Upgrading and Installing Member Servers

Upgrading and Installing Member Servers
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C H A P T E R
1 5
Upgrading and
Installing Member
Servers
Member servers provide file, print, Web, application, and communication services.
Member servers are not domain controllers; however, each member server retains an
account in the domain. You can upgrade your existing member servers to
Microsoft® Windows® 2000 Server or install new member servers as the first phase in
your Windows 2000 Server deployment. This allows you to benefit from
Windows 2000 Server features even before you deploy the Active Directory™
directory service. This chapter presents planning considerations as well as procedures
that will be useful to system administrators for installing or upgrading member servers
to Windows 2000 Server.
It is recommended that you have a working knowledge of Microsoft® Windows NT®
version 4.0, knowledge of networks and networking concepts, and knowledge of
Microsoft® Windows® 2000 sites. This will help you determine the installation and
upgrade requirements of Windows 2000 Server in an enterprise networking
environment.
In This Chapter
Planning for Member Server Upgrade and Installation 2
Preparing Member Servers for Upgrade or New Installation 5
Performing an Upgrade or Installation 9
Determining Server Roles for Each Windows 2000 Server 12
Performing Post-Upgrade and Installation Tasks 21
Planning Task List for Member Servers 23
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Chapter Goals
This chapter will help you develop the following planning documents:
 Member server installation and upgrade plan
 Inventory of existing hardware and software
Related Information in the Resource Kit
 For more information about Windows 2000 sites, see “Designing the Active
Directory Structure” in this book.
 For more information about creating test plans, see “Building a Windows 2000
Test Lab” in this book.
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Planning for Member Server Upgrade and
Installation
One of the main advantages of installing or upgrading to Windows 2000 Server is
having the Active Directory™ directory service. However, even if you delay installing
Active Directory, you can still upgrade member servers to Windows 2000 Server.
This way you can access the new and improved component features and services such
as Routing and Remote Access and Terminal Services.
Servers within a Windows 2000 domain can have one of two roles: as a domain
controller or as a member server. A member server is a Microsoft server that can have
accounts in a Microsoft® Windows NT® version 3.51, Windows NT 4.0, or a
Windows 2000 domain. However, if they are members of a Windows 2000 domain,
they do not contain any Active Directory objects. Member servers share common
security features such as domain policies and user rights.
Member servers can act as:
 File servers
 Print servers
 Web servers
 Proxy servers
 Routing and Remote Access servers
 Application servers, which include:
 Component servers
 Terminal servers
 Certificate servers
 Database servers
 E-mail servers
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Process for Installing or Upgrading to Windows 2000
The planning process for installing or upgrading member servers can take
considerable time. Planning ahead minimizes problems that can occur with network
upgrades. Figure 15.1 represents the recommended process to follow when designing
an upgrade strategy that fits your network infrastructure.
Start
Create a member server
upgrade/installation plan and schedule.
Prepare member servers for
new installation or upgrade.
Inventory the existing
hardware.
Determine the compatibility
and reliability of the existing software.
• Determine third-party software compliance.
• Perform pre-installation tasks.
Perform a new installation
or upgrade to Windows 2000
Server.
Determine the server roles
for each Windows 2000 Server.
File Servers
Print Servers
Application Servers
Proxy Servers
Create a plan to perform
post-upgrade and installation tasks.
Figure 15.1
Member Server Installation and Upgrade Process
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Creating an Upgrade and Installation Plan
Thorough planning will help your deployment run smoothly. In addition to using the
flow chart in the previous section, use the following guidelines to help you create a
member server upgrade and installation plan:
 If necessary, modify any existing network design documents to reflect your
current server environment.
If you do not have an up-to-date network diagram, consider creating one
before proceeding with a network upgrade.
 Examine the existing network infrastructure for:
 Software compatibility
 Interoperability needs
 Hardware needs
 Address the following questions:
 How many new member servers are needed?
 Which member servers should be upgraded?
 Which member servers should be replaced with new hardware before
upgrading?
 Document changes in your current network environment and identify related
planning considerations.
 If needed, create a test environment so that member servers that might have
incompatible software can be tested before being deployed.
Create a Schedule
When you upgrade servers, interruptions of network services commonly occur. To
minimize this risk, create an upgrade timeline that decreases downtime during
business hours. To construct a timeline and upgrade schedule, consider the following:
Amount of time to allow for the installation or upgrade of a single
server
The amount of time required to upgrade a server varies depending on hardware speed
and the number and type of applications and services you want to install after
installing the operating system. Experienced administrators can install or upgrade the
operating system on a single server in about one hour. However, it can take several
hours to days to evaluate the installation and test the server before you actually put it
into production on the network.
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Implementation of new services and features of
Windows 2000 Server
After you have installed or upgraded a server, you can configure it with new services
or features. This involves testing the server in a test lab environment before installing
it on the production network.
Scenario: Minimizing Network Downtime During
Server Upgrade
One of the best ways to minimize downtime is to install or upgrade member servers in
phases. For example, a network with a total of 70 servers is running Microsoft®
Windows NT® Server version 4.0 and has different types of member servers. In
addition to the existing member servers, the administrator references the network
growth analysis and decides that five additional servers are needed to account for
network growth in the next year. For other servers and clients to still have access to
the Internet, files, and applications, the administrator cannot upgrade all the servers at
once. The type and amount of each group of member servers on this example network
are as follows:
 Five file servers (will add one new file server)
 Ten application servers (will add one new application server)
 Ten IIS servers
 Five fax servers
 Five proxy servers
 Ten routers (will add one new router)
 Five Routing and Remote Access servers (will add one new Routing and
Remote Access Server)
 Fifteen print servers (will add one new print server)
 Five SQL database servers
First, the administrator determines how long it will take to upgrade each group of
member servers. The administrator decides to take one of each type of server offline
and upgrade and test them during normal business hours, leaving the rest of the
servers online and functioning. If the upgrade and tests go well, the rest of the servers
will be upgraded at night after normal business hours, allowing the upgraded servers
to handle the network services. The installation of the additional servers will be done
after all of the original servers are upgraded. This will allow time to configure the
services and components of the new servers.
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Preparing Member Servers for Upgrade or New
Installation
Installing or upgrading member servers to Windows 2000 Server requires that
computers be compatible with the new operating system. There are various tasks you
need to perform and information you need to gather to prepare for a successful
member server upgrade or installation.
Inventory the Existing Hardware
To prepare your member servers you need to first inventory the existing hardware. To
do this, document the following information for each member server:
 Vendor, make, and model of the computer being upgraded.
 Amount of physical memory installed.
 Type of network adapter installed.
 All Plug and Play devices.
 Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) connected to the server.
 Type of external hard disks connected to the computer.
 Hard disk partitioning and free disk space available.
 Any hardware or software redundant array of independent disks (RAID) in
use.
 Type of CD-ROM drive installed.
Determine System Requirements
The system requirements for Windows 2000 Server are greater than for
Windows NT Server 4.0. Each server on the network must meet minimum
requirements in order for Windows 2000 Server to operate efficiently. The minimum
hardware requirements are as follows:
 A 166-MHz Pentium or higher processor
A new installation of Windows 2000 Server supports computers with up to
four processors. If you are upgrading a computer running Windows NT Server
that supported more than four processors, you must then upgrade to
Windows 2000 Advanced Server because it supports up to eight processors.
 At least 64 megabytes (MB) of random access memory (RAM), although
128 MB is recommended, with 4 gigabytes (GB) being the maximum.
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 Hard disk partition with enough free space to accommodate the setup process
To calculate the space needed, start with 850 MB and add 2 MB for each MB
of memory on your computer. More space might be needed, depending on the
following:
 The components and services being installed.
 The file system used.
The file allocation table (FAT) file system requires 100 to 200 MB of
additional free disk space.
 The method used for installation.
To install across the network, allow 100 to 200 MB additional space
because additional driver files must be available during this process, as
compared to installing from the operating system CD.
In addition, an upgrade might require much more disk space than a new
installation. As Active Directory functionality is added, the existing user
accounts database can expand by up to a factor of 10.
Note After setup is completed, actual disk space used for the operating system
(excluding user accounts) is usually less than the free space required for Setup,
depending on which computer components are installed.
For additional requirements see the \Support directory on the Windows 2000 Server
operating system CD.
Determine the Compatibility and Reliability of Existing
Software
It is highly important that you ensure that the software you need to use is compatible
with Windows 2000 before you upgrade. You can do this by contacting the software
vendor, or setting up a test network on which to run the application.
Additionally, to help you determine if your existing software is compatible and
reliable, you will want to address the following questions:
 Which file systems (FAT or NTFS) are in use?
 Which operating systems and service packs are currently in use?
 For which operating system was a program written (Microsoft®
Windows NT®, Microsoft® Windows® 98, Microsoft® Windows® 95,
Microsoft® Windows® 3.x, or Microsoft® MS-DOS®?)
 Was the program written to operate in a specific network environment? For
which version of that network?
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 Are program and program configuration files stored on a server or on the
clients?
 Are data files stored on a server or on clients?
After you have answered these questions, you will know whether the existing
software in your environment is compatible with Windows 2000 Server.
Determine Third-Party Software Compliance
Windows 2000 Server software that is logo-compliant (software designed for
Windows 2000 Server) takes advantage of Windows 2000 Server features such as
Active Directory. Any software written for Windows 2000, Windows NT,
Windows 95, or Windows 98 should run properly under Windows 2000 Server.
Software that was written for 16-bit Windows (Windows 3.x) or MS-DOS should
work in a Windows 2000 Server environment, but is subject to the following
considerations:
 The software might require special configuration files, such as Autoexec.nt
and Config.nt.
 The 16-bit software might have or require special device drivers that are no
longer available or are incompatible with Windows 2000 Server. In this case,
contact the vendor who wrote the software and find out whether they currently
have or are developing the device driver you need.
In all cases, you should thoroughly test all software on the Windows 2000 platform in
a lab environment before risking downtime and data loss in a production environment.
For more information about setting up a test environment, see “Building a
Windows 2000 Test Lab,” “Conducting Your Windows 2000 Pilot,” and “Testing
Applications for Compatibility with Windows 2000” in this book.
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Perform Pre-installation Tasks
It is recommended that you perform certain tasks to make sure that system files
remain safe and the installation goes smoothly. These tasks are:
Read the Pre-Installation Documents
There are three important documents that the network administrator should read
before performing an upgrade.
 Hardware Compatibility List
The Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) contains hardware compatibility
information that will assist you in determining if your current hardware is
compatible with Windows 2000 Server. The list is comprehensive, but be
aware that Microsoft continually updates the information. To determine if the
hardware in your organization is HCL-certified, see the Hardware
Compatibility List link on the Web Resources page at
http://windows.microsoft.com/windows2000/reskit/webresources.
 Read1st.txt
The Read1st.txt file provides late-breaking, critical, or other preinstallation
and upgrade information that supplements the Windows 2000 Server
documentation.
 Relnotes.txt
This document provides release notes concerning late-breaking or other
Windows 2000 Server information, and is also a supplement to the
documentation. This file contains a detailed, technical description of additions
to the operating system. You can use it to make informed decisions concerning
the deployment of member servers in your network.
Record System Information
It is important that you record all system information pertinent to each server before
an upgrade begins. This will provide an important reference document if it becomes
necessary to return a member server to its original condition.
To view server system information in Windows NT Server 4.0, from the
Administrative Tools menu, click Windows NT Server Diagnostics. To print the
information, click File and Print Report from within the Windows NT Server
Diagnostics Manager.
Performing an Upgrade or Installation
Deciding whether to perform an upgrade or a new installation of
Windows 2000 Server on a member server depends on whether there are current
servers with existing Windows NT operating systems on them, or whether new
servers are going to be implemented into the infrastructure.
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Pre-Upgrade Checklist
Before starting the Setup wizard for Windows 2000 Server, review the following
checklist and apply any items that might be applicable to member servers in your
network infrastructure.
Check Event Logs for errors.
Under Windows NT 4.0, check the System, Application, and Security Event Logs in
Event Viewer to ensure that no errors are currently logged. If you find errors, correct
them before upgrading to Windows 2000 Server.
Back up system and important files.
Perform a full backup of all drives on the computer. Save any pertinent hard disk
setup information before upgrading.
In Windows NT 4.0 you can use Disk Administrator (windisk.exe) to save the hard
disk partition table to a floppy disk. On the menu bar click Partition, then click
Configuration and Save.
If the drives are formatted with the NTFS file system, you do not need to take any
steps to prepare the disks. Windows 2000 Server Setup converts them to the version
of NTFS used in Windows 2000 Server. Also, disable any disk mirroring because a
mirrored volume reduces the chance of your receiving an unrecoverable error by
keeping a duplicate set of data on another drive. If mirroring is enabled while
upgrading, and the data on the primary drive becomes corrupt, it can cause you to lose
all of the data on the mirrored drive.
Additionally, back up all of your important files onto tape or a share on your network.
If a problem occurs during the upgrade, it is extremely important to complete this step
first to protect your data
If you are using the Backup feature, confirm that there are no errors after the backup
process is complete by checking the backup log located at \Winnt\Backup.Log
You can also back up the registry of the member server by using the Regback.exe
program on the companion CD in the Microsoft® Windows NT® Server Resource Kit.
This tool backs up registry keys to files without the use of tape. However,
Windows 2000 Server will back up the registry at the same time that the System State
data is backed up.
Remove incompatible software and utilities.
Remove any virus scanners, third-party network services, or client software. Read the
release notes file (on the Windows 2000 Server operating system CD) for information
about any known problems with specific applications.
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Disconnect UPS devices.
Disconnect the serial cable that connects any UPS devices. Windows 2000 Server
attempts to automatically detect devices connected to serial ports, which can cause
problems with the UPS and the installation process.
If possible, set your system BIOS to reserve all interrupt requests (IRQs) currently in
use by non-Plug and Play ISA devices. Failure to do so could result in the following
message during installation:
INACCESSESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE
If this occurs you will not be able to complete installation.
Also be sure to update your emergency repair disk and your emergency boot disk.
Upgrading Member Servers
There is one, primarily automated procedure for upgrading a member server. During
the upgrade, Windows 2000 Server migrates the current settings of the operating
system, and little administrator input is required.
To upgrade a computer, load the Windows 2000 Server operating system CD, and
then the Setup wizard guides you through the steps. When prompted, click Upgrade
to Windows 2000. In the final step, Windows 2000 Server Setup will restart,
gathering information and using preexisting settings from the previous operating
system.
Performing a New Installation
There are three ways to install Windows 2000 Server on a computer that does not
have an operating system:
 If the computer supports a CD-ROM drive as a startup device, Setup starts
automatically after you insert the operating system CD. Ensure that the system
BIOS is configured to allow the CD to start automatically.
Note On many computers the CD auto-boot capability is not enabled by default;
however, you can enable it manually.
 If the computer does not support a CD-ROM drive as a startup device, you
need to install Windows 2000 Server using the four Setup disks.
 If you choose to load the operating system from a network, you need a
network client disk that recognizes the network adapter currently installed in
the computer. It will enable you to log on to your respective domain.
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Note If you load Windows 2000 Server from a network, you need the appropriate
number of client licenses for the number of servers you are installing.
There are no preexisting services or applications for the initial setup for new member
servers. In this case, you have a computer that is Windows 2000 Server–compliant
and meets all the system requirements stated earlier in this chapter. The computer
needs to be on a local area network (LAN) or have a supported CD-ROM drive, and
have a formatted hard disk.
Determining Server Roles for Each
Windows 2000 Server
Member servers can have various functions on a network, allowing administrators to
deploy a diverse range of services and forming the middle tier in a network
infrastructure. The following sections describe each of these possible roles and
provide details concerning installation and upgrade of each server type where
necessary.
File Servers
File servers provide departmental and workgroup access to files. In previous
Windows server operating systems, file shares were localized within a site— a user
had to connect to individual file servers to access the files they needed. If a file server
became unavailable, the user had to access other file servers that contained the same
files. Windows 2000 Server makes accessing shares redundant.
Shares on a Windows 2000 Server file server can be distributed across a site or
domain by using the Windows 2000 Server Distributed file system (Dfs). With the
Dfs infrastructure, a group of file servers can be seen as one entity. For example,
consider the following Windows NT 4.0 file server names:
 \\fileserver\file1
 \\fileserver\file2
 \\fileserver\file3
 \\fileserver\file4
Using Windows 2000 Server Dfs, you can add all four file servers to the Dfs tree and
use just one share called \\fileserver. This would allow any client to access any file on
any of the four file servers. This provides for redundancy and load balancing in that
Active Directory first tries to find the file server that is closest to the client requesting
the information. If that file server is unavailable, Dfs will go to the next file server to
get the information.
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If you plan to use Dfs to distribute your file servers across the domain, it is
recommended that you plan which servers will distribute which file shares before
upgrading. For example, put all the file servers that store applications in one group
named \\Fileserver\Applications. The next set of file servers, which store backed-up
data, can be named \\Fileserver\Backup. This ensures minimal confusion for users
when it comes to determining which file share they need to use.
For more information about planning for, installing, configuring, and using Dfs, see
“Distributed File System” in the Microsoft® Windows® 2000 Server Resource Kit
Distributed Systems Guide and “Determining Windows 2000 Storage Management
Strategies” in this book.
Note Domain-based Dfs requires that Active Directory be running.
Macintosh Volumes
When upgrading Windows NT 4.0 file servers with Macintosh volumes, be sure that
Services for Macintosh have been upgraded (or reinstall it if you removed it before the
upgrade.) Also, be sure that all of the Macintosh files are backed up before
proceeding. You can then upgrade the server to Windows 2000 Server by following
the instructions given earlier in this chapter.
After the upgrade is complete, you can view the migrated Macintosh volume by using
the Computer Management function, shown in Figure 15.2.
Figure 15.2
Computer Management Showing Migrated Macintosh File Volume
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In Windows 2000 Server, you can access the Macintosh volume with either the
AppleTalk or the TCP/IP protocol. If there are clients on your network that use only
AppleTalk, you can load the protocol by means of Local Area Properties in Control
Panel.
If you are installing a new file server that hosts Macintosh volumes, the first step is to
verify that your hardware meets the minimum requirements. See the hardware
checklist presented earlier in this chapter and the HCL on the Windows 2000 Server
operating system CD. Then install Windows 2000 Server by following the instructions
given earlier in this chapter.
After the installation is complete, make the new server a Windows 2000 file server by
either using the Configure Your Server wizard and clicking File Server, or by going
to Computer Management under Administrative Tools, then clicking Shared
Folders.
Novell NetWare Volumes
Microsoft File and Print Services for NetWare is an add-on utility that enables a
computer running Windows 2000 Server to provide file and print services directly to
NetWare and compatible clients. The server appears just like any other NetWare
server to the NetWare clients, and the clients can access volumes, files, and printers at
the server. No changes or additions to the NetWare client software are necessary.
This utility is one component of the Microsoft product, Microsoft Services for
NetWare v. 5: Add-on Utilities for Microsoft Windows 2000 Server and Microsoft
Windows NT Server 4.0.
Test File Shares
After you upgrade a member server to Windows 2000 Server, be sure you can still
access the shares by using these steps:
 From the server, open Windows Explorer. Click two or three file shares, and
on the File menu, click Properties, and then check for sharing.
 From one or more clients, log on and map drives for several known shares to
verify that sharing works properly on the Windows 2000 server.
If you have upgraded the server to support Dfs, ensure that all of the file servers can
be reached by alternately shutting down each file server and following the same steps.
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Print Servers
Organizations of all sizes require that printing capability is available to users across
sites and domains. Most printing is set up within groups in an organization for easy
access to all users within the group. Printers can be set up as public printers, where
access to them is global, or as private printers, where only a team or certain users
within a group have access. This requires careful planning for the number of users that
will be accessing any particular group of printers.
Print Server Setup
The requirements for setting up Windows 2000 Server print servers are as follows:
 The server is running Windows 2000 Server.
 The server has sufficient RAM to process documents.
If a print server manages a large number of printers, the server might require
additional RAM beyond what Windows 2000 Server requires for other tasks. If
a print server does not have sufficient RAM for its workload, printing
performance could deteriorate.
 The server has sufficient disk space to spool documents until they print.
This is critical when documents are large or likely to accumulate. For example,
if 10 users attempt to print at the same time, the print server must have enough
disk space to hold all of the documents until the print server sends them to the
print device. Documents for which the server does not have sufficient memory
stay on the client until the server has sufficient space. This process causes
performance to deteriorate on the client.
 All appropriate print drivers are installed.
Appropriate printer drivers are those written for Windows 2000 Server. You
can find appropriate drivers either on the Windows 2000 Server operating
system CD or obtain them from the printer manufacturer. Printer drivers for
different hardware platforms are not interchangeable.
Clients that are not running Microsoft operating systems have additional requirements
to print to network printers. You must install additional services on print servers and
install the appropriate printer drivers on the clients. These services are:
 Macintosh — Services for Macintosh
 NetWare — Client and Gateway Services for NetWare
 UNIX TCP/IP Printing — also known as Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service
Contact the printer manufacturer for the appropriate drivers.
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Guidelines for Setting up a Network Printing
Environment
If you do not already have a network printing environment in place, use the following
guidelines for developing a network-wide printing strategy:
 Determine the number of users who will print, and the printing workload that
they will generate.
 Determine the printing needs. For example, if users in Sales need to print
colored brochures, you will need a color print device.
 Determine where the printers will be located. It should be easy for users to
pick up their printed documents.
 Determine the number of print servers that will be required to handle the
number and types of printers on the network.
 Consider using the following:
 Shared printers allow multiple users to print to one device.
 Printer pools allow multiple printers to share a print queue. Print devices
should be identical and located near each other, that is, unless they share a
common emulation mode.
 Printer priorities allow print queues to process some print jobs ahead of
others based on priorities assigned to users or groups of users (as opposed
to processing in chronological order).
Active Directory Integration with
Windows 2000 Server Print Services
You can enhance network printing by implementing Active Directory. However, it is
important to note that performance and functionality enhancements for
Windows 2000 Server print services are all available without deploying Active
Directory.
After you have deployed Active Directory, the Windows 2000 server provides a
standard printer object. Using this object, you can publish printers to be shared across
the network in Active Directory. This provides users with an easy way to search for
printers in the Active Directory structure. Users are able to find printer-based
attributes such as printing capabilities (PostScript, color, legal-sized paper, and more)
and printer location, including the ability to connect to and send documents to that
printer (subject to printer permissions).
Testing Printer Shares
After you have installed or upgraded your print servers to Windows 2000 Server, use
the following steps to ensure that all the printer shares are functioning.
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To test your print server installation
1. In Control Panel, open the Printers folder.
2. On the File menu, click Properties. The printer Properties window appears.
3. In the Properties window, click Print Test Page.
4. Confirm that all the printer shares are operating correctly under
Windows 2000 Server.
After printing a test page for each printer on the server, repeat the test from multiple
clients and verify that they are able to map to the printer share and submit print jobs.
Application Servers
Application servers provide a central location for programs that are used by multiple
users. Rather than loading an application on 1,000 clients, you can have users access
the application through a share. Depending on the amount of disk access required
when the program is in use, such a server might need high levels of resources. For
example, an application server for a database program might need more memory and
disk space than a server that hosts a word processing program.
When performing a new Windows 2000 Server installation, or upgrading from
Windows NT 4.0, make sure that you back up any data related to applications that
work with Windows 2000 Server. After you back up the applications and data,
upgrade the application server in a test environment to ensure compatibility.
An application member server can host a variety of programs and services. See
Table 15.1 for a description of some of these services.
Table 15.1
Programs and Services on an Application Member Server
Service
Description
Component Services
Manages server components such as Application Load
Balancing, Transaction Services, Application Management,
and Message Queuing.
Terminal Services
Software services that allow client applications to be run on
a server so that clients can function as terminals rather than
as independent systems.
Database
Provides an operation and management platform for
database programs such as Microsoft® SQL Server™.
E-mail
Provides an operation and management platform for mail
servers such as Microsoft® Exchange Server.
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Note For database and mail servers, other applications will need to be installed on
top of Windows 2000. These services are not supplied with native
Windows 2000.
With the exception of Microsoft® Exchange Server and Microsoft® SQL Server™, you
can configure each of these services by using the Configure Your Server wizard
after you install Windows 2000 Server.
Component Services
Application member servers provide a platform to run component services such as
Application Load Balancing, Transaction Services, Application Management, and
Message Queuing. You can add these services through Add/Remove Programs and
the Windows Components Wizard shown in Figure 15.3.
Figure 15.3
Wizard for Adding Component Services
If you are upgrading from Windows NT Server 4.0, ensure that services from the
previous operating system are migrated properly by checking their configuration after
the upgrade.
Terminal Services
Terminal Services allows client applications to be run on a server so that clients can
function as terminals rather than independent systems. The server provides a
multisession environment and runs the Windows-based programs being used on the
clients. Terminal Services can also be loaded using the Windows Components
Wizard. For more information about Terminal Services, see “Deploying Terminal
Services” in this book.
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Database Server
Windows 2000 application member servers provide a stable platform for running and
managing database software such as SQL Server. When you install
Windows 2000 Server, no further configuration of the operating system is needed to
run the database service.
If you are upgrading from Windows NT version 4.0 or earlier to
Windows 2000 Server, be sure to back up any database you have on the member
server before beginning the upgrade. Also, if you are using a database application
other than SQL Server, ensure that it is Windows 2000 Server compatible. For more
information about SQL Server, see the Microsoft® SQL Server™ Resource Guide,
which is part of the Microsoft® BackOffice 4.5 Resource Kit.
Web Servers
A Web server is a computer equipped with the server software that uses Internet
protocols such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol
(FTP) to respond to Web client requests on a TCP/IP network.
The following are general requirements for setting up Windows 2000 Web-based
member servers:
 Read the HCL to ensure hardware compatibility.
 Determine what new or additional components will go on the Web server.
 Back up data in case problems occur during the upgrade or installation.
 Test Web-based member servers after upgrading to Windows 2000 Server.
Internet Information Services (IIS) is the Web service integrated with
Windows 2000 Server. You can use IIS to set up a Web or FTP site on your corporate
intranet, create sites for the Internet, or develop component-based applications.
Windows 2000 Server includes the Internet Services Manager Microsoft Management
Console (MMC) snap-in. This snap-in is a powerful site administration tool that
provides access to all of your server settings. If you use IIS, you will use this snap-in
to manage complex sites on your corporate intranet, or publish information on the
Internet.
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It is recommended that you test your Web servers after upgrading to
Windows 2000 Server. To verify connectivity from a Windows 2000 member server
to other Web sites, perform the following test:
 From the server, open the Internet Services Manager MMC snap-in and verify
that all Web sites (in existence before the upgrade) were successfully upgraded
to the Web service on the Windows 2000 member server. Verify that the
service is running.
 From a client, open a Web browser and verify connectivity to Web sites on the
Windows 2000 member server.
For more information about IIS, see the Microsoft® Windows® 2000 Server Resource
Kit Internet Information Services Resource Guide.
Proxy Servers
Microsoft® Proxy Server allows clients and servers to access the Internet while
keeping your intranet free from intruders. Member servers running Proxy Server 2.0
can be seamlessly upgraded, but in order for Proxy Server to operate after the
upgrade, an update is required.
Windows 2000 Server requires that you load the Windows 2000 Proxy Server 2.0
Setup wizard on the member server. To install Proxy Server, download the Setup
wizard, shown in Figure 15.4, on your local drive or floppy disk and follow the
wizard instructions. For more information about downloading a copy of the wizard,
see the Microsoft Proxy Server link on the Web Resources page at
http://windows.microsoft.com/windows2000/reskit/webresources.
Figure 15.4
Wizard for Proxy Server 2.0 Setup
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Performing Post-Upgrade and Installation Tasks
Before you integrate a member server into your production environment, it is vital that
you test the server to ensure that you performed a successful upgrade or installation.
Be sure that before your Windows 2000 Server goes into the production environment,
it is ready to provide better service and increased functionality without unplanned
downtime.
Testing Network Connectivity
After you have upgraded or installed a member server, be sure to verify that you still
have network connectivity. Use the list that follows as a troubleshooting guide if you
lose network connectivity in a TCP/IP network environment.
 Use the IPCONFIG tool to verify the TCP/IP configuration parameters on the
newly upgraded Windows 2000 Server. The parameters include the IP address,
subnet mask, and default gateway.
 After the configuration is verified with the IPCONFIG tool, use the PING tool
to test network connectivity. The PING tool is a diagnostic tool that tests
TCP/IP configurations and diagnoses connection failures. Open a command
prompt window and ping the following:
 Ping 127.0.0.1 (Loop back address). This will verify that TCP/IP is
installed and loaded correctly.
 Ping the IP address of your local host. This will verify that it was added
correctly.
 Ping the IP address of the default gateway. This will verify that the default
gateway is functioning correctly.
 Ping the IP address of a remote host. This will verify that you can
communicate through a router.
Tuning Network Servers
After your Windows 2000 member servers are on the network, some of them might
need performance tuning. Even the most carefully planned server upgrade might not
be able to eliminate all of the possible problems that can occur, such as bottlenecks. If
system problems occur, they can be found by using counters in the
Windows 2000 Server System Monitor snap-in within the Performance tool. You can
collect data by monitoring processor, disk, and network activity. The data might
reveal that bottlenecks caused by demands on certain resources indicate a need for
tuning.
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Bottlenecks can be caused by:
 Insufficient resources such as processors, memory, or hard disks.
You can address this by inventorying the network hardware and determining
which servers need upgraded hardware.
 Unbalanced workloads that put uneven loads on servers.
To solve these problems, Microsoft® Windows® 2000 Advanced Server
provides Network Load Balancing to ensure that the workload is distributed
evenly across resources. For more information about Network Load Balancing
and Microsoft Advanced Server, see “Ensuring the Availability of
Applications and Services” in this book.
When tuning your network servers, keep the following recommendations in mind:
 Make only one change at a time, because a problem that appears to be a single
resource setting or component might actually involve more than one. Also, it is
easier to redo changes to a single setting or component than to multiple
settings, and changing too many settings at one time might actually make your
situation worse. Keep a record of the changes and the impact those changes
have on the system.
 Repeat your monitoring after every change you make to assess whether the
change had a positive impact on the server.
 Check the Event Log viewer in Administrative Tools for any event logs that
are generated due to performance problems.
Tools for System Administration
Use the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and associated snap-ins to perform
most system administration for Windows 2000 Server.
Table 15.2 lists common administration tasks for file, print, and Web services.
Table 15.2
Common Administration Tasks
Task
Windows 2000 Server Tool
Managing file shares
Computer Management MMC Snap-In
Windows Explorer
Managing printer shares
Printer folder (in Control Panel, or under Settings on the
Start menu)
Managing Web sites
Internet Services Manager MMC Snap-In
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Windows 2000 Upgrade and Installation
Tools for performing remote administration are included with Windows 2000 Server.
They allow you to manage a server remotely from any computer that is running
Windows 2000 Server.
For more information about how to use remote administration, see
Windows 2000 Server Help.
Planning Task List for Member Servers
Table 15.3 lists the tasks you need to perform when planning your member server
upgrade or installation.
Table 15.3
Planning Task List for Member Servers
Task
Location in Chapter
Create an upgrade/installation plan and
schedule.
Planning for Member Server Upgrade and
Installation
Inventory the existing hardware.
Preparing Member Servers for Upgrade or
New Installation
Determine system requirements.
Preparing Member Servers for Upgrade or
New Installation
Determine the compatibility and reliability
of existing software.
Preparing Member Servers for Upgrade or
New Installation
Determine third-party software compliance.
Preparing Member Servers for Upgrade or
New Installation
Upgrade an existing server.
Performing an Upgrade or Installation
Perform a new installation.
Performing an Upgrade or Installation
Determine server roles for:
Determining Server Roles for Each
Windows 2000 Server
- File servers
- Print servers
- Application servers
- Web servers
- Proxy servers
Test network connectivity.
Performing Post-Upgrade and Installation
Tasks
Tune network servers.
Performing Post-Upgrade and Installation
Tasks
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