, and how they are ultimately disposed of or retained. It includes policies that
implement auditing, document retention, labeling, and barcodes (to ensure that printed content can be
correlated with corresponding electronic versions). Policies can be implemented to help an organization
comply with legally mandated requirements, such as the need to retain records. For more information,
see Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
An organization that uses the Microsoft Office system client applications and SharePoint Server 2010
can enforce policies both on the server and in the client applications.
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Content approval
The content approval process gives site members who have approver permissions control of the
publication of content. An owner of a document library can enable content approval for a document
library or Web pages library and can optionally associate a workflow with the library to run the approval
process.
Use content approval to formalize and control the process of making content available to an audience.
For example, an enterprise that publishes content might require a legal review and approval before
publishing the content.
For more information, see Versioning, content approval, and check-out planning (SharePoint Server
2010).
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Versioning
Versioning is the method by which successive iterations of a document are numbered and saved in
SharePoint Server. As a governance tool, versioning prevents users with read permissions from
viewing drafts of documents.
For more information, see Versioning, content approval, and check-out planning (SharePoint Server
2010).
Records management
Records management is the process by which an organization determines the types of information that
should be considered records, how records should be managed while they are active, and for how long
each type of record should be retained. Records management includes the performance of recordsrelated tasks such as disposing of expired records, or locating and protecting records that are related to
external events such as lawsuits.
Records management enables you to do the following:

Use a records archive to manage records or manage records in-place.

Create workflows to move documents to a records archive.

Determine whether you will manage e-mail within SharePoint Server or within an e-mail application.

Determine how to translate social content such as blogs, wikis, or My Site Web sites into records.
For more information, see Records management planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Digital asset management
The digital asset management feature in SharePoint Server 2010 provides a specialized repository for
storing and managing digital assets, for example, images, audio files, or video files. A centralized
repository for managing digital assets enables an organization to exert tighter control over brandsensitive content, and helps to ensure that only approved assets for products are made available to the
appropriate users. For more information, see Versioning, content approval, and check-out planning
(SharePoint Server 2010).
eDiscovery
Electronic discovery, or eDiscovery, is the process of locating and producing electronic information to
support events such as litigation, audits, or investigations. If you use Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010
to manage any electronic information, you should consider eDiscovery when you plan your SharePoint
Server solution. Auditing, expiration policies, and search considerations should be part of your planning
process, which should be completed before the need to use eDiscovery arises.
We recommend that you enable the auditing policy in all site collections that contain active document
libraries. You should also consider implementing an expiration policy to delete documents automatically
when they are no longer needed. For more information, see Planning for eDiscovery (SharePoint
Server 2010).
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Information management policies
An information management policy is a set of rules for a type of content, or for a location where content
is stored. Each rule in a policy is a policy feature. For example, an information management policy
feature could specify how long a type of content should be retained, or it could provide document
auditing. Information management policies enable you to control who can access organizational
information, what they can do with it, and how long the information should be retained. You can
associate a policy with a list, document library, or content type.
When you configure an information management policy, you can optionally write a policy statement that
is displayed in Microsoft Office 2010 client programs to inform document authors about the policies that
are enforced on a document. This is a recommended best practice.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes the following information management policy features:

The Auditing policy feature logs events and operations that are performed on documents and list
items. You can configure Auditing to log events such as editing documents, viewing them, or
changing a document's permissions level.

The Expiration policy feature helps dispose of content in a consistent way that can be tracked and
managed. For example, the policy can delete a document, or define a workflow task to have
SharePoint Server route the document for permission to destroy it.

The Labeling policy feature specifies a label to associate with a type of document or list item.
Labels are searchable text areas that SharePoint Server generates based on metadata properties
and formatting that you specify.

The Barcode policy feature enables you to track a physical copy of a document. You create a
unique identifier value for a document and then insert a barcode image of that value in the
document. By default, barcodes are compliant with the common Code 39 standard (ANSI/AIM BC11995, Code 39), and you can use the object model of the policies to plug in other barcode
providers.
Information management policy reports help you monitor how consistently your organization uses
policies. Because information management policies are often implemented to help an organization
comply with regulations, frequent monitoring of policy usage can help you ensure that an organization is
compliant. For more general information about information management policies, see Information
management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Information architecture features
Information architecture in SharePoint Server 2010 is the organization of information in an enterprise —
its documents, lists, Web sites, and Web pages — to maximize the information's usability and
manageability.
A portal Web site's information architecture determines how the information in that site — its subsites,
Web pages, documents, lists, and data — is organized and presented. An enterprise can increase the
return on its portal investment by creating a governance body that develops and enforces information
architecture standards and policies. A well-governed architecture makes information in the enterprise
easy to find, share, and use.
This section describes SharePoint Server 2010 features that govern the usage of an enterprise's
information architecture.
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Content types
Content types enable enterprises to organize, manage, and handle content in a consistent way. They
define the attributes of a type of list item, document, or folder. Each content type can specify metadata
properties to associate with items of its type, available workflows, templates, and information
management policies. Use content types to encourage consistent information management policies,
metadata requirements, and other policies. To govern content types, consider associating event
receivers and workflows with the forms that are used to modify the content types.
For more information, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Site Content and Structure page
The Site Content and Structure page in the top-level site of a site collection manages the content and
structure of a SharePoint site collection. Because site navigation in SharePoint Server is based by
default on the hierarchy of sites and subsites, this feature can also be used to configure site navigation.
When porting a Web site to SharePoint Server 2010, you can use the Site Content and Structure page
to restructure the site to match your enterprise's needs.
Information rights management
Information Rights Management (IRM) enables content creators to control and protect their documents.
The contents of documents that use IRM are encrypted and supplied with an issuance license that
imposes restrictions on users.
SharePoint Server 2010 supports IRM for documents that are stored in document libraries. File formats
of documents that can use IRM in SharePoint Server 2010 include the following:
Microsoft InfoPath
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Excel
Microsoft PowerPoint
Word Open XML
Excel Open XML
PowerPoint Open XML
To add other file types, an administrator must install protectors — programs that control the encryption
and decryption of documents that use rights management — for each new type of file.
Blocked file types
You can restrict files from being uploaded or downloaded to a server by basing the restriction on their
file name extension. For example, you can block files that have the .exe extension, because such files
can be run on a client computer and may contain malicious software.
By default, many file types are blocked, including file types treated as executable by Windows Explorer.
For a complete list of the default blocked file types, see Manage blocked file types (SharePoint Server
2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/4e641515-ef59-401d-b342-c7ab74197ca2(Office.14).aspx).
83
Web content management (publishing sites)
In most content deployment scenarios, the source site collection, from which content is being deployed,
is in a server farm that is separate from the destination site collection. Typically, the destination server
farm (the "production" farm) has stricter security to minimize the actions that can be performed in the
production environment. It is not expected that authoring will be done on the production server,
because changes to content on the production server might be overwritten by a content deployment
job. In most content deployment scenarios, the source server farm and the production server farm are
in independent AD DS domains. For information about content deployment topologies, see Design
content deployment topology.
Content deployment is a one-way process: content is deployed from a source site collection to a
destination site collection. The content deployment feature does not support synchronization from
source to destination and back again. Creating new content or changing existing content on the
destination site collection can cause content deployment jobs to fail. Because of this, you should
consider restricting permissions on the destination site collection so that users cannot make changes
directly to content that is stored within that site collection.
Permissions to content on the destination server farm will usually differ from permissions to content on
the source server farm. In many publishing solutions, the destination server farm authenticates users by
using a different AD DS domain than the one used in an authoring or staging environment, and there
might not be a trust relationship between the two domains. For more information, see Content
deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Taxonomy and managed metadata
Managed metadata is a hierarchical collection of centrally managed terms that you can define and then
use as attributes for items in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. A user's role determines how the user
can work with managed metadata.
Users can see only global term sets and term sets that are local to the user's site collection. Local term
sets are created within the context of a site collection. Global term sets are created outside the context
of a site collection. If there are term sets that some users should be unable to view, assign these term
sets to separate groups. For more information, see Plan to share terminology and content types
(SharePoint Server 2010).
An organization‘s governance policies can affect how you design managed metadata services and
connections. For example, a formal process for managing terms and term sets will affect how you set
connection parameters. If every document that is created must have a certain set of attributes, you will
probably want to have a content type hub in at least one service. Familiarize yourself with an
organization‘s governance plan before you determine the managed metadata services and
connections. For more information, see Managed metadata service application overview (SharePoint
Server 2010).
See Also
Governance overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
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Establishing and governing a SharePoint
service (SharePoint Server 2010)
A successful Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 deployment relies on an enterprise's ability to govern
the service and ensure that the service meets the business needs of the customers in a secure,
manageable, and cost-effective way. This article describes typical elements of an IT service that hosts
SharePoint Server 2010, suggests key success factors in governing an SharePoint Server service, and
provides an example of a three-tiered SharePoint service.

What is a SharePoint service?

Elements of a successful service

What to govern in a SharePoint service

Creating multiple services

Service-level agreements
What is a SharePoint service?
A SharePoint service is an IT service that offers hosted sites based on Microsoft SharePoint 2010
Products. Among the things that a service provides are the following:

Sites at a scope, such as site collection, Web application, or server farm

Backup and recovery

Content storage

Support for customizations

Security

Service levels that are based on speed and availability
Elements of a successful service
As you envision and implement your SharePoint Server service, consider the following elements that
can contribute to the success of the governing effort:

Form and use a governing group
Your IT service that supports SharePoint Server should be governed by a group that includes
executive stakeholders, business division leaders, influential information workers, IT managers, and
IT technical specialists, among others. The goal of the governing group should be to oversee the
service. In this capacity, the governing group defines the initial offerings of the service, defines the
service's ongoing policies, and meets regularly to evaluate success.

Communicate about the services
The governance policies that you develop must be publicized to your enterprise. Maintain a Web
site that describes the set of services.

Encourage use of the service
Discourage or block users from deploying their own servers. Instead, encourage them to use the
service. Isolated servers may not be configured in accordance with IT security policy and the
85
enterprise‘s regulatory requirements. Furthermore, users who deploy their own servers may fail to
properly back up their servers or fail to keep servers up-to date with software patches and updates.
Finally, content on servers that are not governed by the service may not be crawled by the
enterprise‘s indexing service, which may create isolated pockets of content.

Create multiple services
You should offer a set of services that support SharePoint Server. For example, one service could
provide thousands of sites for collaboration and another could support very large, mission-critical
sites, such as enterprise intranet sites. A set of SharePoint Server services enables you to apply
unique governance rules and policies at various levels of service so that you can vary the cost that
you assess to organizations based on their level of service. Lastly, a tiered service enables you to
phase in services in a manageable way.
What to govern in a SharePoint service
As you design IT services that support SharePoint Server, a governing group should determine the
limits and policies to control the services. If you choose to use the multi-tenancy features in SharePoint
Server for hosting services, you can enable an IT group to delegate common administrative tasks for a
set of sites to the business unit owners. This allows an IT group to focus its attention on the service
itself. For more information about multi-tenancy, see Hosted environments (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/5741edac-68ef-42b1-b5e2-b1e9354a9ac5(Office.14).aspx).
Determine limits and policies for the following elements of services:

Quota templates
A quota template consists of values that specify how much data can be stored in a site collection.
The value also indicates the limit that triggers an e-mail alert to the site collection administrator.
You can associate quotas with sites that are offered at various service levels to govern the growth
of SharePoint Server in an enterprise. Note that you can set separate quotas for sandboxed
solutions.

Maximum upload size
At the Web application level, you can set limits on the maximum size of uploaded files. All sites
within the host Web application use the same limit.

Site lifecycle management
You can govern how sites are created, the size of sites, and their longevity by using self-service
site management and site-use confirmation and deletion. You can also set expiration and access
policies to control the lifecycle of content in sites.
Self-service site provisioning enables users to create their own top-level Web sites by visiting an IThosted page and supplying data about the site‘s intended use. The site can then be provisioned
based on a custom workflow. For various levels of service, you can govern the size of such sites
and control their longevity.

Customization policy
A primary benefit of using sites that are based on SharePoint Server is the ability of site owners to
customize them. For example, site owners might change a site's appearance or provide new
functionality, such as a custom Web Part or workflow. Carefully consider the type and amount of
customization that is allowed and supported at each level of service because some types of
customizations are global to the server farm.
86
Consider using sandboxed solutions to limit the impact of customizations in a farm. For example,
services that allow self-service site creation may include thousands of sites that share a single Web
application. In this instance, you could limit customizations to only those sites that are supported by
the user interface, such as adding Web Parts to pages. If you use sandboxed solutions, the
customizations apply only to that site collection. In a service that provides virtual or physical
isolation of the server farm, such as for an enterprise intranet site, you might allow a large range of
customizations, such as custom event handlers and workflows.
At the Web application level, there is also the ability to control whether SharePoint Designer can be
used to modify sites in that Web application. For more information, see Configure settings for a
Web application (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/2687d49f-b1144f16-a4c0-5f2bfe496c92(Office.14).aspx).
For a full discussion of the range of customizations that SharePoint Server 2010 supports and the
risks and benefits of supporting each type of customization at various levels of service, see the
white paper SharePoint Products and Technologies customization policy
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=92311&clcid=0x409). Although this content is specifically
written about Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007, much of the information applies to
SharePoint Server 2010. For more information about sandboxed solutions, see Plan for sandboxed
solutions (SharePoint Server 2010).

Asset classification
You can develop and implement a classification system for sites and content supported by a
service that identifies the impact and value of the information to an organization. For example,
metadata can classify content as having high, moderate, or low business impact or value.

Impact is related to exposure and content: if the content were distributed externally, would it
hurt your business? Or would it expose personally-identifiable information about users or
customers? If so, that's high business impact content.

Value is related to availability: if the content were unavailable, could it impact the enterprise's
day-to-day business? If so, that's high value content.
Each classification would then cause other behaviors – for example you could require that high
business impact content be transferred only in encrypted form, or you could require that an
approval process be run on medium impact content before it can be published on a public-facing
Web site. Perhaps high business impact content should be hosted on a service that provides more
restrictive policy and aggressive disaster recovery processes.

Lifecycle management
A service should provide lifecycle guidelines or tools for active sites and unused sites. For lower
service levels, you could, for example, implement a mechanism that lets only site owners create
sites that last six months before the user would have to extend the request for the site. Also, you
can implement a tool that looks for sites that have not been used for a specified period of time and
deletes them. Lifecycle management also means integrating a service with the records
management tools and processes in place in an organization. For more information, see Records
management planning (SharePoint Server 2010).

Branding and navigation
Consistent branding with a corporate style guide makes for more cohesive-looking sites and easier
development. Master pages and templates help create the visual brand of a site. Store approved
master pages in site galleries so that site designers use them consistently. A consistent design
helps users confirm that they are in the right place when they look at the site. Define the parts of
87
the template that can and cannot be changed by site owners. Allow room for sub-branding of
individual team or project brands.
Consistent navigation is also key to ensure that users do not become lost as they navigate the
services looking for content.

Data protection
Features that provide data protection include backup and recovery. You can vary the level of data
protection based on the service levels that you provide. Higher levels may require charges to the
site owner. For each level of service, plan the frequency at which you will back up sites and the
response time you will guarantee for restoring sites. For more information, see Plan for backup and
recovery (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/01abe8d2-33f8-48fe-af7640522a5afe08(Office.14).aspx) and the Business Continuity Management Resource Center
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=199235&clcid=0x409).

Security, infrastructure, and Web application policies
Maintain the infrastructure and monitor access to the infrastructure and content to make sure that
you have a stable and secure environment. Use Web application policies to allow or deny access to
the content in accordance with compliance rules or business needs. Keep the infrastructure current
with software updates to make sure that you have the latest improvements and fixes.

Training
A well-trained user community provides benefits to IT. It reduces support calls, encourages
adoption, helps ensure proper use of SharePoint Server, and helps users understand their
responsibilities when using the SharePoint Server service. For each level of service, consider an
appropriate level of training requiring as a requirement. Even for a basic service, users with site
administration permission will have access to many features that affect the functionality of the site.
Online training, such as tutorials, for these users can help them take the best advantage of their
site.
Training for a user community is available at SharePoint 2010 Resources for End Users
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=199542&clcid=0x409)
Creating multiple services
Users of an enterprise‘s SharePoint Server service require sites that meet a range of purposes:

Short-lived, single-purpose workspaces for planning events and managing meetings and projects

Team sites for general collaboration

Divisional portals for large workgroups to manage their business processes

Enterprise intranet sites to broadcast information and supply services to the entire organization
Consider dividing a SharePoint Server service into a set of services that meets the range of needs in an
enterprise. Each user of a particular service would get the same level of support and would be charged
a similar cost. As more complex or costly solutions are needed, you could add new services to support
them. One benefit of this approach is that you can introduce one service at a time, which eases the
burden on your IT staff. Work with executive stakeholders, business division leaders, and IT managers
to determine the requirements of each level of service and the order in which services are introduced.
The following table illustrates a sample approach to creating a tiered set of services. In this example,
three service levels are offered. Note that provided values are not recommendations but are supplied
as samples:
88
Sample approach to a set of services
Description
Basic Service
Advanced Service
Premium Service
A server farm that
is used to host tens
of thousands of
customer site
collections.
A server farm that is designed
to host a small number of portal
sites.
A server farm dedicated to
hosting a large, highly
customized or highly critical
site.
It is intended to
support short-lived
sites along with
small team sites.
It is applicable to customers
with some requirements for
server-side customizations that
will not interfere with other sites
that are hosted on the same
servers.
The topology is scalable
depending on the agreed
upon hosting requirements
between the customer and
the hosting team.
Example
Collaboration site
to plan an event
Division portal including
integration with line-of-business
data and custom workflows
Enterprise intranet site that
includes large-scale
integration with multiple
back-end systems
Scope
Site collection
Web application
Server farm with multiple
Web applications
Customizations
Only
customizations
available in the
user interface are
supported.
Some server-side
customizations, such as custom
site templates, are supported.
All customizations are tested
and reviewed before being
accepted for deployment.
Alternatively, customizations
are allowed only as sandboxed
solutions.
Extensive customizations
are permitted. All
customizations are tested
and reviewed before being
accepted for deployment.
Alternatively,
customizations are allowed
only as sandboxed
solutions.
Cost to user
None to minimal
Moderate
High
Self-service
provisioning?
Yes
No
No
Content storage
limits
500 MB
2 GB
Unlimited
Backup
frequency
Twice weekly
Daily
Daily
Backups
maintained for
14 days
30 days
60 days
Service-level agreements
Establish service-level agreements for each service level. A service-level agreement should include the
following items at a minimum:
89

The length of time and approvals that are necessary to create a site.
What's the process to create a site? Who's involved?

Information about the costs for the service to users or departments.
Who gets charged, and for what?

Operational-level agreements that specify the teams that perform operations and the frequency.
Which team applies updates? Which team performs backups? How frequently do these occur?

Policies about problem resolution through a help desk.
When a user gets stuck, who do they call? What's the escalation path?

Negotiated performance targets for the first load of a site, subsequent loads, and performance at
remote locations.

Recovery, load balancing, and failover strategies.

Customization policies for the service.

Storage limits for content and sites.

Multi-language support.
Which languages will be installed and supported?
See Also
Track or block SharePoint Server 2010 installations (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/c8dfb182-2cd945f2-9e42-baa522a9c33d(Office.14).aspx)
Governance in SharePoint Server 2010 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=200590)
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=200590&clcid=0x409)
SharePoint - Sample Service Level Agreement (SLA) - "From the Field" blog
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=203973) (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=203973)
Sample template: SharePoint Products and Technologies governance plan
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=162169)
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=162169&clcid=0x409)
90
Implementing and governing information
architecture (SharePoint Server 2010)
By planning and governing an enterprise‘s information architecture, you help ensure that solutions that
are based on Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 will meet organizational needs. An effective information
architecture makes it easy for users of solutions to find and store information and improves the quality
of that information and its ease of access. This article includes the following guidance:

Introduces the concept of information architecture

Recommends how to govern a SharePoint Server information architecture

Points to available resources to help an organization‘s information architects plan and implement
an information architecture in SharePoint Server 2010

Presents a case study that illustrates the benefit of effective information architecture to promote
collaboration across an enterprise
In this article:

What is information architecture?

Governing information architecture

Resources for planning information architecture

Case study: Governing information architecture to eliminate content chaos
What is information architecture?
Information architecture in SharePoint Server is the organization of information in an enterprise — its
documents, lists, Web sites, and Web pages — to maximize the information‘s usability and
manageability. The following factors contribute to the successful implementation of information
architecture:

How easy it is to find information

How information is stored and retrieved

How users navigate to information

How redundant or overlapping information is

What metadata is available for each type of information

What templates are used for creating information

How well the information architecture is governed

How My Site Web sites fit into the information architecture
The goals and implementation of information architecture will vary depending on the type of solution
you are creating. For example:

If you are designing the information architecture of an enterprise‘s intranet portal site, you might
focus on the following considerations:

How metadata will be used to characterize the site‘s content

The organization of content in sites and document libraries

The availability of that content in portal sites
91

The templates to use for creating content
Note that search is a critical feature for users of intranet sites.

When you design the information architecture of an Internet presence Web site, you might focus on
the following considerations:

How the site is organized into a hierarchy of sub-sites and Web pages

How the hierarchy is exposed in the site‘s navigation features

How easy it is to search for content on the site
Information architecture decisions may also affect the flow of information. For example, in an intranet
portal site, information may initially be drafted in sites that are not available to most members of an
organization. To make that information discoverable, useful, and actionable across the organization, the
information architecture design could include methods and guidelines for exposing information in
locations that are available to all users.
Depending on the size of an organization, you should consider including an information architect who is
responsible for designing and implementing solutions based on SharePoint Server on your team.
Information architects have expertise in structuring information in large Web environments such as
intranet portal sites.
Governing information architecture
Information architecture in an enterprise should be governed in order to ensure the following conditions:

Information in an organization is manageable by an organization's information technology (IT) team
by specifying how that information architecture is implemented and maintained.

Information architecture meets the regulatory requirements, privacy needs, and security goals of
the enterprise.

Information architecture meets an organization‘s business goals. Remember that a poorly designed
and governed information architecture can subtract from an organization‘s effectiveness. Well
designed and governed information architecture can multiply that organization‘s effectiveness.
Governing content
When you create a plan that governs content in an environment, consider the following best practices:

Use workflows and approval for document centers and site pages – wherever official
documentation is stored.

Use version history and version control to maintain a history and master document.

Use content types with auditing and expiration for document libraries to manage document
lifecycle.

Use site-use confirmation and deletion to manage site collection lifecycles.

Identify important corporate assets and sites that contain personally identifiable information – be
sure that they are properly secured and audited.

Integrate the information architecture with the environment's search strategy. Take advantage of
enterprise search features like:

Best Bets

People search
92

Content sources

Connectors for external content

Authoritative pages

Keywords

Scopes

Thesauruses

Taxonomy and ratings
Important:
Governance doesn't work without user adoption and compliance. End-user training and
education, in addition to good content and search, is the key to user adoption.
As you create a governance plan, determine the rules or policies that you need to have in place for the
following types of items:

Pages

Lists

Documents

Records

Rich media

Wikis

Blogs

Anonymous comments

Anonymous access

Terms and term sets

External data
When you think about content, consider the balance between the following factors and determine which
of these factors is the highest priority for each type of content:

Availability Content needs to be available when users need it, and users need to know where
and how they can get to it.

Redundancy Exposing a single copy of content in multiple places rather than duplicating the
content reduces redundancy and provides one version of the truth.

Access Consider who has access to the content. If it should be secure, is it?
Map the preferred content lifecycle. What steps need to happen when a list item, document, or page is
created, updated, or deleted? For best results, start with what you want to use long term rather than a
temporary solution.
As part of a governance plan, determine who does what. For example, who creates sites, who controls
keywords in Search, or who manages the metadata and ensures that the metadata is applied correctly?
Much of this should be explained by the document and records management plans but also consider
the storage costs for the content. Understand the capacity planning limits for documents and items, and
keep performance and scale in mind.
Important:
93
A governance team should identify a process for periodically reviewing the site to ensure that it
complies with a governance plan.
Governing information access
Another aspect of information management is who has access to content – how are you making the
content available internally and externally and to whom? Be sure to consider access to content when
you design a solution and sites. This overlaps with IT Governance as you consider the entire
environment. Ask the following questions:


Permissions and Audiences

How do I structure permissions in a site?

How do I target content to specific audiences?
Access

How do I make this content accessible to internal users?

How do I make this content accessible to external users?
The governance team
Governance of the information architecture requires the participation of all groups that have a stake in
its success. A governance team should include the following primary members:

Information architects or taxonomists
If possible, include a professional information architect in the planning team and have that person
participate in the governance team.

Compliance officers
You also need to include compliance officers or others who are responsible for ensuring that legal
or compliance requirements are met.

Influential information workers
Include influential information workers to ensure that the processes and structure the team sets up
will be usable.

IT technical specialists and IT managers
Representatives of the IT organization should be included.

Business division leaders
Because the ultimate purpose of information architecture is to meet the needs of the business, it is
essential that representatives of the enterprise‘s business units have a primary role in this
governance team.

Executive stakeholders
The executive stakeholder is a key participant in the governance team. Although this person may
not attend all sessions of the governance team, inclusion of this role is essential so that the
governance team is kept accountable to its mission. Furthermore, the executive sponsor helps to
ensure that benchmarks are used that help mark the progress of the ongoing effort of governing
information architecture.
Along with these primary stakeholders, depending on the type of enterprise, you may decide to include
other participants, such as the following:
94

Development leaders

Trainers

IT managers

Financial stakeholders
The best way to run the information architecture governance team will be based on the culture and
methodologies of an enterprise. However, here are some general guidelines:

Meet regularly and allow enough time, especially in early sessions, to consider every issue.

Exemplify good information architecture practices in deliberations. For example, you might use a
well-designed collaboration site to record deliberations and maintain artifacts.

Report to the wider organization (and gather requirements across the organization) by using a Web
site and online surveys.

Maintain a set of milestones and a shared calendar.

Consider piloting information architecture practices in some divisions of the organization and using
that experience to incrementally improve the information architecture practices across the wider
organization.
Resources for planning information architecture
The following table presents resources that are available to help information architects plan the
information architecture of your SharePoint Server solution:
Information architecture resources
To plan …
See …
The structure of sites
and subsites

Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010)
Document libraries

Identify users and analyze document usage (SharePoint Server 2010)

Document library planning (SharePoint Server 2010)

Enterprise content storage planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
Navigation

Plan site navigation (SharePoint Server 2010)
Metadata

Plan managed metadata (SharePoint Server 2010)

Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
Content expiration

Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
Records
management

Records management planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
Moving content

Plan content deployment (SharePoint Server 2010)

Plan workflows (SharePoint Server 2010)
Templates

Working with site templates and definitions
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=119099&clcid=0x409)
Content approval

Versioning, content approval, and check-out planning (SharePoint Server
95
To plan …
See …
2010)

Information

management policies
Social computing
Plan content approval and scheduling
Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan for social computing and collaboration (SharePoint Server 2010)
Privacy and security implications of social tagging (SharePoint Server 2010)
Case study: Governing information architecture to
eliminate content chaos
Fabrikam, Inc. is a world-wide manufacturer and exporter of automobile parts such as fuel and water
pumps, shock absorbers, brake pads, and various engine parts. The company has 13,000 employees
world-wide and more than fifty manufacturing plants across multiple geographical divisions. Fabrikam‘s
IT organization owns deployment, operations, and support of information technologies such as e-mail,
file management, and Internet technology, along with development of information technology solutions,
such as the corporate Web site.
Content at Fabrikam had historically been stored in shared file directories which were distributed across
local file servers at the various locations of the company. This contributed to a chaotic content situation.
Mass duplication of key content made it difficult to determine the ―official‖ version of a file. Content
metadata taxonomy was very limited, based on what the file system could support. Because divisions of
the corporation created unique, custom templates for common documents such as work orders, sales
proposals, or human resource documents, it was difficult to compare documents side by side across
divisions.
As the inadequacies of their information architecture based on file shares became more evident,
managers at Fabrikam mandated adoption of new, portal-based technologies. They did this to
accomplish several goals:

Modernize their information architecture

Move content from file shares to libraries in portal sites

Provide central access to content and applications such as expense report submissions

Provide a home page for central communications to Fabrikam employees
The next step in the evolution of Fabrikam‘s information architecture had begun.
The following diagram illustrates the initial architecture of the Fabrikam portal. A corporate portal at the
top of the architecture provided a central location from which to broadcast general corporate
information. At the next level, a few sites provided shared resources to the organization, such as human
resources, legal services, and financial services.
Below the shared resources level in the Fabrikam architecture were divisional portals for the various
regional offices of Fabrikam. Initially, North America, Europe, and East Asia were piloted. Gradually
other divisional portals were added: Australia, Africa, and South America. Each divisional portal
contained repositories for its policies, product designs, research and development, and customer data.
96
The result of the change from collaboration that is based on file shares to collaboration that is based on
portals was disappointing to the sponsors of the portal effort and to the Fabrikam work force. ―Content
chaos‖ had not been alleviated. It had just moved from file shares to portal sites.
Because key functions at Fabrikam, such as materials purchasing, customer relationships, parts design
and specification, and even some human resources processes occurred at the divisional level, each
division had developed local content to support these functions. Policy statements, parts blueprints and
specifications, personnel documents, documents related to customer relationships, and similar content
was created and managed locally. Templates and metadata for these documents diverged across
divisional portals. As metadata became more specific to each division it became more difficult to search
for content from one division to another. When a document was found across divisions, it was often
copied to another division‘s portal to make it more accessible. This process made it increasingly difficult
to find the ―official‖ version of a document as duplicates proliferated. Also, some documents in divisional
portals were secured in such a way that employees of other divisions could not view them. Although
this was appropriate when a document was being drafted, there was no guideline for when and how a
document should be made viewable across the enterprise.
To address the growing discontent with the portal, the company formed a strategy team was formed,
which was comprised of managers from across the various Fabrikam divisions, core IT team members,
and portal architects.
97
The team had the following tasks:

Evaluate the current state of the SharePoint Server portal deployment.

Recommend necessary changes to the portal.

Determine how to measure improvement over time.
The team that developed the portal strategy concluded that the current portal taxonomy‘s ―divisional‖
organization was the root to the problem. Each division was duplicating processes and hoarding
content without taking advantage of the expertise and best practices developed in peer divisions. This
contributed to poor collaboration, wasted resources, and content chaos. Their insight was to move
towards a more ―operational‖ organization for the enterprise portal. Shared resources such as
information technology and finance were currently exposed in the portal taxonomy above (and visible
to) all divisions. The team that developed the portal strategy concluded that other operational
disciplines, such as customer relationships, vendor relationships, plant configuration, and research and
design should be moved from divisional silos to the same level as the shared resources in the site‘s
hierarchy. Instead of the content‘s location, metadata would associate information with the various
divisions.
The following illustration is the revised architecture of the Fabrikam portal:
98
Reorganizing the Fabrikam portal in this way had the additional benefit of forcing collaboration across
parts of the enterprise that had similar responsibilities but were not accustomed to working together on
standards and processes. For example, storing design files in a central repository forced the various
divisions to standardize on a tool for designing automobile parts. This change saved money and
reduced training time. Also, best practices in design were made available for engineers to view across
the enterprise and to use as a basis for new design projects.
Here is a summary of the benefits of the redesigned portal architecture:

Provides central access to information.

Reduces duplication of content.

Makes the official version of each item of content evident.

Standardizes metadata.

Standardizes templates.

Fosters collaboration and sharing of best practices.
The redesign and reimplementation of the portal was just the start. The team that developed the portal
strategy received executive sponsorship to become a governance team for the portal. As a result, the
group represented the needs of portal users by developing policies and standards. This helped ensure
accountability across the organization and provided a forum for evaluating and evolving the portal —
both to improve portal features but also to help maximize the return on the enterprise‘s investment in
the SharePoint Server technology. The governance body oversaw the following elements:

Metadata standards

Template standards

Guidelines for when information needed to be made available across the enterprise

Compliance with corporate and governmental regulations

Training standards

Branding standards for content
Fabrikam started seeing a large return on its portal investment. A year into the project, the strategy
team did an inventory of content and found that out of 500,000 documents, only 230 were duplicates.
The company identified millions of dollars in savings due to the centralization of efforts. And a survey of
employees showed a large increase in satisfaction with the portal. Collaboration was healthy at
Fabrikam.
See Also
Governance Resource Center (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=200590)
Site and solution governance (SharePoint Server 2010)
Governance overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan information architecture for Web content management
99
Plan for sandboxed solutions (SharePoint
Server 2010)
Sandboxed solutions restrict access to network and local resources to provide greater security and
stability. You can use sandboxed solutions for load balancing solutions, for solutions that have not been
fully tested, and for deploying user solutions in a hosted environment. Sandboxed solutions run in a
separate worker thread so that they cannot access resources that belong to other solutions, and they
have limited access to local and network resources.
In this section

Sandboxed solutions overview (SharePoint Server 2010)

Plan sandboxed solutions (SharePoint Server 2010)
100
Sandboxed solutions overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
You can deploy a Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 solution directly onto your SharePoint Server farm,
or you can deploy the solution into a sandbox. A sandbox is a restricted execution environment that
enables programs to access only certain resources, and that keeps problems that occur in the sandbox
from affecting the rest of the server environment.
Solutions that you deploy into a sandbox, which are known as sandboxed solutions, cannot use certain
computer and network resources, and cannot access content outside the site collection they are
deployed in. For more information about the restrictions on sandboxed solutions, see What a
sandboxed solution cannot contain.
Because sandboxed solutions cannot affect the whole server farm, they do not have to be deployed by
a farm administrator. Sandboxed solutions can be deployed by a site collection administrator or, in
certain situations, by a user who has full control at the root of the site collection. Only a farm
administrator can promote a sandboxed solution to run directly on the farm, outside its sandbox.
It is especially appropriate to use sandboxed solutions in two scenarios:

When an organization want to run code for employees on a production SharePoint Server site, and
that code has not been stringently code reviewed and tested.

When a hoster wants to let the owners of hosted SharePoint Server sites upload and run custom
code.
This article introduces the concepts that are related to sandboxed solutions, explains the differences
between sandboxed solutions and solutions that are deployed on the farm, and summarizes how
sandboxed solutions are deployed and run. This article does not contain detailed procedures for
configuring sandboxing or for deploying sandboxed solutions.
In this article:

Deploying and running a sandboxed solution

Isolating sandboxed solutions

What a sandboxed solution cannot contain

Comparison of sandboxed and farm solutions

Benefits of using sandboxed solutions
Deploying and running a sandboxed solution
Any page of a SharePoint Server application can contain components that run in a sandbox in addition
to components that run directly on the farm. The components that are deployed to the farm run in the
Internet Information Services (IIS) worker process. The components that are deployed to the sandbox
run in a sandboxed process.
The following list identifies several of the components that you might deploy in a sandbox:

Web Parts

Event receivers

Feature receivers
101

Custom Microsoft SharePoint Designer workflow activities

Microsoft InfoPath business logic
The following steps describe how to deploy a sandboxed solution:
1. A farm administrator performs the following tasks. These have to be done only one time.

A farm administrator enables sandboxing and starts the sandboxing service on each server that
will run sandboxed solutions.

A farm administrator determines which load balancing scheme to use. The load balancing
scheme applies to all sandboxed solutions in all site collections on the farm.

A farm administrator sets resource quotas that the combination of all sandboxed solutions in a
site collection cannot exceed.
2. A site collection administrator or a user who has full control at the root of the site collection uploads
a solution the site collection‘s solution gallery.
3. A site collection administrator activates the solution. If the solution does not contain an assembly, a
user who has full control at the root of the site collection can also activate the solution. Validation
tools run against the solution. If the solution fails validation, it is not activated.
When a request to run a sandboxed solution is processed, the following activities occur:
1. Based on load balancing scheme, SharePoint Server determines which server to run the solution
on. If load balancing is local, the solution runs on the same server that is servicing the request. If
load balancing is remote, the server that the solution runs on is selected based on solution affinity.
In both cases, the server must be running the sandboxing service.
2. SharePoint Server selects a sandbox worker process to run the solution in; loads a ―shim‖ dynamiclink library (dll) into the process; and then loads the solution assembly into the process.
3. As the solution runs, its code passes through the shim before it is executed by SharePoint Server.
If the solution code attempts to use APIs that sandboxed solutions are restricted from using, the
shim signals an exception instead of letting the code pass through and run.
4. SharePoint Server monitors the resources that sandboxed solutions use. If the sandboxed solution
exceeds a hard limit (for example, if it uses more than a predefined amount of CPU time,)
SharePoint Server terminates the sandbox worker process. If the combination of all sandboxed
solutions in the site collection exceeds the site collection‘s resource quota, SharePoint Server turns
off all sandboxed solutions in the site collection for the rest of the day.
5. A site collection administrator can monitor the resources that sandboxed solutions use, and can
deactivate solutions in the site collection.
If necessary, a farm administrator can block a solution from running on the farm. Optionally, a farm
administrator can also remove the requirement that a solution be run in a sandbox. If the requirement to
run in a sandbox is removed, when the solution runs in any site collection in the farm, it will no longer
run in a sandbox.
Isolating sandboxed solutions
You can isolate sandboxed solutions to various degrees. Each additional level of isolation increases
your ability to protect the main part of your SharePoint Server site from code that might consume too
many resources. At the first level, sandboxed code runs in a rights-restricted, isolated process. Code
Access Security (CAS) limits the operations that the code can perform. You can increase isolation by
using remote load balancing and by running the sandboxing service on only specific servers.
102
In a production environment, we recommend that you use remote load balancing and dedicate a
separate server to running sandboxed solutions.
What a sandboxed solution cannot contain
A SharePoint Server solution must contain the configuration file that is named manifest.xml, and may
also contain additional configuration files and assemblies. If the solution will run in a sandbox, the
assembly and configuration files are limited in what they can contain.
The following list identifies the most common things that an assembly that will run in a sandbox cannot
do.

Connect to resources that are not located on the local server.

Access a database.

Change the threading model.

Call unmanaged code.

Write to disk.

Access resources in a different site collection.
The manifest.xml file refers to feature files; feature files refer to element files; and element files contain
feature elements. The only feature elements that are permitted in a sandboxed solution are:

ContentType

Field

CustomAction

Module

ListInstance

ListTemplate

Receivers

WebTemplate

WorkflowAssociation

PropertyBag

WorkflowActions
Comparison of sandboxed and farm solutions
The following table compares aspects of solutions that run in a farm to solutions that run in a sandbox.
Aspect
Farm
Sandbox
Deployment
process
Add the solution,
and then deploy
it to the farm.
Upload the solution to a site collection, and then activate it in the site
collection.
Who can
deploy
Farm
administrator.
If the solution contains an assembly, only a site collection
administrator can deploy it. If the solution does not contain an
assembly, a user who has full control at the root of the site collection
can deploy it.
103
Aspect
Farm
Sandbox
Data access
Unrestricted.
The solution can only access content from the site collection in which
it was deployed.
Process the
solution
runs in
Unrestricted IIS
worker process,
or whichever
process the
solution is
deployed into.
Separate worker process that has restricted rights.
Code
access
security
The solution
developer can
set the code
access security
policy when
packaging the
solution.
Restricted. For more information, see Deploying a sandboxed
solution
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=177369&clcid=0x409).
Monitoring
Not monitored.
Monitored, and limited by quotas set by the farm administrator.
Load
balancing
Varies, based on
the kind of
solution.
Configurable separately from non-sandboxed solutions.
Solution
functionality
Unrestricted.
Restricted, as described in What a sandboxed solution cannot
contain (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/8826c6d1-edcd-4ed5a1f8-bd48ab3b88fd.aspx#BKMK_srcSandboxedSolutionLBOptions).
Benefits of using sandboxed solutions
The main benefits of using sandboxed solutions are as follows:

Solutions can be added to a production SharePoint Server environment without the risk of affecting
processes outside the sandbox.

Site collection administrators can deploy sandboxed solutions, freeing farm administrators from this
task.

Scalability and flexibility are increased because sandboxes run in separate process that can be
restricted by quotas, and their effect on the farm can be monitored.

A solution does not have to be modified or recompiled if it is moved from a sandbox to running
directly on the farm.
See Also
Sandboxed solutions administration (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/e25f4c86-0945-445d-95b1-881c6bd3ba20(Office.14).aspx)
Plan for sandboxed solutions (SharePoint Server 2010)
Sandboxed solutions architecture (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=177368)
Deploying a sandboxed solution (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=177369)
104
Plan sandboxed solutions (SharePoint Server
2010)
Sandboxed solutions restrict access to network and local resources to provide greater security and
stability. You can use sandboxed solutions for load balancing solutions, for solutions that have not been
fully tested, and for deploying user solutions in a hosted environment. Sandboxed solutions run in a
separate worker thread so that they cannot access resources that belong to other solutions, and they
have limited access to local and network resources.
When you plan sandboxed solutions, decide first whether to use sandboxed solutions at all. You should
determine whether your primary consideration is performance or security. A farm that uses sandboxed
solutions generates more worker and proxy processes than a farm that does not use sandboxed
solutions. Using sandboxed solutions provides more process isolation, which enhances the security of
your farm.
For more information about sandboxed solutions, see Sandboxed solutions overview (SharePoint
Server 2010).
In this article:

Determine when to use sandboxed solutions

Plan to load balance sandboxed solution code

Determine where to deploy sandboxed solutions

Determine who can deploy sandboxed solutions

Determine which site collections will run sandboxed solutions

Plan resource usage quotas for sandboxed solutions

Plan sandboxed solutions governance
Determine when to use sandboxed solutions
Using sandboxed solutions is appropriate in scenarios where you want to load balance solutions across
multiple servers, or where you want to provide the ability to run code that has not been fully tested or
that your organization does not support. Sandboxed solutions can play a valuable part of a scaled
deployment path for developers in your organization, from their test environment to a sandboxed
solution in the production environment. Sandboxed solutions can later be changed to full trust status by
a farm administrator when the solution is shown to be safe for full deployment.
It is especially appropriate to use sandboxed solutions in the following scenarios:

When you want to load balance solutions between multiple SharePoint Server servers.

When an organization wants to run code for employees on a production SharePoint Server site,
and that code has not been stringently code reviewed and tested.

When an Internet hosting provider wants to let the owners of hosted SharePoint Server sites upload
and run custom code.
When you use sandboxed solutions, you must activate the SharePoint 2010 User Code Host service on
each server on which you want to run the sandboxed solutions.
105
Plan to load balance sandboxed solution code
You can select one of two load balancing schemes for sandboxed solutions. Based on the load
balancing scheme, Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 determines which server to run the solution on. In
local load balancing, the solution runs on the same server that received the request. If you choose
remote load balancing, the server that the solution runs on is selected based on solution affinity, and
the sandboxed solution is run on a server where it is already loaded and has already been run. This
saves time in servicing the request for the solution. In both cases, each server must be running the
SharePoint Foundation Sandboxed Code Service.
Your load balancing choice determines the model that is used by the entire SharePoint Server farm.
You cannot use a mixture of local and remote load balancing, but instead you must choose to
implement one or the other. When you are deciding which mode to implement consider the following:

Local mode requires less administration, but its scalability is limited by the resources of the local
server.

Remote mode is more scalable than local mode, but it requires administrative tasks to be
performed on more servers.
You obtain better performance by using the remote load balancing model in a SharePoint Server farm
where there are multiple servers on which to run sandboxed solutions. If you are using sandboxed
solutions as part of a development process, and you want to keep them restricted to the server from
which they are called, use the local mode load balancing.
For more information, see Sandboxed solutions overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Determine where to deploy sandboxed solutions
Sandboxed solutions are deployed at the root of a site collection. Anyone who is a site collection
administrator can deploy a sandboxed solution. When it is deployed in a site collection, the sandboxed
solution can be used anywhere within that site collection.
You can choose to run sandboxed solutions only on certain servers within your SharePoint Server farm
or to all servers. To enable sandboxed solutions on a server, you must enable the SharePoint
Foundation Sandboxed Code Service. This service must be enabled on every server on which you want
to run sandboxed solutions.
Determine who can deploy sandboxed solutions
When you plan for the user roles that are involved in deploying sandboxed solutions, you must
determine who will be authorized to deploy the solutions and who will be authorized to administer the
solutions. Members of the site collection administrators group can deploy sandboxed solutions.
You must be a member of the farm administrators group to perform administrative tasks such as
enabling or disabling the SharePoint Foundation Sandboxed Code Service, blocking or unblocking a
solution, and adjusting or resetting quotas.
Note:
It is not enough to be a site collection owner, to deploy and activate a sandboxed solution you
must be a site collection administrator for the site collection where you are deploying the
sandboxed solution.
106
Because farm administrators can change sandboxed solutions to fully trusted solutions that can be
deployed anywhere on the farm, you should be careful to limit the membership of the farm
administrators group to appropriate users. The same consideration applies to adding users to the site
collection administrators group if there is any concern over the security of the sandboxed solutions
being deployed.
Determine which site collections will run sandboxed
solutions using quotas
Sandboxed solutions can be enabled or disabled on specific site collections by adjusting their quotas. If
you set the quota for sandboxed solutions to 0 on a specific site collection, sandboxed solutions will not
run on that site collection. In this way you can fine tune the use of sandboxed solutions in your farm.
To plan where to deploy sandboxed solutions you should consider both which servers will run the
SharePoint Foundation Sandboxed Code Service, and which site collections will be able to run
sandboxed solutions. If you enable sandboxed solutions on some site collections you should disable
them on the remaining site collections by setting the quotas on those site collections to 0.
Plan resource usage quotas for sandboxed solutions
Sandboxed solutions are monitored for resource usage based on default resource quotas. If a
sandboxed solution exceeds any of the resource quotas, the solution is disabled for the remainder of
the day or until a farm administrator manually resets the solution. This helps administrators to know
when a particular sandboxed solution is making excessive demands on shared resources or in some
cases where a resource-intensive sandboxed solution requires an increased quota.
The default quotas are satisfactory for most scenarios; however, you can adjust individual quota limits
to permit higher limits where appropriate.
If you determine that a sandboxed solution is consistently misusing server resources, you can block
that solution until the developer can correct the situation. For more information about blocking and
unblocking sandboxed solutions, see Block or unblock a sandboxed solution (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/19eeadde-2e7c-419d-9d60-b3a0ea706364(Office.14).aspx).
The default values that are assigned to sandboxed solution quotas are listed in the following table.
Resource
Description
Units
Resources
per Point
Absolute
Limit
AbnormalProcessTerminationCount Abnormally
terminated process
occurrence 1
1
CPUExecutionTime
CPU Execution Time
for site
seconds
3,600
60
CriticalExceptionCount
Critical Exception
Events
events
10
3
InvocationCount
Solution Invocation
Events
events
<TBD>
<TBD>
107
PercentProcessorTime
Percent CPU usage
by solution
percentage 85
100
ProcessCPUCycles
Solution CPU cycles
cycles
1 x10^11
1 x10^11
ProcessHandleCount
Windows handles
count
items
10,000
1,000
ProcessIOBytes
Windows handles
count
items
0
1 x10^8
ProcessThreadCount
Thread count in
overall process
instances
10,000
200
ProcessVirtualBytes
Memory consumed
bytes
0
1.0x10^9
SharePointDatabaseQueryCount
Number of
SharePoint database
queries
instances
20
100
SharePointDatabaseQueryTime
Elapsed time to
execute query
seconds
120
60
UnhandledExceptionCount
Number of unhandled
exceptions
instances
50
3
UnresponsiveProcessCount
Number of
unresponsive
processes
instances
2
1
Plan sandboxed solutions governance
While you are still planning for sandboxed solutions, you should consider your processes for
governance issues, including the following:

At what point will the farm administrator block or unblock a sandboxed solution? Identifying the
administrative policy for blocking and unblocking sandboxed solutions will eliminate confusion if
there is any doubt about the need to block a solution.

At what point will you transfer a sandboxed solution to the global catalog as a full trust solution?
This decision applies to solution code that is developed by your organization‘s developers. You
should establish a policy for determining what level of testing is required for a sandboxed solution
to be considered ready for production use in your organization.

When you are planning for who can deploy sandboxed solutions, will you choose to add people to
the site collection administrators group or establish a procedure for a limited number of site
collection administrators to deploy sandboxed solutions on behalf of their users? Depending on the
security concerns in your organization, you can decide to add people directly to the site collection
administrators group rather than requiring them to ask permission to deploy the sandboxed
solution.
108
Book excerpt: SharePoint Development and
Governance Using COBIT 4.1: A Practical
Approach
The following is an excerpt from the book "SharePoint® Deployment and Governance Using COBIT®
4.1: A Practical Approach," which can be purchased at www.isaca.org book store
(https://www.isaca.org/bookstore/Pages/Product-Detail.aspx?Product_code=SDG).
ISACA®
With more than 86,000 constituents in more than 160 countries, ISACA (www.isaca.org) is a leading
global provider of knowledge, certifications, community, advocacy and education on information
systems (IS) assurance and security, enterprise governance of IT, and IT-related risk and compliance.
Founded in 1969, ISACA sponsors international conferences, publishes the ISACA® Journal, and
develops international IS auditing and control standards. It also administers the globally respected
Certified Information Systems Auditor™ (CISA®), Certified Information Security Manager® (CISM®),
Certified in the Governance of Enterprise IT® (CGEIT® ) and Certified in Risk and Information Systems
ControlTM (CRISCTM) designations.
ISACA offers the Business Model for Information Security (BMIS) and the IT Assurance Framework
(ITAF). It also developed and maintains the CobiT®, Val IT™ and Risk IT frameworks, which help IT
professionals and enterprise leaders fulfill their IT governance responsibilities and deliver value to the
business.
Disclaimer
The opinions and views expressed in SharePoint® Deployment and Governance Using CobiT®: A
Practical Approach are solely those of the authors of this publication as a practical application and
implementation of CobiT 4.1 principles and best practices. The opinions and views of the authors do not
necessarily reflect those of ISACA. ISACA does not guarantee or warrant the accuracy, adequacy,
completeness or suitability of the content of this publication. ISACA accepts no responsibility or liability
for damages incurred as a result of the content contained herein.
Reservation of Rights
© 2010 ISACA. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, copied, reproduced,
modified, distributed, displayed, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written authorization of
ISACA. Reproduction and use of all or portions of this publication are solely permitted for academic,
internal and noncommercial use and for consulting/advisory engagements, and must include full
attribution of the material‘s source. No other right or permission is granted with respect to this work.
This text uses the following ISACA publications with permission:

ISACA, CobiT® 4.1, USA, ©1996, 1998, 2000, 2005, 2007. All rights reserved.

ISACA, CobiT® Security BaselineTM, 2nd Edition, USA, 2007. All rights reserved.

ISACA, CobiT® Control Practices: Guidance to Achieve Control Objectives for Successful IT
Governance, 2nd Edition, USA, 2007. All rights reserved.

ISACA, CobiT® QuickstartTM, 2nd Edition, USA, 2007. All rights reserved.
109
Cover photograph used by permission of Dylan Chennault and Nicole Chennault
ISACA
3701 Algonquin Road, Suite 1010
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008 USA
Phone: +1.847.253.1545
Fax: +1.847.253.1443
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.isaca.org
ISBN 978-1-60420-117-8
SharePoint® Deployment and Governance Using CobiT® 4.1: A Practical Approach
Printed in the United States of America
ISACA®, IT Governance Institute® and CobiT® are registered trademarks of ISACA, and CobiT
Online™ and CobiT Quickstart™ are ISACA trademarks. CGEIT® is a trademark/service mark of
ISACA. The mark has been applied for or registered in countries throughout the world.
Authors
Dave Chennault, CISA, MCP—Dave is a Microsoft Certified Professional Business Process
Automation Specialist with 25 years of experience as a software developer and architect. He is also an
MCTS in Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007, configuration and Windows SharePoint Services
3.0, configuration. He recently led a multimillion-dollar SharePoint consulting practice for one of the top
25 Microsoft National System Integrators before founding a new corporation (www.skylitesystems.com)
focused on building software applications for SharePoint 2010 in the cloud. Dave was a senior manager
at Deloitte Consulting and a manager at Coopers & Lybrand and Grant Thornton—specializing in
building and leading software development engagements for large, multinational corporations in the US
and Europe. He has led large software development initiatives for federal, state and local governments
in the US and worked on the Space Station project for McDonnell Douglas as a senior software
developer. Dave received his MBA from the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern
California and has a double undergraduate degree in economics/mathematics and communication
studies from the University of California at Santa Barbara. Dave can be reached at
[email protected]
Chuck Strain, CISA, MCSE, MCTS—Chuck is a Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist in
SharePoint administration. He has specialized in IT management and governance consulting for over
25 years, working with many Fortune 500 customers in the continental US, as well as in Hawaii and
Mexico. He has been involved in numerous SharePoint development projects domestically and
internationally. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in information technology from Western
Governors University. Chuck can be reached at [email protected]
110
Introduction (SharePoint Development and
Governance Using COBIT 4.1)
The following is an excerpt from the book "SharePoint® Deployment and Governance Using COBIT®
4.1: A Practical Approach", which can be purchased at www.isaca.org book store.
1. Introduction
When Microsoft® started developing the third version of SharePoint®, it is doubtful that it realized the
global impact it would have on business. That effort eventually became known as SharePoint 2007 and
has become a Microsoft ―big bet‖ and one of the most successful software products ever developed.
SharePoint 2007 reached US $1 billion in sales and more than 100 million users in just 18 months. This
runaway success caught everyone, including Microsoft, by surprise. Those reading this book are
probably part of this ever-growing user base. With the release of SharePoint 2010 and their cloudbased offering of SharePoint called Business Productivity Online Suite (BPOS), Microsoft delivers
additional functionality that will open new possibilities to use SharePoint as an application development
platform that will push enterprises to adopt SharePoint for applications and wider adoption both in
house and as a hosted solution.
So why has this happened? Why has SharePoint become such a smash hit? We believe that
SharePoint is a runaway success because it is the best, most cost-effective platform for helping people
work more efficiently and productively, regardless of their location, time zone or brand of computer. A
browser and a connection to a SharePoint server is all that is needed to get started. Many users have
realized an investment payback measured in weeks; not many other investments can boast that kind of
return.
SharePoint is like a Swiss army knife, loaded with functionality and possibilities. A partial list of
SharePoint‘s ―out-of-the-box‖ capabilities includes:

Document management—Manages files with versioning and check-in, check-out capabilities

Collaboration—A web site for every topic imaginable, allowing users to securely manage lists of
related information called Web Parts

Enterprise search—Enables searches across SharePoint, file shares, Exchange Server public
folders and external databases

Content management—Supports development of professional and scalable public-facing web sites.
A look at www.hawaiianairlines.com will give an idea of what can be done with content
management built into SharePoint 2007.

Forms and workflow management—Replaces paper forms, manual processes and the e-mail
―paper‖ chase with automated electronic forms, digital signatures and complex workflow capabilities

Business intelligence—Enables creation of electronic dashboards, including Excel running on the
server, allowing simplified monitoring of key performance indicators

Deep e-mail integration—Enables notification to key staff if files are modified, new data are posted
or a workflow task is assigned
SharePoint delivers all of these capabilities in a web-based, flexible platform at a fraction of the cost
that specialized vendors would charge for any one of these items. With the extensibility from a rich
111
variety of add-on products and the flexibility of the .NET platform and Visual Studio® (meaning there is
an army of software developers with required experience in place), it is easy to understand why
SharePoint has had such a meteoric rise in sales and adoption.
The SharePoint Effect
Although SharePoint has been widely embraced by businesses, its launch has often been accompanied
by a wave of frustration and false starts as enterprises struggle toward its deployment and use. We
believe these challenges may result from a lack of governance.
We often see ―worst practices‖ and unpredictable results when SharePoint is unleashed on an
enterprise without setting up proper governance policies. We call this the ―SharePoint effect,‖ which is
often characterized by some or all of the following:

Runaway growth as SharePoint users hijack control, creating high-profile sites, adding content
accessible to hundreds or thousands of users, and setting permissions and rights without enterprise
planning, strategy or support

Never-ending streams of enhancement requests that go unanswered

Lack of clarity on who is storing what in SharePoint

Inability to track or audit who has accessed items stored in SharePoint lists and document libraries

Inability to gain consensus from the business on goals and priorities for SharePoint

Irrelevant or outdated content

Lack of document life-cycle policies, including mandated archiving and destruction requirements
Shared Services and the SharePoint Effect
Many enterprises have mistakenly launched SharePoint as a shared service, allowing the business to
use it as it sees fit, without proper governance or controls. These deployments usually go viral and
growth occurs ―underground,‖ out of sight from the staff responsible for keeping SharePoint running.
This approach is usually accompanied by unpredictable spikes in growth and use that outpaces any
planning that may have been done prior to deployment.
When the SharePoint effect is at full force, the following can be expected:

Team sites spring up across the enterprise and operate independently, without any central direction
or guidance

Stale content litters ―ghost towns‖—sites that were once thriving areas for groups, now suddenly
abandoned

Steep declines in performance and supportability

Support calls to IT for unknown third-party tools installed by end users
Some reading this are probably smiling through gritted teeth, having lived through these experiences
firsthand. The combination of uncontrolled growth, lack of shared vision and the ad hoc adoption of
third-party tools usually causes SharePoint deployments to underperform and miss expectations.
SharePoint Governance
Simply stated, SharePoint governance is a framework of guidelines to create processes and controls
that avoid or limit the impact of risks encountered when deploying SharePoint. As SharePoint expands
and becomes increasingly pervasive and important to the enterprise, the need to govern it (meaning,
control it and manage the risks associated with it) increases dramatically. Some of risks encountered
without proper governance include:
112

Increased security threats—SharePoint allows the user to add and publish content easily. This
content is indexed, allowing users to search on most of the content that SharePoint manages,
including the text within files stored anywhere in the farm (Microsoft Office® SharePoint server).
The increased risk that arises from being able to post any file or content and then search on any
word in any posting, document or file managed in SharePoint can be easily imagined. Pulling
corporate data into key performance indicators compounds the risk, as does audience growth to
include users outside of the enterprise.

Wasted resources—Improperly deployed or managed SharePoint sites can reduce response time,
increase support costs, outpace support team capabilities and waste employee time.

Silos of information—SharePoint can be used to build new silos of information and decrease
collaboration and information sharing if not used properly. Just posting content into SharePoint
does not ensure collaboration. We have witnessed how SharePoint can become its own maze of
silos and a nest of sites and hidden content. When looking for information, we have often heard, ―It
is posted in SharePoint,‖ and have had to wander through sites to find the information we were
seeking.

Catastrophic business failure—As SharePoint grows in importance to the enterprise, improper
back-up and business resumption planning can be catastrophic to the business in the event of a
loss of SharePoint availability.
We believe that a properly governed SharePoint deployment can be one of the best IT investments an
enterprise can make. We also believe that an improperly governed deployment can represent one of its
greatest risks.Enterprises that have deployed or are planning on deploying SharePoint will likely be
faced with some or all of the following issues and expectations:

The enterprise expects SharePoint will support and transform organizational practices and
methodologies.

SharePoint will become pervasive within the enterprise and the reliance upon internal or third-party
resources to provide, maintain and ensure the viability of it will become mission-critical.

The costs of IT resources within the enterprise, as well as intangible costs, will rise due to growing
dependence upon SharePoint and increasing end-user demands.
This SharePoint governance framework will help manage these expectations while continuing to deliver
value to the business.
Reason for the Guide
We have been watching the SharePoint market mature and it is dismaying to observe the lack of
comprehensive governance guidelines. All of the SharePoint governance efforts that we have reviewed
have been ad hoc and loosely structured around organically developed best practices. Universally, the
existing frameworks have been aimed at the IT team rather than the business. These frameworks have
been posted in various blogs around the web. Our SharePoint customers have reviewed many of these
and have consistently been disappointed because of their lack of breadth or use of a standards-based
framework.
We have attended professional associations and trade shows for IT auditors expecting to find a
standards-based SharePoint governance framework and have been astounded by the lack of attention
and recognition of the importance of SharePoint. We have never found a SharePoint governance
framework that would satisfy IT auditors and let business lead.
113
Even worse, while some IT audit professionals are vaguely aware of SharePoint, few realize the depth
of its market penetration and number of business users who rely upon it. Many of the most important
assets of these enterprises are stored within SharePoint and it is critically important to establish worldclass governance standards for SharePoint and to adhere to these standards quickly.
Borrowing from a software development perspective and an auditor‘s sensibility, we created this
framework as a practical bridge between the world of IT audit and control and the world of SharePoint
development, deployment and management. We represent both sides of this coin and have blended
years of real-world SharePoint deployment experience with auditing best practices and international
standards to build the practical governance framework presented within this text.
Guiding SharePoint Governance Axiom
This governance framework is based upon the following guiding principles:

SharePoint requires controls and repeatable processes to ensure its orderly deployment, operation
and maintenance.

A team of senior business and technical users is required to set policies, procedures and guide the
ongoing deployment.

Management reviews should be built into governance policies and procedures.

Business needs should lead technical decisions, not the other way around.

IT resources, including staff and systems, should be leveraged and integrated into SharePoint.

The framework should be built upon internationally recognized governance standards.

The framework should be applicable at any stage of deployment or maintenance.
Based upon the goals stated previously, the following axiom was created to guide the development of
this governance framework:
A world-class SharePoint governance framework is a comprehensive set of activities, policies and
processes that leverages industry-standard methods and best practices to respond to the needs of the
internal enterprise, while satisfying requirements of external regulatory and compliance initiatives.
World-class SharePoint governance ensures that the enterprise is getting the most from its IT
investment, while demonstrating to the world that management has taken the proper steps to ensure
the integrity, confidentiality and availability of its information resources. The governance framework
should be easy to understand, follow and implement.
After an exhaustive review of existing governance standards and the goals stated previously, CobiT 4.1
was selected as the foundation for the governance framework.
What Is CobiT?
CobiT is an internationally accepted standard for the governance of information and related software
management systems. It offers a framework to govern planning, deployment, control and maintenance
of IT systems and applications and ensures that industry-standard best practices and methodologies
are applied to meet the needs of business enterprise. The initial release of CobiT was created by the
ISACA under the Information Systems Audit and Control Foundation® (ISACF®) in 1996 as an IT
process and control framework that linked to general business requirements and system controls. The
IT Governance Institute, which was founded by ISACA in 1998, released CobiT® 3rd Edition in 2000,
CobiT® 4.0 in 2005 and CobiT® 4.1 in 2007. A series of CobiT mapping papers, produced by ISACA,
114
includes mappings to ITIL, ISO, COSO, PMBOK and many other standardized frameworks widely
accepted in the IT community throughout the world.
CobiT 4.1 defines a set of principles, called domains, that are used to guide governance of information
and related software management systems. There is a chronological order from Plan and Organise to
Monitor and Evaluate; however, the framework supports iterative looping back to any domain at any
time. CobiT consists of the following four domains:

Plan and Organise

Acquire and Implement

Deliver and Support

Monitor and Evaluate
A diagram showing the relationship among the domains is in figure 1.
Drilling deeper, CobiT 4.1 defines 34 IT processes, which are divided among the four domains.
Processes are high-level directives that form the goals for each domain. For example, the Plan and
Organise phase includes ten IT processes:

PO1 Define a strategic IT plan.

PO2 Define the information architecture.

PO3 Determine technological direction.

PO4 Define the IT processes, organisation and relationships.

PO5 Manage the IT investment.

PO6 Communicate management aims and direction.

PO7 Manage IT human resources.

PO8 Manage quality.

PO9 Assess and manage IT risks.

PO10 Manage projects.
115
To recap, CobiT is organized into domains, IT processes and control objectives that have been
developed to help business lead and IT manage the risks associated with an information management
initiative. A comprehensive list of CobiT processes mapped against the governance methodology in this
publication can be found in appendix E.
Why COBIT?
As certified IT auditors and SharePoint deployment specialists, we have learned what businesses want
and need from a governance framework for SharePoint in ―the real world.‖ The CobiT control framework
fulfills these needs by:

Aligning IT and business objectives

Defining control objectives that management can use

Identifying major IT resources and how to best utilize them

Using generally accepted industry-standard process models to organize IT activities

Ensuring that performance is defined and measured within an enterprise
The Benefits of Governance Using COBIT
CobiT was selected because of the benefits it delivers to the enterprise. These benefits include:

Leveraging an internationally accepted IT governance framework that is regularly reviewed and
updated by a wide array of business, operational, audit and security experts
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
Better alignment of needs and IT capabilities

Better interaction and communication between IT and business using CobiT guidelines so that IT
understands business objectives and business understands what IT does

Better results during audits since CobiT is accepted by third parties

Better definition of ownership and responsibilities since these are based upon a process orientation

Involving all stakeholders on the ―same page‖ referencing a common defining framework
Advantages of the CobiT Framework
The advantages realized from CobiT adoption include:

Deriving maximum value and optimal support from the IT investment

Leveraging resources to their best and highest use

Ensuring that IT risks are managed, monitored and controlled

Providing a universally recognizable framework for both internal and external IT system auditors

Reducing effort and disruption of IT audits since processes and procedures governing SharePoint
are presented to the auditors in a manner and form that they can understand and readily recognize
as compliant
The CobiT framework is applicable regardless of the size of the enterprise or the complexity of the
SharePoint initiative. When applying CobiT to the control and governance of SharePoint, the focus of
the initiative assumes a perspective of monitoring and performance that addresses requirements for the
entire enterprise, not just the IT domain. CobiT ensures that IT and management are aligned and risks
are managed. Using CobiT as the fundamental framework for the initiative encourages and supports a
culture of continuous improvement, fostering sustainable processes and methodologies.Sustainable
processes and methodologies fostered by CobiT include:

Integrating IT and enterprise governance

Ensuring enterprise-based accountability for IT initiatives

Defining and maintaining complementary relationships among organizational structures

Drafting and clearly communicating policies, standards and processes for IT governance and
control

Effecting cultural change (commitment at all levels in the enterprise—from the board to the ―shop
floor‖)

Defining and promoting a process and culture of continuous improvement

Developing and implementing optimum monitoring and reporting structures
Mindbites and a Preview
Throughout the text, we have included insights called mindbites (rather than ―soundbites‖) that tie
conceptually similar guiding principles to actual experiences with SharePoint deployments undertaken
without the benefit of SharePoint governance or certain real-world experiences that illustrate a concept.
These insights examine why the application of good governance merits attention across many contexts.
The upcoming chapters explore the need for governance at a deeper level and describe how CobiT can
be used to develop a practical framework that will generate greater return on investment, wider
adoption and decreased risks. Finally, prescriptive advice will be provided on how to apply governance
to SharePoint deployment.
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This text will guide you from early planning through production deployment of SharePoint 2007 and
SharePoint 2010, on premises or in the cloud, using CobiT 4.1 in a practical way. Differences between
SharePoint 2007 and SharePoint 2010 are highlighted, as appropriate, and a final chapter explores
how to apply these governance controls and objectives for a cloud-based SharePoint 2010 deployment.
We hope you find this guide useful and practical and welcome any comments via e-mail
[email protected]
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COBIT and SharePoint
The following is an excerpt from the book "SharePoint® Deployment and Governance Using COBIT®
4.1: A Practical Approach," which can be purchased at www.isaca.org book store.
Having completed nearly 50 SharePoint deployments, it is clear to us that SharePoint is much more
than a simple replacement for a file share. We have witnessed firsthand how successful deployments
enable a fundamental shift in the way people work together and improve productivity. We have also
seen deployments fail and be abandoned, becoming ―shelfware‖ littered with ghost towns of content.
This governance framework was developed to make sure an enterprise‘s SharePoint deployment is
widely adopted and impacts the business in a meaningful way while reducing deployment and
operational risks.
Author’s Mindbite—SharePoint is like cable TV
It took me a while to understand why people are drawn to SharePoint. It came to me during a question
and answer session at a presentation on SharePoint capabilities I was doing for a group of users. A
senior IT manager from a local hospital told me they had SharePoint 2007 and were looking to deploy
it. Immediately I started talking about how great SharePoint could be for patient records, medical
imaging and forms automation.
He stopped me midsentence and said, ―We have systems for all of that and, frankly, they work just fine.
What we are looking for is a way for departments to communicate better throughout the hospital.‖I
suddenly realized that SharePoint is a new kind of medium that allows people to broadcast and interact
with channels of information.
SharePoint is like cable TV. Every channel is a different group of people who work together on
initiatives within and between departmental groups. There can even be channels that are specific to an
idea or group of people. It is the ultimate interactive TV except that it is a PC and runs over an IP
network. Yes, it could be a great way to automate forms and share medical records, but at the root of it
all, it is a great tool that allows people to work together more productively.
As ―SharePointers‖ already know, SharePoint lets administrators and developers snap in or activate
prebuilt Web Parts and features to quickly build pages with complex containers. These containers
usually hold lists of things. These lists can be files, contacts, links to web sites, FAQs and so on. It also
lets the user build pages (templates) that allow users to add content without requiring HTML or coding.
These capabilities include a self-service model that lets users add sites, pages or content if they have
the proper permissions.
Every initiative, product, team, department or user can have its own page or web site. Because of this
capability, the growth of SharePoint is usually explosive and exponential in terms of size and complexity
as users and capabilities are quickly added to the system. Each group has its own galaxy of needs and
requirements to solve business problems using SharePoint. The wave of recognition by the business
that SharePoint is a new tool and a new way to solve many common business problems is the catalyst
for the SharePoint effect described previously.
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The ―White Space‖—Another Uncomfortable Truth
While Microsoft has sold over 100 million seats of SharePoint, we estimate that only half of those seats
have been deployed. The difference between what has been sold and what has been deployed is
sometimes called the ―white space.‖ This white space represents the licenses that are sitting unused.
We believe most of these are in corporate environments. So why are so many seats of SharePoint
going unused?
We believe the white space is a result of IT deploying SharePoint using a shared services model with
little or no governance. Time and time again, we have been called in to consult after ill-defined
SharePoint solutions, built by business units or IT on shared service SharePoint farms, have been
released to an unprepared or untrained user community. Alternatively, we have seen SharePoint
deployments become viral and overwhelm all planned support capabilities. In either scenario, returns
are usually less than expected, stopping or curtailing planned rollouts because the promise of
SharePoint has not been met. Proper governance will close the white space in the enterprise. The
remainder of this text offers a governance framework that will ensure that expectations are met and the
SharePoint investment maximized.
The Need for Governance
We believe that a well-enforced governance framework is critical for the successful deployment and
operation of SharePoint. We will explore the case for governance and let the readers examine our
reasoning.
Let us start with the case for governance by looking at the alternatives. One could let SharePoint roll
out without any control. Staff could deploy as they see fit based upon their ability to develop
applications and muster resources. Inevitably, the system can easily become a tangled mess with
inconsistent branding, poor navigation and little or no security and control. Let us examine a real-world
metaphor.
If it helps, users can consider themselves the zoning commissioners for ―SharePointland.‖ The
framework presented in this text provides a prescriptive approach to ensure that the SharePoint
community thrives and grows.
Author’s Mindbite—Where else do we see governance?
I was struggling to come up with a real-world example of uncontrolled growth and it hit me: zoning laws
for a community.
Imagine that there were no zoning laws. Contractors and builders could develop new projects as they
wished. Chemical plants could be placed next to school yards. Twenty small houses could be crammed
into a small area with sewers and electrical systems that could safely support only four or five homes.
Zoning laws exist to make sure buildings are built within the limits of the infrastructure. Safety, noise
and the proper mix of industrial and residential buildings are considered.
World-class SharePoint governance delivers many of the same benefits of zoning laws. Proper
governance should create a stable and valuable set of processes and procedures that allow for growth
in a controlled and productive fashion while limiting the exposure or effects of risk to the enterprise. It
should utilize resources in the most productive way possible and it should prevent the oversaturation of
critical infrastructure so that support and performance do not degrade.
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If it helps, users can consider themselves the zoning commissioners for ―SharePointland.‖ The
framework presented in this text provides a prescriptive approach to ensure that the SharePoint
community thrives and grows.
Faltering First Steps
Our early attempts to apply CobiT to SharePoint governance, out-of-the-box, proved impractical. The
CobiT principles were on target, but the order prescribed by following the CobiT framework, verbatim
from Plan and Organise through Monitor and Evaluate, did not fit the chronological needs of a
SharePoint deployment. These early attempts taught us that we needed to segregate CobiT principles
into phases that mirrored natural rhythms found in a SharePoint deployment or enhancement life cycle.
Methodology
Having seen firsthand how SharePoint is planned, deployed and maintained, we created a governance
framework to parallel these efforts. The result is a practical and prescriptive model of how governance
is applied within the SharePoint domain, using the CobiT framework. This guide is a direct result of
lessons learned during SharePoint deployments and applying them in real-world SharePoint 2007
implementations. It represents the first known attempt to map CobiT in a practical way to the
governance of SharePoint.
Our governance framework is broken into six phases (figure 3). The key point is that CobiT has been
adopted at the process level. The governance framework presented in this text places all of the
processes from CobiT 4.1 into one of the appropriate phases of the software development life cycle
(SDLC) for the deployment, operation and enhancement of SharePoint. Once the CobiT 4.1 process is
mapped within one of the six phases, specific control objectives that relate to SharePoint deployment or
operation are prescribed to satisfy the essence of the control objectives defined in CobiT for that CobiT
process.
For example, the scope phase of the governance methodology contains the following CobiT processes:

PO1 Define a strategic IT plan.

PO2 Define the information architecture.
A narrative explaining the risk of not conforming to the guideline is also included in each process
description. A definition of the mitigation of the risk is offered, followed by a detailed discussion of a
prescriptive approach to mitigation/compensation to meet the goals of that activity or process.
An example will prove helpful. In the example in figure 4, PO2 is a process of the CobiT Plan and
Organise domain prescribed within the scope phase. Note how the essence of the control objectives
has been mapped into SharePoint controls and activities. Also note the highlighting of the risks of not
adopting these controls and activities and how these risks can be mitigated or compensated.
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Notice that the prescribed control objectives capture the essence of relevant CobiT 4.1 control
objectives within a SharePoint context rather than an explicit one-to-one mapping. These are identified
by a letter designation that is unique to this application, so as not to confuse the reader with the CobiT
control objectives, which are designated numerically. Conversely, note also that we map explicitly to
every CobiT 4.1 process since we believe all of the processes prescribed by CobiT 4.1 are relevant and
should be met to properly govern SharePoint.
The savvy CobiT reader will note that while we have included verbatim every CobiT process within our
methodology, we have taken liberties at the CobiT 4.1 control objective level and prescribed activities
that capture the essence of the control objectives in a way that makes sense in a SharePoint context.
Note also that most, but not all, control objectives are captured within the methodology. Indeed, in many
cases, we include additional activities and tasks that are specific to SharePoint deployment and
governance. An explicit mapping between CobiT 4.1 at the process level and our framework is included
in appendix E.
Finally, we have not listed every conceivable activity or task that could be prescribed to meet CobiT 4.1
processes and control objectives. The control objectives we have listed for each CobiT 4.1 process are
general in nature and form a good place to start the governance of SharePoint and to mitigate or
compensate for its risks. When reviewing this text, think of this framework as a starting point that can be
added to based upon the needs of the enterprise.
It is not expected that all of the processes and tasks prescribed for every phase will be satisfied before
moving to the next. This is a goal-oriented framework similar to Total Quality Management (TQM),
which sets horizons for each phase. Some of the objectives may seem to be continually just out of
reach, and that is fine. Think of them as goals: some are attainable while others may be guideposts to
lead the way.
Mitigation and Compensation
Throughout the governance framework, we continuously note the risks of not adopting or following the
prescribed control objectives outlined for each process. Mitigating or compensating controls form an
approach used by an enterprise to meet regulatory, statutory or business requirements. Controls
specify the method chosen to address a risk associated with a process such as PO2 Define the
information architecture. These controls can be applied as part of a mitigating or a compensating
strategy. Risk mitigation means performing tasks or activities (controls) that will reduce the likelihood or
impact of risk associated with a process, while risk compensation involves tasks or activities that tend to
circumvent or avoid risk.
The control objectives specified in this framework for each CobiT 4.1 process are designed to meet
mitigating or compensating goals and are exactly what IT auditors will look for when reviewing a
SharePoint environment. Indeed, the majority of this book is focused on defining the proper control
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objectives to mitigate or compensate for risks associated with SharePoint deployment or
enhancements. This text will also help in meeting regulatory requirements such as the US SarbanesOxley Act (SOX) or the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
Let us explore these concepts in greater detail, using driving to the store as a way to demonstrate the
concepts in everyday terms. The driver of a car assumes a certain level of risk: ―I might get in an
accident on the way to the store.‖ A mitigating activity to reduce the impact (literally, in this case) of the
risk associated with driving a car (and subsequently being involved in an accident), might include
purchasing a Humvee. If the driver is involved in a collision, the chances of harm resulting are greatly
reduced (mitigated) by driving a semiarmored 7,000-pound vehicle. A compensating activity to the
perceived risk of driving to the store might be simply to walk instead. Thus, a modification in behavior,
or process, compensates for the perceived risk of injury while driving, by avoiding the activity
altogether.
Compliance Considerations
There are many regulatory and statutory requirements for enterprises engaged in business. If a
company undergoes regular compliance audits—SOX, HIPAA, Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data
Security Standards or others—adherence to the framework in this publication, and by extension, the
CobiT framework in general, will meet many of the compliance objectives and requirements for the
operation and maintenance of SharePoint. Auditors will quickly understand the framework described in
this text and ascertain what, if any, steps are needed to remediate compliance concerns.
Description of Phases
Let us take a deeper look at how the governance framework is organized. The governance framework
is based upon an iterative life cycle approach. The framework begins with identifying controls and
processes that should be put in place to define what the business needs and what functionality should
be included for the SharePoint launch. It progresses through a series of phases, preparing for the
deployment and operation of SharePoint before it is launched. The framework continues with
prescriptive advice for deployment, system operations and monitoring. Following this, we review the
subset of activities that should be considered when undertaking an enhancement rather than an initial
SharePoint launch. Note that this governance framework is equally valid on a fresh install or on an
existing SharePoint deployment. The following describes the goals of each phase of the framework:

Scope—This phase is centered on defining the processes, people and activities required to set the
scope of the SharePoint deployment. Goals include creating a steering committee, creating
processes and procedures to gather a wide range of requirements, and then carving these
requirements into a manageable scope.

Plan for launch—This phase is focused on developing the processes and procedures to
successfully launch SharePoint. It identifies the skill requirements, assesses the readiness of the
team, identifies any staffing or skill set shortcomings and develops a plan to address these issues.
Service levels are agreed upon and the hardware and software requirements are identified and
reviewed. Finally, content review processes are identified, retention schedules are defined and a
cost allocation model to pay for usage is developed.

Prepare for operations—This phase defines the processes and procedures to support and operate
SharePoint once it is launched. Note: this phase is completed before SharePoint is launched.
Operational processes and procedures—including training the developers, reviewing software and
hardware sourcing agreements, and determining how users are authenticated—are established.
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This phase also includes developing policies and procedures for backup, incident reporting and
support, handling of change requests, and management of third-party services. Operational plans
are developed and reviewed, tools to manage SharePoint are selected, monitoring practices for
SharePoint are developed and ways to measure service level agreements are reviewed. Finally,
policies are developed to monitor and evaluate internal controls, data sources, error logs and data
integrity.

Launch—As the name suggests, this is the phase when SharePoint or an enhancement to
SharePoint is launched. All of the activities from the scope, planning for launch and prepare for
operations phases are put to the test. This phase is focused on creating the policies and
procedures for managing support desk incidents, ensuring compliance with external requirements
and accrediting how content is migrated, including the quality of the data once they have been
migrated into SharePoint. The phase also establishes how the results of the data migration are
communicated to the business and technical communities. Finally, processes surrounding the test
plan are reviewed with regard to how changes are promoted between the development, test and
production environments.

Operate—SharePoint adoption can be explosive. This phase is focused on developing processes
and procedures to manage the tactical, day-to-day aspects of SharePoint. It includes acquiring and
configuring tools to monitor the farm performance and system usage and then configuring them to
ensure that SharePoint is responsive to users and meets their needs. Policies and procedures are
developed for hardware and software enhancements and tuning, defining capacity planning
thresholds, and reviewing procurement methods for additional software and hardware
enhancements to ensure that they are acquired in a timely fashion. Administrative guidelines and
policies for indexing, content storage and developing backup strategies are also developed in this
phase. The operate phase includes developing storage and usage projections and monitoring them
to ensure that the system can support expected responsiveness and load. This phase also includes
creating policies and procedures to monitor growth projections against actual growth and
recommend adjustments as needed. Training is also evaluated to ensure that staff has the
background needed to manage the farm. Problem resolution policies and procedures are reviewed
and modified as necessary to ensure timely response to user support issues.Additional activities in
this phase include setting up policies and procedures to monitor expected vs. actual investments in
SharePoint, maintaining documentation on the hardware and software configuration, and
conducting operational infrastructure reviews ensuring the system architecture is up to date with the
actual system as it exists. Finally, this phase includes a reexamination of governance policies to
ensure that they are responsive to business needs.

Enhance—The enhance phase covers upgrades and changes to functionality or capabilities of
SharePoint after it has gone live. The enhance phase processes and control objectives follow a
subset of activities, policies and procedures from every phase described previously as necessary to
ensure that SharePoint can change and improve as business needs dictate.
Framework Risks/Concerns
With any plan or framework comes risk. The items listed below highlight the most obvious risks that
must be addressed in preparing and implementing this framework: • Inadequate executive sponsorship
and direction• Unwillingness of IT to align or support business needs• Inability of the governing body to
make decisions• Failure of internal staff or third parties to follow the policies and procedures set by the
governing body• Information technology staff‘s lack of discipline to follow policies and procedures•
Deployment of SharePoint widely across the enterprise and current user resistance to governance
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because the risks or costs of the current ungoverned approach are not understood• The business‘s
demand for service levels that are not possible within the allocated budget or technology• The
business‘s demand for system features and functionality that are not possible within the allocated
budget or technologyAll of these should be addressed head-on. These are obstacles that can pop up at
any time and in any phase of the SharePoint initiative.
Scorecard
This framework was built to be practical. Each task or activity contains a description of what the item or
activity means in the context of a SharePoint deployment and others suggest compensating or
mitigating controls. Many tasks or activities include a table with sample entries. A mitigating or
compensating control and the corresponding table should be completed for each task or activity so a
record can be given to auditors and staff for reference as needed. Progress can be tracked using the
worksheet in appendix D as the mitigating or compensating processes and procedures needed for a
successful deployment are built. This chart is handy for highlighting areas that need attention and
improvement.
Note:
This framework is exhaustive in scope and breadth and it is not expected that anyone will
satisfy every activity listed in every phase of the framework. Users should review all the
suggested activities, and then complete as many in each phase as is practical for their
situation. Also, it is not necessary to accomplish every step in a preceding phase to move into
the next. Ultimately, the specific needs and constraints of the enterprise should determine when
to move forward.
Tools
A framework is not very useful without the tools to implement the prescriptive guidance. A list of tools
can be found in appendix B. These tools are useful to gather the data or add the compensating or
mitigating controls called for in the governance framework. Each governance activity is shown on the
left side of the table and a cell is selected in the column headed by a tool if it can be used to help
compensate or mitigate the risk associated with the task or the activity.
SharePoint Already Deployed?
This framework can be used even if SharePoint has already been deployed. It is never too late to start
governing SharePoint. Those working in an already deployed environment should begin by completing
activities in the scope phase and continue through the framework from left to right. Issues should be
remediated as policies are set and communication undertaken with users, often explaining the benefits
they will derive from these governance efforts. Users can be invited to participate on the governance
steering committee and their input actively sought. Appendix A includes a description of concrete steps
to take to get started with this framework in the already deployed environment.
The Road Ahead
The remainder of the book consists of a chapter for each phase of the framework, including a list of the
activities and sample tables to use to record progress. We have included a chapter on the governance
of a cloud-based SharePoint deployment. Finally, the book concludes with appendices containing
practical advice on how the governance framework can be applied to the deployment of SharePoint,
including advice on how to get started governing your SharePoint farm.
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SharePoint Governance--Scope Phase
The following is an excerpt from the book "SharePoint® Deployment and Governance Using COBIT®
4.1: A Practical Approach," which can be purchased at www.isaca.org book store.
The scope phase is highlighted in figure 5.
Guiding principle: Do not ―build it and they will come.‖
Too often, we have seen technical teams offer a SharePoint ―solution‖ without identifying what business
problems it will solve. This is usually done under the guise of providing a shared service model. Do not
deploy a SharePoint solution that only needs to find a problem to be successful.
Warning:
It is critical to involve representatives from functional areas of the organization during the scope
phase or risk chaos when SharePoint is hijacked by users to solve the real problems and needs
that were missed because they were excluded from participating in the governance process.
Overview
A SharePoint deployment should be focused on solving real, concrete problems, improving productivity
or enabling new ways to help the business thrive. To ensure this, the scope phase of this SharePoint
governance framework starts with establishing a steering committee of business and technology
leaders who can set broad goals for the SharePoint deployment.
Once formed, the steering committee solicits communication and reviews feedback from the business
to define the business goals and objectives that will be met by the SharePoint deployment and the
business units that will participate in the rollout. Next, key business and technical resources are
identified. The scope phase concludes by setting the initial information architecture and site map of
SharePoint.
Key activities in the scope phase include:

Creating a steering committee led by the business and enabled by technologists

Identifying key strategic objectives the business will attain by deploying SharePoint

Identifying business units and champions to guide deployment

Aligning objectives and goals with SharePoint capabilities

Setting priorities

Developing a preliminary information architecture, including a site map
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The remainder of this chapter explores how CobiT® processes can be applied to the SharePoint
governance during the scope phase. This section includes key activities and deliverables that should be
completed during the scope phase of this SharePoint governance framework.
PO1 Define a Strategic IT Plan
The effort begins with creating a steering committee to define what is planned to accomplish and
prioritizing objectives. Our recommended implementation of the PO1 Define a strategic IT plan activities
is shown in figure 6.
PO1.A Create a steering committee to guide deployment—Scoping should begin with the creation of a
steering committee. This team will provide overall strategic guidance for the SharePoint deployment.
Business, technology and geographically diverse representation on the team is ideal. Membership
should be temporary and voluntary. Tactical direction of IT is included within the membership. (Note:
Each SharePoint site will have its own local administrator, typically the site administrator, who will
manage SharePoint locally and escalate issues up to the steering committee as necessary.) Sample
agendas for the first three meetings of the steering committees can be found in appendix A.
Steering Committee—Some Thoughts
The steering committee should be thought of as the command-and-control center of the SharePoint
initiative. Some of the tasks listed in this governance guide are quite technical and specific to
SharePoint while others are more general in nature. The steering committee should appoint
subcommittees to assume responsibility for many of the technical aspects of the SharePoint
deployment and operation. It is unrealistic to think that members of the steering committee will be able
to manage all aspects of the guidelines presented. Governing SharePoint will take a considerable effort.
In the end, the steering committee will be responsible for the successful deployment and operation, but
it will need to delegate and trust specialists to succeed.
Author’s Mindbite—The steering committee is like launch control.
Most readers have watched a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) rocket launch.
Each system is managed by a group and, as launch approaches, a series of preflight activities is
followed with each group reporting to the launch director. The scene a few moments before launch
sounds something like, ―Electrical?‖ ―Electrical ready for launch.‖ ―Propulsion?‖ ―Propulsion ready for
launch.‖ ―Guidance?‖ ―Guidance ready for launch.‖ and so on.
It is much the same for a SharePoint launch and operation. All business and information technology
teams should coordinate their efforts with the steering committee as preparation for launch and
operation occurs. All of the players involved perform a choreographed set of steps outlined in this text
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under the steering committee‘s guidance. These steps ensure that preparations are complete and
SharePoint is operating as planned to meet the objectives and goals set forth by the business.
Steering Committee—Leadership
The steering committee members will not individually complete every activity in this guideline. However,
just like the mission team at NASA, the steering committee is responsible for setting the SharePoint
deployment goals and ensuring that all systems are ―go‖ to meet them.The steering committee should
have a strong leader who can break deadlocks and provide direction when discussions become tense
or emotional. We call this style of leadership a ―benevolent dictatorship.‖ Discussion should be
animated and forthcoming, but a strong leader is needed to resolve disagreements and keep the
committee on task.
Steering Committee—Mission Statement
The following is a suggested mission statement for the steering committee:
The steering committee will provide a unified, centrally governed approach to the SharePoint
environment. This team has the overriding authority for all architectural, design and development
decisions, including all policies and procedures created for the SharePoint environment. It will strongly
influence foundational and framework-related issues, as well as decisions regarding security and
retention considerations for the deployment.
Steering Committee—Scope
The following areas will be considered by the steering committee for inclusion in the governance plan:

Internal/external users, internal/external data sources and inputs/outputs

Personal, team, departmental, divisional, corporate, global considerations

Parent/child corporations, subsidiaries and affiliates

Technologies, processes, logistics and finances

Document retention policies

Cultural, political, religious, social, economic, and gender forces and influences

Security and access control of the SharePoint environment, both internal and external

Legal and cultural issues concerning content of the SharePoint system to address information
rights management, copyright and other legal issues, privacy issues, and offensive or inflammatory
material
Suggested Steering—Committee Team
The table in figure 7 lists an example of a steering committee for a public agency.
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Steering Committee—Communication
A communication plan from the steering committee to the enterprise as a whole is an important
responsibility of the team. The steering committee should maintain a web site with minutes,
announcements, membership, instructions on how to join, calendar, forms to report bugs and issues,
forms to request enhancements and new initiatives, and instructions on how to get support. The web
site should include information on usage policies and restrictions. Additional activities will speak to this
point in greater detail throughout this publication.
PO1.B Identify strategic goals—Once the steering committee has been formed, scoping begins with the
identification of big goals that guide SharePoint deployment across the enterprise. Examples include:

Better communication

Document management

Improved compliance

Improved auditing capabilities
While these examples include broad enterprise goals, we have also seen SharePoint launched to
address a specific problem within a department. The activities defined in this governance framework
are equally important for focused outcomes and should also be followed, as shown in figure 8.
The scope of the SharePoint deployment may grow quickly once users in other areas learn how it is
being used. If this happens, it is advisable to review and follow the steps outlined in the enhancement
phase of this publication.
PO1.C Identify business units participating in the project—The business units that seek to be included
in the deployment must be reviewed and screened for inclusion by the steering committee, as shown in
figure 9. Business units can be nominated by the steering committee or may apply to the steering
committee directly.
PO1.D Identify strategic needs and map to SharePoint functionality—High-level strategic needs should
be collected via use case scenarios for each request. Each use case should be identified with a unique
ID tag for simplified tracking. These use cases should be reviewed by technical staff to determine
whether the business needs can be met with the technical capability of SharePoint.
A list of items that appear to be difficult or costly should be noted for each use case. A report of findings
should be presented to the steering committee and a subcommittee should be created to evaluate the
technical reviews.
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Finally, a summary of findings and recommendations should be made to the entire steering committee
for each use case. The steering committee should then create a list of functionality for each department
that is considered in scope, as shown in figure 10.
PO1.E Identify key business owners for each initiative—Each business initiative approved by the
steering committee will have a business owner associated with it. This business owner will assist with
requirements development, champion the initiative with the steering committee and help with the
deployment as needed, as shown in figure 11.
PO1.F Set priorities—Each business initiative will be ranked by the steering committee and set within
the queue of work. The steering committee will be responsible for maintaining and monitoring a master
schedule showing initiatives that have been approved and reviewing the initiatives on at least a
quarterly basis. Key considerations when setting priorities include:

Level of effort

Dependencies on other SharePoint initiatives in process

Infrastructure requirements

Third-party product dependency

Staff availability

Business readiness

Training availability
PO2 Define the Information Architecture
Once the initial scope of the business needs has been identified, the information architecture should be
defined. The information architecture includes the type of site (including the degree of exposure to the
rest of the SharePoint system, as well as security requirements), owners, roles and publishing life-cycle
requirements, as shown in figure 12.
130
PO2.A Identify scope and site types in deployment—Once the scope of initiatives has been defined for
the current phase, a site map should be developed that identifies each site and its relationship to the
entire farm. The site map is a critical step in defining the functionality and scope of the SharePoint
initiative. This effort should be managed by the steering committee. The site map will be consulted
regularly as requests for enhancements and changes are made.Governance should be tightly
controlled in areas where there is substantial public exposure in terms of readership (whether internal
or external) or potential litigation issues. In areas with limited readership or public exposure,
governance may be less controlled and allow for a more decentralized empowerment of end users.
Farm administrators will generally defer to direction from the business for features and content-related
issues. A typical site map is illustrated in figure 13.
Sites are generally classified using two dimensions: exposure and functionality. Exposure is defined as
how manyusers can see the site, while functionality includes what can be done with the site. Site
exposure (who can see it)dictates many of the requirements.
Sites generally fall into one of the following broad categories:

Public landing page—These are pages that anchor entry into SharePoint. All content is generally
public and accessible to all users on the site. This means great care must be taken to produce
policies and procedures that govern who can post content and how content is posted. Content on
131
this site has the highest need for controls around review and approval prior to publication. An
inappropriate content posting at this level will produce the greatest risk to the enterprise and the
greatest impact to the business. Each SharePoint farm typically has only one landing page,
although there could be many if the farm serves multiple populations (a public Internet site and an
intranet site on the same farm, for example). Access to site management and content editing and
posting should be extremely limited, and regular auditing and approval of access and content
posting are critical.

Public product line, location or divisional site—These are pages that are public anchors for product
lines, locations or divisions. These are also very public sites and therefore have a very high
requirement for control, review and approval of content prior to publication. There are usually many
of these per farm.

Public departmental, topic or product sites—These are public sites that are focused on specific
departments or products. While control is still very important, fewer people will see these pages
than either the landing or product line pages. It is likely that many users may make these ―favorites‖
in their browsers so these sites also have a very high need for control, review and approval prior to
content publication. There are usually many of these per farm.

Private departmental, topic or product private sites—These are sites that have a limited number of
named users or workgroups of users who can access the site. Control is less important in these
sites since the audience that can see the content is much more limited than the audience for public
sites. There is a medium level of control required for these sites.

Wikis and blogs (web logs)—SharePoint 2010 includes rich capabilities for sites built around wikis
and blogs. The audience for this type of site varies widely from sites targeted at small groups of
users to sites that are available to the enterprise as a whole. Conceptually, these sites facilitate
bidirectional knowledge sharing and the aggregation of additional information around a particular
topic. Active participation using threaded discussions and content submission directly to the site is
likely to be easy to do and highly encouraged.

Private project sites—These are very private sites, with access limited to a few users working on a
specific project or initiative. These are ―workbench‖ areas that are rarely seen by anyone outside
the immediate group working within the site. Since access is typically very limited, control is usually
relaxed, with light supervision and virtually no need to approve content posting. Nearly everyone
with access to these sites should be able to add content as needed.

MySites—MySites are usually used for social networking or resource skills inventories. Although
there is a temptation to have relaxed controls, these sites should be reviewed regularly and a
formal content publishing policy and review cycle are probably worth considering since these sites
are readily available to a wide audience. MySites require medium review and secure editing
capability.
Author’s Mindbite—Content control and Janet Jackson?
The 2004 US football Super Bowl halftime show with Justin Timberlake and Janet Jackson was seen by
millions and discussed by even more. This halftime show included Janet‘s infamous ―wardrobe
malfunction,‖ which was broadcast live to millions of viewers and caused great debate and 200,000
complaints to the Federal Communcations Commission (FCC). The CBS television network was fined
US $550,000 and the MTV television network was banned from ever producing another Super Bowl
halftime show. This relates to the amount of control placed on the content posted on the most public
132
sites. The more people who see the site, the greater the exposure to risk and sanctions when
inappropriate content—a wardrobe malfunction—is posted.
PO2.B Identify owners—All sites must have at least one owner who can edit and update content and, in
some cases, the structure of the site. Site owners should be centrally managed and cataloged for
security reasons. A site inventory grid is shown in figure 14.Typical site owners of each type of site
include the following:

Public landing page—Farm administrators and selected marketing and communications staff

Public divisional farm—Selected marketing and divisional staff

Public department and topic sites—Selected department staff

Private department sites—Selected department staff

Private project—Selected project staff
PO2.C Identify roles—Roles are closely aligned with permissions in SharePoint. Users should be
associated with roles for each site they can access. Tools should be employed to allow centralized
monitoring and maintenance of users and roles by site. Typical roles of users include the following:

Farm administrator—Responsible for configuration, administration and maintenance of the farm

Site owners—Typically can add or delete any content and layout as well as assign security for a
site

Contributor—Can usually add, update or delete content but not change the functionality or the
layout

Reader—Has read-only access to a page or site
A site role grid is shown in figure 15.
Typical permissions can be set at the following levels:

Farm

Site or page

Web Part (list)

List item (or file)
This means that files can be excluded or ―filtered‖ at the document level so certain users cannot see
them. Permissions are also honored by the search service, such that search returns can be filtered as
well. Roles can have permissions set at a very granular level. It is imperative that a tool be employed to
manage, set and revoke permissions at the global level from the SharePoint central administration
console. A list of recommended tools to automate creating lists of users for each role for each site can
be found in appendix B.
133
PO2.D Develop a process for site requests, approval and creation with auditing, including content types
and permissions—A process should be created, and supporting documentation developed, for
requesting, approving, and creating or decommissioning sites. The process should also include a
description of required content types, required permissions and SharePoint groups required to support
the site. The process should start with a request from a user, which should be routed to the proposed
site owner. The application should be reviewed, with approval or rejection determined by the steering
committee.
SharePoint 2010 delivers new capabilities that should be considered during the site request or
modification process:

The ability to add data validation rules for properties at the item level and list level. For example,
rules can be built that disallow an end date that precedes a start date. Properties can now be
specified to be unique as well. These rules should be captured during this activity.

Content types are now available at the farm, not just at the site collection level. Content types that
are managed at the farm level can be extended at the site collection level by inheriting from the
farm-level content type. The use of content types that inherit at the farm level should be
encouraged to promote simplified searching and an additional value to the business.

Users can now set unique document IDs that follow a document wherever it is stored in SharePoint
document libraries. The use of unique IDs should be used to avoid broken hyperlinks if a document
is moved.

Users can now designate that a file stored in SharePoint is an official file that can be locked and
any changes to the file disallowed. This practice should be considered if SharePoint is acting as a
system of record for files.

SharePoint 2010 can now support up to 50 million items per list. This added capability can have
performance consequences related to search capabilities. Any sites with large lists should be
carefully planned. Items to include in planning are what properties can be searched upon and how
many results are to be returned in the query result set. An additional option is the ability to throttle
the system to allow large result sets to be available only during certain time periods of the day.
These decisions need to be considered in conjunction with the business and clearly communicated
to the user community or the help desk will become flooded with assistance calls, inquiring why the
search is not returning expected results.
Not all sites will require approval by the steering committee. Generally, the less controlled the site, the
lower the need for formal review and approval. Simple, private team sites will generally not require
approval to create or decommission. The creation and tracking of auditing entries showing who
approved each process and when it was approved are important for regulators to assess compliance
control. These logs should be maintained and reviewed regularly.
Tools are available to automate the request, creation and deletion of sites via a workflow. Sharepoint
Designer offers power capabilities to create sites and set permissions. Additional third-party tools to
facilitate site creation via a workflow can be found in appendix B. A sample workflow built by Nintex®
Workflow 2007 is included in figure 16.
134
135
SharePoint in the Cloud (SharePoint
Development and Governance Using COBIT 4.1)
The following is an excerpt from the book, "SharePoint® Deployment and Governance Using COBIT®
4.1: A Practical Approach," which can be purchased at www.isaca.org book store.
Cloud computing is one of the hottest trends in information technology today. Heavyweights like IBM,
Google and Microsoft are early to the game, slugging it out with one another to attract customers and
capture a lucrative market characterized by nearly limitless scalability, high availability and a financial
model that allows enterprises to categorize cash outlays as an expense rather than a capital expense.
The ubiquitous high-speed connectivity, the proven reliability of the Internet and strong financial
incentives are forcing organizations to not ask ―if‖ but ―when‖ they will move at least some of their
infrastructure and applications to the cloud.
Microsoft is making a ―big bet‖ on the cloud. They have built large data centers and bundled sets of
applications optimized for delivery via the cloud. Offerings include familiar office tools such as Excel®
TM
and Word® with Windows Live®, SQL Server® with Azure , and communication and collaboration
tools with BPOS. BPOS is particularly interesting because it contains cloud-based instant messaging,
e-mail and calendar functions, web conferencing and SharePoint. BPOS is shaping up to be the next
―killer app‖ from Microsoft.
TM
Microsoft‘s BPOS is not the only collaboration suite in the cloud. Google has launched Google Sites
TM
TM
and Google Apps along with Gmail and IBM® has launched LotusLive . The Google and IBM
products show promise, but they both are a few generations behind BPOS in terms of capability and
market share momentum.A cloud-based or hosted SharePoint deployment presents unique governance
challenges. We have faced these challenges first-hand and this chapter will provide guidance, tips,
techniques and lessons we have learned on how to govern the full life cycle of the deployment and/or
migration to SharePoint in the cloud and realize the maximum benefit for your enterprise.
Why Is SharePoint So Important to Enterprises Considering the
Cloud?
Early adopters believed they would realize their biggest benefit by moving e-mail and instant messaging
to the cloud. In practice, we have found that organizations are actually realizing their greatest benefits
by leveraging SharePoint and similar collaboration tools hosted in the cloud to replace expensive inhouse legacy applications or software applications as a service (SAAS) offerings. Leveraging
SharePoint along with messaging and e-mail in the cloud offers a significantly higher return than only
using the cloud for e-mail and instant messaging.
SharePoint‘s impact was suspected, but has now been confirmed by our first-hand experience assisting
large enterprises in moving thousands of users to BPOS. It is important to note that we are not
suggesting that old technology be replaced. We see SharePoint directly replacing state-of-the-art
applications for pennies on the dollar. Examples include replacement of in-house business intelligence
(KPIs), reporting engines and state-of-the-art hosted customer relationship management (CRM)
solutions.
136
The availability of SharePoint in the cloud represents a point of inflection in technology and strategic
differentiation for enterprises. It enables a new wave of innovation for the automation of manual and email-centric processes and replacement of legacy applications without capital outlays to procure
additional infrastructure to support these initiatives. We strongly recommend the following to all readers
of this book:
Enterprises can realize significant cost savings and strategic advantage when using SharePoint in the
cloud. Every organization interested in using SharePoint should examine hosting SharePoint in the
cloud and evaluate it as a long-term strategy rather than deploying or maintaining SharePoint in-house.
137
SharePoint 2010 Governance Planning (white
paper)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides a large number of capabilities that empower business
users. For example, SharePoint Server 2010 enables users to collaborate with one another, tag and
rate content, self-publish, and even develop their own solutions. With this amount of power in hand,
users (and the organizations they work for) can benefit greatly from having clear guidance. In short,
they can benefit from having a Governance Plan.
This white paper focuses on what we call the ―front end‖ of the SharePoint environment – the business
aspect of governance - the areas that effect business users. This white paper uses a fictitious company
named Contoso to provide guidance for the necessary governance planning and implementation of
SharePoint Server 2010.
Download the white paper:

SharePoint 2010 Governance Planning (Microsoft Word version)
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=197150&clcid=0x409).

SharePoint 2010 Governance Planning (PDF version)
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=197174&clcid=0x409).
138
Implementing Governance in SharePoint 2010
(white paper)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides a rich set of capabilities that empower business users.
These new capabilities require clear guidance to both underscore their benefits and realize their
potential while maintaining a level of consistency and control within an organization.
This document focuses on the ―back end‖ of SharePoint Governance – the technical implementation. It
provides high-level guidance about the many configuration options that SharePoint Server 2010
provides to enable you to manage the environment for the benefit of all. For more information about the
―front end‖ of SharePoint Governance - the business aspect, refer to the following whitepaper:
SharePoint 2010 Governance Planning (white paper).
Download the white paper:

Implementing Governance in SharePoint 2010 (Microsoft Word version)
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=201194)

Implementing Governance in SharePoint 2010 (PDF version)
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=201195)

Implementing Governance in SharePoint 2010 (XPS version)
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=201196)
139
Plan for social computing and collaboration
(SharePoint Server 2010)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 implements features that make enterprise social computing and
collaboration easier. Social networking tools such as My Site Web sites and social content technologies
such as blogs, wikis, and really simple syndication (RSS), are examples of social computing features.
These features enable users to easily capture and share the knowledge and expertise that is needed to
do their work. This sharing of information encourages collaboration, improves innovation, and targets
relevant content to the people who have to see it. You can adapt content to each user while enabling
administrators to set policies to protect privacy.
The social computing and collaboration features in SharePoint Server 2010 are built upon a database
of properties that integrates information about people from many kinds of business applications and
directory services.
Good understanding and planning of social computing and collaboration features is very important for
creating effective Microsoft SharePoint Server solutions.
In this section:

User Profile service overview

Plan user profiles

Plan policies for user profiles

Plan for profile synchronization

Plan My Site Web sites overview

Plan for My Site Web sites

Plan for audiences and content targeting

Social tagging overview

Privacy and security implications of social tagging

Enterprise Wikis overview

Enterprise Wiki planning

Collaboration site planning
User Profile service overview
The User Profile service is a service application in SharePoint Server that can be consumed across
multiple sites and farms. The User Profile service provides a central location for configuring and
managing the following personalization settings:

User profile properties

Audiences

Profile synchronization settings

Organization browsing and management settings

My Site settings
For more information, see User Profile service overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
140
Plan user profiles
The User Profile service integrates user information from various sources into user profiles that are the
basis for powerful personalization features. In addition to planning connections to the User Profile
service, planning for people and user profiles includes profile synchronization and planning group
policies. You can also use profiles to turn off a feature. For example, profiles can help you prevent
information about colleagues from appearing automatically in the colleagues section of profile pages.
For more information, see Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan policies for user profiles
When planning for personalization of your portal sites, you must consider the availability of information
about users in the organization. Some information is not appropriate for everyone to see. Some
information should only be available to users and administrators to preserve privacy. Other information
can and should be shared freely with other users to encourage collaboration. The decision about what
information to share is an important one that depends on the particular needs of each organization.
For more information, see Plan policies for user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan for profile synchronization
If you plan to use social computing features, such as My Site Web sites or People Search, in Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010, you will likely want to integrate profile information that you have stored in a
directory service such as Active Directory Domain Service (AD DS) or a business system, such as SAP
or Siebel, with SharePoint Server 2010. By using Profile Synchronization in SharePoint Server 2010,
you can do exactly that.
For more information, see Plan for profile synchronization (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan for audiences and content targeting
Use audiences to group the users in an organization so that you can target information to relevant
users. From the Manage Audiences page for the User Profile service in SharePoint Server, you can
create and manage audiences and use them to target content in all of the site collections that use that
shared service. You can also use SharePoint groups to target content to specific Web parts.
For more information, see Audience and content targeting planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan My Site Web sites overview
My Site Web sites are special SharePoint sites that contain profile information about a user, links to
content created by a user and stored in SharePoint databases, and information about the people,
interests, and activities a user is tracking. My Site Web sites have three distinct views:

A My Networks page that shows the people, interests, and activities that a user is tracking.

A My Content page that lists shared and personal documents, shared pictures, and libraries, lists,
discussion boards, and surveys that a user owns.

A My Profile page that shows personal profile information.
Information on the My Profile page can be targeted to the user only or to a user‘s manager, team,
colleagues, or everyone. Planning for My Site Web sites includes preparing to set up My Site Web
141
sites, planning social tags and notes, planning My Site Web site policies and permissions, and planning
personalization sites.
For more information, see My Site Web sites overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan for My Site Web sites
To effectively plan for My Site Web sites, you must determine the following:

A logical architecture design to deploy My Site Web sites in a server farm

Users who you want to have a My Site Web site and the appropriate permissions for those users

The user profile information that you want to synchronize with directory services or business
systems

The My Site features that you want to enable

The policies that will be applied for viewing user profile information in the public profile
For more information, see Plan for My Site Web sites (SharePoint Server 2010).
Social tagging overview
Social tagging helps users categorize information in ways that are meaningful to them. Social tagging
can improve the quality of search results by filtering against specific tags, and it can also connect
individuals who want to share information with other users who have like interests.
For more information, see Social tagging overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Privacy and security implications of social tagging
Social tagging is a subset of a more comprehensive social media strategy that an enterprise can
develop. Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 includes the following social tagging features:

Social tags, which allow users to save items of interest, organize all information for a project, and
connect to others who share their interests.

The Note Board, which allows comments to be tracked in a central location.

Ratings, which allow users to assess the value of content against a scale, for example, one through
five stars.

Bookmarklets, which enable users to add tags and notes to pages that are outside of the
SharePoint environment, for example, Web sites that are external to an enterprise, and then have
those tags and notes appear on the Tags and Notes tab of their My Site.
This article contains information to help you plan for using the social tagging features of SharePoint
Server 2010 in your enterprise, and includes key steps to follow in the planning process.
For more information, see Privacy and security implications of social tagging (SharePoint Server 2010).
Enterprise Wikis overview
An Enterprise Wiki is a publishing site for sharing and updating large volumes of information across an
enterprise. If an organization needs a large, centralized knowledge repository that is designed to both
store and share information on an enterprise-wide scale, consider using an Enterprise Wiki.
For more information, see Enterprise Wikis overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
142
Enterprise Wiki planning
An Enterprise Wiki is a large-scale knowledge repository designed to both store and share information
in an enterprise. You can use an Enterprise Wiki to share and update information on a larger scale than
a wiki, library, or team site. Planning for an Enterprise Wiki includes the things to consider when you are
determining if an Enterprise Wiki is the best solution for your organization, the preparation steps for
setting up an Enterprise Wiki, and planning access to the Enterprise Wiki.
For more information, see Enterprise wiki planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Collaboration site planning
Collaboration sites are SharePoint sites that teams or groups of users can use to share information or
collaborate on projects. You can associate these sites with a particular portal site collection or make
them part of a publishing site collection. Collaboration sites can also be stand-alone sites. Planning for
collaboration sites explains how to define specific and additional paths, and how to determine the
number of collaboration sites that are needed in your organization.
For more information, see Collaboration site planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
See Also
Plan managed metadata (SharePoint Server 2010)
Security and permissions (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/119a29020f65-4086-9192-ac73b32149d8(Office.14).aspx)
User Profile Service administration (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/215432d7-cb3b-4af4-beed-47492a6777f0(Office.14).aspx)
143
User Profile service overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
The User Profile service stores information about users in a central location. Social computing features
use this information to facilitate productive interactions which enable users to collaborate efficiently. In
order to provision My Site Web sites, enable social computing features such as social tagging and
newsfeeds, and create and distribute profiles across multiple sites and farms, you must enable the User
Profile service.
In this article:

Uses and benefits of the User Profile service

Architecture

Related services
Uses and benefits of the User Profile service
The User Profile service is a shared service in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 that provides a central
location where service administrators configure and manage the following features:

User profiles – contain detailed information about individuals in an organization. A user profile
organizes and displays all of the properties related to each user together with social tags,
documents and other items related to that user.

Organization profiles – contain detailed information about an organization such as teams,
divisions, and so on.

Profile synchronization – provides a reliable way to synchronize user, group, and organization
profile information that is stored in the SharePoint Server 2010 profile store with profile information
that is stored in directory services across the enterprise.

Audiences – enables organizations to target content to users based on their job or task, as defined
by their membership in a SharePoint Server group or distribution list, by the organizational reporting
structure, or by the public properties in their user profiles.

My Site Host – a dedicated site for hosting My Site Web sites. A My Site Host is needed in order to
deploy the social features of SharePoint Server.

My Site Web site – a personal site that gives users in your organization a central location to
manage and store documents, links, and colleagues.

Social tags and notes – enables users to add social tags to documents, to other SharePoint
Server items, and to other items, such as external Web pages and blog posts. Users can also leave
impromptu notes on profile pages of a My Site Web site or any SharePoint Server page.
Administrators can delete all tags for employees when they leave the company or remove a tag
they do not want.
These features make it possible for users in an organization to share information and to stay informed
about what is happening within the organization. Social tags, for example, enable users to tag and track
the information they are most interested in. Users can be alerted when people they work with author
new blog posts or when there is a change in organizational metadata. They can also see how people
relate to organizations and how organizations relate to sites.
144
Like other shared services in SharePoint Server 2010, the User Profile service is easy to deploy and set
up. Farm administrators can delegate the management of all or part of the features of the User Profile
service to one or more service application administrators. For more information, see Assign or remove
administrators to a service application (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/4fceb168-753a-4227-8a23-ab415f9abce7(Office.14).aspx).
Architecture
When you create an instance of the User Profile service, SharePoint Server creates three databases for
storing user profile information and associated data:

a profile database - used to store user profile information.

a synchronization database - used to store configuration and staging information for
synchronizing profile data from external sources such as the Active Directory Directory Service (AD
DS).

a social tagging database - used to store social tags and notes created by users. Each social tag
and note is associated with a profile ID.
Each of these databases can be accessed by SharePoint sites, My Site Web sites, and Team Sites by
using the User Profile service. This provides a dynamic, personalized experience for the users in an
organization. For more information about these databases, see Databases used by SharePoint 2010
Products (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/a96075c6-d315-40a8-a73949b91c61978f.aspx#section1a).
The User Profile service can be managed by the appropriate business group and advertised in the
corporate resource center. One administrator can manage all areas of the User Profile service. As an
alternative, areas can be isolated and managed by different administrators who need not know about
the existence of other areas of the service. For example, one administrator can manage My Site Web
sites while a different administrator manages social tags and notes. The User Profile service can be
restricted and available only to certain departments or sets of sites based on business need, security
restrictions, and budgets. For more information about the shared services architecture in SharePoint
Server, see Logical architecture components (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/aaed3a01-f4dc-4353-abda-0beced2080b6(Office.14).aspx).
Related services
The User Profile service relies on other shared services to implement the full range of social computing
features in SharePoint Server. These related shared services include the following:

Managed Metadata Service - makes it possible to use managed metadata and share content
types across site collections and Web applications. For more information, see Managed metadata
service application overview (SharePoint Server 2010)

Search Service – needed to enable the People Search feature
See Also
Plan for social computing and collaboration (SharePoint Server 2010)
User Profile Service administration (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/215432d7-cb3b-4af4-beed-47492a6777f0(Office.14).aspx)
145
Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010)
Information about users in an organization is stored in user profiles within the User Profile Service.
Farm Administrators who create instances of the User Profile Service can administer user profiles, or
they can delegate user profile administration to an administrator of a shared service. Administrators of
the User Profile Service manage information about users and manage connections that are used to
synchronize that information between the profile store, directory services, such as Active Directory
Domain Services (AD DS) and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), and line-of-business
applications such as SAP.
When planning an initial deployment of Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, you must plan the following:

connections between User Profile Services, directory services, and line-of-business applications

the user profile properties and organization profile properties that are needed

the policies for displaying and changing user profiles

how user profiles are used by other personalization features, such as personalization sites
In this article:

About user profiles

User profile properties

User profile policies

Memberships and colleagues

Locating people and expertise

Synchronizing profile properties
Before reading this article, you should understand the concepts described in User Profile service
overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
About user profiles
Before you can personalize the sites and content within an organization, you have to plan user profiles.
Information about users can come from directory services such as AD DS. It can also come from lineof-business applications, such as SAP. The User Profile Service enables you to bring all of the
properties from these diverse content sources together to create unified and consistent user profiles
across an organization. The properties and content from these sources are stored in user profiles that
are managed by the User Profile Service.
User profiles identify connections among users such as common managers, workgroups, group
membership, and sites. User profiles also contain information about areas that a user is interested in
and help users locate subject matter experts for a particular area. This information enables users to find
one another by using the People Search feature. In this manner, the relationships among users in an
organization can be used to encourage more efficient collaboration with colleagues and across teams.
User profiles are more than merely groupings of imported and custom properties about users in an
organization. The properties are also used to display information about the relationships of each user to
other users in an organization. Profile subtypes can be used to create a different set of properties for a
146
different set of users. For example, you can create a subtype that categorizes a user as either an intern
or a full-time employee.
Every site that uses the same User Profile service application receives the same set of properties from
the user profile store and displays them in the site's user information list. This also includes a list of
documents that are shared by each user. For more information about creating a User Profile service
application, see Create, edit, or delete a User Profile service application (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/25d888b2-035a-40b4-a2b9-a496657a36e3(Office.14).aspx).
User profile properties
When planning user profiles, you have to determine the information about users that is needed. This
information will be stored in user profile properties and profile property subtypes. Everyone can view
information about a user from the profile page of the My Site Host Web application. The privacy and
policy settings in an organization govern the type of profile information that a user can view. The owner
of the information sets the privacy settings while the organization sets policy settings. For more
information about policy settings, see Plan policies for user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010).
When you plan for user profiles, you should consider several factors:

What are the existing and planned directory services? These services will form the foundation for
user profiles. Determine the properties that you will use for your core user profiles based on those
that are relevant across the organization (or across the User Profile Service in an organization that
has multiple sets of User Profile Service applications). Properties that can be used when finding
users, creating audiences to use when targeting content, and establishing relationships between
colleagues and workgroups are important. Start by reviewing the list of properties in directory
services, followed by the default properties provided by SharePoint Server 2010 and modify that list
according to these considerations.

What areas of your organization require different user profile subtypes? For example, do you can
create user profile subtypes for full-time employees, part-time employees, and interns?

Which line-of-business applications that you use have information about users? Which properties
can be mapped to the properties of directory services?

Based on the business intelligence planning, what other properties of business applications that are
not related to users might be useful for users in the organization? You can use these properties in
personalized Web Parts to target business data based on audiences.

How many user records are you planning to import from all sources, and how often do you want to
synchronize these records between the SharePoint profile store and these sources? The frequency
of scheduled synchronization will depend on the number of records, how heavily you are using
personalization features, and when you can schedule synchronizations to have the least effect on
performance and availability. Let the IT administrators know this information so they can include it
in their deployment planning.

Which user profile properties at the site level do you expect? In some organizations, this might be
dictated centrally. At other organizations, this decision might be left to the discretion of each site
collection administrator.
Default user profile properties
SharePoint Server 2010 provides a set of default user profile properties. You will want to review these
properties and the policies that apply to them before you decide which changes to make, which
properties to keep or remove, and which additional properties to create. Some of these user profile
147
properties can be indexed by People Search and some can use the User Profile to SharePoint Full
Synchronization timer job or the User Profile to SharePoint Quick Synchronization timer job replicate
properties to all site collections.
The following table lists the default user profile properties in SharePoint Server 2010:
User Profile property
Indexed Replicated
AboutMe
yes
yes
AccountName
yes
no
ADGuid
no
no
Assistant
no
no
CellPhone
yes
yes
Department
yes
yes
Fax
yes
no
FirstName
yes
yes
HomePhone
yes
no
LastName
yes
yes
Manager
no
no
Office
yes
yes
PersonalSpace
no
no
PictureURL
yes
yes
PreferredName
yes
yes
PublicSiteRedirect
no
no
QuickLinks
yes
no
SID
no
no
SPS-AboutUs
yes
no
SPS-Birthday
yes
no
SPS-ClaimID
no
no
SPS-ClaimProviderID
no
no
SPS-ClaimProviderType
no
no
SPS-DataSource
yes
no
SPS-DisplayOrder
no
no
SPS-DistinguishedName
no
no
SPS-DontSuggestList
no
no
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SPS-Dotted-line
no
no
SPS-EmailOptin
no
no
SPS-FormerNames
yes
no
SPS-HireDate
yes
no
SPS-Interests
yes
no
SPS-JobTitle
yes
no
SPS-LastColleagueAdded
no
no
SPS-LastKeywordAdded
yes
no
SPS-Location
yes
no
SPS-LogoURL
yes
no
SPS-MasterAccountName
no
no
SPS-MemberOf
yes
no
SPS-MySiteUpgrade
no
no
SPS-ObjectExists
no
no
SPS-OWAUrl
no
no
SPS-Parent
yes
no
SPS-ParentType
yes
no
SPS-PastProjects
yes
no
SPS-Peers
no
no
SPS-PhoneticDisplayName
yes
no
SPS-PhoneticFirstName
yes
no
SPS-PhoneticLastName
yes
no
SPS-ProxyAddresses
no
no
SPS-ResourceAccountName
no
no
SPS-ResourceSID
no
no
SPS-Responsibility
yes
yes
SPS-SavedAccountName
no
no
SPS-SavedSID
no
no
SPS-School
yes
no
SPS-Section-BasicInfo
yes
no
SPS-Section-ContactInfo
yes
no
149
SPS-Section-CustomProperties
yes
no
SPS-Section-Delegation
yes
no
SPS-Section-Details
yes
no
SPS-Section-OrganizationMembers yes
no
SPS-Section-Preferences
yes
no
SPS-SipAddress
no
yes
SPS-Skills
yes
no
SPS-SourceObjectDN
no
no
SPS-StatusNotes
no
no
SPS-Team-Site
no
no
SPS-TimeZone
no
no
Title
yes
yes
UserName
yes
yes
UserProfile_GUID
yes
no
WebSite
no
yes
WorkEmail
yes
yes
WorkPhone
yes
yes
Additional profile properties
The default user profile properties and the properties that are imported from connections to directory
services and business applications can be supplemented with additional properties that track key
information that is not available from these sources. These properties can, for example, be integers,
strings, term sets, and so on. For example, you can create a profile property that is named ―favorite
hobby‖ and associate it with a term set named ―hobbies‖ from the Managed Metadata Service. Users
who update their profiles can then select one of the terms in the ―hobbies‖ term set as the value for their
favorite hobby. For more information about term sets and the Managed Metadata Service, see
Managed metadata overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
You should plan to add properties at the level of the User Profile Service or site collection depending on
the business needs that you identified in earlier planning. Key business needs can often be addressed
by creating new properties that associate users with important business processes. Search can then
use these properties to find users, or personalization features can use the properties to target content
to users. Properties do not have to be visible in public profiles or My Site Web sites, and properties can
be useful for search or personalization without being displayed in public profiles or My Site Web sites.
To limit the scope of planning, focus on adding properties that enable key business needs or scenarios
for each site collection. If a relevant property does not address specific scenarios, wait until a specific
need is identified during regular operations instead of planning to add the property during initial
150
deployment. It is possible that you might not have to add many new properties at all. However, it is
worth considering in case there are obvious needs.
User profile policies
Policies are sets of rules that administrators assign to users. These rules enable administrators to
specify the privacy settings that are associated with a particular profile property. They also enable
administrators to set whether a user can override those settings. Planning user profiles should include
planning the policies that govern them. For more information, see Plan policies for user profiles
(SharePoint Server 2010).
Memberships and colleagues
Relationships among different users in an organization are displayed in the public profile page for each
user. Administrators of the User Profile Service can also see information about these relationships from
the user profiles that are stored in the profile store. This relationship information includes the following
information:

site memberships (a global view of all memberships for each user)

distribution list memberships

colleagues
Memberships
In SharePoint Server 2010, a user‘s profile contains a list of all memberships and distribution lists to
which a user belongs. Information in a distribution list is synchronized with the directory service, LDAP
service, or line-of-business applications during profile synchronization. The User Profile to SharePoint
Full Sync synchronizes the timer job Membership information. By default this timer job will add site
memberships to a user profile. User profiles contain information about users‘ site memberships only if
they belong to the default membership group for a site.
Colleagues
Colleagues can include each user's immediate associates — which includes one's manager, peers, and
direct reports. Organizations that have key relationships that cross groups of users, managers or other
users might want to add people to the Colleagues lists for certain groups. You can also configure
Outlook to export colleague suggestions to users in SharePoint Server. For more information, see
Enable SharePoint Server 2010 Colleague in Outlook 2010
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/4abf0200-cc1d-438a-835a-e1ea3410176a(Office.14).aspx).
Locating people and expertise
SharePoint Server 2010 enables users to find other users based on their expertise and role in an
organization. Farm administrators can enable the following methods of finding people:

People search results contain links to the public profiles of each user and links to contact them by
e-mail or messaging programs.

Expertise finding used with people search and expertise tagging to help users locate people
within an organization who have identified themselves as having significant experience with a
particular subject. If e-mail analysis is enabled, colleague suggestions are imported from Outlook if
using Microsoft Office Outlook 2007 e-mail. If Microsoft Outlook 2010 is used, colleagues, and
151
keywords are analyzed and suggestions are made to the user based on this analysis. Although email analysis can be enabled in Outlook, users can opt out of this feature if they want. For more
information about e-mail analysis, see Enable SharePoint Server 2010 Colleague in Outlook 2010
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/4abf0200-cc1d-438a-835a-e1ea3410176a(Office.14).aspx).
When planning for users, you might want to consider supplementing the default people search scope
and Search Center tab with customized search scopes and tabs for more specific groups of users.
User Profile Service administrators will want to consult the information architecture and site hierarchy to
identify key business concepts that might relate to specific groups of users who might be sought out by
users across sites. Then, User Profile Service administrators can work with the Search Service
administrator to develop search scopes and people search tabs for those specific groups. They can
also use their knowledge of the user profiles they manage to identify other useful groups of users and
create additional specific search scopes and search tabs for those groups.
Site collection administrators can create site-level search scopes for users who are members of their
site collection.
People search planning also feeds back into user profile planning. Initial planning might reveal
individuals or groups of users whom you want to make it easier to find, but the right properties might not
exist to allow for those users to be found easily.
Synchronizing profile properties
The process of planning user profiles includes the following:

identifying the directory services and line-of-business applications with which you want to
synchronize profile information

planning connections to those applications

mapping the properties that you want to synchronize

determining a schedule for regular synchronization
A key planning principle is consistency across content sources for all users in an organization.
The User Profile Service enables you to collect information about users in an organization across
directory services and business applications so that consistent and timely information is always
available. Information about users is synchronized across the deployment to all site collections that use
the same User Profile Service application. This information can also be used by personalization
features to increase the value of collaboration and relationships in an organization.
When planning synchronization of user profiles, you should include the following tasks:

Start with the default properties of user profiles in SharePoint Server 2010.

Identify connections to directory services that will provide supplemental information for properties of
user profiles.

Consider additional business data that enables you to connect users to line-of-business
applications.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes the ability to do a two-way sync of user profile properties between
SharePoint Server 2010 and directory services. The User Profile Service maintains the connections
with the relevant business applications and updates the properties of user profiles during regularly
scheduled synchronizations of all relevant content sources.
152
For more information about Profile Synchronization, see Plan for profile synchronization (SharePoint
Server 2010).
See Also
Plan for social computing and collaboration (SharePoint Server 2010)
Understanding Forefront Identity Manager 2010 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=165841)
153
Plan policies for user profiles (SharePoint
Server 2010)
Policies are sets of rules that administrators of the User Profile service assign to users or groups of
users. These rules enable administrators to specify both the site content that users can see and how
users can interact with that content. To start planning, assess the current visibility of the information
about users in the organization. Some information about individual users should remain private. Other
information can and should be shared freely with other users to encourage collaboration.
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides a set of configurable policies to help administrators make
the appropriate information available to meet the needs of the organization. Organizations can also
create and deploy custom policy features to meet specific needs. You should review collaboration
needs across the organization before you develop a plan for implementing the best mix of policies.
Information architecture and site hierarchy play an important role in decisions about which policies to
use. You should also consider who is using sites. For example, a large organization that has a central
portal site with a large number of viewers but very few contributors might have less need to share
information than a departmental site where many people can contribute content. Many of these issues
are handled as part of security planning, but privacy policies and security considerations are sufficiently
related that it is a good idea to consider them together.
Policies that are less restrictive allow more users to view public profiles more frequently, which affects
how often you must update user profiles and compile audiences. In organizations that have many
users, frequent updating could affect performance and capacity planning.
User Profile Service administrators should share policy decisions with IT professionals in the
organization. Some policy-related issues that could affect IT planning include the following:

the source of the user profile information

the expected frequency of updating user profile information

the expected frequency of compiling audiences

the effect on performance and capacity of servers that are running Profile Services.
In this article:

Default policies

Policies for user profile properties
Before reading this article, you should understand the concepts described in Plan user profiles
(SharePoint Server 2010).
Default policies
Every personalization feature and property exposed in user profiles and personal sites has a
recommended default policy that can be customized based on the needs of the organization. Each
policy has two parts: the policy setting and the default visibility setting.

Policy setting Some personalization features provide important information for key business
processes in an organization, whereas other information might be inappropriate for sharing across
an organization. Between these extremes is the information that should be shared among some
154
users but not made available to everyone. In the latter case, you must create policies to address
these specific situations. You should work with representatives from the business side of your
organization to determine the appropriate features or properties. The policy settings are:

Enabled The feature is visible to the administrator of the User Profile service and to users
other than the User Profile Service administrator, depending on the default visibility setting.

Required This property must contain information and the information is shared based on
default access. Forms that contain these features or properties cannot be submitted until the
required information is provided. For example, the Manager property is often mandatory so that
it can be used to provide information for the Organization feature and audiences based on an
organization's reporting hierarchy.

Optional The property is created but its values might not be provided automatically. Each
user decides whether to provide values for the property or leave the property empty. For
example, the My Colleagues feature is optional. Instead of being blank, the full list of
colleagues, which includes everyone in a user‘s My Team list, is visible by default to users who
have access. Users can decide to opt out by removing colleagues from the list, or expand the
list by adding colleagues.

Disabled The property or feature is visible only to the User Profile Service administrator. It
does not appear in personalized sites or Web Parts, and it cannot be shared.

User Override Properties that have the User Override option selected enable users to change
the default visibility settings for those properties. With this option selected, each user can
decide who can see the values they entered for the property. If this option is not selected, only
administrators of the User Profile Service can change default access settings.
Note:
Properties and features can be replicated to other SharePoint sites if the default access
policy is set to Everyone and the User Override option is not selected.

Default visibility setting The visibility setting determines who can see information for a specific
personalization feature. Available settings include the following:

Everyone Every user who has viewer permissions to the site can see the relevant
information.

My Colleagues Every user in this user's My Colleagues list can see the information for this
user.

My Team Every colleague in the user's immediate team, a subset of the My Colleagues list,
can see the information.

My Manager Only the user and the user's immediate manager can see the information.

Only Me Only the user and the administrator of the User Profile service can see the
information.
Policies for user profile properties
The following questions can help you determine which policies are appropriate for your organization:

Which properties should be mandatory? Some properties — such as account name, preferred
name, work telephone number, department, title, and work e-mail address — are mandatory by
default and cannot be overridden or changed by users. In most organizations, these properties are
key ways to enable collaboration and develop relationships across the organization. SharePoint
155
Server 2010 also uses many of them to enable other features, such as colleagues and audiences.
For more information, see Plan audiences.

Which properties should be visible to everyone? By default, most properties are visible to
everyone, but sensitive information can be configured to have limited visibility. For example, a
company that has many employees in the field might decide that mobile phone information is
important for everyone to see. Other organizations might choose to keep all non-work telephone
numbers private.

Which properties can be changed by users? Some properties can be made available without
requiring that users provide information or allow a certain action to be performed. For example,
some users might not want automatic population of colleague lists. Other users might want to
change the default visibility setting for a property.
When planning the policy setting for a property, consider the following factors:
Condition
Disable
Make the
Make the
the
property
property
property
optional
required
The property is used by key user features.
X
The property is associated with key business data for
applications in the Microsoft Business Connectivity Services.
X
The property is used when you create audiences.
X
User Profile Service administrators expect consistent and
meaningful values for the property.
X
The property will rarely be used.
X
The property will distract from more important properties.
X
Note:
You can change the display settings for properties to
hide them from users viewing public profiles, the Edit
Details page, or the My Colleagues Web Part.
You decide to provide default values for properties, but still
want users to be able to remove the information, or if you want
to enable each user to provide the relevant value for the
property.
X
When you plan the default visibility settings for an organization‘s policies, consider the following factors:
Condition
Action
You want to use the property in search so that users
can be found by searches for the property.
Set the default access policy to Everyone.
Note:
Properties that have more restrictive
access will not be used by search.
156
Condition
Action
The property is useful across workgroups and other
divisions in your organization and does not contain
sensitive information.
Make the property visible to everyone.
The property is mostly useful for collaboration inside
an immediate workgroup or with a specific group of
individually selected colleagues.
Make the property visible only to colleagues.
The property is of a private or sensitive nature.
Make the property visible only to the immediate
manager, or in some cases, only the individual
user.
Important:
What is considered private information
can vary from organization to
organization.
See Also
Plan for social computing and collaboration (SharePoint Server 2010)
Managing privacy (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/50fe9111-f323-4f04be78-d8d112f0c8e7(Office.14).aspx)
157
Plan for profile synchronization (SharePoint
Server 2010)
If you plan to use social computing features, such as My Site Web sites or People Search, in Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010, you will likely want to integrate profile information that you have stored in a
directory service such as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or a business system, such as
SAP or Siebel, with SharePoint Server 2010. By using Profile Synchronization in SharePoint Server
2010, you can do exactly that.
In this article:

About Profile Synchronization

Identify directory services and business systems

Plan permissions

Determine which containers to synchronize

Define Profile Synchronization connection filters

Map profile properties

Define synchronization schedule
About Profile Synchronization
Profile Synchronization in SharePoint Server 2010 enables an administrator of an instance of the User
Profile service to synchronize user and group profile information that is stored in the SharePoint Server
2010 profile store with profile information that is stored in directory services and business systems
across the enterprise. Profile synchronization can occur when profile information has changed in the
SharePoint Server 2010 profile store or when profile information has changed in the directory service or
business system. After you configure Profile Synchronization, changes to either store are detected.
Import or export occurs depending on the import/export settings for a particular user profile property.
Note:
By default, no user profile property is set to Export. You must explicitly define the user profile
properties that you want to export back to the directory service from the user profile store.
Exporting profile properties back to a business system is not supported in SharePoint Server
2010.
Important:
When you create an instance of the User Profile service, you must make sure you create it on
the same server as the User Profile Synchronization service. For more information about how
to create an instance of the User Profile service, see Create, edit, or delete a User Profile
service application (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/25d888b2035a-40b4-a2b9-a496657a36e3(Office.14).aspx).
Below is a list of things that you have to do before you enable Profile Synchronization. These planning
steps should be performed in the order given.
158
Identify directory services and business systems
When planning for profile synchronization in SharePoint Server 2010, you first have to determine the
directory services and business systems with which you want to synchronize profile information. You
can perform a full synchronization of user or group profile information or an incremental synchronization
of only those profile properties that have changed since the last profile synchronization, depending on
the service or system.
Directory services
The directory services supported in SharePoint Server 2010 and their synchronization capabilities
include the following:
Service
Users Groups Incremental
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) 2003 SP2, 2008 Yes
Yes
Yes
SunOne (LDAP) 5.2
Yes
No
Yes
Novell eDirectory (LDAP) 8.7.3
Yes
No
No
IBM Tivoli (LDAP) 5.2
Yes
No
Yes
You must know the full path of the forest name and the full path of the domain controller name to create
a connection between SharePoint Server 2010 and a domain service.
Although you can connect to more than one directory service from a single User Profile service
application, we recommend that you create only one Profile Synchronization connection per directory
service forest. If, however, you have logon information in one directory service forest and resource
information in another forest, you should create one connection to the logon forest and one connection
to the resource forest. For more information about cross-forest deployments, see Resolve accounts
across multiple forests (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/e313bf8c-76414d87-a8a2-389ff525957c(Office.14).aspx).
Business systems
Profile information that is stored in business systems, such as SAP or Siebel, can be added to profile
information contained in the SharePoint Server 2010 profile store by using the Business Data
Connectivity service. For example, if a profile that contains the name and employee number for a user
has been imported to the SharePoint Server profile store from AD DS, you can augment that
information with the hire date for that employee from a business system such as Siebel or SAP. To do
this, you must know the name of the Business Data Connectivity service that you will use to connect to
the business systems that you have identified.
Exporting profile properties from SharePoint Server 2010 to business systems, importing new profiles
from business systems to the SharePoint Server profile store, and synchronizing incrementally between
business systems and SharePoint Server 2010 are not supported. For more information about the
Business Data Connectivity service, see Business Data Connectivity service administration overview
(SharePoint Server 2010).
Important:
159
If you are connecting to a Business Data Connectivity service, the Business Data Connectivity
model must include Finders and Specific Finders methods in SharePoint Server 2010. For
more information about Finders and Specific Finders methods, see Designing a Business Data
Connectivity Model (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=179316&clcid=0x409).
Tip:
You should first test Profile Synchronization with a Business Data Connectivity service by using
external lists. For more information about external lists, see Business Connectivity Services
security overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan permissions
After you have identified the directory services and business systems with which you want to
synchronize profiles, you must identify the credentials that you will use to connect to them. You will
need to contact the appropriate administrator to get these credentials. Depending on which directory
service or business system you are connecting to and the type of profile synchronization you wish to
perform, the account, whose credentials the connection will use, must have specific permissions in
order to perform profile synchronization.
Note:
We recommend that you determine the required permissions for the environment before setting
up Profile Synchronization. For more specific information about setting up Profile
Synchronization, see Configure profile synchronization (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/144e5f6e-0c9c-4f01-9b1f-26190d527e85(Office.14).aspx).
The following tables identify the account types and the permissions that the directory service or
business system must grant, depending on the functions that the connection will perform.
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)
Function
Account type
Permissions
Connect
Domain account
used to provision
profile
synchronization
Must have Replicate Directory Changes permission to
connect to the AD DS domains from which you want to
import data.
Domain account
used to provision
profile
synchronization
To export properties, such as profile pictures, from
SharePoint Server 2010 to AD DS, at least Replicate
Directory Changes permission is needed on the AD DS
object (group) and all child objects (users or sub-groups) for
the AD DS domains to which you want to export data from
SharePoint Server 2010.
Full
synchronization
If the NetBIOS name is different from the domain name,
Replicate Directory Changes permission is also needed on
the cn=configuration container in AD DS. In scenarios where
the NetBIOS name is different from the domain name, the
cn=configuration container provides the specific NetBIOS
name to successfully import profile information from AD DS.
Read/Write permission is also needed on the container that
stores the user picture attribute, for example, the
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Function
Account type
Permissions
ThumbnailPhoto attribute.
Authenticated users who have Replicate Directory Changes
permission will only be granted read-access to AD DS
objects by AD DS. Additional permissions, such as Write
permission, can be granted using access control lists (ACLs)
in AD DS. SharePoint Server 2010 will not write profile data
back to AD DS unless Write permission is explicitly set on
the account that has Replicate Directory Changes
permission.
Incremental
synchronization
Domain account
used to provision
profile
synchronization
Same as full synchronization
SunOne (LDAP)
Function
Account
Permissions
type
Connect
SunOne
user
Any enabled SunOne user can create a profile synchronization
connection.
Full synchronization
SunOne
user
Anonymous access to RootDSE for Read, Write, Compare, and
Search rights is required.
Incremental
synchronization
SunOne
user
Read, Compare, and Search permissions for the cn=changelog
object are needed in addition to those permissions required for full
synchronization.
Novell eDirectory (LDAP)
Function
Account type
Permissions
Connect
Novell
eDirectory user
Any enabled Novell eDirectory user can create a profile
synchronization connection.
Full synchronization
Novell
eDirectory user
Browse rights in the Entry rights property for the specified
tree are required.
Read, Write, and Compare rights in the All attributes rights
property for the specified tree are also required.
Incremental
synchronization
None
Not supported.
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IBM Tivoli (LDAP)
Function
Account type
Permissions
Connect
IBM Tivoli user
Must be a member of an administrative group.
Full synchronization
IBM Tivoli user
Same as connect.
Incremental synchronization
IBM Tivoli user
Same as connect.
Business Data Connectivity service
Function
Account type
Permissions
Augmentation of profile
information in the SharePoint
profile store from a business
system
No additional account is required other than the service
account that is used to connect to the Business Data
Connectivity service application from the User Profile
service application.
None.
Determine which containers to synchronize
Before you can do an initial import of profile information from a directory service or business system to
SharePoint Server, you must determine the directory service or business system containers that you
want to import and synchronize. For example, you must determine which directory service containers
have the user profiles that you want to synchronize and which directory service containers have the
group profiles that you want to synchronize. This information is used when you first create the Profile
Synchronization connection.
Define Profile Synchronization connection filters
There may be instances when you want to exclude some profile information from being synchronized.
In SharePoint Server 2010, you can set filters on a Profile Synchronization connection to prevent
certain user or group profile properties from being synchronized. It is a good idea to make a list of the
profile properties that you want to exclude before setting up Profile Synchronization.
Note:
Setting inclusion filters is not supported in SharePoint Server 2010.
Map profile properties
After you have determined the containers that you want to import and synchronize with SharePoint
Server, you must list which profile properties in the directory service or business system map to the
profile properties in SharePoint Server. You must also consider any properties that must be mapped
across multiple directory services or business systems as these are not automatically mapped in
SharePoint Server 2010.
When mapping profile properties, you must use consistent data types. For example, if a user profile
property in the directory service or business system uses an integer data type, map the user profile
162
property to a user profile property in SharePoint Server 2010 that uses the integer data type. Do not
map the user profile property to a user profile property that uses a different data type. For example, do
not map the user profile property to a user profile property that uses the string data type.
The following table shows the supported Business Data Connectivity service data types and their
corresponding User Profile service data types:
Business Data Connectivity service data types User Profile service data types
System.Boolean
Boolean
System.String
String (Only multi-value string is supported)
System.DateTime
Date/DateTime
System.Int64
BigInteger
System.Int32
BigInteger/Integer
System.Int16
BigInteger/Integer
System.SByte
BigInteger/Integer
System.UInt64
BigInteger
System.UInt32
BigInteger/Integer
System.UInt16
BigInteger/Integer
System.Byte
BigInteger/Integer
System.Single
Float
System.Double
Float
Default profile properties
SharePoint Server 2010 has several default profile properties for both users and groups that can be
mapped to corresponding properties in a directory service or business system. You can view these
default properties by browsing to the Manage User Properties page or Manage Organization Properties
page in Central Administration. You can also create custom properties in SharePoint Server 2010 and
map those properties to the corresponding properties in a directory service or business system. We
recommend that you identify property mappings before you set up Profile Synchronization.
By default, some user profile properties, such as first name, last name, and so on are automatically
mapped to their corresponding properties in the external directory service or business system.
For example, the following properties are automatically mapped when using AD DS:
Users:
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AD DS attribute
User Profile store property
<dn>
SPS-DistinguishedName
objectSid
SID
manager
Manager
displayName
PreferredName
givenName
FirstName
Sn
LastName
PhoneticDisplayName
PhoneticDisplayName
PhoneticFirstName
PhoneticFirstName
PhoneticLastName
PhoneticLastName
telephoneNumber
WorkPhone
mail
WorkEmail
physicalDeliveryOfficeName
Office
title
Title
department
Department
sAMAccountName
UserName
wWWHomePage
PublicSiteRedirect
SIP Address
proxyAddresses
Groups:
AD DS attribute
User Profile store property
<dn>
SourceReference
objectSid
SID
displayName
PreferredName
description
Description
url
Url
member
Member
groupType
GroupType
mail
MailNickName
Important:
164
In order to synchronize user profile pictures between Microsoft SharePoint Server, AD DS, and
Outlook 2010 by using the Microsoft Outlook Social Connector, you must set the Data Source
Connection for the Picture property mapping to Export. For more information about
synchronizing user profile pictures, see Enable SharePoint Server 2010 Colleague in Outlook
2010 (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/4abf0200-cc1d-438a-835ae1ea3410176a(Office.14).aspx).
Define synchronization schedule
In SharePoint Server 2010, you can synchronize profiles on a recurring schedule or a nonrecurring
schedule. Recurring Profile Synchronization is incremental; that is, only changed profile information will
be synchronized. Nonrecurring Profile Synchronization can be configured to do either a full sync or an
incremental sync.
You should plan to first perform a nonrecurring full synchronization of user profiles only before you
deploy to the production environment. Then perform a recurring (incremental) synchronization of both
users and group profiles.
After you have finished importing user and group profiles, you can schedule Profile Synchronization to
occur on a regular basis. As part of planning, you must determine which kind of Profile Synchronization,
recurring or nonrecurring, is best suited to the business model of the enterprise. Account for the time
that is required to perform the synchronization and determine the schedule at which you want it to run.
The time that is required to synchronize profile information depends on several factors such as the
number of user or group profiles being synchronized. A full sync can take days or even weeks to be
completed. The time that is required to complete a recurring (incremental) sync depends on the number
of profile changes that have to be synchronized.
Profile Synchronization Status
On the User Profile Service Application page, you can view the status of a profile synchronization job.
This status shows information for user profiles, organization profiles, and audiences. The status also
displays the Profile Synchronization settings for that instance of the User Profile service. These
numbers display progress for each individual container and the numbers reset each time
synchronization starts on a container. After all containers have been synchronized, you will see the total
number of user and organization profiles imported into the SharePoint Server 2010 profile store. You
can also click on the link in this section to see detailed data for a completed profile synchronization job.
See Also
User Profile service overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan policies for user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010)
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My Site Web sites overview (SharePoint Server
2010)
My Site Web sites are personal sites in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 that provide users in an
organization with a rich set of social networking and collaboration features. These features give users a
way to discover areas of expertise, projects, and business relationship from one central location. Each
user can view his or her My Site Web site by clicking the corresponding user name in the top, right
corner of any page and then clicking My Site.
In this article:

Uses and benefits of My Site Web sites

My Site Web sites architecture

Related features
Uses and benefits of My Site Web sites
In SharePoint Server 2010, My Site Web sites enable users to easily share information about
themselves and their work. This sharing of information encourages collaboration, builds and promotes
expertise, and targets relevant content to the people who want to see it. You can customize content to
each user in any organization, and enable administrators to set policies to protect privacy.
My Site Web sites in SharePoint Server 2010 include the following:

A profile for each user where users can share their expertise, profile pictures, and so on

A newsfeed for tracking activities such as social tags, status updates, and comments by colleague

A tag and note tool that helps you conveniently tag or post notes on sites directly from a Web
browser

A shared picture library, shared document library, and personal document library

The ability to add custom Web Parts such as a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) viewer for viewing
RSS feeds from blogs, news sources, and so on

An organizational browser that uses Microsoft Silverlight 3 to provide a dynamic organizational
browsing experience

The ability to manage colleagues and memberships from one location
My Site Web sites architecture
User Profile service
The User Profile service stores information about users in a central location. Information in a user‘s
profile includes a profile picture, the organization to which a user belongs, colleagues, properties such
as skills, and pointers to tags and notes created by the user. SharePoint Server uses this information
to personalize the data presented on a user‘s My Site Web site. In order to provision My Site Web sites
and enable social computing features such as social tagging and newsfeeds, you must enable the User
Profile service. For more information about the User Profile service, see User Profile service overview
(SharePoint Server 2010).
My Site Host
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The My Site Host is a kind of site collection that is used for hosting the profile and newsfeed parts of My
Site Web sites. The content part of My Site Web sites is hosted in its own site collection. My Site Host
site collections are not created automatically in SharePoint Server 2010. An administrator of the User
Profile service application must first create a My Site Host site collection before provisioning My Site
Web sites.
Trusted My Site Host locations
In organizations where multiple server farms are deployed or where multiple User Profile Service
applications are configured, users can create multiple My Site Web sites. For example, in a geographic
deployment with a central farm in Europe and a regional farm in Africa, a user can click the My Site link
when browsing content hosted by either farm. Consequently, the user can create a My Site Web site on
the Europe farm and a My Site Web site on the Africa farm.
If your organization includes multiple farms or multiple User Profile service applications that host My
Site Web sites, you can prevent users from creating multiple My Site Web sites by using the Trusted My
Site Host Locations feature. This feature enables you to specify trusted My Site locations. When trusted
My Site locations are specified, users are redirected to the My Site that is intended for their user
accounts, regardless of where they are browsing when they click the link to create a My Site Web site.
This feature ensures that each user creates only one My Site Web site in the organization.
Pages
My Site Web sites have three distinct views:

a My Newsfeed page that shows colleague activities

a My Content page that lists shared documents, personal documents, pictures, libraries, lists,
discussion boards, and surveys that a user owns

a My Profile page that displays personal profile information
Users can navigate between these pages by clicking the links on the My Site link bar at the top of the
page.
Related features
My Site Web sites rely on the following related features:

Profile Synchronization
Enables you to integrate profile information that you have stored in a directory service such as
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or a business system, such as SAP or Siebel, with
SharePoint Server 2010. For more information about Profile Synchronization, see Plan for profile
synchronization (SharePoint Server 2010).

Expertise tagging
Lets users list the areas in which they have experience as part of their profile. This information can
be used by other users in the organization to locate subject matter experts for a particular area.

People Search
Lets users find people by department, job title, knowledge, expertise, and common interests.
See Also
Plan for social computing and collaboration (SharePoint Server 2010)
Service application and service management (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/56187c25-0444-4da7-9879-a141da864704(Office.14).aspx)
167
Plan for My Site Web sites (SharePoint Server
2010)
My Site Web sites are personal sites in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 that provide users in an
organization with a rich set of social networking and collaboration features. This article describes the
key planning steps that help you prepare to deploy My Site Web sites in an enterprise.
In this article:

About planning My Site Web sites

Design My Site Web site architecture

Determine users and user permissions

Synchronize user profile information

Plan to locate people and expertise

Plan My Site features

Plan policies and privacy
Before reading this article, you should understand the concepts described in My Site Web sites
overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
About planning My Site Web sites
To effectively plan for My Site Web sites, you must determine the following:

A logical architecture design to deploy My Site Web sites in a server farm

Users who you want to have a My Site Web site and the appropriate permissions for those users

The user profile information that you want to synchronize with directory services or business
systems

The My Site features that you want to enable

The policies that will be applied for viewing user profile information in the public profile
The following sections discuss the steps that help you to prepare for a successful deployment of My
Site Web sites in an enterprise.
Design My Site Web site architecture
If you plan to offer My Site Web sites as part of a SharePoint Server 2010 deployment, you should
include My Site Web sites in the initial architecture design, regardless of when you plan to implement
My Site Web sites. This architecture should include a My Site host. If you plan to deploy My Site Web
sites across multiple geographical locations and want to prevent users from creating multiple My Site
Web sites, you should plan to specify trusted My Site locations.
My Site host
The My Site host is a special site collection that is used for hosting the profile and newsfeed parts of My
Site Web sites. The content part of My Site Web sites is hosted in its own site collection. My Site Host
site collections are not created automatically in SharePoint Server 2010. However, a site collection that
contains the content portion of a My Site Web site is created automatically for each user. An
168
administrator of a User Profile service application must first create a My Site Host site collection before
provisioning My Site Web sites. This template must be provisioned only once per User Profile Service
application.
For optimal performance, we recommend that you create the My Site host in a dedicated Web
application.
Geographically distributed deployments
Administrators of User Profile Service applications can add links to trusted My Site host locations to
give users access to My Site Web sites on multiple farms or multiple User Profile Service applications.
In most cases, links to trusted My Site host locations will be targeted to individual users or groups of
users based on an identified business need. The links can be maintained and changed over time as
business and user needs change. When you specify trusted My Site host locations, users are
redirected to the My Site Web site that is intended for their user accounts, regardless of where they are
browsing, when they click the link to create a My Site Web site. This feature ensures that each user
creates only one My Site Web site in the organization.
When planning for My Site Web sites, you must consider the location of the users in the organization
and the number of farms or User Profile service applications that will host My Site Web sites.
Self-service site creation
You must plan for self-service site creation to enable users to create their own My Site Web sites. Selfservice site creation can be enabled for the Web application that hosts My Site Web sites. Users must
have Create Personal Site permissions to create their own My Site Web site. By default, this
permission is enabled in SharePoint Server 2010 for all authenticated users. For more information
about Create Personal Site permissions, see the user permissions section later in this article.
Determine users and user permissions
Users
When planning My Site Web sites, you must determine the users in an organization who you want to
allow to use the My Sites feature. You must then plan the deployment of the User Profile service. The
User Profile service stores information about users in a central location. My Site Web sites use this
information to enable users to collaborate efficiently. In order to provision My Site Web sites, enable
social computing features such as social tagging and newsfeeds, and create and distribute profiles
across multiple sites and farms, you must enable the User Profile service.
For more information, see User Profile service overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
For more information about how to plan user profiles, see Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010).
User Permissions
In addition to planning which users in an organization will have a My Site Web site, you must also plan
which My Site Web site features will be available to each user. These features include the following:

Who can create personal sites?

Who can create social tags and notes?

Who can add colleagues?
We recommend that you use security groups to manage permissions. The following table provides
guidance for configuring permissions:
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Permission
Guidance
Create
Personal Site
By default, all authenticated users can create a My Site Web site. Ensure that you want
the default setting to apply to the organization. Alternatively, you can use one or more
security groups to grant the Create Personal Site permission to a subset of users in an
organization.
Use Social
Features
By default, all authenticated users can add ratings and social tags to documents, to
other SharePoint Server items, and to other items, such as external Web pages and
blog posts. Users can also leave impromptu notes on profile pages of a My Site Web
site or any SharePoint Server page. Alternatively, you can use one or more security
groups to grant the Use Social Features permission to a subset of users in an
organization.
Use Personal
Features
By default, all authenticated users can edit their profiles, add or edit colleagues, and
add or edit memberships. Alternatively, you can use one or more security groups to
grant the User Personal Features permission to a subset of users in an organization.
Synchronize user profile information
The User Profile service enables SharePoint Server to collect information about users in an
organization across directory services and business applications. As a result, consistent and timely
information is always available on a user‘s My Site Web site. Information about users can be
synchronized across the deployment to all site collections that use the same User Profile Service
application. This information can also be used by personalization features to increase the value of
collaboration and relationships in an organization.
If you plan to synchronize user profiles, you should include the following tasks:

Start with the default properties of user profiles in SharePoint Server 2010.

Identify connections to directory services that will provide supplemental information for properties of
user profiles.

Consider additional business data that enables you to connect users to line-of-business
applications.
For more information about steps that help you to plan for profile synchronization, see Plan for profile
synchronization (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan to locate people and expertise
SharePoint Server 2010 enables My Site Web site users to find other users based on their expertise
and role in an organization. Farm administrators can enable the following methods of finding people:
People Search
People Search results contain links to the public profiles of users and links to contact them by e-mail or
messaging programs. When planning My Site Web sites, you might want to consider supplementing the
default people search scope and Search Center tab with customized search scopes and tabs for more
specific groups of users.
170
Administrators of User Profile Service applications will want to view the information architecture and site
hierarchy to determine key business concepts that might relate to specific groups of users who users
might seek across sites. Then, administrators of User Profile Service applications can work with the
administrators of Search Service applications to develop search scopes and people search tabs for
those specific groups. Administrators of User Profile Service applications can also use their knowledge
of the user profiles that they manage to determine other useful groups of users and create additional
specific search scopes and search tabs for those groups.
Site collection administrators can create site-level search scopes for users who are members of their
site collections.
People search planning also feeds back into user profile planning. Initial planning might reveal people
or groups of users whom you want to make it easier to find. However, the right properties might not
exist to allow for those users to be found easily. For more information about planning user profiles, see
Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010).
Expertise finding
When planning My Site Web sites, you should determine whether or not you want users to have the
ability to locate colleagues within the organization. People Search and expertise tagging help users
locate people inside an organization who have identified themselves as having significant experience
with a particular subject. Users in your organization can add tags to their profile that describe areas in
which they have experience. These tags are used by People Search when a user searches for
someone in the organization who has knowledge about a particular area.
Users can also find people through the use of e-mail analysis in Outlook 2010. If e-mail analysis is
enabled, colleague suggestions are imported from Outlook if you are using Microsoft Office Outlook
2007 e-mail. If you are using Microsoft Outlook 2010, SharePoint Server analyzes sent e-mail
messages and makes colleague and keyword suggestions based on this analysis. Users can then add
these colleagues and keywords to their profile.
Although e-mail analysis can be enabled for all users in Outlook or just for specific groups by using
group policy, users can opt out of this feature. If e-mail analysis is disabled for all users, individual users
can still opt in. For more information about e-mail analysis, see Enable SharePoint Server 2010
Colleague in Outlook 2010 (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/4abf0200-cc1d-438a-835ae1ea3410176a(Office.14).aspx).
Plan My Site features
My Site features include the following:

A newsfeed that is used for tracking activities such as social tags, status updates, and comments
by colleague.
By default, the newsfeed feature is disabled. To enable the newsfeed feature, you must start the
Activity Feed timer job. Newsfeed events are kept for 14 days and can be deleted sooner by
running the Activity Feed Clean up timer job. After the Activity feed timer job is started, users can
follow colleague activities on the newsfeed page of their My Site Web sites. Users can only view
activities in the newsfeed for which they have permission. However, activity creators cannot
otherwise configure activities that other users can see. When planning My Site Web sites, you
should consider privacy implications before enabling this feature and provide mitigations based on
your requirements.
171

A tag and note tool that helps you conveniently use a Web browser to tag or post notes on sites.
The tag and note tool can be turned on or off in Central Administration by using the Use Social
Features permission. This setting applies to all users who have the Use Social Features
permission. Users can also add tags or notes to content outside of SharePoint Server 2010 by
using the bookmarklet tool.

An organization browser for viewing the reporting hierarchy for a user.
The organization browser is enabled by default. Organization information can either be manually
created or it can be imported from a directory service such as Active Directory Domain Services
(AD DS) or LDAP. End users need to have Microsoft Silverlight 3 installed on their workstations to
view the organization browser. You cannot disable the organization browser, but you can prevent
users from seeing it by deleting the organization node from the Quick Launch. For more information
about importing organization profile information from a directory service, see Plan for profile
synchronization (SharePoint Server 2010).
When planning My Site Web sites, you must consider both the benefits and the impacts of enabling
these features.
Plan policies and privacy
Policies
SharePoint Server 2010 provides a set of configurable policies to help administrators make the
appropriate information available to meet the needs of an organization. Organizations can also create
and deploy custom policy features to meet specific needs. When planning for My Site Web sites, you
should define information that is needed for key business processes in an organization and information
that might be unsuitable for sharing across an organization. Between these extremes is the information
that should be shared only among some users. In the latter case of information that might be unsuitable
for sharing across an organization, you must create policies to address these specific situations.
For more information about policy planning, see Plan policies for user profiles (SharePoint Server
2010).
Privacy
My Site features store or use personally identifiable information. When planning to deploy My Site Web
sites, make sure that you carefully plan how to control the behavior of these features — or turn off the
features — to help protect the privacy of this information.
For more information, see Managing privacy (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/50fe9111-f323-4f04-be78-d8d112f0c8e7(Office.14).aspx).
See Also
Set up My Site Web sites (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/e6600dfa-7f964c6f-a1be-b7ad348ac30f(Office.14).aspx)
172
Audience and content targeting planning
(SharePoint Server 2010)
Audiences are part of a User Profile service application that enable organizations to target content to
users based on their job or task. Audiences can be defined by one or a combination of the following
items: membership in a distribution list or Windows security group, location in organizational reporting
structure, or by public properties in user profiles. Content can also be targeted by using SharePoint
groups to target content in Web Parts.
This article describes the architecture of audiences and content targeting, and key decisions to make
when planning the use of audiences for an organization. This article does not explain how to plan user
profiles or how to plan security for sites and content. For more information, see Plan user profiles
(SharePoint Server 2010) and Security planning for sites and content (SharePoint Server 2010).
Security Note
Do not use audiences as a substitute for configuring permissions for SharePoint users and
groups. For more information, see Security planning for sites and content (SharePoint Server
2010).
In this article:

What are audiences?

Planning for audiences and content targeting
What are audiences?
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 supports two kinds of audiences:

Global audiences Global audiences are defined by properties in a User Profile service
application. Global audiences include audiences that are defined by relationships (reporting
structures), as well as other properties.

Windows security groups and distribution lists The Windows security groups that are
available when you are creating audiences are those that are imported when user profiles
synchronized with the User Profile service application.
The distribution lists that are available when you are creating audiences are those that are imported
when user profiles are imported into the User Profile service application.
For more information about including security groups and distribution lists in the User Profile
Service application, see Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010).
Note:
Although SharePoint groups can be used with Web Parts to target content, they cannot be
used to define audiences.
An audience is defined by a collection of one or more audience rules and by whether all or only one of
the audience rules must be met when evaluating membership. An audience rule can be based on
membership in a Windows security group, membership in a distribution list, position in an organizational
hierarchy, or by a user profile property. To define each audience rule, you must select an operand,
173
operator, and value. An example of an audience rule based on membership in a Windows security
group is as follows:
Element
Value
Operand
User
Operator
Member of
Value
Sales
Once an audience has been defined, it must be compiled on a regular basis because the underlying
user profile properties and membership in directory services and groups can frequently change. An
administrator schedules the timer job that controls when audiences are compiled.
Planning for audiences and content targeting
Administrators should plan audiences as part of the user profile management system. Before you plan
audiences, you should already have completed the following plans:

Plan for Windows security.
For more information, see Choose security groups (SharePoint Server 2010).

Plan for user profiles and distribution lists.
For more information, see Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010).

Plan for sites and site collections.
For more information, see Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010).

Plan SharePoint groups.
For more information, see Determine permission levels and groups (SharePoint Server 2010).
Planning for audiences and content targeting is usually approached in the following stages:
1. Plan key audiences.
2. Plan content targeting to audiences.
Plan key audiences
When planning audiences during initial deployment, the goal should be to find the smallest possible set
of key audiences based on the following criteria:

An evaluation of the organization's content needs

The information architecture of the site and site collections

The users who are associated with each site collection
We recommend that you following this process for planning audiences in an initial deployment:
1. Record the central purpose for each site collection and site.
In general, each site collection has a focused set of business processes that are associated with
specific groups of users.
174
2. Determine the smallest number of audiences that can enable you to target content as needed.
You may want to start by identifying requirements in the existing environment. For example,
existing working teams, cross-group projects, key business processes, and site structure may
include groups of users that can be translated to audiences.
3. Record all existing distribution lists and existing SharePoint groups, and map them to your
audience needs.
4. Identify additional audiences that must be defined.
You may be able to create the audiences that you want from distribution lists, and Windows
security groups. However, it is common to require additional audiences that are defined by user
profile properties.
Planning audiences may also help you find gaps in plans for user profiles and distribution groups.
To support a specific audience, you may find that you need to add more profile properties or
distribution groups.
5. Identify additional SharePoint groups that must be defined.
As you determine which Web Parts will target audiences or SharePoint groups, you may find gaps
in plans for SharePoint groups. To support a specific target, you may find that you need more
SharePoint groups.
By the end of the audience planning process, you should have a list of audiences that meet the needs
of the groups of users who are using each site collection.
Plan how to target content to audiences
In order to use audiences to target content, the User Profile service administrators and site
administrators must decide which site elements will be used in each site. User Profile service
administrators and site administrators should work closely together to ensure that they are providing a
consistent experience for audiences across sites and site collections.
Once defined, audiences can be used to target content in the following ways:

For Microsoft Office 2010 client applications, a User Profile service administrator can define the
links that display in the SharePoint locations, and set the audiences that each link is visible to.

On My Site Web sites, a User Profile service administrator can set audiences for the My Site
navigation links that appear on the top bar.

For My Site scenarios in which users must have access to one or more additional My Site host
locations, a User Profile service administrator can manage a list of Trusted My Site host locations,
and then target each trusted location to the audiences that need to view it.
In an environment with multiple My Site host locations, audiences also determine in which trusted
My Site host location a My Site Web site is created.

In an environment in which a User Profile service application and audiences are configured, site
administrators can use Web Parts to target content by audience.

Site administrators can use SharePoint groups to target content to Web Parts both in environments
that are running a User Profile service application, and in environments that are not running a User
Profile service application.
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Targeting Office client application links
User Profile service administrators control the links that display in the SharePoint list in Office client
applications when you are opening or saving files, and set the audiences that each link is visible to. By
default, the same links to Office 2010 client applications appear for all users of the User Profile service
application. Links become much more useful when they are targeted to audiences.
Examples of links that can be published to client applications include the following:

Sites, including team sites, portal sites, and project workspaces.

Data connection libraries.

Document libraries or document repositories.
176
Targeting personalization site links (My Site navigation links)
The links that are displayed on My Site pages in the top navigation bar (personalization site links) can
be targeted to specific audiences. User Profile service administrators control the links displayed on the
My Site navigation bar, and set the audiences that each link is visible to. In many cases, a link might be
relevant for one group in an organization but not for everyone.
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Targeting Trusted My Site host locations
In some scenarios, such as a global deployment with geographically distributed shared services, some
users can have access to one or more My Site host locations. User Profile service administrators for
each service application manage a list of Trusted My Site host locations, and then target each location
to the audiences of users who have to view those locations. In an environment with multiple My Site
host locations, audiences also determine in which trusted My Site host location a My Site Web site is
created for a specific user.
Because trusted My Site host locations are processed in priority order within the list, users see the
personalized information that is most relevant for the My Site Web site that they are viewing.
Additionally, personalization information is available even if individual service applications are
unavailable. Deployments that have only one User Profile service application do not need this feature.
For more information, see Plan for My Site Web sites (SharePoint Server 2010).
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Target Web Parts
Any Web Part can be targeted to a specific set of audiences by adding those audiences to the Target
Audiences box in the Advanced section of the Web Parts tool pane.
Note:
Although SharePoint groups cannot be used to define audiences, they can be selected as
audiences in the Target Audiences box.
Web Parts that are frequently used with audiences to target content include the Content By Query Web
Part. The Content By Query Web Part can target content in the following ways:

Group results by audience.

Display list items from multiple hierarchical levels.

Display list items to specific audiences.
Another group of Web Parts that are frequently used with audiences are filters. Filters can be
connected to other Web Parts so that they only display results based on certain properties, such as
audience. Filters are often connected to business data Web Parts to enable users to target business
data based on audience.
Example: Configuring audiences for a personalization site
Several users who report to the same manager use a site that provides a personalized view of key
business data. To make site more available, a User Profile service administrator first defined an
audience based on the User operand and the Reports Under operator. The administrator then created
a personalization site link for the group that uses the site. As the site becomes more widely used, the
User Profile service administrator makes the following changes, first verifying that membership in the
audience is set to satisfy any (not all) of the rules:

When another group starts to use the site, a second audience rule is added based on the User
operand and a different Reports Under value.

Users from a distribution list also begin to use the personalization site. To accommodate them,
another new audience rule that is based on the User operand, the Member of operator, and the
value for a distribution list that contains these additional users is added.

Later, the manager of a branch office requests that his staff be granted access to the
personalization site. The administrator creates a new audience rule with the Property operand, by
using the Office property.

Finally, the administrator is asked to grant access to the personalization site to all financial
analysts. The administrator creates another audience rule, based on the Title property.
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Social tagging overview (SharePoint Server
2010)
A tag is a word or phrase that identifies an individual piece of information according to a set of attributes
or criteria. Tags make it easy to find and share information about a specific subject or task.
Social tagging helps users categorize information in ways that are meaningful to them. Social tagging
can improve the quality of search results by filtering against specific tags, and it can also connect
individuals who want to share information with other users who have like interests.
This article describes the social tagging features in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. This article does
not describe how to configure social tagging features. It also does not discuss how to implement social
tagging features as part of an overall social media strategy for an enterprise. For more information, see
Privacy and security implications of social tagging (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

About using social tagging features

Social tagging features

Use and benefits of social tagging

Impacts of social tagging
About using social tagging features
Social tagging features help users to share information and to retrieve relevant, high-quality content
more efficiently. Such sharing encourages collaboration and brings users into contact with subject
matter experts who can provide information and assistance. Enterprises can also use the social tagging
features of SharePoint Server 2010 to ensure compliance with industry or government regulations or to
prepare for an audit or e-Discovery. For more information, see Planning for eDiscovery (SharePoint
Server 2010).
Social tagging features
SharePoint Server 2010 contains the following social tagging features:

Social tags, which enable users to save items of interest, organize all information for a project, and
connect to others who share their interests.

The Note Board, which enables users to add comments about Web pages, documents, and library
items to be tracked in a central location.

Ratings, which are social tags that allow users to assess the value of content against a scale, for
example, one through five stars.

Bookmarklets, which enable users to add tags and notes to pages that are outside a SharePoint
environment. For example, if users add tags to a page on an Internet Web site, those tags and
notes can appear on the Tags and Notes tab of their My Site Web site.
Social tags, the Note Board, and ratings are controlled by the Use Social Features permission of the
User Profile service.
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Social tags
Social tags are user-generated words or phrases that describe pieces of information. They are not part
of a formal taxonomy, such as the enterprise keywords in the term store associated with a Managed
Metadata service application in SharePoint Server, or the International Statistical Classification of
Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) codes used in medicine to represent specific diagnoses.
Users create social tags based on their subjective experience with a specific piece of information.
Social tags consist of a user identity, an item URL, and the tag itself. Social tags are stored in the social
tagging database that is part of the User Profile service. By default, all authenticated users can add
social tags to documents and other SharePoint items. Anyone with the Manage Social Data permission
can delete a tag.
Tag clouds provide an aggregate view of the tags that a group of users have applied to a single piece of
information. SharePoint Server 2010 includes a tag cloud Web Part that appears by default on a My
Site Web site. Administrators and users can filter the tag cloud to display tags that are used by the
owner of the My Site Web site, specific groups, or everyone who can view the My Site Web site. The
display can also be filtered based on date and language. Frequently used tags are displayed in large,
bold text, whereas tags that are less often used appear in smaller text. Each tag can display an
associated number that indicates how many times the tag was applied.
Note Board
The Note Board is a Web Part that enables users to make impromptu comments on any SharePoint
Server 2010 site. Users can also make Note Board comments on the My Profile pages of others or on
their own page. Anonymous users cannot add notes.
The Note Board helps users express thoughts in their immediate context rather than having to move to
e-mail, instant messaging, or phone. For example, users can make comments about a Web page while
they are viewing the page. Other users can then see the comment and a link to the Web page, which
they can visit if they are interested in the subject. This immediacy helps My Site Web sites and My
Profile pages become centralized places to manage public conversations.
Ratings
A rating in SharePoint Server 2010 is an assessment or classification of content on a scale according to
how well the content meets specific criteria. Ratings show an average score that can range from 1 to
100, and a popup window that displays additional information about the score. Users can rate items in a
SharePoint list, document library, and individual Web pages. Users do not require write permission on
an item in order to rate it.
Each rating consists of a user identity, an item URL, and the rating itself. A rating also contains the date
and time when the rating was applied. Ratings are stored in a table in the same database that stores
social tags.
By default, ratings support is enabled across a farm. However, to use ratings in a specific site
collection, ratings must first be enabled for that site collection. Ratings can be enabled on any site
template if support for ratings is enabled on the farm. By default, the Ratings feature is on for the
Publishing Portal site template.
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Bookmarklets
A bookmarklet is a JavaScript control that users can save as a bookmark in their browsers.
Bookmarklets enable users in a SharePoint environment to tag, write notes about, and rate items on
Web sites outside the SharePoint environment—for example, Internet Web sites—and then share those
tags, notes, and ratings with their team and colleagues.
Note:
Although tags themselves are always public, you can choose to prevent others from seeing that
you have tagged a specific item. Notes are always public.
When a user tags an external Web site, the http://my/_layouts page within the user profile of the user
opens. All tags and notes entered on that page will then appear on both the Tags and Notes tab of the
user's My Site Web site and the user's profile page, where the user's team and colleagues can see
them.
A bookmarklet consists of a user identity, a word or phrase, and a URL for the content being tagged.
Users can make bookmarklets on the Tags and Notes tab of their own Profile page private; they can
also delete a bookmarklet.
Use and benefits of social tagging
Social tagging has benefits for both business and IT organizations in an enterprise.
Business benefits
The social tagging features of SharePoint Server 2010 help businesses to improve collaboration and to
improve the discoverability of business information.
Improve collaboration to encourage innovation
User profiles enable users to identify themselves and find experts. Note Board comments can identify a
group of users who are interested in a specific topic. Suggestions for a user's My Colleagues list can be
derived from these social connections.
Improve the discoverability of business information
Social tagging features can help increase the visibility of high-quality content and identify the latest
version of content. For example, a My Site Web site feed can notify a user when a Web page is tagged
with a tag that the user has included in his or her user profile. These features can also integrate with
business intelligence applications to connect users with enterprise data that they need to do their jobs
without having to leave their SharePoint environments.
IT benefits
The social tagging features of SharePoint Server 2010 give IT organizations the following capabilities:
1. Set policies that control group activities while allowing users to manage some settings themselves,
which can reduce the need for IT to be involved in the day-to-day management of some social
tagging activities.
2. Grant a limited set of read-only permissions to anonymous users, to restrict their access to selected
site collections.
3. Plan ahead of time to use the scalable architecture of SharePoint Server 2010 to enable gradual
rollouts and add capacity when the number of users increases.
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4. Manage social tagging features at the level of Central Administration, a site collection, or a site. IT
administrators can assign a user to be the administrator for a site collection or a site and give the
designated administrator the Manage Social Data permission for that scope. This distribution of
administrative responsibilities helps IT use resources more efficiently.
5. Use social computing functionality to relieve IT staff of some support activities. For example, a
hosted Enterprise wiki can encourage users to share tips and tricks, or an RSS feed can send
support updates.
6. Integrate new tools with existing applications to maintain a consistent user experience, which can
encourage adoption and minimize training costs.
Impacts of social tagging
Although social tagging offers many benefits, there are accompanying risks. The security of content and
the privacy of users are primary concerns in any implementation of social tagging. Performance and
capacity issues are also critical to the long-term success of the implementation.
Security and privacy
Unless appropriate safeguards are in place, it is possible to violate a user's privacy or to expose
content that should be kept secure. SharePoint Server 2010 enables administrators to set policies that
help to protect privacy while allowing users some discretion in their use of social features. For more
information, see Plan policies for user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010). SharePoint Server 2010 also
enables administrators to safeguard sensitive content. For example, an administrator can add a site
URL to a list of excluded sites to prevent the site and any sub-sites from being tagged.
Users must understand the security and privacy implications of social tagging features. For example,
they must understand that when someone tags a site or document, the title and URL of that site or
document is broadcast to anyone who lists that user as a colleague on their My Site Web site and to
anyone who has that tag as an interest in their user profile. For more information, see Privacy and
security implications of social tagging (SharePoint Server 2010).
Performance and capacity
Performance and capacity issues can discourage users from participating in social tagging activities.
Although individual tags, ratings, bookmarklets, and comments require very little storage space, in the
aggregate they will affect the size of the profile database, the term store, and the social tag database.
Given the rapid increase in adoption of social tagging, any implementation must be able to scale out to
accommodate large numbers of new users.
See Also
Plan for social computing and collaboration (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan for My Site Web sites (SharePoint Server 2010)
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Privacy and security implications of social
tagging (SharePoint Server 2010)
Social tagging helps people communicate and share information. By definition, communicating and
sharing information can affect privacy (if personal information is shared) and security (if confidential
information is shared). Social tagging in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides features that you
can use to manage the effects on privacy and security.
In this article:

How social tagging information is hidden

How social tagging information is displayed

What information is still exposed

Recommendations
How social tagging information is hidden
Three features of SharePoint Server 2010 help protect privacy and security:

Private tags

The ratings control

Security trimming
Private tags
A user who adds a tag to a Web page can indicate that the tag is private. Other people cannot see the
fact that the tag was added to the Web page. Other people do not see the tag in the user‘s tag cloud,
unless the user who added the tag also applied the same tag to another Web page without making the
tag private.
Ratings control
The ratings control only displays the aggregate rating that an item has received. It does not display
which users rated the item or what individual ratings were provided.
Security trimming
Adding a tag, a note, or a rating to a Web page creates an activity. Before SharePoint Server displays
an activity, it uses a component called the security trimmer to determine whether the current user has
permission to view the Web page that the activity applies to. If the user is not permitted to view the Web
page, SharePoint Server does not display the activity.
As the search service crawls Web pages, it records the permissions that are required to view each Web
page. The security trimmer uses this information to determine whether a given user has permission to
view a specific Web page. If the security trimmer has insufficient information to determine whether a
user has permission to view a Web page, it errs on the side of caution and reports that the user does
184
not have permission to view the Web page. As a result, if the search service has not crawled a Web
page, activities that relate to that Web page will not be displayed.
Note:
There is one exception: when you view your own My Profile page, all of your activities are
displayed. See How social tagging information is displayed is displayed for an explanation of
why this happens.
How social tagging information is displayed
There are three ways in which a user can see social tagging information:

On a user‘s My Profile page

As the result of following a tag or a colleague

On Web pages in the SharePoint Server farm
Each of these ways is described in the following sections.
My Profile pages
Every user who is known to the User Profile Service has a My Profile page, which shows information
about the user. When you view someone else‘s My Profile page, the content that you see is security
trimmed. The content that you see on your own My Profile page is not security trimmed.
The Tags and Notes tab of a user‘s My Profile page contains a tag cloud that consists of the tags that
the user has added to Web pages. Everyone can view the tag cloud. The tag cloud that you see on
your own My Profile page contains both public and private tags. The tag cloud that you see on
someone else‘s My Profile page contains only public tags.
When you select a tag in the tag cloud, activities that are associated with the tag are displayed in the
Activities section. If you are viewing someone else‘s My Profile page, the activities are security
trimmed. Therefore, you could see a tag that did not appear to have any activities associated with it.
The Overview tab of a user‘s My Profile page contains a section titled Recent Activities. As its name
implies, this section contains a list of the user‘s recent social tagging activities. The list is security
trimmed, unless you are viewing your own My Profile page.
The Overview tab of a user‘s My Profile page also contains a Note Board. Notes that people have
added to the user‘s My Profile page are displayed here. All notes are public.
Following
You can express your interest in knowing when a specific tag is used by following the tag. When you
follow a tag, you are notified every time someone adds the tag to a Web page. These notifications are
security trimmed so that if someone adds the tag to a page that you do not have permission to view,
you are not notified of that activity. The fact that you are following a tag is public; people can view a list
of everyone who is following a tag from the tag‘s Tag Profile page.
You can express interest in knowing about the social tagging activity of someone else by adding the
person as a colleague. When you make someone your colleague, you are notified every time the
person adds a tag, a note, or a rating to a Web page. The information is security trimmed so that you
only see activities that are related to Web pages that you have permission to view.
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Note:
The security trimmer removes ratings that are applied to list items. It does not remove ratings
that are applied to other items, such as documents and Web pages.
Web pages
When you add a tag or a note to a Web page within the SharePoint Server farm, you can see the tags
and notes that other users have added to the Web page. You can see all notes, but you can only see
public tags.
What information is still exposed
Tags themselves – the words or phrases that have been applied to Web pages – are stored in a term
store. (For more information about term stores, see Managed metadata overview (SharePoint Server
2010).) Both public and private tags are stored in the term store. The term store does not identify the
person who created the tag or the Web page that the tag was applied to.
Recommendations
Although SharePoint Server 2010 provides features that help protect privacy and security when social
tagging is used, you should take additional actions to benefit the most.

Educate users about which aspects of their social tagging activity are public and which are private.
Train users to mark tags as private when they do not want other users to see that they have applied
a tag to a Web page.

Carefully evaluate all custom code before you deploy it. A custom application can access social
tagging data by using the SharePoint Server 2010 social tagging object model, or directly from the
database. An application can access the same social tagging data that would be available to the
account it runs under. If the application runs under an account that has database administrator
permissions or under an account that is a User Profile Service administrator and has Manage
Social Metadata permission, the application can access all social tagging information, such as
private tags, without security trimming. Ensure that custom applications only present information
that meets your organization‘s privacy and security standards.

Consider a custom security trimmer. If SharePoint Server‘s security trimmer has insufficient
information to determine whether a user has permission to view a Web page, it errs on the side of
caution and reports that the user does not have permission. One result of this behavior is that tags,
notes, and ratings that are added to external Web sites are always trimmed. If this behavior is not
appropriate for your situation, consider implementing a custom security trimmer. For a sample
custom security trimmer, see ISocialSecurityTrimmer Interface
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=188524&clcid=0x409).

When the permissions that are required to access a Web site change, have the search service
crawl the Web site again. The security trimmer will not recognize the new permission requirements
until the site is crawled again.
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See Also
Social tagging overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Managing privacy (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/50fe9111-f323-4f04be78-d8d112f0c8e7(Office.14).aspx)
Plan user profiles (SharePoint Server 2010)
Tagging (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=188521)
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Enterprise Wikis overview (SharePoint Server
2010)
An Enterprise Wiki is a publishing site for sharing and updating large volumes of information across an
enterprise. If an organization needs a large, centralized knowledge repository that is designed to both
store and share information on an enterprise-wide scale, consider using an Enterprise Wiki.
This article compares Enterprise Wiki sites to Team Sites. This article does not provide information
about how to plan or how to set up an Enterprise Wiki. For more information, see Enterprise wiki
planning (SharePoint Server 2010) and Create an Enterprise wiki (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/03931cc1-33e2-45eb-af59-1b077cd2cfb7(Office.14).aspx).
In this article:
Comparison of Enterprise Wikis with Team Sites
Uses and benefits of Enterprise Wikis
Limitations of Enterprise Wikis
Example: Fabrikam Enterprise Wiki
Comparison of Enterprise Wikis with Team Sites
The Team Site template provides a flexible way to create content. This template includes a crossbrowser Rich Text editor and in-line auto-completion. The Team Site template enables collaboration
across teams within an organization or across organizations. Team Sites address two key concerns for
anyone responsible for ensuring the integrity of an organization's content.

Editorial control Administrators of a Team Site, or anyone with Full Control permissions on a
Team Site, can allow a subset of users to edit entries and allow all users to read the entries.

Version control Users can view previous versions of an entry and see when and by whom
changes were made. If the changes were incorrect or inappropriate, the entry could be rolled back
to an earlier version.
In SharePoint Server 2010, the Team Site template home page is a wiki page. The Enterprise Wiki
template uses the publishing features of SharePoint Server 2010 to add page ratings, managed
metadata, and customization capabilities. Integration with Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 makes it
easy to modify the display of content by changing page layouts and implement consistent branding by
changing master pages. For more information, see Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint
Server 2010).
The following table suggests several criteria to consider when choosing between a Team Site template
and an Enterprise Wiki template. For more information, see Enterprise wiki planning (SharePoint Server
2010).
If you want to:
Use this site template:
Encourage one-to-many communication
Team Site
Encourage many-to-many communication
Enterprise Wiki
188
Offer a structured exchange of information
Team Site
Enable a collaborative exchange of information
Enterprise Wiki
Insert images or files in a page
Team Site or Enterprise
Wiki
Mark pages for easier reference by tagging them with enterprise
keywords
Enterprise Wiki
Uses and benefits of Enterprise Wikis
Enterprise wikis help organizations collect, organize, and distribute information. Enterprise wikis often
become repositories for an organization's unstated knowledge, which otherwise might not be stored
anywhere. Enterprise wikis can encourage informal learning and sharing tips with other users, which
can reduce the need for formal training or continuous IT support.
Limitations of Enterprise Wikis
Because an Enterprise wiki can generate a high level of network traffic, you might find it necessary to
configure a single site collection and a single, dedicated Microsoft SQL Server database. If the
Microsoft SQL Server database is shared, users might experience slower performance. For more
information, see Enterprise wiki planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Enterprise Wiki pages cannot be converted or migrated to pages on a Team Site without using custom
code. Because Enterprise Wikis are used with the publishing feature in SharePoint Server 2010, there
are significant differences between an Enterprise Wiki site and a Team Site.
Example: Fabrikam Enterprise Wiki
Fabrikam Corporation maintains a company-wide Enterprise Wiki where employees can find and
contribute the latest, most comprehensive information about corporate activities, benefits, and services.
The Enterprise Wiki enables employees to use social tags and notes to help other employees find
content. For example, an employee in the Human Resources organization posts a page about tax-law
changes that may affect some employees who have minor dependents. The employee tags the page
with several keywords, including "tax", "dependents", "minors", and "deductions". At tax time, an
employee in the Sales organization searches on the keywords "dependents" and "deductions" and
retrieves the page that was posted by the employee in the Human Resources organization.
189
Enterprise wiki planning (SharePoint Server
2010)
An Enterprise Wiki is a publishing site for sharing and updating large volumes of information across an
enterprise. If an organization needs a large, centralized knowledge repository that is designed to both
store and share information on an enterprise scale, consider using an Enterprise Wiki. For more
information, see Enterprise Wikis overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Enterprise Wikis use the Enterprise Wiki site template, which is built on the Microsoft SharePoint Server
2010 publishing infrastructure. This infrastructure provides various ways to control content. For
example, you can assign permissions or use a workflow to establish an approval process.
This article contains information to help you plan an Enterprise Wiki solution for your organization.
In this article:

About planning an Enterprise Wiki

Decide whether to use an Enterprise Wiki

Evaluate prerequisites

Choose a location for hosting an Enterprise Wiki
About planning an Enterprise Wiki
Before you implement an Enterprise Wiki, you must determine whether it is the most appropriate
solution for the organization. An Enterprise Wiki is a good solution when a business need requires
multiple users to contribute to a knowledge repository. However, if you need a way to set up one-tomany communication about a project or area of interest, you should use a Team Site.
Warning:
Enterprise Wiki pages cannot be converted or migrated to pages on a Team Site without using
custom code. Enterprise Wikis are used with the publishing feature in SharePoint Server 2010,
so there are significant differences between an Enterprise Wiki site and a Team Site.
This article does not discuss how to plan a Team Site. To learn more about how to plan a Team Site,
see Collaboration site planning (SharePoint Server 2010)).
Follow this sequence of steps to plan an Enterprise Wiki.
Decide whether to use an Enterprise Wiki
Representatives from several groups in an organization should be involved in the decision to implement
an Enterprise Wiki. Ideally, you should have participants from IT, information architecture, the business
unit requesting the Enterprise Wiki, and Human Resources. (Your organization might have different
names for these roles, or one person might assume more than one role.) The group should consider
the following questions during its decision-making process:

What purpose will the Enterprise Wiki serve? An Enterprise Wiki should have a clear purpose.
For example, it might address a specific business goal or it might be a centralized body of
knowledge about a specific topic, process, or business problem. The goal is to provide a space
190
where members of a virtual community can create, change, or remove content, which might include
content that previous authors created. For example, you might want to use an Enterprise Wiki to
enable employees to contribute content to Tips and Tricks pages about the business applications
that an organization uses. However, if you determine that that you must have a more structured
way to exchange knowledge, and that most communication will be one-to-many instead of the more
free-form wiki behavior, you should consider using either a team site with Web Edit or a blog.

How many users should be allowed to contribute? Several factors will influence this decision.
Will you be able to support increasing growth and a need for increased network and server
capacity? Should you determine key contributors from each business area who will become the
primary contributors? Are there legal considerations about who can contribute?

How can we control who has access to the Enterprise Wiki? In theory, all members of an
organization can be granted access to contribute, edit, and update content in an Enterprise Wiki for
the organization. If you have to separate information by group, consider using either a team site
with Web Edit or a blog.

How much control should be implemented over the content? Unlike blogs, which are
designed for a more structured knowledge exchange, a wiki encourages informal contributions.
However, an organization might have guidelines or requirements for handling specific kinds of
content or content about a specific subject. You should also consider how to address inappropriate
or inaccurate entries.
The following table compares the features of an Enterprise Wiki with those of a Team Site.
If you want to:
Use this site template:
Encourage one-to-many communication
Team Site
Encourage many-t0-many communication
Enterprise Wiki
Offer a structured way to exchange information
Team Site
Enable a collaborative exchange of information
Enterprise Wiki
Allow the use of social tags and notes
Enterprise Wiki
Control versions of documents
Team Site or Enterprise
Wiki
Retain editorial control
Team Site or Enterprise
Wiki
Allow pages to be rated
Enterprise wiki
Include site content in search results
Team Site or Enterprise
Wiki
Mark pages for easier reference by tagging them with enterprise
keywords
Enterprise Wiki
Use page layouts to provide structured page types
Enterprise Wiki
If you decide to implement an Enterprise Wiki in an organization, continue with Evaluate prerequisites.
191
Evaluate prerequisites
You must complete the following tasks before you can create an Enterprise Wiki.

Create a Managed Metadata service application to provide storage for social tags and notes. For
more information, see Managed metadata service application overview (SharePoint Server 2010).

Create a User Profile service application if you plan to use the Enterprise Wiki with My Site Web
sites. For more information, see User Profile service overview (SharePoint Server 2010).

To manage the site collection where the Enterprise Wiki is located, you must have at least site
collection administrator permissions.
Choose a location for hosting an Enterprise Wiki
Because Enterprise Wikis can grow quickly, the location that you select for hosting must be able to
handle increased performance and capacity requirements. For example, although an Enterprise Wiki
generally contains pages with low storage requirements, it is typically edited by a greater percentage of
users than is common for Team Sites.
Multiple Enterprise Wikis that are built on multiple site collections cannot communicate with one
another. They cannot share features such as in-line auto-completion, lists, and custom searching
because these features cannot span multiple Enterprise Wiki instances. You should use multiple site
collections only if you determine that multiple Team Sites are a more suitable solution for an
organization, given size, location, and access considerations. However, you can create an Enterprise
Wiki as a subsite of another site.
This step completes the planning process. The next task is setting up the Enterprise Wiki. For more
information, see Create an Enterprise wiki (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/03931cc1-33e2-45eb-af59-1b077cd2cfb7(Office.14).aspx).
See Also
User Profile service overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Managed metadata service application overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
192
Collaboration site planning (SharePoint Server
2010)
With Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, you can support collaboration sites in your environment.
Collaboration sites store information that individuals and groups can collectively author, share, and
revise. These sites do not need to be associated with a particular portal site collection or part of a
publishing site collection. They can be stand-alone sites that are available for teams or groups of users
who need to collaborate on projects or share information. For example, a team at an engineering firm
might want a collaboration site to discuss current project status, assign tasks, or arrange group lunches,
without publishing this internal information to the corporate intranet.
Collaboration sites can be made available for searching from your portal or publishing site so that
information from these sites is not lost to your organization. However, for easier data recovery and
maintenance, collaboration sites should be hosted either on a separate Web application or in separate
content databases in the same Web application as your portal or publishing site.
You can create these collaboration sites for your users, or you can allow the users to create these sites
on their own.
For more information about collaboration sites and architectural planning, see Logical architecture
sample design: collaboration sites.
For more information on enterprise-wide wikis, see Enterprise wiki planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

Determine number of collaboration sites

Specific paths

Additional paths
Determine number of collaboration sites
Estimate approximately how many collaboration sites to expect in your environment, and how many
such sites that you are willing to support. If you require users to request a collaboration site, you can
control how many are created. If you let users create their own collaboration sites, you will have many
of these sites in your environment.
Specific paths
You can use specific paths in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 to contain the SharePoint site
collections, similar to the way that folders contain files or documents in the file system. By default, when
you create a Web application, two paths are made available for you:

Root path (/) This is an explicit inclusion that can contain one site collection. For example, if you
want a URL to appear as http://company_name/default.aspx, you would create the site collection at
this root path.

Sites path (/sites) This is a general path that can contain many site collections. For example,
when you use the /sites path, the URL for a site named Site_A would be similar to
http://server_name/sites/Site_A/default.aspx.
193
Note:
The name of the /sites path varies depending on the specific language that was used
during installation.
Additional paths
You can also create additional paths. This enables you to group site collections. Then, when you create
a site collection, you can choose from the following alternatives:

Create the site collection at the root of the Web application (if no site collection has already been
created there).

Create the site collection under the /sites path.

Create the site collection under any additional paths that have been made available for that Web
application.
In general, the /sites path should be sufficient for most installations. However, consider using other
paths for the following situations:

You have a complex installation and expect to have many site collections, and you want to group
similar sites together.
For example, you could use /personal for individual user sites and /team for group collaboration
sites, instead of using /sites for all.

You want to be able to add a filter to your firewall or router to constrain a specific namespace to
internal access only.
For example, you could expose the /team path for external collaboration, but not /personal.
Integration with Microsoft SharePoint Workspace
2010
Microsoft SharePoint Workspace 2010 provides a rich client for Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010,
which enables real-time synchronization of desktop content with SharePoint documents and lists.
Microsoft SharePoint Workspace 2010 also provides options for creating ad hoc Groove collaboration
workspaces and shared folder workspaces. Information can be easily synchronized both online and
offline with a designated SharePoint site or with external partners and offsite team members via shared
workspaces. Microsoft SharePoint Workspace 2010 is installed automatically with enterprise versions of
Microsoft Office 2010 or it can be installed separately from Microsoft Download Center
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=48516&clcid=0x409).
For more information, see Plan for SharePoint Workspace 2010
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/e8a433c1-ea1f-4cf7-adc8-50972f58d465(Office.14).aspx).
194
Enterprise content management planning
(SharePoint Server 2010)
Enterprise Content Management (ECM) in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 includes the management
of documents, records, and digital assets.
In this section:

Document management planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
SharePoint Server 2010 includes document management features that you can use to control the
life cycle of documents in your organization — how they are created, reviewed, and published, and
how they are ultimately disposed of or retained. The articles in this section will guide you in
planning the document management features of your solution.

Records management planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
The articles in this section describe records management in SharePoint Server 2010 and provide
guidelines for planning your records management solution.

Digital asset management planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
SharePoint Server 2010 provides content types that are designed specifically for audio and video
assets and that support the storage and playback of these assets in Web Parts and Web Parts
pages. Use the articles in this section to guide you in planning the digital asset management
features of a solution based on SharePoint Server 2010.
195
Document management planning (SharePoint
Server 2010)
These articles will guide you in planning the document management features of your solution based on
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes document management features that you can use to control the life
cycle of documents in your organization — how they are created, reviewed, and published, and how
they are ultimately disposed of or retained. The articles in this chapter will guide you in planning the
document management features of your solution.
The articles in this chapter include the following:

Document management overview (SharePoint Server 2010) includes an introduction to document
management in the enterprise and a description of the document management planning process
that is recommended in this planning guide.

Identify users and analyze document usage (SharePoint Server 2010) describes the creation of a
document management planning team and provides guidance on how to determine the types of
documents used in your enterprise and how to analyze the stages in the documents' life cycles.

Metadata-based routing and storage overview (SharePoint Server 2010) provides information to
help solution planners and designers understand how metadata-based routing and storage using
the Content Organizer Feature can be used as part of a comprehensive document management
solution.

Metadata-based routing and storage planning (SharePoint Server 2010) provides information to
help solution planners and designers plan a metadata-based routing and storage solution by using
the Content Organizer Feature.

Metadata navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010) provides information to help solution
planners and designers understand how the Metadata Navigation and Filtering Feature can be
used to locate content in a document library based on metadata.

Document library planning (SharePoint Server 2010) describes how to use document libraries to
organize documents in your enterprise.

Enterprise content storage planning (SharePoint Server 2010) contains information to help solution
planners and designers properly plan enterprise content management solutions from small to large
scale.

Document Sets planning (SharePoint Server 2010) describes how to use document sets to
organize a collection of documents as a single project or work product.

Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010) describes how to plan content types,
which are the SharePoint Server mechanism to define and share the attributes of documents, list
items, and folders. This article also describes how to use the SharePoint Server workflow feature to
design document-related processes.

Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010) describes how to plan
enterprise-wide policies that will help your organization comply with regulatory and legal
obligations, in addition to best practices such as document audits and proper document retention.
196

Versioning, content approval, and check-out planning (SharePoint Server 2010) describes how to
plan content control by using versioning, check-in and check-out, and approval for publishing
content.

Co-authoring overview (SharePoint Server 2010) describes the feature and provides administrators
an understanding of the settings that can be used to manage co-authoring.
197
Document management overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
This article provides a high-level description of the various elements of a document management
solution based on Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010.
In this article:

The elements of a document management system

The planning process
Document management controls the life cycle of documents in your organization — how they are
created, reviewed, and published, and how they are ultimately disposed of or retained. Although the
term "management" implies control of information from the top of the organization, an effective
document management system should reflect the culture of the organization that is using it. The tools
you use for document management should be flexible enough to allow you to tightly control a
document's life cycle, if that fits your enterprise's culture and goals, but also to let you implement a
more loosely structured system, if that better suits your enterprise.
The elements of a document management system
An effective document management solution specifies:

What types of documents and other content can be created within an organization.

What template to use for each type of document.

What metadata to provide for each type of document.

Where to store a document at each stage of its life cycle.

How to control access to a document at each stage of its life cycle.

How to move documents within the organization as team members contribute to the documents'
creation, review, approval, publication, and disposition.

What policies to apply to documents so that document-related actions are audited, documents are
retained or disposed of properly, and content that is important to the organization is protected.

Whether a document has to be converted from one format to another as it moves through the
stages of its life cycle.

How documents are treated as corporate records, which must be retained according to legal
requirements and corporate guidelines.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes features that implement all these aspects of document management.
To ensure that information workers can easily take advantage of these capabilities without having to
depart from their day-to-day operations and familiar tools, applications in the the Microsoft Office
system — such as Microsoft Outlook and Microsoft Word — also include features that support each
stage in a document's life cycle.
The planning process
The document management planning process consists of the following major steps:
198
1. Identify document management roles Ensure that your plans incorporate the feedback of your
organization's key stakeholders, that you have the right team in place to implement the solution,
and that you know who will participate in document management processes. See Identify users and
analyze document usage (SharePoint Server 2010) for more information about creating a
document management planning team.
2. Analyze document usage After you identify who works on documents, determine the types of
documents they work on and how they use them. For more information, see Identify users and
analyze document usage (SharePoint Server 2010).
3. Plan the organization of documents You can organize documents in site collections, sites, and
libraries. SharePoint Server 2010 offers a range of features to help organize and store documents,
from specialized sites such as the Records Repository to loosely structured document libraries for
quick document creation and collaboration. Within a library, you can further organize content into
folders and subfolders. For more information, see Document library planning (SharePoint Server
2010) and Plan enterprise content storage and version control.
4. Plan how content moves between locations It might be necessary to move or copy a document
from one site or library to another at different stages of its life cycle. For example, the publishing
process might include moving a document from a staging site to a public Internet site. If content has
to be converted from one format to another as it moves from site to site, you will also want to plan
content conversions. For more information, see "Plan the flow of content" in Document library
planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
5. Plan content types Use content types to organize information about types of documents, such as
metadata, document templates, policies, and workflow processes. This is an essential step to help
you organize your documents and enforce consistency across your organization. For more
information, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
6. Plan workflows When you plan workflows for your organization, you can control and track how
documents move from one team member to another as each participant collaborates in a
document's life cycle. SharePoint Server 2010 includes workflows for common team tasks such as
reviewing and approving documents. SharePoint Server 2010 also supports creating and installing
custom workflows. For more information, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint
Server 2010)).
7. Plan content control You can plan the appropriate degree of control based on content type or
storage location. For example, for a document library you can plan to require check-in and checkout and to protect documents from unauthorized distribution by using Information Rights
Management. For more information, see Document library planning (SharePoint Server 2010) and
Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
8. Plan policies For each content type, plan information management policies to ensure that
documents are properly audited, retained, labeled, and otherwise handled according to your
organization's institutional and legal requirements. SharePoint Server 2010 includes policies that
implement auditing, document retention, labeling, and barcodes (to ensure that printed content can
be correlated with corresponding electronic versions). For more information, see Information
management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
199
Identify users and analyze document usage
(SharePoint Server 2010)
The first step to plan your document management solution is to identify users and analyze how
documents are used. This article provides guidance to identify users and analyze document usage for
your solution based on Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010.
In this article:

Identify users

Analyze document usage

Worksheets
Identify users
To determine the stakeholders and participants in your document management solution, you can use a
survey to collect this information. For example, your survey might contain the following questions:

Who in your organization creates documents?

What types of documents do they create?

Who reviews documents?

Who edits documents?

Who uses documents?

Who approves the publication of documents?

Who designs Web sites used for hosting documents?

Who sets guidelines and policies for managing documents?

Who manages records in your organization?

Who deploys and maintains the servers on which documents are stored?
Worksheet action
Each of these questions can yield multiple answers. Record the information you gather from the survey
in the Document management participants worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165871&clcid=0x409), as in the following example.
Document participant’s worksheet example:
Position
Types of documents
Role
Financial analyst
Equity research note
Author
Technical writer
Financial model
Web page
200
Position
Types of documents
Role
Financial analyst
Equity research note
Reviewer
Manager
Financial model
Technical editor
Equity research note
Editor
Web page
Customer
Equity research note
Reader
Financial model
Web page
Corporate lawyer
Equity research note
Manager
Financial model
Content approver
Web page
Server administrator
All
IT specialist
Database manager
All
Database specialist
Compliance officer
All
Legal specialist
Records manager
All
Records manager
Site manager
All
Content publisher
Site administrator
All
Content auditor
Identifying content stakeholders can help you ensure that your document management solution is
comprehensive and that you design sites and document libraries that suit your enterprise's content
needs and processes.
Analyze document usage
After you identify your content stakeholders, collect information from them that will help you analyze
how documents are used in your organization. This is an important part of the planning process
because the analysis helps you determine:

How document libraries should be structured.

Which site templates to use.

How many sites you will need.

Which information management policies to apply to the sites.

Which physical server topology you will need to implement your solution.
The information to collect includes:

Document type, such as equity research note, employee performance review, internal memo, or
product specification.

Purpose of each document type, such as "provides customers with recommendations about
equities along with supporting data."
201

Author of each document type (it is helpful to list the role of the author — such as "financial analyst
or "product manager" — rather than individual names).

Format of the document. If the document has to be converted from one format to another at any
point in its life cycle, record that information.

Users of each document type, such as "customers" or "team members."

Other roles that apply to the document's life cycle, such as "technical reviewer" or "copy editor."

Location of the document, such as "client computer," "Web server," or "file server." Note that this
question could have multiple answers, for example when a document is authored on a client
computer and then published to a Web server.

How readers view the document, such as from a Web page or a file share.
Worksheet action
The Analyze document usage worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165873&clcid=0x409)
is provided to record your document usage analysis. The following are examples of information that
might be collected and recorded in the worksheet from two different organizations in an enterprise.
Document usage worksheet example:
Type
Purpose
Author
User
Format
Equity
research
note
Gives premium
customers of a
financial service
guidance on
whether to buy
or sell one or
more stocks
Financial
analyst
Customer DOCX (for
authoring);
PDF (for
publishing)
Other Roles
Locations
Reviewer
(technical);
reviewer (legal);
approver; copy
editor; records
manager; site
administrator


Auth
oring site

Testing
site

Internet

Records
repositor
y
Analysis The separate authoring and publishing formats require a format conversion. The large
number of reviewers requires one or more workflows (business processes implemented on the server).
The four sites (authoring, testing, Internet, and records repository) require mechanisms for moving the
content from one site to another. The need to archive the content in a corporate records repository and
the regulatory implications of publishing equities advice require corporate policies and best practices,
such as content auditing and retention.
Type
Purpose
Author
User
Format Other Roles
Locations
Employee
performance
review
Evaluates the
performance of
an employee —
Information
worker;
manager
Managers;
human
resources
.DOC

Client
computer

E-mail
Reviewer
(human
resources);
202
Type
Purpose
including selfevaluation and
manager's
evaluation
Author
User
Format Other Roles
specialists
reviewer
(legal);
approver
(upper
manager);
records
manager
Locations
server (as
attachme
nt)

Corporate
Web
server

Corporate
records
repository
Analysis Two authors and multiple reviewers require one or more workflows. The document is
handled by many different people, then resides in a corporate Web server (presumably highly secured)
and is archived in a records repository. The sensitive nature of this content requires Information Rights
Management (IRM) on the desktops and servers, in addition to corporate policies and best practices
(such as auditing) that protect the employee's privacy and the enterprise's legal standing.
Worksheets
Use the following worksheets to record the information discussed in this article:

Document management participants worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165871&clcid=0x409)

Analyze document usage worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165873&clcid=0x409)
203
Metadata-based routing and storage overview
(SharePoint Server 2010)
This article contains information to help solution planners and designers understand how metadatabased routing and storage using the Content Organizer Feature in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010
can be used as part of a comprehensive document management solution.
In this article:

About metadata-based routing and storage

Content Organizer Settings

Content Organizer Rules
About metadata-based routing and storage
SharePoint Server 2010 introduces metadata routing and storage by using Content Organizer. Content
Organizer builds upon document routing features that were introduced in the Records Center site
template in SharePoint 2007.
With Content Organizer, new site level features make it easier for administrators and users to classify,
route, and store content by using rules based on metadata. After the site administrator activates the
Content Organizer Feature and configures settings and rules, instead of directly uploading a document
to a library or folder, users can then save, route, and thereby apply rules to a document, by using one of
the following methods:

Upload a document to a Drop-off library. A Drop off library is created in every site in which the
Content Organizer Feature is been activated.

Use Save as from Word, Excel, and PowerPoint client applications.

Use Send To from other SharePoint sites.

Use the Web service object model.

Use an E-mail drop-off zone. By using Exchange, documents can be e-mailed to the site, where
metadata then must be applied before being routed by rules.

Submit to a Record Center site as part of a document‘s life cycle or expiration. For example, as part
of a workflow or retention policy.
Once a document is uploaded, based on the document's metadata, Content Organizer can route the
document to a specified folder or automatically create a new folder. For example,

A new folder can be created as a child of the target folder, because the target folder of the routing
rule grew too large.

Folders are created for each new value in a field (must be a required field for the content type). For
example, if you have taxonomy with 100 terms, folders can be created automatically for each of
those 100 terms, each folder being created the first time Content Organizer evaluates a document
that has a particular tag.
New folders will inherit settings from the parent folder. New folders can then also have additional rules
that define additional parameters such as permissions, default metadata, retention policies, and
workflows that the documents in them will inherit. For example;
204

By tagging a document with "Corporate Affairs", the document is routed to a folder that has more
restricted permissions than other documents in different folders in the library. This lets metadata to
effectively apply permissions to a document in SharePoint.

By tagging a document with "Accounting", the document is routed to a folder where it is subject to a
retention policy insuring the document is saved.

By tagging a document with "Human Resources", the document is then routed to a folder where
any number of additional metadata tags is applied. This can reduce the need for users to apply lots
of metadata tags reducing time that is spent tagging and potential errors when tagging.
By tagging content with metadata and by using Content Organizer settings and rules, in combination,
you can effectively determine, route, store, and apply additional content parameters to any document in
your organization.
Content Organizer Settings
Site administrators can configure Content Organizer settings that will determine how content uploaded
to the site is routed. These settings apply to all content routed using Content Organizer. Content
Organizer includes the following settings:

Redirect Users to the Drop Off Library If enabled, this setting specifies that users are redirected
to the Drop Off Library when uploading content in a site that has one or more content organizer
rules applied. If this setting is disabled, users can bypass using the content organizer and upload
files directly to a library or folder. This setting applies only when uploading a document by using the
document library page or by using a client application.

Sending to Another Site If enabled, rules can be created to redirect uploads in the current site to
be sent to another site that also has the Content Organizer Feature activated.

Folder Partitioning If enabled, subfolders will be created when a specified number of items in a
folder is exceeded.

Duplicate Submissions This option specifies whether to use SharePoint versioning or append
unique characters to the end of duplicate file names if a document is uploaded that has the same
name as a document that is already in the destination library.

Rule Managers This setting specifies users or groups that can create rules and respond to and
manage uploaded content that do not match any rule.

Submission Points This non-configurable setting provides Web service and URL, and an E-mail
address that you can use to set up other sites or e-mail messaging to send content to the site.
When creating a new Send To location in Central Administration, this is the service URL that you
specify as the destination for files submitted to the Send-To location. Send To locations must be
configured before they can appear as a submission point.
Content Organizer Rules
Rule managers can create rules. A rule determines whether the rule should be applied to the incoming
document, and then performs actions specified in the rule. Rule options include the following:

Rule Name The name of the rule.

Rule Status and Priority Specifies this rules priority on a scale of 1 to 9 if more than one rule is
applied. You can also specify that this rule is inactive and will not be applied to any incoming
content.
205

Submission's Content Type Specifies the content type group such as Document Content Types,
Publishing Content Types, and so on. Based on the content group type group, you can additionally
select a content type for the rule. If a content type in your organization uses a different name, you
can specify an alternative name.

Conditions Applies additional property-based filters for the rule to process.

Target Location Specifies where to put content that matches the rule.

Submission Points Where the item that has met all the criteria above will be saved. If you
checked the Sending to Another Site option in the Content Organizer settings, you will see a dropdown box that has a list of other locations outside the current site to which a document can be
routed.
Activating the Content Organizer Feature for a site
In order to use Content Organizer in a site, the Content Organizer Feature must be activated. Once
activated for a site, Content Organizer Settings and Content Organizer Rules will appear under Site
Administration on the Site Settings page.
Note:
When creating a site by using the Record Center site template, Content Organizer is activated
by default.
To activate the Content Organizer Feature for a site
1. On the Site Settings page, under Site Action, click Manage site features.
2. On the Features page, for Content Organizer, click Activate.
After the Content Organizer Feature is activated, you can create metadata based rules to move
submitted content to a library or folder.
See Also
Metadata navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
206
Metadata-based routing and storage planning
(SharePoint Server 2010)
This article contains information to help IT Pros plan how to route and store content based on metadata
using the Content Organizer Feature in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. For more general
information about content routing and storage based on metadata, see Metadata-based routing and
storage overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

Planning for metadata-based routing and storage

Determine how content is submitted

Plan content organizer settings

Plan content organizer rules

Plan target location properties
Planning for metadata-based routing and storage
One of the challenges facing users in many organizations is determining where a document that they
have authored should go when it is saved. Even more challenging is how to apply additional properties
or actions that should be performed on the document, such as more metadata tags, permissions,
policies, and workflows.
SharePoint Server 2010 introduces the Content Organizer Feature. Once the Content Organizer
Feature is activated for a site, the Content Organizer can be used to sort and then send content into
different containers (sites, libraries, and folders) based on metadata. Those containers, or target
locations, can have per-location settings on them that define additional properties that the content in
them will inherit, such as additional metadata, permissions, policies, and workflows.
Using a content organizer, as few as one or two documents or collections of documents can be
uploaded to the site. The content organizer settings and rules can then specify that those content items
will be subjected to the rules and sent to a target location accordingly. Each site can use an individual
instance of a content organizer, enabling you to create a network routing and storing content throughout
multiple sites.
Although tagging content with metadata and using the content organizer can simplify how documents
are routed and stored in your organization, it is very important that you take careful steps in planning
how it can best serve your organization's needs. By using good planning and implementation, you can
be more certain your content management solution best uses the SharePoint infrastructure while
maximizing both system and user performance.
This article is provided with links to the Content Organizer settings worksheet and the Content
Organizer rule worksheet available on Microsoft Download Center. Use the worksheets in combination
with this article when planning how to configure settings and rules that will apply to content organized
using a content organizer.
Download worksheets

Content Organizer settings worksheet(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189018&clcid=0x409)

Content Organizer rule worksheet(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189019&clcid=0x409)
207
Determine how content is submitted
How users submit content that will be organized using a content organizer will be an important factor in
developing your content routing and storage solution. After a site administrator activates the Content
Organizer Feature for a site and configures settings and rules, users can upload and have their
documents automatically routed and sent to the correct location by using one of the following methods:

Upload content to a Drop-Off Library. A drop-Off library is created in every site in which the Content
Organizer Feature is activated.

Use Save as from Word, Excel, and PowerPoint client applications.

Use Send To from other SharePoint sites manually or as part of a workflow, or as part of
document‘s life cycle or expiration.

Use the web service object model.

Use an E-mail drop-off zone. By using Exchange, content items can be e-mailed to the site.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer settings worksheet, record how content will be uploaded
or submitted to the site.
Plan drop-off libraries
Plan content organizer settings
It is important for site administrators to carefully plan how the content organizer settings for their site will
affect their overall metadata-based routing and storage solution. It is also important to test various
configurations before you implement your solution live on a site. Information provided in this section is
meant to help you determine and record how the content organizer settings in your site can be an
effective part of your metadata-based content routing and storage solution.
The Content Organizer settings worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189018&clcid=0x409) is provided to help you in planning
settings for a site. Fill out a separate Content Organizer settings worksheet for each site that will have
the Content Organizer Feature activated.
Content redirection
With the Redirect Users to the Drop Off Library setting, you can specify whether users are redirected
to the drop-off library. If this setting is checked (default), then all uploads are automatically sent to their
target location that is specified by the rules or are put in the drop-off library if no rules apply. If not
selected, users can bypass rules and the drop-off library and upload documents to another library or
folder.
A drop-off library is created in each site that has the Content Organizer Feature activated. By default,
when content is submitted, the rules are applied to the document and it is then sent to its target
location. If no rules apply, the item is then put in the drop-off library and an e-mail notification is sent to
the rule managers. Rule managers can then apply additional metadata to those items to match a rule
and allow the document to be sent to its target location. The drop-off library uses a timer job that
specifies when to process items in the library. If a rule manager applies additional metadata to an item
in the drop-off library, the rule will be applied and the item sent to its target location when the timer job
is next run.
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When a document is uploaded, the document properties window for the drop-off library is displayed.
Then metadata properties can be selected and the submission process completed. After submitted, the
content organizer rules are applied to send the document to its target location. The user is then shown
a URL for the item. The URL includes a permalink created from the Document ID Feature, so that the
URL that was provided will always link to the item even if it is moved again. If no rules are applied, the
document is then put in the drop-off library and rule managers can be notified by e-mail.
A well designed metadata-based routing and storage solution uses content organizer rules to send to
its intended target location every document that is submitted to a drop-off library. The drop-off library
should then only include items submitted that did not match any rule. Documents that remain in the
library enable rule managers to identify those that do not match any rule, and to then create a rule or
require additional metadata tags that will apply.
When redirecting users to a drop-off library, it is important for those users to be aware of the specific
drop-off library's purpose, and what they will see in the properties window will reflect the content types
that are defined in the site gallery, and not necessarily those content types in the library they may be
working in.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer settings worksheet, record whether users are redirected
to the Drop-Off library.
Sending to another site
If this setting is checked, rules can be created that route uploads to the current site to be sent to
another site that also has the Content Organizer Feature activated. When creating a new rule, in the
rule configuration page, a drop-down list displays all the destination locations items can be sent to. In
order to add a new destination that is not already included in the list, you must add the site
configuration information by using the Configure Send To Connections page in Central Administration.
The list of document and record centers is maintained on a per web application basis. For example, if
you have a Web site on port 80 and you want to add a new destination document library in a web
application that is on port 81, you would add the URL to the library's Official File web service to the list
of Send To Connections for the web application on port 80. The web service URL is entered in the
URL-to-router edit box and takes the form http://myserver/mysubsite/_vti_bin/OfficialFile.asmx. You
cannot add sites that do not have the Content Organizer feature activated.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer settings worksheet, record whether you will allow rules to
specify another site as a target location.
Folder partitioning
In SharePoint Server 2010, there is no limit on the number of items a folder can contain. There is
however a practical limit on the number of items a list view can display when viewing the contents of a
folder: known as the List View Threshold, and by default, it is 5000 items. By using a content organizer,
you can specify what happens when a folder exceeds a maximum specified number of items, effectively
becoming too large to be useful in standard list views.
Using the Folder Partitioning setting in Content Organizer Settings, you can specify that subfolders
should be created when the target location becomes too large. By default, this setting specifies to
create new folders when the target location exceeds 2500 items. Each subfolder will inherit the
properties of the target location which it was derived from. So, if for example, you have a folder named
209
"Resumes" that has special permissions that are required to view and edit items in it, subfolders
created from the Resumes folder will inherit those same permissions requirements.
It is important to be aware of your site or library's overall folder structure. The main purpose of folders is
to organize content to match the expected functionality of the site or library. The Folder Partitioning
setting should be considered carefully as part of an overall folder structure or even after a folder
structure is established.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer settings worksheet, record whether to create subfolders
when the number of items in the target location is exceeded, and the format of the folder name
subfolders should be created by using folder partitioning.
Duplicate submissions
In any large organization there is always the possibility more than one document that has the same
name and metadata is submitted to a site. By default, the content organizer will use SharePoint
versioning to differentiate items with the same name if versioning is enabled in the document library. In
Content Organizer Settings, you have two options for duplicate submissions. First, and by default, is to
use SharePoint versioning. To use SharePoint versioning, versioning must be enabled for the
document library. For more information about how to plan versioning, see Versioning, content approval,
and check-out planning (SharePoint Server 2010). The second option is to specify that the Content
Organizer will append unique characters to the end of the duplicate file names. If versioning is not
enabled for a target library, the Content Organizer will append unique characters to duplicate
submissions regardless of the setting selected. It is important to remember that the unique characters
appended to the file name may not identify the item in any particular way. This could prevent users from
correctly identifying the document that they want if there are too many documents that have the same
name, but unique characters added to the name do not provide any meaningful form of identification.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer settings worksheet, record whether you want to use
SharePoint versioning (default) or to append unique characters to the end of duplicate file names.
Preserve context
When this setting is checked, for documents that include original audit logs and properties are retained
and stored with it. This can be important when you want to retain all of the historical information about
the document, such as a document sent to a Record Center site. When the context is preserved, users
can click on Compliance Details from the View Properties page of an item.
Note:
Preserving context will affect storage. Audit data can quickly compound and occupy large
amounts of space in a content database, especially if view auditing was turned on. For more
information about how audit data may affect storage capacity, see Storage and SQL capacity
planning and configuration.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer settings worksheet, record whether you want to save the
original audit log and properties for documents submitted to this site.
Rule managers
You can specify users who can create and edit rules. Rule managers must have Manage Web Site
permissions in order to create and edit rules. Rule managers must be familiar with your metadata term
210
sets and terms in order to create rules that most effectively implement your metadata based routing and
storage solution. It is also important for rule managers to determine the broader implications of rules
they create, for example, it is important that all rule managers in your organization determine the correct
action when a folder becomes too full.
In most cases, the person creating the rule will serve as the rule manager, however, in some
circumstances, such as when you are creating a series of new rules, you may want to specify other rule
managers that will be responsible for making sure the rule is meeting the goals originally intended. If
you specify that rule managers are to be e-mailed when submissions do not match a rule, or when
content was left in the drop-off library, you may want to specify several rule managers in-case the
original rule manager is not available. Rule managers have permissions to edit all items in the drop-off
library in order to enter missing or incorrect metadata necessary for a document to match a rule.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer settings worksheet, record users or groups that will act
as rule managers for the site.
Plan content organizer rules
Content organizer rules are the heart of routing and storing content based on metadata. It is the
conditions in the rules that determine whether the rule should be applied to an item, and then, if all
conditions in the rule are true, the target location specifies where to send the item.
When creating rules, there are some important things to consider. For example, it might be best to
create common rules; to create and send to a unique folder for every unique value of a particular
metadata column. Create rules that address all possible submissions. You can do so by creating as few
as one simple rule that applies to a particular content type, or by creating many rules that send in any
number of complex ways. If the drop-off library contains many items that do not match any of the rules,
it is important to verify those items to determine why no rules are being applied. This can occur if rules
do not reflect the metadata properties available to users when tagging a document.
Information provided in this section is meant to help you plan rules that will be an effective part of your
metadata-based routing and storage solution. The Content Organizer rule worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=189019&clcid=0x409) is provided to help in planning rules. Fill
out a separate worksheet for each new rule that you plan to create.
Determine rule name
The rule name is used in site Content and File Plan reports. Determine a rule naming convention to
make particular rules in reports and the Content Organizer Rules list more identifiable. If possible, the
rule name should state the objective of the rule, the kinds of documents organized by the rule, and/or
provide some distinction of the conditions of the rule.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer rule worksheet, record the rule name.
Determine rule status and priority
When creating a rule, you can specify if the rule is active or inactive. If a rule is active, you can specify a
priority from 1, being the highest priority, to 9, being the lowest priority. If there is more than one rule
that match the conditions, the rule with the highest priority will be applied first.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer rule worksheet, record the rule priority.
211
Determine content type
A rule must define at least one metadata property; the content type. From the content type, you can
then select additional properties that will be used in the conditions for the rule. If a content type has an
alternative name or alias in another site, you can specify it here. The content type groups available are
those currently in the site collection or current site. When a document matches a rule by content type
alias, the document will be organized by the content type of the rule, and not by the content type alias.
Types available are those only for the selected content type group.
You can create a rule that will apply to documents of an unknown content type by selecting This
content type has alternate names in other sites and typing * in Add alternate name.
Available content type groups and types (default)
Business
Content
Digital
Intelligence
Organizer
Asset
Report
E-mail
Audio
Submission
Web Page
Part with
Status List
Document
Basic
Page
Document
Page
Set
Layout
Document Article
Set
Page
Publishing
Special
Page
Unknown
Document
Type
Image Document
Redirect
Page
Rich
Dublin
Media Core
Asset Columns
Welcome Publishing
Page
Master
Page
Video
Custom
Page
Layout
Form
Link to a
Document
List View
Style
Master
Page
Picture
Web Part
Page
Wiki Page
You can also create a rule that will apply to a custom content type that was derived from a default
content type (in the table above) as the parent content type.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer rule worksheet, record the content type group, type, and
alternate names in other sites.
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Plan conditions
Rules are applied on property-based conditions. You can define up to 6 conditions in a single rule. All of
the conditions must be true for the rule to be applied and the item sent to its target location. The
properties that are available to be used in a condition are those associated with the content type.
Because you must specify at least a content type, there will be at least one condition. When you specify
a content type, but do not define any additional property-based conditions, the rule will organize all
items based only on the content type.
When defining a condition, for the condition to be true, a value must be the product of a property and an
operator. You cannot specify wildcards as a value for a condition. If a value does not match the
condition, the rule will not be applied and the item will remain in the drop-off library.
Worksheet action: Use the Content Organizer Rule page to determine the properties available for the
selected content type, and then on the Content Organizer rule worksheet, record conditions for the rule.
Plan the target location
Each rule must specify a target location where the items that match the rule will be sent. A target
location can be another site, library, or folder. A rule can also specify that a new folder is created in the
target location for each unique value of a particular property. When specifying another library, that
library must include the content type specified in the rule.
You can specify a format for new folder names. By default, a new folder naming format is "%1 - %2",
where %1 is replaced with the name of the property and %2 is replaced with the value of the property.
For example, if you used the Report Status property and received a new item where the Report Status
value is "Complete", it would create a folder named "Report Status - Complete". If there are many
unique properties and many new folders will be created, make sure that you specify a format for the
folder names that will make sense to users in your organization.
When choosing to create new folders for each unique property, it is important to consider how many
items may populate each new folder. Consider creating folders based on a unique property when such
grouping of items makes sense. Creating a new folder for each unique property when there may be
hundreds or even thousands of unique properties may create a confusing and unnecessary number of
folders that may be difficult to navigate in standard list views.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer rule worksheet, record the target location and whether a
new folder is automatically created for each unique value of a property, and the format of the new folder
name.
Plan target location properties
Once a content item is sent to its target location, new properties and settings that apply to all items in
that location can be applied. For example, all items in a "Human Resources" library can have restricted
view permissions. If you specify that new subfolders are created from the target location, those folders
will inherit the properties of the parent target location. Additional properties and settings can be
specified at the site level, in Site Settings, and at the library level, in Library Settings.
Additional properties

Permissions By routing content to a target location based on metadata, you can specify a target
location with unique permissions, effectively using metadata to apply permissions.
213

Versioning By routing content to a target location based on metadata, that target location can
specify a particular document version history (versioning).

Metadata By routing content to a target location based on metadata, that target location can apply
additional metadata and enterprise keywords.

Retention and content type policies By routing content to a target location based on metadata,
content in that target location can be subject to a retention policy, assuring that the content is
saved.

Workflows By routing content to a target location based on metadata, content in that target
location can be subject to workflows.
Worksheet action: On the Content Organizer rule worksheet, record additional properties that will be
applied at the target location.
See Also
Plan managed metadata (SharePoint Server 2010)
Metadata-based routing and storage overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Metadata navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
214
Metadata navigation overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
This article contains information to help solution planners and designers understand how the Metadata
Navigation and Filtering Feature in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 can be used as part of a
comprehensive document management solution.
In this article:

About metadata navigation in SharePoint Server 2010

Metadata navigation user controls

List owner controls

Automatic indexing

Indexed Queries

Fallback queries
About metadata navigation in SharePoint Server 2010
Metadata Navigation and Filtering is a new feature in SharePoint Server 2010 that enables users to
filter and find content in document libraries by using metadata. The Metadata Navigation and Filtering
Feature includes the following:

A simple user interface Metadata navigation builds upon the SharePoint Tree view hierarchy
control and combines it with a new Key Filters control providing users a powerful tool in finding
content based on metadata.

List owner controls By configuring metadata navigation settings, list owners can promote fields
on a list as key navigation fields. Users viewing those lists can then further filter the current list view
to show only items with the desired values in those fields.

Automatic indexing This optional process can create list indices automatically depending on the
fields promoted as navigational fields for the list. Automatic indexing can improve query results and
improve performance.
Metadata navigation user controls
Metadata navigation builds on list view navigation features already in SharePoint. List views without
metadata navigation configured provide a simple hierarchical view and work well when searching for
content through its physical structure, for example sites, libraries, and folders. However, those list views
are blocked when trying to navigate through many items, or by the list view threshold when browsing
folders that contain more than five thousand items.
Note:
By default, the list view threshold is 5000 items. Administrators can change the list view
threshold by using Windows PowerShell.
215
Metadata navigation expands the capabilities of list views and combines it with a Key Filters control
making it easier for users to find content by filtering a view of documents to a subset based on one or
more navigation filters.
Metadata navigation includes the following user controls:

Navigation hierarchies Use and expand the capabilities of list views to navigate hierarchies of
folders, content types, choice fields, or managed metadata term sets. This allows users to use list
views to filter on a metadata hierarchy just like navigating folders.
When selecting an item in a hierarchy for a managed metadata column, all items will be shown that
are tagged with the specified term or any of its descendant terms for the field associated with that
hierarchy. Users can then select the item again to filter only on that particular term and not include
the descendant child terms.
Navigation hierarchies' work together with filters specified in the list view definition and filters
specified in the columns in the list view Web Part. Along with key filters, in-combination, provide up
to four distinct ways that a list view can be filtered.

Key Filters This control appears below the site hierarchy control and can consist of several fields
such as date, choice, content type, single and multi-value fields, currency, yes / no, and user fields.
Any number of key filters can be applied in combination with a selected navigation hierarchy.
Key filters can be specified for a much larger range of column types and consist of a blank field that
matches the kind of column it represents. Users can then type text into the field to filter on that
column. For example, you can add the modified by column as a key filter and then type a user
display name or username alias and resolve to get results where modified by matches the user
entered. Any number of key filters can be used at the same time and they can also be used in
combination with a navigation hierarchy.
Managed metadata key filter fields enable entering multiple terms by typing and selecting from the
suggestions displayed. A specially handled managed metadata field that is named All Tags can
also be used, which matches the input terms against field values for an item in any of the managed
metadata fields in the list schema. If the user is in the root folder of the list then applying key filters
will query over all of the items from any of the folders in the list.
List owner controls
Once the Metadata Navigation and Filtering Feature is enabled for a site, list or library owners can
configure settings on the Metadata Navigation Settings page available from the list or Document Library
Settings page. Owners can specify navigation hierarchy and key filter fields and specify whether
columns are automatically indexed.
Automatic indexing
On the Metadata Navigation Settings page for a list or library, with the Configure automatic column
indexing for this list setting, list owners can specify whether indices are automatically created on the
list to match selected navigation hierarchy and key filter fields. If this setting is enabled (default), when
the metadata navigation settings page is saved, the following occurs:

Single column indices will be created on all supported navigation hierarchy fields.

Single column indices will be created on all supported key filter fields, except for the Content Type
field and Choice fields
216

Compound indices will be created on all supported combinations of navigation hierarchies and key
filters.
When indices are created automatically, queries are allowed for lists that have more items than the list
view threshold. In some cases, you may have to disable this setting and configure custom indices. For
example, if a combination of single column and compound indices exceeds 20, Automatic Indexing
must be disabled.
Indexed Queries
When the Metadata Navigation and Filtering Feature is enabled for a site, built-in optimization will select
the best index to work every time that a list view is loaded. Each time that a user loads a list view,
refreshes a list view by applying a new filter, clearing a filter, or by applying a sort on a field, query
optimization determines the best way in which to query the database without view throttling.
Fallback queries
If metadata navigation determines that the current user request cannot be expressed as an indexed
query that is selective, it will construct and perform a fallback query. A fallback query is a modified
version of the original user query that queries against only a part of the list instead of the complete list.
Fallback queries are intended to show the user a partial set of results that can be useful, even when the
original query could not be run because of list view throttling. In addition, fallback queries can serve as
a warning to list owners that the data distribution in the list is skewed and certain queries that users are
running cannot return a full set of results, which means that users may be blocked from accessing
content that they need. Fallback queries occasionally will return 0 results if no items in the part of the
list scanned by the query contain results that match the original user query.
Since the results of a fallback query are only a partial set of the items that the user is requesting, the
user is prompted via an on-screen message that only a partial set of results is being shown and that the
user must apply additional filters in order to view a complete set. Every time that a user specifies an
additional filter, this is another opportunity for the query engine to find a selective filter/index
combination that does not exceed the list view threshold that result in a throttling exception.
See Also
Metadata-based routing and storage overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
217
Document library planning (SharePoint Server
2010)
This article describes how to plan document libraries and integrate libraries into your Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010 document management solution.
Document libraries are collections of files on SharePoint Server that you share with other site users.
Most document management features are delivered through document libraries. As part of document
management planning, you should determine the type of document libraries that best fit your
organization's needs.
Plan document libraries
In this article:

Determine library type

Plan the flow of content

Promoting document libraries from Office client applications

Worksheet
Determine library type
When you identify which document libraries best match your organization's needs, you might also
determine that you need multiple sites or site collections. For example, if you are authoring content for
publication to external customers, you might need one site (and library) in which to author and review
content and a separate site, perhaps in a separate SharePoint Server 2010 installation, in which to
publish your content.
When you plan document libraries for multiple sites, you might also need to plan how content flows
from one site to another — by manual processes, workflows, or custom solutions.
The following table lists typical uses of document libraries:
Library
Purpose
Library in a team
site
Collaboration; easy sharing of content among peers; content control, such as
versioning; SharePoint Server searching.
Library in a portal Content that is intended for a wider audience in the organization; similar to a library
area
in a team site, but typically implemented with a more-stringent review and approval
process.
Library in a
Document
Center site
A large-scale library useful as an enterprise knowledge base or historical archive;
includes features to help users navigate, search, and manage a large number of
documents in a deep hierarchy by using a set of specialized Web Parts.
Library in a
Records
Specialized records management; each library corresponds to a record type, such
as contract, that the organization must retain for legal compliance purposes;
218
Library
Purpose
Repository
libraries retain documents, metadata, and associated audits and are meant to be
read-only.
Library in an
Internet site
(HTML)
Contains Web pages to incorporate in an Internet or intranet Web site; SharePoint
Server supports editing Web pages directly and manages the underlying document
libraries for each page automatically.
Library in an
Internet site
(hybrid)
Content available for downloading from a Web site; you can present content from
document libraries on an Internet site.
Slide library
Supports sharing, managing, and reusing Microsoft PowerPoint slides.
The following example illustrates how to use the analysis that you completed in Analyze document
usage to help you plan document library organization for your enterprise. In this example, Contoso Ltd.
delivers content to clients based on market research. The content is created primarily by consultants
operating remotely. This is done in a cycle in which:
1. A partner evaluates engagement ideas and requests for proposals.
2. After a contract is established, a project manager assembles a team of consultants and creates an
engagement-specific working site in which the results of the research are recorded and the project
is completed.
3. When the project is done, the deliverable documents are published to a secured Internet site,
where customers have access to them.
4. The team writes best practices documents and case studies based on the project.
5. Knowledge managers collect, organize, and archive the best practices and other documents.
6. Deliverables, contracts, and other documents are retained as corporate records.
7. By using the content maintained by the knowledge managers, partners evaluate opportunities and
create new proposals.
The following table illustrates a document usage analysis for this scenario:
Documents
Purpose
Author
Users
Format
Engagement ideas
and requests
Develop new customer
engagements
Project leader
Sales manager;
project leader
.doc
Proposals
Describe a proposed
customer engagement
Project leader
Project managers;
project team
members;
customers
.doc
Contracts
Commit to a consulting
engagement
Lawyer
Project leader;
project manager;
sales manager;
customers
.doc
Research results
Generate documents
Project leader;
Editors; technical
.doc and
219
Documents
Purpose
Author
Users
Format
and project
deliverable drafts
related to the customer
engagement
project contributor;
consultant
reviewers
other
types
Deliverable
documents
Generate final
deliverables, probably
converted from .doc
format
Project leader
Customers
.pdf
Best practices and
case study
documents
Capture organizational
knowledge
Project contributor;
consultant;
knowledge
manager
All team members
Various
types
Corporate records
Retain some content,
such as deliverable
documents, as corporate
records
All
Corporate records
managers;
corporate lawyers
All
This document usage analysis suggests the following:

Project leaders need libraries in team sites for storing engagement ideas, engagement requests,
and proposal drafts.

Lawyers need libraries in a portal or centralized document management site for storing contract
templates and active contracts.

Project leaders and contributors need libraries in team sites for authoring research results,
deliverables, and case studies.

Customers need libraries in an Internet site for viewing final deliverables.

All members of the enterprise need access to a Document Center site for viewing best practices
and case study documents.

Corporate records managers and lawyers need access to an enterprise Records Repository to
maintain corporate records.
The following figure illustrates how these libraries might be distributed. The sites are hosted in three site
collections: an Internet site collection for customer access, an extranet site collection for remote
authoring by team members, and an intranet site collection for secure maintenance of the records
management site.
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Worksheet action
The Document libraries worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165874&clcid=0x409) is
provided to record your library planning decisions. Use this worksheet to list the libraries required for
your solution, along with the types of documents they contain. Note that libraries can contain more than
one type of document.
Plan the flow of content
Content in a document management solution is often dynamic, moving from one site to another as
needed to meet document users' needs. When you plan document libraries, therefore, also plan the
flow of content from one library or site to another. SharePoint Server includes the following ways to
move content, either manually or dynamically:

You can create custom workflows that copy or move content from one site or library to another. A
workflow guides a document through a business process and assigns tasks to participants when
their role in the document's life cycle becomes active. A workflow can be designed to move a
document from one site or library to another. For information about planning workflows, see
Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010).

Authors can copy a document to a library in any site in which they have authoring permissions. The
relationship between the source and the destination document is maintained so that the copy can
be refreshed as needed.

Web pages and entire Web sites can be staged and published from one site to another either
manually or automatically based on a schedule.
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
Content can be sent to the records management site by using the SharePoint Server user interface,
by using a workflow, or by using a custom solution based on the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation
object model.

By using Web Folders or Network Places, an author can manually copy or move the contents of a
document library from one library or site to another.
Returning to the example, the following figure illustrates how to apply some of these content flow
techniques. Note that the Staged Internet site has been added to the Authoring portal site.

By using publishing features, an author can publish Web pages to the Internet site.

By using the Copy command, an author can copy documents to the Document Center site.

By using a custom workflow, an author can copy documents to document libraries on the Internet
site.

By using the Send to Records Repository command, an author can send contracts to the enterprise
Records Repository.
Promoting document libraries from Office client applications
You can customize the Microsoft Office Professional 2010Open dialog box and the Save dialog box to
encourage organization members to use document libraries as storage locations. By adding sites to the
My Places bar next to the Open dialog box and the Save dialog box, you can provide single-click
access to the locations where users should store their documents. This makes it possible for team
members to interact with the document libraries when using Save from Office Professional 2010 client
applications, rather than having to go directly to the server to upload their documents.
To promote using sites in the Opendialog box and the Save dialog box, you can publish them by using
a Web service. This service provides a list of sites targeted to specific users based on their roles or the
sites that they are members of. A Office Professional 2010 client application can automatically discover
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this Web service through the user's My SharePoint Sites. Other server products can also implement
this Web service and provide the location of the service to the Office client application. After this is
configured, Office Professional 2010 adds an entry to the My Places bar and populates it with the
locations that are defined by the Web service.
Alternatively, administrators can set registry keys to add specific sites to the My Places bar in the Office
Open dialog box and the Save dialog box. Registry keys are deployed by using Group Policy and a
Microsoft Active Directory directory service template provided in the Office 2010 Resource Kit.
You can limit the locations that organization members can save content to by using the Office Save
dialog box. For example, you can restrict the ability to save files to desktops and force users to save
content in a document library. In Office Professional 2010, you can control where users are allowed to
browse to save their documents, thereby guiding users to save in approved locations. Note that this
does not guarantee that users won't save files to their local computers or other unapproved locations.
There are many ways to get files onto a computer, and motivated people can work around most
restrictions. However, by limiting access to these locations through the Office Save dialog box, you can
dramatically reduce the number of team members who use these unapproved locations.
To restrict the locations available in the Office Save dialog box, use Group Policy to set the appropriate
registry keys to enable this setting and define the approved local, network, or server locations. When
this setting is enabled, any location not defined in this manner — including standard links to the
Desktop and My Network Places folders — will be removed from the My Places bar.
The list of approved locations can be limited to one or more Office applications. For example, an
administrator can restrict save locations in Microsoft Access while allowing other Office applications to
save anywhere.
Worksheet
Use the following worksheet to record the information discussed in this article:

Document libraries worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=165874&clcid=0x409)
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Enterprise content storage planning
(SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes how to plan an enterprise content storage solution that uses Microsoft SharePoint
Server 2010. Although the examples in this article are primarily relevant for solutions that are based on
SharePoint Server 2010, the prescriptive guidance information that is provided here applies to both
SharePoint Server 2010 and SharePoint Foundation 2010 unless noted otherwise.
Information and guidance in this topic is meant to serve as an introduction to enterprise content storage
concepts. Certain information in this topic is derived from other more detailed documents about
performance and capacity testing performed at Microsoft and from other articles providing detailed
guidance about particular concepts. We strongly recommended that you use all these resources when
planning your enterprise content storage solution. For more information and links, see Additional
resources later in this article.
In this article:

Understanding enterprise content storage

Typical large-scale content management scenarios

Storage levels: content storage benefits and considerations

Routing and storing enterprise content based on metadata

Navigating and filtering enterprise content by using metadata

List views

Additional resources
Understanding enterprise content storage
A document management solution is about much more than only providing a location for documents. A
complete enterprise-level document management solution addresses document storage at multiple
levels, including storage within site collections, sites, libraries, and folders. It also enables companies to
efficiently and effectively manage their growing volumes of enterprise documents and ensure that
versions of documents from each stage of their life cycle can be retained for reference or legal reasons.
SharePoint Server 2010 supports high-capacity document storage. A document library can contain
millions of documents. However, depending on how the content is used, the performance of sites that
contain many documents can decrease. The prescriptive guidance provided in this article can help you
design large-scale content management solutions that scale out to the requirements of your enterprise
while providing the users of your solution with a high-performance environment in which to create and
use documents.
Decisions you make about the capacities of site collections, sites, and libraries should allow for not only
the physical storage constraints of your environment but also the content usage and viewing patterns of
users. For example, if users view or query a set of documents in a document library that contains
thousands of documents, performance can decrease if the site is not configured correctly. Or if a
service-level agreement requires that content be backed up two times a day, the service might not
perform satisfactorily if the set of content is too large.
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Typical large-scale content management scenarios
Typically, large-scale content management scenarios are variants of one of the following scenarios:

Large-scale authoring environment

Large-scale content archive

Extremely large-scale content archive
The scenario descriptions provided here are intended to clarify what we mean by large-scale solutions
and to provide high-level examples that hopefully reflect your content management goals. Of course,
these descriptions do not include all aspects of a particular scenario. There are dozens, even hundreds,
of unique aspects of a particular scenario that are beyond the scope of this article.
Large-scale authoring environment
In a large-scale authoring environment, for example, a site can contain a library in which users edit
50,000 or more documents across 500 or more folders. Versioning is enabled, and typically multiple
versions of each document exist. Documents are checked in and out frequently, and workflows are
used to control their life cycles. A typical database for this kind of site contains approximately 150
gigabytes (GB) of data. Library settings can be used to limit the number of versions saved, reducing
database consumption. (Note that each version of a document is stored separately in the database.)
Typically, in a large-scale authoring environment, 80 percent of site users are authors who have access
to major and minor versions of documents, whereas 20 percent of site users have read-only
permissions and can only view major versions of the content.
A large-scale authoring environment site can be based on the SharePoint Server 2010 Document
Center site template, which includes a single, large document library that is optimized for large-scale
authoring.
Large-scale content archive
A large-scale content archive is a document repository in which users either view documents or upload
new documents. Little or no authoring occurs in the site. There are two primary large-scale content
archive scenarios: knowledge base and records management.
In a knowledge base site, there is only a single version of most documents, so that the site can scale
out to easily hold millions of documents (recommended maximum of 30,000,000 documents). The
content is typically stored in a single database as large as 1 terabyte. In a typical scenario, such as an
enterprise's technical support center, 10,000 users might access the content, primarily to read it. A
subset of users (three or four thousand) might upload new content to the site. A knowledge base site
can be based on the Document Center site template.
Another kind of large-scale content archive is a records center, based on the Records Center site
template. Using the Records Center site template is recommended for sites that contain one million or
more documents. This site template contains features that you can use to manage the retention and
disposition of records (documents that serve as evidence of activities or transactions performed by the
organization and that must be retained for some time period). Similar to a knowledge base site, a
records center contains a single version of each document and could typically hold millions of
documents. Many more users submit content to a records center than view or read it.
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Extremely large-scale content archive
An extremely large-scale content archive can be used as a reference library or content repository. To
provide scale beyond that of a large-scale content archive, a very large-scale content archive might
contain 50,000,000 or more documents distributed across multiple site collections. Content in each site
collection may be stored as BLOB (Binary Large Object) data in multiple content databases or by using
Remote BLOB Storage (RBS). Remote BLOB Storage enables data to be stored outside SQL Server
enabling less expensive storage options and reducing content database size. SharePoint Search or
FAST Search for SharePoint is used to find content across multiple site collections.
Storage levels: content storage benefits and
considerations
Site collections
A site collection is a set of web sites that has the same owner and shares administration settings. Each
site collection contains a top-level Web site and can contain one or more subsites. A site collection
usually has a shared navigation structure.
The sites in a site collection are usually interrelated by purpose. To maximize your solution's usability,
store all related data and content in a single site collection. Benefits of doing this include the following:

Content types and columns managed in a site collection can be shared across sites in the site
collection. The managed metadata service can be used to syndicate content types and column
definitions across multiple site collections.

Information management policies managed in the site collection can be made available to content
in all sites in the site collection.

Search can be used across content in multiple site collections.

Some views list documents from multiple sites in a single site collection (for example, a view
enumerating all tasks assigned to a user across a site collection). Also, developers can create
cross-site database queries in a site collection, but cross-site queries are not supported across
multiple site collections.

Content quotas and other quotas can only be managed at the site-collection level.
Consider the following limits when planning how to allocate your content across one or more site
collections:

All sites in a site collection share the same back-end resources. In particular, all content in a site
collection must be stored in the same content database. Because of this, the performance of
database operations— such as backing up and restoring content — will depend on the amount of
content across the site collection, the size of the database, the speed of the servers hosting the
database, and other factors. Depending on the amount of content and the configuration of the
database, you might have to segment a site collection into multiple site collections to meet servicelevel agreements for backing up and restoring, throughput, or other requirements. It is beyond the
scope of this article to provide prescriptive guidance about how to manage the size and
performance of databases.

Particularly, keep very active sites in separate site collections. For example, a knowledge base site
on the Internet that enables anonymous browsing could generate lots of database activity. If other
sites use the same database, their performance could be affected. By putting the knowledge base
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site in a separate site collection with its own database, you can free resources for other sites that
no longer have to compete with it for database resources.
Note:
SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server 2010 include several features that reduce the
need to have the IT department restore content. The Recycle Bin and the Site Collection
Recycle Bin provide a double safety mechanism for restoring unintentionally deleted items.
Document versioning also provides a safety net of sorts: if a document is lost, at least its
previous version will be available. To better ensure the availability of previous versions, an
administrator can remove an author's Delete Versions permission; this can help guarantee that
previous versions of content are available without having to restore them from the database.
Sites
A web site is the primary way to organize related content in SharePoint Server 2010 and SharePoint
Foundation.
Storing content in the same site has the following benefits:

It is easier to create pages that display views of multiple libraries and lists when they are in the
same site.

You can use the Document Center site template to create a site that is optimized for creating and
using many documents.

The site navigation user interface is optimized to make it easy to find and locate libraries within the
same site.

You can define a set of content types and site columns for use in a site.
Libraries
Storing content in the same library provides the following benefits:

It is easier for users to add new documents or find existing documents in a single library.

Many document management settings— such as permissions, content versioning, and approval—
are applied at the library level.

Views created by using the user interface are bound to a particular library.

Information management policies, such as content auditing and retention settings, can be applied
to a library. For certain libraries, only retention policies can be used.
Think about the following limits when you plan how to organize content into the same library:

Settings such as required checkouts or versioning are specified at the document library level. If you
want to specify different settings for other documents, you must put those documents in a different
library with the necessary particular settings.

Views that contain columns that are used only on one content type may not be useful because no
metadata value will be displayed for items of other content types.

View performance is limited when the number of items viewed exceeds the list view threshold of
5,000 items (default). In addition, queries are prevented when they exceed the list view threshold.
Organize content in the library into folders that contain 5,000 or fewer items, or create views that
take advantage of metadata navigation and indexed columns to return sets of 5,000 or fewer items.
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Folders
A folder is a named subdivision of the content in a library similar to folders in a file system. The main
purpose of folders is to logically organize content to match the expected functionality of the library. For
example, if a library is intended to provide product specifications, the set of folders in the library could
be named for each feature area in the product or for each team member who writes product
specifications.
When you divide content across multiple folders— each of which contains 5,000 (list view threshold
default) or fewer items— views on the folders can perform well. Note that to take advantage of this,
views available within folders must be configured to only show items inside the folders (this feature is
available in the default view-creation interface). Note also that if folders contain 5,000 or fewer items,
views in the folders do not have to be filtered by using indexed columns. For folders that contain more
than 5,000 items, you can improve performance using metadata navigation and/or indexed columns
and then filter the views to return less than 5,000 items.
Consider creating folders as part of a content routing and storage solution that is based on metadata.
By using Content Organizer, you can configure settings that automatically create folders when a target
folder becomes too large or to automatically create folders for each value of a metadata property. For
more information, see Routing and storing enterprise content based on metadata later in this article.
Routing and storing enterprise content based on
metadata
SharePoint Server 2010 introduces metadata routing and storage by using Content Organizer. By using
Content Organizer, new site level features make it easier for administrators and users to classify, route,
and store content by using rules based on metadata.
Based on a document's metadata, Content Organizer can route a document to a specified folder or
automatically create a new folder. Folders can be created as a child of the target folder because the
number of items in the target folder exceeds a specified limit, or new folders can be created for each
new value in a field. New folders will inherit settings from the parent folder. New folders can then also
have additional rules that define additional parameters such as permissions, additional metadata,
retention policies, and workflows that the documents in them will inherit.
For more information, see Metadata-based routing and storage overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Navigating and filtering enterprise content by using
metadata
Metadata Navigation and Filtering is a new feature in SharePoint Server 2010 that enables users to
filter and find content by using metadata. The Metadata Navigation and Filtering feature includes a
simple user interface that builds upon the SharePoint Tree view hierarchy control and combines it with
a new Key Filters control providing users a powerful tool in finding content based on metadata.
List owners can configure metadata navigation settings that promote fields on a list as key navigation
fields. Users viewing those lists can then additionally filter the current list view to show only items with
the desired values in those fields.
Automatic indexing features can create list indexes automatically depending on the fields promoted as
navigational fields for the list. Automatic indexing can improve query results and improve performance.
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For more information about how you can integrate metadata navigation into your enterprise content
storage solution, see Metadata navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
List views
At the heart of every enterprise content management solution is the ability for users to easily search for
and find the content they are looking for. When moving through a library or folder, tree views and list
views provide a simple interface for users to visually navigate through content storage taxonomy. At the
same time, when a library or folder contains too many items, the ability for the list to query and quickly
display results can require considerable system resources. SharePoint Server 2010 can maximize list
view performance while minimizing system resource consumption by using Resource Throttling.
Resource Throttling properties are set for a web application in General Settings in Central
Administration and affect resources allocated to querying and displaying lists within that web
application.
Configuring your storage in ways so that when you view the contents of a library or folder the list view
threshold is not exceeded prevents resource throttling and maximizes list view performance.
Resource Throttling includes the following properties that relate to list view performance:
Property
Description
Default
value
List View Threshold
The maximum number of list or library items that a database
operation, such as a query, can process at one time, outside the daily
time window set by the administrator during which queries are
unrestricted. We recommend that this property setting not be
changed.
5000
Object Model
Override
Specifies that users granted special permission can override the List
View Threshold programmatically for particular queries.
Yes
List View Threshold
for Auditors and
Administrators
The maximum number of list or library items that a database
operation, such as a query, can process at one time when it is done
by an auditor or administrator with appropriate permissions. This
setting works together with Allow Object Model Override.
20,000
List View Lookup
Threshold
The maximum number of joins allowed per query, such as those
8
based on lookup, Person/Group, or workflow status columns. If the
query uses more than eight joins, the operation is blocked. This does
not apply to single item operations. When using the maximal view via
the OM (by not specifying any view fields), SharePoint will return up to
the first eight lookups. We recommend that this property setting not
be changed.
Daily Time Window
for Large Queries
A time period in which large queries can be executed. Time period
should be set outside regular working hours because large queries
may cause too much server load.
Disabled
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Additional resources
In addition to the information in this article, the following resources can help you understand and plan
an enterprise content storage solution.

SharePoint Server 2010 capacity management: Software boundaries and limits
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/6a13cd9f-4b44-40d6-85aa-c70a8e5c34fe(Office.14).aspx):
This article provides information to help you understand the tested performance and capacity limits
of Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010.

Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 departmental collaboration environment: Technical case study
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/6317aa04-5243-4776-9dd35a1cbf457b52(Office.14).aspx):This article describes an actual SharePoint Server 2010
environment at Microsoft. Use this document to compare to your planned workload and usage
characteristics.

Designing Large Lists and Maximizing List Performance
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=191156&clcid=0x409): This white paper provides guidance
on performance of large document libraries and lists in SharePoint Server 2010.

Metadata-based routing and storage overview (SharePoint Server 2010): This article contains
information to help solution planners and designers understand how metadata-based routing and
storage using the Content Organizer feature in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 can be used as
part of a comprehensive document management solution.

Metadata navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010): This article contains information to help
solution planners and designers understand how the Metadata Navigation and Filtering feature in
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 can be used as part of a comprehensive document management
solution.

Document library planning (SharePoint Server 2010): This article describes how to plan document
libraries and integrate libraries into a Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 document management
solution.

Plan managed metadata (SharePoint Server 2010): Articles in this section explain key concepts
about managed metadata in SharePoint Server 2010. Additional articles provide guidance about
how to identify managed metadata for your solution, and how to determine the services and
connections that you must have to implement your solution.
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Document Sets planning (SharePoint Server
2010)
This article describes Documents Sets and provides guidance on how you can integrate them with your
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 document management solution.
In this article:

About documents sets

Administering Document Sets

Planning Document Set content types

Worksheets
About documents sets
Document Sets is a new feature in SharePoint Server 2010 that enables an organization to manage a
single deliverable, or work product, which can include multiple documents or files. A Document Set is a
special kind of folder that combines unique Document Set attributes, the attributes and behavior of
folders and documents, and provides a user interface (UI), metadata, and object model elements to
help manage all aspects of the work product.
For teams and users in many organizations, a set of documents, or a work product, is needed to better
manage a project or deliverable. For example, a legal team might need to collect, create, and manage
various documents, photos, and audio files that are related to a particular case. Or, a sales team might
need to compile documents from various sources to create and manage a request for proposal (RFP)
for a potential client. Documents Sets provide those teams and users with the ability to manage those
sets of documents as a single collection, deliverable, or work product. Document Set owners can then
create a custom Welcome Page that can display the items included and important information about the
work product.
In SharePoint Server 2010, organizations that want to create and manage Document Sets consistently
can configure a Document Set content type for each work product they typically create. A Document
Set content type can then define approved content types, attributes, default items, columns, workflows,
and policies. Additional customized Document Set content types can then be created from the parent
content type, each inheriting properties and settings from the parent Document Set content type. After a
content type is added to a library, users can then create a Document Set that will inherit the attributes of
the Document Set content type by using the New command. A Document Set content type provides
additional settings that enable you to specify allowed content types, default content, shared columns,
Welcome Page columns, and default Welcome Page view.
For more information about content types, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server
2010).
For more information about how to create and manage Document Sets in SharePoint Server 2010, see
Document Sets in SharePoint Server 2010 Help.
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=186368&clcid=0x409).
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Administering Document Sets
Document Sets in SharePoint Server 2010 share many of the same attributes and properties as folders.
However there are some important considerations you should be aware of when planning a Document
Set solution.

There is no limit on the number of documents that can exist in a Document Set. However, display
load times may be limited by the list view threshold which by default is set at 5,000 items. Folders
are not allowed in document sets, and metadata navigation cannot be used in a Document Set.
Therefore, it is important to consider the possibility of exceeding list view thresholds and navigation
design concerns when you determine how many items should exist in a Document Set. In addition,
when you use the Send to feature with a Document Set, the sum for all documents in a Document
Set cannot be larger than 50MB. For a collection or work product with a very large number of items,
a folder structure in a document library may be a better solution.

There is no limit on the number of Document Sets that can exist in a document library. However,
the number of Document Sets that can appear in lists will be limited by the list view threshold.

When using shared metadata, if there are more than 10 items in a Document Set, metadata
updates will be run by a timer job every 15 minutes.

When using Document Set routing, Document Sets that are sent to a content organizer will remain
in the drop-off library and be moved to the appropriate location by the content organizer processing
timer job, which by default runs daily.
In order to use Document Sets in a site collection, the Document Sets Feature must be enabled.
To enable Document Sets Feature for a site collection
1. On the Site Settings page, under Site Collection Administration, click Site collection
features.
2. On the Features page, for Document Sets, click Activate.
After the Document Set Feature is enabled, you can create Document Set content types.
Planning Document Set content types
You can plan Document Set content types for your solution by using the Analyze document usage
worksheet, which you can complete by using the article Identify users and analyze document usage
(SharePoint Server 2010). You can then use the Content type worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165878&clcid=0x409) worksheet to record your decisions about
each new Document Set content type that you will use in your solution.
To plan Document Set content types by using the Content type worksheet.
1. Enter Document Set in the Content Type field of the Content type worksheet.
2. Enter the site URL at which the new Document Set content type will be defined. Note that the
content types are available in the site in which they are defined and in all sites below that site.
3. Determine the parent content type Enter the parent Document Set content type in the Parent
Content Type field of the Content type worksheet. This will be either a core Document Set content
type or a custom Document Set content type that you have already planned.
232
4. Determine Document Set settings Determine and then specify the following Document Set
settings in the Content type worksheet:
a. Determine allowed content types Specify the default content types that will be allowed in
this Document Set content type.
b. Determine default content If the Document Set content type that you are creating will be
configured to automatically create default content when you create a new instance of a
Document Set, you can add files to the Document Set manually. Only files of the allowed
content types for the Document Set can be added.
c.
Determine shared columns Specify whether column values for the Document Set should be
automatically synchronized to all documents that are contained in the set.
d. Determine Welcome Page columns Specify which columns should be shown on the
Welcome Page for each Document Set.
e. Determine the Welcome Page view Specify the view to display the contents of the
Document Set on the Welcome Page.
5. Determine the columns and column order In the Plan Columns table of the Content type
worksheet:
a. Enter each column that is inherited from the parent content type. In the New? column, type No
for each entry.
b. For each additional column, enter the name of a predefined column or of a column that you will
create. Enter the names of the additional columns, their types, and indicate whether they are
new.
6. In the Plan Template section of the worksheet, type None.
7. Determine the workflows If there is an available workflow that is relevant to the Document Set
content type, you can optionally associate it with the content type. The workflow can then be
initiated on any list item of that content type. For a full discussion of workflow planning, see Plan
workflows. After reviewing workflows and determining which workflows are available, enter each
workflow to associate with the content type in the Plan Workflows table of the Content type
worksheet. If the workflow is not inherited from the parent content type, enter that information in the
New? column.
8. Determine the policy A policy is a set of rules for a kind of content; policy features provide the
details of each rule, such as whether items of the content type can be printed or which actions on
the item should be audited. You can apply a policy to any custom content type. Note that you
cannot apply a policy to a core content type. For more information about policy planning, see
Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010). After reviewing policies and
determining which policy features and policy templates are available, in the Plan a Policy section
of the Content type worksheet, do the following:
a. If the parent content type has policy settings, they will apply unchanged in the new content
type. This ensures that policies, after they are set, are enforced in all relevant content types. If
the current content type is inheriting its policy settings from its parent type, in the Plan a Policy
section of the Content type worksheet, answer Yes to the question, "Is the policy defined in the
parent content type?."
b. If the current content type is inheriting a policy based on the parent content type, in the Record
the Policy Name field of the Plan a Policy section, type the name of the policy template.
Similarly, if the current content type does not inherit a policy and you want to apply a policy
233
template, in the Record the Policy Name field of the Plan a Policy section, type the name of
the policy template.
c.
If the current content type is inheriting one or more individual policy features from the parent
content type, enter each policy feature in the Feature table in the Plan a Policy section of the
worksheet. Conversely, if the current content type does not inherit a policy and you want to
associate policy features with the current content type, enter those policy features in the
Feature table. Note that you cannot associate both individual policy features and a policy by
name to a content type.
Worksheets
Use the following worksheets to record the information that is discussed in this article:

Content type worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165878&clcid=0x409)

Analyze document usage worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=165873&clcid=0x409)
See Also
Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
234
Content type and workflow planning
(SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes content types and workflows and provides guidance on planning how you can
integrate them into your Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 document management solution.
In this article:

Plan content types

Plan workflows

Worksheets
Plan content types
In this section:

What are content types?

Properties integration with the 2010 Office release

Column templates

Folder content types

Planning document content types

Planning list content types

Planning document conversions
What are content types?
A content type defines the attributes of a list item, a document, or a folder. Each content type can
specify:

Properties to associate with items of its type.

Metadata to associate with items of its type.

Workflows that can be launched from items of its type.

Information management policies to associate with items of its type.

Document templates (for document content types).

Document conversions to make available (for document content types).

Custom features.
You can associate a content type with a list or library. When you do this, you are specifying that the list
or library can contain items of that content type and that the New command in that list or library will let
users create new items of that type.
Note:
You can also associate properties, workflows, policies, and templates directly with a list or
library. However, doing this can limit these associations to the list or library and is not reusable
across your solution. In SharePoint Server 2010 site level workflows can be associated with
multiple lists or libraries.
235
Document libraries and lists can contain multiple content types. For example, a library can contain both
the documents and the graphics related to a project. When a list or library contains multiple content
types, the following apply:

By default, the New command in that list or library lets users choose from among all available
content types when they create a new item. Content type owners can configure the New command
to display only certain content types.

The columns associated with all available content types are displayed.
You can define custom content types in a site's content type gallery. A custom content type must be
derived, directly or indirectly, from a core content type such as Document or Item. After it is defined in a
site, a custom content type is available in that site and in all sites below that site. To make a content
type most broadly available within a site collection, define it in the content type gallery of the top-level
site. You can also create a custom content type in a content type hub that is defined in a managed
metadata service instance. When it is created in a content type hub, the content type will be available to
other site collections that are part of Web applications associated with that managed metadata service
instance.
For example, if your organization uses a particular contract template, in the content type gallery of the
top-level site in a site collection, you can create a content type that defines the metadata for that
contract, the contract's template, workflows required to review and complete the contract, policies that
enforce auditing of actions related to the contract, a retention period for retaining the contract, and
labels to insert in printed versions of the contract. Then, any document library in your site collection to
which you associate the Contract content type will include all of these features and will enable authors
to create new contracts based on the template.
In sites based on SharePoint Server 2010, each default list item or library item — such as Contact,
Task, or Document — has a corresponding core content type in the site's content type gallery. When
you plan content types, you can use these core content type definitions as starting points and base new
content types on existing ones as needed or modify the core types.
Content types are organized into a hierarchy that allows one content type to inherit its characteristics
from another content type. This inheritance allows classes of documents to share characteristics across
an organization, and it allows teams to tailor these characteristics for particular sites or lists.
For example, all customer-deliverable documents in an enterprise might require a set of metadata, such
as account number, project number, and project manager. By creating a top-level Customer Deliverable
content type from which all other customer-deliverable document types inherit, you ensure that required
information, such as account numbers and project numbers, will be associated with all variants of
customer-deliverable documents in your organization. Note that, if the content type owner adds another
required column to the top-level Customer Deliverable content type, the content type owner can
propagate the changes to all content types that inherit from it, which will add the new column to all
customer deliverable documents.
236
Properties integration with the 2010 Office release
In the Microsoft Office system, when a user is editing a document from a SharePoint Server 2010
document management server, a Document Information Panel is shown at the top of the document.
The Document Information Panel displays an editable form of the document's properties on the server.
SharePoint Server 2010 makes it easy to customize the property form for a content type. When you
configure a content type, you can start Microsoft InfoPath 2010, which generates a default property
form based on the properties of the content type. The default form includes the same controls, layout,
and schema that InfoPath 2010 would use if no custom form were defined. You can then customize and
deploy the form as you would any other InfoPath 2010 InfoPath form. For example, you can add your
company logo, fonts, and color scheme to a form; connect it to a custom data source; add conditional
logic; and design form features that are available to users based on their roles.
Along with editing properties in the Document Information Panel, authors who are using Microsoft Word
2010 can insert properties that are defined on the server into their documents. For example, if the
document properties include a project manager name, this name can be inserted into the title page, the
footer, or anywhere else the name is used in the document. If a new project manager is assigned to a
project, the Project Manager property can be updated on the document management server; this
updated project manager name will be reflected in every instance of this property that has been
inserted into a document.
237
Using metadata with content types
Metadata, or columns, is information about a document that is used to categorize and classify your
content. Metadata is associated with a content type as a column. Metadata can provide contextual
information about your documents by associating it with an author, subject, audience, language, etc.
Unlike properties, metadata are stored as columns and can be indexed and searched on by the
SharePoint Search engine.
Metadata added at the site collection level can be associated with content types. Using metadata with
content types allows all subsequent content types to inherit some or all of its metadata be derived from
the parent content type at the site collection level. Additional metadata can then be added at a lower
level such as a document.
238
Column templates
Each item of metadata that is associated with a content type is a column, which is a location in a list to
store information. Lists or libraries are often displayed graphically as columns of information. However,
depending on the view associated with the list, the columns can appear in other forms, such as days in
a calendar display. In forms associated with a list or library, columns are displayed as fields.
You can define columns for use in multiple content types. To do this, create them in a Column
Templates gallery. There is a Column Templates gallery in each site in a site collection. As with content
types, columns defined in the Column Templates gallery of a site are available in that site and in all
sites below it.
239
Folder content types
Folder content types define the metadata that is associated with a folder in a list or library. When you
apply a folder content type to a list or library, the New command in that list or library will include the
folder content type, which makes it possible for users create folders of that type.
You can define views in a list or library that are available only in folders of a particular content type. This
is useful when you want a folder to contain a particular type of document and you want views in that
folder to only display columns that are relevant to the document type contained in that folder.
By using the SharePoint Server 2010 object model, you can customize the New command for a folder
content type so that, when a user creates a new folder of that type, the folder is prepopulated with
multiple files and documents based on templates stored on the server. This is useful, for example, for
implementing a compound document type that requires multiple files to contribute to a single
deliverable document.
Document sets is a new feature in SharePoint Server 2010 that makes it possible for you to use
Microsoft Office 2010 to manage work products that span multiple documents. Document sets are
special types of folders that are used to manage a single deliverable, or work product, which can
include multiple documents in multiple locations. You create document sets by using extensible
templates that are provided with SharePoint Server 2010. You can also customize Document Set
templates to represent the work products that are relevant to your organization. Document sets also
include version control, which makes it possible for you to capture the state of the entire document set
at various points in its life cycle.
240
Planning document content types
Plan document content types for your solution by using the Analyze document usage worksheet, which
you filled in by using the article Identify users and analyze document usage (SharePoint Server 2010).
Use the Content type worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165878&clcid=0x409)
worksheet to record your decisions about each new content type.
Each document content type should inherit its settings directly from the core Document content type or
from a content type that is descended from the Document content type. This will ensure that the basic
columns for your document types, such as Title and Created By, are present and that you can
associate a template with the content type.
The first stage in planning document content types is to review each document type that is listed in your
Analyze document usage worksheet to determine whether an existing content type will work for that
type of document. If a core content type (such as Document) is sufficient, enter the content type name
in the Content Type column of the Analyze document usage worksheet.
After you review your list of document types to determine which ones can use core content types, plan
new document content types by using the following steps. For each content type you plan, fill in a
separate Content type worksheet.
1. Enter the document type from the Analyze document usage worksheet.
2. Enter the site URL at which the new content type will be defined. Keep in mind that content types
are available in the site in which they are defined and in all sites below that site.
3. Determine the parent content type Enter the parent content type in the Parent Content Type
field of the Content type worksheet. This will be either a core content type or a custom content type
that you have already planned.
4. Determine the columns In the Plan Columns table of the Content type worksheet, do the
following:
a. Enter each column that is inherited from the parent content type. In the New? column, type No
for each entry.
b. For each additional column, enter the name of a predefined column or of a column that you will
create. The name of a column is important, because it can communicate the column's purpose.
Therefore, even if a column of a type that you need is already defined in the Site Collection
Column gallery, you might decide to define a similar column by using a more relevant name for
your application. Along with the names of the additional columns, enter their types and indicate
whether or not they are new.
5. Determine the template In the Plan Template section of the worksheet, enter the name of the
template to associate with this content type along with its type (such as .Docx) and a brief
description of the purpose of the template. If the template is not inherited from the parent content
type, in the New? field, type No.
6. Determine the workflows Workflows attach business logic to documents and list items. You can
associate any available workflow with a content type; the workflow can then be initiated on any
document of that content type. After reviewing workflows and determining which workflows are
available, enter each workflow to associate with the content type in the Plan Workflows table of
the Content type worksheet. If the workflow is not inherited from the parent content type, enter that
information in the New? column.
241
7. Determine the policy A policy is a set of rules for a type of content and is made up of policy
features that provide the details of each rule, such as whether items of the content type can be
printed or which actions on the item should be audited. You can apply a policy to any custom
content type. Note that you cannot apply a policy to a core content type. For more information
about policy planning, see Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
After reviewing policies and determining which policy features and policy templates are available, in
the Plan a Policy section of the Content type worksheet, do the following:
a. If the parent content type has policy settings, they will apply unchanged in the new content
type. This ensures that policies, after they are set, are enforced in all relevant content types. If
the current content type is inheriting its policy settings from its parent type, in the Plan a Policy
section of the Content type worksheet, answer Yes to the question, "Is the policy defined in the
parent content type?."
b. If the current content type is inheriting a policy based on the parent content type, in the Record
the Policy Name field of the Plan a Policy section, type the name of the policy template.
Similarly, if the current content type does not inherit a policy and you want to apply a policy
template, in the Record the Policy Name field of the Plan a Policy section, type the name of
the policy template.
c.
If the current content type is inheriting one or more individual policy features from the parent
content type, enter each policy feature in the Feature table in the Plan a Policy section of the
worksheet. Conversely, if the current content type does not inherit a policy and you want to
associate policy features with the current content type, enter those policy features in the
Feature table. Note that you cannot associate both individual policy features and a policy by
name to a content type.
8. Determine document conversionsSharePoint Server 2010 supports installing document
conversion components on the server that transform documents from one format to another. For an
overview of document conversions, see Planning document conversions, later in this article.
You can associate one or more document converters with a content type. For example, if a content
type is associated with a template of type .docx, you can associate the From Word Document to
Web Page converter that is included in SharePoint Server 2010 with the content type. This makes
it possible for authors write documents of the content type in Microsoft Office Word 2007 and then
convert them to Web pages for publication.
Note:
In the SharePoint Server 2010 Central Administration pages, administrators can enable a
document converter so that it is available in any document library in a Web application. When a
converter is enabled in this way, it is not necessary to associate it with individual content types
in any site in the Web application.
In the Plan Document Conversions section of the Content type worksheet, record each document
converter to associate with the content type, specify whether the converter is new (and requires
installation), and add optional notes.
242
Planning list content types
The elements of a list content type include the columns of metadata that are associated with the
content type, along with workflows that can run on items of that list content type. Use a list content type
to define a type of list item that is unique to your solution. For example, in a customer call center
solution, in which support professionals investigate and resolve customers' technical issues, a list
content type could be used to standardize the data for each support incident and to track the incident by
using a workflow.
Worksheet action
Plan new list content types by using the following steps. For each list content type that you plan, fill in a
separate Content type worksheet. In the Document Type field of the worksheet, enter List.
1. Enter the site URL at which the new content type will be defined. Note that the Content types are
available in the site in which they are defined and in all sites below that site.
2. Determine the parent content type Enter the parent content type in the Parent Content Type
field of the Content type worksheet. This will be either a core content type or a custom content type
that you have already planned.
3. Determine the columns In the Plan Columns table of the Content type worksheet, by doing the
following:
a. Enter each column that is inherited from the parent content type. In the New? column, type No
for each entry.
b. For each additional column, enter the name of a predefined column or of a column that you will
create. Along with the names of the additional columns, enter their types and indicate whether
or not they are new.
4. In the Plan Template section of the worksheet, type None.
5. Determine the workflows If there is an available workflow that is relevant to the list content type,
you can optionally associate it with the content type. The workflow can then be initiated on any list
item of that content type. For a full discussion of workflow planning, see Plan workflows later in this
article. After reviewing workflows and determining which workflows are available, enter each
workflow to associate with the content type in the Plan Workflows table of the Content type
worksheet. If the workflow is not inherited from the parent content type, enter that information in the
New? column.
6. In the Plan a Policy section of the worksheet, type None.
243
Planning document conversions
SharePoint Server 2010 supports installing document conversion components on the server that
convert documents from one format to another. Conversions can be run either from the user interface
or programmatically, such as from a custom workflow. The relationship between source documents and
their converted counterparts is maintained. SharePoint Server 2010 includes converters that create
Web pages from Microsoft Office Word 2007 documents and from Microsoft Office InfoPath 2007
forms.
Along with providing the infrastructure on the server to install and run document converters, SharePoint
Server 2010 includes a load balancer service that you can configure to optimize the use of your server
resources. Part of planning document conversions is tuning your server farm to optimally balance the
load when documents are converted.
To be available to users, a converter must be installed on the server farm and then enabled by a server
administrator. After a converter is enabled for a server, it is available to run on source documents on
that server.
You configure document converters by using the following steps:
1. In the document usage analysis that you perform in Identify users and analyze document usage
(SharePoint Server 2010), identify candidates for document conversion — that is, documents that
are written in one format but that should be published or archived in another.
2. For each conversion your documents require, locate converter programs that you can use to
implement the conversion on your servers.
3. If needed, install the conversion programs on application (middle tier) servers in your farm.
4. Configure the launcher and load balancer services, either on the Web servers or application
(middle tier) servers.
5. Identify the points in your document life cycle at which conversions take place.
6. Identify how conversions will be implemented — either manually or by using custom solutions that
launch them.
Plan workflows
Workflows implement business processes on documents, Web pages, forms, and list items in
SharePoint Server 2010. They can be associated with libraries, lists, or content types.
In document management, use workflows to route documents from person to person so that they can
each complete their document management tasks, such as reviewing documents, approving their
publication, or managing their disposition. Also, use custom workflows to move documents from one
site or library to another. For example, you can design a workflow to copy a document from one site to
another when the document is scheduled to be archived.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes workflows that address the following document management needs:

Collect Feedback Sends a document for review.

Approval Sends a document for approval, often as a prerequisite to publishing it.

Disposition Manages document expiration and disposition.

Collect Signatures Routes a document for signatures.

Translation Manages the translation of a document into one or more languages.
244

East Asian Document Approval Routes a document for approval by using stamp signatures and
a group-oriented consensus process.
Associate a workflow with a content type when you want to make that workflow available whenever that
content type is in use. For example, a purchase order content type could require approval by a
manager before completing the transaction. To ensure that the approval workflow is always available
when a purchase order is initiated, create a Purchase Order content type and associate the approval
workflow with it. Then add the Purchase Order content type to any document libraries in which
purchase orders will be stored.
To plan workflows for your document management solution, analyze each document content type you
plan to implement and identify the business processes that need to be available to run on content of
that type. Then identify the workflows you will need to make available for that content.
Worksheet action
In the Plan Workflows section of the Content type worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165878&clcid=0x409), enter the name of each workflow and its
purpose, and indicate whether a new (custom) workflow is needed to implement the process.
The following is a sample table that analyzes workflows for a contract content type:
Contract Process
Contract Workflow
New?
Review drafts.
Collect feedback
No
Get approval from the manager and the legal counsel.
Approval
No
Resolve open issues.
Issue tracking
No
Get signatures.
Collect signatures
No
Worksheets
Use the following worksheets to record the information that is discussed in this article:

Content type worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165878&clcid=0x409)

Analyze document usage worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=165873&clcid=0x409)
245
Information management policy planning
(SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes how you can plan and integrate information management policies with your
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 document management solution.
In this article:

Information management policies and policy features

Information management policy reporting

Information management policy integration with Office system applications

Policy features available in SharePoint Server 2010

Plan document policies
Information management policies and policy features
An information management policy is a set of rules for a type of content. Each rule in a policy is a policy
feature. For example, an information management policy feature could specify how long a type of
content should be retained, or it could provide document auditing. Information management policies
enable you to control who can access your organizational information, what they can do with it, and
how long the information should be retained.
Note:
In this article, the term, policy, refers to information management policy unless otherwise
specified.
Policies can be implemented to help an organization comply with legally mandated requirements, such
as the need to retain records. For example, a Human Resources policy, used in an organization to
ensure that employee records are handled in accordance with legally recommended guidelines, could
include the following policy features:

Auditing, to record the editing and viewing history of each employee-related document.

Retention, to ensure that work-in-progress content is not kept for an unnecessarily long period of
time.

Labels, to ensure that physical copies of each document are properly identifiable.

Print Restrictions, to ensure that sensitive employee-related documents are printed only on secure
printers. Note that this is an example of a custom policy feature that must be implemented by using
the Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 object model or acquired from a third-party software vendor.
Policy features are implemented as programs that run on SharePoint Server 2010. They can be
enabled and configured by a server administrator and, when they are enabled, they can be used by site
administrators to define policies. SharePoint Server 2010 includes policy features to help you manage
your content. By using the SharePoint Server 2010 object model, you can design and install custom
policy features that meet unique enterprise needs.
A policy feature might use one or more policy resources, which are programs that provide some
functionality to a policy feature. For example, a policy resource for a Barcode Generation policy feature
could provide the unique barcode value. You can develop custom policy resources and install them to
support policy features.
246
When your organization uses the Microsoft Office system client applications along with SharePoint
Server 2010, policies are enforced both on the server and in the client applications. This is done
transparently; policy features that apply to a document are described in a policy statement that is
associated with the document, and policy-aware applications prevent users from doing tasks that
violate the document's policy.
To implement a policy, associate it with content types, libraries, or lists in sites.
Note:
In the Site Content Type Gallery, you can apply a policy to any custom content type, but you
cannot apply a policy directly to a core content type.
You can associate a policy with a library, list, or content type in the following ways:

Associate policy features with a Site Collection policy, and then associate that policy with a
content type or with a list or library. The top-level site of a site collection includes a Site
Collection Policies gallery where administrators of the top-level site can create new policies. After
creating a Site Collection policy, you can export it so that administrators of other site collections can
import it into their Site Collection Policies galleries. This makes it possible for you to standardize
policies across your organization.
When a Site Collection policy is associated with a content type and that content type is associated
with a list or library, the owner of the list or library cannot modify the Site Collection policy in the list
or library. This ensures that policies that are assigned to a content type are enforced at each level
of the site hierarchy.

Associate a set of policy features directly with a content type, and then add that content
type to one or more lists or libraries. To ensure that a policy that is created by using this
method will be used in an entire site collection, associate it with a content type in the Site Content
Type gallery of the top-level site collection. Then every item of that content type in the site
collection, and every item of a content type that inherits from the original content type, will have the
policy. When you use this method of associating a policy with a content type, it is harder to reuse
the policy in other site collections, because policies created by using this method cannot be
exported.
Note:
To more tightly control which policies are in use in a site collection, site collection
administrators can disable the ability to set policy features directly on a content type. When
setting policy features on a content type is restricted, content type designers can only
associate policies from the Site Collection Policies gallery with content types. To learn more
about setting policy features for a site collection, see Create, delete, and view site
collections.

Associate a set of policy features directly with a list or library. You can only use this method
if the list or library does not support multiple content types. This method of creating a policy is only
useful for a narrowly defined policy that applies to a single list or library.
Note:
To more tightly control which policies are in use in a site collection, site collection
administrators can disable the ability to set policy features directly on a library. When
setting policy features on a library is restricted, content type designers can only associate
policies from the Site Collection Policies gallery with libraries.
247
Information management policy reporting
To track how policies are being used in each Web application in your solution, you can configure
information management policy usage reporting by using SharePoint Server 2010 Central
Administration. Information management policy reports help you monitor how well your organization
uses policies. Because policies are often implemented to help an organization comply with particular
regulations, frequent monitoring of policy usage can help you ensure that your organization is
compliant.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes a default policy report template in XML-spreadsheet format, or you
can create a custom report template based on the same schema. You can specify a schedule for policy
reporting and you can generate reports manually.
A policy report is generated for each site collection in a Web application. For each list and library, a
report records:

The number of items that use each policy.

For each policy in use, either based on a Site Collection policy or configured in a content type, a
summary of that policy — its description, along with a description of each policy feature.
Information management policy integration with
Office system applications
SharePoint Server 2010 information management policies are exposed in the Office system client
applications. When you configure an information management policy on the server, you can write a
policy statement that informs information workers about the policies that are enforced on documents.
For example, the policy statement might indicate that a document will expire after a certain period of
time, or that it contains sensitive information that should not be communicated outside the company.
The statement might even provide a contact name if the information worker needs more information
about the policy.
The policies that are included in SharePoint Server 2010 are exposed to information workers through
features of the Office system client applications. For example, when a label is defined as part of a
policy, users can insert labels into documents from the Insert menu of most the Office system client
applications. If a label is required, users are prompted when they are saving documents in which a label
has not been inserted. Similarly, users will be able to insert barcodes from client applications if that
policy feature is part of the document's policy.
Custom policy features can also be integrated in the Office system client applications. However, you
must implement policy-specific behaviors that you want to be available from the Office system client
applications, and you must give users a way to install these behaviors on their client computers via
mechanisms such as add-ins to make them available from the Office system client applications. For
example, if you implement a custom policy feature that restricts the printers that can be used to print a
content type, you must provide a custom add-in for Microsoft Office client applications to enforce the
restriction from these applications.
Policy features available in SharePoint Server 2010
This section describes the policy features that are included in SharePoint Server 2010.
248

Expiration The Expiration policy feature helps dispose of or process content in a consistent way
that can be tracked and managed. When a content item expires, you can specify that it is disposed
of or that a custom workflow is run. You can set content of a specific type to expire on a particular
date, based on a date or time columns that are associated with the content type, list, or library, or
within a calculated amount of time after some document activity (such as creating the document).

Auditing The Auditing policy feature logs events and operations that are performed on documents
and list items. You can configure Auditing to log events such as:

Editing a document or item

Viewing a document or item

Checking a document in or out

Changing the permissions for a document or item

Deleting a document or item

Labeling The Labeling policy feature specifies a label to associate with a type of document or list
item. Labels are searchable text areas that SharePoint Server 2010 generates based on properties
and formatting that you specify. For example, in a law firm, a document related to a legal matter
could include a label containing the clients' names, the case number, and the attorney assigned to
the matter. Labels are particularly useful in printed versions of documents as a way to display
document properties in printed copy. Along with using labels for documents, you can associate a
label with a list item and include that label in views of the list.

Barcode The Barcode policy feature enables you to track physical copies of a document by
creating a unique identifier value for a document and inserting a barcode image of that value in the
document. By default, barcodes are compliant with the common Code 39 standard (ANSI/AIM BC11995, Code 39), and you can plug in other barcode providers by using the policies object model.
Plan document policies
When you plan your solution's policies, first determine organization-wide policy needs, and then design
Site Collection policies to meet those needs and distribute those policies for inclusion in the Site
Collection Policy galleries of all relevant site collections. This might require planning custom policy
features. Note that, if your policy requires custom policy features and resources, those features and
resources must be installed and enabled on all server farms on which your solution is used.
A typical example of an organization-wide policy is one that is designed to promote best practices in
auditing and retaining product specifications across the divisions of an organization. A single Site
Collection policy is designed to be applied to all product specifications so that they are consistently
audited and retained. After defining the Site Collection policy and testing it, it is exported and then
imported to Site Collection Policy galleries of other site collections in which product specifications are
stored. It is then associated with all product specification content types in the various site collections to
impose the policy on all product specifications.
Worksheet action
To help you plan document policies, use the Policy worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165883&clcid=0x409). Create a separate worksheet for each
policy you are planning. In each worksheet, record:
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Worksheet action

The purpose of the policy, such as "Policy to apply to all product specifications."

The site collection in which the policy is being designed.

The scope at which the policy is being defined. If the policy is to be used across multiple site
collections, define it in the Policy Template gallery. Define a policy for a content type if the policy is
more narrowly targeted to a single content type in a site collection.

Each policy feature, such as "Expiration" or "Auditing." Optionally enter configuration notes for a
policy feature. For example, for Auditing, you could specify which actions to audit, such as "Editing
Items." If this is a custom policy feature, list all resources that must be installed for the feature to
work.

All content types that the policy will be applied to and list all site collections in which the content
types are in use.
Worksheet
Use the following worksheet with this article to help plan your deployment:

Policy worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165883&clcid=0x409)
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Versioning, content approval, and check-out
planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes how to plan to use versioning, content approval, and check-out in Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010 to control document versions throughout their lifecycle.
In this article:

About versioning, content approval, and check-outs

Plan versioning

Plan content approval

Plan check-out and check-in

Worksheet
About versioning, content approval, and check-outs
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 includes the following features that can help you control documents
in a document library:

Versioning is the method by which successive iterations of a document are numbered and saved.

Content approval is the method by which site members with approver permissions control the
publication of content.

Check-out and Check-in are the methods by which users can better control when a new version of
a document is created and also comment on changes made when a document is checked in.
You configure settings for the content control features discussed in this article in document libraries. To
share these settings across libraries in your solution, you can create document library templates that
include your content control settings; this ensures that new libraries will reflect your content control
decisions.
Plan versioning
The default versioning control for a document library depends on the site collection template. However,
you can configure versioning control for a document library depending on your particular requirements.
Each document library can have a different versioning control that best suits the type of documents in
the library. SharePoint Server 2010 has three versioning options:

No versioning Specifies that no previous versions of documents are saved. When no versioning
is in use, previous versions of documents are not retrievable, and document history also is not
retained because comments that accompany each iteration of a document are not saved. Use this
option on document libraries containing unimportant content or content that will never change.

Create major versions Specifies that numbered versions of documents are retained using a
simple versioning scheme (such as 1, 2, 3). To control the effect on storage space, you can specify
how many previous versions to keep, counting back from the current version.
In major versioning, each time a new version of a document is saved, all users with permissions to
the document library will be able to view the content. Use this option when you do not want to
251
differentiate between draft versions of documents and published versions. For example, in a
document library that is used by a workgroup in an organization, major versioning is a good choice
if everyone on the team needs to be able to view all iterations of each document.

Create major and minor (draft) versions Specifies that numbered versions of documents are
retained by using a major and minor versioning scheme (such as 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 2.0, 2.1). Versions
ending in .0 are major versions and versions ending with non-zero extensions are minor versions.
Previous major and minor versions of documents are saved along with current versions. To control
the effect on storage space, you can specify how many previous major versions to keep, counting
back from the current version. You also can specify how many major versions being kept should
include their respective minor versions. For example, if you specify that minor versions should be
kept for two major versions and the current major version is 4.0, then all minor versions starting at
3.1 will be kept.
In major and minor versioning, any user with read permissions can view major versions of
documents. You can specify which users can also view minor versions. Typically, grant users who
can edit items permissions to view and work with minor versions, and restrict users with read
permissions to viewing only major versions.
Use major and minor versioning when you want to differentiate between published content that can
be viewed by an audience and draft content that is not yet ready for publication. For example, on a
human resources Web site that describes organizational benefits, use major and minor versioning
to restrict employees' access to benefits descriptions while the descriptions are being revised.
Note:
Regardless of the versioning control you choose, it is important to consider the effect that
retaining multiple versions of the same document can have on storage space.
Worksheet action
In the Document libraries worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165874&clcid=0x409), for
each document library listed, specify the versioning scheme to use: none, major, or major and minor.
Plan content approval
Use content approval to formalize and control the process of making content available to an audience.
For example, an enterprise that publishes content as one of its products or services might require a
legal review and approval before publishing the content. Content publishing can also be scheduled
depending on the document state. For more information, see Plan content approval and scheduling.
A document draft awaiting content approval is in the Pending state. When an approver reviews the
document and approves the content, it becomes available for viewing by site users with read
permissions. A document library owner can enable content approval for a document library and
optionally can associate a workflow with the library to run the approval process.
The way that documents are submitted for approval varies depending on the versioning settings in the
document library:

No versioning If no versioning is in use and changes to a document are saved, the document's
state becomes Pending. SharePoint Server 2010 keeps the previous version of the document so
users with read permissions can still view it. After the pending changes have been approved, the
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new version of the document is made available for viewing by users with read permissions and the
previous version is not retained.
If no versioning is in use and a new document is uploaded to the document library, it is added to the
library in the Pending state and is not viewable by users with read permissions until it is approved.

Create major versions If major versioning is in use and changes to a document are saved, the
document's state becomes Pending and the previous major version of the document is made
available for viewing by users with read permissions. After changes to the document are approved,
a new major version of the document is created and made available to site users with read
permissions, and the previous major version is saved to the document's history list.
If major versioning is in use and a new document is uploaded to the document library, it is added to
the library in the Pending state and is not viewable by users with read permissions until it is
approved as version 1.

Create major and minor (draft) versions If major and minor versioning is in use and changes to
a document are saved, the author has the choice of saving a new minor version of the document as
a draft or creating a new major version, which changes the document's state to Pending. After the
changes to the document are approved, a new major version of the document is created and made
available to site users with read permissions. In major and minor versioning, both major and minor
versions of documents are kept in a document's history list.
If major and minor versioning is in use and a new document is uploaded to the document library, it
can be added to the library in the Draft state as version 0.1, or the author can immediately request
approval in which case the document's state becomes Pending.
Worksheet action
In the Document libraries worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=165874&clcid=0x409),
specify whether or not to require content approval for each document library listed.
Plan check-out and check-in
You can require that users check out documents from a document library before editing the documents.
It is always recommended to do this. The benefits of requiring check-out and check-in include:

Better control of when document versions are created. When a document is checked out, the
author can save the document without checking it in. Other users of the document library will not be
able to see these changes and a new version is not created. A new version (visible to other users)
is only created when an author checks in a document. This gives the author more flexibility and
control.

Better capture of metadata. When a document is checked in, the author can write comments that
describe the changes made to the document. This promotes creation of an ongoing historical
record of the changes made to the document.
If your solution requires that users check in and check out documents when editing them, the Microsoft
Office 2010 client applications include features that support these actions. Users can check out
documents, undo check-outs, and check in documents from Office 2010 client applications.
When a document is checked out, it is saved in the user's My Documents folder in a subfolder named
"SharePoint Drafts." This folder is displayed in the Office 2010 client applications. While the document
253
is checked out, the user can only save edits to this local folder. When the user is ready to check the
document in, the document is saved back to the original server location.
From Office 2010 client applications, users can optionally choose to leave checked-out documents on
the server by changing content editing options.
Worksheet action
In the Document libraries worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=165874&clcid=0x409),
specify whether or not to require check-in and check-out for each document library listed.
Worksheet
Use the following worksheet to help you plan versioning, content approval, and check-outs:

Document libraries worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=165874&clcid=0x409)
See Also
Document library planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
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Co-authoring overview (SharePoint Server
2010)
In today‘s highly connected work environment, documents created by multiple authors, editors, and
stakeholders are becoming the rule, instead of the exception. Organizations look to the communication
and collaboration capabilities of Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 to help them foster communication
and collaboration between end-users while reducing administration required to support it. Microsoft
Office 2010 continues this trend with co-authoring functionality for Microsoft PowerPoint 2010, Microsoft
Word 2010, and Microsoft OneNote 2010 documents on SharePoint Server 2010.
Co-authoring removes barriers to server-based document collaboration and helps organizations to
reduce the overhead associated with traditional document sharing through attachments. Co-authoring
simplifies collaboration by enabling multiple users to work productively on the same document without
intruding on one another‘s work or locking one another out. This functionality requires no additional
server setup and is the default state for documents stored in SharePoint Server 2010. Co-authoring
functionality is managed by using the same tools and technologies that are already used to manage
SharePoint, helping to minimize the impact on administrators.
In this article:

Co-authoring functionality in SharePoint Server 2010

Understanding the end-user experience

Important considerations

OneNote Notebooks

Software Version Requirements

Co-Authoring in a mixed Office environment

Performance and scalability
Co-authoring functionality in SharePoint Server 2010
In traditional collaboration, documents are shared via e-mail attachments. Tracking versions and edits
from multiple authors is difficult and time-consuming for users. E-mail systems have to contend with
storing multiple copies of the same document, not to mention increased network traffic as documents
are sent repeatedly.
The use of SharePoint to store documents for collaboration has reduced these problems by providing
consistent access to up-to-date versions of documents, the ability to track previous versions, and
centralized management. Storing a single document, instead of many attachments, also reduces
network and storage overhead.
But this solution hasn‘t been perfect. When one author has a document open, other authors cannot
work on it. If someone forgets to close a document or check it in, other users may be locked out
indefinitely, a situation that often requires a call to the IT department to resolve the problem.
Co-authoring in SharePoint Server 2010 addresses these issues by making it possible for multiple
users to work on a document, at any time, without interfering with each other's changes. This approach
streamlines many common document-collaboration scenarios. For example:
255

Two or more authors are working on different parts of a composite document. While one author
works on his section of the document, another author can work on hers, without either interrupting
their work.

Several authors are working on a composite slide show. Each author can add slides to the
presentation and edit them, instead of working in isolation and trying to merge several documents
and make them consistent all at the same time.

A document is sent out to several experts and stakeholders, each of whom has some edits or
additions. No user‘s edits are lost, because they are all working on a central, server-stored
document.
Understanding the end-user experience
Co-authoring is easy to use from the end user‘s point of view. When a user wants to work on a
document in Word 2010, PowerPoint 2010, or OneNote 2010, he or she merely opens it from
SharePoint Server, as usual. If another user already has the document open, both users are able to edit
the document at the same time; access to the document is not blocked and no error appears
In Word 2010 and PowerPoint 2010, saving to a document notifies other users viewing the document
that there are new edits. Those users can refresh their view immediately to see those changes or
continue their work and refresh later to see the latest edits. The authors can also see one another‘s
work, and everyone knows who is working on the document. SharePoint Server 2010 versioning and
tracking tools protect the document so that authors can roll back unwanted changes. When Office
Communication Server is available, users can see the online status of fellow co-authors and initiate
instant messaging conversations without leaving the document.
With OneNote 2010, shared notebooks enable users to share notes seamlessly. When a user edits a
page of the notebook, those edits are automatically synchronized with other users of that notebook to
ensure everybody has a complete set of notes. Edits made by multiple users on the same page appear
automatically, enabling near real-time collaboration. Versioning and other shared features in OneNote
make it possible for users to roll back edits, show what edits are new, and determine who made a
specific edit.
The Excel 2010 client application does not support co-authoring workbooks in SharePoint Server 2010.
However, the Excel client application does support non-real-time co-authoring workbooks stored locally
or on network (UNC) paths by using the Shared Workbook feature. Co-authoring workbooks in
SharePoint is supported by using the Microsoft Excel Web App, included with Office Web Apps. Office
Web Apps is available to users through Windows Live and to business customers with Microsoft Office
2010 volume licensing and document management solutions based on Microsoft SharePoint 2010
Products. For more information, see Office Web Apps (Installed on SharePoint 2010 Products)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/8a58e6c2-9a0e-4355-ae41-4df25e5e6eee(Office.14).aspx).
Important considerations
There are several factors that administrators will want to consider when planning how to use coauthoring in their environment.
Co-authoring functionality in SharePoint is designed to be easy to set up and requires minimal effort to
manage. However there are several things to consider when you set up and manage co-authoring:
256

Permissions – For multiple users to be able to edit the same document, users need edit
permissions for the document library where that document is stored. The simplest way to ensure
this is to give all users access to the SharePoint site where documents are stored. In cases in
which only a subset of users should have permission to co-author documents in a particular library,
SharePoint permissions can be used to manage access.

Versioning – SharePoint Server versioning keeps track of changes to documents while they are
being edited, and even stores previous versions for reference. By default, this feature is turned off
in SharePoint Server 2010. SharePoint Server 2010 supports two kinds of versioning, major and
minor. It is best that minor versioning not be turned on for document libraries used for co-authoring
in OneNote, as this may interfere with the synchronization and versioning capabilities that are part
of the product. This limitation only applies to minor versioning; major versioning may be used with
OneNote.

Number of versions – The number of document versions retained affects storage requirements on
the server. This number can be tuned in the document library settings to limit the number of
versions retained. OneNote notebooks that are frequently updated may result in many versions
being stored on the server. To avoid using unnecessary disk space, we recommend that an
administrator set the maximum number of versions retained to a reasonable number on document
libraries used to store OneNote notebooks.

Versioning period – The versioning period determines how often SharePoint Server will create a
new version of a Word or PowerPoint document that is being co-authored. Setting this period to a
low value will capture versions more often, for more detailed version tracking, but may require more
server storage. The versioning period does not impact OneNote notebooks. This value can be
altered by adjusting the coAuthoringVersionPeriod property on the server. For more information
about adjusting this setting, see Configure the co-authoring versioning period (SharePoint Server
2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/59f3af85-89f9-43ba-b36428a810cae42e(Office.14).aspx).

Check out – When a user checks out a document for editing, this locks the document for editing to
only that user, which prevents co-authoring. Require Check Out should not be enabled in document
libraries where co-authoring will be used. By default, Require Check Out is not enabled in
SharePoint Server 2010. Users should not check out documents manually when co-authoring is
being used.
OneNote Notebooks
Unlike Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft OneNote stores version information within
the file itself. For this reason, administrators should follow these recommended practices when storing
OneNote notebooks in a SharePoint Server document library:

Do not enable minor versioning. By default, minor versioning is not enabled in SharePoint Server
2010.

If major versioning is enabled, set a reasonable maximum number of versions to store. By default,
major versioning is not enabled in SharePoint Server 2010.
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Software Version Requirements
For users to co-author documents by using Office 2010, those documents must be stored in SharePoint
Server 2010 or SharePoint Foundation 2010. To take advantage of the co-authoring functionality, users
must have Word 2010, PowerPoint 2010, or OneNote 2010.
Note:
The co-authoring functionality in Office 2010 can also be used without SharePoint Server 2010
or SharePoint Foundation 2010 if users have Windows Live SkyDrive accounts. Using coauthoring without SharePoint Server 2010 or SharePoint Foundation 2010 is not covered in this
article.
Co-Authoring in a mixed Office environment
Some organizations may want to use co-authoring in an environment where users have different
versions of Office.
Mixed environment that has Microsoft Office PowerPoint and Word
2007
Users of earlier versions of PowerPoint and Word can share and edit documents stored in SharePoint
Server 2010 exactly as with previous versions of SharePoint. However, they cannot use co-authoring to
work on them at the same time. To collaborate best in PowerPoint and Word, we recommend that all
users work with Office 2010. Users of Office PowerPoint and Word 2007 will not experience any
significant difference between their current experience and their user experience on Office 2010. For
instance, if Office 2007 users open a document stored in Office 2010 that is currently being edited by
another user, they will see a message that the document is being used and will be unable to edit it. If no
other user is editing the document, Office 2007 users will be able to open it as usual. When an Office
2007 user opens a document, this creates a lock on the document and prevents users of Office 2010
from using co-authoring to edit the document. This behavior matches earlier versions of SharePoint.
Mixed environment that has Microsoft Office OneNote 2007
OneNote 2010 is backward compatible with the Office OneNote 2007 file format and supports coauthoring with OneNote 2007 users. In mixed environments, notebooks must be saved in the OneNote
2007 file format for OneNote 2007 and OneNote 2010 users to work on it together. By upgrading to the
OneNote 2010 file format, however, users gain several key features, including compatibility with the
Microsoft OneNote Web App that allows users without any version of OneNote installed to edit and coauthor notebooks.
OneNote 2010 includes the ability to upgrade OneNote 2007 files to OneNote 2010 files at any time,
providing an easy upgrade path for organizations that are moving from a mixed environment to a unified
environment on Office 2010.
Performance and scalability
SharePoint Server 2010 and Office 2010 applications have been designed to minimize the performance
and scalability impact associated with co-authoring in your environment. Office clients do not send or
download co-authoring information from the server until more than one author is editing. When a single
258
user is editing a document, the performance impact resembles that of previous versions of SharePoint
Server.
Office clients are configured to reduce server impact by reducing the frequency of synchronization
actions related to co-authoring when the server is under heavy load, or when a user is not actively
editing the document, further helping to reduce overall performance impact.
See Also
Co-authoring administration (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/0490bf494e23-475f-bf37-2000dca31845(Office.14).aspx)
259
Records management planning (SharePoint
Server 2010)
A record is a document or other electronic or physical entity in an organization that serves as evidence
of an activity or transaction performed by the organization and that requires retention for some time
period. Records management is the process by which an organization:

Determines what kinds of information should be considered records.

Determines how active documents that will become records should be handled while they are being
used, and determines how they should be collected after they are declared to be records.

Determines in what manner and for how long each record type should be retained to meet legal,
business, or regulatory requirements.

Researches and implements technological solutions and business processes to help ensure that
the organization complies with its records management obligations in a cost-effective and nonintrusive way.

Performs records-related tasks such as disposing of expired records, or locating and protecting
records related to external events such as lawsuits.
The articles in this section describe records management in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 and
provide guidelines for planning your records management solution. In this section:

Records management overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes records management and summarizes planning for records management.

Create a file plan to manage records in SharePoint Server 2010
This article describes the contents of a file plan and summarizes how to create a file plan for your
organization.

Plan how records are collected (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article reviews techniques that you can use to declare active documents to be records.

Physical records planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes how to plan to use SharePoint Server to manage physical records.

Planning for eDiscovery (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes how SharePoint Server supports eDiscovery.

Using a records archive versus managing records in place (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article describes the differences between managing records in a records archive and
managing records in place.

Designing for in-place records management
This article describes how you can manage records in the same SharePoint Server library as active
documents, and presents a process for determining how you will manage records in place.
260
Records management overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
In this article:

Elements of a records management system

Overview of records management planning
Elements of a records management system
A record is a document or other electronic or physical entity in an organization that serves as evidence
of an activity or transaction performed by the organization and that requires retention for some time
period. Records management is the process by which an organization:

Determines what kinds of information should be considered records.

Determines how active documents that will become records should be handled while they are being
used, and determines how they should be collected after they are declared to be records.

Determines in what manner and for how long each record type should be retained to meet legal,
business, or regulatory requirements.

Researches and implements technological solutions and business processes to help ensure that
the organization complies with its records management obligations in a cost-effective and nonintrusive way.

Performs records-related tasks such as disposing of expired records or locating and protecting
records that are related to external events such as lawsuits.
Determining which documents and other physical or electronic items in your organization are records is
the responsibility of corporate compliance officers, records managers, and lawyers. By carefully
categorizing all enterprise content in your organization, these people can help you ensure that
documents are retained for the appropriate period of time. A well-designed records management
system helps protect an organization legally, helps the organization demonstrate compliance with
regulatory obligations, and increases organizational efficiency by promoting the disposition of out-ofdate items that are not records.
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A records management system includes the following elements:

A content analysis that describes and categorizes content in the enterprise that can become
records, that provides source locations, and that describes how the content will move to the records
management application.

A file plan that indicates, for each kind of record in the enterprise, where they should be retained
as records, the policies that apply to them, how long they must be retained, how they should be
disposed of, and who is responsible for managing them.

A compliance requirements document that defines the rules that the organization's IT systems
must follow to ensure compliance and the methods that are used to ensure the participation of
enterprise team members.

A method for collecting records that are no longer active from all record sources, such as
collaboration servers, file servers, and e-mail systems.

A method for auditing records while they are active.

A method for capturing records' metadata and audit histories and for maintaining them.

A process for holding records (suspending their disposition) when events such as litigations
occur.
262

A system for monitoring and reporting on the handling of records to ensure that employees
are filing, accessing, and managing them according to defined policies and processes.
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 includes features that can help organizations implement integrated
records management systems and processes.
Overview of records management planning
This topic describes the planning steps that you should take to help ensure that the records
management system that you implement based on SharePoint Server 2010 will achieve your
organization's records management goals. The following is a preview of the records management
planning process:
1. Identify records management roles Successful records management requires specialized roles,
including the following:

Records managers and compliance officers to categorize the records in the organization and to
run the records management process.

IT personnel to implement the systems that efficiently support records management.

Content managers to find where organizational information is kept and to ensure that their
teams follow records management practices.
2. Analyze organizational content Before creating a file plan, records managers and content
managers survey document usage in the organization to determine which documents and other
items can become records.
3. Develop a file plan After you have analyzed your organizational content and determined retention
schedules, fill in the rest of the file plan. File plans differ from organization to organization, but
generally they describe the kinds of items the enterprise acknowledges to be records, indicate
where they are stored, describe their retention periods, and provide other information, such as who
is responsible for managing them and which broader category of records they belong to.
4. Develop retention schedules For each record type, determine when it is no longer active (being
used), how long it should be retained after that, and how it should ultimately be disposed of.
5. Evaluate and improve document management practices Make sure that required policies are
being applied in document repositories. For example, ensure that content is being appropriately
audited so that suitable audits are retained together with records.
6. Design the records management solution Determine whether to create a records archive, to
manage records in place, or to use a combination of the two approaches. Based on your file plan,
design the record archive, or determine how to use existing sites to contain records. Define content
types, libraries, policies, and, when it is required, metadata that determines the location to route a
document to.
7. Plan how content becomes records If you are using SharePoint Server 2010 for both active
document management and records management, you can create custom workflows to move
documents to a records archive. If you are using either SharePoint Server 2010 or an external
document management system, you can plan and develop interfaces that move content from those
systems to the records archive, or that declare a document to be a record but do not move the
document. You also create a training plan to teach users how to create and work with records.
8. Plan e-mail integration Determine whether you will manage e-mail records within SharePoint
Server 2010, or whether you will manage e-mail records within the e-mail application itself.
263
9. Plan compliance for social content If your organization uses social media such as blogs, wikis,
or My Site Web sites, determine how this content will become records.
10. Plan compliance reporting and documentation To verify that your organization is performing its
required records management practices, and to communicate these practices, you should
document your records management plans and processes. If your enterprise becomes engaged in
records-related litigation, you might have to produce these records management guidelines,
implementation plans, and metrics on effectiveness.
See Also
Create a file plan to manage records in SharePoint Server 2010
Plan how records are collected (SharePoint Server 2010)
264
Create a file plan to manage records in
SharePoint Server 2010
The file plan is the primary records management planning document in SharePoint Server 2010.
Although file plans can differ across organizations, they typically:

Describe the kinds of items the organization acknowledges to be records.

Describe what broader category of records the items belong to.

Indicate where records are stored.

Describe retention periods for records.

Delineate who is responsible for managing the various kinds of records.
This article describes the contents of a file plan and summarizes how to create a file plan for your
organization. The article also directs you to a worksheet in which you can record the file plan.
In this article:

Identify kinds of records

Complete the file plan

Worksheet
Identify kinds of records
Determining which active documents in your organization might be declarable as records requires the
collaboration of records managers, lawyers, compliance officers, and content managers. Note that,
even if your enterprise is not in a highly regulated industry, there are general laws that might obligate
your enterprise to keep records. Along with general business laws, you must evaluate legal
requirements that are specific to your enterprise.
It is beyond the scope of this article to provide more than general information about how to determine
what is a record in your organization. Most likely, your enterprise is already doing some form of records
management and has filled most of the records management roles that you need, and you might
already have a taxonomy of records.
Generally, to determine what are records in your organization:
1. Understand your enterprise's legal obligations and business needs.
2. In a collaborative effort across the divisions of your organization, analyze how active documents
are used.
3. Develop a list of the kinds of documents that should become records. For example, you might
determine that the following should be retained as records:

Contracts to rent corporate space.

Documents related to employees' benefits.

Documents related to product research and development.
4. Categorize the records. Records in the same category often have the same retention periods and
might require similar treatment in other ways.
265
Record the information that you collected. You can use the worksheet mentioned in the section
Worksheet for this purpose. Record the kind of record, the category that records of this kind belong to,
and a brief description of the kind of record.
The following is a sample worksheet:
Kind of record
Record category
Description
Benefit plans, insurance plans, pension
plans
Employee Benefit
Descriptions
Descriptions of all employee benefit
plans.
Payroll timesheets, supplementary payroll
information
Payroll Records
Summaries of hours worked,
overtime, and salary paid.
Vendor invoices
Invoices
Records of goods or services
purchased from vendors.
Product surveys, questionnaires, training
manuals, training videos
Training Materials
Provides internal or external
training.
Shipping forms, shipping reports
Shipping Records
Documents the shipment of
materials.
Press releases, newspaper articles
Press Releases
Public relations information about
products and services.
Emergency contact sheets, medical plan
enrollment forms, resumes, benefits status
reports
Personnel Records Records of individuals' employment
histories and related personnel
actions.
Complete the file plan
After you determine which documents should be retained as records and after you create a set of
record categories, complete your file plan by providing additional information about each kind of record.
Indicate the following:

How long each kind of record should be retained.

How records should be disposed of when the retention period expires.

Who is the primary records manager for records of this kind.

What kind of media are records of this kind stored in.
The following is a completed sample file plan:
Records
Description
Media
Record
Retention Disposition Contact
category
401k plans
Description of
employee benefit
plan.
Web pages
Employee
Benefit
Plans
X years
None
Kathi
Flood
266
Records
Description
Media
Record
Retention Disposition Contact
category
Insurance plans
Description of
employee
insurance plan.
Print
Employee
Benefit
Plans
X years
None
Reshma
Patel
Pension plans
Description of
employee pension
plan.
Print
Employee
Benefit
Plans
X years
None
Reshma
Patel
Payroll
timesheets
Summaries of
hours worked,
overtime, and
salaries paid.
Electronic
documents
Payroll
Records
X years
Destroy
Reshma
Patel
Supplementary
payroll
information
Summaries of sick
time, vacation
time, and other
non-salary payroll
items.
Electronic
documents
Payroll
Records
X years
Destroy
Reshma
Patel
Vendor invoices
Records of goods
or services
purchased from
vendors.
Print
Invoices
X years
Destroy
Eric Lang
Product surveys Customer
satisfaction
survey.
Web pages
Survey
Materials
X years
Archive
Molly
Dempsey
Questionnaires
Questionnaire to
determine
customer
demographics.
Print
Survey
Materials
X years
Archive
Molly
Dempsey
Training
manuals
Hard-copy training
content.
Print
Training
Materials
X years
Destroy
Molly
Dempsey
Training videos
Video training
content.
Video
Training
Materials
X years
Destroy
Molly
Dempsey
Shipping forms
Configuration of
materials
shipments
Print
Shipping
Materials
X years
Destroy
Eric Lang
Shipping
reports
Documentation of
the shipment of
materials.
Electronic
spreadsheets
Shipping
Materials
X years
Destroy
Eric Lang
Press releases
Releases about
products and
Electronic
documents
Public
Relations
X years
Archive
Molly
Dempsey
267
Records
Description
Media
Record
Retention Disposition Contact
category
services.
Information
Newspaper
articles
News about
products and
services.
Print
Public
Relations
Information
X years
Archive
Molly
Dempsey
Emergency
contact sheets
Employee
information.
Electronic
documents
Personnel
Records
X years
Destroy
Reshma
Patel
Medical plan
enrollment
forms
Employees' signup forms for
health plans.
Electronic
documents
Personnel
Records
X years
Destroy
Reshma
Patel
Resumes
Resumes
received.
Mixed
Personnel
Records
X years
Destroy
Reshma
Patel
Note:
The example earlier in this section is a sample. It is not a recommendation of any particular file
plan settings. To reinforce that this is an example and not a recommendation of any records
management policy, no retention periods are supplied.
Worksheet
You can use the following worksheet with this article to help plan your deployment:

Record categories worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=179987&clcid=0x409)
268
Plan how records are collected (SharePoint
Server 2010)
After you develop a file plan and design your records management solution in SharePoint Server 2010,
plan how active documents in your organization – electronic and hard copy – will become records. This
article reviews techniques that you can use to declare active documents to be records and suggests
one way to plan how items in your file plan will become records.
In this article:

Techniques for converting active documents to records

Completing your plan
Techniques for converting active documents to
records
You can use the following techniques convert active documents to records:

Manually declaring a document to be a record by using a Web site based on Microsoft SharePoint
Server.

Defining a policy that declares a document to be a record or sends a document to a Records
Center site at a specified time.

Creating a workflow that sends a document to a Records Center site.

Using a custom solution that is based on the SharePoint Server object model.
Creating records manually
If in-place records management is enabled for a document library, users can explicitly declare a
document in the library to be a record by editing the document‘s compliance details. When the site
collection administrator enables in-place records management, the site collection administrator
specifies who should be able to declare and undeclare records, and whether users should be able to
edit or delete documents after they become records.
If a connection to a Records Center site was created, users can manually send documents to the
Records Center site by using the Send to command. When a farm administrator configures a
connection to the Records Center site, this command becomes available on all active documents.
Depending on how the connection is configured, documents can be either copied to the Records Center
site, moved to the Records Center site, or moved to the Records Center site with a link to the document
maintained. For more information about creating a connection to a Records Center site, see Add,
modify, or delete a connection to a document repository or a records center (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/5f0402ca-90c6-4528-b1de-04d4f28fb2a6(Office.14).aspx).
Although manually sending records to the Records Center site is not a practical large-scale solution,
you can use it to supplement other methods of creating records.
269
Defining a policy
A retention policy specifies actions to take on documents at certain points in time. Policy actions occur
automatically; users do not need to start the action.
Two policy actions relate specifically to managing records: transferring a document to another location,
and declaring a document to be a record. If a connection to a Records Center site exists, you can
create a policy that sends documents to a Records Center site. The policy also specifies whether to
copy the document to the Records Center site, move it, or move it and leave a link in the document
library. If in-place records management is enabled for the site, you can create a policy that declares a
document to be a record. You can also use the SharePoint Server object model to create a custom
action.
A retention policy can have multiple stages. For example, you could create a retention policy that
deletes all previous versions of a document one year after the document was last modified, and
transfers the document to a Records Center site five years after the document was last modified.
If in-place records management is enabled for a site, the site can contain both active documents and
records. In this case, you can specify different retention policies for active documents and records. For
example, you could create a policy that declares an active document to be a record two years after the
document was created, and create a second policy that deletes a record seven years after it was
declared to be a record.
For more information about defining information management policies, see Office.com
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=191521&clcid=0x409).
Creating a workflow
When you use Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer to create a workflow, you can add an action to
send an item to a repository. By using this action, you can create workflows that send documents to a
Records Center site. You can also include other actions in the workflow. For example, you could create
a workflow that sends an e-mail message to a document‘s author requesting approval, and then sends
the document to a Records Center site. You could combine policies and workflows by creating a
retention policy that runs the new workflow one year after a document is created.
You can also use the SharePoint Server object model to create a custom workflow that copies files to
the Records Center site. A workflow that sends files to the Records Center site can be integrated into
your document management system as part of a workflow that guides a document through its life cycle.
For document types that have a predictable life cycle, such as expense reports, you could implement a
workflow that guides the document through its various stages and, as a final step, sends a copy of the
document to the Records Center site. The workflow could be triggered by creating a new document.
Using a custom solution
You can develop custom solutions that use objects in the
Microsoft.Office.RecordsManagement.OfficialFileWSProxy namespace to send content from other
data sources to the Records Center site. For more information about how to implement custom
solutions using the SharePoint Server 2010 object model, see the SharePoint Server 2010Software
Development Kit (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=166117&clcid=0x409).
270
Completing your plan
After you develop the file plan and review the methods for moving content into the Records Center site,
complete your file plan by determining how to send each kind of record to the Records Center site. The
things to consider include the following:

Is compliance enforced or voluntary?

Can you depend on the cooperation of users in your organization to comply with records
management processes? In general, avoid manual processes. However, where they are needed,
create suitable training and monitoring to ensure team compliance.

Will content be stored on SharePoint Server 2010 document management servers?

Are you maintaining physical content? Managing active physical content, such as hard copy or CDROM, and sending it to a records vault for retention (together with tracking the record in a Records
Center site) requires unique planning not described in this topic. For example, if no electronic
version of a paper document exists, you might have to track the item by using a list that has
associated policies and workflows. For a full discussion of strategies and techniques for tracking a
physical record, both while it is active and after it is sent to the Records Center site, see the article
Physical records planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
The following table shows how some records in a sample file plan will move to a Records Center site:
Documents
Description
Media
Source location
Becomes a record...
Benefit plan
Description of
employee benefit
plan.
Web pages
SharePoint Server
2010 document
library
Using a custom workflow
associated with expiration
policy
Insurance plan Description of
employee insurance
plan.
Print
Physical document
associated with list
item in SharePoint
Server 2010
By sending to a physical
vault and creating a list
item in the Records
Center site to track (using
a barcode)
Payroll
timesheets
Summaries of hours
worked, overtime,
and salaries paid.
Electronic
documents
Payroll records
server not based on
SharePoint Server
2010
Using a custom program
Product
development
files
Specifications of
products and
associated
documents.
Electronic
documents
SharePoint Server
2010 document
library
Using custom workflow
associated with expiration
policy and manually by
using Send to command
See Also
Add, modify, or delete a connection to a document repository or a records center (SharePoint Server
2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/5f0402ca-90c6-4528-b1de-04d4f28fb2a6(Office.14).aspx)
Create a file plan to manage records in SharePoint Server 2010
Physical records planning (SharePoint Server 2010)
271
Physical records planning (SharePoint Server
2010)
In SharePoint Server 2010, you can manage physical and electronic records in the same records
archive. However, you manage them in different ways. Electronic records can be stored directly in
Microsoft SharePoint Server. Physical records must be stored outside SharePoint Server, for example
in boxes in a warehouse. To manage physical records in SharePoint Server, you create a list item,
relate the list item to the physical item, and manage the list item.
This article describes how to plan to use SharePoint Server to manage physical records. It does not
contain the specific procedures to implement your plan. Before you perform the activities that are
described in this topic, you should have already created a file plan. For more information about file
plans, see Create a file plan to manage records in SharePoint Server 2010.
In this article:

Identify record types

Identify properties of each record type

Organize content types

Organize the records archive

Worksheet
Identify record types
Your file plan should identify the kinds of physical items that your organization considers to be records.
If this is not the case, update the file plan to include physical records. For each kind of physical record
in the file plan, indicate what kind of media that the records will be. For example, signed legal
agreements might be paper records; engineering models might be large-format blueprints.
For more information about file plans, see Create a file plan to manage records in SharePoint Server
2010.
Identify properties of each record type
All records of the same type should have the same properties. The properties of physical records that
you should consider in this planning step include the following:

Attributes (which will become columns in SharePoint Server)

Processes (which will become workflows in SharePoint Server)

Information management policies

Forms
For each type of record, identify the attributes that you want to capture for records of this type. These
attributes will be columns of the SharePoint Server content type that represents this kind of record.
Information that you would use to categorize records might be an attribute. Data that people search for
might also be an attribute. Other attributes of physical records tie the record in SharePoint Server,
272
represented by an item in a list, to the physical object that is stored in a physical location. The location
and some way to identify the physical object are probably attributes that you will want to capture.
As with electronic records, you probably want to apply certain policies to physical records. All records
are likely to have an expiration policy and an auditing policy. Physical records in particular might have a
policy that requires a barcode. An image of the barcode that is attached to the physical object could be
associated with the list item that represented the physical record. A labeling policy could require that
each physical object be labeled with the same attributes that are associated with the list item that
represents the physical object. For each kind of physical record, indicate whether the expiration,
auditing, barcode, and label policies are required. Also note any additional policies that are required.
A physical record in SharePoint Server (an item in a list) is only a placeholder for the actual record; it is
not the physical object itself. Therefore, it is likely that you will add processes to keep the physical items
synchronized with actions that are taken on the list items. These processes correspond to SharePoint
Server workflows. Identify the processes that should be associated with each type of record. Common
processes for physical records include the following:

Disposing of the physical record when the list item that represents the record has expired.

Moving the physical object to a storage location when a new item is added to the list.

Retrieving the physical object.
Are there any forms that should be associated with records of this type? You might need a form for
each process that you identified. Or you might use a form to provide access to the inventory of physical
records.
Use the Physical records tab of the worksheet in the Worksheet section to record the information that
you identified about each type of physical record. Do not fill in the content type for the type of record
yet.
Organize content types
The simplest way to associate content types with physical records is to have one content type for each
type of physical record. However, if multiple types of physical records share the same columns,
workflows, information management policies, and forms, you can use one content type to represent all
of the similar types of physical records.
Organize the content types. Consider creating one content type from which all other content types for
physical records will descend. This parent content type would be derived from the Item content type. To
the parent content type, add any properties (columns, information management policies, workflows, and
forms) that are common to the content types for all physical records.
There are two ways to organize the content types after you have created the parent content type.
1. Create a flat structure in which each content type that represents a type of physical records is a
child of the parent content type that you created previously.
2. Create a hierarchy, descending from the parent content type, based on the similarities between the
properties of the content types.
On the Content Types tab of the worksheet, identify each content type that represents a type of
physical record. For each content type, note its parent content type. In the Columns column, enter the
name of every column that is defined at the level of the content type. Do not enter the names of
columns that are inherited from other content types. In the Workflows column, enter the name of every
workflow that is defined at the level of the content type. In the Information Management Policies
273
column, enter the name of every information management policy that is defined at the level of the
content type. In the Forms column, enter the name of every form that is defined at the level of the
content type.
Organize the records archive
It is common to use separate archives for physical records and electronic records. However, you can
decide to have a list or lists of items that represent physical records interspersed with the document
libraries that contain electronic records.
After you have decided which records archive to store physical records in, determine how you will
organize the lists within the records archive. You can create folders within lists, and use the folders to
create a deeper organizational structure for physical records. As you determine which lists to create, be
aware that metadata navigation and workflows can both be applied to lists.
Some ideas for organizing lists and folders include the following:

By record type

In the same manner that the physical objects are organized. (For example, a folder could represent
a box, and the items in the folder could represent the objects in the box.)

By using a business-related organizational scheme, such as by project or by division

By year
Because physical records will not be moved to the records archive by using the Send to option, you
cannot use the content organizer with physical records. Instead, the records manager who creates the
physical record must put the record in the correct folder in the correct list.
In the Lists and folders tab of the worksheet, enter the URL of each list that you identified. For each
list, in the Content Types column, determine the content types that will be allowed within the list. Use
the Folder Level 1, Folder Level 2, Folder Level 3, and Folder Level 4 columns to record the
hierarchy of folders and sub-folders in the list. Add more columns if you will nest folders deeper than
four levels.
Worksheet
You can use the following worksheet to help plan how you will manage physical records:
Physical records planning worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=179986&clcid=0x409)
See Also
Create a file plan to manage records in SharePoint Server 2010
Plan content types
274
Planning for eDiscovery (SharePoint Server
2010)
Electronic discovery, or eDiscovery, is locating and producing electronic information to support events
such as litigation, audits, or investigations. If you use Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 to manage any
electronic information, you should consider eDiscovery when you plan your SharePoint Server solution.
Auditing, expiration policies, and search are considerations that you should evaluate. Your planning
decisions in these areas should be completed in advance of the possibility of any need arising for using
eDiscovery.
In this section:

How SharePoint Server 2010 supports eDiscovery

Auditing

Expiration

Search
How SharePoint Server 2010 supports eDiscovery
There are two parts to eDiscovery in SharePoint Server: finding relevant documents, and restricting
what users can do with the documents after they have been identified.
A hold is a set of documents that might be produced as part of an eDiscovery request. Within
SharePoint Server, you enable or disable the Hold and eDiscovery feature at the level of an individual
site. This feature is enabled by default in a Records Center site, and is disabled by default in all other
kinds of sites. The Hold and eDiscovery feature enables you to create and manage holds, to add items
to a hold, and to use search to discover content and copy the content to another location, or lock the
content down so that it cannot be modified or deleted.
When you perform an eDiscovery search, you can do one of two things. You can copy all documents
that are retrieved to a content organizer, that routes documents to their correct location based on the
documents‘ metadata. Or you can leave the documents in place, but lock them down. Locking down a
document prevents users from modifying or deleting the document.
To support eDiscovery in SharePoint Server, you enable the Hold and eDiscovery feature in every site
collection in which relevant information might exist. Then you configure the search service to crawl the
sites for which eDiscovery is enabled.
When circumstances occur that require your organization to produce relevant documents, an
eDiscovery process can be initiated. A records manager, an attorney, or another individual may take
the following actions to produce the required documents.
1. Create a hold to contain the relevant documents.
2. Initiate an eDiscovery search for relevant documents.
The eDiscovery search runs at a time that is controlled by the Search and Process timer job. By
default this is 10:30 PM every day. Search results are added to the hold automatically.
3. Review the items in the hold and create additional eDiscovery searches.
4. Locate documents manually, and add them to the hold.
275
5. Run reports against the hold.
Hold reports are run at a time that is controlled by the Hold Processing and Reporting timer job. By
default this is 11:30 PM every day.
6. Review the documents in the hold and remove irrelevant documents.
7. Identify specific documents in the hold for which more information is needed, and review the audit
log for these documents.
8. Deliver all documents that are associated with the hold.
Auditing
When you send a document to a content organizer, the document‘s version history is erased. To keep a
history of who changed a document and when each change was made, you will need an audit log. We
recommend that you enable the auditing policy in all site collections that contain active document
libraries. For more information about the auditing policy, see Governance overview (SharePoint Server
2010).
Expiration
Any information that an organization stores is subject to discovery. In addition, electronic documents
consume disk space. Consider implementing an expiration policy to delete documents automatically
when they are no longer needed. For more information about the expiration policy, see Governance
overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Search
When an organization has to produce documents in a litigation scenario, it must often produce them
quickly or pay a fine. Make sure that Search is configured correctly before the first time that you have to
use eDiscovery. In particular, ensure that Search is configured to crawl all sites in which you may have
to discover content.
Search engines are usually optimized to return only a few highly relevant results. In eDiscovery, the
goal of search is to return all results that match a query, not just the few most relevant results. Search
in SharePoint Server 2010 was improved to better meet the needs of eDiscovery.
To help protect against common malicious attacks, SharePoint Server 2010 searches that run for more
than a specific time are stopped. If your eDiscovery search might run for a long time, consider the
following options:

Create a more tightly scoped search. If you are searching for documents related to a potential
partnership with Contoso, Ltd., for example, consider searching for documents that contain the
word ―Contoso‖ and that were created in a specific date range, instead of only searching for the
word ―Contoso‖.

Run multiple, narrower searches. For example, assume that you are searching for documents
related to recruiting a new CEO from Fabrikam, Inc. Instead of doing one search for ―Fabrikam
(CEO, ―Anders Riis‖, recruit)‖, do three separate searches for ―Fabrikam CEO‖, ―Fabrikam ―Anders
Riis‖‖, and ―Fabrikam recruit‖.
276
Using a records archive versus managing
records in place (SharePoint Server 2010)
Prior to Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, you managed records by creating a Records Center site to
serve as an archive, then copying documents to the archive when they became records. Whether a
document was a record or not was determined by whether it lived in the records archive or elsewhere.
In Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 you can manage records in an archive, or you can manage
records in the same document repository as active documents. With the Microsoft SharePoint Server
2010 in-place approach, when you declare that a document has become a record, the record remains
in place, but Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 now manages it as a record. For example, a document
might get a different retention policy when it is declared to be a record, or users might not be able to
edit it.
A hybrid approach is also possible. For example, you could keep records in place with active
documents for two years, and then move records to a records archive when a project is complete.
As you think about whether to manage records in a separate records center or in the same
collaboration site in which the documents were created, consider the following questions:
 Is the governance of the collaboration site appropriate for managing records? Is your industry
subject to regulatory requirements that mandate records be separated from active documents?
Should the administrator of a collaboration site be trusted to manage a site that contains records?
You might want to store records in a site that uses more restricted access than the collaboration
site, or in a site that is backed up on a different schedule.
 How long will the collaboration site be in use? If records will have to be kept for longer than the
project is ongoing, choosing an in-place records management strategy means that you will have to
maintain the collaboration site even after it is no longer used.
 Will the project members need frequent access to the documents after the documents have
become records? If you use an in-place approach, project members can access documents in the
same manner regardless of whether the documents are active or are records.
 Are records managers in your organization responsible for only records, or are they responsible for
all information, regardless of whether it is active or a record? If records managers are responsible
only for official records, having a separate records center might be easier for them.
The following table describes differences between what you can do with records in a record center and
with records that are managed in-place in a collaboration site. The differences are presented from the
point of view of both records managers and employees collaborating on a project team.
Differences between a records archive and in-place records
Factor
Records archive
In-place records
Managing record
retention
The content organizer automatically
puts new records in the correct
folder in the archive‘s file plan,
based on metadata.
There may be different policies for
records and active documents based on
the current content type or location.
Restrict which users
can view records
Yes. The archive specifies the
permissions for the record.
No. Permissions do not change when a
document becomes a record. However,
you can restrict which users can edit and
277
Factor
Records archive
In-place records
delete records.
Ease of locating
records (for records
managers)
Easier. All records are in one
location.
Harder. Records are spread across
multiple collaboration sites.
Maintain all document
versions as records
The user must explicitly send each
version of a document to the
archive.
Automatic, assuming versioning is
turned on.
Ease of locating
information (for team
collaborators)
Harder, although a link to the
document can be added to the
collaboration site when the
document becomes a record.
Easier.
Clutter of
collaboration site
Collaboration site contains only
active documents.
Collaboration site contains active and
inactive documents (records), although
you can create views to display only
records.
Ability to audit records Yes.
Dependent on audit policy of the
collaboration site.
Scope of eDiscovery
Active documents and records are
searched separately.
The same eDiscovery search includes
records and active documents.
Administrative
security
A records manager can manage the
records archive.
Collaboration site administrators have
permission to manage records and
active documents.
The following table describes differences between the two records management approaches that might
affect how you manage IT resources.
Resource differences between a records archive and in-place records
Factor
Records archive
In-place records
Number of sites
to manage
More sites; that is, there is a
separate archive in addition to
collaboration sites.
Fewer sites.
Scalability
Relieves database size pressure on Maximum site collection size reached sooner.
collaboration sites.
Ease of
management
Separate site or farm for records.
No additional site provisioning work beyond
what is already needed for the sites that have
active documents.
Storage
Can store records on different
storage medium.
Active documents and records stored
together.
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Designing for in-place records management
In Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 you can manage records in an archive, or you can use in-place
records management, managing records in the same document repository as active documents. By
using in-place records management, when you declare that a document is a record, it remains in the
same location, but SharePoint Server 2010 now manages it as a record.
By using in-place records management in SharePoint Server 2010, you can:

Decide what actions will cause an active document to become a record. For example, a user could
select an option to declare a document to be a record; a workflow could run after a specific event
and turn an active document into a record; or you could define a retention policy that turns an active
document into a record after a certain time.

Restrict who can perform records-related operations. For example, you could specify that any user
can declare a document to be a record, but only records managers can edit or delete a record.

Restrict what actions users can perform on records. For example, you might prevent users from
deleting records, or from both editing and deleting them.

Specify a retention policy for active documents, and a different retention policy for records.
For more information about deciding whether to use in-place records management or a records archive,
see Using a records archive versus managing records in place (SharePoint Server 2010).
This article describes how to make the planning decisions that are required before you can implement
in-place records management. It does not explain how to implement the decisions that you make.
Before working through the steps in this article, you should already have created a file plan. For more
information about file plans, see Create a file plan to manage records in SharePoint Server 2010.
If you are using in-place records management, it is assumed that you are also using SharePoint Server
for another purpose, such as team collaboration sites. (If this is not true, consider using a records
archive.) Therefore, you should already know the content types and folder hierarchy that your existing
solution uses, or be defining these in parallel with designing your records management solution if your
other SharePoint Server solution is being developed at the same time.
In this article:

Overview of in-place records management planning

Folders or content types?

Defining content types

Organizing folders for in-place records management

General records management planning tasks

Worksheets
Overview of in-place records management planning
You can set up retention policies for records based either on content types or on the folder in which a
document is stored. Whether to organize records by content type or by location is the primary decision
that you must make when you plan for in-place records management. After you have determined how
to organize records, you design either the content types or the folder hierarchy. Then you define other
279
aspects of records management, such as auditing policies. Finally, you decide what can be done with a
document after it is declared to be a record.
If your solution will use both in-place records management and a records archive, you do not have to
plan both aspects at the same time. For example, if you base your in-place records management plan
on content types, you do not have to organize records in the archive based on content types.
Folders or content types?
You can define retention policies based on an item‘s content type or based on the folder in which an
item is located. For any given library, you must select one or the other; you cannot base retention
policies on a combination of content types and folders within the same library. Your choice will greatly
affect how you set up the site and how users use the site. It is usually simpler to base retention policies
on content types, if this works in your situation.
Consider the kinds of records that you identified in your file plan. Use the following heuristics to
determine whether to organize based on content types or on location. Follow the first heuristic that
applies to your situation.

Do all records of the same record type have the same retention policy? If so, organize based on
content types.

Do most record types consist of records with the same retention policy? Is the case of a record type
having records of different retention policies rare? If so, can you easily and logically create
subtypes so that the same retention policy applies to every record of the subtype? If so, organize
based on content types.
For example, if non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) are retained for five years; leases are retained
for 10 years; and partnership agreements are retained for 15 years but you classified them all as
legal agreements, not all legal agreements have the same retention period. But if you subdivided
legal agreements into three separate kinds of legal agreement records – NDAs, leases, and
partnership agreements – then all records of the same type would have the same retention period.

Will all records have common attributes, or metadata, that determine the retention policy? If so,
organize based on location.
For example, if every record will have a ―customer‖ attribute, and records for government
customers have a different retention policy than records for corporate customers, then organize
based on location.

Does your organization already have a folder structure that users are familiar with? Does the same
retention policy apply to all records in a folder? Can you rely on users to store documents in the
correct place in the folder structure? If all these are true, organize based on location.
If none of the previous heuristics applies, an in-place records management implementation is probably
not a natural fit for your situation. Reconsider whether using a records archive will work. If you use an
in-place approach, you have two options. The first option is to create additional content types whose
only purpose is to differentiate items with different retention periods. The second option is organize
items within folders as much as possible, and then to use sub-folders to hold items with different
retention periods. Either of these options is likely to be confusing to users.
If your organization already uses SharePoint to manage documents and you are now starting to use the
Records Management functionality, content types and a folder structure already exist. If neither of these
map well to retention policies, you will either have to convert some items to new content types or move
some items to new folders.
280
Defining content types
For each kind of record in your file plan, determine the content type or content types that records of this
kind could be. You can enter this information on the records and content types tab of the In-place
records planning worksheet.
Now consider each content type. If documents of the content type might become records, note the
retention policy that applies to records of the content type. You can use the content types and
retention tab of the worksheet for this purpose. If your solution will use a records archive in addition to
in-place records management, only note the part of the retention policy that applies to the record before
it moves to the records archive. When an item is sent to a records archive, the item‘s policies are
erased, and the item is given the policies that are specified within the records archive.
If the previous task resulted in a content type having more than one retention policy, you will have to
split the content type. Find a logical way of splitting the content type into multiple sub-types so that each
sub-type can have a single retention policy. Update your mapping of records to content types to reflect
the new content types.
Organizing folders for in-place records management
You will probably organize folders differently depending on whether users will determine where they
want to store documents or whether you will use the Content Organizer to route documents to the
correct location. These options are described in the following sections.
Option 1: Users decide where they want to store documents
If users will decide in which folder to store their documents, the folder hierarchy must make it easy for
them to place documents in the correct location. Start with the folder structure that your current
SharePoint Server solution uses, or the folder structure that you are designing for the other parts of
your SharePoint Server solution. For each folder that might contain records, determine the kinds of
records that might be in the folder. Use the record types and your file plan to determine the retention
policies that could apply to items in the folder. You can enter this information on the folders and
retention tab of the worksheet.
If the previous task resulted in a folder having more than one retention policy, you will have to create
subfolders. For each folder that could contain items with different retention policies, create a sub-folder
for each retention policy. Since users will determine where they want to store documents, there must be
an easy way to explain to users what to put in each sub-folder. If there is not, consider forbidding users
from choosing where they want to store documents and using the Content Organizer instead. Update
your mapping of record types to folders to reflect the new sub-folders.
If you have an existing SharePoint Server solution, you will probably have to move some existing
documents to put them in the folders that have the appropriate retention policies.
Determine how you will train users to place documents in the correct location and whether you will audit
where documents are put. The successful application of retention policies depends on records being
stored in the correct folder.
281
Option 2: Use the Content Organizer to determine where to store
documents
If you will use the Content Organizer to route documents to the correct folder, it is less important that
the folder hierarchy be easy for users to navigate. You can hide the folder structure from the users, and
create views that they can use to navigate. Because the Content Organizer routes documents based on
their metadata, a unique combination of metadata must apply to each folder that will contain
documents.
Examine your file plan and determine which combination of attributes corresponds to each retention
policy. It is okay if different combinations of metadata have the same retention policy. However, each
unique combination of metadata can only correspond to one retention policy. If this is not the case,
determine additional metadata to differentiate between retention policies. You can enter this information
in the first two columns of the metadata and folders tab of the In-place records planning worksheet.
Next, identify a folder to correspond to each set of metadata. Enter the name of the folder in the third
column of the metadata and folders tab of the worksheet. You will need this information when you
create the rules that the Content Organizer uses to route documents to the correct location. You will
also have to enable the content organizer to force all uploaded and new documents to go through the
drop-off library.
If you have an existing SharePoint Server solution, you probably will have to move some existing
documents to put them in the folders that have the appropriate retention policies.
Determine how you will train users to apply the appropriate metadata to documents. The successful
application of retention policies depends on all documents having the correct metadata.
General records management planning tasks
Once you plan how to structure content for in-place records management, most of the remaining
planning tasks resemble those that you would perform for a records archive. Consider the following
records management decisions.
How a document will become be a record There are several ways that a document can become a
record:

You can define a retention policy on active documents that automatically makes an active
document a record after a certain time.

You can create a workflow that makes an active document a record, and cause the workflow to be
triggered by specific events.

A user can manually declare a document to be a record.

You can configure a library so that every document that is placed in the library is converted to a
record.
How will active documents become records in your solution? If a document should become a record a
fixed time period after it is created or modified, using a retention policy is a good solution. For example,
you can specify that six months after the last time that a document is modified, the document becomes
a record. Users will not have to take any action to make documents become records; this will occur
automatically.
If there is no standard time when documents become records in your organization, there are two
possibilities. If you can specify the rules under which a document becomes a record, you can create a
workflow that evaluates a given document against the rules, and declares the document to be a record
282
when it is suitable. You can then create a retention policy that starts the workflow periodically. However,
if only users of a document know when a document should become a record, you should provide a
manual way for a user to declare a document to be a record.
Who can declare and undeclare records You can specify that anyone can declare documents to be
records, that only administrators can declare documents to be records, or that only policy actions can
declare documents to be records. If you select ―only policy actions,‖ then users cannot manually declare
a document to be a record. Documents can be converted to records only by a rule in a retention policy.
The same options are available for defining who can un-declare a record as for defining who can
declare a document to be a record.
What actions can users take on records You can restrict the actions that users can take on records
without restricting what users can do to active documents in the same library. The three levels of
restriction that you can set are as follows:

No restriction. Users can perform the same actions on records that they can perform on active
documents.

Block delete. Records can be edited, but they cannot be deleted.

Block edit and delete. Records cannot be edited or deleted.
Retention policies Your retention policies should already have been defined in the file plan.
Auditing The same auditing policies apply to both records and active documents. Determine which
actions that users might perform on a document that you want to track. You can define the auditing
policy either at the folder level or by content types. Defining auditing policies based on content types
usually results in fewer unnecessary events being logged.
Note:
All policies are removed when a record is sent to the records archive. Therefore, if you are
using a multi-stage retention policy that includes sending a record to an archive after a certain
time, the archive‘s retention policies will apply after the record is in the archive.
Workflows Will you use workflows to track any actions that are specific to records management? If so,
determine what the workflows will be, and which type of items they will be applied to. For example, you
could have a workflow requests approval from a records manager when a user tries to declare an item
to be a record.
Worksheets
You can use the following worksheet with this article to help plan for in-place records management:

In-place records planning worksheet (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=185011&clcid=0x409)
See Also
Using a records archive versus managing records in place (SharePoint Server 2010)
283
Digital asset management planning (SharePoint
Server 2010)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides digital asset management functionality, which is centered
on an asset library. The asset library lets you store and manage digital assets such as images, audio,
video, and other reusable content fragments from many applications. Content types that are designed
specifically for audio and video assets support the storage and playback of those assets in Web Parts
and Web Parts pages, and the Microsoft Silverlight 3 player is integrated with the user interface to
enhance the media playback experience for end users. Use the articles in this chapter to guide you in
planning the digital asset management features of a solution based on SharePoint Server 2010.
The articles in this chapter include the following:

Digital asset management overview (SharePoint Server 2010) describes digital asset management,
details the users of a digital asset management system, outlines key functionality for digital asset
management in SharePoint Server 2010, and summarizes potential scenarios for digital asset
management systems.

Plan for asset libraries covers the digital asset management planning process. This process
includes steps for planning for asset libraries, and describes tasks associated with planning various
aspects of a digital asset management solution, such as storage and performance, permissions
and security, metadata and Search, Web Parts, views and filters, and client support.

Digital asset management topology and architecture (SharePoint Server 2010) discusses logical
architecture and topology decisions that are related to deploying digital asset libraries
284
Digital asset management overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
This article describes digital asset management, and defines key terms used in relation to digital asset
management in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. It also explains aspects of the digital asset
management feature in SharePoint Server 2010, describes the primary users of a digital asset
management system, and outlines common scenarios for using the asset library in SharePoint Server
2010.
For more information about how to plan a digital asset management solution, see Plan digital asset
management (SharePoint Server 2010).
Increasing numbers of office workers create or reuse images and other rich media assets as part of
their daily tasks. Often, however, no common repository exists at the departmental or enterprise level
that is optimized for storing these assets. A common repository lets users easily discover and reuse rich
media assets that others have already created. The digital asset management feature in SharePoint
Server 2010 can save an organization time and other resources by providing a specialized repository
for storing and managing digital assets. Users no longer have to look for assets in multiple locations
over the network, or re-create assets from scratch. By using a centralized repository for managing
digital assets, the organization also exerts tighter control over brand-sensitive content, and can ensure
that only approved assets for products are made available to the appropriate users.
In this article:

About digital asset management

Users of a digital asset management system

Digital asset management in SharePoint Server 2010

Scenarios for using the asset library
About digital asset management
Digital asset management is the process by which an organization creates or obtains, stores,
organizes, manages, distributes, and eventually disposes of digital assets. A digital asset is an image,
audio, or video file, or other reusable rich content fragment that an organization uses in applications
across the enterprise. A digital asset management system enables users to easily create, discover and
reuse existing digital assets within the organization.
In Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 you use an asset library to store and share digital assets with
users. The asset library is a SharePoint Server 2010 library template that is customized to use content
types designed specifically for storing and cataloging rich media assets.
An effective digital asset management solution specifies:

The metadata to provide for each kind of asset

The amount of storage space that is needed for the assets, and the performance issues to consider
for serving the assets to users

Where to store assets at each stage of the life cycle of an asset

How to control access to an asset at each stage of its life cycle
285

How to move assets within the organization as team members contribute to creation, review,
approval, publication, and disposition of assets

The policies to apply to assets so that asset-related actions are audited, assets are retained or
disposed of correctly, and assets important to the organization are protected

How assets are treated as corporate records, which must be retained according to requirements
and corporate guidelines
For information about how to plan a digital asset management solution by using SharePoint Server
2010, see Plan digital asset management (SharePoint Server 2010).
Users of a digital asset management system
Users of digital asset management in SharePoint Server 2010 generally fall into one of three
categories:

Asset creators This group includes people who create individual assets, such as graphic artists,
video producers, or marketing copywriters, and who submit assets to the asset library. For
example, a graphic artist might create a product logo in multiple resolutions and sizes, and in both
color and black and white, and then upload all versions of the logo to the asset library for use by
other members of a product marketing team.

Asset managers This group includes people who manage the assets in the library. They are in
charge of the end-to-end workflow from the time that an asset is first submitted, through publication,
to the time when an asset expires. They are also in charge of managing and organizing assets in
the library. For example, an asset manager might take multiple versions of a product logo and
categorize them appropriately in the library, and add important metadata such as keywords, and set
a date after which the asset cannot be used.

Asset consumers This group includes people who have to find and use assets from the library to
create other work products. For example, Web designers can use a product logo from the asset
library when they create marketing pages for product Web sites.
Depending on the scenario, there can be crossover between these groups of users. For example, users
who have permission to upload assets to the library may also have permission to categorize and
manage the assets they submit to the archive. Asset creators can also be asset consumers if they look
for and use assets that are added to other work products, which in turn are uploaded as separate
assets. For example, a video producer might use a product logo while making a marketing video for a
product, and then upload the video to the library as a separate asset.
Digital asset management in SharePoint Server 2010
For the asset library that is central to the new digital asset management functionality, SharePoint
Server 2010 provides a library template called Asset Library that is customized to use new image,
audio, and video content types designed specifically for storing and cataloging rich media assets.
These new content types use new column types such as Preview, Picture Size, Date Picture Taken,
and Length (seconds) that contribute to the metadata for a particular asset. The asset library also has a
preview mode that displays a thumbnail and some of this metadata when you hover the pointer over an
asset. Enterprise keywords can be assigned to assets to make them more easily found through search
queries. Keywords can be assigned by asset creators when a new asset is uploaded, or can be added
later by an asset manager. Users can rate assets, a capability that provides additional metadata for
286
assets. The metadata can then be used when assets are displayed in a Web Part. For example, if you
have a library of training videos that users have viewed and rated, you can use a Web Part to display
the top-rated videos on a Web page.
Asset creators and managers work directly in the asset library to upload, categorize and manage
assets. Asset consumers can browse the library to find assets for inserting into projects in other
applications. Consumers can browse an asset library from Microsoft Office applications and insert an
asset into the open application, such as Microsoft Word or Microsoft PowerPoint.
There are four ways to display digital assets to users in SharePoint Server 2010:

Allow users to browse the asset library.

Insert a Web Part into a Web page on a team site.

Use the video field control on a publishing page on a publishing site.

Use the Content Query Web Part.
The specific methods that you use to display asset to users of your digital asset management system
will vary depending on who the users are, how they have to use assets from the library, and which
methods for displaying assets are most appropriate for an asset library scenario.
In addition to the features that are part of the asset library, you can take advantage of SharePoint
Server features such as workflows, routing, rules, and policies. These features help manage the assets
as they come into the asset library, track the progress of assets, automate publication of assets on
approval, and set the expiration for assets.
Scenarios for using the asset library
The asset library can be added to any SharePoint Server 2010 site collection or site, and can be used
to provide digital assets to users in many scenarios. The following table describes possible scenarios in
which you might use a digital asset library.
Scenario
Description
Corporate
brand library
Uses the asset library to store branded corporate assets such as logos, artwork, and
other digital assets, and uses moderate-to-heavy workflows and policies to manage the
content. Creative teams can submit digital assets to the asset library where they are
reviewed and published. Content stewards manage and edit the digital assets to ensure
that they have been correctly tagged and organized. Information worker consumers and
extranet partners who have to access to official, authorized corporate logos or brand
assets use the library to find the content they need.
Divisional
portal
Uses the asset library as a repository for images and rich media files for a single portal
site. In this scenario, any contributor or designer can upload logos and images to the
library for other people to view and use. The content is generally managed as needed
by contributors, and uses minimal workflow or policy for its addition to and management
in the library. For example, the divisional portal library might have multiple contributors
but only a few approvers. Authors and Web designers of the site use content in the
library by viewing, downloading, and inserting it into their work products, such as
documents or presentations.
Team site
Similar to a divisional portal but smaller. Uses the asset library as a repository for
287
Scenario
Description
images and rich media for a single team site. In this scenario, any team member can
upload assets to the library for other team members to view and use. The content is
managed as needed by contributors, and uses very little workflow or policy for its
addition to and management in the library. Team members use content in the library by
viewing, downloading, and inserting it into their work products, such as documents or
presentations.
Corporate
archive
Uses the asset library strictly as an archive that catalogs pictures, video, documents,
and other assets that have historical value to an organization. Users can submit current
and past items, which are collected, scanned, organized, and tagged by curators who
manage the library so that other users can browse, search, and view archived content.
Divisional
media
sharing site
Uses the asset library to store audio and video files. In this scenario, anyone can
contribute to the library, and there is little or no management of items in the library.
Ratings are enabled for the library, and are combined with social tagging of assets to
drive the structure and presentation of assets within the library.
See Also
Plan digital asset management (SharePoint Server 2010)
288
Plan digital asset management (SharePoint
Server 2010)
This article describes the tasks involved in planning a digital asset management solution in Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010.
The SharePoint Server 2010 asset library, which is a kind of document library, is the core of the digital
asset management feature. This article first summarizes the asset library, and tells how to plan for it.
Next, the article describes additional tasks associated with planning various aspects of a digital asset
management solution in an enterprise.
For information about digital asset management, see Digital asset management overview (SharePoint
Server 2010).
In this article:
Asset library overview
Plan for asset libraries
Identify digital asset management roles
Analyze asset usage
Plan organization of asset libraries
Plan content types
Plan content governance for digital assets
Plan workflows
Plan policies
Other uses for an asset library
Plan for permissions and security
Plan for storage and performance
Plan for metadata and Search
Plan for Web Parts and Web pages
Plan for client support
Asset library overview
Asset libraries are collections of media files — such as image, audio, and video files — on SharePoint
Server 2010 that you share with other site users. As part of digital asset management planning, you
must determine the asset library that best fits the needs of the organization. Because the asset library is
nothing more than a SharePoint Server library with specialized content types for digital assets, you use
many of the same methods to plan a digital asset management solution as you use to plan a document
management solution.
You can use an asset library in two ways:

As a general document library for digital assets at the team level This can be as simple as a
place to store images, audio, and video files for use by your team. You might give everyone on the
289
team permissions to upload, organize and manage assets, or you might restrict the task of
organizing and managing assets to a small subset of people on your team.
Note:
SharePoint Server 2010 does not support live streaming of audio or video content.

As a centralized repository for digital assets for the organization In this situation, you use
content approval and workflow for all assets that are added to the library, and you might have
people with different roles who are responsible for separate stages of the approval process. For
example, graphic designers and audio/video producers could upload assets to the library. But a
content manager could be responsible for triaging incoming assets and approving them for
publication, in addition to assigning additional metadata to the assets.
Plan for asset libraries
The process of planning the asset libraries for your digital asset management solution consists of the
following major steps:
1. Identify digital asset management roles
2. Analyze asset usage
3. Plan organization of asset libraries
4. Plan content types
5. Plan content governance for digital assets
6. Plan workflows
7. Plan policies
8. Other uses for an asset library
Identify digital asset management roles
As with planning a document library, the first step in planning a digital asset library is to determine the
participants and stakeholders for your solution. This will help you answer questions such as who
creates digital assets in your organization, what kinds of assets do they create, who manages the
assets, and who maintains the servers on which the assets are stored? For more information and for a
worksheet to record the data that you collect, see Identify users and analyze document usage
(SharePoint Server 2010).
Analyze asset usage
After you identify who works on assets, determine the kinds of assets they work on, and how the assets
will be used. This analysis will help you determine important information such as how to structure the
asset libraries, how many libraries you will require, which content types to use for the assets, and which
information management policies to apply to the asset libraries. Because the size of most digital assets
will be much larger than standard documents, you must also plan for storage capacity. For more
information and for a worksheet to record the data that you collect, see Identify users and analyze
document usage (SharePoint Server 2010).
290
Plan organization of asset libraries
As you plan the asset libraries, you must make decisions about the libraries specifically, where to
create them, how they must be used, how many are needed, and how to organize them. You use the
same methods for planning asset libraries as for planning document libraries. This section describes
special considerations for planning asset libraries:

Determine how many asset libraries are needed

Decide where you want to create the asset library

Choose a fixed or collaborative library

Decide how to organize the asset library
Determine how many asset libraries are needed This determination, as in the earlier analysis and
planning steps, also depends on how the asset library will be used. For example, if you have individual
teams that must use asset libraries for collaboration, and who must use content governance such as
versioning while they work on assets, you can create an asset library for each team site that needs one.
You can then let the teams manage their own assets. If you want the asset library to serve as a largescale centralized repository for use by many teams, you might create a single asset library and adjust
the permissions to restrict those who use, manage, and search the library. For more information, see
Document library planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Note:
If you enable the disk-based cache for a Web application, every site collection within that Web
application will use the cache. If you do not have to have the disk-based cache for most the
sites, consider putting in a separate Web application only those site collections containing an
asset library that requires the disk-based cache.
Decide where to create the asset library Where you create the asset library depends on how you
plan to use it. For a general asset library that will be used at the team level, you might create the asset
library at the site level. For a centralized repository, you might create the asset library at the site
collection level. If the asset library will be used with a Web publishing site, place the library in the same
site collection as the publishing site so that asset files that are used by publishing pages are available
to the publishing site. Use your asset analysis to determine who creates and uses assets, and how
those assets are used. This will help you decide where asset libraries are needed in the enterprise.
Choose a fixed or collaborative library Depending on your scenario, the asset library will be either
primarily a fixed library, where completed assets are checked in and the library is read-only, or it will be
a collaborative environment, where versioning is enabled for the library, and users who have
appropriate permissions are able to both read and write to existing assets.
Decide how to organize the asset library You can plan to store all assets in the root of the asset
library, and use custom views to display assets to library users based on certain criteria. You can also
use folders to hold assets based on criteria that you specify. For example, you might put all videos in
one folder and audio files in another, or you might create folders based on products and put all assets
related to a particular product into each folder. Refer to your asset analysis to determine the most
common scenarios for how assets are used in your organization.
Plan content types
The content types included in an asset library are image, audio, and video. You can either use these
content types or create your own custom content types that are derived from them, depending on the
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classification needs of your organization. For example, you might create two separate content types for
posters and product logos, and derive the base characteristics for those new content types from the
image content type. This arrangement would let you associate separate properties for the two new
content types, specify different workflows, or set different information management policies based on
the content types. For more information, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server
2010).
Plan content governance for digital assets
You plan the appropriate degree of control for each content type and storage location for digital assets.
For example, if the asset library is a collaborative solution, you can use versioning to store successive
iterations of assets in the library, and can require users to check assets in and out before working on
assets. You can also specify an approval process by which assets must be approved before they can
be made available to an audience. For more information, see Versioning, content approval, and checkout planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan workflows
You use workflows to perform management tasks on assets in the asset library as you do with
documents in a document management library. Important questions include the following: Do assets
have to be reviewed and approved before they can be used by asset consumers? Who is responsible
for managing the expiration of assets? Are assets retained or deleted after expiration? For more
information, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan policies
For each content type to be used in your asset library, you must to plan the information management
policies that determine how assets are audited, retained, and labeled. For more information, see
Information management policy planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Important:
SharePoint Server 2010 does not automatically apply Information Rights Management (IRM)
protection to audio or video content that is stored in a SharePoint Server 2010 asset library.
Additionally, when audio or video assets stored in SharePoint Server 2010 are viewed by a
user, copies of those assets might be stored in the user‘s local browser cache. The SharePoint
Server 2010 media player supports playing IRM-protected audio and video formats where the
DRM protection was applied by an external IRM provider that is supported by Microsoft
Silverlight 3 or subsequent versions. For more information, see Digital Rights Management
(DRM) (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=154933).
Other uses for an asset library
The following table lists additional uses for an asset library in SharePoint Server 2010.
Feature
Description
Podcasts
With the new audio and video content types that are included with asset libraries, the
library RSS feed can be used for podcasting. Users can take the URL for the library
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Feature
Description
RSS feed and enter it into their podcast application to receive updates for when new
audio and video files are added to the asset library.
Suggested
Content
Browser
Locations
When using a publishing site, the URL for an asset library in a separate site can be
added to the Suggested Content Browser Locations list for the publishing site. This
will enable content creators to access the asset library when they insert assets into
Web pages within SharePoint Server 2010, or within Microsoft Office 2010 suite
applications, such as Microsoft Word.
Content
Organizer
When using an asset library as a centralized repository, consider using the Content
Organizer feature to automate the routing of assets that are uploaded to the library
by users. When the Content Organizer feature is started in Site Settings, a new
library called Drop Off Library is automatically created. This allows for the creation of
rules for how assets added to this library are routed to other libraries, such as the
asset library. For example, you can direct all audio assets into one folder of the
asset library, whereas all video assets are stored in another folder.
An advantage to using the Content Organizer is that certain metadata fields can be
required to receive user input when new assets are added. This helps control where
different types of assets are put, and reduces the work that would otherwise be
performed by content managers who are responsible for administering the asset
library and managing the assets it contains.
Published links
Administrators can add links to SharePoint sites and lists from client applications in
the Microsoft Office 2010 suites such as Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft
PowerPoint. These links appear on the My SharePoint Sites tab of the Open, Save,
and Save As dialog boxes when you open and save documents from these
applications. Users can manually add links to their published link lists by browsing to
a library and clicking Connect to Office. For more information, see Add or delete
links to Office client applications (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan for permissions and security
Planning for permissions and security in an asset library is the same as planning for permissions and
security in a document library. For information about the available default groups, permission levels,
and when to use custom groups or levels, see Determine permission levels and groups (SharePoint
Server 2010).
Plan for storage and performance
Because an asset library is a specialized kind of document library, determining storage requirements for
digital assets will resemble determining storage requirements for documents. The primary difference is
that asset libraries contain fewer assets than document libraries contain. But the assets in an asset
library are larger than those in a document library. When you plan for storage, analyze the content to
determine the number of assets that will be stored in the asset library, and the average size of those
assets. For example, if you have 50,000 assets and the average file size is 10 megabytes (MB), you
must have a minimum 500 gigabytes (GB) of storage on the database server. If you will be using the
293
disk-based binary large object (BLOB) cache, you must also make sure that the front-end Web server
has sufficient disk space available in which to store the cached files.
Depending on the type of digital asset files that will be stored in your asset library, you should enable
the disk-based BLOB cache and Bit Rate Throttling in order to provide better performance for users. It
is usually a good idea to enable the disk-based BLOB cache. When the BLOB cache is enabled, it
stores specified file types on the front-end Web server to reduce the load put on the database server
when those files are requested and served to users.
If you will be using the asset library to serve audio and video files to users, we recommend that you
always enable the BLOB cache, and that you enable Bit Rate Throttling on the server. Bit Rate
Throttling controls the rate at which audio and video files are downloaded to the client so that overall
performance on the site is not affected. Bit Rate Throttling also allows for progressive downloading and
viewing of these assets by users. For more information about the disk-based cache, see Plan for
caching and performance (SharePoint Server 2010). For information about how to enable and configure
Bit Rate Throttling, see Bit Rate Throttling Readme (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=154962).
Plan for metadata and Search
The addition of metadata that helps describe the type and content of a digital asset greatly improves the
discoverability of content in an asset library. When you plan an asset library, remember that rich media
files are not automatically searchable because they do not contain text that a search engine can index.
The metadata that is used to describe digital assets can include information such as the title,
description, author, copyright, and enterprise keywords that provide additional details about the asset.
Some metadata, such as the size and dimensions of an image, is entered automatically when the asset
is uploaded to the asset library. Other metadata, such as a text description of an image, is added
manually either by the asset creator when the asset is uploaded, or by the library manager during triage
of incoming assets or performance of administrative tasks, such as the addition of keywords or approval
status to library assets.
Plan for Web Parts and Web pages
SharePoint Server 2010 has many Web Parts and field controls that have been added or updated to
take advantage of the new content types that are included as part of an asset library. Web Parts are
added to Web zones in Web Part pages by content owners, whereas field controls are added to
publishing pages by site developers and designers. Examples of Web Parts and field controls that are
used to display digital assets include the following:

Media Web Part and field control Used to display embedded video in a Web page.

Image Web Part and field control Used to display images on a Web page.

Content by query Web Part Used to display items from all sites in a site collection, a selected
site or subsite, or a specific list or library. The query can be configured to return a list of items
based on list and content types, and can be filtered and targeted to a specific audience.
When you design Web pages for sites, consider which fields to expose to users in Web pages and Web
Parts to help users find the assets they need. You can customize the information that is displayed when
a user lets the pointer pause on an asset in the asset library by editing the Thumbnail view in the
Library Settings page.
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Plan for client support
If you want enterprise users to be able to take advantage of the rich media experience offered in
SharePoint Server 2010, install Silverlight 3 or subsequent versions on all client computers that will
access your Web sites. You must plan how and when Silverlight 3 is installed. For example, will all
users access the asset library, and must they all have the Silverlight 3 player installed? Will the
organization require a managed deployment of the Silverlight 3 client to all desktops, or will you let
users install the client on an as-needed basis? For more information about Silverlight 3, see Silverlight
Overview (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=154002).
Note:
When a user who does not have Silverlight 3 installed on a computer tries to play an audio or
video asset, that asset opens with whatever media application is set as the default player on
the computer.
See Also
Digital asset management overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
295
Digital asset management topology and
architecture (SharePoint Server 2010)
This article discusses logical architecture and topology decisions that are related to deploying digital
asset libraries. For information about digital asset management, see Digital asset management
overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
The Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 asset library, which is a kind of document library, is the core of
the digital asset management feature. Asset libraries are collections of media files — such as image,
audio, and video files — that are shared with other site users. Because the asset library is nothing more
than a SharePoint Server library with specialized content types for digital assets, the overall
architecture and topology is minimally affected. The factors that can potentially influence logical
architecture and topology decisions include the following:

The placement of digital asset libraries in the overall site structure.

The relationship between digital asset libraries and content databases in the logical architecture.

Optimizing a server farm with a binary large object (BLOB) cache or with Bit Rate Throttling.

Scaling out a server farm with dedicated databases or server hardware for digital assets, if it is
necessary, to accommodate a large volume of digital assets.
In this article:

Logical architecture for digital asset management

Components of a digital asset management topology

Typical digital asset management topology

Scaling topologies for digital asset management
Logical architecture for digital asset management
The core element of the digital asset management feature in SharePoint Server 2010 is the asset
library. You can add the asset library to any site, at any level within your solution. However, if you will
be storing a large total volume of data, such as thousands to tens of thousands of files in an asset
library, or audio or video files that in total require hundreds of gigabytes of storage space, you must
carefully plan for the location in which the asset library is created and in which assets will be stored.
For example, if you have a collaboration site in which multiple individual teams each have their own
sites but have to use a shared set of media, you might create an asset library at the top-level site to
store the assets that will be used by the individual teams. In this scenario, the content database is
shared by all sites within the site collection, so the quantity and size of the files that are stored in the
asset library might be significantly smaller than in the previous example.
The following figure shows an example of the logical architecture for when an asset library is put at the
root of a site collection and shares a content database that has other sites in the site collection.
296
As another example, for a large corporate training site which will contain training videos used by
internal employees, you might place the asset library in the top-level site of a site collection that uses its
own content database, and that has no other sites under it in the site hierarchy. By doing this, you can
ensure that there is sufficient storage space for the files that will be uploaded to the asset library. This
also lets you plan for future expansion, because the content database is already isolated by itself, and
does not share content with any other sites in your solution.
The following figure shows an example of the logical architecture for when an asset library is put in a
separate site collection with a content database that is separate from the rest of the sites:
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The following table summarizes these two approaches. Note that you can implement a combination of
these two approaches.
Area
Single site collection
Separate site collection
Description
A digital asset library is
contained within the same site
collection as other content.
Multiple digital asset libraries
can be created within the site
structure.
A separate site collection is deployed to host a digital
asset library.
Usage
Teams can add digital asset
libraries to their team sites or
use the library contained at
the top-level site.
Teams add and use media files from the centrally
managed digital asset library.
Note:
When using a publishing site, the URL for an
asset library in a separate site can be added
to the Suggested Content Browser Locations
list for the publishing site. This will enable
content creators to access the asset library
when they insert assets into Web pages within
SharePoint Server 2010, or within Microsoft
Office 2010 suite applications, such as
Microsoft Word.
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Area
Single site collection
Separate site collection
Management
Teams manage their own
libraries. Media files are
managed in the same manner
as all other content in the site
collection.
Because media files reside in a separate database,
this content can be managed separately and
according to a different service level agreement.
Performance
and capacity
A large total volume of media
files can affect the overall
performance of sites. If site
collections approach or
exceed database size limits, it
is more difficult to scale out
the overall server farm.
Because media files reside in a separate database,
the database can be scaled out to dedicated
hardware, if it is necessary, to reduce the performance
effect this contact has on the rest of the server farm.
When you plan to incorporate digital asset management into your solution, you should carefully
consider the quantity and size of the files that will be stored and also how they will be used. This will
help you design your site architecture when you determine where the asset library should be located.
Components of a digital asset management topology
Digital asset management topologies use the same elements as any standard SharePoint topology,
such as Web servers, application servers, and database servers. Components that are specific to
digital asset management are put in certain locations within the topology, but they do not change the
overall structure of the topology. The following are components about which you must make
configuration decisions for your digital asset management topology:

BLOB cache The disk-based BLOB cache controls the caching for binary large objects (BLOBs),
such as frequently used image, audio, and video files, and other files that are used to display Web
pages, such as .css and .js files. The BLOB cache should always be enabled if your solution will
include asset libraries, and is enabled on every front-end Web server in a server farm.

Bit Rate Throttling Bit Rate Throttling is an Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0 extension that
meters the download speeds of media file types and data between a server and a client computer.
Bit Rate Throttling can be enabled on every front-end Web server in a server farm, and it should
always be enabled if your solution will include audio or video files in asset libraries. For more
information, see Bit Rate Throttling (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=155151).

Maximum file upload size The maximum upload file size is a setting that is used by the
SharePoint Server 2010 Web application that specifies the maximum size of a file that a user can
upload to the server. The maximum file upload size is configured for every Web application on the
server that hosts Central Administration, and should be adjusted to accommodate the size of files
that will be uploaded to asset libraries.
For more information, see Plan for caching and performance (SharePoint Server 2010).
If your digital asset management solution will be used to store a very large amount of content, you
should consider using Remote Blob Storage (RBS) to move the storage of large binary data (BLOBs)
from Microsoft SQL Server 2008 to an external storage solution. RBS is not a feature of SharePoint
Server 2010 or Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0. For more information, see Overview of Remote
299
BLOB Storage (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/d359cdaa-0ebd-4c598fc5-002cba241b18(Office.14).aspx).
Typical digital asset management topology
This section shows components that can affect the overall server farm topology.
Digital asset management libraries work well with any server farm topology that is supported by
SharePoint Server 2010. The server farm can be a single server, a small server farm, or a large server
farm.
When you decide to deploy BLOB cache or Bit Rate Throttling, you must deploy them to Web servers:

BLOB cache is enabled in IIS 7.0 and stored on every front-end Web server.

If Bit Rate Throttling is used, it must be installed and configured in IIS 7.0 on every front-end Web
server.
Additionally, the server that hosts the Central Administration Web site is used to configure the
maximum file upload size for each Web application it contains.
Note:
Depending on the size of your server farm and the kind of solution that you are implementing,
you might have additional servers that are designated for specific roles, such as Search
databases, or query and index servers.
The following illustration shows a typical three-tier server farm topology with components added for
digital asset management topology:
Callout
Element
1
Front-end Web servers, each with their own BLOB
cache and Bit Rate Throttling enabled (if
applicable).
300
Callout
Element
2
Application server that runs Central
Administration. The maximum file upload size is
specified for each Web application in Central
Administration.
3
Database servers that contain one or more
content databases.
Scaling topologies for digital asset management
When planning and scaling a solution that includes digital asset management, the two main factors that
you must consider are capacity planning and performance. Because video and audio files can be much
larger than images or other kinds of files, you will potentially reach storage capacity more quickly with
them than you would without them. And depending on the number of users who must access these files
at any time, the rate at which requests for the files are made to the server and then sent to the client
browser will affect network performance.
For example, if you plan to use an asset library for storing training videos, you must consider the
average size of each video, and the estimated total number of videos that will be needed for your
organization. You must also consider the number of users who will view the videos, and which videos
are likely to be requested most frequently.
For each main component in a digital asset management topology, consider the following issues:

Database storage Is there sufficient storage capacity on the content database servers for all the
files that users will upload? It is important to understand the average size of the files and the
number of files that you expect the users will upload to the server.

BLOB Cache storage Is there sufficient storage capacity on the front-end Web servers for the
files that will be cached?

Remote BLOB storage (RBS) If you will have large volumes of content, you should consider
using RBS to move storage of BLOBs out of the content database and into an external storage
solution. For more information, see Overview of Remote BLOB Storage (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/d359cdaa-0ebd-4c59-8fc5-002cba241b18(Office.14).aspx).
The logical architecture of your digital asset management plan will influence options for scaling out a
server farm. If a digital asset management library is contained in a dedicated site collection, you can
easily move the database to a dedicated server, if it is necessary, to improve capacity and
performance.
See Also
Plan digital asset management (SharePoint Server 2010)
Digital asset management overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan for caching and performance (SharePoint Server 2010)
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Plan Web content management (SharePoint
Server 2010)
This section provides information that helps IT pros plan publishing sites by using Microsoft SharePoint
Server 2010 features.
In this section:

Publishing features overview describes the features that become available when publishing is
enabled at the site collection and site levels for a nonpublishing site. This article also describes any
dependencies between features, and it lists changes to the user interface that occur when
publishing is enabled.

Plan Web pages first introduces the elements of Web pages: master pages, page layouts, content
pages, style sheets, Web Parts, Web Part zones, and server field controls. Next, this article
provides guidance about how to plan each element of the Web pages in your publishing site.

Plan Web page authoring (SharePoint Server 2010) describes the steps that are involved in
planning how Web pages are authored.

Plan content approval and scheduling contains general guidance about how to plan content
approval and scheduling for use with SharePoint Server 2010 publishing sites.

Plan for caching and performance (SharePoint Server 2010) provides information about how and
when to use the BLOB cache, and it lists key considerations for planning to use it. This article also
describes performance considerations for when to use Bit Rate Throttling, and it describes the
limitations of upload file size restrictions.

Plan for large Pages libraries (SharePoint Server 2010) describes the use of large Pages libraries
in SharePoint Server 2010 publishing sites. Also, this article provides information to help you
determine whether to use large Pages libraries with your publishing solution and information about
how to plan for them.

Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010) provides an overview of the content
deployment feature, describes how it works, and lists important considerations for using content
deployment with your publishing solution.

Plan content deployment (SharePoint Server 2010) discusses how to plan for using content
deployment with your publishing solution.

Design content deployment topology describes elements of topologies designed for content
deployment and illustrates typical content deployment topologies.

Variations overview provides an overview of the variations feature. It describes the elements of the
variations feature, provides an overview of site and page creation for variation sites, lists some of
the limitations of variations, and describes scenarios for using variations in SharePoint Server 2010

Plan variations provides information about important items that you should consider when you are
using variations in publishing sites, and it describes the tasks that are involved in planning a
solution that uses variations in SharePoint Server 2010.
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Publishing features overview
Publishing is the authoring and deploying of branded artifacts, content, custom assemblies, and
configuration files across a Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 farm. Publishing in SharePoint Server
2010 consists of two separate features. The SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature
provides publishing functionality at the site collection level, and the SharePoint Server Publishing
feature provides publishing functionality at the site level. The subset of features and functionality of
each feature supports the goal of publishing as part of a Web content management solution.
This article only describes the features that become available when publishing is enabled at the site
collection and site levels for a nonpublishing site. This article also describes any dependencies between
features, and it lists changes to the user interface that occur when publishing is enabled. However, this
article does not explain how to enable the publishing features, how to plan publishing sites, or how to
convert nonpublishing sites to publishing sites.
Important:
Before you enable the publishing infrastructure and publishing features for a nonpublishing site,
you should read this article to understand the specific publishing features that you want to use
and to determine whether it is worth enabling the complete publishing infrastructure to get the
benefit of only certain publishing features.
In this article:

About publishing sites

About publishing features

SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure features

SharePoint Server Publishing features

Other publishing features
About publishing sites
The Publishing Portal site collection template and the Enterprise Wiki site collection template are the
only two SharePoint Server 2010 site collection templates that are preconfigured to use the publishing
features. Creating a site collection by using one of these two site collection templates automatically
enables the publishing features for those site collections. By default, if the Publishing Portal site
template is used, only the Publishing Site with Workflow site template and Enterprise Wiki site template
are available to use to create a site within the site collection. A site collection administrator can enable
other site templates for use within the site collection by using the Page Layout and Site Template
Settings page.
Nonpublishing sites are all the other site templates that are available in SharePoint Server 2010, such
as the Team Site and Document Workspace template. You can enable the SharePoint Server
Publishing Infrastructure feature at the site collection level, and then enable the SharePoint Server
Publishing feature for the root site of the site collection and any sites below it in the site hierarchy. This
enables all the publishing features that you typically get when you create a site by using a publishing
site template, in addition to the standard features of the nonpublishing site. For a complete list of the
site templates available in SharePoint Server 2010, see Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint
Server 2010).
303
About publishing features
The SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature provides publishing functionality at the site
collection level, and the SharePoint Server Publishing feature provides publishing functionality at the
site level. The subset of features contained in each of these primary features is collectively known as
―publishing features.‖ Publishing features are all the features that are part of a preconfigured publishing
site or that are added when publishing is enabled at the site collection and site level. When publishing is
enabled, all publishing features are automatically enabled. You cannot select individual publishing
features, such as variations, to be enabled separately without enabling other publishing features. All
publishing features are either active or inactive. However, even though you can decide to enable the
publishing features, you do not have to use them all.
SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure features
This section describes the publishing features that are enabled when the SharePoint Server Publishing
Infrastructure feature is enabled on a nonpublishing site collection.
Site templates
A site template is a predefined site configuration that determines, for example, the lists, files, Web
Parts, Features, or settings with which to provision a new SharePoint site. When you enable the
SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature, the following publishing site templates are added
and are available to use when a new site is created:

Publishing Site

Publishing Site with Workflow

Enterprise Wiki
For more information about the site templates that are available in SharePoint Server 2010, see Sites
and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010) and Site templates and definitions.
Groups and permission levels
SharePoint groups enable you to manage sets of users instead of individual users. The ability to view,
configure, or manage a site is determined by the permission level that you assign to a user or group.
When you create a site collection by using a nonpublishing site template, SharePoint Server 2010
automatically creates a standard set of groups and permission levels. When you enable the SharePoint
Server Publishing Infrastructure feature, other groups and permission levels are added to the site
collection. These groups and permission levels enable you to assign users to specific publishing-related
roles. For example, only users who have the Approve permission, or who are in the Approvers group
can edit and approve pages, list items and documents for publishing.
The following groups are added to the site collection:

Approvers

Designers

Hierarchy Managers

Quick Deploy Users

Restricted Readers

Style Resource Readers
304
The following permission levels are added to the site collection:

Approve

Manage Hierarchy

Restricted Read
By default, sites that are created below the site collection use the groups and permission levels from
the parent site. For more information about groups and permission levels, see Determine permission
levels and groups (SharePoint Server 2010).
Site settings
When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature, the following changes are
made to the Site Settings page:

In the Site Administration section, the following links are added at both the site collection and the
site level:

Content and structure

Content and structure logs

Searchable columns

In the Look and Feel section, the Quick launch and Top link bar links are removed, and the
Navigation link is added at both the site collection and the site level.

In the Site Collection Administration section, the following links are added at the site collection
level only:

Site collection navigation

Variations

Variation labels

Variation logs

Translatable columns

Suggested content browser locations
Navigation
In addition to the changes that are made to navigation links on the Site Settings page, the following
navigation changes are made when you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature:

The top link bar is replaced with the global navigation menu.

Default settings for the global navigation menu and the Quick Launch menu are specified.
For more information about navigation, see Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Theme changes
Themes provide a quick and easy way to apply colors and fonts to sites in SharePoint Server 2010.
Each site can apply a theme directly to itself. When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing
Infrastructure feature, the Inherit Theme and Apply Theme sections are added to the Site Theme
page. These options allow a site administrator to specify whether a site should inherit the theme from
the parent site or should use its own theme. These themes also allow the site administrator to specify
whether to apply the selected theme only to the current site or to the current site and all sites below it in
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the site hierarchy. For more information about themes, see Themes overview (SharePoint Server
2010).
Master pages and page layouts
Master pages and page layouts dictate the overall behavior and appearance (look and feel) of a
SharePoint site. Master pages contain controls that are shared across multiple page layouts, such as
navigation, search, or language-preference for multilingual sites. Page layouts contain field controls and
Web Parts. The top-level site for a site collection that is hosted on SharePoint Server 2010 has a
special document library called the Master Page Gallery library. All page layouts and master pages are
stored in this document library. When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure
feature, the following files and folders are added to the Master Page Gallery library:

New master pages and page layouts, such as article pages and a Wiki page that is used by
publishing sites, are added.

A new folder is created in the Master Page Gallery library, and is named based on the language
that was used for the SharePoint Server 2010 installation. For example, if the English version was
installed, the folder name is en-us. This folder contains a folder named Preview Images, which
contains the thumbnail preview images of the Publishing page layouts.
Note:
If other language packs have been installed, each language will have its own folder that
contains a Preview Images folder in the Master Page Gallery library.

A new folder named Editing Menu is created in the Master Page Gallery library, and it contains
XML files that can be used to customize the page editing menus. For information about how to
customize the page editing menus, see How to: Customize Page Editing Toolbar Components
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=184764&clcid=0x409).
For more information about master pages and page layouts, see Page Layouts and Master Pages.
Images and style sheets
When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature, the following items are
added to the Style Library:

Cascading style sheets for default styles and styles that can be customized.

Images for user interface elements, such as bullets and arrows.

Alternate preview images for the media player.

XSL style sheets for applying styles to data-driven Web Parts such as Summary Links, Content
Query and Table of Contents.
For information about how to customize styles, see How to: Customize Styles
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=181827&clcid=0x409).
Document libraries and lists
Different document libraries and lists are created for a site collection, depending on the site template
that is used to create the site collection. When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing
Infrastructure feature, the following document libraries and lists are added to the root site of site
collection:
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
Content and Structure Reports This list is used to customize the queries that are appear in the
View list in the Site Content and Structure tool.

Reusable Content This list contains HTML or text content that can be inserted into Web pages.

Site Collection Documents This library stores documents that are used throughout the site
collection.

Site Collection Images This library stores images that are used throughout the site collection.
Content types
A content type defines the columns of a list item, a document, or a folder. When you enable the
SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature, SharePoint Server 2010 adds, at the site collection
level and at the list and library level, more content types that are used by sites within the site collection.
At the site collection level, publishing content types such as Page and Page Layout, and page layout
content types such as Article Page and Enterprise Wiki Page are added. Two additional content types,
Reusable HTML and Reusable Text, are added specifically for the Reusable Content list.
For more information about content types, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server
2010).
Columns
Metadata is information about a document that is used to categorize and classify your content. Each
item of metadata that is associated with a content type is a column, which is a location in a list to store
information. When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature, the following
columns are added:

New page layout columns such as Byline and Page Content, and Publishing columns such as
Article Date, Scheduling Start Date and Scheduling End Date are added at the site collection level.
A custom Wiki Categories column that uses managed metadata for Wiki pages is also added at the
site collection level.

New columns for the Reusable Content list and the Content and Structure Reports list are added.
For more information about columns, see Content type and workflow planning (SharePoint Server
2010).
Web Parts
Web Parts are user interface elements that are used in pages on SharePoint sites to present
information that is pulled from multiple data sources. When you enable the SharePoint Server
Publishing Infrastructure feature, the following Web Parts are added at the site collection level and are
available to use in all sites that are created within the site collection:

Content Query Web Part

Media Web Part

Summary Links Web Part

Table Of Contents Web Part
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Page editing menu
The page editing ribbon is a panel of user interface elements that provide page information and ways to
use the page. The user can use the page editing menu on the page editing ribbon to add text, images,
and rich media to a page, check in the page to share a draft, and approve a pending version of the
page for publishing. When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature, the
following changes are made to the page editing menu:

The Publish tab is added to the master page.

Under Editing Tools, on the Format Text tab, the following changes are made when a rich text
field is selected:





The Spelling group and a Spelling button are added.
Under Editing Tools, on the Insert tab, the following items are added when a link is selected:

In the Media group, the From SharePoint selection is added to the drop-down list of the
Picture button.

In the Links group, the From SharePoint selection is added to the drop-down list of the Link
button.

In the Media group, a Video and Audio button is added.

In the Web Parts group, Media Web Part is added to the Media and Content category in the
Web Part selection menu when the Web Part button is clicked.
Under Link Tools, on the Format tab, the following items are added:

In the Link group, a Select Link button is added.

In the Properties group, a Bookmark text box is added.
Under Picture Tools, on the Design tab, the following items are added:

In the Select group, the From SharePoint selection is added to the Change Picture list.

The Spacing group is added.

In the Spacing group, the Horizontal Space and Vertical Space options are added.
A Media tools menu is added to the page menu when a Media Web Part is selected.
Timer jobs
A timer job runs a specific Windows service for SharePoint Server 2010. The timer job contains a
definition of the service to run and specifies how frequently the service is started. Each timer job has its
own default schedule for when the job runs. You can change the frequency with which each job runs on
the Job Definitions page on the Central Administration Web site.
When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature, the following timer jobs are
enabled on the server that hosts the Central Administration Web site:

Notification Timer Job Sends e-mail to the item owner when an item is about to expire.

Scheduled Approval Publishes approved pages according to the specified start date and time.
By default, this timer job runs every minute.

Scheduled Unpublish Unpublishes pages according to the specified end date and time. By
default, this timer job runs every minute.
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
Variations Create Hierarchies Job Definition Creates a complete variations hierarchy by
creating all variation sites and pages from the source variation site, based on the variation labels.
By default, this timer job runs once a day.

Variations Create Page Job Definition Creates pages on the target variation sites when the
Automatic Creation option has been disabled and a user manually creates a new page. By
default, this timer job runs every hour.

Variations Create Site Job Definition Creates variation sites when the Automatic Creation
option has been disabled and a user manually creates a new variation site. By default, this timer job
runs every five minutes.

Variations Propagate Page Job Definition Updates pages on target variation sites after a page
on the source variation site has been approved or after it has been manually submitted by a user.
By default, this timer job runs every hour.

Variations Propagate Site Job Definition Creates variation sites when the Automatic Creation
option is enabled. By default, this timer job runs every five minutes.
For information about timer jobs, see View timer job status (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/1cd060e0-1eb6-424c-8ade-f8d39cd20d1d(Office.14).aspx).
SharePoint Server Publishing features
This section describes the publishing features that are enabled when the SharePoint Server Publishing
feature is enabled on a nonpublishing site.
Site settings
When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing feature, the following changes are made to the Site
Settings page:

In the Galleries section, the Master pages link is removed, and it is replaced with the Master
pages and page layouts link at both the site collection and site level.

In the Site Administration section, a Site output cache link is added at the site level only.

In the Look and Feel section, the following links are added at both the site collection and site level:

Master Page

Page layouts and site templates

Welcome Page

In the Site Actions section, the Save site as template link is removed at both the site collection
and site level.

In the Site Collection Administration section, the following links are added at the site collection
level only:

Site collection cache profiles

Site collection object cache

Site collection output cache
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Regional settings
When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing feature, the Subsite Settings section is added to
the Regional Settings page. This enables you specify whether all sites below the current site should
inherit the regional settings set for the current site.
Document libraries and lists
When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing feature, the following document libraries and lists
are added:

Documents This library stores documents that are used on pages in the site.

Images This library stores images that are used on pages in the site.

Pages This library stores pages that are created in the site.

Workflow Tasks This list stores workflow tasks that are created in the site.
Note:
If you later disable the SharePoint Server Publishing feature, libraries or lists that contain
content are not removed from the site, but empty libraries or lists are removed from the site.
In addition to the libraries and lists that are created, the following changes are made to document library
settings:

On the Document Library Settings page, in the General Settings section, a Manage item
scheduling link is added.

On the Versioning Settings page, the following changes are made:

The Document Version History option is set to Create major and minor (draft) versions.
This option determines what versions are created when a file is edited in the Pages library.

The Draft Item Security option is set to Only users who can edit items. This option
determines who can see draft items in the Pages library.

The Require Check Out option is set to Yes. This option requires documents to be checked
out before they can be edited.
Page editing menu
When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing feature, the following changes are made to the
page editing menu:

The Publish tab and Publish button are added to the master page.

The following items are added to the Publish tab:


If the Publishing Approval Workflow feature is enabled for the site collection, and the Publishing
Approval workflow template is associated with the document library, the following changes are
made:

A Workflows group is added.

In the Workflows group, a Start a Workflow button is added.

In the Workflows group, a Status button is added.

In the Workflows group, a View Tasks button is added.
If the Quick Deploy job is enabled for the site collection‘s content deployment path, in the
Publishing group, a Quick Deploy button is added.
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

If item scheduling is enabled for the document library, in the Publishing group, a Schedule
button is added.
On the Page tab, the following changes are made:

In the Manage group, the Edit Properties button is enabled.

In the Manage group, the Rename Page button is removed.

In the Page Actions group, the following items are added.
i.
A Preview button is added.
ii.
A Page Layout button is added.
iii. A drop-down list that contains page layouts is added to the Page Layout button.




In the Page Actions group, a Draft Check button is added.
Under Editing Tools, on the Format Text tab, the following changes are made:

The Spelling group and the Spelling button are added.

The Layout group and the Text Layout button are removed.
Under Editing Tools, on the Insert tab, the following changes are made:

In the Content group, a Reusable Content button is added.

A customizable drop-down list is added to the Reusable Content button.
If a page was created by using document conversions, a Source Document Tools menu is added
to the page editing bar, and the following items are added:

Under Source Document Tools, a Document tab is added.

On the Document tab, a View and Update group is added.

In the View and Update group, a View Document button is added.

In the View and Update group, an Update Page button is added.
Other changes
When you enable the SharePoint Server Publishing feature, the following changes are made:

Users can no longer create pages that have a space in the name. Spaces are automatically
converted to a dash ‗-‗.

The Manage Content and Structure link is added to the Site Actions menu. This opens the Site
Content and Structure tool for the entire site collection.
Other publishing features
When you enable both the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature and the SharePoint
Server Publishing feature, the following Publishing features are enabled:

Content deployment You can use content deployment to deploy content from a source site
collection to a destination site collection. Content deployment is administered at the farm level, on
the Central Administration Web site. If your site uses content deployment and a farm administrator
has enabled the Quick Deploy job, a Quick Deploy button will be added to the Publishing group
on the Publish tab of the page editing menu. The Quick Deploy job enables users, such as authors
and editors, to quickly deploy a Web page to the destination site collection. By default, a Quick
Deploy job runs automatically every 15 minutes. When a user clicks the Quick Deploy button on a
page, that page is included in the next automatically scheduled Quick Deploy job. For more
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information about content deployment and Quick Deploy jobs, see Content deployment overview
(SharePoint Server 2010).

Variations The variations feature in SharePoint Server 2010 makes content available to specific
audiences on different sites by copying content from a source variation site to each target variation
site. When the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature and the SharePoint Server
Publishing feature are enabled, the Variations, Variations Labels and Variations Logs links are
added to the Site Collection Administration section of the Site Settings page. If a variations
hierarchy has been created, the Variations group is added to the page editing toolbar for all
publishing pages on all sites within the site collection. However, the buttons in the Variations group
are enabled only when a page is part of a source variation site. For more information about
variations, see Variations overview.

Object and output caching The object cache reduces the amount of traffic between the Web
server and the SQL database by storing objects—such as lists and libraries, site settings, and page
layouts—in memory on the front-end Web server. The page output cache stores the rendered
output of a page and uses cache profiles that specify how long items should be held in the cache.
When the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature and the SharePoint Server
Publishing feature are enabled, links to configure these caches are added to the Site Settings page
for the site and site collection. For more information about the object and page output caches, see
Cache settings operations (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/0ae2f59b309e-4853-8ce7-99bc40de4c03(Office.14).aspx).
See Also
Plan Web content management (SharePoint Server 2010)
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Plan Web pages
When you plan to publish Web pages in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, you design the appearance
of your published content, determine where authors can add content on pages, and control which
authoring features authors can use. An effective plan for Web pages helps ensure that each type of
content that your organization publishes is designed correctly and is available to achieve your
publishing goals.
To help you understand your design options, this article first introduces the elements of publishing
pages: master pages, page layouts, content pages, style sheets, Web Parts, Web Part zones, and
server field controls. Next, this article contains guidance about how to plan each element of the Web
pages in your publishing site. Because the design and configuration of page layouts helps restrict what
authors can do on Web pages, this article includes guidance about how to use page layouts to restrict
authoring. However, this article does not describe how to create master pages, page layouts, or content
pages, nor does it describe how content authors create Web pages.
In this article:

Web pages overview

Plan master pages

Plan page layouts

Plan content pages

Using page layouts to restrict authoring

Web page planning worksheet
Web pages overview
When a SharePoint Server 2010 site user opens a Web page in a SharePoint site, that page is
rendered based on a set of elements that have each been planned and designed separately in the Web
site. Separating elements of a page in this manner enables site planners and designers to treat different
elements of the site in unique ways. For example, a site's branding and navigation can be planned and
designed separately from the design of the site's content pages so that the branding can be applied
across all site content and can be updated in one location. Similarly, the layout of pages can be
designed separately from the content of pages so the same content can be displayed in different ways.
A Web page that is based on SharePoint Server 2010 is an ASP.NET file (.aspx) page that is
dynamically rendered out of its constituent parts. The two primary parts of a Web page are the master
page and the page layout. Master pages contain controls that are shared across multiple page layouts,
such as navigation, search, or language-preference for multilingual sites. Page layouts contain field
controls and Web Parts. When you create a Web page, content in the page is stored as list items in the
Pages library. This Web page is referred to as a content page, because it contains the content that is
displayed to users when they view the page on the Web site. The following figure shows how page
layouts and master pages work together to create the layout for a Web page.
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The following sections describe master pages, page layouts, and content pages in more detail.
Master pages
A master page defines the outer frame of the Web page. It contains the elements that you want all
pages in your site to share, and it provides a single place to control all those elements. Typically, a site
uses a single master page, although large Internet sites might use more. For example, a corporate Web
site that publicizes more than one product could use separate master pages so that the content for
each product is branded correctly.
Note:
There are two kinds of master pages: site master pages and system master pages. The site
master page is used on published Web pages in your site. The site master page is what site
users and visitors see when they view published pages. The system master page provides the
layout of pages in the site that is used by site designers and authors when they work with the
site's user interface. The system master page is also used in some team site templates, such
as the Enterprise Wiki and the Document Workspace site templates. This article primarily
describes planning considerations for site master pages.
Master pages for all sites in a site collection are stored in the Master Page Gallery in the top-level site in
the site collection. Because the Master Page Gallery is a SharePoint document library, master pages
have all the features of documents in SharePoint Server 2010, such as versioning, auditing, workflow,
check-in and check-out, and content approval.
Typically, master pages include the following elements:

Branding elements, such as corporate logos and color schemes

Shared navigation elements

Shared features, such as search commands and Help commands

Links to cascading style sheets. (Cascading style sheets control the page appearance, colors, and
fonts.)
The publishing site templates that are included in SharePoint Server 2010 include site master pages
that you can use as a starting point in your page design. To customize an existing master page or to
create a new one, use Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2010. For more
314
information, see How to: Create a Minimal Master Page (http://msdn.microsoft.com/enus/library/aa660698(office.14).aspx).
Page layouts
A page layout is an Active Server Pages (ASPX) page that defines a layout for a specific kind of content
page. When a SharePoint site user opens a content page in a browser, the page layout that is
associated with that page is first combined with the master page, which supplies the outer frame of the
page, and then the contents of the page are inserted into the field controls on the page layout.
Because a page layout displays content that is stored in the columns of a content type, it must be
designed for a particular content type. For example, a page layout that is associated with the Article
Page content type would have several field controls, including the following:

A Page Content field control to hold the contents of the Page Content column in the Article Page
content type

A Page Image field control to hold the image that is linked to from the Page Image column of the
Article Page content type
Although a page layout must be designed for a single content type, a content type can be associated
with multiple page layouts. For example, SharePoint Server 2010 includes two page layouts for the
Article Page content type: one that displays the image on the left side of the page and another that
displays the image on the right. For more information about content types, see Content type and
workflow planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Along with controls to display the contents of a page, a page layout can include other page elements,
including the following:

Web Parts A control that page authors can insert into a Web Part zone on a page and then
configure.

Web Part zones A specified area on a Web page that is a container for Web Parts.

Field controls A control that is added directly to a page layout. For more information about field
controls, see Field Controls and Control Templates (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=184821).

Cascading style sheets links Cascading style sheets control the page appearance, colors, and
fonts.
For example, a page layout for a business article could include a field control that displays a stock
ticker. The stock ticker would be displayed together with other page content when that page layout is
used.
Like master pages, page layouts for all sites in a site collection are stored in the Master Page Gallery in
the top-level site in the site collection. Because the Master Page Gallery is a SharePoint library, page
layouts also have all the features of documents in SharePoint Server 2010, such as versioning and
content approval. Publishing sites that you create by using SharePoint Server 2010 include page
layouts that you can use as a starting point in your content page design. To customize an existing page
layout or to create a new one, use Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.
Content pages
All content pages for a publishing site are stored in a single Pages library. Each item in a Pages library
is a single Web page. Because the Pages library is a SharePoint library, the Web pages that it contains
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have all the features of documents in SharePoint Server 2010, such as versioning, auditing, workflow,
check-in and check-out, and content approval.
Note:
Although all publishing pages in a site are in a single Pages library, Web solutions that are
based on SharePoint Server 2010, such as intranet sites and Internet presence sites, typically
consist of a hierarchy of sites, each with its own Pages library.
Authors create pages by selecting New Page on the Site Actions menu and edit them by selecting
Edit Page on the Site Actions menu. When creating a new page, authors enter a name for the new
page and then immediately begin authoring content on the page. To change the content type and page
layout, authors select Page Layout in the Page Actions group on the Page tab of the page to be
modified. To add content, select images, and do other editing tasks, authors use the Format Text and
Insert tabs under Editing Tools on the page to be modified.
The columns that are associated with the content type for a Web page contain the HTML content for
that page. They also contain links to images that appear with the page and a link to the page layout that
is associated with the page.
Each column of content for a page is associated with a particular field control on the page layout that is
associated with the page. For more information about field controls on page layouts, see Page Layout
Model (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=184822).
Plan master pages
Master pages provide the shared framing elements of the page. These include the branding of the site,
its navigation features, and other common elements such as search fields and Help commands. The
site master page supplies the context of the page and should remain consistent as the user interacts
with your site. To ensure that users have a consistent experience when they move from one page to
another throughout a single site in a site collection, we recommend that you leave the site master page
unchanged. To supply consistent branding and user interface, you can use the same site master page
across all sites in your site collection.
You can change the master page that is used in other sites in your site hierarchy to change the
branding in some sites. For example, an Internet presence site might consist of multiple sites that each
present a different brand of products. You can change the site master page for each site in the site
hierarchy to reflect the distinct product brand that each site presents.
Before you plan master pages, you should plan your site structure, as described in Plan sites and site
collections (SharePoint Server 2010). To plan master pages, use the Master page data sheet in the
Web page planning worksheet.
Plan page layouts
A page layout defines a layout for a content page by providing field controls into which the contents of
the content page are inserted. The field control displays the contents. Each page layout is associated
with a particular content type, and multiple page layouts are often available for a single content type.
For example, you can assign multiple page layouts to a single content type to provide alternate layouts
for localized versions of content or to add or remove the display of certain fields and features from a
page layout. You can create or customize a page layout, which includes adding new controls to display
316
content together with additional controls such as Web Parts and server controls, by using Microsoft
SharePoint Designer 2010 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes the following set of page layouts for each page content type.

Article Page contains the following page layouts:
This page
Contains these page elements
layout
Body only
A title and page content
Image on left
A title, page content, a page image on the left, and areas for a byline, article date, and
image caption
Image on
right
A title, page content, a page image on the right, and areas for a byline, article date, and
image caption
Summary
links
A title, page content, article date, byline, and a Summary Links Web Part in which
authors can add a list of hyperlinks

Enterprise Wiki Page contains a single page layout, Basic Page, which contains the content, the
page rating, and the categories page elements.

Project Page contains a single page layout, Basic Project Page, which contains the content, the
page rating, the categories, , the page contact, and the task status page elements, and it contains a
single link to the project Web page.

Redirect Page contains a single page layout, Redirect, which contains a single hyperlink to which
users who view the page are redirected.

Welcome Page contains the following page layouts:
This page layout
Contains these page elements
Blank Web Parts
page
A content area and multiple Web Part zones to which authors can add Web Parts
Splash
Only an image and two Summary Links Web Parts in which authors can add
hyperlinks
Summary links
Content and image areas, together with two Summary Links Web Parts
Table of contents
Content and image areas, together with a Table of Contents Web Part to display a
hyperlinked table of contents of the site
If you are using the page content types and layouts that are included with SharePoint Server 2010,
there are no additional planning steps that you must follow. Authors can select page content types and
associated layouts when they create new pages. However, if you add new fields to a page content type
or if you create new custom content types for publishing pages, you should plan page layouts that
reflect the new or changed content types.
317
You can also change a page layout by adding Microsoft ASP.NET 3.5 controls, such as Web Parts and
Web Part zones, to the page. For example, you can add a Content Query Web Part, which displays a
set of links that are returned by a configurable query, to a page layout. However, if you place a Web
Part on a page layout outside a Web Part zone, you must configure the Web Part, and authors will be
unable to change its configuration. For example, if you add a Content Query Web Part directly to a
page layout, the query that you configure when the Web Part is added is permanently set and authors
cannot modify it.
To plan page layouts for content types such as Article Pages, Enterprise Wiki Pages, Project Pages,
and Welcome Pages, use the Page layouts data sheet tab in the Web page planning worksheet.
Plan content pages
Each content page in SharePoint Server 2010 consists of text, images, and other content that is stored
as an entry in a Pages library. Planning the content pages includes the following:

Determining the page content types that meet your content needs

Determining the columns to use for storing content, for each page content type.
SharePoint Server 2010 includes the following page content types:



Article Page The most common content page type. This page is designed for general-purpose
Web page content. It includes the following:

Columns for images and image captions

A column for page content

Columns for links that appear with the page

A column for the byline

A column for the article date
Enterprise Wiki Page The primary content page type for an Enterprise Wiki site. It includes the
following:

A column for page content

Columns for ratings and number of ratings

A column for wiki categories
Project Page A page to provide basic information that describes a project. This content type
inherits from the Enterprise Wiki Page content type, instead of the Page content type. It includes
the following:

A column for page content

Columns for ratings and number of ratings

A column for a link to the project Web page

A column for task status

A column for wiki categories

Redirect Page A page to redirect the reader to another page. It includes a column for the redirect
URL.

Welcome Page Typically, the home page of a publishing site. It includes the following:

Columns for images to display

A column for page content
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
Columns for links that appear with the page
Additionally, because all these page content types inherit from the generic Page content type either
directly, or through their parent content type, they all include the following:

Columns for scheduling the page's start and end dates

Columns for describing contact information for the author

An image that appears with the page when it is listed in a table of contents or on another list

Information for targeting audiences

A column for comments about the page
When you plan content pages, we recommend that you use the page content types that are included in
SharePoint Server 2010 as a starting point. The Article Page, Enterprise Wiki Page, Project Page, and
Welcome Page content types are intended to be generally useful and to apply across various contexts.
The primary content column in these content types is the Page Content column, which can hold HTML
content. By using HTML and cascading style sheets to control the appearance of their content, authors
and site designers might not have to design other content types. Also, by carefully selecting which
layout to use for each kind of content, based on the Article Page, Enterprise Wiki Page, Project Page,
or Welcome Page, you can introduce more variety in your content presentation without introducing
additional content types. For more information, see Plan page layouts.
To plan content pages, use the corresponding data sheet tabs in the Web page planning worksheet.
Using page layouts to restrict authoring
Depending on your publishing goals, you can restrict how much freedom authors have to format their
Web page content or to add items such as images and hyperlinks to pages in your site. For example, in
a highly controlled Internet presence site, you might want all formatting to be defined in cascading style
sheets that are associated with your page layouts, and you might want to block writers from overriding
style definitions by using inline formatting. In contrast, in a collaborative site, you might want to give
authors full freedom to format their pages and add other page items, such as Web Parts that provide
views of data. For example, in an intranet site that is used to collaborate on product specifications, you
might want to enable authors to freely use styles, hyperlinks, images, and Web Parts to maximize their
ability to communicate their ideas.
You can put restrictions on page layouts in the following ways:

You can set properties on field controls that restrict what authors can do.

You can remove Web Part zones to restrict authors from inserting and configuring Web Parts on
their pages, or you can set restrictions on Web Part zones to limit how authors can use them.
The following table shows recommendations for restricting page layouts based on three levels of
authoring environments:
Level of
Typical site
Restriction recommendations
Internet presence
Strict limitations on editing field controls; other field control
limitations, such as no hyperlinks from image field controls; Web
Parts are put directly on the page layout and not in Web Part zones
control
Tight
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Level of
Typical site
Restriction recommendations
Moderate
Enterprise intranet
portal site
Moderate or no limitations on editing field controls; Web Part zones
that contain Web Parts, but authors are restricted from
adding/removing Web Parts
Loose
Divisional or team
site or Enterprise
Wiki
No limitations on editing field controls; Web Part zones allowed
control
Use the Page layouts data sheet tab in the Web page planning worksheet to record your decisions
about restricting authoring features on content pages.
Setting restrictions on field controls
By opening your site in Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 you can
edit the tags that are associated with field controls to restrict the kinds of SharePoint Server 2010
authoring features that authors can use when they edit pages in the browser window. For example, on
field controls that are bound to columns of the Publishing HTML type, you can enable or restrict the
following features:

Setting fonts

Inserting images

Inserting tables

Adding hyperlinks

Adding text markup, such as bold and italic

Adding Web Parts
You can set authoring restrictions on other column types. For example, on field controls that are bound
to columns of the Publishing Image type, you can enable or restrict hyperlinks from images.
When you restrict an authoring feature on a page layout in Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 or
Microsoft Visual Studio 2010, the related page editing commands in SharePoint Server 2010 become
unavailable. For example, if you restrict table editing in a field control that contains content of the
Publishing HTML type, table editing commands, such as Insert Table are unavailable under Editing
Tools on the Insert tab.
Allowing or restricting Web Part zones
A Web Part is a server control that authors can insert in Web Part zones on pages. A Web Part zone is
a specified area on a Web page that is a container for Web Parts. Web Parts display information based
on their functionality, such as presenting site navigation links, list content, or database analytical
information.
When a page layout includes one or more Web Part zones, the Web Part zones are available on pages
that are using that layout, which enables authors to insert available Web Parts onto their content pages.
If you enable authors to insert Web Parts on pages, you reduce your control over users' experience of
the site. For example, an author could insert a Table of Contents Web Part onto a page that exposes
parts of your site that you do not want users to move to from the current page.
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You can restrict authors from adding Web Parts to pages by opening the associated page layouts in
Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 and removing Web Part zones
from them or by removing the HTML field controls. Similarly, when you design new page layouts, omit
Web Part zones to limit authors' ability to add functionality to the pages that are associated with those
page layouts.
You can also include Web Part zones in page layouts but restrict their usage. By setting a Web Part
zone's properties, you can populate the Web Part zone with one or more Web Parts and enable authors
to edit the properties of those Web Parts but not let them add other Web Parts to the Web Part zone.
Web page planning worksheet
Download an Excel version of the Web page planning worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=187505&clcid=0x409). Use this worksheet to record your
decisions about what master pages your site needs, columns for specific page content types, and
authoring restrictions on page layouts.
See Also
Plan content approval and scheduling
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Plan Web page authoring (SharePoint Server
2010)
Web page authoring is the process by which authors add content to a publishing site such as a publicfacing Internet site. Web page authoring is available on a site when you create a Microsoft SharePoint
Server 2010 site by using one of the publishing site templates, or when the SharePoint Server
Publishing Infrastructure feature is activated for a site collection and the SharePoint Server Publishing
feature is activated for a site. For information about publishing site templates, see Sites and site
collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Before reading this article, you should read Plan Web pages, which describes page layouts, field
controls, and other elements of Web pages that are mentioned in this article. This article describes the
steps involved in planning how Web pages are authored. This article does not describe how to author
Web pages.
In this article:

About planning Web page authoring

Plan ribbon authoring experience

Plan managed metadata

Plan reusable content

Plan dictionary customizations

Plan additional resources

Web page authoring planning worksheet
About planning Web page authoring
Planning Web pages involves understanding how Web pages are designed and deciding which
elements belong on the Web pages for your site. Planning Web page authoring involves understanding
how Web pages are created. SharePoint Server 2010 supports browser-based authoring. Content
creators work directly in the Web browser by using SharePoint Server 2010 browser-based editing
features such as the Format Text tab under Editing Tools on the ribbon.
Planning browser-based authoring includes planning which resources, page layouts, supporting
content, such as images and videos, and commands to hide from or show to authors and planning the
editing experience in the field controls in which authors create content. It also includes planning for
reusable content, planning dictionary customizations, and planning for additional resources that are
needed by page authors.
A related set of planning considerations — planning how content will be approved and published — is
discussed in Plan content approval and scheduling.
Plan ribbon authoring experience
The ribbon contains UI elements that provide access to page editing commands and related tools,
together with publishing and workflow commands, in addition to most other commands in SharePoint
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Server 2010. This ribbon is available to team members who have at least the Contribute permission
level.
When a page is checked out for editing, and the pointer is positioned in the Page Content field, Editing
Tools is displayed. Editing Tools contains the Format Text tab and the Insert tab, which contain the
commands that authors use to format text and insert content elements, such as images, links, and
reusable content. The following illustration shows the ribbon with the Format Text tab displayed:
Other contextual tabs or groups of tabs are displayed, based on the page element that is selected. For
example, if you insert a table onto a page, Table Tools is displayed, and contains a Layout tab and a
Design tab.
You can plan and implement new ribbon commands to provide added functionality for your content
team. For example, if your organization has a process for creating and incorporating images in your
documents that you want to automate, you can add a command to the Page tab on the ribbon.
You can customize the ribbon to provide additional features to authors or to restrict them from using
some features.

Add buttons to provide new functionality You can add new features to SharePoint Server 2010
and provide buttons on the ribbon to give authors access to the features. For example, if your
publishing site is used to create highly technical content, you could add an equation editor feature
and provide a button for authors to access it.

Add inline styles You can replace the default styles that are available by adding or overriding
styles in a style sheet. When you do this, authors can select the styles that are available for the
current selection by using the Styles command on the contextual menu for the selected element.
You can create custom styles for text, markup, images and the Media Web Part player. You can
also upgrade styles from Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 to Microsoft SharePoint Server
2010. For information about how to customize inline styles, see How to: Customize Styles
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=181827&clcid=0x409).

Add table styles The ribbon includes a set of predefined table styles that can be customized to fit
the styling of a single page. Each table style consists of a collection of cascading style sheets
classes for each table tag. For example, you can customize the appearance of the first and last
rows of a table, the odd and even rows, or the first and last column.

Customize image picker locations In any field that includes a command to insert an image, you
can add custom links to the list of default locations listed in the image picker dialog box. For more
information, see How to: Customize the asset picker
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=181832&clcid=0x409).

Restrict access to editing features As described in Plan Web pages, you can restrict how much
freedom authors have to format their Web page content or to add items such as images and
hyperlinks to pages in your site by restricting access to editing features. By opening your site in
Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 you can edit the tags that are associated with field controls to
disable the ribbon buttons that authors can use when they edit pages. For example, you can
disable the buttons that enable authors to:
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
Set fonts

Link to external addresses

Add headings to content

Make text bold, italic, or underlined

Add tables
For information about how to add, replace, and remove controls, groups and tabs on the ribbon, see
Customizing the Server Ribbon (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=189631&clcid=0x409).
In addition to implementing a command as a menu command, you can also implement a command as a
button on the Quick Access Toolbar. The Quick Access Toolbar makes frequently used commands
available. To add buttons to the Quick Access Toolbar, you must edit the master page. The following
illustration shows the Quick Access Toolbar:
When you plan for Web page authoring, consider whether you want to add or remove commands from
the ribbon or the Quick Access Toolbar. Also consider the level of access you want content authors to
have to editing features and what kinds of styles that you want to make available. What are the
commands, and where should they be added? Make a list of any commands that are needed, the
toolbar location where they should be added, whether a button is needed on the Quick Access Toolbar,
and whether any additional locations have to be added to the image picker locations.
Plan managed metadata
As you plan your Web site, you must consider how managed metadata can help organize and display
content pages and other data. Having a thorough and meaningful taxonomy for content authors to use
is essential to building a successful site that requires minimal maintenance. Having the right set of
terms for your site enables you to create rules which help organize pages into folders. Good content
organization simplifies the search for information and increases the query speed. For more information
about managed metadata, see Managed metadata overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
When you create page layouts that authors will use to create new Web pages, you can add field
controls such as text boxes and drop-down lists that contain a predetermined value or that restrict the
kind of information authors are allowed to put on a page. You can also use managed metadata to add
contextual information to a page, which enables you to do the following:

Create a custom query that is made for the page.

Display the appropriate navigation.

Determine what related data fits best, and display it on the page.
For example, on a travel Web site, you could create a page layout for specific travel destinations that
contains a managed keywords field for recreational activities and a Content Query Web Part. A page
author who creates a page for a specific travel destination can select from a specified list of recreational
activities for that destination. When a page reader views the page, the Content Query Web Part can
display a list of other travel destinations that also contain those tags.
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As you plan for Web page authoring, consider whether you want to add managed metadata to your
page layouts for page authors to use. How will the metadata be used? What terms and term sets are
needed? Who will own the term sets, and how will they be managed? For more information about how
to plan managed metadata, see Plan terms and term sets (SharePoint Server 2010) and Plan managed
metadata (SharePoint Server 2010).
Plan reusable content
The top-level site in a publishing site collection includes a Reusable Content list that is available to
every site below it in the site hierarchy in which the SharePoint Server Publishing feature is activated.
Reusable content items can be implemented as HTML or as text. By using the Reusable Content
command on the Insert tab under Editing Tools on the ribbon, authors can select from a predefined
list of content, or they can view a list of all available content and then insert it. For example, if your
organization requires that specific marketing text be used when describing a particular product, you can
create an item that contains the required description. When a user adds that reusable content item to a
page, the text automatically is added to the page.
When you create a reusable content item in the Reusable Content list, you can specify that it be shown
in the drop-down menu during page editing. You can also specify whether it can be automatically
updated.

You specify that an item is automatically updated. Authors cannot change the item after they
insert it on a page. For example, you can implement a copyright statement or a company's name,
address, and other contact information as an item that can be automatically updated. Doing this
helps prevent authors from incorrectly using those items, and it ensures consistency across all Web
pages where the items are used.
When an author inserts an automatically updated item on a page, the URL of the Reusable Content
list item is inserted instead of the contents of the item. When a Web browser loads a page that
contains an automatically updated item, the Web browser replaces the URL with the contents of the
item. Therefore, changes to automatically updated items in the Reusable Content list do not have to
be propagated to pages that use them. They are immediately available the next time that a page is
opened in a Web browser.

You do not specify that an item is automatically updated. Authors can change the item after
they insert it on a page. This is useful if you want to define the correct form for a block of content,
but you want authors to provide the content itself. For example, in a site that provides product
descriptions, in which you want each description to follow a particular tabular format, you could
create a generic product description table item in the Reusable Content list, which authors could
insert and then overwrite.
Plan dictionary customizations
The Format Text tab under Editing Tools includes a Spelling command that checks the spelling of
content in all fields on a page that contains HTML content. The Spelling command indicates spelling
errors and provides commands for fixing or ignoring them.
You can add a custom dictionary to your publishing site to prevent words that are unique to your
content from being reported as spelling errors. For example, if your site includes unique product names,
you can add them to the custom dictionary. Make a list of all product names, frequently used acronyms,
and other words that you want to be included in a custom dictionary for your site.
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Plan additional resources
When you create a publishing site, SharePoint Server 2010 creates the libraries that are listed in the
following table. You can use these libraries to store additional resources that content creators can use.
Use this location
To store these items
That apply to this level in the
site hierarchy
Master Page
Gallery
Master pages and page layouts
Site collection
Documents
Documents used in page authoring
Current site
Site Collection
Documents
Documents used in page authoring
Site collection
Images
Images used in page authoring
Current site
Site Collection
Images
Images used in page authoring
Site collection
Style Library
Custom cascading style sheets and Extensible
Stylesheet Language (XSL) styles
Site collection
When users insert an image or link into a page, the Select an Asset window enables them to browse
the contents of the current site's lists and libraries, together with the Site Collection Documents library
and the Site Collection Images library. You can also use the Suggested Content Browser Locations list
to add links to other SharePoint Server 2010 libraries that contain resources to be included on Web
pages. When a user inserts an image or link into a Web Part, the links are displayed in the Suggested
locations menu of the Select an Asset window.
When you plan for Web page authoring, consider the kinds of additional resources that page authors
might need. Think about who will create those resources, and where you want them to be stored. If
some resources are located in other sites, make a list of what those resources are and where they are
located so they can be added to the Suggested Content Browser Locations list.
Web page authoring planning worksheet
Download an Excel version of the Web Page authoring planning worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=187506&clcid=0x409). Use this worksheet to record your Web
page authoring decisions for a type of content.
See Also
Plan Web pages
Plan content approval and scheduling
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Plan content approval and scheduling
Content approval is the process by which authored content is approved or rejected for publication.
Content scheduling is the process by which content is published and made available to readers
according to a specified schedule. The Publishing feature in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides
the ability to approve and schedule content for publishing.
This article contains general guidance about how to plan content approval and content scheduling for
use with SharePoint Server 2010 publishing sites. However, this article does not describe how to
configure settings for content approval or how to configure workflows.
In this article:

About planning content approval and content scheduling

Plan content approval

Plan content scheduling

Using content deployment with content approval and scheduling
About planning content approval and content
scheduling
As you plan SharePoint Server 2010 publishing sites, you should plan how much control you want
users to have over approving site content. For example, you might want to impose restrictions on how
much control authors have over approving content they create. You have the option of giving users no
control, simple moderation, or the ability to start a workflow after they submit content. When you plan
publishing sites, you should also understand how the content scheduling process works.
Plan content approval
Content approval is the process by which users who have Approver permissions control the publication
of content. Content approval is configured by using the Content Approval option on the Versioning
Settings page in the library settings for the document library that contains content to be published.
When you plan for content approval, you must decide how you want content approval to work for your
site and who can approve content for publishing. In SharePoint Server 2010, the control of content can
fall within the following levels:

None If content approval is not required for items in a document library, after an author submits
content for publishing, it goes live immediately.

Simple moderation Content must be manually approved by a member of the Approver group
after an author submits it for publishing. The content is not visible to users who have Read
permissions until it is approved.

Approval workflow A workflow is used to run the approval process. Using a workflow makes the
approval process more automated and takes advantage of the built-in workflow features, such as
automatically sending e-mail to approvers, adding approval tasks to approvers' task lists, and letting
authors track the status of the approval process. Users can also modify the Approval workflow
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template, or develop their own custom approval workflow by using Microsoft SharePoint Designer
2010 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.
By default, the publishing site templates are preconfigured to use one of the following categories. You
can think of these categories as providing a range of restrictions over the approval of content, from
least to most restrictive. The following table shows each category, the level of restriction, and the
publishing site template that is automatically associated with each.
Category
Restriction level Site template
None
None
Enterprise Wiki
Simple moderation Low
Publishing Site
Approval workflow
Publishing Site with Workflow
Heavy
You can enable or disable publishing-related options for your site, such as requiring content approval or
changing Approval workflow settings.
Plan content scheduling
Content scheduling is the process by which users who have at least Contributor permissions specify a
schedule to publish content. If the Content Approval option is enabled for a document library, content
must be approved before it is published. For more information about content approval, see Versioning,
content approval, and check-out planning (SharePoint Server 2010).
Note:
Content scheduling is available only if the Content Approval option is enabled and if the
Document Version History option is set to create major and minor (draft) versions.
Content can be scheduled to be published or unpublished at specified dates and times. The scheduled
dates and times are initiated by timer jobs that continually check for pages and items in the document
library or image library that are ready for publishing or unpublishing. You can change the frequency with
which each job runs on the Job Definitions page on the Central Administration Web site.
Using content deployment with content approval and
scheduling
Content deployment is a feature of SharePoint Server 2010 that you can use to copy content from a
source site collection to a destination site collection. The content deployment feature is designed for
sites that use a multiple farm topology. A multiple farm topology consists of separate authoring,
publishing, and possibly staging farms. If you are implementing a multiple farm topology, you must
apply all the considerations that are outlined in this article for each authoring farm in your environment.
For more information, see Design content deployment topology and Technical diagrams (SharePoint
Server 2010).
If content deployment is used together with content approval and content scheduling for your
SharePoint Server 2010 solution, all approval processes occur on the source server where the content
is authored. When content is deployed to the target server, the publishing schedule that is associated
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with each piece of content is also deployed. For example, if a page is approved on the source server on
Monday and is set to go live at midnight on Friday, the page is copied to the destination server the next
time that a content deployment job runs. However, the page is not visible to users who have Reader or
anonymous permissions until midnight on Friday.
See Also
Plan Web content management (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan Web pages
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Plan for caching and performance (SharePoint
Server 2010)
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 provides a disk-based binary large object (BLOB) cache that reduces
database load and increases browser performance for users. This article describes the BLOB cache,
tells you how and when to use it, and lists key considerations for planning to use it. This article also
contains information about when to use Bit Rate Throttling, an Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0
extension that improves video performance for users when serving videos as part of digital asset
management in SharePoint Server 2010. Finally, this article also describes the limitations of upload file
size restrictions, and lists considerations for adjusting the size limit for file transfers on the server.
For information about how to enable the BLOB cache, see Configure cache settings for a Web
application (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/478be4b7-1480-4f97-87c5b18cd2436bce(Office.14).aspx). For information about digital asset management, see Plan digital asset
management (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:



Disk-based BLOB caching

BLOB cache overview

Decide whether to use the BLOB cache

Store the BLOB cache

Enable the BLOB cache

Specify the size of the BLOB cache
Bit Rate Throttling

Bit Rate Throttling overview

Decide to use Bit Rate Throttling

Enable Bit Rate Throttling
Maximum upload file size

Maximum upload file size overview

Decide maximum upload file size

Configure the maximum upload file size
Disk-based BLOB caching
This section describes the disk-based BLOB cache, and provides important information about how to
plan to use the cache with a SharePoint deployment. It tells how to decide when to use the BLOB
cache, where to store it, how to enable it, and how to configure the size of the cache in order to get the
best performance for users.
BLOB cache overview
The disk-based BLOB cache controls the caching for binary large objects (BLOBs), such as frequently
used image, audio, and video files, and other files that are used to display Web pages, such as .css
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and .js files. The BLOB cache is enabled on a front-end Web server and improves performance by
retrieving BLOB files from the database and storing them in a directory on the front-end Web end server
where they are served to users. This reduces the network traffic to and load on the database server.
The BLOB cache also provides features that support serving media files to users. One such feature is
support for byte-range requests, which lets users select a later point in the video and immediately begin
playback. Another feature is progressive caching, which starts serving the beginning of a large video file
while the rest of the file is being cached. Video files are divided and retrieved in smaller sections to
reduce the load between the front-end and back-end servers. An administrator can configure the size of
the sections.
Decide whether to use the BLOB cache
When enabled, the BLOB cache caches various image, audio, and video files, together with .css and .js
files. An administrator can modify the settings to add or remove file name extensions of file types to be
cached. This functionality lets you either cache as many file types as possible, or to restrict the cache to
certain kinds of files. For example, if you have an Internet-facing portal with read-only files such as .doc
or .pdf files, you can specify that those files be cached so that they are displayed more quickly to users.
If you have a collaboration site that contains files that are frequently updated, as well as media assets,
you can specify that the cache is to store only audio or video types by including only file name
extensions for those files in the cache settings.
Before you enable the BLOB cache, carefully consider the scenario in which you plan to use it. If your
site will be used for heavy collaboration, enabling the BLOB cache might temporarily affect the
performance of your site while the files to be cached are first written to the disk. After the files have
been stored in the cache, site performance will improve, so take this into consideration when you
decide whether or not to enable the cache. Base your decision to enable BLOB caching on the
following criteria:

For a publishing site for which most of the visitors are anonymous or where most of the files are
static content, enable the BLOB cache for as many file types as possible.

For other sites that contain lots of media assets that are read-only, or where only a small
percentage of the media assets are updated, enable the BLOB cache for media files only.
There is one BLOB cache per Web application. If you plan to use the BLOB cache together with an
asset library that you expect will be large, or together with a site that will receive lots of traffic, consider
putting the site collection that contains the asset library into its own Web application so that it receives
its own BLOB cache. This will ensure that other assets are not using up space in the BLOB cache that
you want allocated to items in the asset library. It will also ensure that sites which receive lots of traffic
do not prevent other sites which receive less traffic from benefitting from the BLOB cache.
Store the BLOB cache
When you enable the BLOB cache, you must specify a location on the front-end Web server where the
files will be stored. By default, the cache will be created on the drive on which SharePoint is installed.
Make sure that you put the BLOB cache on a drive that has sufficient disk space available in which to
store the cache. Also, select a drive that will be used by as few processes as possible so that the BLOB
cache process does not encounter conflicts when it tries to access the drive. If too many processes
compete for disk access on the drive where the BLOB cache is located, BLOB cache performance and
other processes will be adversely affected.
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If you plan to use the BLOB cache in a scenario with heavy cache use, such as serving videos in a high
traffic environment, and if you will use ULS logging, consider placing the BLOB cache on a separate
physical drive from the ULS log — not on a separate partition. Storing the BLOB cache and the ULS log
on the same drive can result in poor server performance. If you place the BLOB cache and the ULS log
on the same physical drive, make sure that you closely monitor the disk queue length for any
performance effect.
Each front-end Web server has its own local copy of the BLOB cache that is built as requests for files
are received. If you use load balancing with multiple front-end Web servers, each server contains its
own cache. When a file is requested by the first server, it is cached to that server only. If the next
request for the same file comes from a second server, a second request is sent to the database server
to retrieve the file to the cache on the second server.
Enable the BLOB cache
The BLOB cache is configured in the web.config file for each Web application and, by default, is not
enabled. You must specifically enable the BLOB cache in order to get the performance advantage it
provides. For information about how to enable the BLOB cache, see Configure cache settings for a
Web application (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/478be4b7-1480-4f9787c5-b18cd2436bce(Office.14).aspx).
Specify the size of the BLOB cache
When you decide how large to make the BLOB cache, you must consider the number and size of the
files to determine the total size of the data to be stored in the cache. By default, the BLOB cache is set
to 10 gigabytes (GB). Allow at least 20 percent more space on the drive than the size of the cache. For
example, if you have 10 GB of content, set the size of the cache to 12 GB on a drive that has at least
15 GB of space. If the BLOB cache is too small, serving files to users slows, reducing the performance
of your site.
Bit Rate Throttling
This section contains information about Bit Rate Throttling, describes when you should use it with the
SharePoint solution, and explains how to enable it.
Bit Rate Throttling overview
Bit Rate Throttling is an IIS 7.0 extension that meters the download speeds of media file types and data
between a server and a client computer. The encoded bit rates of media file types such as Windows
Media Video (WMV), MPEG-4 (MP4), and Adobe Flash Video, are automatically detected, and the rate
at which those files are delivered to the client over HTTP are controlled according to the Bit Rate
Throttling configuration. For more information, see Bit Rate Throttling
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=155151).
Decide to use Bit Rate Throttling
If you will make long-playing video assets available to users in SharePoint Server 2010, enable Bit Rate
Throttling in IIS. Without Bit Rate Throttling, IIS will serve video files by using as much bandwidth as it
can, which will result in increased network performance. When you enable Bit Rate Throttling in IIS, it
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will serve video files that use only as much bandwidth as is needed to support progressive downloading
and viewing of videos. When the BLOB cache is also enabled, Bit Rate Throttling uses extension rules
for files cached to disk. Files that are served from the BLOB cache by using Bit Rate Throttling are sent
to the client based on a percentage of the compressed size using the encoded bit rate. For example, if
the videos in your organization are smaller than 10 MB, you may decide not to use Bit Rate Throttling
because it will affect how fast users can download videos to their local computers. However, if you are
serving video files, enable Bit Rate Throttling to control the speed at which files are downloaded to
client computers.
Note:
Bit rate throttling will not work correctly if you do not first enable the BLOB cache and configure
it to cache the files types that you want to throttle.
Enable Bit Rate Throttling
In order to enable Bit Rate Throttling in IIS 7.0, you must install IIS Media Services 2.0. For information
about how to install IIS Media Services 2.0, see Bit Rate Throttling Readme
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=154962). For information about how to configure Bit Rate
Throttling, see Bit Rate Throttling Configuration Walkthrough
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=155153).
Maximum upload file size
This section describes the upload file size limitation, tells how to decide what the maximum upload file
size limit should be, and how to configure it.
Maximum upload file size overview
The maximum upload file size is a setting that is used by the SharePoint Server 2010 Web application
that specifies the maximum size of a file that a user can upload to the server. When a new Web
application is created, SharePoint Server 2010 sets the default maximum upload size to 50 MB. If a
user tries to upload a file larger than the specified maximum upload size, the upload will fail.
Decide maximum upload file size
Every user that uploads a file to a library uses a connection to the server and increases the amount of
data in the database. This impacts the load, response time and data capacity for a server. Depending
on your scenario, this can negatively impact your server performance if the server is not configured to
handle larger volumes of files. To determine what the upload file size limit should be for your server,
consider the number of users for your site, and the size of the files they will upload. For example, if your
users will primarily be uploading video files that are 500 MB, the upload file size limit should be large
enough to easily accommodate the largest files users will upload. When planning to adjust the upload
file size limit, keep in mind that this will also directly impact capacity planning for your server
environment. For more information about planning for storage of large media files, see Plan digital
asset management (SharePoint Server 2010).
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Configure the maximum upload file size
In order to configure the upload file size in SharePoint Server 2010, a farm administrator must change
the Maximum Upload Size value on the Web Application General Settings page in Central
Administration.
Note:
If you increase the default maximum upload size for a Web application, and you also plan to
use content deployment to move content from site collections within that Web application to
another farm or site collection, you must also increase the default maximum upload size on the
destination server, or the content deployment job will fail.
See Also
Cache settings operations (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/0ae2f59b309e-4853-8ce7-99bc40de4c03(Office.14).aspx)
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Plan for large Pages libraries (SharePoint
Server 2010)
A Pages library is a document library that contains all the content pages for a publishing site. A site that
has thousands or tens of thousands of pages stored in the Pages library must consider a unique set of
issues that relate to managing these pages, and providing navigation between them in a site.
This article describes the use of large Pages libraries in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 publishing
sites, and it provides information to help you determine whether to use large Pages libraries with your
publishing solution, and how to plan for them. This article does not describe how to set up rules or page
routing to use with large Pages libraries, and it does not discuss how to configure navigation for use
with large Pages libraries. For information about how to plan sites, see Plan sites and site collections
(SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

About large Pages libraries

Determine whether to use a large Pages library

Decide how to manage pages

Plan for navigation

Planning the Global Navigation and the Current Navigation menus

Planning other Web parts for navigation
About large Pages libraries
Pages libraries in SharePoint Server 2010 now support creating folders and storing pages within
folders, so there could potentially be thousands to tens of thousands of pages that are stored in the
Pages library for a single site. The Global Navigation and Current Navigation menus for a publishing
site are directly tied to the Pages library. By default, new pages are put in the root of the Pages library
as they are created. If the site has been configured to use auto-navigation, new pages will automatically
be added to the Global Navigation and Current Navigation menus. However, pages that are put in a
folder in the Pages library are not added to the navigation menus, and they must be added manually.
Additionally, there is a limit to the number of links that can be displayed in either the Global Navigation
or Current Navigation. If your solution will be using a single site that has lots of pages, you must plan for
how to organize your content so that you can manage those pages and configure navigation within the
site.
SharePoint Server 2010 provides several ways to manage the site content that is automatically stored
in a large Pages library. One way is to enable the Content Organizer feature for a site and create rules
that route pages to specific folders based on certain criteria, such as content type, title, scheduling
dates, or target audience. Another way is to use the folder partitioning setting in the Content Organizer
to automatically create folders after the target location contains a specified number of items. After the
target location has reached the maximum number of items, a new folder that has a specified folder
name is automatically created, and all new items created will then be put into the new folder.
Although you can manage the organization of your site content manually, using a large Pages library
together with the Content Organizer has the following benefits:
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
Automated page organization The organization of pages can be managed automatically by
using the Content Organizer, which allows for folder partitioning and page routing.

Lower site maintenance Site owners spend less time managing pages in the site because the
library can be managed automatically. Authors do not have to worry about putting pages in the
correct location because the rules-based routing does it for them.

Improved query performance The query load on the content database is reduced when pages
are displayed to users because Content Query Web Parts query only a single library in which
content is stored.
Determine whether to use a large Pages library
Before you plan to use a large Pages library, you must first determine whether a large Pages library is
right for your solution. This will depend on how you intend to organize the content in your site. To
decide whether using a large Pages library is right for your solution, answer the following questions:

Will the v4.master page be the same for all content in the site?

Will page layouts be the same for all content in the site?

Will content types be the same for all pages in the site?

Will permissions for users who have contributor, designer and approval access be the same for all
content in the site?
If the answer to each of these questions is ―Yes,‖ your solution might benefit from using a single site
that has a large Pages library. If you answered ―No‖ to any of these questions, you should use separate
sites that have their own Pages libraries.
Decide how to manage pages
After you have decided to use a large Pages library, you must decide how to manage the pages that
will be created. There are two ways in which you can manage pages for your site: manually or by using
rules and page routing. We do not recommend managing pages manually because a large number of
pages is involved. Instead, you should use the rules and page routing that are provided as part of the
Content Organizer feature.
Before you can use rules and page routing for a site, you must start the Content Organizer feature by
using the Manage site features page in Site Settings. After you start the Content Organizer feature, if
you want to enable the automatic creation of folders in the Pages library, use the Content Organizer
Settings page to turn on folder partitioning. Use the Content Organizer Rules page to create rules to
route pages to the correct location in the Pages library.
Although rules can be set up for various criteria, you can use managed metadata to provide even more
control over where pages are put in the library. For example, you can create term sets and route pages
to certain folders based on the terms or managed keywords that authors assign to pages they create.
For information about how to use managed metadata, see Plan managed metadata (SharePoint Server
2010).
When you plan to manage the content in the Pages library, think about the pages that authors will
create. Will the content be similar enough that you can use automatic folder partitioning? Do you need
to design a more structured library to contain the pages for your site? What folders do you need, and
what criteria do you want to use to route pages to specific folders? Will you need to create a custom
term store to provide authors a list of keywords to use with page routing?
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Plan for navigation
The Global Navigation and Current Navigation menus do not display pages in folders, and the menus
have limits on the maximum number of links that can be displayed, so you must plan for how users will
navigate among the pages of your site. In general, planning navigation for a site that uses a large
Pages library involves the following site elements:
Global Navigation and Current Navigation menus
Other Web parts for navigation
Planning the Global Navigation and the Current Navigation menus
Although pages that are added to the root of the Pages library are added to the Global Navigation and
Current Navigation menus automatically, if your site will have lots of pages, you must decide which
pages to display in the Global Navigation and Current Navigation menus. For example, you can create
a series of pages that use the Welcome Page template to display a mix of authored content and Web
Parts that link to other pages in the site and then only include the Welcome Pages in the Global
Navigation and Current Navigation menus.
Use the Site Navigation Settings page in Site Settings to customize the Global Navigation and Current
Navigation menus for your site. You can stop the navigation menus from automatically displaying links
to sites below the top level site and pages. You can also specify only the links that you want to show to
users and the order in which you want the links listed. This makes it possible for you to build a
navigation system that is not dependent on the structure of the Pages library. If you do not want to
manually update the navigation menus in the user interface, you can also use Microsoft Visual Studio
2010 to build a custom navigation menu for your site.
Planning other Web parts for navigation
SharePoint Server 2010 provides two navigation-specific Web Parts that can be added to Web Parts
pages for publishing sites: the Table of Contents Web Part and the Summary Links Web Part.
The Table of Contents Web Part automatically displays site content for the first three levels of a site.
However, the Table of Contents Web Part should not be used for publishing sites that have large Pages
libraries because it does not display pages in folders, and therefore will not accurately display the
content hierarchy for the site. This Web Part is better suited for smaller publishing sites that have only a
limited number of pages in their site.
The Summary Links Web Part makes it possible for page authors to create a list of links that can be
grouped and styled on a Web Parts page. Although this provides an easy way for page authors to link
to other pages, the limitation is that the list is static, and must manually be changed to add or remove
items from the navigation. This Web Part is best used for targeting a short list of specific pages in a site,
but scaling up to a longer list of Pages library links with many folders and pages could quickly become
unmanageable.
You can also use a Lists and Libraries Web Part or a Content Query Web Part to create dynamic,
custom navigation links on pages in your site. By using either Web Part, you can help reduce the cost
of site maintenance and provide page authors the flexibility of providing dynamic content that makes it
easy for users to locate new or popular content without having to manually update the navigation.
You can use a Lists and Libraries Web Part to display a view of any list or library in the site, such as the
Pages library. You must first create a view that is configured to filter, sort, and group the content of the
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Pages library to return the items that you want to display. Then you must select that view in the Web
Part on another page to display the library items. The result is a view into the Pages library that is
dynamic and that will change when more pages are added to the library.
You can also use the Content Query Web Part to create a custom list of links to content from any list or
library in the site, or from any other site in the site collection. By using the Content Query Web Part, you
can specify the criteria that are used to display items in the Web Part, such as content type, title,
scheduling dates, or target audience. For example, if your site uses page rating, you can create a
Content Query Web Part that displays the top rated pages for your site. When the Content Query Web
Part is used with a large Pages library, it provides more flexibility than the Summary Links Web Part,
because the list is dynamic and reduces the amount of maintenance that is required to update static
lists when pages are added or removed.
When you plan the navigation for your site, think about how users will navigate within the site. What are
the key pages that must be displayed in the Global Navigation and Custom Navigation menus? What
kinds of content does the site contain, and how should the content be grouped when it is displayed to
users? Do you need lists of static or dynamic links to content, or a mix of both? When you plan the
navigation for a site that uses a large Pages library, you must consider many of the same issues that
you would consider when planning the navigation for any other site. For more information about how to
plan site navigation, see Plan site navigation (SharePoint Server 2010).
See Also
Sites and site collections overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan sites and site collections (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan managed metadata (SharePoint Server 2010)
Site navigation overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
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Content deployment overview (SharePoint
Server 2010)
Content deployment is a feature of Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 that you can use to deploy
content from a source site collection to a destination site collection. This article summarizes the content
deployment feature in SharePoint Server 2010. It describes the purpose and function of content
deployment, explains content deployment paths and jobs, and explains the security options that are
available when you deploy content. This article also explains how the content deployment process
works, and it lists important factors and limitations of using content deployment. This article does not
describe the steps that are involved in planning to use content deployment or how to set up and
configure content deployment. For more information, see Plan content deployment (SharePoint Server
2010).
In this article:

What is content deployment?

About deployment paths and jobs

About content deployment security

How content deployment works

Important considerations in content deployment
What is content deployment?
Content deployment deploys content from a source SharePoint Server 2010 site collection to a
destination site collection. The complete source site collection can be deployed, or a subset of sites can
be deployed. Content deployment, which is incremental by default, deploys only changed pages and
related assets (such as images). A Quick Deploy feature supports the deployment of a single page by
authors.
Note:
For the content deployment Quick Deploy feature to work, the source site collection must have
been created by using the Publishing Portal template, or it must have the SharePoint Server
Publishing Infrastructure feature enabled.
In most content deployment scenarios, the source site collection, from which content is being deployed,
is in a server farm that is separate from the destination site collection. Typically, the destination server
farm (the "production" farm) has tightened security to minimize the actions that can be done in the
production environment. It is not expected that authoring will be done on the production server,
because changes to content on the production server might be overwritten by a content deployment
job. In most content deployment scenarios, the source server farm and the production server farm are
in independent Active Directory domains. For information about content deployment topologies, see
Design content deployment topology
It is important to be aware that content deployment is a one-way process: content is deployed from a
source site collection to a destination site collection. The content deployment feature does not support
round-trip synchronization from source to destination and back again. Creating new content or changing
existing content on the destination site collection can cause content deployment jobs to fail. Because of
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this, you should consider restricting permissions on the destination site collection so that users cannot
make changes directly to content that is stored within that site collection.
In content deployment, the base URL of the source site collection can differ from the base URL of the
destination site collection. The content deployment feature will fix links in the source content to work
correctly in the destination location.
Content deployment deploys only content — Web pages, libraries, lists, and resources that are used by
the deployed pages. It does not deploy programs, assemblies, features, or configuration information
such as Web.config files. When a Web page is deployed, any items in the content database that the
page depends on — such as images, style sheets, or layout pages — will also be deployed.
Content deployment deploys the most recent major and minor versions of a content item. For example,
if version 2.7 of a Web page is being deployed, the most recent major version (2.0) of the page, and the
most recent minor version (2.7), will be deployed to the destination site.
If an item has an associated publishing schedule, the scheduling information is deployed together with
the item so that the schedule is followed in the destination site collection. For example, if an item that is
scheduled to be published at 6:00 A.M. is deployed at 3:00 A.M., site users on the destination site
cannot view the content until 6:00 A.M. For information about scheduling content, see Plan content
approval and scheduling.
A new feature of content deployment that was added for SharePoint Server 2010 is the option to use
SQL Server database snapshots during export. If the database snapshots option is enabled, a snapshot
of the source content database is created before the export phase of the content deployment job starts.
The content deployment job then uses the database snapshot to perform the export, instead of
exporting directly from the live content database. After the export has successfully completed, the
snapshot is deleted. By using the database snapshot option, you eliminate any potential problems with
users editing content in the content database while a content deployment job is running.
Note:
The SQL Server database snapshot option is only available if Microsoft SQL Server 2008
Enterprise edition is installed. If you are using Remote BLOB Storage (RBS), and the RBS
provider that you are using does not support snapshots, you cannot use snapshots for content
deployment or backup. For example, the SQL FILESTREAM provider does not support
snapshots. For more information about RBS, see Overview of Remote BLOB Storage
(SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/d359cdaa-0ebd-4c59-8fc5002cba241b18(Office.14).aspx).
About deployment paths and jobs
The following section describes content deployment paths and jobs.
Content deployment paths
A content deployment path defines a source site collection from which content deployment can
originate and a destination site collection to which content is deployed. A path can be associated with
only one site collection. A content deployment path specifies the following information:

Authentication information that gives content deployment jobs permission to the destination site
collection. To deploy content to the destination site collection, deployment jobs must have Central
Administration credentials on the destination server. Jobs can connect by using Integrated
Windows authentication or Basic authentication.
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
Information about whether to deploy user names that are associated with the content, such as
authors' names.

Information about how to deploy permissions on the content. For more information, see About
content deployment security.
Content deployment jobs
A content deployment job deploys specified content on a specified schedule by using a specified path.
After a path is defined, one or more content deployment jobs can be defined. A deployment job
specifies:

The path with which the job is associated.

Whether the job uses SQL snapshots.

The sites within the source site collection to deploy.

The frequency at which to run the job and deploy the content.

Whether to send e-mail when a job succeeds or fails and the e-mail addresses to use.
There are two kinds of standard content deployment jobs: full and incremental. These jobs are
managed by a server farm administrator, and they enable you to specify whether to deploy all content,
including any content that might have been deployed previously, or only content that was added,
updated, or deleted since the last successful deployment. These jobs are run on a schedule that the
server farm administrator specifies.
A third kind of content deployment job, Quick Deploy, is a special job that enables users to quickly
publish content without waiting for the next standard content deployment job to run. This job runs
automatically, at a specified interval.
The following table describes the kinds of content deployment jobs:
Job Type
Description
Incremental
An incremental deployment job deploys all new, changed, or deleted content from the
source to the destination. The first time that an incremental deployment job runs, it
performs a full deployment. For each subsequent run of an incremental deployment job,
new content is added to the destination, whereas updated content replaces content that
has the same GUID but has older modification dates. Content that is deleted on the
source is flagged so that it will also be deleted from the destination server. This is an
important difference between full and incremental deployments.
Full
A full content deployment job deploys all content from the source to the destination,
regardless of whether that content was previously deployed. Also, full deployment jobs do
not check whether content that exists on the destination was deleted from the source. If
you delete content on the source server and then perform a full deployment, that content
will not be removed on the destination server. You should avoid using full deployment
jobs except in specific cases where you know content has not been deleted on the
source server.
Quick
Deploy
A Quick Deploy job enables users, such as authors and editors, to quickly deploy a Web
page. By default, a Quick Deploy job is created automatically when a new content
deployment path is created, and it is set to run automatically every 15 minutes. When a
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Job Type
Description
user flags a page for inclusion in a Quick Deploy job, that page will be included in the
next automatically scheduled Quick Deploy job. Only pages that are flagged by a user as
Quick Deploy pages are included in the job. Alternatively, a farm administrator can
manually run or cancel a Quick Deploy job at any time by using the Manage Content
Deployment Paths and Jobs page. Any member of the Quick Deploy users group (which
is created in sites that have the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature
enabled) can mark a Web page for deployment by using the Quick Deploy command.
Note:
It is possible to have a path that is defined in sites that do not have the Office
SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature enabled. However, paths that
are created in this manner will not have associated Quick Deploy jobs. If you
want to add a Quick Deploy job to a path that was defined in a site that does not
have the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature enabled, first enable
the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature on the source site
collection, and then edit and save the path again. The path will then have a Quick
Deploy job associated with it.
About content deployment security
Permissions to content on the destination server farm will usually differ from permissions to content on
the source server farm. In many publishing solutions, the destination server farm authenticates users by
using a different Active Directory domain than the one used in an authoring or staging environment, and
there might not be a trust relationship between the two domains.
When you configure a content deployment path, you can select from the following security options:

All Deploys all security-related information together with the content. This includes role definitions,
access control lists (which map users and roles to the content they have permissions to view or
edit), and users. This option is useful if the same set of users has the same permissions on the
source and destination server farms. For example, when you deploy from an authoring server farm
to a staging server farm, this option might be best because the same users need access to both
sets of content. All is the default option.

Role Definitions Only Deploys role definitions and access control lists that map the roles to the
content but do not deploy users. In this option, the same roles apply in the source and destination
server farms, but different users can be assigned to those roles in each server farm.

None Deploys no security information. Security on the destination security farm must be managed
by the administrators of that server farm by assigning users and roles to the farm's sites and
content. For example, when you deploy from a staging server farm to a corporate Internet presence
site, this option helps ensure that the security of the two server farms is managed separately.
For more information about security, see Security planning for sites and content (SharePoint Server
2010).
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How content deployment works
Content deployment settings for both incoming and outgoing deployment jobs are configured on the
Content Deployment Settings page, which is accessed from the General Application Settings page on
the Central Administration Web site. You use the Content Deployment Settings page to accept or reject
incoming content deployment jobs for a whole server farm. You can also set specific servers within your
server farm to be used for receiving incoming content deployment jobs or for sending outgoing content
deployment jobs. This enables you to spread the load for content deployment jobs across multiple
servers in your server farm, based on the available server resources and the needs of your server farm.
Note:
Depending on the kind of server farm you are using, you might not have to enable support for
both incoming and outgoing deployment jobs. If your server farm is an authoring server farm,
you do not have to configure incoming (import) settings. If your server farm is a production
server farm, you do not have to configure outgoing (export) settings. However, if your server
farm is a staging server farm, you must configure both incoming (import) and outgoing (export)
settings.
The tasks that are involved in content deployment are controlled by the timer process on the server that
hosts the Central Administration Web site, which is used to administer the content deployment jobs.
This server could be the source server in the deployment server farm, or it could be a separate server
in the farm. The content deployment job uses the service account information that is provided in the
content deployment path settings to authenticate with a Web service on the destination server. This
Web service acts as the pathway for all communication between the source and destination servers
while the content deployment job runs.
The following illustration shows the process that the content deployment job undergoes from start to
finish:
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344
Callout Description
1
When a content deployment job starts, it checks the change token to determine when the last
successful content deployment job was run. If the length of time between the last successful
content deployment job and the current one is so long that the stored change token is no
longer valid, it will run as a full content deployment job, not an incremental content deployment
job.
After the change token has been verified, the export process is started on the source server. If
SQL snapshots are enabled for the content deployment job, a snapshot is taken before the
export process starts.
Note:
In preparation for the export, settings such as the file location, base file name, and
other values are specified for the deployment job.
2
Next, the content to be included is exported to a temporary directory on the source server,
where it is packaged into .cab files for transport. If the deployment job has been configured to
use SQL Server database snapshots, it will use a database snapshot as the source for the
export; otherwise, it will export directly from the content database.
Alternatively, you can use the Microsoft.SharePoint.Deployment.SPExport namespace from
the SharePoint Server 2010 API to export content.
After the source server has authenticated with the Web service on the destination server, it
calls the Web service to prepare the import on the destination server.
3
After the files have been packaged into .cab files on the source server, the files are
transported to a local temporary directory on the destination server via HttpPost.
The content deployment job then calls the Web service to start the import process on the
destination server.
Note:
In preparation for the import, settings such as file location, base file name and other
values are set by using the information that was stored in the content deployment job
when the files were prepared on the source server.
4
While the import is in progress, the content deployment job calls the Web service to get the
status of the import process. If the destination server does not respond with updated status
within a certain amount of time, the content deployment job will contain a warning message
that the job might have timed out.
The content deployment job will continue to request updated status from the destination
server, but might eventually fail and need to be re-run if the destination server repeatedly fails
to respond.
5
During import, the .cab files are extracted to a temporary directory on the destination server,
and then they are imported into the database. Any site collection features that are required by
items that were included in the import are activated, and scheduling is then configured for the
imported items.
Alternatively, you can use the Microsoft.SharePoint.Deployment.SPImport namespace from
the SharePoint Server 2010 API to import content.
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Callout Description
6
After the import has finished, it returns either a Success or Failure status to the Central
Administration server. If the import status is Success, the change token is saved. If the import
status is Failure, the change token is discarded.
Important considerations in content deployment
The following list contains important considerations to be aware of when you use content deployment:
1. Always deploy to an empty site collection for the initial content deployment job. If the site
collection already contains content, the initial content deployment job will fail. When you create the
site collection on the destination server, use the < Select template later > option on the Custom
tab of the Create Site Collection page in Central Administration to create an empty site collection.
The first time that the content deployment job runs, the correct template and all associated
configuration settings will be applied to the destination server.
Note:
Do not use the Blank Site template to create a destination site collection. The Blank Site
template does not create an empty site collection and can cause the content deployment
job to fail.
2. The export and import servers must each host an instance of the Central Administration
Web site. When you configure content deployment settings for your server farm, you select the
servers in your server farm to designate as export and import servers for content deployment. If you
attempt to configure an export or import server that does not host the Central Administration Web
site, no error message will be displayed. The content deployment export or import phase will not
start. Be sure to deploy the Central Administration Web site on the export and import servers.
3. Each server in your source and destination server farms must have identical updates. Be
sure that all SharePoint Server 2010 and Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 with
Service Pack 2 (SP2) updates have been applied and that any language packs, if they are needed,
have been installed.
4. The source and destination servers must have enough hard disk space for storing the files
that are used during export and import. During export, all files to be included in the content
deployment job are stored in a temporary directory in the export server farm. Likewise, during
import, files to be imported into the database are stored in a temporary directory on the destination
server farm. Be sure that the location of the temporary directory for each server farm has sufficient
disk space to accommodate the files that are included in the deployment job.
5. If jobs will run infrequently, the time for keeping changes in the change log must be
adjusted. By default, the change log is configured to keep a record of any changes for 60 days. If
the time between two incremental deployment jobs exceeds this time—for example, if it was 70
days since the last content deployment job was run—then the change log will not contain entries
from before the last change token. If the time between jobs will be more than 60 days, you must
change the number of days specified for the Web application in the Central Administration Web
site.
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6. Do not run content deployment jobs in parallel if the same path is used by both
jobs. Changes made by one job might conflict with changes made by another job that is running
along the same path at the same time. If this happens, the content deployment job might fail.
See Also
Plan content deployment (SharePoint Server 2010)
Design content deployment topology
347
Plan content deployment (SharePoint Server
2010)
Content deployment is a feature of Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 that you can use to copy content
from a source site collection to a destination site collection. This article contains general guidance about
how to plan to use content deployment with your SharePoint Server 2010 sites. It does not describe the
purpose and function of content deployment, explain content deployment paths and jobs, or explain the
security options when you deploy content. This article does not explain how the content deployment
process works, nor does it explain how to set up and configure content deployment. For more
information, see Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

About planning content deployment

Determine whether to use content deployment

Determine how many server farms you need

Plan the export and import servers

Plan content deployment paths

Plan job scheduling

Plan for large jobs

Content deployment planning worksheet
About planning content deployment
The planning process that is described in this article starts with helping you determine whether to use
content deployment with your SharePoint Server 2010 solution. The remainder of the article describes
the steps that are required to plan a content deployment solution: deciding how many server farms are
necessary, planning the export and import servers, planning the content deployment paths and jobs,
and special considerations for large jobs. You can record this information in the worksheet that is
referenced in the Content deployment planning worksheet section.
Determine whether to use content deployment
Although content deployment can be useful for copying content from one site collection to another, it is
not a requirement for every scenario. The following list contains reasons for why you might want to use
content deployment for your solution:

The farm topologies are completely different. A common scenario is one in which there are
authors publishing content from an internal server farm to an external server farm. The topologies
of the server farms can be completely different. However, the content of the sites to be published is
the same.

The servers require specific performance tuning to optimize performance. If you have a
server environment where both authors and readers are viewing content, you can separately
configure the object and output caches on the different site collections based on the purpose of the
site or user role.
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
There are security concerns about content that is deployed to the destination farm. If you
do not want users to have separate accounts on the production server, and you do not want to
publish by using only approval policies, content deployment lets you restrict access to the
production server.
Before you implement a content deployment solution, you should carefully consider whether content
deployment is really necessary. The following list contains alternatives to using content deployment:

Author on production using an extended Web application If you have a single-farm
environment, you can choose to allow users to author content directly on the production farm and
use the publishing process to make content available to readers. By using an extended Web
application, you have a separate IIS Web site that uses a shared content database to expose the
same content to different sets of users. This is typically used for extranet deployments in which
different users access content by using different domains. For more information, see Extend a Web
application (SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/02dc86bd-5918-4a0189e9-d04508c3cc72(Office.14).aspx).

Create a custom solution You can use the Microsoft.SharePoint.Deployment.SPExport and
Microsoft.SharePoint.Deployment.SPImport namespaces from the SharePoint Server 2010 API
to develop a custom solution to meet your needs. For more information, see How to: Customize
Content Deployment for Disconnected Scenarios
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=181076&clcid=0x409).

Use backup and restore You can use backup and restore to back up a site collection from one
location and restore it to another location. For more information, see Back up a site collection
(SharePoint Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/45acdd33-b322-4f36-97f10701159e15f0(Office.14).aspx) and Restore a site collection (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/f8f81869-a51f-4d7f-b4b6-52dd99078c23(Office.14).aspx).
If you decide that using content deployment in SharePoint Server 2010 is right for your solution,
continue reading this article.
Determine how many server farms you need
A typical content deployment scenario includes two separate server farms: a source server farm that is
used for authoring, and a destination server farm that is used for production. You can also use content
deployment to copy content between two separate site collections within the same server farm, or you
can use a three-tier server farm that contains a server for authoring, one for staging and quality
assurance, and one for production. If you will be using content deployment, you should also decide how
many server farms are necessary for your solution. For more information about topologies for content
deployment, see Design content deployment topology
Plan the export and import servers
After you have decided on a topology for your server farm, you must decide which servers will be the
export and import servers. These are the servers in the server farm that are used to run the content
deployment jobs. They do not have to be the same as the source or destination servers. However, the
servers that are designated as export and import servers must have the Central Administration Web
site installed. Decide which servers will be configured to either send or receive content deployment jobs
and to record your decisions.
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In the content deployment planning worksheet, record each server farm in your content deployment
topology, and note its purpose. For each server farm, provide the URLs of the export server, the import
server, or both. Also record the Active Directory domain that is used by the farm.
Plan content deployment paths
A content deployment path defines a source site collection from which content deployment can start
and a destination site collection to which content is deployed. A path can only be associated with one
site collection. To plan the content deployment paths that are needed for your solution, decide which
site collections will be deployed and define the source and destination for each path. For more
information about paths, see Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
If you will be using a three-stage farm topology, you must also plan for how content will be deployed
across the farms. In general, you should reduce the number of ―hops‖ the content makes as it moves
from authoring to staging and then to production. For example, if you want to test content on the staging
farm before you push it to production, you can deploy content from the authoring farm to the staging
farm first, and then deploy content from the authoring farm to the production farm after the content has
been verified. This means that only the authoring farm is responsible for deploying content to all other
farms in the environment. Although it is possible to deploy content from authoring to staging, and then
from staging to production, it is not necessary to use this approach. When you design content
deployment paths for a three-stage farm topology, you must also carefully plan the scheduling of the
jobs that will deploy the content to the other farms in the environment. For more information about
content deployment topologies, see Design content deployment topology.
Record each path in the content deployment planning worksheet. For each path, enter the source and
destination Web applications and site collections. Also record how much security information to deploy
along the path: All, Roles only, or None.
Plan job scheduling
After you have defined the paths along which site content will be deployed, you must plan the specific
jobs to deploy the content. A content deployment job lets you specify that a whole site collection or only
specific sites in a site collection will be deployed for a specific path. Jobs also define the frequency with
which they are run and whether to include all content, or only new, changed, or deleted content. You
can associate multiple jobs with each path. For each path that you have defined, you must decide
whether a job will deploy the whole site collection or will deploy specific sites.
As you plan the scope of your content deployment jobs, be sure to think about the order in which the
jobs will run. You must deploy a parent site collection or site before you can deploy a site below it in the
hierarchy. For example, if you have a site collection with two sites below it, Site A and Site B, and Site
A also has two sites below it, Site C and Site D, you must create and run a job that will deploy the toplevel site collection, before you can deploy Site A and Site B. You must also deploy Site A before you
can deploy Site C and Site D. If you plan to use content deployment jobs that are scoped to specific
sites, be sure to schedule the jobs appropriately so that sites higher in the hierarchy are deployed
before sites lower in the hierarchy.
You must also decide when and how often to run each job. In general, you should schedule jobs to run
during times when the source server has the least amount of activity. Content that is checked out for
editing by a user when a content deployment job starts will be ignored by the content deployment job,
and it will be copied with the next deployment job after it is checked in. You can configure a job to use a
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database snapshot of the content database in Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition to
minimize risk to the content deployment job.
Note:
If you are using Remote BLOB Storage (RBS), and the RBS provider that you are using does
not support snapshots, you cannot use snapshots for content deployment or backup. For
example, the SQL FILESTREAM provider does not support snapshots. For more information
about RBS, see Overview of Remote BLOB Storage (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/d359cdaa-0ebd-4c59-8fc5-002cba241b18(Office.14).aspx).
If you will be using a three-stage farm topology, you must also plan for when content is deployed across
the farms. For example, if you deploy content from the authoring farm to the staging farm to test and
verify content, you should plan to schedule the job that deploys content to the production farm so that
there is enough time to resolve any issues that are found on the staging farm.
Note:
Do not run content deployment jobs in parallel if the same path is used by both jobs.
For each path, record each associated job in the content deployment planning worksheet. If there is
more than one job for a path, insert a row underneath the path for each job to be added. For each job,
enter the scope and frequency with which the job will run.
Plan for large jobs
A content deployment job exports all content, as XML and binary files, to the file system on the source
server and then packages these files into the default size of 10 MB .cab files. If a single file is larger
than 10 MB, such as a 500 MB video file, it will be packaged into its own .cab file, which can be larger
than 10 MB. The .cab files are then uploaded by HttpPost to the destination server where they are
extracted and imported. If the site collection that will be deployed has a large amount of content, you
must make sure that the temporary storage locations for these files on both the source server farms
and the destination server farms have sufficient space to store the files. In many cases, you might not
know the size or number of .cab files that will be included in the job until you start using content
deployment. But if you know that your site is large and will contain lots of content, make sure that you
plan for sufficient storage capacity as part of your content deployment topology.
Note:
If your site will contain large files, such as video files, you might have to adjust the maximum
file upload size for the Web application to accommodate the larger .cab file size. For more
information, see Plan for caching and performance (SharePoint Server 2010).
Content deployment planning worksheet
Download an Excel version of the Content deployment planning worksheet
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=167835&clcid=0x409).
See Also
Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Design content deployment topology
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Design content deployment topology
Content deployment is a feature of Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 that you can use to deploy
content from a source site collection to a destination site collection. This article describes elements of
topologies designed for content deployment and illustrates typical content deployment topologies. For
an overview of content deployment using SharePoint Server 2010, see Content deployment overview
(SharePoint Server 2010). For information about planning to use content deployment with your solution,
see Plan content deployment (SharePoint Server 2010).
In this article:

Elements of content deployment topologies

Typical content deployment topologies
Elements of content deployment topologies
Most content deployment topologies include two or more server farms, to separate the authoring
environment from the production environment. A server farm used in content deployment can have one
of the following purposes:

Authoring The authoring farm contains the site collection that is used by the team that creates
the content.

Production The production farm contains the site collection that presents the content to the
intended audience. This farm usually has tightened security.

Staging The staging farm contains a site collection that is a copy of the production site collection,
so the content can be reviewed and tested before it is published.
On any farm that exports content, you must specify a single server that hosts the Central Administration
Web site as the export server. Similarly, on any farm that imports content, you must specify a single
server that hosts the Central Administration Web site as the import server. These are the servers that
host the timer jobs that run the export and import operations, and that pack, transport, and unpack the
.cab files that contain the content that is exported and imported as part of content deployment. The
export and import servers must have sufficient disk space to hold these .cab files in addition to the
uncompressed copies of the files before and after compression. For more information about the content
deployment process, including a list of important considerations to be aware of when you use content
deployment, see Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
Typical content deployment topologies
This section illustrates common content deployment topologies.
Two-farm topology
The two-farm topology is a standard Internet site topology, and it is typical of topologies that are used to
publish an Internet site, such as a corporation's Internet presence site or a news organization's online
news site. It includes two server farms: one to host the authoring site collection along with other sites
used by the authoring team, and the other to host the production site collection. For this topology, users
of the production server farm belong to a separate Active Directory domain, and some production farm
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users might be anonymous. This topology is recommended for Internet-facing sites, and for extranet
sites where users have read-only access to content.
The following figure shows a standard two-farm topology for content deployment:
In the two-farm topology, the authoring server farm contains the site collection that is used to author the
site's content. A front-end Web server in the authoring farm must be configured to export content from
the authoring site collection to the production farm. One server that hosts the Central Administration
Web server in the production farm must be configured to import content from the authoring farm.
Often in the two-farm topology, the production farm is hosted in a perimeter network that is protected by
outer and inner firewalls to increase security.
Variations on this topology include the following:

Single authoring farm publishing to multiple production farms In this variation, multiple farms
are deployed in the perimeter network. Each production farm can have the same content, or sites
can vary from farm to farm. This topology can be configured in multiple ways:

The authoring farm can deploy to all the production farms.

The authoring farm can deploy to one production farm; by using content deployment, that
production farm can then deploy to the other production farms.
Note:
Because a content deployment job is based on a path to a specific destination,
deployments to multiple production farms are not synchronized. In this scenario, each
production farm might have different content until all content deployment jobs have run.

Multiple authoring farms publishing to a single production farm Different authoring teams,
each working on their own authoring farm, can work on separate site collections that are published
to separate site collections on a single production farm.
Three-stage topology
In some solutions, a three-stage topology is deployed and includes an authoring farm, a staging farm,
and a production farm. The staging farm is used to test or review the content, in addition to custom Web
Parts or code, before it is published to the production farm. Depending on the size of your SharePoint
Server 2010 solution, the site collections for both authoring and staging can be located within the same
farm, instead of two separate farms. This topology is recommended for the following situations:

Environments where a multistage approval process is a business requirement.

Validating content in an environment that more closely reflects the production environment before
deploying it to production.
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
Testing the content with custom Web Parts and code before moving it to the production farm.
In a typical three-stage content deployment topology, the authoring farm deploys to both the staging
farm and the production farm. A front-end Web server in the authoring farm must be configured to
export content. A front-end Web server in both the staging farm and the production farm must be
configured to import content.
The following figure shows a standard three-stage topology for content deployment, where the
authoring farm deploys content to both the staging farm and the production farm:
In a variation on the three-stage topology, the authoring farm deploys content to the staging farm, and
the staging farm deploys content to the production farm. In this scenario, a server that hosts the Central
Administration Web site in the staging farm must be configured to both import and export content.
Single-farm topology
Content deployment can be configured for use in a single server farm. In this topology, authors work in
one site collection, and content is deployed to a duplicate publishing site collection on the same farm.
The site collections used for authoring and production use separate content databases on the same
database server. The site collections can be in the same Web application, or in separate Web
applications. Security is managed by granting users permissions to the content rather than by using
separate Active Directory domains. This topology is recommended for Intranet environments, external
environments where verification of content or code in a staging environment is not a business
requirement, and for segregating security settings and authentication between two locations when only
one farm is available or necessary.
The following figure shows a single-farm topology, where a site collection in one Web application is
deployed to a site collection in another Web application in the same farm:
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Note:
Using content deployment with a single-farm topology might not be the best approach for your
SharePoint Server 2010 solution. One alternative to using content deployment is to extend the
Web application. This option lets you have a separate IIS Web site that uses a shared content
database to expose the same content to a different set of users. This is typically used for
extranet deployments in which different users access content by using different domains. For
information about extending a Web application, see Extend a Web application (SharePoint
Server 2010) (http://technet.microsoft.com/library/02dc86bd-5918-4a01-89e9d04508c3cc72(Office.14).aspx). For a list of alternatives to using content deployment, see Plan
content deployment (SharePoint Server 2010).
See Also
Content deployment overview (SharePoint Server 2010)
Plan content deployment (SharePoint Server 2010)
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Variations overview
The variations feature in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 makes content available to specific
audiences on different sites by copying content from a source variation site to each target variation site.
When users visit the root site, they are redirected to the appropriate variation site, based on the
language setting of their Web browser. If necessary, the content can be customized on the target
variation site. For example, content on a target variation site can be translated into other languages
before it is published. Variations can be used only on SharePoint Server 2010 sites that are created
with one of the Publishing site templates, or on sites for which the SharePoint Server Publishing
Infrastructure feature has been enabled.
Note:
Although variations can be used for multilingual solutions, the variations feature does not
translate pages. To use variations for creating multilingual content, you can use workflows to
route content for translation by another team or third-party vendor after the content is copied to
target sites. For more information about workflows, see Plan workflows (SharePoint Server
2010).
This article provides an overview of the variations feature. It describes the elements of the variations
feature, provides an overview of site and page creation for variation sites, lists some of the limitations of
variations, and describes scenarios for using variations in SharePoint Server 2010. This article does not
describe the tasks that are involved in planning a solution that uses variations. For information about
planning to use variations in your solution, see Plan variations. This article also does not describe how
to create variation labels and hierarchies. For information about creating a variations site, see Create a
variations site (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=198973&clcid=0x409).
In this article:

Use and benefits of variations

Scenarios for using variations

Elements of variations

Understanding variations

Understanding source variation and target variation site creation

Understanding site and page creation

Limitations of variations
Use and benefits of variations
Many organizations have a global reach. However, even in domestic markets, organizations must reach
a diverse customer base that might speak many different languages or that might need to have specific
information that is based on regional differences, on various mobile devices, or on corporate branding.
These types of organizations need Web sites that deliver tailored content to suit different cultures,
different markets, and different geographic regions. Producing and maintaining variations of a site can
be difficult and time-consuming. By using variations as part of a SharePoint Server 2010 solution, site
architects and site administrators can simplify the process of producing and maintaining these sites.
356
The variations feature automates the creation of sites and pages, which eliminates having to manually
create a site and all associated pages for each instance of a needed variation.
Scenarios for using variations
You can use variations to create different versions of similar content for users in many scenarios. The
following table describes possible scenarios in which you might use variations.
Scenario
Description
Multiple
languages
You can use variations to create sites and content for specific languages. In this
scenario, the majority of the content is authored in the language of the source variation
site and copied to some or all of the target variation sites for translation into different
languages. For example, the content might be authored in English and be copied to
target variations sites for translation into German, French and Spanish.
Multiple
devices
You can customize the logic of the VariationRoot.aspx page to direct users to pages
that are designed to work with different types of devices. For example, you might have
target variation sites with pages designed for display on devices that have different
screen sizes or screen resolutions.
Multiple
locations or
brands
You can use variations to create content for specific locations or brands. For example,
a rental car company might have target variation sites for all the cities in which they
have branch offices. Most of the company information is the same across branches, so
variations are used for those pages, while other content, such as special offers or
promotions, is created on the target variation sites for which it is needed.
Elements of variations
The variations feature consists of the following elements:

Variation root site The variation root site provides the URL for all source and target variation
sites and contains the landing page that redirects users to the correct variation site. This is not the
same as the root site of a site collection, although you can specify the root site of a site collection to
also be the root site of the variations hierarchy.

Variation labels A variation label is an identifier that names a new variation site. Variations of a
site are defined by creating variation labels, one for each planned variation.

Variation sites The variation sites are the sites that are created based on the defined variation
labels. There are two types of variation sites:


Source variation site The source variation site is the site where shared content is authored
and published, and it is the site from which copies of the shared content are sent to the target
variation sites. There can be only one source variation site in a single site collection. After a
source variation site has been selected, it cannot be changed.

Target variation sites The target variation sites receive most of their content from the source
variation site. Although new content can be created on a target variation site, that content is not
shared with other sites and is unique to the site on which it was created.
Variations hierarchy The variations hierarchy is the entire set of sites in all variation labels.
357

Variation pages Variation pages are the publishing pages that are stored in the Pages library of
the source variation site and the target variation sites. These pages and any dependent resources
such as images and documents are the only content that is copied from the source variation site to
the target variation sites.
Important:
We recommend that you do not add nonpublishing pages to the Pages library of a site that
uses variations. If you do, the Variations Create Hierarchies Job Definition timer job might
fail.
Understanding variations
The variations feature creates sites and copies content from a source variation site to one or more
target variation sites. By default, the variations feature copies only publishing pages from the Pages
library of the source variation site. The variations feature does not copy other site content, such as lists
or other document libraries, unlike the content deployment feature, which copies all content, including
lists and other document libraries, from one site to another. If the Resources option is configured to
copy resources to target variation sites, then linked resources such as images and documents will be
copied. Another important distinction between the variations and content deployment is that when the
variations feature is used, copied content on target variation sites can be changed, unlike the content
deployment feature, for which changing copied content is discouraged.
By default, when users visit the root site, they are redirected to the appropriate variation site, based on
the language setting of their Web browser. For example, if a user's default browser language is French,
SharePoint Server 2010 redirects that user to the French variation site. You can customize this
behavior by replacing the default redirection page, VariationRoot.aspx, with a different page. This new
page can implement logic that identifies the user's preferred language, the user's device, or another
basis for varying sites. For information about customizing variation sites redirection, see How to:
Customize the Variation Root Landing Logic
(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=179914&clcid=0x409).
Variation labels
A variation label is an identifier that names a variation site. You select one variation label as the source,
which represents the source variation site. The remaining variation labels are the target labels,
representing the target variation sites to which content is copied. You create variation sites from
variation labels by using the Create Hierarchy command on the Variation Labels page.
Only one set of variation labels, the variation hierarchy, can be defined for a site collection. The
corresponding variation sites can be created anywhere within the site collection hierarchy. The source
variation site and the target variation sites are always created as subsites of the variation root site.
Users who visit the variation root site are redirected to the appropriate variation site.
The following illustration provides an example of a variation site hierarchy, and shows how publishing
content from the Pages library is copied to target variation sites.
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Three variation labels, ―EN‖, ―FR‖, and ―DE‖ are created on the root site http://contoso.com. When the
variations hierarchy is created, the corresponding variation sites, labeled "EN", "FR", and "DE", are
created one level below the variation root site. Because site "http://contoso.com/EN" is specified as the
source variation site, pages that are authored and published on site ―http://contoso.com/EN‖ are copied
to the target variation sites, "http://contoso.com/FR" and "http://contoso.com/DE".
When you create a variation label, you select a locale for it to use. The locale setting only assists with
browser redirection, it does not affect the language of the user interface. If language packs have been
installed on the front-end Web server, you can also select a language for the variation site. The
language setting in SharePoint Server 2010 determines the language of the user interface on the
variation site. If no language packs have been installed, the option to select a language is not available,
and the variation site uses the default language of the SharePoint Server 2010 installation on the
server, regardless of the locale that is selected for the variation label. For example, if SharePoint Server
2010 was installed by using the English version, and no language packs were installed, when a new
variation label is created for the Japanese locale, the user interface for the new variation target site is in
English, not Japanese. If you use variations for creating multilingual sites, and you want the user
interface of a target variation site to be displayed using a specific language, you should install the
language pack for each language before you create the variation sites. If a language pack is not
available when a target variation site is created, the target variation site can still be created, and users
can change the secondary language for a site by using the multilingual user interface. For information
about the multilingual user interface, see Multilingual user interface overview (SharePoint Server 2010).
For information about installing language packs, see Deploy language packs (SharePoint Server 2010)
(http://technet.microsoft.com/library/26c07867-0150-463d-b21a-a6d42aecf05a(Office.14).aspx).
Variation settings
Although you can specify any site within a site collection as the variation root site, variation settings are
configured on the Site Collection Administration page of the top-level site within the site collection. The
Variations Settings page is where you select the variation root site. After the variation root site has been
selected and a variations hierarchy has been created, the root site cannot be changed.
In addition to specifying the root site, the Variations Settings page contains the following options:
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
Automatic Creation Determines whether sites and pages on the source variation site are created
automatically on the target variation sites. By default, this option is enabled. If you disable this
option, sites and pages that are created on the source variation site must be manually created on
the target variation sites.

Recreate Deleted Target Page Determines whether a page should be re-created on a target
variation site if the page was deleted from the target variation site, and the page on the source
variation site has been republished. By default, this option is enabled. If you disable this option,
deleted pages are not re-created on target variation sites.

Update Target Page Web Parts Determines whether changes made to Web Parts on pages on a
source variation site are also made on pages on target variation sites. By default, this option is
enabled.

Notification Sends e-mail to the contact of the welcome page of a target variation site when a
new page or site is created or to the contact person of the specified page when a page is updated
with revisions from the source variation site. By default, this option is enabled.

Resources Specifies whether to use the same resources on the source variation site when pages
are copied to target variation sites or to copy them to the target variation sites. Resources are
limited to files that are stored in a document library that can be referenced by a publishing page,
such as images and documents. By default, this option is set to reference existing resources.
For information about specifying variations settings, see Turn on variations settings so you can create
variations of your site (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=198974&clcid=0x409).
Variations timer jobs
The variations feature uses timer jobs to perform tasks such as creating and propagating sites and
pages. A timer job runs inside OWSTIMER, a Windows service for SharePoint Server 2010. Each timer
job has its own default schedule for when the job runs. You can change the frequency with which each
job runs on the Job Definitions page on the Central Administration Web site. The variations feature
uses the following timer jobs:

Variations Create Hierarchies Job Definition Creates a complete variations hierarchy by
creating all variation sites and pages from the source variation site, based on the variation labels.
By default, this timer job runs once a day

Variations Create Page Job Definition Creates pages on the target variation sites when the
Automatic Creation option has been disabled and a user manually creates a new page. By
default, this timer job runs hourly.

Variations Create Site Job Definition Creates variation sites when the Automatic Creation
option has been disabled and a user manually creates a new variation site. By default, this timer job
runs every 5 minutes.

Variations Propagate Page Job Definition Creates and updates pages on target variation sites
after a page on the source variation site has been approved or after it has been manually submitted
by a user. By default, this timer job runs hourly.

Variations Propagate Site Job Defin