Internet Gopher User’s Guide Editor Paul Lindner January 12, 1994

Internet Gopher User’s Guide Editor Paul Lindner January 12, 1994
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Editor
Paul Lindner
January 12, 1994
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Copyright  1993 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota.
All rights reserved.
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute the Gopher software for noncommercial purposes and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the
University of Minnesota copyright notices and this permission notice appear in
all copies, and that the name University of Minnesota not be used in advertising
or publicity pertaining to this software and documentation without specific,
written prior permission. The University of Minnesota makes no representations
about the suitability of this software and documentation for any purpose. It is
provided ’as is’ without express or implied warranty.
Commercial use of Gopher requires specific permission from the University of
Minnesota; contact the internet gopher development team at
<[email protected]> for further information.
Printed in the U.S.A.
TRADEMARKS
Internet Gopher is a trademark of the University of Minnesota.
UNIX is a registered trademark of UNIX system Laboratories, Inc.
All other products or services mentioned in this manual are covered by the
trademarks, service marks, or product names as designated by the companies
who market those products.
ISNB 0-000-000000-0
ABCDEFGHIJ-DO-89
CHAPTER 1
Introducing Gopher
7
Introduction 7
What is the Internet Gopher? 7
Types of Information 8
Finding Information 9
Some Example Information 10
Using this Manual 11
Platforms Supported 11
Conventions used in this Manual
Support Questions? 13
CHAPTER 2
12
Getting the Internet Gopher
Software 15
Getting the Software 15
Subsequent Retrievals 18
CHAPTER 3
TurboGopher
19
Overview 19
Requirements 20
Getting Help 20
Navigating Gopherspace 21
Alternate Views 23
Connecting to Terminal-based Services 23
Advanced Navigation Features 24
Authenticated Servers 25
Bookmarks and Bookmark files 26
Item Attributes 26
Canceling Slow Network Operations 27
Starting and Configuring TurboGopher 27
TurboGopher Options 28
Miscellaneous 29
For Experts 29
CHAPTER 4
PC Gopher III
33
System Requirements 33
How to Obtain the Software 34
Installation 34
Installing the Gopher Software 36
Configuring Gopher 37
Application Configuration 38
Network Configuration 40
Advanced Network Configuration Options 43
Gopher and Command Line Switches 44
The Gopher User Interface 47
Using Gopher 52
Help! 58
Acknowledgments 59
CHAPTER 5
The UNIX Gopher Client 61
Overview 61
Requirements 61
Starting the UNIX Gopher Client 62
Navigating Gopherspace 62
Special Items 63
Advanced Navigation Features 65
Bookmarks 66
Saving and Downloading 66
CHAPTER 6
Installing the Unix Gopher
Distribution 69
Overview 69
Requirements 69
Compatibility 70
NeXT Indexing 71
WAIS Indexing 72
Preparing to Compile the Distribution 73
Other Optional Features 74
Special Modifications for Compatibility 75
Compiling and Installing the Distribution 77
Testing 78
CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 8
Configuring the Unix Server
79
Overview 79
Requirements 79
What is gopherd? 80
First Steps 80
Adding Information to the Server 80
Customizing Your Server 83
Starting the Gopher Server 84
Optional Features for the Gopher Server
86
Macintosh Gopher Server
Overview 91
Requirements 91
Setting up the Server 92
Basic Configuration 92
Alternate View Directories
96
91
CHAPTER 9
Go4gw - The Gopher Gateway
Overview 99
Requirements 100
Installation 100
Writing New go4gw Gateways
CHAPTER 10
101
Common Questions 105
Overview
105
99
CHAPTER 1
Introducing Gopher
This chapter describes how you can use the Internet Gopher system to easily publish and retrieve information on a network.
Introduction
The internet is a wide vast place with many resources available. Searching, finding
and retrieving these resources has been difficult in the past. The Internet Gopher
was developed to let an average user access these resources quickly and simply.
What is the Internet Gopher?
All over the world, data is stored on computers, many of which are connected by
the Internet, a confederation of computer networks. With Internet Gopher you can
easily access publicly available information stored on many of these connected
computers.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
7
Introducing Gopher
Gopher combines features of electronic bulletin board services and databases,
allowing you to either browse a hierarchy of documents, or search for documents
that contain certain words or phrases.
The Internet Gopher software was conceived at the Computer and Information Services department of the University of Minnesota. Software developed at the University of Minnesota is freely distributable for non-commercial puposes.
Types of Information
Gopher supports a diverse range of data, all of which can be accessed by a simple
keystroke or click of the mouse. Here are some of the most popular data types:
Directories
The most basic information type in gopher is a directory. A directory is a list of
documents. Directories allow easy browsing of information. Items can be organized
into specific areas, making it easy to find the information you need.
In addition, a special type of directory called a “link” allows gopher to reference
directories on a different computer. This allows gopher to traverse a hierarchy of
information residing on multiple machines. These links are transparent, you won’t
notice that you’re connecting to another machine.
Text Files
Most of the information in gopher is stored in ASCII text files. These files can be
used with most popular computer applications
Search Items
This is a special kind of directory. You can specify any number of keywords to a
search item. Only those documents that match the given criteria will show up in the
resulting list.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Finding Information
Telnet/3270 Sessions
This item type is a reference to a public telnet connection. Selecting one of these
items will connect you to a system using teh appropriate terminal emulation.
Phone Books
This document type is a special version of the search item based upon the Ph/Qi
server developed at the University of Illinois.
The phone book search allows you to search on certain fields of a specialized user
database. Some common fields are phone number, e-mail address, or name.
Multimedia
Gopher supports a number of multimedia file formats including images, audio and
video file formats. Images such as weather maps are available. Digitized audio data
files such as the 1992 presidential debates are available. Movies in Quicktime and
MPEG are available.
Formatted Text
Some Gopher servers will allow you to view documents in formats other than text.
Postscript is one of the most popular formats for this “Rich Text.”
Finding Information
When using Gopher, looking for information located in other continents is as easy
as looking for information residing on a computer in the next room. When using
Gopher, you begin at the first or root level of your home Gopher Server. From there
you can choose between two methods or locating information: browsing and
searching.
Browsing
You may want to follow the paths in Gopher from level to level until you find the
data you’re looking for. From the first level, you can choose a topic, which leads to
another level, and another, until you finally come to an item that looks interesting.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
9
Introducing Gopher
For instance at the University of Minnesota, you might look for a salmon recipe by
looking in the Fun & Games directory, then in the Recipes directory, and then in the
Seafood directory until you see an item with salmon in its title.
Searching
Alternatively, you may want Gopher to do the work for you by using a search item.
For instance, at the University of Minnesota you could select a search item called
Search Recipes. A message prompts you to type in the words you’re looking for;
you type salmon. The server searches the text of a collection of items and lists the
ones that have the word salmon in them. You can then examine these items until
you find one that contains a recipe that strikes your fancy.
Additionally, some search items will let you specify a complex search expression
for your query. If you only had sugar, eggs and chocolate chips, you could search
for items that contained all of these words by specifying sugar and eggs and “chocolate chip” to the Search Recipes item.
Some Example Information
We think the easiest way to get a grasp of the information inside of GopherSpace is
to try it. However, here is a lisitng of some of the more popular information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Weather Forecasts and current conditions for the United States and Canada.
Recipes
Movie Reviews.
Computer Questions and Answers.
Weather Maps.
Movies of Chemical reactions.
E-mail addresses and phone books for most major institutions
Newspapers and USENET news.
Full electronic versions of many of the major classics, Shakespeare, Moby Dick,
etc.
• Library Catalogs from around the world.
• GENE Sequences.
• Song Lyrics
10
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Using this Manual
• Job listings
• University Course Catalogs
• And much, much, more!
Using this Manual
You do not need to read this entire manual to use the Internet Gopher. Most likely,
you will only need to read the chapters about the Internet Gopher client for your
software.
If you wish to publish information you will want to pay attention to the chapters
referring to the Internet Gopher servers for your system.
The First Steps
See “Getting the Internet Gopher Software” on page 15 for information about
retrieving and installing the necessary software. Then read the chapter appropriate
for your system.
Common Questions
It’s a good idea to read through the“Common Questions” on page 105. This chapter
contains answers to the most frequently asked questions about the Internet Gopher from installing it to serving data.
Platforms Supported
The Internet Gopher works on a number of platforms and operating systems. The
operating system for all of the following must have TCP/IP networking support and
a connection to a network.
Gopher Clients
Clients to access data are available for the following platforms:
• Macintosh
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
11
Introducing Gopher
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DOS
Microsoft Windows
Unix, full-screen, emacs and Xwindow
VMS full screen.
NeXTstep
OS/2
VM/CMS
MVS
Gopher Servers
Servers to publish information are available for the following platforms:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Unix
VMS
Macintosh
VM/CMS
DOS
OS/2
MVS
Conventions used in this Manual
This manual uses these conventions:
• The Courier font is used to to show sample output of textual clients. Bold
Courier is used whenever you have to enter text or commands.
• In reference to the Unix Server, gophertop refers to the directory where the
gopher source code is installed.
• Figure boxes are used to show usage.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Support Questions?
Support Questions?
We hope you enjoy using Gopher and that it helps you in you to access and publish
data quickly and easily.
If you have questions or comments, please send us electonic mail at
[email protected] Or send paper mail to the following address:
Internet Gopher Development Team
100 Union Street SE #152
Shepherd Labs - University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455
Or fax us at +1 (612) 625-6817.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
13
Introducing Gopher
14
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
CHAPTER 2
Getting the Internet
Gopher Software
This chapter will show you how to get the Internet Gopher software. You should
only need to read the first section “Getting the Software” on page 15 and the sections appropriate to your platform.
Getting the Software
You will need to retrieve the Internet Gopher Software from the software repository
at the University of Minnesota. Follow these instructions to do so.
The First Retrieval
Most of the software for the Internet Gopher is available on the machine
boombox.micro.umn.edu. This machine is on the Internet network. To retrieve the
software for the first time you’ll need to use an FTP client on a local machine connected to the internet.
FTP, the file transfer protocol, is a quick, reliable and widely popular means of
transferring files across the Internet.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
15
Getting the Internet Gopher Software
FTP clients come in many varieties. On a Unix or VMS system the command is
called ftp. On the Macintosh there are two ftp applications, Fetch, and Xferit.
NCSA has developed a version of ftp for the IBM-PC called ‘ftp’. Refer to your
local network administrator if you don’t have an ftp client.
Once you connect to the boombox server you will want to change to the directory
/pub/gopher
The different portions for gopher are in this directory. The file 00README contains descriptions of each directory. Refer to Table 1, “Available Gopher Software,”
on page 16 for a breakdown of the contents of each directory.
TABLE 1. Available
16
Gopher Software
Directory
Description
Mac_server
Gopher server for the Macintosh
Macintosh-TurboGopher
A graphical Gopher client for the Macintosh
NeXT
A graphical Gopher client for NeXTstep
PC_client
A graphical Turbovision based client for PCs running
DOS and using the Clarkson/Crynwr packet drivers
PC_server
Two PC Gopher server implementations, one based on
Phil Karn’s NOS, another using Clarkson/Crynwr
packet drivers.
Rice_CMS
A Gopher server and client for VM/CMS systems
written at Rice University.
Unix
Gopher for Unix. Includes a Gopher server, full screen
client, Xwindow client, and an emacs client.
VMS
Gopher for VMS. Includes a Gopher server and full
screen client
VieGopher
A Gopher Server and client for VM/CMS written at
Vienna.
Windows
Gopher clients for Microsoft Windows.
gopher_protocol
Descriptions of the Gopher network Protocol are
stored here.
incoming
Submitted untested gopher software.
mvs
A Gopher server and client for MVS.
os2
A Gopher client for OS/2.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Getting the Software
TABLE 1. Available
Gopher Software
Directory
Description
amiga
Gopher Software for the amiga.
docs
Gopher Documentation
misc
Things that didn’t fit in the above sections.
Each directory contains gopher software for a specific platform. You should
retrieve the software from the specific directories that are compatible with your
hardware and operating system. There are README files inside of each directory
that will help you decide which files to transfer.
Once you find a file that interests you.you should use the GET function of your FTP
client. This usually means typing “get filename”, or clicking on the appropriate file
with your mouse..
Some clients, notably Unix, VMS, and IBM-PC will reqire you to specify a binary
“transfer mode.” You can set this mode by typing binary at the ftp> prompt.
Refer to Figure 1, “Using FTP with Unix,” for an example ftp session to
boombox.micro.umn.edu
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
17
Getting the Internet Gopher Software
FIGURE 1.
Using FTP with Unix
% ftp boombox.micro.umn.edu
Connected to boombox.micro.umn.edu
220 boombox FTP server (Version 4.1 Tue Apr 10 05:15:32 PDT 1990)
ready.
Name (boombox.micro.umn.edu:lindner): anonymous
331 Guest login ok, send ident as password.
Password:™
230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
ftp> cd /pub/gopher/Unix
250 CWD command successful.
ftp> binary
200 Type set to I.
ftp> get gopher1.12.tar.Z
200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for gopher1.12.tar.Z (306512 bytes
226 Transfer complete.
306512 bytes received in 2.4 seconds (1.3e+02 Kbytes/s)
ftp>
Subsequent Retrievals
Things get easier after the first retrieval. You don’t have to use the arcane ftp command to get the Gopher software, you can use Gopher itself.
You will want to familiarize yourself with your gopher client before doing this
though. See the chapters that follow to find out about clients.
You can use your Gopher client to connect to the software repository at
boombox.micro.umn.edu
And choose the files, just as you would with ftp. Now you can just select the software you want from a menu instead of typing commands to retrieve the file.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
CHAPTER 3
TurboGopher
TurboGopher is a Gopher client for the Macintosh. The following chapter contains
information on using, configuring and administrating the TurboGopher application.
A Websters definition is:
TurboGopher n. 1. A small rodent with a turbocharger strapped on its back to
increase its speed and ferocity. 2. (Amer. colloq.) Native or inhabitant of Minnesota
after consuming three double espressos. 3. (Amer. colloq.) An Olympic sprinter
who runs errands, does odd-jobs, fetches or delivers documents for office staff. 4.
(computer tech.) Speed-optimized Macintosh software following a simple protocol
for tunneling through a TCP/IP internet; network speed is achieved by using turbocharged software; incoming bits spin the turbine that pumps out the outgoing bits.
Note that this chapter documents version 1.0.7 of the TurboGopher application.
Overview
TurboGopher is a Macintosh application that we believe is (still!) the fastest Macintosh Gopher client available. Beyond optimizing TurboGopher for raw speed while
fetching documents and directories, we turbocharged the user interface by display-
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
19
TurboGopher
ing information as soon as possible... you can read the first part of a document or
directory while the rest is being fetched. This version of TurboGopher also supports
many of the Gopher+ extensions to the original Internet Gopher protocol.
In spite of the design goal to run fast as possible, TurboGopher is a good Mac citizen: it shares time with other applications. You can put TurboGopher in the background to fetch lengthy items in the background while you work in another
application in the foreground.
Requirements
You will need a copy of the TurboGopher application, if you haven’t retrieved this
yet refer to“Getting the Internet Gopher Software” on page 15. You will also want
to retrieve the “helpler applications.” These applications will allow you to connect
to telnet sites, view graphics, etc.
TurboGopher requires a Macintosh running a system 6.0.7 or later. We highly reccomend using System 7 or higher. Without it you won’t be able to automatically
launch the “helper applications.”
You should have at least one megabyte of memory, more if you’re using Multifinder or System 7.
You will need a correctly configured copy of MacTCP and a network connection. If
you don’t have MacTCP you can get it from the Apple Programmers and Developers Association (APDA). MacTCP is a licensed product, it is not free.
Getting Help
The information in this chapter can also be found by picking the menu item “Help”
from the “Gopher” menu of TurboGopher.
In addition to this information you are reading right now, if you are using System 7
(and we strongly recommend that you do), some Balloon Help is available in TurboGopher. See your Macintosh System 7 documentation for information on using
Balloon Help.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Navigating Gopherspace
FIGURE 2.
TurboGopher-Top Level
Navigating Gopherspace
To navigate through gopherspace, double-click on any interesting items to open
(fetch) them. If you double-click on a file, TurboGopher will fetch and display the
file. Opening a folder will let you view its contents. Double-clicking on the question-mark (Search) icons will let you search a database. On most gopher servers
these databases are full-text indexes of a collection of information. Full-text index
means that every word in every document is considered a keyword. The best way to
search a gopher full-text database is specify the words for which to search when
TurboGopher presents you with a dialog box. The results of the search are returned
as a list of documents containing those words.
Phone Books
If you double-click on the phone-book icons you can search electronic phone
books. Phone book databases are structured in the sense that they have fields (i.e. a
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
21
TurboGopher
name field, an address field, and a phone number field). The simple phone-book
lookup dialog assumes that you want to search for someone by name. Click on the
‘More Choices’ button if you wish to specify exactly which fields to search in,
when you formulate a query. The result of the query is displayed in a document.
FIGURE 3.
TurboGopher- Phone Book Search
Software Archives
Disk icons represent archived Mac software or documents that you can fetch; these
items will be saved to your hard disk. Such items are often stored in compressed
form to save space. You need to have certain Mac utilities to ‘uncompress’ such
items. The most common such utilities are StuffIt and Compactor. Both may be
obtained from the Info-Mac archives with gopher. If you are running System 7 and
TurboGopher retrieves an item that needs to be ‘unstuffed’ or ‘uncompacted’, it
will ask you if it should open them via Finder and the appropriate decompress utility. We recommend that you use CptExpand and SitExpand for your decompress
needs; both of these are available with the TurboGopher software distribution as
well as from the Info-Mac archives.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Alternate Views
Items that are specific to MS-DOS are seen as documents with a tiny ‘PC’ emblazoned on them; similarly items specific to UNIX show up as documents with a tiny
‘UX’ on them. You can retrieve either of these kinds of items if you like. TurboGopher will ask you if you wish to save them to your disk. You may not ‘view’ these
items as text. In fact it will probably make very little sense to fetch such items
unless you intend to further transfer them later from your Mac to another kind of
computer, or if you have some special tools on your Mac that will allow you to use
these kinds of items.
Pictures
Items appearing as documents with a starburst on them are probably graphics or
picture files (typically in GIF, JPEG, or PICT format). TurboGopher will transfer
such files, save them on your disk, and optionally launch a picture-viewing application if you wish to view the picture.
Alternate Views
Gopher+ server may store more than one representation of a document (an image,
text, sound, video, etc. ). If more than one view of a document is available, you can
select between the views by choosing the ‘Get Alternate Views’ item from the
Gopher menu. When alternate views are available, an alternate view window will
be displayed with descriptions of the views.
For many alternate views of documents, TurboGopher will save a copy of the item
to your Macintosh’s disk, and then (under System 7) ask the Finder to launch a
helper application to actually display the item. You can configure which applications should be used as TurboGopher helpers; to do this see the section on configuration options.
Connecting to Terminal-based Services
Opening the ‘terminal’ icons will make TurboGopher launch NCSA Telnet (or
TN3270 if appropriate) and start a terminal session to a terminal-based information
system. Typically these are library catalogs or other such services. Note that for this
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
23
TurboGopher
to work, you need to have Telnet or TN3270 installed on your Macintosh. If you are
still running System 6, TurboGopher will only save a Telnet session file rather than
launch Telnet; this is another good reason to run System 7 on your Mac.
Following the Macintosh guidelines, TurboGopher starts out displaying text in the
standard application font. The Font and Size menu items let you change font
appearance for documents and lists. TurboGopher will attempt to display phonebook lookup results in a monospaced font (Monaco), effectively ignoring your font
selection. It IS possible to change the font of a phonebook results lookup window
after it has been opened; however things will not line up correctly and generally
look icky.
Advanced Navigation Features
If you double-click on a folder while holding down the Option key, TurboGopher
will re-use the current window instead of using a new one to display the folder contents. Some folks like to do this to prevent screen clutter and keep from having too
many open windows.
You may use the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard to move up and down
lists in windows. The Enter or Return key opens an item (and is equivalent to double-clicking on an item). Use of the arrow keys is not supported on the Mac Plus....
(sorry).
You may also type the first letter (or first few letters) of an item name in a list and
TurboGopher will highlight the first item it finds that matches (sort of like the
Finder does in list views). The Find menu item is available to locate an item in a
list: just type a string in the Find dialog. Find can also be used to search for text in
open document windows, by the way.
To delete any item in any list window, click once on the item to select it. Then
choose ‘Delete Item’ from the Gopher menu.
TurboGopher remembers the last full-text index search (item with question-mark
icon) you used. If now you hold down the Option key and double-click on a word in
a document window, TurboGopher will query that search service for all documents
containing the word you selected. You must use a search service before this pseudohypertext capability is accessible (TurboGopher needs to know which search service to use in your hypertext query).
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Authenticated Servers
The Recent menu lets you go back to any directory window you have viewed during your Gopher session. The left and right arrow keys may be used to go to previous or next windows; they are equivalent to traversing the recent menu upwards or
downwards. Note that the Recent menu only remembers directory windows you
visit. Document or phone-book lookup windows are not listed.
If you close a window by clicking in its close box while holding down the Option
key, then (like Finder) TurboGopher will close all open windows.
If you click in the close box while holding down the Shift key, then the cache of
information about that window will be released. So the next time you open this
window from the recent menu, TurboGopher will have to fetch the contents over
the net once more.
Of course, if you hold down both Option and Shift keys then all windows are closed
and all caches released. Caches are explained below.
For the terminally curious, if you hold down the Shift key while single clicking on
an item in a list, TurboGopher will display the item’s Gopher selector string, host
name, port number and Gopher+ baggage in the status pane. This is a quick peek. If
you want to copy-paste this information, use the Get Attribute Info menu item
found under the Gopher menu; the information you want is in the +INFO attribute
(the first line).
If wish to fetch an item that is a Macintosh file (binhexed file, shows up with the
icon of a disk), but don’t want TurboGopher to automatically dehex it as it fetches,
you may force TurboGopher to fetch the document as a raw, unprocessed file. To do
this, hold down the Control key while you double-click on the item. For folks using
DownLine or other applications for de-binhexing and de-archival, this is one way
to do what you want.
Authenticated Servers
TurboGopher now supports AdmitOne Authentication for Gopher+ servers that
restrict access to information on a per-user basis. When you attempt to open a directory that has such access restrictions, TurboGopher will prompt you for your username and password on the restricted-access server. TurboGopher and the server
negotiate to establish a valid ticket, and subsequent requests to the server use a new
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
25
TurboGopher
ticket for each request. This means that your password is never sent over the network, and that you only have to enter your password to get the initial authorization.
Bookmarks and Bookmark files
If you formulate a search or find a folder you would like to come back to quickly
later, you can use the Set Bookmark menu item to save your place. Set Bookmark
saves a reference to a folder, file, search, terminal session... in fact any Gopher
item. If nothing is selected in the front list window, a bookmark is made for a folder
representing the window. Try it, it’s easier to do than to say.
Bookmarks are placed in a special Bookmarks window. Use the Show Bookmarks
menu item to open the Bookmarks window. Bookmarks are remembered even after
you quit TurboGopher; contents of the Recent menu are however forgotten. It
might be useful to consider the Bookmarks window to be a special kind of ‘worksheet’ or ‘construction area’ for you to build your own scratch-pad of useful gopher
resources.
You can save your Bookmarks window or ANY list window or ANY selected item
as a Bookmark file (‘Save as Bookmark FileI’ menu item). Bookmark files are
small and may be exchanged with other Gopher users if you wish.
The ‘Import Bookmarks’ menu item lets you read a Bookmark file right into your
Bookmarks window. The ‘Open Gopher Bookmark File’ menu item on the other
hand, places the contents of a bookmark file in a window of its own. The latter is
equivalent to double-clicking on bookmark files from the Finder. If you launch TurboGopher by double-clicking on a bookmark file, it will not immediately connect to
the Home Gopher server, but will open the Bookmark file instead. So you may use
bookmark files as custom Home Gopher servers.
Item Attributes
More sophisticated Gopher servers (referred to as Gopher+ servers) can provide
you with information about any selected item, much like the Finder’s Get Info
menu lets you get information about a Mac item.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Canceling Slow Network Operations
Use the ‘Get Attribute Info’ menu item of the Gopher menu for this.
Canceling Slow Network Operations
TurboGopher executes most requests in a few seconds. A document or directory is
displayed as it is received. However, if a server is especially slow or busy or if you
have started to fetch what appears to be a very long and uninteresting document or
directory, you may cancel the fetching process by closing the document or directory
window. Once you have closed the window, TurboGopher assumes that it does not
need to fetch the remainder of the item. Note that when you fetch a file that is saved
to your Mac disk, TurboGopher displays a window with the status of the fetch.
Again, to cancel the fetch operation you can simply close the window.
A more extreme method for canceling a network operation is to choose the Cancel
All Requests item from the Gopher menu (or by holding down the command key
and typing a period). If you open a file or folder by double-clicking while holding
down the Option key (to conserve screen space as described earlier), TurboGopher
will also cancel the running network transaction if one is outstanding; and this is in
fact exactly what you want over low speed connections such as SLIP. Both these
features make TurboGopher seem faster and more responsive over SLIP links.
TurboGopher runs happily in the background (if you wish to fetch something very
large or from a very slow server). You may also fetch an item (file or directory)
while another one is still being fetched, since TurboGopher supports multiple concurrent streams. Command-Period will cancel all active streams.
Starting and Configuring TurboGopher
The ‘Start Gopher’ item under the File menu opens a window containing the initial
directory fetched by connecting to your home Gopher server. TurboGopher is preconfigured to connect on startup to one of the University of Minnesota’s Gopher
servers. You may change your home Gopher server by using the ‘Configure’ item
under the Setup menu. To do this you need the full Internet domain name and port
of the desired primary server. You can configure TurboGopher to use one of two
alternate primary servers. This distributes the load for a campus over two different
(but equivalent) primary servers and it prevents a single point of failure. TurboGo-
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TurboGopher
pher will randomly try one of the two and then try the other if the first is down. If
you don’t understand this, you don’t have to bother with it or with the Another
Gopher item under the File menu.
TurboGopher attempts to speak Gopher+ to all Home Gopher servers, and then
backs off if it sees that the server does not have Gopher+ style items. This is a bit
presumptuous, and it confuses some servers. These servers should be revised in the
future so they don’t confuse so easily. If configured to connect to a Home Gopher
server and nothing is displayed, you may want to try using the ‘Another Gopher’
item under the file menu and making sure that the gopher+ check box is NOT
checked.
TurboGopher Options
You can use the Options item under the Setup menu to customize some behaviors
of TurboGopher. The Single Directory Window checkbox makes TurboGopher
recycle its windows whenever you open a new directory (and not just when you
hold down the Option key).
Use the ISO Latin-1 checkbox if you need to use Latin/Romance language characters. Many sites in Europe have a need for this to display their national characters.
If you visit European gopher servers and the accented characters don’t display correctly, you may want to choose this option.
The Extended Directory listings checkbox is disabled; it’s for a future feature.
If you visit Gopher servers with Japanese or Chinese documents, and you use a Japanese or Chinese font while running System 7.1’s WorldScript, Gopher will display
Japanese SJIS (MS Kanji) or traditional Chinese characters (BIG-5).
When you save documents, TurboGopher normally saves them as MacWrite II
TEXT documents (we like MacWrite II). If you’d rather save them as TEXT documents of your favorite word processor or editor, use the appropriate ‘Set’ button in
the Options dialog to select the word processor of your choice.
With Gopher+ servers, items may be available in a number of alternate views.
When fetched, these alternate views are typically saved as a file to be viewed by a
Mac application. If you are a network/macintosh cowboy, you can change the Mac
application and Mac filetype associated with a Gopher+ alternate view.... this
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Miscellaneous
changes the helper application that TurboGopher asks the finder to launch to view
the document. Double-click the view in the list and you will be presented with a
dialog in which you can select the application to be used as a TurboGopher helper.
By the way, you won’t be able to do this if you’re running System 6...
Miscellaneous
TurboGopher saves or caches the item lists for all visited directories (even when
windows are closed). Since these lists don’t ever have to be fetched from the server
again, this dramatically increases speed when choosing any item from the Recent
menu. If TurboGopher runs out of memory it will first inform you and then automatically release the caches for closed windows.
As mentioned earlier, you may selectively release a directory’s cache by closing the
window while holding down the Shift key if you wish more control over memory.
TurboGopher stores what it needs in a file called TurboGopher Settings; this lives
in the Preferences folder, which is found in your System Folder. If you drag this file
out from the Preferences folder and place it in the same folder as TurboGopher, it
will still be found and used.
For Experts
This section describes features of TurboGopher that either network administrators
or Gopher weenies would want to know.
Waking up TurboGopher.
When TurboGopher starts up, it looks for the TurboGopher Settings file first in its
own folder, and failing that in the Preferences folder. If it finds the TurboGopher
Settings file, it uses the settings and resources (more on this later) it finds inside. If
it cannot find the file, it creates a new one in the Preferences folder based on its
internal defaults (more on this later too). If there are any bookmarks the user had set
in the Bookmarks worksheet window, the Bookmark worksheet window is opened.
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TurboGopher
If the user had deleted all bookmarks, the Bookmarks window is not opened (the
contents of the Bookmark worksheet window are remembered via the Settings file).
Next TurboGopher looks to see if the user has launched it by double-clicking on a
Bookmark file (or by dropping a Bookmark file on it under System 7). If this is so,
the contents of the Bookmark file (more on format later) are read and placed in a list
(directory) window; in this case TurboGopher will not make a connection immediately to the Home Gopher Server.
If TurboGopher was launched directly (not via a Bookmarks document) then it connects to the Home Gopher Server, retrieves the contents of its top directory, and
places this in a list (directory) window. At this point, TurboGopher is fully up and
running. Next we need to describe the various parts alluded to above.
The Home Gopher Servers
Out of the box, TurboGopher comes preconfigured to connect AT RANDOM to
one of the two primary gopher clones (gopher.tc.umn.edu or gopher2.tc.umn.edu;
the former is also known to old Gopher folks as gopher.micro.umn.edu) at the University of Minnesota. It must be emphasized that these are NOT a primary and secondary server: they contain exactly the same information and changes made to one
are automatically propagated to the other. If the first connection attempt fails, TurboGopher will try the next. This has two purposes. First, initial connections are
very reliable for users and since we serve as the world’s Gophermeisters, this is
good. More importantly for us, the randomization ensures that users will spread the
load over our two small, economical, primary servers (Mac IIci’s). If your campus’
primary Gopher server experiences heavy use, we suggest you make a clone too.
The user may of course reconfigure for only one primary server. TurboGopher
remembers this via the Settings file. A campus network administrator may directly
set TurboGopher’s internal primary server defaults by altering STR# ID 3002 using
ResEdit. The first 3 strings are for one alternate server, the next 3 are for the other.
Leaving one or the other triplet empty implies that no clone servers are available.
The first string in the triplet is the server’s domain name, the second is the port, the
third denotes whether it is a Gopher+ server (ignore this for now).
Other Built-in Information
A campus network administrator may also change the default bookmark set that
TurboGopher carries around with him. This is stored in a ‘TEXT’ resource called
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
For Experts
‘BookMarks’. It contains Gopher item descriptors EXACTLY as they come in off
the net, ie:
Display-String<TAB>Selector-String<TAB>hostName<TAB>port<CR><LF>
NOTE: Ugly linefeed after the <CR>
The built-in manual is stored as ‘TEXT’ resource called “HeLp”. While you can
replace that, we certainly don’t encourage you to do so.
Finally, most of the important English text for status messages etc. are stored in
STR# resources, The primary one of these is STR# resource ID 3003. This is
important for international localization purposes.... but read on.
Bookmark file formats
Bookmark files contain just the Gopher item descriptor lines that a Gopher client
would ordinarily retrieve over the net. Please read the Internet Gopher protocol
document for more information on this. Gopher bookmark files contain text. The
fileType is not ‘TEXT’ however, so if you wish to edit one with a word processor or
text editor, you will have to either change its fileType or use a permissive editor.
Each line contains the familiar:
Display-String<TAB>Selector-String<TAB>hostName<TAB>port<CR>
NOTE: This is Mac text... SO NO LINEFEEDS AFTER THE <CR>
Bookmark files have the type ‘BKMK’ and creator ‘MDDF’. The Import Bookmarks menu item allows you to ATTEMPT to read any filetype you want and treat
it as a Bookmark file. Please use this with caution. While TurboGopher will attempt
to make sense out of the file, and will reject most junk files, you definitely are on
thin ice here. The Open Gopher Bookmark File menu item however will only let
you open bonafide Bookmark Files.
ISO Translation Table
The ISO Latin-1 character set translation tables used by TurboGopher were kindly
supplied by Jean-Pierre Kuypers <[email protected]>, Pascal Maes <[email protected]>, and Andre Pirard <[email protected]> They are stored in
taBL resources with ID 1001 and 1002.
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TurboGopher
The TurboGopher Settings file
We don’t want you mucking around inside the data fork of a Settings file, so we
aren’t going to encourage you to do it by spelling out the format (though anyone
with a disk editor and a room temperature IQ can figure it out).
We DO want you mucking around inside the resource fork of the Settings file
though. When it is created by TurboGopher, the TurboGopher Settings file has no
resource fork. If you add one by opening the file with ResEdit, then TurboGopher
will place the Settings file in its resource search path. This means that if you want
some custom resource to be used by TurboGopher, you may place it in the resource
fork of the Settings file rather than munging around inside TurboGopher’s application resource fork.
We would like you to place things like string localizations, custom code resources,
and overridden configuration resources here for your local users. This way, you can
distribute a localized TurboGopher Settings file on your campus and you shouldn’t
have to scramble to patch the application every time we release a new version. Certainly we might add more strings to various STR# resources... but if you drop us a
line and tell us what you are doing with the resources, we will inform you before
we release any new versions of TurboGopher that might affect you.
We have made provision for TurboGopher to execute external code resources to do
certain tasks. At this point we’re deciding if we should adopt some new interface
for these code resources or to use the interface that Mac folks are very familiar
with: XCMDs. We will probably wind up giving you access to various internal
parts of TurboGopher via XCMDs.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
CHAPTER 4
PC Gopher III
This chapter describes PC Gopher III, hereafter referred to as Gopher, a program
for IBM and compatible microcomputers that run the MS-DOS operating system.
PC Gopher III is a program that lets you search for and retrieve information stored
on other computers, known as "gopher servers".
System Requirements
Gopher runs under DOS version 3.3 or greater and requires 640K of conventional
memory. Gopher will run on a wide range of IBM PCs and compatibles, including
the earliest PCs which contained only a monochrome display adapter, with no
graphics support.
A Microsoft-compatible mouse is helpful but optional. You must load mouse
driver software before running Gopher. If your mouse contains more than one
mouse button, you will only need to use the left mouse button when running
Gopher.
You must also install a Clarkson (a.k.a. Crynwr) packet driver, a small piece of
software that allows Gopher to communicate with your ethernet card or modem.
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PC Gopher III
As of this writing, Gopher supports ONLY the Clarkson packet driver interface to
your ethernet card or modem. Gopher will not run properly if you are using FTP
Software's PC-TCP drivers, nor will it work with LAN Workplace for DOS, PCNFS, or Banyan Vines.
How to Obtain the Software
The Gopher software consists of one file: GOPHER.EXE. There are two ancillary
files that Gopher will create if it can't find them: GOPHER.REZ, which stores your
configuration settings, and GOPHER.BMK, which stores "bookmarks" that you can
use to easily re-visit interesting places in gopherspace. You can obtain the software
over the internet via anonymous FTP from
boombox.micro.umn.edu
Look in the directory called
/pub/gopher/PC_client
You can also find the Clarkson packet driver collection in the directory called
/pub/gopher/PC_client/packet_drivers
Installation
Connecting To The Internet
To run Gopher, your microcomputer must be connected to a local area network
(LAN). Usually, the LAN will be connected to the global internet allowing you to
find information located on gopher servers outside of your network. If you have
access to a dial-up SLIP server, you can also use Gopher with a modem instead of a
LAN connection.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Installation
LAN Operation
For your microcomputer to operate on the LAN, you must have a network adapter
card installed. In order to run Gopher, your network adapter card must be one supported by the Clarkson packet drivers.
Dial-up Operation
If you have access to a SLIP server, you can use Gopher with a modem instead of a
network adapter. You will still need a packet driver; we recommend UMSLIP.COM,
which is available via anonymous ftp to boombox.micro.umn.edu, in the directory
/pub/phone
In the same directory, you can find PHONE.EXE, a phone-dialer program that may
be helpful in establishing your SLIP server connection.
Installing the Packet Driver
In order to run Gopher, the appropriate packet driver must first be loaded into memory; it's easiest to do this automatically each time you start up your computer.
Each packet driver is a specialized piece of software designed to "talk" to a specific
type of network adapter card; since all of the packet drivers have the same interface, this allows one version of Gopher to run on a wide range of network adapters.
The packet driver collection includes documentation that you can use to determine
which driver you need to use with your network adapter.
To load the packet driver, type the packet driver name, followed by the necessary
parameters, as described in the documentation that comes with the packet driver
set. For example, suppose you have a 3Com 3c523 ethernet card installed in your
PC. To load it, you would type
3C523 0x60 0x3 0x300
and hit the enter key (note that different packet drivers require different parameters;
see the packet driver documentation for the correct parameters for your packet
driver). As long as you do not turn the power off to your computer, you can run
Gopher, quit and do other things, and then start Gopher again without re-loading
the packet driver. Also, if you already have the packet driver loaded for other pro-
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PC Gopher III
grams like FTP, Telnet, or tn3270, you do not need to re-load the packet driver
before running Gopher.
If you'd like the packet driver to load automatically whenever you start up your
computer, you can add the packet driver command and parameters to your
AUTOEXEC.BAT file; most people find it easier to let the computer load the packet
driver automatically, rather than remember the complicated and arcane parameters
necessary.
Installing the Gopher Software
After you have installed the appropriate packet driver, copy all of the Gopher files
into a directory on your hard disk. For example, if you wanted to install Gopher in
a directory called GOPHER, you'd type
cd c:\
to get to the root directory of your hard disk,
mkdir gopher
to make a new subdirectory for Gopher,
cd gopher
to switch to the new subdirectory, and
copy a:\*.*
to copy the files from the floppy drive to the hard disk.
If you already have an older version of Gopher, such as PC Gopher II v1.05, you
must delete all of your old Gopher files BEFORE installing this version. The one
exception to this is your old bookmark file; you can use the included conversion
utility called BMKCVT to update this file to the format used by PC Gopher III.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Configuring Gopher
FIGURE 4.
PC Gopher Top Level
Configuring Gopher
When you use Gopher for the first time, you may need to enter some configuration
information specific to your microcomputer. Gopher needs these configuration
parameters in order to identify your computer on the network. This information is
stored in a "resource file" called (by default) GOPHER.REZ. Gopher will automatically create this file if it can't be found.
First, start Gopher by typing
GOPHER
at the DOS prompt. Once Gopher starts up, pull down the Configure menu; the
menu item called "Application..." will open up Gopher's application configuration
dialog box (to pull down a menu, either click on its title with the mouse cursor, or
hold down the Alt key and type the first letter of the menu title; to choose an item,
either click with the mouse, or use the arrow keys to highlight the item, and hit the
ENTER key; to close a menu without choosing any item, hit the ESC key).
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PC Gopher III
To enter or edit any of the parameters in the configuration dialog boxes, use the
TAB key (or up and down arrow keys) to advance to the appropriate field. If the
field is a text field, type in the information. If the field is a series of checkboxes (a
pair of square brackets followed by some text), use the space bar to toggle the
checkmark on and off, and the arrow keys to move between checkboxes.
Application Configuration
Home Gopher Server
This is the name of any gopher server on the network. Your organization may be
running its own gopher server; if not, you are welcome to use our server, which
goes by the name of :
gopher.tc.umn.edu
Gopher will attempt to connect to this server when you issue a "New Gopher" command. Your explorations are not restricted to information stored on this particular
server, but you will always start off here.
Port Number
This is the port number that Gopher will use to attempt to connect to the gopher
server named above. Currently, gopher servers use port 70 for connections.
Alternate Gopher Server and Port Number
If your home server doesn't respond when you try to open a new browser window,
Gopher will try to connect to this server instead. You might want to configure this
to gopher2.tc.umn.edu, port 70; this server replicates the information on
gopher.tc.umn.edu.
Terminal Sessions
Some services available in gopherspace require a standard terminal interface, rather
than Gopher's point-and-click interface. To access these services, you need a piece
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Application Configuration
of software called a terminal emulator. The two most popular terminal types used
by non-gopher services are the DEC VT100 and IBM 3270 terminals; consequently, Gopher allows you to configure two terminal emulation programs, one for
each kind of session (you don't need to worry about which program to use with
which service; Gopher will automatically launch the right one for the job).
In the input line title "Telnet Session Command Line", enter the path and filename
of your VT100 emulator, and the parameters you want to pass to the program.
Gopher knows how to interpret certain symbols within the command line, replacing
them with information that can't be generated until immediately before the session
is started. The symbols and what they're replaced by at runtime are:
TABLE 2. PC
Gopher Telnet Command Substitutions
Symbol
Meaning
%a
address of target machine
%n
name of target machine
%p
port number of service on target
machine
At a minimum, you need to include the symbols %n and %p as parameters; Gopher
will replace these with the name and port number of the machine it needs to connect
to.
For example, if the VT100 emulator you're using was in the same directory as
gopher, C:\GOPHER, and it was called VT100.EXE, you'd set the command line up
like this:
C:\GOPHER\VT100.EXE %n %p
If your VT100 program needs a "#" in front of the port number, set the command
line up like this:
C:\GOPHER\VT100.EXE %n #%p
Below the command line is an input line for you to enter the amount of memory
necessary to run the program. If you leave this at zero, Gopher will always try to
run the program; if you set it to a number other than zero, Gopher will warn you if
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PC Gopher III
memory is too low to run the program, and allow you to cancel the operation or, if
you are brave, continue.
By default, Gopher will try to swap itself to disk before running external programs,
so normally you'll want to set the memory required to zero. If allowing Gopher to
swap to disk is causing problems, you may need to disable swapping with the /
NOSWAP switch; in this case, you should set the memory requirement to whatever
your external program needs, as a safety measure.
The line entitled “TN3270 Session Command Line” works in exactly the same
fashion as the Telnet Session Command Line item. The program that you enter
here will be used to connect to IBM3270 based services.
Options: New Gopher On Startup
If this checkbox is checked, the program will automatically attempt to connect to
the gopher server entered in the Home Gopher Server input line, whenever Gopher
is started. If not checked, you will have to select New Gopher from the File menu
or the status bar to start the initial gopher session.
Options: Single Window Mode
Ordinarily, Gopher will open a new window each time you look in a directory. If
you check this checkbox, Gopher will reuse the same window, and will add a “Go
Back” button to the bottom of the window to allow you to quickly return to directories that you've already seen.
Network Configuration
To open Gopher's network configuration dialog box, choose "Network..." from the
"Configure" menu.
All computers that use the internet need addressing information, so that data gets
"delivered" to the right place. There are two ways to set up this information in
Gopher; by hand, or automatically, via the BOOTP protocol. BOOTP allows your
microcomputer to ask a server for network addressing information.. Your network
administrator will know if you have access to BOOTP.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Network Configuration
FIGURE 5.
PC Gopher Application Configuration
Gopher is set up to use BOOTP by default. If you have access to BOOTP, you don't
need to enter any addressing information at all; you can skip to the next section.
Microcomputer IP Address
This is the IP address of your individual microcomputer or workstation. See your
network administrator for a microcomputer IP address assignment.
Microcomputer Netmask
The netmask parameter has to do with how your local area network is configured
and connected to the backbone network at your work site. See your network
administrator for the correct value to enter here. Many sites are configured to use a
netmask of 255.255.255.0.
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PC Gopher III
Nameservers
A name server converts a gopher server name into machine-readable address.
Gopher relies heavily on nameservers; if you don't have access to one, you won't be
able to use Gopher. You may enter up to four nameserver addresses; they will be
tried in the order in which they are entered.
Gateways
A gateway is a device which gives your computer access to the outside world. If
you want to use Gopher to look at information on servers beyond your local area
network, you must specify the address of your gateway. You may enter up to four
gateway addresses; they will be tried in the order in which they are entered. Your
network administrator can tell you the addresses of gateways accessible to you.
FIGURE 6.
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PC Gopher Network Configuration
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Advanced Network Configuration Options
Advanced Network Configuration Options
There are several advanced configuration parameters that can be used to tune network performance; these parameters can usually be left at the default settings.
Gopher Query Timeout
This is the maximum number of second that Gopher will wait for a response from a
server, after sending a query.
TCP Connect Timeout
This is the maximum number of seconds that Gopher will wait for acknowledgment
of an attempt to open a connection to a server.
Name Lookup Timeout
This is the maximum number of seconds allowed for the nameserver on the network to convert a gopher server name to a machine-readable address.
Retransmit Timeout
This is the maximum number of second that Gopher will wait before retransmitting
a packet of data that hasn't been acknowledged.
Maximum Transfer Unit
This is the largest size TCP/IP packet that Gopher will send.
Maximum Segment Size
This is the maximum size packet that Gopher will accept; since Gopher cannot
accept "fragmented" packets, this number must be small enough that the server
won't be tempted to fragment packets as they are sent.
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PC Gopher III
TCP Window Size
This is the size of the TCP/IP data buffer.
When you've finished setting up the network configuration parameters, confirm
your changes by choosing the "OK" button, or cancel them by choosing the "Cancel" button.
Configuration Data File
All of the parameters that you enter in the configuration dialog boxes are stored in a
file called (by default) GOPHER.REZ. If this file is damaged or lost, all of your configuration data will have to be reentered.
You can tell Gopher to use an alternate configuration file by using the /R command
line switch. See the section entitled “Gopher and Command Line Switches” for
further information.
Gopher and Command Line Switches
To start Gopher, type
GOPHER
at the DOS prompt.
Gopher understands several command line switches, which can be used to modify
its default behavior. Note that if you install all of the Gopher files in a single directory on your hard drive, you won't need to use most of these.
The usage of command line switches is as follows:
/SWITCH=VALUE
if the switch requires a value, or just
/SWITCH
if it doesn't. You will need to substitute a “-” for the “=” if you're trying to pass
these parameters into a batch file, since DOS will eat all of the “=” characters
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Gopher and Command Line Switches
The /R Switch
By default, Gopher expects to get resources and configuration information out of a
file called GOPHER.REZ, in the same directory as GOPHER.EXE. You can use a
different directory and/or filename by starting Gopher like this:
GOPHER /R=D:\PATH\FILE.EXT
replacing D:\PATH\ with the path to the alternate resource file, and FILE.EXT with
the alternate file's name and extension.
Network administrators can use this switch to create separate configuration files for
each client on the network; however, since Gopher reads from AND writes to the
resource file, it CANNOT BE PLACED IN A READ-ONLY DIRECTORY.
The /B Switch
This switch also works like the /R switch, but it tells Gopher where to store bookmarks. By default, Gopher will save any bookmarks you create in GOPHER.BMK,
in the same directory as GOPHER.EXE; you can use a different bookmark file by
starting Gopher like this:
GOPHER /B=D:\PATH\FILE.EXT
replacing D:\PATH\ with the path to the alternate resource file, and FILE.EXT with
the alternate file's name and extension.
If you're installing Gopher on a Novell server, the bookmark file must be in a writeable directory.
The /T and /X Switches
These switches can be used to tell Gopher where you'd like to store saved text and
binary files, respectively. Ordinarily, Gopher offers to save files in the same directory as the file GOPHER.EXE; you can "aim" at a different directory by starting
Gopher like this:
GOPHER /T=D:\PATH /X=D:\PATH
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PC Gopher III
replacing D:\PATH with the directory that you want to use. You will still be
prompted for a filename when saving a file, and you'll be able to navigate through
the directory hierarchy on your hard disk with the file-save dialog box; this switch
just sets the directory that you're shown first.
Switches Used to Pass IP Address Information
There are four switches that you can use to pass addressing information to Gopher,
overriding the information in the configuration dialog box. They are:
TABLE 3. PC
Gopher IP Address Switches
/MYIP
IP address of your microcomputer
/MYMASK
Netmask of your microcomputer
/MYGW
Your gateway's address
/MYDNS
Your nameserver's address
These switches all work the same way. For example, to use an IP address of
127.0.0.1, start Gopher like this:
GOPHER /MYIP=127.0.0.1
Other Switches
There are three other switches that don't fall into any particular category.
The /SHUTUP switch will prevent Gopher from beeping at you if there's some sort
of fatal error.
The /NOSWAP switch will prevent Gopher from swapping itself to disk before executing a DOS shell or external program. Note that if you use this switch, you may
not have enough memory for terminal sessions! This switch is only necessary if
your computer crashes when Gopher swaps itself to disk, which happens with some
combinations of TSR programs and hardware.
Finally, the /? switch will print a summary of all of the switches on your screen.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
The Gopher User Interface
The Gopher User Interface
Gopher uses the standard IBM character set to emulate a graphical user interface
(GUI). For this reason, Gopher runs on a wide range of IBM PCs and compatibles,
including the earliest PCs which contained a monochrome display adapter (with no
graphics support). In other words, Gopher does not require that you install a special
graphics display adapter in your computer., or that you run a windowing operating
system like Microsoft Windows or IBM OS/2.
With a GUI, you interact with the program by responding to graphical symbols
which appear on the computer screen, rather than by issuing single line commands
(as with the MS-DOS operating system). Because of its graphical user interface,
Gopher is largely self-explanatory. If you are familiar with the GUI in Microsoft
Windows or the Apple Macintosh operating system, you will be able learn how to
use Gopher very quickly; you may want to skip to the section entitled "Using
Gopher", and come back to this section later.
Gopher's user interface consists of several elements:
Lists
Lists are boxes containing one or more lines of text, with a "scroll bar" along the
right side of the box. The scroll bar allows you to see items in the list that aren't
displayed on the screen; to scroll the list, click on the up or down arrows at the top
and bottom of the scroll bar with the mouse, or use the arrow keys.
There is always one item in the list that's the "currently selected" item; if you click
on it, or hit the enter key, the list will perform its default action on that item. The
currently selected item is indicated by highlighting; the text and background colors
of the currently selected item are colored differently than the rest of the list, or are
shown in inverse video on a monochrome monitor.
Buttons
Buttons are rectangular areas of the screen which will respond to a mouse click by
performing some action.
Some buttons have one letter of their label highlighted; you can operate these buttons by holding down the Alt key, and typing the highlighted letter. Other buttons
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PC Gopher III
have all of their label highlighted; this indicates that the button is the "default" button, and can be operated by hitting the ENTER key.
Dialog Boxes
Dialog boxes allow Gopher to ask you for information. For example, when you
choose a search item from the list of available items, a dialog box will pop up to
allow you to enter the text to search for.
Dialog boxes are also used to inform you of errors while Gopher is running. When
one of these error dialog boxes pops up, you must click on the OK button (or hit
ENTER on the keyboard) before you can continue using the program.
A dialog box can consist of many elements; buttons, fields to enter text, list boxes,
and so on. If you are using a keyboard rather than a mouse, you'll need to use the
TAB key to select these various elements before you can use them.
Windows
Gopher uses windows to display information. There are two main types of windows in Gopher; the browser window, which displays lists of items for you to
choose from, and the file display window, which displays the contents of a text file
that you've chosen.
Both windows can be positioned anywhere on the screen, with the mouse or the
keyboard. To move a window with the mouse, position the cursor over the title bar
of the window (the horizontal line marking the window's top edge), then press and
hold the mouse button as you move the mouse. To move a window with the keyboard, type Ctrl-F5, and use the arrow keys to move the window around the screen.
When the window is positioned the way you want, hit the ENTER key.
In the upper left-hand corner of each window is a small rectangle enclosed in
square brackets. This is the window's close box; clicking with the mouse in the
close box will close the window. To close a window using the keyboard, type AltF3.
Some windows can also be resized; resizeable windows have a resize box in the
lower right-hand corner. To resize the window with the mouse, position the cursor
in the resize box, press the mouse button, and move the mouse. To resize the window from the keyboard, type Ctrl-F5, hold the shift key down, and use the arrow
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The Gopher User Interface
keys to resize the window. When the window is sized the way you want, hit the
ENTER key.
The Menu Bar
The very top line of the computer screen contains Gopher's menu bar with three
menu labels. The menu bar looks like this:
#
File
Window
Configure
The menu bar is the primary mechanism you use to communicate with Gopher.
The menus have pull-down labels; that is, when you select a title in the menu bar, a
list of specific commands are displayed underneath the menu label.
If one of the commands in a pull-down menu is followed by an ellipsis, choosing
that command will display a dialog box, requesting further information. If a command in a pull-down menu is not followed by an ellipsis, the indicated action will
occur as soon as you select the item and release the mouse button or hit the ENTER
key.
You can use either a mouse or keyboard to select commands. To use a mouse, click
on the desired menu title to display the pull-down menu (use only the left mouse
button if your mouse has more than one button). Then click the desired command.
Alternatively, you can push the mouse button down over a menu title and then continue to hold the mouse button down while you drag straight down from the menu
title to the desired menu command, and then release the mouse button. If you
decide not to choose a command, just drag out of the boundaries of the pull-down
menu and no action will be performed.
To choose menu commands using the keyboard, first pull down the menu. Press the
F10 key to make the menu bar active; when the menu bar is active, one menu title is
highlighted. If the menu title you want is not the one currently highlighted, use the
arrow keys to move to the right or left along the menu bar, until you select the menu
title you want. Press the ENTER key to pull down the menu. Now use the up and
down arrow keys to select the command you want. To execute the command, hit
the ENTER key; to close the menu without executing any commands, hit the ESC
key.
There is also hot-key alternative to pulling down a menu. Hold the Alt key down
while typing the letter corresponding to the first letter of the menu title you want;
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PC Gopher III
for example, type Alt-F to pull down the File menu (the hot key to pull-down the #
menu is Alt-Spacebar).
Once the menu you want is pulled down, you can press the key corresponding to
the highlighted letter of the desired command.
In addition to the four menus, there are two indicators at the left end of the menu
bar. The first indicator shows how much memory is available to the program; the
second one is a clock.
Menu Structure
The individual items under the pull-down menus are organized as follows. Highlighted letters (shown here as capital letters) are used to perform the various shortcuts described in the previous section and elsewhere in this manual.
Note that the hot-key letter associated with each command is not always the first
letter of the command. In addition, some menu commands are used often enough
that they can be activated with a keyboard alternative (in other words, without having to pull down any menu first). These keys are also shown below.
The Preferences menu has a submenu listing user-configurable preferences; this
submenu works the same way that the other menus do.
TABLE 4. PC
Gopher Menus
Menu
Name
Item Names
Action When Selected
About PC Gopher III
displays program credits
Calculator
pop-up calculator
CaLender
Perpetual Calendar
Puzzle
Challenging Puzzle
DOS Shell
Temporarily use DOS
#
Alt-Spacebar
File
50
Keyboard
Alternatives
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Alt-F
The Gopher User Interface
TABLE 4. PC
Gopher Menus
Menu
Name
Item Names
Action When Selected
new Gopher
opens a browser for
your home server
Alt-G
Save file...
saves foremost text
window to a file
Alt-S
Open bookmark file
opens the bookmark
list dialog
F9
eXit
quits PC Gopher III
Alt-X
Window
Keyboard
Alternatives
Alt-W
Next
brings the back window to the front
F6
Zoom
makes a window fullscreen sized
F5
Move
allows keyboard positioning of a window
Ctrl-F5
cLose
closes the front window
Alt-F3
Configure...
Alt-C
Application...
displays application
configuration dialog
Network...
displays network configuration dialog
Preferences
displays submenus
Mouse...
displays mouse configuration dialog
Video Mode
toggles video mode
between 25&50 lines
The Status Bar
Gopher's status bar is located across the bottom line of the screen. The status bar
looks like this:
F1 Help F10 Menus Alt-X Exit Alt-G New Gopher Alt-Z Cancel
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The status bar contains "hot spots". Hot spots are located wherever words occur in
the status bar. For example, "Alt-G New Gopher" constitutes one hot spot. Hot
spots are separated from each other by more than one space. When you click on a
hot spot with a mouse, the indicated function will occur. For example, when you
click on the words "Alt-G New Gopher", Gopher will open a new browser window, and when you click on the words "Alt-X Exit", Gopher will shut down and
return you to the DOS prompt. To activate a hot spot without using a mouse, hold
down the Alt key, and type the letter indicated in the status bar.
Using Gopher
To start exploring gopherspace, choose "New Gopher" from the File menu, or click
on the words "Alt-G New Gopher" on the status line (if you'd rather use the keyboard, type Alt-G). Gopher will attempt to connect to the first server that you specified in the configuration dialog box. If the attempt is successful, Gopher will
retrieve a list of the items that the server knows about. The list will look something
like this:
<F>About Internet Gopher
<B>GIF picture of Joey Ramone
<D>Really Interesting Administrative Information
<P>U of MN Phone Book
<S>Search Pyrotechnics Recipes
<T>Card Catalog via Telnet
Any item on the list can be selected either by moving the selection bar with the
arrow keys and hitting ENTER, or by double-clicking with the mouse.
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Using Gopher
Gopher Item Types
At the beginning of each line in the item list is a character enclosed in brackets; this
character tells you what the item is. Gopher knows about the following item types:
TABLE 5. PC
Gopher Item Types
Character
Type Name
Action When Selected
<F>
Text File
retrieves and displays the file
<B>
Binary File
retrieves the file
<D>
Directory
shows you more items
<S>
Search Item
prompts for text to search for
<P>
Phone book
prompts for person to look up
<T>
Terminal Session
connects you to a non-Gopher service
<???>
Error
none
FIGURE 7.
PC Gopher Text Files
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PC Gopher III
Text Files
In the above example, line one refers to a file called "About Internet Gopher". To
see the contents of this file, select the item with either the mouse or the keyboard.
Gopher will attempt to retrieve the file, and display it in a separate window. If the
file is too large for Gopher to fit into available memory, it will put up a dialog box
requesting that you specify a filename and directory to save the file in. You can then
open the file with your favorite word processor to see the contents.
You may also choose to save the information that you get back as a file, even if it is
small enough for Gopher to display immediately in a window. Just choose "Save
File..." from the File menu, and enter the filename and directory that you want to
save the file in.
Binary Files
The second item in the list above is a binary file, a GIF picture of one of our favorite rock stars. Choosing this item will pop up a dialog box, prompting you for a
filename to save the picture in; once you've entered a filename and chosen the "OK"
button, Gopher will retrieve the file. Instead of displaying the file in a window,
Gopher will show you a progress indicator so that you can tell when the file has
been retrieved. To view the file, you'll have to quit Gopher and run a separate program capable of displaying GIF pictures.
Directories
The third item in our example listing is a directory. Directories are like folders or
drawers full of other items. When Gopher first connects to the gopher server that
you specify as your starting point, the list that you get back shows the contents of
the main or "root" directory of that server.
To see the contents of a directory, select it from the list using either the mouse or
the keyboard. Gopher will request a list of the contents of the subdirectory that you
selected, and will present this list in the browser window.
If you anticipate returning to a particular directory on a particular server, you can
use the Bookmark List to save that position in gopherspace. To save a bookmark,
first navigate to the place that you want to remember, and the choose Open Bookmark File from the File menu. Once the bookmark list opens up, click on the Add
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Using Gopher
button; you will be prompted for a name for the bookmark. To return to the bookmarked position later, just open the bookmark list and choose the bookmark you
wish to return to.
FIGURE 8.
PC Gopher Phone Book Search
Phone Book Items
The fourth item in the example is a Phone Book item. Phone book items are pointers to databases that contain information about people's phone numbers, office locations, e-mail addresses, and so on; these databases are called CSO or PH servers.
When you select a phone book item, a dialog box will pop up, and Gopher will ask
the database server for a list of items that you can ask about. Once the list of these
items is built, you can look a person up by typing her name into the dialog box and
choosing the "Lookup" button. Any matching items will be displayed in a separate
window, and can be saved to disk using the File menu's Save File command.
If you want to enter more information to narrow the search, you can choose the
"More Choices..." button, and you'll be presented with a larger dialog box, containing a list of fields that you can use in a query. You build up a query by selecting an
item from the list, and typing in the search key next to the item name when it pops
up on the screen. You can build queries of up to five items; if you want to change
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PC Gopher III
the query, selecting the Clear button will clear all of the items you've chosen. Once
the query is set up, select the Lookup button, and the query will be sent to the
server.
FIGURE 9.
PC Gopher Searches
Search Items
Next in the listing is a Search item for an interesting set of recipes. A search item is
a computer that can search various gopher servers for files containing text that you
specify. If you select a search item, a dialog box will pop up for you to enter your
search text in. To start the search, click on the "Search" button, or just hit the
ENTER key.
The search item returns a list of files that it knows about that contain ALL of the
text that you enter in the input box. If you entered the word "salmon", the search
item would return a list of all of the files containing that word. If you entered
"salmon spinach", the search item will return a list of files that contain both the
word "salmon" and the word "spinach"; it would NOT return the names of files that
had only one of the two words.
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Using Gopher
Search Items and Logical Operators
Logical operators are special words that allow you to set up specific search conditions. The logical operators "and", "or", and "not" are supported by many search
items. You can use one or more of these operators to narrow the field of your
search.
There are three different types of search items in gopherspace. The first type
assumes an implicit "and" between words, and will let you use logical operators to
change this behavior. The second assumes and implicit "or" between words, and
will also allow the use of logical operators to alter the default. The third assumes
"or", and ignores logical operators. Unfortunately, the only way to find out which
type of search item you're dealing with is to experiment (unless it is explicitly
labeled as one of these three types).
For example, assume you've found a search item that assumes "and" between
words, and also understands logical operators. Suppose you want to find files that
contain the word "salmon" or the word "spinach", but not both. You can do this by
entering "salmon or spinach" in the input box. You can also use the word "and" to
explicitly indicate that the files you're searching for must contain both words; this
allows you to set up specific search conditions by using multiple logical operators.
Logical operators are evaluated in right-to-left order; the search pattern "spinach
and salmon or broccoli" would result in a list of files that contained the word spinach and the word salmon, or just the word broccoli.
To exclude words from the search pattern, use "not". The search phrase "Minnesota
not snow" would produce a list of files containing at least one instance of the word
"Minnesota", and no instances of the word "snow".
Terminal Session Items
The last item in the example listing is a Terminal Session item. A terminal session
item is a way to allow you access to information services that expect to communicate with a terminal rather than a program like Gopher. When you select a terminal
session item, Gopher will execute the terminal emulator if your choice, passing the
name, address, and/or port number required to connect to the terminal-based service. See the section entitled "Configuring Gopher" for information about how to
configure Gopher to access these services.
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Multiple Concurrent Queries
Gopher is capable of handling more than one query at a time, although it is limited
to no more than three simultaneous queries. This allows you to continue to navigate through gopherspace while you're receiving a large binary file, and even to
fetch other files at the same time.
Query Progress Indicators
The browser window and the text display window both have query progress indicators in the lower left-hand corner of their window frames. This indicator will tell
you exactly what the status of the query is; usually, you'll see either "receiving",
meaning that Gopher is receiving a response to your query, "waiting", meaning that
Gopher is waiting for the server to continue the transaction, or "idle", meaning that
the query is complete and that Gopher has closed the connection with the server.
The progress indicator can be helpful in diagnosing problems with slow or sick
servers, misconfigured or broken networks, or (heaven forbid) PC Gopher itself.
Canceling a Query
Any query can be canceled at any time. If you want to cancel a query and throw
away any directory listing or text that you've received so far, you can close the window associated with the query. To cancel a query without closing its window, type
Alt-Z or choose the "Alt-Z Cancel Query" hotspot in the status line.
Help!
If you run into difficulties installing or using Gopher, or have bug reports, suggestions, or general comments, you can send e-mail to us at:
[email protected]
Although we greatly prefer e-mail, you can also contact us via paper mail at:
The Gopher Development Team
Computer and Information Services
University of Minnesota
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Acknowledgments
Room 190 Shepherd Labs
100 Union St. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
U.S.A.
In all of your correspondence pertaining to PC Gopher III, please indicate:
•
•
•
•
your PC Gopher III version number
your operating system and version number (e.g., DOS 5.0)
your computer brand and model
your ethernet card brand and model (if applicable)
Acknowledgments
Thanks to Borland International of Scotts Valley, California, for Borland Pascal
version 7.0, and for TurboVision.
Thanks to Clarkson College of Potsdam, New York, for the use of the Clarkson
Packet Drivers.
Thanks to Ralf Brown for allowing us to use his Turbo Pascal swapping unit,
Spawno.
Thanks to George Gonzalez and Earl Schleske for their tireless maintenance of the
TCP/IP driver used in PC Gopher III.
Finally, thanks to Shih-Pau Yen for having a lot of faith, Farhad Anklesaria and
Mark McCahill for having a lot of nerve, and all of the beta-testers for having a lot
of patience.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
CHAPTER 5
The UNIX Gopher Client
This chapter describes how to use the UNIX Gopher client, version 2.0.
Overview
Internet Gopher for Unix is distributed as C source code. You will need to compile
this source code into binary executables for your system. To make it generally
available to the rest of the users on the system, you should install the software into
a central directory.
Requirements
You will need a working gopher client, to see if it’s been installed just type:
gopher
If you get an error message, then you will have to install the UNIX Gopher client,
see “Installing the Unix Gopher Distribution” on page 69, or you’ll have to use
one of the public gopher systems listed in the Common Questions chapter.
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The UNIX Gopher Client
Starting the UNIX Gopher Client
To start the UNIX Gopher client, simply type gopher. You’ll be presented with a
screen that looks like this:
FIGURE 10.
Unix Gopher Client-Top Level
This is what you would see if you used gopher at the University of Minnesota, other
systems may have localized and customized the client for their own sites.
Navigating Gopherspace
Once you’ve started the client you can move around Gopherspace using a few differnt keys, the most common ones are the cursor keys, the u key, and the RETURN
key.
The cursor keys control the arrow pointer; pressing the cursor down key moves the
arrow to the next item, pressing the cursor up key moves the arrow to the previous
item.
Pressing the RETURN key or right arrow key displays the item that the arrow is
pointed at.
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Special Items
Each item is tagged with special characters to make it easy to predict what each
item is. Items ending with a slash (/) are Gopher directories, selecting one of these
items will cause a new directory to be displayed.
An item that ends with a period (.) are text files. Pressing RETURN on these items
will view the file. For instance pressing RETURN on the file “About Gopher” will
retrieve the file and result in a screen that looks like the following:
FIGURE 11.
Unix Gopher Client-Text File
Press the space bar to view the next page. To view the previous page press the b
key. To search for some text press the / key and enter the words you want to searrch for. Press the u key when you’re finished viewing a file to return to the directory
screen.
Once you’ve finished with viewing the directory you can, if you wish, return to the
previous directory by pressing the ‘u’ key or the left arrow key. This moves you up
to the previous directory.
Special Items
This section details how to use the Unix Gopher Client to access services other than
text files and directories.
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The UNIX Gopher Client
Index Searches
Items with a <?> tag at the end of the name are searchable indices. When you select
one of these items you will get to type in search words. These words will determine
the items in the resulting directory listing. For instance a search on “Search Recipes” with word salmon would result in a listing of recipes related to salmon.
Phone Book Servers
Phone Book Servers show up with the tag <CSO> at the end of the name. Selecting
one of these items results in a screen that looks like this:
FIGURE 12.
Unix Gopher Client-Phone Book Search
You can fill in the fields in any way you wish. In this example we want to see if
there are any people with the name “lindner” at the National Institues of Health.
Telnet/tn3270 Servers
Gopher can connect to telnet sites such as Library Catalogs rather easily, if you see
an item tagged with <TEL> or <3270> you’ll be presented with a screen similar to
the following
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Advanced Navigation Features
FIGURE 13.
Unix Gopher Client-Telnet/tn3270 services
In this example we’re connecting to the “James Cook University” library system. If
there’s a special login required Gopher will tell us. In this case it’s “opac” If we
press RETURN, Gopher will connect us to the host jculib.jcu.edu.au and let us
login.
Advanced Navigation Features
There are many other keys that you can use with the UNIX client. Instead of the
cursor keys you can use the the equivilant cursor control keys for vi or emacs. In vi
the keys are h,j,k, and l. In emacs the keys are ^B, ^N, ^P, and ^F.
The following table summarizes the other keys:
TABLE 6. UNIX
Gopher Client-Advanced Navigation Keys
Key
Action
>, +, SPACE
Move to the next directory page.
<, -, b
Move to the previous directory page.
0-9
View a specific item.
m
Go back to the first “main” directory screen.
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The UNIX Gopher Client
Bookmarks
If you formulate a search or find a folder you would like to come back to later, you
can set a bookmark for the item. Then you can easily find the item later in your personal bookmark directory.
Move the arrow to the interesting item and press the ‘a’ key to add a bookmark.
You will see a screen like this:
FIGURE 14.
Unix Gopher Client-Adding a Bookmark
Type in a meaningful name. Later on, when you wish to access this item again,
press the ‘v’ key to view your personal bookmark list. You’ll get a directory listing
screen that contains all of your bookmarks. If you wish to delete a bookmark entry
you can press the ‘d’ key when the arrow is pointed to the item.
Saving and Downloading
If you want a permanent copy of an item in Gopherspace, not just a reference,
which a bookmark is, you should press the ‘s’ key. This will save the current item
into a filename on your system.
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Saving and Downloading
If you are connected to a Unix machine through a modem using terminal emulation
software you can press the ‘D’ key to download the item using either of several filetransfer protocols such as Zmodem, Ymodem, Xmodem, and Kermit.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
CHAPTER 6
Installing the Unix
Gopher Distribution
This chapter describes how to compile and install the Internet Gopher for Unix Distribution. The two main parts of this distribution are the Gopher Server, gopherd
and the Gopher client, gopher.
Overview
Internet Gopher for Unix is distributed as C source code. You will need to compile
this source code into binary executables for your system.
To use the gopher client or server you will need to compile the code using a C compiler. To make it generally available to the rest of the users on the system, you
should install the software into a central directory.
Requirements
You should have a copy of a compressed tar file containing the source. You should
consult “Getting the Software” on page 15 if you don’t have this file.
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Installing the Unix Gopher Distribution
You will need a Unix machine with a C compiler and development environment to
compile the software. The source code requires about one megabyte of disk space
when uncompressed. The source takes up about two megabytes of disk space when
compiled.
Your UNIX machine will need to be connected to a TCP-IP network for the software to function properly.
Some experience with Unix software installation is recommended. A knowledge of
C programming and Makefiles will be useful.
If you want to index files with your server you will need to get some additional
software. There are two file indexing kits supported by the Internet Gopher server,
NeXT indices and WAIS indices.
NeXT indexing comes bundled with the NeXTstep operating system. It is the basis
for many NeXT applications, including the Webster dictionary and the Digital
Bookshelf.
WAIS indexing is a freely available indexing kit for many Unix machines. It
includes an index generator called waisindex, a database server called waisserver,
and client programs for Xwindow, full-screen and command line searching. WAIS
is an acronym for Wide Area Information Server.
If you are compiling a server on a NeXT machine you will want to consult “NeXT
Indexing” on page 71 before continuing. Follow the instructions in “WAIS Indexing” on page 72 if you want to use WAIS indexing with your server. You may skip
these sections if you don’t want indexing or don’t want to bother with it just yet.
Compatibility
The Gopher source should compile on most UNIX systems. Here are a few that we
know it has worked on:
•
•
•
•
70
Suns running SunOS 4.1.x
RS/6000s running AIX 3.2
NeXTs running NeXTstep
SCO ODT systems
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
NeXT Indexing
• Apples running A/UX
• DECstations running Ultrix
• Silicon Graphics Iris’ running Irix
Don’t worry if your system isn’t listed above, the code has been written with compatibility in mind. Most systems should work just fine.
NeXT Indexing
For NeXT indexing you will need the file NeXTtext.tar.Z. Use anonymous ftp
to boombox.micro.umn.edu and get the file
/pub/gopher/Unix/NeXTtext.tar.Z
The files libbtree.a and libtext.a are in this compressed tar file, along with
the directories btree and text.
The files libbtree.a and libtext.a need to be installed in the directory
/usr/local/lib
The btree and text directories need to be installed in the directory
/usr/local/include.
Type the following commands as root to install the NeXT indexing libraries.
1. uncompress NeXTtext.tar.Z
2. tar xvf NeXTtext.tar.Z
3. mv libtext.a libbtree.a /usr/local/lib
4. ranlib /usr/local/lib/libbtree.a /usr/local/lib/libtext.a
5. cp -r text btree /usr/local/include
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Installing the Unix Gopher Distribution
WAIS Indexing
For WAIS indexing you will need to get the freely available WAIS software. There
are three different versions of WAIS software: the software from Thinking
Machines Inc., the modified software from Don Gilbert at the University of Indiana
and the freeWAIS software from the Coalition for Networked Inforamation Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR).
The Don Gilbert and freeWAIS versions supports boolean searches and phrase
matching. The Thinking Machines WAIS software does not support these features.
To retrieve the Thinking Machines Inc. version of WAIS, use anonymous ftp to the
host ftp.think.com and retrieve the file /wais/wais-8-b5.1.tar.Z
To retrieve Don Gilbert’s version of WAIS use anonymous ftp to the host
ftp.bio.indiana.edu and retrieve the file /util/iubio-wais-8b5.tar.Z
To retrieve the freeWAIS verion of WAIS use anonymous ftp to the host
ftp.cnidr.org and retrieve the file /pub/NIDR.tools/freeWAIS0.202.tar.Z
The source code to the WAIS system is in this compressed tar file. You should
extract the archive and compile the software. The installation instructions are in the
file INSTALLATION inside the wais doc directory.
Note that you do not need to make the Xwindow or emacs client. Many systems
will not compile these cleanly.
When you are finished you will have a bin directory that contains the programs:
waisindex, waisserver, and waissearch. These binaries allow you to create,
serve and search indices respectively.
The bin directory contains the libraries necessary for compiling the gopher server.
These are inv.a, libftw.a, client.a, and wais.a. The ui directory contains
one module necessary for the WAIS gateway, source.o.
Go to your Gopher source code directory and type the following commands to let
the Gopher code know you want to use WAIS. Substitute the WAIS source code
directory for waisdir in the following commands.
ln -s /waisdir/ir .
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Preparing to Compile the Distribution
ln -s /waisdir/bin .
ln -s /waisdir/ui .
Preparing to Compile the Distribution
There are some options you will want to check before compiling the Gopher server,
some of these options are for compatibility with various platforms, others are for
special features.
Two files control the compilation process: Makefile.config and conf.h. You
will find both of them in the top level of the Gopher source directory. Most sites
will not need to make major changes to these files, in fact you might just want to try
typing “make” and see if it works for you.
There are comments in these files that you will want to read before you compile.
The following tables document some of the more popular ones.
TABLE 7. Configuration
Parameters in Makefile.config
Parameter
Default
What it is
CC
cc
Your favorite C compiler
OPT
-O
Use -O for faster code, -g for debuigging
RANLIB
ranlib
Use touch if you don’t have the ranlib command.
PREFIX
/usr/local
The base directory where the software will be
installed. Many other parameters use this
value.
CLIENTDIR
$(PREFIX))/bin
Where the client “gopher” is installed.
CLIENTLIB
$(PREFIX)/lib
Where the help filesforthe client are installed.
SERVERDIR
$(PREFIX)/etc
Where the server files are installed.
SERVEROPTS
DOMAIN
Optional server features. See below.
.micro.umn.edu
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Set this to the portion of your hostname that
the “hostname” command doesn’t return.
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TABLE 7. Configuration
Parameters in Makefile.config
Parameter
Default
What it is
SERVERDATA
/home/gopher
The defauilt location of gohper data for the
gopher server.
SERVERPORT
70
The default port for the Gopher server.
TABLE 8. Configuration
Parameters in conf.h
Parameter
Default
What it does
CLIENT1_HOST
gopher.tc.umn.edu
The default host to connect to.
CLIENT2_HOST
gopher2.tc.umn.edu
The alternate host to connect to.
CLIENT1_PORT
70
The default port for the first host.
CLIENT2_PORT
70
The default port for the alternate
host.
PAGER_COMMAND
more -d %s
PLAY_COMMAND
Command used to display text.
Commaand used to play sounds.
MAIL_COMMAND
mail
Command used to mail files.
TELNET_COMMAND
telnet
Command used to connect to
other hosts using telnet protocol.
TN3270_COMMAND
tn3270
Command used to connect to IBM
mainframe hosts.
IMAGE_COMMAND
xloadimage -fork %s
Command used to view image
files.
Other Optional Features
Many people have submitted nifty options for the server, follow the instructions in
the appropriate section if you wish to implement these features.
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Special Modifications for Compatibility
Load Restriction
Add -DLOADRESTRICT to the SERVEROPTS variable in Makefile.config if you
want to restrict access to the Gopher server at a certain load average. You will also
need to add -lkvm to SERVERLIBS in Makefile.config.
This has only been tested underneath SunOS 4.1.1
Biological Databases
Add -DBIO to SERVEROPTS if you’re using the biology portion of Don Gilbert’s
modified wais8b5 that supports boolean and phrase searching. PLEASE NOTE: the
-DBIO option is NOT needed nor recommended for use of the boolean and phrase
searching portion of this modified wais, just the symbol searching. But, you must
compile wais and gopher with the same option setting (-DBIO or NOT). Otherwise
your server will core dump when doing searches.
DL Database Support
Add -DDL and define DLPATH and DLOBJS if you want to include support for Tim
Cook’s ’dl’ databases You will also have to have a working copy the program with
source code in the DLPATH directory. The files getdesc.o and enddesc.o must
be there.
Source for dl can be gotten from:
admin.viccol.edu.au
as
/pub/dl/describe-1.8.tar.Z or higher...
Special Modifications for Compatibility
The Gopher distribution tries to automatically make up for operating system dependencies, however sometimes you have to tweak things for certain operating systems. Follow the appropriate steps if your system is listed below:
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Installing the Unix Gopher Distribution
UMAX Systems
Uncomment the line that contains UMAXLIBS in Makefile.config
Dynix PTX Systems
Uncomment the line that contains PTXLIBS in Makefile.config.
Dynix systems in the BSD universe
Uncomment the line that contains SEQLIBS in Makefile.config.
SCO Open Desktop Systems
Uncomment out the line that contains SCOLIBS in Makefile.config.
System VR4 Systems
Uncomment out the line that contains SVR4LIBS in Makefile.config.
DEC Ultrix Systems
Change the line that contains -lcurses to have -lcursesX instead.
Other Systems
There is a line in the file Makefile.config for compatibility definitions. Look for the
line with COMPAT= at the beginning. If you have problems linking due to unresolved symbols you’ll want to edit this line. Consult the following table for the
appropriate definitions you should add if you have problems.
TABLE 9. Compatibility
76
Definitions
Unknown symbol
What you should add to COMPAT=
strstr
-DNOSTRSTR
tempnam
-DNO_TEMPNAM
strdup
-DNO_STRDUP
bzero or bcopy
-DNO_BZERO
getwd
-DNO_GETWD
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Compiling and Installing the Distribution
TABLE 9. Compatibility
Definitions
Unknown symbol
What you should add to COMPAT=
tzset
-DNO_TZSET
strcasecmp
-DNO_STRCASECMP
You should then type make clean and restart the compilation process.
Compiling and Installing the Distribution
You should now be ready to compile the distribution.
If you want to make just the client type
make client
If you want to make just the server type
make server
If you want to make everything just type
make
If you want to install everything in the directories specified in Makefile.config type:
make install
If you want to install just the client type:
(cd gopher; make install)
If you want to install just the server type:
(cd gopherd; make install)
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Installing the Unix Gopher Distribution
Testing
To test the software go to the test directory and type make. You can compare the
results of your run with the files in the good-results directory.
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CHAPTER 7
Configuring the Unix
Server
This chapter will show you how to configure and run the UNIX gopherd server.
Overview
The UNIX Gopher server allows you to publish documents using the Gopher+ protocol. It has many features.
Requirements
You should have a working copy of gopherd installed. If you don’t refer to “Installing the Unix Gopher Distribution” on page 69 for more information about compiling and installing the software. You will need a Unix machine with a TCP-IP
network connection to use the Unix Gopher Server. You will also most-likely need
to have a connection to a machine that is running a Domain Name Server (DNS).
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What is gopherd?
The gopherd server is a program that accepts requests from gopher clients and
“serves” the information to them. It uses a number of methods to supply this information. Most of this information comes from a portion of a file system called the
gopher-data directory.
Gopherd can also “gateway” to other network services such as ftp and WAIS. The
gopher clients do not need to understand these protocols, the gopher server does the
necessary translations
First Steps
The first thing you will want to do is create your “gopher-data” directory. This
directory will contain all of the information that gopher clients will see. In all the
examples below the term gopher-data will refer to this directory. Whenever you see
this reference fill in your local gopher data directory.
So, let’s create this directory. Make sure there’s sufficent space on the filesystem
and use the mkdir command to create the directory. You will probably have to do
this as root. Here is an example of creating the gopher-data directory:
mudhoney# mkdir /home/mudhoney/gopher-data
Now we can add data for the clients to this directory.
Adding Information to the Server
The gopher server gets its information from the files and directories in gopher-data.
By making changes in this directory tree, you will change what the gopher clients
see. The following list summarizes the defailt translations that
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Adding Information to the Server
Default Translations1
• Directories inside of gopher-data are served as Gopher Directories.
• Text files are represented as Gopher Text/plain items.
• µlaw sound files (as used by Sun and NeXT workstations) are represented as
Gopher audio/basic files.
• GIF files are represented as Gopher image/gif (I) files.
• All files/directories that start with a dot (i.e. .foo) or are named etc, usr, bin,
•
•
•
•
•
•
dev, or core are ignored by the server.
The title of each object presented to the client is the filename of the file/directory.
Files compressed with “compress” and files compressed with GNU zip (gzip)
files are supported. They will be sent to the client uncompressed. The filename
will not contain the .Z or .gz extension.
Mail spool files are represented as directories. When the mail-spool file is
viewed, each mail message is represented as a Gopher Text item. The title of the
item is gotten from the Subject: line of the mail message.
Executable shell scripts are represented as a Gopher Text item. The output of the
script is sent when the client requests to view the item. The shell script must
start with the magic three characters #!/
Files that end with .src are assumed to be WAIS database files generated by the
waisindex program. The server will make these into searchable WAIS gateway
items.
The server sorts directories it sends out alphabetically. The server does distinguish between upper and lower case when sorting.
Links to Other Servers
You can add data to your server by creating what are known as Links in the gopherdata directory tree. Links allow you to connect Gopher servers together.
The ability to make links to other hosts is how Gopher distributes itself among multiple hosts. To make a link create a file starting with a period that contains the data
needed by the server. By default all files in the gopher data directory starting with a
period are taken to be link files. A link file can contain multiple links, just separate
1. The defaults mentioned in this section apply to the default gopherd.conf file that comes
with the gopher server. If you change this file then the default behavior will be different.
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the different links with a blank line or a comment. To define a link you need to put
five lines in a link file that define the needed characteristics for the document. Here
is an example of a link.
Numb=1
Name=National Weather Service Forecasts
Type=1
Port=70
Path=1/Weather
Host=ashpool.micro.umn.edu
The Name= line is what the user will see when cruising through GopherSpace. In
this case the name is “National Weather Service Forecasts”.
The “Type=” defines what kind of document this object is. The following is a list of
the more common types.
0 -- Text File
1 -- Directory
2 -- CSO name server
4 -- Mac HQX file.
7 -- Full Text Index
8 -- Telnet Session
9 -- Binary File
s -- Sound
I -- Image
The “Path=” line contains the selector string that the client will use to retrieve the
actual document. The “Numb=” line specifies that this entry should be presented
first in the directory list (instead of being alphabetized). The “Numb=” line is
optional.
The “Port=” and “Host=” lines specify a fully qualified domain name (such as mudhoney.micro.umn.edu) and a port respectively. You may substitute a plus ’+’ for
these two parameters if you wish. The server will insert the current hostname and
the current port when it sees a plus in either of these two fields.
An easy way to retrieve links is to use the Curses Gopher Client. By pressing ’=’
You can get information suitable for inclusion in a Link file.
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Customizing Your Server
A Simple Example of Adding Information
Okay, let’s add some information to the gopher server. The following commands
will add the Gopher directories “News”, “Fun and Games” and “Recipes” to our
server.
mudhoney#
mudhoney#
mudhoney#
mudhoney#
cd gopher-data
mkdir News
mkdir “Fun and Games”
mkdir “Recipes”
Now that the directory structure is created we can add some text files. Let’s say that
we have a file called “about” that describes the server and two recipes for clam
chowder in two files called “chowder1” and “chowder2.” Also assume that these
files are in the directory /tmp. These steps will put the files in their proper place.
mudhoney#
mudhoney#
mudhoney#
mudhoney#
cd
cp
cp
cp
gopher-data
/tmp/about “About This Server”
/tmp/chowder1 “Recipes/Yummy Clam Chowder”
/tmp/chowder2 “Recipes/Icky Clam Chowder”
Let’s now add a link to another server. The weather forecasts link in the previous
section is a real, live link. Put the link information into a file in the gopher-data
directory. Your server will now have the following entries in the top-level:
National Weather Service Forecasts
About This Server
Fun and Games
News
Recipes
Additonally you will have the following files in the Recipes directory
Yummy Clam Chowder
Icky Clam Chowder
Customizing Your Server
The gopher server allows you to customize the various aspects of the server. You
can set the default administrator, how long to cache items, and what filename extensions become which gopher type.
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Configuring the Unix Server
There are two types of files that control these interactions. Files that begin with a
dot in the gopher-data directory and gopherd.conf files.
Ignoring Certain Files
You can specify that a class of files are to be ignored by modifying the gopherd.conf
file. Say you wanted to ignore all files named moo on your server. To have the
server ignore them (and never show them to the client) add the following line to the
gopherd.conf file.
ignore: moo
If the files you want ignored can be specified by a regular expression you can use
the ignore_patt: keyword in your gopherd.conf file. Say you want to ignore all files
starting with A and ending with foo. To ignore these files put the following line in
your gopherd.conf file:
ignore_patt: A.*foo
You’ll need a knowledge of regular expressions to get this to work properly. Consult the manual page for ed for more information about regular expressions.
Setting the Hostname
The Gopher server tries to find the default hostname. Some systems use a hostname
alias (also called a CNAME) to ease moving the server between different machines.
By modifying the gopherd.conf file you can change the hostname that the client
sees:
hostalias: gopher.umn.edu
Starting the Gopher Server
Now that we have some data to serve to clients we can start the gopher server.
There are two separate ways to start the gopherd program. The first method starts
the gopher server at boot time, the other starts the server as it is needed via the inetd
superserver.
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Starting the Gopher Server
Continuous Servers
Continuous servers are started at boot time. You will need to add an entry to the
boot sequence of your unix machine to insure that the server is available at all
times. Typically this entry will be put into the file /etc/rc.local (for BSDish
systems) or /etc/inittab (for System V systems).
Here is a typical entry in the rc.local file:
if [ -f /home/mudhoney/gopher-data ]; then
/usr/local/etc/gopherd -u nobody \
-l /home/mudhoney/GopherLog70 \
gopher-data 70
fi
The parameters to the gopherd program are described later in the chapter.
Here is a typical entry in the inittab file:
loc0:2:once:/etc/start-gopher-server
Put what would normally go into the rc.local file into the file /etc/startgopher-server.
Reboot the system and the gopher server will run.
As Needed Servers
If your system supports the inetd program then you can run the server using it
instead of continuously. The main advantage is that the gopher server is only started
when a connection is made by a gopher client, instead of running all the time.
To use gopher in this manner you must modify two files: /etc/services and /
etc/inetd.conf
Add the following line to the /etc/services file:
gopher 70/tcp
If you are running on a machine that runs NIS/YP you will need to remake your
database. Other systems may require you to do something similar, consult the “services” manual page on your system.
Next, you will add an entry to the /etc/inetd.conf file similar to the one below.
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gopher stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/local/etc/gopherd gopherd
Add any options to the end of the line if you want. However be aware that some
systems only support a limited number of arguments. (Suns running 4.1.x only support five for instance.)
To start the gopher server you should either reboot, or send a HUP signal to the process id of the inetd process. If the process number was 12356 then you would do the
following:
kill -HUP 12356
Testing
Once you have the server running you can test it by using the telnet program to connect to the gopher port. Here is an example of testing the server:
mudhoney% telnet mudhoney 70
Trying 134.84.132.7 ...
Connected to mudhoney.micro.umn.edu.
Escape character is ’^]’.
{Press RETURN}
.... Gopher output here....
If you don’t see an error message you’re ready to use your gopher server.
Optional Features for the Gopher Server
In addition to the simple functionality provided above, the gopher server does many
other things, such as logging, security, etc. You can control these features of the
server two ways: by editing the file gopherd.conf or by using command line
options.
The gopherd.conf File
Most of the optional paramters for the gopher server can be set by editing the file
gopherd.conf. The gopherd.conf file contains a list of directives that alter the behavior of the gopher server. It is composed of lines of the form:
Parameter: Value
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Optional Features for the Gopher Server
Parameters are case insensitive. A pound sign (#) at the beginning of a line denotes
a comment.
TABLE 10. gopherd.conf
parameters
Parameter
Example
Description
hostalias:
gopher.turnip.com
The hostname that is returned by the
server. This is useful when the gopher
server has an associated CNAME alias in
the DNS system.
Admin:
Greg Brady
The name of the administrator of the
server. It may contain a name, phone
number etc.
AdminEmail
[email protected]
An email address where the administrator
can be reached.
Site:
Turnip Labs
The name of the site running the server
Loc:
New York, NY, USA
The physical location of the site. Put the
City, State/province and country in here.
Geog:
44 58 48 N 93 15 49 W
The lattitude and longitude of the server.
Language:
En_US
The ANSI language of the site, as used by
setlocale(). See below.
viewext:
.gif I 9/ image/gif
Maps a filename extenstion onto a particular gopher type. See below for more
information about viewext.
ignore:
core
Specifies a filename extension to ignore
completely. Files matching the ignore criteria are never presented to the gopher
client. However, ignoring files doesn’t
protect them from prying eyes.
Blockext:
.abstract ABSTRACT
Specifies that a file with a particular
extension is to be mapped to a specific
gopher+ attribute block.
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TABLE 10. gopherd.conf
parameters
Parameter
Example
Description
Bummermsg:
Hasta la vista baby
Specifies a message that will be presented
to a client when access is denied.
Access:
.edu browse,!read
Allows you to set who can browse directories, read files, and search your server.
See the section on limiting access later in
this chapter for more information about
this.
Command Line Options
Some options cannot be set using the gopherd.conf file. These options can be set by
adding paramters to the command line of the gopherd program. Here is a quick
guide to the various options:
gopherd [-DCIc] [-o options] [-L load] [-l logfile] [-u
user] gopher-data gopher-port
The following table summarizes the various command line options.
TABLE 11. Command
88
Line Options for gopherd
Option
Description
-D
Enable copious debugging output
-L load
Restrict connections when the load average is above load. Your
server must be compiled with the LOADRESTRICT option for
this to work.
-C
Disables caching of directory retrievals. Otherwise a directory
retrieval is cached in the file .cache.
-l logfile
For each connection the server will log the time, host and transaction to the file logfile.
-I
Specify when running the server from inetd.
-o options
Specify an alternative “gopherd.conf” file instead of the default.
-c
Do not use the system call chroot(2) before processing connections. This relies on code that (tries to) ensures that files outside the
gopher-data directory cannot be retrieved. Use with care and with
the -u option.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Optional Features for the Gopher Server
TABLE 11. Command
Line Options for gopherd
Option
Description
-u user
Run as the user named user. The server is run with reduced permissions (i.e. other than root) which can ensure that only publically
readable file are available from the server.
gopher-data
The directory where the Gopher information resides
gopher-port
The port number (usually 70) that the server runs at.
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CHAPTER 8
Macintosh Gopher
Server
This chapter details setting up a server on a Macintosh Computer to publish information using the Gopher+ protocol. This chapter describes version 1.0.b4 or the
Gopher Surfer Software.
Overview
The Gopher Surfer application lets your Macintosh function as a Gopher server.
This implementation of the server is a full implementation of the Gopher+ Protocol.
Requirements
You will need the Gopher Surfer Software, available via anonymous ftp from
boombox.micro.umn.edu.
To run this software you need to have MacTCP installed on your Macintosh. You
will have to configure MacTCP so that your Mac has a static IP address; you will
also need to register a name for your Macintosh with your local domain name system.
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Macintosh Gopher Server
You will also need to install the Thread Manager in your System Folder. it ends up
in the Extensions folder. Then, restart your machine. GOPHER SURFER WILL
NOT WORK UNLESS THE THREAD MANAGER IS INSTALLED AND LOADED.
Note that the server requires System 7.
Setting up the Server
Follow these steps to set up a Gopher+ Server using Gopher Surfer:
• Double-click on the icon for the Gopher Surfer application. A window will be
•
•
•
•
•
displayed.
Type over the stuff that is in the text field boxes with information that is pertinent to your Gopher+ Server. Characters may extend beyond the end of the box
that delineates the text field. Select the options that you wish to have for your
server (options explained below).
Click on the Publish Directory button and select the folder that contains the files
for your Gopher+ Server. Click on the button directly below the file/folder list
that says “Select folder-name.” Note: if the entire name of the folder is too long
to display on the button, the first and last part of the name will be displayed.
Organize and modify files that will appear on your server. (See the next section,
SETTING UP INFORMATION.)
Click in the box next to “Run Gopher Server.”
Save your changes and name your Gopher+ Server. Your Macintosh is now a
Gopher server!
Basic Configuration
The Gopher Surfer window has the following controls:
• Hostname: The domain name of the computer you are using for your server,
which you should have already registered with your network administrator. The
name must be a full domain name, such as boombox.micro.umn.edu
• Host Port: The port that is specified for the Gopher process. The default is port
70.
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Basic Configuration
FIGURE 1.
Gopher Surfer Control Window
• Publish Directory Button: Click on this button to designate the folder that will
•
•
•
•
•
contain the files and folders to be published on your Gopher+ Server.
Run Gopher Server: Click in this box to start up your Gopher+ Server. If this
box is not checked, the Gopher+ Server will not run.
Save Log Button: Click on this button to set up a file that will list all of the traffic on your Gopher+ Server.
Log by host name: When this box is checked, the connecting client computer is
identified by its name. Otherwise, clients are identified by their IP addresses.
NOTE: It is much faster NOT to identify by name.
Language: The default language of text items that are available on your server.
This is a pop-up menu. If the language you wish is not in the list, please send an
e-mail to [email protected] and the development team will see
what it can do.
ISO Latin-1 characters: When this box is checked, the special characters on the
Mac that are used to indicate accents are translated into ISO Latin-1. Otherwise,
these special characters might appear as garbage when viewed by someone with
a Gopher Client that runs on another kind of computer. NOTE: If you are using
an Asian character set in your text files, do not check this option.
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Macintosh Gopher Server
• Administrator: The person or group who is responsible for the server. You may
•
•
•
•
also include the department or institution that is maintaining the server and a
telephone number.
Organization: The organization that is maintaining the server.
Site: The street address of the organization.
Location: The city, state or providence, zip or postal code, and country where
the server is located.
Latitude/Longitude (optional): This information will be used in a future
Gopher+ Server feature, which will display where the server is located on a map
of the world.
In the same window is a scrolling field which shows connections as they happen.
Each connection is numbered consecutively.
Ok, lets start with the basic file types supported and recognized automatically.
• Images (Which are of type ‘g’ or type ‘I’.) GIFf JPEG JFIF PICT
• Sounds (Which are of type ‘s’) ULAW
• Video (Which are of type ‘;’) MooV - Quicktime movies. MPEG - MPEG movies.
Keep in mind however that if a file has a resource fork then it will be advertised as
a Binhex type. A good example are some of the video samples. If they are of the
special platform independent quicktime format they show as movies, with the film
icon in TurboGopher. If they have a resource fork making them Macintosh only
files, they will appear as BinHex items and that is how the server will send them.
MPEG videos have no resource fork and show as film icons always.
As the server looks in a directory preparing to send the listing to a client this is what
it does.
Standard Files
6.
7.
94
It checks the base type of a file and determines how it should be advertised to a
gopher client.
It then checks to see if there exists an alias file. One which has the same name
with an ‘4’ (option-8 character) appended. If so it checks there to read in possibly a different host, port, gopher type or possibly a location to save the results of
an ASK response.
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Basic Configuration
8.
The proper information line is then constructed and sent out.
Server Assumption #1
If the file type is ‘TEXT’ or ‘GIFf’ or ‘JPEG’ or ‘JFIF’ or ‘PICT’ or ‘ULAW’ then
server advertises it as the corresponding gopher type
else if it is ‘MPEG’ in the special platform independent format it is a gopher movie
type
else if it is ‘MooV’ in the special platform independent format it is a gopher movie
type
else if it is ‘MooV’ but has a resource fork then we have to advertise it as a binhex
type.
else we have to advertise it as a binhex type.
Forms/ASK Documents
In the case of the ASK document the gopher type read in from the alias signals to
the server to advertise it differently. By adding a ‘?’ as the plus flag. Thus when the
client requests an ASK item it treats the file differently. It starts by sending some
header information.
Then it reads the text from the ‘TEXT’ file that goes with the alias file and sends it
to the client.
For instance a sample ASK file might contain the following:
Note: This is testing the mac Gopher+ server.
Note:
Ask: Your Name
Choose: IQ:GeniusAverageSub-human
Note: Please write your life story AskL:
On the client side this appears as an electronic form with one line of instructions.
One blank line for them enter their name. A group of radio buttons for them to
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Macintosh Gopher Server
choose how they rate their Intelligence Quotient and a box for them to write up to
32,000 characters describing their life achievements.
Standard Directories
Folders are advertised as a directory with possibly an alias to allow a longer than 32
character macintosh filename.
Alternate View Directories
Server Assumption #2
All directory names that end with ‘W’ (option-shift-v) denote a directory that is for
alternate views and requires special handling.
Server Assumption #3
If the directory name is ‘GlassW’ then in the ‘GlassW’ directory is a file named
‘Glass’ that is the default view and is one of the above described base gopher
views. This default view is what the server advertises for this folder. The client
doesn’t know or care that there is a folder containing multiple views of a single
item.
Server Assumption #4
All files/views besides ‘Glass’ have as their name their MIME/Gopher+ type. So in
the ‘GlassW’ folder we have the file named ‘Glass’ which is a file of type ‘GIFf’
which is advertised as a gopher type ‘g’ for gif files. Alternate view files might be
named as:
Image/JPEG
Image/PICT
What if the views were all for textual information? Then for an alternate view
folder called ‘Mac Computers 22 July 93W’ we might have a base view called
‘Mac Computers 22 July 93’ which is a simple ‘TEXT’ file. The alternate views
might be files called:
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Alternate View Directories
application/MSWord -- An actual MSWord file
application/rtf -- An MSWord rtf file
Server Assumption #5
If an alternate view file has any one of the following 5 character strings at the end
of their name it is used to override the default language specified in the server setup
document.
If I wished to specify a language for these or text based files I would add ‘Jp_JP’ to
specify that it is a file in Japanese Language. The default language I specify overall
for the server applies to all files unless the last 5 characters of their name is one of
the following:
“Da_DK” “Danish/Denmark”
“Nl_BE” “Dutch/Belgium”
“Nl_NL” “Dutch/Netherlands”
“En_GB” “English/United Kingdom”
“En_US” “English/United States”
“Fi_FI” “Finnish/Finland”
“Fr_BE” “French/Belgium”
“Fr_CA” “French/Canada”
“Fr_CH” “French/Switzerland”
“Fr_FR” “French/France”
“De_CH” “German/Switzerland”
“De_DE” “German/Germany”
“El_GR” “Greek/Greece”
“Is_IS” “Icelandic/Iceland”
“It_IT” “Italian/Italy”
“Jp_JP” “Japanese/Japan”
“No_NO” “Norwegian/Norway”
“Pt_PT” “Portuguese/Portugal”
“Es_ES” “Spanish/Spain”
“Sv_SE” “Swedish/Sweden”
“Tr_TR” “Turkish/Turkey”
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Macintosh Gopher Server
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
CHAPTER 9
Go4gw - The Gopher
Gateway
Go4gw is a program that provides gateways to many popular internet services, such
as USENET news, whois, and archie. The following chapter describes go4gw and
how to install and manage it.
Overview
There is quite a bit of information that could be in gopher, but isn’t. The use of a
Gopher Gateway makes it possible to include this information inside of Gopherspace.
Go4gw is designed to channel these other forms of information into a format suitable for gopher. It is written in perl and allows easy extensibility, a number of prewritten gateways and easy administration.
Gateways to the following services are provided with go4gw1.01
• Archie - a database of files available for anonymous ftp.
• Finger - a service that provides information about people logged in to UNIX or
VMS hosts.
• Geo - the geographic name server at the University of Michigan.
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Go4gw - The Gopher Gateway
• NNTP - the USENET news transport protocol.
• Webster - the Webster dictionary service available on some NeXT machines.
• Whois - services that provide information about users and organizations.
Requirements
You will need a UNIX machine on a network with a working version of perl. The
source code for Perl can be gotten from various FTP sites on the Internet. The
canonical location of perl is the anonymous ftp site prep.ai.mit.edu, as
perl-4.036.tar.z
You will, of course, need the go4gw software distribution. See “Getting the Internet Gopher Software” on page 15 if you don’t have the go4gw software.
Installation
Copy all of the perl scripts that comprise go4gw into a common directory, in our
examples we’ll use /usr/local/etc/go4gw as our directory.
You need to put the following line in /etc/services:
go4gw 4320/tcp
And the following line in /etc/inetd.conf (depending on your system type):
go4gw stream tcp nowait /usr/local/etc/go4gw go4gw
The go4gw script has a few variables you might want to change:
$Gconf_file = “/usr/local/etc/go4gw.conf”;
$Gport=4320;
$Ghost=”Slapshot.Stanford.EDU”;
You need to set Gport to the same port as in /etc/services, and Ghost to your
fully qualified host name.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Writing New go4gw Gateways
Why aren’t these two auto-magically figured out? Mainly for speed, but also
because some ‘hostname‘ commands don’t have the domain, some do, etc. Its easier just to define them here. Since all the other gateways are run in the context of
this perl script, the gateways don’t need any of this stuff in them.
Gconf_file should be set to the location of your go4gw.conf file. The format of
this file is:
#
# format
# gateway : user : module : gopher title :
whois:-2:/usr/local/etc/g2whois:Whois:
nntp:-2:/usr/local/etc/g2nntp:USENET News:
webster:-2:/usr/local/etc/g2webster:Webster:
Where gateway is the name of the gateway, user is either a numeric uid or name,
module is the name of the perl script that go4gw will dynamically load, and title is
the title that will show up in the gopher menu if go4gw is sent the empty string “”.
If the gateway doesn’t take an empty string, the title should be “” and it won’t show
up in the menu. By writing all your gateways so they take a “” command, you can
point a link at the go4gw daemon with path set to “” and get a menu of all your
gateways. The menu order will be the same order as the go4gw.conf file.
Writing New go4gw Gateways
go4gw gateways need to a follow a few simple conventions:
You need to have a routine called “${gateway}_main”, where gateway is the name
of your gateway. For example, if your gateway is called whois, then you need:
whois_main {
local($_) = @_;
...
}
In your module, for example /usr/local/etc/g2whois.
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Go4gw - The Gopher Gateway
Your *_main will be passed the string sent to go4gw WITHOUT your gateway
prefix. For example, if someone sends the following string to go4gw:
nntp ls su.jobs
Then go4gw will call &nntp_main(“ls su.jobs”), after loading g2nntp.
You should define any variables that users might have to change at the front of your
script, and prefix them with your gateway name.
When your gateway has to return selector string, hostname, and port, it should use
the following variables:
$Ggw -> name of this gateway
$Gport -> port this gateway is running on
$Ghost -> host this gateway is running on
For example, nntp might do the following:
&Greply(“0$Subject\t$Ggw article $group $article\t$Ghost\t$Gport”);
So when the user selects this the client will send:
nntp article su.jobs 104
Back to the go4gw daemon, which will figure out that “article su.jobs 104” needs to
get passed to g2nntp.
The following variables and routines are defined in go4gw, and can be used by
gateways:
TABLE 12. Go4gw
102
variables and routines
Variable/Routine
Function
$GnotServer
You can define this in perl scripts that want to
include the go4gw script without running the
server. See the g2nntp_groups script.
$Ggw
Can be used by gateway routines to determine
their gateway name.
$Gport
Can be used by gateway routines to determine
which port go4gw is running on.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Writing New go4gw Gateways
TABLE 12. Go4gw
variables and routines
Variable/Routine
Function
$Ghost
Can be used by gateway routines to determine which
host go4gw is running on.
GSERVER
File handle which is opened when GopenServer
is called.
&Grepry(reply)
Sends string back to gopher client with \r\n on
the end.
&Gabort(message)
Sends error message back to gopher client with
“3mess\r\n.\r\n” on end.
&GopenServer(server,port)
Opens TCP port on server or calls &Gabort().
&GcloseServer
Closes server opened by &GopenServer()
$Gdebug
Controls debug messages in &Gsend() and &Grecv()
$Gport
Can be used by gateway routines to determine
which port go4gw is running on.
&Gsend(cmd)
Sends “cmd\r\n” to GSERVER.
$_ = &Grecv;
Gets a response from GSERVER and strips \r and \n
&Gsorry
Sends a message about data that cannot be delivered
due to restrictions.
Other “standard” routines and variables may be added. They will start with a ‘G’.
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Go4gw - The Gopher Gateway
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CHAPTER 10
Common Questions
This chapter contains some of the more common questions that we’ve had the pleasure to answer, and answer, and answer.
Overview
The most recent version of these “Common Questions can be gotten through
gopher, or through anonymous ftp to the host:
rtfm.mit.edu
as
/pub/usenet/news.answers/gopher-faq
Those without FTP access should send e-mail to [email protected] with
“send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources” in the body to find out how to do FTP
by e-mail.
.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
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Common Questions
Where are there publicly available logins for Gopher?
Here is a short list, use the site closest to you to minimize network lag.
TABLE 13. Public
Gopher Sites
Hostname
IP#
login as
area
consultant.micro.umn.edu
134.84.132.4
gopher
North America
panda.uiowa.edu
128.255.40.201
panda
North America
gopher.sunet.se
192.36.125.2
gopher
Europe
info.anu.edu.au
150.203.84.20
info
Australia
gopher.chalmers.se
129.16.221.40
gopher
Sweden
tolten.puc.cl
146.155.1.16
gopher
South America
ecnet.ec
157.100.45.2
gopher
Ecuador
gopher.msu.edu
35.8.2.61
gopher
North America
gan.ncc.go.jp
160.190.10.1
gopher
Japan
We recommend running your own local gopher client though. The response time
will be much faster, and you’ll be able to save and print files.
How can I get my server published in the “Other Gophers” list?
When you have your server ready you can publish it to the world by sending e-mail
to the maintainters of the “Other Gophers” list:
If your gopher server is in Europe, send mail to: [email protected]
Otherwise send mail to:
[email protected]
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Overview
How can I set up a “CSO” phone book server? Where is the software?
CSO phone book servers are also known as “qi” servers. The software implementation can be gotten via anonymous ftp from
uxc.cso.uiuc.edu (128.174.5.50)
as
/pub/qi.tar.Z
You may also see this referred to as “ph”, which is what most of the clients are
called. A collected set of clients for Macs, PCs, VMS, VM, etc, are in the
/pub/ph.tar.Z file.
There is also an archive of the mailing list for qi/ph software on the same machine.
It’s in /pub/info-ph.archive. You may join the list by sending email to [email protected]
This software is supported by Paul Pomes <[email protected]> Contact him for
more information.
Why can’t I access the University of Minnesota’s UPI news?
The University of Minnesota has a site license for UPI news, we are not allowed to
distribute it off of our campus. We get our UPI news from Clarinet. For more information about getting UPI news send mail to [email protected] For information
about setting up your own gopher-UPI server search the gopher-news archive for
UPI.
When I do full-text searches I always get every document back, Why?
This is a problem occasionally encountered with Unix full-text indexes. It is caused
by setting up the link incorrectly to a gindexd port.
The Path= field should be blank when pointing to a gindexd index.
Otherwise the client will send the path to the gindexd daemon, which interprets
everything as a keyword. This path is likely to contain a pathname that is common
to all of the indexed files. Thus a search generates hits on everything.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
107
Common Questions
When I try to build the UNIX software I get an error from make:
“Must be a separator on rules line #. Stop” Why?
This is a problem with older makes that don’t understand the “include” keyword.
One easy way to cope with this problem is compiling GNU make, which does
understand the include keyword.
If this is too difficult, remove the line:
include Makefile.config
from all the Makefiles and paste in a copy of Makefile.config at the top of each
Makefile.
Or, instead of pasting you can make the client/server by going into the appropriate
directory and typing:
make -f ../Makefile.config -f Makefile
Are papers or articles describing Gopher available?
Gopher has a whole chapter devoted to it in :
The Whole_Internet Users Guide and Catalog by Ed Krol (publisher O’Reilley &
Associates, Inc; ISBN: 1-56592-025-2). (Editors note: ...Great book, go out and
buy a bunch!)
The Internet Passport: NorthWestNet’s Guide to Our World Online” By Jonathan
Kochmer and NorthWestNet. Published by NorthWestNet, Bellevue, WA. 1993.
516 pp. ISBN 0-9635281-0-6. Contact info: [email protected], or (206) 5623000
A Students Guide to UNIX by Harley Hahn. (publisher McGraw Hill, Inc.; 1993
ISBN 0-07-025511-3)
Other references include:
The Internet Gopher, “ConneXions”, July 1992, Interop.
Exploring Internet GopherSpace “The Internet Society News”, v1n2 1992,
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Overview
(You can subscribe to the Internet Society News by sending e-mail to [email protected])
The Internet Gopher Protocol, Proceedings of the Twenty-Third IETF, CNRI, Section 5.3
Internet Gopher, Proceedings of Canadian Networking ‘92
The Internet Gopher, INTERNET: Getting Started, SRI International, Section
10.5.5
Tools help Internet users discover on-line treasures, Computerworld, July 20, 1992
TCP/IP Network Administration, O’Reilly.
Balakrishan, B. (Oct 1992) “SPIGopher: Making SPIRES databases accessible
through the Gopher protocol”. SPIRES Fall ‘92 Workshop, Chapel Hill, North
Carolina.
Tomer, C. Information Technology Standards for Libraries, _Journal of the American Society for Information Science_, 43(8):566-570, Sept 1992.
On a DECstation I get the error message “/etc/svc.conf no such file or
directory” when running the gopherd server, why?
A14: This is caused by the chroot() call in gopherd. It can be easily fixed by running gopherd with the -c option.
Alternatively you can copy /etc/svc.conf into a directory named “etc” inside the
gopher-data directory.
The boolean searching terms don’t work for my full-text index, why?
This is probably because the searching is being provided by WAIS. WAIS opts to
return all documents that contain a search phrase within certain limits. WAIS
searches do return the documents with the highest “score” at the top, those documents will have the closest relevance.
Alternatively you could get a booleanized version of wais from ftp.bio.indiana.edu.
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
109
Common Questions
When linking the Unix gopher server with WAIS I get undefined
symbols, such as:
log_file_name logfile PrintStatus find_value Sources NumSources
This happens if you make gopherd before linking in the WAIS ir/ui directories. The
fix is to “make clean” or remove gopherd/{waisgopher.o,Waisindex.o}and then
remake gopherd. Or link the ir/ui directories first.
Why don’t my WAIS indexes work? I never get anything back for
searches. or Why do I get “Dangling file” error messages in my logfile?
The problem could be in the server. The server should be run using the -c option if
you want WAIS to work. Another solution is to patch the WAIS code so that it
doesn’t check the files on the disk. Search the gopher-news archive for “dangling”.
This will turn up a single document with the patch.
My gopher server doesn’t work under inetd, why?
It could be that your inetd server only supports a limited amount of arguments. For
instance, the maximum number of arguments to an inetd server is 5. You can get
around this by combining arguments: i.e.
gopherd -I -c
becomes:
gopherd -Ic
You may also leave the port specifier off of the command line. The gopher server
automagically finds out the port it’s running on.
Help! I have PC-NFS and want to use the PC-Gopher client. How?
Use a piece of software called PKTMUX, available at fine ftp sites everywhere.
This will let you use any packet driver application.
Or, aquire a client that supports PC-NFS.
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Overview
Is there somewhere I can retrieve a list of announced gopher links? I’d
like to keep a local, up-to-date list of available gopher holes without
requiring our users to gopher to umn just to scan GopherSpace.
In the Unix client/server distribution is a perl script called “gopherdist”. Gopherdist
can fetch the contents of any point in GopherSpace.
To dump the contents of all the North American links from gopher.tc.umn.edu do
the following:
% gopherdist gopher.tc.umn.edu 70 “1/Other Gopher and Information Servers/
North America” > .Links
Why doesn’t my unix gopher client display ISO-Latin-1 characters
properly?
It is the client’s problem, the server is perfectly 8-bit transparent. The BSD curses
library uses bit 8 in order to remember, whether a character has been displayed
reverse. So use just /usr/5bin/cc and you get the System V curses version which is 8
bit clean.
Note that this may be a problem under other versions of UNIX too...
What is veronica?
veronica: Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives.
veronica offers a keyword search of most gopher-server menu titles in the entire
gopher web. As archie is to ftp archives, veronica is to gopherspace. A veronica
search produces a menu of gopher items, each of which is a direct pointer to a
gopher data source. Because veronica is accessed through a gopher client, it is easy
to use, and gives access to all types of data supported by the gopher protocol.
To try veronica, select it from the “Other Gophers” menu on Minnesota’s gopher
server, or point your gopher at:
Name=veronica (search menu items in most of GopherSpace)
Type=1
Port=70
Internet Gopher User’s Guide
111
Common Questions
Path=1/veronica
Host=futique.scs.unr.edu
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Internet Gopher User’s Guide
Symbols
/B Switch 45
/etc/inetd.conf 85
/etc/inittab 85
/etc/rc.local 85
/etc/services 85
/etc/svc.conf 109
/NOSWAP 46
/R Switch 45
/SHUTUP 46
“q 107
Numerics
3270 39
3Com 3c523 35
A
AdmitOne 25
Alternate Views 23
anonymous ftp 71
Another Gopher 28
B
Banyan Vines 34
Binary Files 54
BMKCVT 36
Bookmarks 26
boombox.micro.umn.edu 18, 34
BOOTP 40
C
Cancel All Requests 27
Clarkson 33, 34, 35
Compactor 22
compress 81
consultant.micro.umn.edu 106
CptExpand 22
Crynwr 33
CSO 82, 107
D
Dangling file 110
Digital Bookshelf 70
DNS 79
DOS 33
DownLine 25
E
ecnet 106
ecnet.ec 106
F
Finder 23
FTP 36, 105
ftp 80
ftp.bio.indiana.edu 72
ftp.think.com 72
G
Gateways 42
Get Attribute 25
GIF 23, 54
Gilbert, Don 72, 75
gindexd 107
gopher.chalmers.se 106
gopher.sunet.se 106
gopher.tc.umn.edu 38
gopher2.tc.umn.edu 38
Gopherd 80
gopherd 80
gopher-data 80
gopherdist 111
gopher-faq 105
gzip 81
H
helper application 23
HQX 82
I
Icky Clam Chowder 83
Import Bookmarks 26
inetd 84, 110
info.anu.edu.au 106
ISO Latin-1 28, 31
ISO-Latin-1 111
Item Attributes 26
J
JPEG 23
K
Kanji 28
Kuypers, Jean-Pierre 31
L
libbtree.a 71
libftw.a 72
libtext.a 71
Links 81
Logical Operators 57
M
MacWrite II 28
Maes, Pascal 31
Makefile.config 108
Monaco 24
MPEG 9
MS-DOS 23, 47
N
Nameservers 42
NCSA Telnet 23
Netmask 41
NeXT 70
NeXTtext.tar.Z 71
P
pandaa.uiowa.edu 106
PC Gopher II 36
PC Gopher III 33
ph 107
Phone Book 55
PHONE.EXE 35
PICT 23
Pirard, Andre 31
PKTMUX 110
Pomes, Paul 107
Preferences folder 29
Q
Quicktime 9
R
r tn32 36
Recent menu 25
rtfm.mit.edu 105
S
shell scripts 81
SitExpan 22
SLIP 27, 34, 35
StuffIt 22
svc.conf 109
System 20
System 7 20
System Folder 29
T
Telne 36
TN3270 23, 40
tolten.puc.cl 106
TurboGopher 19
TurboGopher Settings 29
U
UMSLIP.COM 35
UPI news 107
V
veronica 111
VT100 39
W
WAIS 80, 81, 109
wais-8-b5.1.tar.Z 72
waisindex 70
waissearch 72
waisserver 72
Webster 70
WorldScript 28
X
XCMD 32
Y
Yummy Clam Chowder 83
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