•
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
Radio
• IEEE 802.15.4 compliant DSSS baseband
modem with 250 kbps data rate
• Excellent receiver sensitivity (-98 dBm)
• Programmable output power up to +5 dBm
• RF frequency range 2394-2507 MHz
• Suitable for systems targeting compliance
with worldwide radio frequency
regulations: ETSI EN 300 328 and EN
300 440 class 2 (Europe), FCC CFR47 Part
15 (US) and ARIB STD-T66 (Japan)
APPLICATIONS
• IEEE 802.15.4 systems
• ZigBee® systems
• Industrial monitoring and control
• Home and building automation
• Automatic Meter Reading
• Low-power wireless sensor networks
• Set-top boxes and remote controls
• Consumer electronics
KEY FEATURES
• State-of-the-art selectivity/co-existence
Adjacent channel rejection: 49 dB
Alternate channel rejection: 54 dB
• Excellent link budget (103dB)
400 m Line-of-sight range
• Extended temp range (-40 to +125°C)
• Wide supply range: 1.8 V – 3.8 V
• Extensive IEEE 802.15.4 MAC hardware
support to offload the microcontroller
• AES-128 security module
• CC2420 interface compatibility mode
Microcontroller Support
Digital RSSI/LQI support
Automatic clear channel assessment for
CSMA/CA
• Automatic CRC
• 768 bytes RAM for flexible buffering and
security processing
• Fully supported MAC security
• 4 wire SPI
• 6 configurable IO pins
• Interrupt generator
• Frame filtering and processing engine
• Random number generator
•
•
Low Power
RX (receiving frame, -50 dBm) 18.5 mA
TX 33.6 mA @ +5 dBm
TX 25.8 mA @ 0 dBm
<1µA in power down
•
•
•
•
Development Tools
Reference design
IEEE 802.15.4 MAC software
ZigBee® stack software
Fully equipped development kit
Packet sniffer support in hardware
•
•
•
•
•
22 AVDD4
23 RBIAS
24 AVDD_GUARD
25 RESETn
26 VREG_EN
27 DCOUPL
28 SCLK
1
21 NC
SI
2
20 AVDD1
CSn
3
GPIO5
4
GPIO4
5
17 RF_P
GPIO3
6
16 AVDD2
GPIO2
7
15 NC
19 RF_N
18 NC
AVDD3 14
XOSC32M_Q1 13
XOSC32M_Q2 12
AVDD5 11
CC2520
GPIO0 10
In a typical system, the CC2520 will be used
together with a microcontroller and a few
additional passive components.
SO
9
In addition, the CC2520 provides extensive
hardware support for frame handling, data
buffering, burst transmissions, data encryption,
data authentication, clear channel assessment,
link quality indication and frame timing
information. These features reduce the load on
the host controller.
8
The CC2520 is TI's second generation ZigBee® /
IEEE 802.15.4 RF transceiver for the 2.4 GHz
unlicensed ISM band. This chip enables industrial
grade applications by offering state-of-the-art
selectivity/co-existence, excellent link budget,
operation up to 125°C and low voltage operation.
QFN28 (RHD) PACKAGE
TOP VIEW
DVDD
DESCRIPTION
GPIO1
General
Clock output for single crystal systems
RoHS compliant 5 x 5 mm QFN28 (RHD)
package
•
•
AGND
exposed die
attached pad
Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments
semiconductor products and disclaimers threto appear at the end of this datasheet.
ZigBee® is a registered trademark owned by ZigBee Alliance, Inc.
Copyright © 2007, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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1
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
2
3
4
5
Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................... 5
References................................................................................................................................... 7
Features....................................................................................................................................... 8
Absolute Maximum Ratings ....................................................................................................... 10
Electrical Characteristics............................................................................................................ 11
5.1
Recommended Operating Conditions ............................................................................ 11
5.2
DC Characteristics ......................................................................................................... 11
5.3
Wake-Up and Timing ..................................................................................................... 11
5.4
Current Consumptions ................................................................................................... 11
5.5
Receive Parameters....................................................................................................... 12
5.6
Frequency Synthesizer Parameters ............................................................................... 12
5.6.1
Transmit Parameters.................................................................................................. 12
5.7
RSSI/CCA Parameters................................................................................................... 13
5.8
FREQEST Parameters................................................................................................... 13
5.9
Typical Performance Curves .......................................................................................... 14
5.10
Low-Current Mode RX.................................................................................................... 19
5.10.1
Low-Current RX Mode Parameters ............................................................................ 19
5.11
Optional Temperature Compensation of TX................................................................... 20
5.11.1
Using the Temperature Sensor .................................................................................. 21
6
Crystal Specific Parameters....................................................................................................... 22
6.1
Crystal Requirements..................................................................................................... 22
6.2
On-chip Crystal Frequency Tuning................................................................................. 22
7
Pinout......................................................................................................................................... 23
8
Functional Introduction............................................................................................................... 25
8.1
Integrated 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant Radio ..................................................... 25
8.2
Comparison to CC2420.................................................................................................. 25
8.3
Block Diagram ................................................................................................................ 26
9
Application Circuit ...................................................................................................................... 29
9.1
Input / Output Matching .................................................................................................. 29
9.2
Bias Resistor .................................................................................................................. 30
9.3
Crystal ............................................................................................................................ 30
9.4
Digital Voltage Regulator................................................................................................ 30
9.5
Power Supply Decoupling and Filtering ......................................................................... 30
9.6
Board Layout Guidelines ................................................................................................ 30
9.7
Antenna Considerations ................................................................................................. 31
9.8
Choosing the Most Suitable Interconnection with a Microcontroller............................... 31
9.9
Interfacing CC2520 and MSP430F2618 ........................................................................ 31
10 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ................................................................................................ 33
10.1
CSn ................................................................................................................................ 33
10.2
SCLK .............................................................................................................................. 33
10.3
SI.................................................................................................................................... 33
10.4
SO .................................................................................................................................. 34
10.5
SPI Timing Requirements .............................................................................................. 34
11 GPIO .......................................................................................................................................... 35
11.1
Reset Configuration of GPIO Pins.................................................................................. 35
11.2
GPIO as Input ................................................................................................................ 35
11.3
GPIO as Output.............................................................................................................. 36
11.4
Switching Direction on GPIO.......................................................................................... 36
11.5
GPIO Configuration ........................................................................................................ 36
12 Power Modes ............................................................................................................................. 40
12.1
Switching Between Power Modes .................................................................................. 40
12.2
Power Up Sequence Using RESETn (recommended)................................................... 41
2
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
12.3
Power Up With SRES .................................................................................................... 41
13 Instruction Set ............................................................................................................................ 43
13.1
Definitions ...................................................................................................................... 43
13.2
Instruction Descriptions .................................................................................................. 43
13.3
Instruction Set Summary ................................................................................................ 51
13.4
Status Byte ..................................................................................................................... 53
13.5
Command Strobes ......................................................................................................... 53
13.6
Command Strobe Buffer ................................................................................................ 53
14 Exceptions ................................................................................................................................. 55
14.1
Exceptions on GPIO Pins............................................................................................... 56
14.2
Predefined Exception Channels ..................................................................................... 56
14.3
Binding Exceptions to Instructions (command strobes) ................................................. 57
15 Memory Map .............................................................................................................................. 59
15.1
FREG ............................................................................................................................. 60
15.2
SREG ............................................................................................................................. 60
15.3
TX FIFO ......................................................................................................................... 60
15.4
RX FIFO ......................................................................................................................... 60
15.5
MEM ............................................................................................................................... 60
15.6
Frame Filtering and Source Matching Memory Map ...................................................... 60
16 Frequency and Channel Programming ...................................................................................... 62
17 IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Modulation Format.................................................................................... 63
18 IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Frame Format........................................................................................... 65
18.1
PHY Layer ...................................................................................................................... 65
18.2
MAC Layer ..................................................................................................................... 65
19 Transmit Mode ........................................................................................................................... 67
19.1
TX Control ...................................................................................................................... 67
19.2
TX State Timing ............................................................................................................. 67
19.3
TX FIFO Access ............................................................................................................. 67
19.3.1
Retransmission........................................................................................................... 68
19.3.2
Error Conditions ......................................................................................................... 68
19.4
TX Flow Diagram ........................................................................................................... 69
19.5
Frame Processing .......................................................................................................... 70
19.5.1
Synchronization Header ............................................................................................. 70
19.5.2
Frame Length Field .................................................................................................... 70
19.5.3
Frame Check Sequence............................................................................................. 70
19.6
Exceptions...................................................................................................................... 71
19.7
Clear Channel Assessment............................................................................................ 71
19.8
Output Power Programming........................................................................................... 71
19.9
Tips And Tricks .............................................................................................................. 72
20 Receive Mode ............................................................................................................................ 73
20.1
RX Control...................................................................................................................... 73
20.2
RX State Timing ............................................................................................................. 73
20.3
Frame Processing .......................................................................................................... 73
20.3.1
Synchronization Header And Frame Length Fields.................................................... 74
20.3.2
Frame Filtering ........................................................................................................... 74
20.3.3
Source Address Matching .......................................................................................... 77
20.3.4
Frame Check Sequence............................................................................................. 80
20.3.5
Acknowledgement Transmission................................................................................ 81
20.4
RX FIFO Access ............................................................................................................ 82
20.4.1
Using the FIFO and FIFOP Signals............................................................................ 82
20.4.2
Error Conditions ......................................................................................................... 83
20.5
RSSI ............................................................................................................................... 83
20.6
Link Quality Indication .................................................................................................... 84
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3
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
21 Radio Control State Machine ..................................................................................................... 85
22 Crystal Oscillator........................................................................................................................ 87
23 External Clock Output ................................................................................................................ 88
24 Random Number Generation..................................................................................................... 89
25 Memory Management Instructions............................................................................................. 91
25.1
RXBUFMOV ................................................................................................................... 92
25.2
TXBUFCP ...................................................................................................................... 92
25.3
MEMCP .......................................................................................................................... 92
25.4
MEMCPR ....................................................................................................................... 92
25.5
MEMXCP ....................................................................................................................... 92
26 Security Instructions................................................................................................................... 93
26.1
Decoding of the Flags Field in CC2520.......................................................................... 93
26.2
INC ................................................................................................................................. 94
26.3
ECB ................................................................................................................................ 94
26.4
ECBO ............................................................................................................................. 95
26.5
ECBX ............................................................................................................................. 95
26.6
CTR / UCTR ................................................................................................................... 96
26.7
CBC-MAC ...................................................................................................................... 97
26.8
CCM / UCCM ................................................................................................................. 97
26.8.1
Inputs to the CCM and UCCM Instructions ................................................................ 97
26.9
Examples from IEEE802.15.4-2006 ............................................................................... 98
26.9.1
Authentication Only Using CCM* ............................................................................... 99
26.9.2
Encryption Only Using CCM* ..................................................................................... 99
26.9.3
Combination of Encryption and Authentication Using CCM*.................................... 100
27 Packet Sniffing ......................................................................................................................... 101
28 Registers.................................................................................................................................. 102
28.1
Register Settings Update ............................................................................................. 103
28.2
Register Access Modes................................................................................................ 103
28.3
Register Descriptions ................................................................................................... 105
29 Datasheet Revision History...................................................................................................... 126
30 Packaging Information ............................................................................................................. 127
30.1
Mechanical Data .......................................................................................................... 128
4
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
1
Abbreviations
AAF
ACK
ADC
ADI
AES
AGC
AM
ARIB
BER
BIST
CBC-MAC
CCA
CCM
CDM
CFR
CHP
CMOS
CRC
CSMA-CA
CTR
CW
DAC
DC
DPU
DSSS
ECB
ESD
ESR
ETSI
EU
EVM
FCC
FCF
FCS
FFCTRL
FIFO
FS
FSM
GPIO
HBM
HSSD
I/O
I/Q
IEEE
IF
ISM
ITU-T
kbps
LB
LF
LNA
LO
LPF
LPM
Anti Aliasing Filter
Acknowledge
Analog to Digital Converter
Analog-Digital Interface
Advanced Encryption Standard
Automatic Gain Control
Active Mode
Association of Radio Industries and Businesses
Bit Error Rate
Built In Self Test
Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code
Clear Channel Assessment
Counter mode + CBC-MAC
Charged Device Model
Code of Federal Regulations
Charge Pump
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
Cyclic Redundancy Check
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
Counter mode (encryption)
Continuous Wave
Digital to Analog Converter
Direct Current
Data Processing Unit
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
Electronic Code Book (mode of AES operation)
Electro Static Discharge
Equivalent Series Resistance
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
European Union
Error Vector Magnitude
Federal Communications Commission
Frame Control Field
Frame Check Sequence
FIFO and Frame Control
First In First Out
Frequency Synthesizer
Finite State Machine
General Purpose Input/Output
Human Body Model
High Speed Serial Debug
Input / Output
In-phase / Quadrature-phase
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Intermediate Frequency
Industrial, Scientific and Medical
International Telecommunication Union –
Telecommunication Standardization Sector
kilo bits per second
Loop Back
Loop Filter
Low-Noise Amplifier
Local Oscillator
Low Pass Filter
Low-Power Mode
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5
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
LQI
LSB
LUT
MAC
MCU
MFR
MHR
MIC
MISO
MM
MOSI
MPDU
MSB
MSDU
NA
NC
O-QPSK
PA
PAN
PCB
PD
PER
PHR
PHY
PLL
PQFP
PSDU
PUE
QLP
RAM
RBW
RF
RHD
RISC
RoHS
ROM
RSSI
RX
SFD
SHR
SI
SO
SPI
S-PQFP
T/R
TBD
TX
UI
VCO
VGA
XOSC
LR
NaN
6
Link Quality Indication
Least Significant Bit / Byte
Look-Up Table
Medium Access Control
Micro Controller Unit
MAC Footer
MAC Header
Message Integrity Code
Master In Slave Out
Machine Model
Master Out Slave In
MAC Protocol Data Unit
Most significant Bit / Byte
MAC Service Data Unit
Not Available
Not Connected
Offset - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
Power Amplifier
Personal Area Network
Printed Circuit Board
Power Down, Phase Detector
Packet Error Rate
PHY Header
Physical Layer
Phase Locked Loop
Plastic Quad FlatPack
PHY Service Data Unit
Pull-Up Enable
Quad Leadless Package
Random Access Memory
Resolution BandWidth
Radio Frequency
Not actually an acronym. This is the package name used in TI.
Reduced Instruction Set Computer
Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive
Read Only Memory
Received Signal Strength Indicator
Receive
Start of Frame Delimiter
Synchronization Header
Serial In
Serial Out
Serial Peripheral Interface
Plastic Quad Flat Pack
Transmit / Receive
To Be Decided / To Be Defined
Transmit
User Interface
Voltage Controlled Oscillator
Variable Gain Amplifier
Crystal Oscillator
Low Rate
Not any Number
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
2
References
[1]
IEEE std. 802.15.4 - 2003: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs)
http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.4-2003.pdf
[2]
IEEE std. 802.15.4 - 2006: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs)
http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.4-2006.pdf
[3]
CC2420 datasheet
http://www.ti.com/lit/pdf/swrs041
[4]
NIST FIPS Pub 197: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Federal Information Processing Standards
Publication 197, US Department of Commerce/N.I.S.T., November 26, 2001.
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/fips-197.pdf
[5]
CC2520 reference designs
http://focus.ti.com/docs/prod/folders/print/cc2520.html#applicationnotes
[6]
CC2520 Errata note
http://www.ti.com/lit/pdf/swrz024
[7]
CC2520 Product folder
http://focus.ti.com/docs/prod/folders/print/cc2520.html
[8]
NIST software package for randomness testing:
http://csrc.nist.gov/rng/
[9]
The diehard software package for randomness testing:
http://stat.fsu.edu/~geo/diehard.html
[10] MSP430F2618 Product folder
http://focus.ti.com/docs/prod/folders/print/msp430f2618.html
[11] 2.4 GHz Inverted F Antenna
http://www.ti.com/lit/pdf/swru120
[12] Antenna selection guide
http://www.ti.com/lit/pdf/swra161
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7
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
3
Features
2394-2507MHz transceiver
• DSSS transceiver
• 250kbps data rate, 2 MChip/s chip rate
• O-QPSK with half sine pulse shaping modulation
• Very low current consumption
RX (receiving frame, -50 dBm): 18.5 mA
RX (waiting for frame): 22.3 mA
TX (+5 dBm output power): 33.6 mA
TX (0 dBm output power): 25.8 mA
• Three flexible power modes for reduced power consumption
• Low power fully static CMOS design
• Very good sensitivity (-98dBm)
• High adjacent channel rejection (49 dB)
• High alternate channel rejection (54 dB)
• On chip VCO, LNA, PA and filters.
• Low supply voltage (1.8 - 3.8 V)
• Programmable output power up to +5 dBm
• I/Q direct conversion transceiver
Small Size
• QFN 28 (RHD) package, 5 x 5 mm
• Very few external components
o minimized number of passives
o Only reference crystal needed
• Clock output for other ICs to limit the number of crystals needed in a system
• No external filters needed.
Easy and Flexible User Interface
• 4-wire SPI
• Serial clock up to 8 MHz
• 6 GPIO pins with full flexibility
• Interrupt generator
• Full control of automatic responses to different events
• Embedded packet sniffer mode
• CC2420 compatibility mode
Data Processing Unit For Advanced Data Handling
• Spacious (768 byte) on-chip RAM allows powerful on-chip frame processing
• 128 byte transmit data FIFO
• 128 byte receive data FIFO
• Full read and write access to RAM
• 128 bit AES
IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Hardware Support
• Automatic preamble generator
• Synchronization word insertion and detection
• CRC-16 computation and verification over the MAC payload
• Frame filtering
• Automatic ACK and setting of the pending-bit
• Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)
• Energy detection / RSSI
• Link Quality Indication (LQI)
• Fully automatic MAC security (CTR, CBC-MAC, CCM)
8
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
Development Tools
• See product folder [7]
Suited For Use in Systems That Target Compliance to the Following Standards
• IEEE 802.15.4 PHY
• ETSI EN 300 328
• ETSI EN 300 440 class 2
• FCC CFR47 part 15
• ARIB STD-T66
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9
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
4
Absolute Maximum Ratings
over operating free-air temperature range unless otherwise noted (1)
PARAMETER
Supply voltage (2)
Voltage on any digital pin
Voltage on 1.8 V pins
Input RF level
Storage temperature range
Reflow soldering temperature
ESD HBM
ESD CDM
ESD MM
1)
2)
LIMITS
-0.3 to 3.9
-0.3 to VDD + 0.3 (Max 3.9)
-0.3 to 2.0
+10
-50 to 150
260
800
500
100
UNIT
V
V
V
dBm
°C
°C
V
V
V
Stresses beyond those listed under “absolute maximum ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress
ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under
“recommended operating conditions” is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may
affect device reliability.
All voltage values are with respect to network ground terminal.
This device has limited built-in gate protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam
during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
10
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
5
Electrical Characteristics
Note that these characteristics are only valid when using the recommended register settings presented in
section 28.1.
5.1
Recommended Operating Conditions
PARAMETER
Operating supply voltage
Ambient temperature
5.2
MIN
1.8
-40
NOM
MAX
3.8
125
UNIT
V
°C
DC Characteristics
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc=2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
Logic "1" input voltage
Valid for all pads (both GPIOs and fixed-input pads)
Logic "0" input voltage
Valid for all pads (both GPIOs and fixed-input pads)
Input pad hysteresis
Only for fixed-input pads like RESET_N, CSn etc
Logic "0" input current
Input equals 0V
-25
25
nA
Logic "1" input current
Input equals VDD
-25
25
nA
5.3
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
80%
of VDD
30%
of VDD
0.5
V
Wake-Up and Timing
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc =2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
COMMENTS
LPM2 Æ AM time
Internal regulator startup time + XOSC startup time
MIN
TYP
0.3
LPM1 Æ AM time
XOSC startup time
0.2
MAX
UNIT
ms
ms
AM Æ RX time
192
µs
AM Æ TX time
192
µs
RX/TX turnaround time
192
µs
TX/RX turnaround time
192
µs
Radio bit rate
250
kbps
Radio chip rate
2.0
MChip/s
5.4
Current Consumptions
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc =2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
Wait for sync
Receive current
Transmit current
TYP
MAX
UNIT
22.3
24.8
mA
26.3
mA
TA=-40 to 125°C, VDD=1.8 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
Wait for sync, Low-current RX setting
18.8
mA
Receving frame, -50 dBm input level
18.5
mA
0 dBm setting
25.8
28.8
mA
+5 dBm setting
33.6
37.2
mA
37.5
mA
TA=-40 to 125°C, VDD=1.8 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
Active Mode current
XOSC on, digital regulator on.
1.6
TA=-40 to 125°C, VDD=1.8 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
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1.9
mA
2.6
mA
11
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
PARAMETER
LPM1 current
LPM2 current
5.5
CONDITIONS
MIN
XOSC off, digital regulator on. State retention.
TYP
175
TA=-40 to 125°C, VDD=1.8 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
XOSC off, digital regulator off. No state retention.
30
TA=-40 to 125°C, VDD=1.8 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
MAX
UNIT
250
µA
1000
µA
120
nA
4.5
µA
Receive Parameters
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc =2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
Receiver sensitivity
Saturation
CONDITIONS
[2] requires -85 dBm
MIN
TYP
-99
-98
TA=-40 to 125°C, VDD=1.8 to 3.8V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
[2] requires -20 dBm
MAX
UNIT
-95
dBm
-88
dBm
6
dBm
±5 MHz from wanted signal. [2] requires 0 dB
49
dB
±10 MHz from wanted signal. [2] requires 30 dB
54
dB
±20MHz or above. Wanted signal at -82dBm.
55
dB
30 – 1000 MHz
< -80
dBm
Conducted measurement in
a 50Ω single ended load.
Complies with EN 300 328,
EN 300 440 class 2, FCC
CFR47, Part 15 and ARIB
STD-T-66
1 – 12.75 GHz
-56
dBm
Frequency error
tolerance
Input level is 3 dB above sensitivity level.
+/-400
kHz
-24
dBm
Wanted signal 3 dB above the sensitivity level, 802.15.4 modulated
interferer at 802.15.4 channels:
Interferer Rejection
Maximum Spurious
Emission
IIP3
5.6
Frequency Synthesizer Parameters
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc =2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
Phase noise.
Unmodulated carrier
CONDITIONS
MIN
5.6.1
MAX
UNIT
-111
dBc/Hz
At ±2 MHz offset from carrier
-118
dBc/Hz
At ±5 MHz offset from carrier
RF Frequency range
TYP
At ±1 MHz offset from carrier
-128
Programmable in 1 MHz steps. Use 5 MHz steps for compliance
with [2].
2394
dBc/Hz
2507
MHz
Transmit Parameters
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc =2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
Output power
0 dBm setting
-3
1
5
dBm
+5 dBm setting
2
5
7
dBm
Note: to reduce the output
power variation over
temperature, it is suggested
that different settings are
used at different
temperatures. The on-chip
temperature sensor can be
used for this purpose.
Please see section 5.11 for
more information.
12
TA=-40 to 85°C, VDD=2.0 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
-3
8
dBm
TA=-40 to 85°C , VDD=1.8 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
-4
8
dBm
TA=-40 to 125°C, VDD=2.0 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
-6
8
dBm
TA=-40 to 125°C, VDD=1.8 to 3.8 V, fc =2394 to 2507 MHz
-9
8
dBm
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
Largest spurious
emission at maximum
output power.
25 MHz – 1 GHz (outside restricted bands)
-40
dBm
25 MHz – 1 GHz (within FCC restricted bands)
-53
dBm
47-74, 87.5-118, 174-230, 470-862 MHz (ETSI restricted bands)
-42
dBm
1800 MHz-1900 MHz (ETSI restricted band)
-56
dBm
5150 MHz-5300 MHz (ETSI restricted band)
-54
dBm
At 2483.5 MHz and above (FCC restricted band)
fc=2480 MHz, +5 dBm
fc=2480 MHz, 0 dBm
-37
-41
dBm
dBm
At 2·RF and 3·RF (FCC restricted band)
-54
dBm
+5 dBm setting. fc =IEEE 802.15.4 channels
6
%
0 dBm setting. fc =IEEE 802.15.4 channels
2
%
Texas Instruments CC2520
EM reference design
complies with EN 300 328,
EN 300 440, FCC CFR47
Part 15 and ARIB STDT-66.
Transmit on 2480 MHz
under FCC at +5 dBm is
supported by duty-cycling,
or by reducing output
power.
The peak conducted
spurious emission might
violate ETSI and FCC
restricted band limits at
frequencies below 1GHz.
All radiated spurious
emissions are within the
limits of ETSI/FCC/ARIB.
Applications that must pass
conducted requirements
are suggested to use a
simple 50 Ω high pass filter
between matching network
and RF connector.
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
[2] requires max. 35%. Measured as defined by [2].
Error Vector Magnitude
(EVM)
5.7
RSSI/CCA Parameters
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc =2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
COMMENTS
MIN
RSSI range
Real RSSI = Register value - offset
LSB value
5.8
MAX
100
RSSI/CCA accuracy
RSSI/CCA offset
TYP
UNIT
dB
+/-4
dB
76
dB
1
dB
FREQEST Parameters
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc =2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
COMMENTS
MIN
FREQEST range
FREQEST accuracy
FREQEST offset
TYP
+/-300
Real frequency offset = FREQEST value - offset
LSB value
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MAX
UNIT
kHz
+/-10
kHz
64
kHz
7.8
kHz
13
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
5.9
Typical Performance Curves
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc =2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
SENSITIVITY VS TEMPERATURE
SENSITIVITY VS EVM
-90.0
-92.0
-94
SENSITIVITY (dBm)
SENSITIVITY (dBm)
-92
-96
-98
-94.0
-96.0
-98.0
-100
-40
10
60
-100.0
0%
110
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
10 %
20 %
30 %
40 %
50 %
60 %
ERROR VECTOR MAGNITUDE (% RMS)
SENSITIVITY VS SUPPLY VOLTAGE
SENSITIVITY VS CARRIER FREQUENCY OFFSET
0.0
-90
SENSITIVITY (dBm)
SENSITIVITY (dBm)
-92
-94
-96
-40.0
-80.0
-98
-100
1.8
2.3
2.8
3.3
-120.0
-1000
3.8
-500
0
500
1000
FREQUENCY OFFSET (kHz)
VOLTAGE (V)
SENSITIVITY VS CARRIER FREQUENCY
OUTPUT POWER VS TEMPERATURE
-94
8
OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
SENSITIVITY (dBm)
5dBm (0xF7)
-96
-98
-100
2394
2414
2434
2454
2474
0dBm (0x32)
0
-4
-8
2494
-40
FREQUENCY (MHz)
14
4
10
60
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
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AM CURRENT VS TEMPERATURE
OUTPUT POWER VS SUPPLY VOLTAGE
1.9
5dBm (0xF7)
4
1.8
CURRENT (mA)
OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
6
2
0dBm (0x32)
0
1.7
1.6
1.5
-2
1.8
2.3
2.8
3.3
-40
3.8
10
60
110
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
VOLTAGE (V)
LPM1 CURRENT VS TEMPERATURE
TX (5dBm setting, 0xF7) CURRENT VS TEMPERATURE
400
35
CURRENT (uA)
CURRENT (mA)
300
34
33
200
100
0
32
-40
10
60
-40
110
10
60
110
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
LPM2 CURRENT VS TEMPERATURE
RX CURRENT VS TEMPERATURE
2
25
1.6
CURRENT (uA)
CURRENT (mA)
24
23
22
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
21
-40
10
60
-40
110
10
60
110
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
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CC2520 DATASHEET
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TX (+5dBm SETTING, 0xF7) CURRENT VS SUPPLY VOLTAGE
LPM1 CURRENT VS SUPPLY VOLTAGE
33.5
300
CURRENT (uA)
CURRENT (mA)
33
32.5
200
100
32
31.5
0
1.8
2.3
2.8
3.3
3.8
1.8
2.3
VOLTAGE (V)
2.8
3.3
3.8
VOLTAGE (V)
LPM2 CURRENT VS SUPPLY VOLTAGE
RX CURRENT VS SUPPLY VOLTAGE
100
22.8
CURRENT (nA)
CURRENT (mA)
22.4
22
70
40
21.6
10
21.2
1.8
2.3
2.8
3.3
1.8
3.8
2.3
1.7
21
CURRENT (mA)
CURRENT (uA)
24
1.6
1.5
2.3
2.8
3.3
3.8
3.8
18
15
-100
-80
-60
-40
INPUT LEVEL (dBm)
VOLTAGE (V)
16
3.3
RX CURRENT VS INPUT LEVEL
AM CURRENT VS SUPPLY VOLTAGE
1.8
1.8
2.8
VOLTAGE (V)
VOLTAGE (V)
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-20
0
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
INTERFERER REJECTION (802.15.4 INTERFERER) VS
INTERFERER FREQUENCY. CARRIER AT -82dBm/2440MHz.
INTERFERER REJECTION VS 802.11g
CARRIER AT -82dBm/2440MHz
80
INTERFERER REJECTION (dB)
INTERFERER REJECTION (dB)
75
50
25
0
-25
2400
2420
2440
2460
60
40
20
0
2412
2480
2422
2432
2442
2452
2462
2472
2482
2472
2482
INTERFERER FREQUENCY (MHz)
INTERFERER FREQUENCY (MHz)
ADJACENT CHANNEL REJECTION (802.15.4 INTERFERER)
VS CARRIER LEVEL
INTERFERER REJECTION VS 802.11g
CARRIER AT -82dBm/2480MHz
55
80
INTERFERER REJECTION (dB)
ACR (dB)
50
45
40
35
30
-95
-90
-85
-80
-75
-70
-65
-60
60
40
20
0
2412
CARRIER LEVEL (dBm)
2422
2432
2442
2452
2462
INTERFERER FREQUENCY (MHz)
INTERFERER REJECTION VS 802.11g
CARRIER AT -82dBm/2405MHz
FALSE PACKET RATE AND SENSITIVITY
vs CORRELATION THRESHOLD
-91
1000
60
-92
20
0
2412
2422
2432
2442
2452
2462
2472
2482
100
False packets/min
-93
10
-94
-95
1
-96
SENSITIVITY (dBm)
40
FALSE PACKETS PER MIN.
INTERFERER REJECTION (dB)
80
0.1
-97
Sensitivity
INTERFERER FREQUENCY (MHz)
0.01
-98
0x0B
0x0F
0x13
0x17
CORRELATION THRESHOLD (MDMCTRL1)
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
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TEMPERATURE SENSOR OUTPUT VS SUPPLY VOLTAGE
(TEMPERATURE = 25ºC)
FREQEST VS ACTUAL OFFSET FREQUENCY
500
0.820
TEMPERATURE SENSOR (V)
400
FREQEST (kHz)
300
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-500
0.810
0.800
0.790
0.780
-300
-100
100
300
500
1.8
2.3
ACTUAL FREQUENCY OFFSET (kHz)
CORRELATION VALUE (decimal)
OFFSET CORRECTED RSSI (dBm)
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-60
-40
-20
0
INPUT LEVEL (dBm)
TEMPERATURE SENSOR OUTPUT VS TEMPERATURE
(SUPPLY VOLTAGE = 3V)
TEMP SENSOR VOLTAGE (V)
1.100
1.000
0.900
0.800
0.700
0.600
-40
10
60
110
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
18
3.8
112
0
-80
3.3
CORRELATION VALUE VS ERROR VECTOR
MAGNITUDE OF INPUT SIGNAL
OFFSET CORRECTED RSSI VS INPUT LEVEL
-120
-100
2.8
VOLTAGE (V)
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108
104
100
96
92
0%
10 %
20 %
30 %
40 %
EVM (% RMS)
50 %
60 %
70 %
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
5.10 Low-Current Mode RX
Note that when using this mode, neither RSSI nor CCA
is valid. This means that these settings can not be used
in conjunction with STXONCCA, for instance. Also note
that the interferer rejection will drop at stronger input
signal levels compared to when using the regular
recommended settings.
60
INTERFERER REJECTION (dB)
Applications that spend more time waiting for an input
signal than actually receiving it, might benefit from using
the special low-current RX mode. This mode draws less
current at the expense of sensitivity.
INTERFERER REJECTION (802.15.4 INTERFERER) VS
CARRIER LEVEL WHEN USING RX_LOCUR
40
20
0
-87
-78
-69
-60
-51
CARRIER LEVEL (dBm)
Important: The low-current RX mode is only valid from -40 to 85ºC !
5.10.1 Low-Current RX Mode Parameters
TA =25°C, VDD=3.0 V, fc=2440 MHz if nothing else stated. All parameters measured on Texas Instruments’ CC2520 EM 2.1 reference design with 50 Ω load.
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
RX current
Wait for sync
18.8
mA
Sensitivity
[2] requires -85 dBm
-90
dBm
±5 MHz from wanted signal. [2] requires 0 dB
52
dB
±10 MHz from wanted signal. [2] requires 30 dB
54
dB
±20MHz or above.
55
dB
Wanted signal 3 dB above the sensitivity level, 802.15.4 modulated
interferer at 802.15.4 channels:
Interferer Rejection
Table 1: Low-current RX mode. Use in addition to regular recommended settings.
Register
Setting (hex)
Comment
RXCTRL
33
Reduces sensitivity and current consumption
FSCTRL
12
Reduces current consumption and valid temperature range
AGCCTRL2
EB
Reduces sensitivity and current consumption
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
5.11 Optional Temperature Compensation of TX
Using the on-chip temperature sensor (or any other sensor), it is possible to adapt the settings to the actual
temperature. This will reduce the variation in output power over temperature, which in the range -40ºC to
125ºC can be significant.
For this purpose, a TX setting only suited for high-temperature operation has been found (F7125deg). This
setting should only be used above 70 degrees, but will significantly reduce the drop in output power at high
temperatures.
Table 2: F7125deg setting, only suited for high temperature operation (only changes from
recommended settings shown)
Register
Setting (hex)
Comment
TXCTRL
94
Increased output power at high temperatures.
FSCTRL
7B
Increased output power at high temperatures.
Table 3: Suggested TXPOWER register settings for different temperatures
Temperature
-40
-30
-20
-10
10
30
50
70
90
110
125
ºC
Recommended
Setting
13
13
AB
AB
F2
F7
F7
F7125deg
F7125deg
F7125deg
F7125deg
-
Typical Output
Power
3.6
3.3
4.3
4.1
4.2
4.3
3.5
3.6
2.7
1.9
1.1
dBm
MINIMUM OUTPUT POWER WITH AND WITHOUT
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION
TYPICAL OUTPUT POWER WITH AND WITHOUT
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION
8.0
4.0
With compensation
0.0
Without compensation
(+5dBm setting)
OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
OUTPUT POWER (dBm)
8.0
4.0
0.0
-4.0
Without compensation
(+5dBm setting)
-8.0
-12.0
-4.0
-40
10
60
-40
110
10
60
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
20
With
compensation
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
5.11.1 Using the Temperature Sensor
The on-chip temperature sensor can be accessed via the GPIO0 and GPIO1 pins by following this procedure:
• Configure GPIO0 and GPIO1 as inputs by writing 0x80 to the GPIOCTRL0 and GPIOCTRL1 registers.
• Enable analog output functionality for these two pins by setting GPIOCTRL.GPIO_ACTRL=’1’.
• Select temperature sensor output by writing 0x01 to the ATEST register. This will make GPIO1 output
GND and GPIO0 will output a voltage proportional to the temperature.
• Use an ADC in the microcontroller to measure the output voltage on GPIO0 and then calculate the
temperature.
The output from the temperature sensor is shown in graph form in section 5.9, but as a basis for calculating
the temperature, the following numbers can be used:
Tc=-40 – 125°C, VDD=1.8 – 3.8 V
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Temp sensor voltage at 25°C
0.8
V
Temp. sens. output vs temperature
25
mV/10°C
Temp. sens. output vs supply voltage
6
mV/V
Temp. sens accuracy no calibration (at fixed voltage)
+/-12
°C
Temp, sens. accuracy with 1-point calibration (at fixed voltage)
+/-1
°C
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CC2520 DATASHEET
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6
6.1
Crystal Specific Parameters
Crystal Requirements
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
Crystal frequency
TYP
MAX
32
Crystal frequency accuracy
requirement
Including initial tolerance, aging and
temperature dependency, as specified by [2].
Can be relaxed using on-chip crystal tuning
(see below).
MHz
40
ppm
ESR
60
Ohm
C0
7
pF
CL
16
pF
MAX
UNIT
6.2
- 40
UNIT
On-chip Crystal Frequency Tuning
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
Crystal tuning range (Ctune)
Only adding capacitance is possible
Crystal tuning step size
Crystal tuning drift
In % of applied tuning
TYP
7
pF
0.4
pF
+/-10
%
CRYSTAL TUNING USING CC2520 EM 2.1 REFERENCE DESIGN (NX3225DA, CL = 16 pF) :
Start-up time
Crystal tuning step size
NDK crystal NX3225DA, CL=16 pF
Crystal tuning range
0.2
ms
3
ppm
-45
ppm
CRYSTAL TUNING USING OTHER CRYSTALS, ALL NUMBERS ARE ESTIMATES :
Start-up time
Crystal tuning step size
NDK crystal NX4025DA, CL=13 pF
Crystal tuning range
Start-up time
Crystal tuning step size
NDK crystal NX5032SA, CL=10 pF
Crystal tuning range
See section 22 for further details on using the crystal oscillator.
22
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0.2
ms
8
ppm
-120
ppm
0.1
ms
10
ppm
-160
ppm
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
22 AVDD4
23 RBIAS
24 AVDD_GUARD
25 RESETn
26 VREG_EN
27 DCOUPL
Pinout
28 SCLK
SO
1
21 NC
SI
2
20 AVDD1
CSn
3
19 RF_N
GPIO5
4
GPIO4
5
17 RF_P
GPIO3
6
16 AVDD2
GPIO2
7
15 NC
18 NC
AVDD3 14
XOSC32M_Q1 13
XOSC32M_Q2 12
9
GPIO1
AVDD5 11
8
DVDD
CC2520
GPIO0 10
7
AGND
exposed die
attached pad
Figure 1: Pinout of CC2520 (top view)
Table 4: CC2520 Pinout
Signal
Pin #
Type
Description
SPI
SCLK
28
I
SPI interface: Serial Clock. Maximum 8 MHz
SO
1
O
SPI interface: Serial Out
SI
2
I
SPI interface: Serial In
CSn
3
I
SPI interface: Chip Select, active low
General Purpose digital I/O
GPIO0
10
IO
General purpose digital I/O
GPIO1
9
IO
General purpose digital I/O
GPIO2
7
IO
General purpose digital I/O
GPIO3
6
IO
General purpose digital I/O
GPIO4
5
IO
General purpose digital I/O
GPIO5
4
IO
General purpose digital I/O
Misc
RESETn
25
I
External reset pin, active low
VREG_EN
26
I
When high, digital voltage regulator is active.
NC
15,
18, 21
Not Connected.
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
Signal
Pin #
Type
Description
Analog
RBIAS
23
Analog IO
External precision bias resistor for reference current. 56 kΩ, ±1%
RF_N
19
RF IO
Negative RF input signal to LNA in receive mode
Negative RF output signal from PA in transmit mode
RF_P
17
RF IO
Positive RF input signal to LNA in receive mode
Positive RF output signal from PA in transmit mode
XOSC32M_Q1
13
Analog IO
Crystal oscillator pin 1
XOSC32M_Q2
12
Analog IO
Crystal oscillator pin 2
Power/ground
AVDD
11,
14,
16,
20, 22
Power
(Analog)
1.8 V to 3.8 V analog power supply connections
AVDD_GUARD
24
Power
(Analog)
Power supply connection for digital noise isolation and digital voltage regulator.
DCOUPL
27
Power
1.6 V to 2.0 V digital power supply output for decoupling.
Note: this pin can not be used to supply any external devices.
(Digital)
O
DVDD
8
Power
(Digital)
AGND
Die
pad
Ground
24
1.8 V to 3.8 V digital power supply for digital pads.
(Analog)
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
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8
Functional Introduction
8.1
Integrated 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant Radio
CC2520 features a Direct Conversion Transceiver operating in the 2.4 GHz band with excellent receiver
sensitivity and robustness to interferers. The CC2520 radio complies with the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY
specification. The radio has 250 kbps data rate, 2 Mchip/s chip rate, and is suitable for systems targeting
compliance with worldwide radio frequency regulations covered by ETSI EN 300 328 and EN 300 440 class
2 (Europe), FCC CFR47 Part 15 (US) and ARIB STD-T66 (Japan).
8.2
Comparison to CC2420
CC2520 represents significant improvement over the CC2420 features and performance. A comparison is
given in the table below.
Table 5: Comparison of CC2420 and CC2520
Feature
CC2420
CC2520
Standard
IEEE 802.15.4-2003
IEEE 802.15.4-2006
Maximum output power
0 dB
+5 dB
Typical sensitivity
-95 dBm
-98 dBm
General clock output
No
Yes, configurable frequency 1-16MHz
User interface
Command strobes and configuration
registers. All user control goes through the
SPI.
Instruction set (which includes the command
strobes as a subset) and configuration
registers. Command strobes may be
triggered by GPIO pins, which gives
excellent timing control. Improved status
information.
Register access
Possible without crystal oscillator running.
Only possible when crystal oscillator is
running.
Digital inputs
No Schmitt triggers
Schmitt triggers on all digital inputs.
Digital outputs
Fixed configuration
Highly flexible and configurable
Start up
Manual start of XOSC
XOSC starts automatically after reset (by
reset_n pin). Manual start of XOSC after
SRES instruction.
Crystal frequency
16 MHz
32 MHz
Packet sniffing
No hardware support
Hardware support for non-intrusive sniffing
of both transmitted and received frames.
Maximum SPI clock speed
10 MHz
8 MHz
RAM size
364 byte
768 byte
Operating voltage
2.1 – 3.6 V
1.8 – 3.8 V
Maximum operating temperature
85°C
125°C
Security
Limited flexibility
Highly flexible security instructions. More
RAM available allows more flexible
processing.
Package
QLP-48, 7x7 mm
QFN 28 (RHD), 5x5 mm
RF frequency range
2400-2483.5 MHz
2394-2507 MHz
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
RBIAS
BIAS
SPI
FSM
AGC
Bus controller
Frame
filtering and
source
matching
Synthesizer
Demod
Modulator
RF_core
AES
ADI
Exception
controller
ADI
DAC
RAM
GPIO5
DAC
ADC
DPU
ADC
Instruction
decoder
GPIO3
Clock/
reset
Vreg
CSn
GPIO4
RESETn
DCOUPL
SO
SI
VREG_EN
Block Diagram
SCLK
8.3
AAF
PS
LPF
RX MIX
FS
TX MIX
IO
Atest
GPIO2
PA
LNA
REF
DIV
RF_N
RF_P
XOSC32M_Q1
XOSC32M_Q2
GPIO0
GPIO1
XOSC
Figure 2: CC2520 block diagram
CC2520 is typically controlled by a microcontroller connected to the SPI and some GPIOs. The
microcontroller will send instructions to CC2520 and it is the responsibility of the instruction decoder to
execute the instructions or pass them on to other modules.
The execution of an instruction or external events (e.g. reception of a frame) may result in one or more
exceptions. The exceptions provide a very flexible mechanism for automating tasks. They can for instance
be used to trigger execution of other instructions or they can be routed out to GPIO pins and used as
interrupt signals to the microcontroller. The exception controller is responsible for handling of the
exceptions.
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The microcontroller will typically be connected to one or more of the GPIO pins. The function of each pin is
independently controlled by the IO module based on register settings. It is possible to observe a large
number of internal signals on the GPIO pins. The GPIO pins can also be configured as inputs and used to
trigger the execution of certain instructions. This would typically be used when the microcontroller needs to
precisely control the timing of an instruction.
The RAM module contains memory which is used for receive and transmit FIFOs (in fixed address ranges)
and temporary storage for other data. There are separate instructions for general memory access and FIFO
access.
The data processing unit (DPU) is responsible for execution of the more advanced instructions. The DPU
includes an AES core, which is used while executing the security instructions. Memory management
(copying, incrementing etc.) is also performed by the DPU.
The Clock/Reset module generates the internal clocks and reset signals.
The RF core contains several submodules that support and control the analog radio modules.
The FSM submodule controls the RF transceiver state, the transmitter and receiver FIFOs and most of the
dynamically controlled analog signals such as power up / down of analog modules. The FSM is used to
provide the correct sequencing of events (such as performing an FS calibration before enabling the
receiver). Also, it provides step by step processing of incoming frames from the demodulator: reading the
frame length, counting the number of bytes received, checks the FCS, and finally, optionally handles
automatic transmission of ACK frames after successful frame reception. It performs similar tasks in TX
including performing an optional CCA before transmission and automatically going to RX after the end of
transmission to receive an ACK frame. Finally, the FSM controls the transfer of data between
modulator/demodulator and the TXFIFO/RXFIFO in RAM.
The modulator transforms raw data into I/Q signals to the transmitter DAC. This is done in compliance with
the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.
The demodulator is responsible for retrieving the sent data from the received signal.
The amplitude information from the demodulator is used by the automatic gain control (AGC). The AGC
adjusts the gain of the analog LNA so that the signal level within the receiver is approximately constant..
The frame filtering and source matching supports the FSM in RF_core by performing all operations
needed in order to do frame filtering and source address matching, as defined by IEEE 802.15.4.
The xosc module interfaces the crystal which is connected to the XOSC32M_Q1 and XOSC32M_Q2 pins.
The xosc module generates a clock for the digital part and RF system, and implements the programmable
crystal frequency tuning.
The BIAS module generates voltage and current references. It relies on a high precision (1%) 56kΩ external
resistor which is shown in the application circuit in Figure 3.
The TX DACs convert the digital baseband signal to analog signals.
After LPF the signal is fed to the TXMIX module, which is an up-converting complex mixer.
The PA amplifies the RF signal up to a maximum of ~5dBm during TX.
The LNA amplifies the received RF signal. The gain is controlled by the digital AGC module so that optimum
sensitivity and interferer rejection is achieved.
The RXMIX module is a complex down-mixer that converts the RF signal to a baseband signal.
A passive anti-aliasing filter (AAF) low pass filters the signal after down mixing.
The low pass filtered I and Q signals and digitized by the ADC.
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The frequency synthesizer (FS) generates the carrier wave for the RF signal.
The voltage regulator (Vreg) provides a 1.8V supply voltage to the digital core. It contains a current limiter,
which is enabled for currents above ~32mA.
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9
Application Circuit
Very few external components are required for the operation of CC2520. A typical application circuit is
shown in Figure 4. Note that it does not show how the board layout should be done. The board layout will
greatly influence the RF performance of CC2520.
This section is meant as an introduction only. For further details, see the reference design, which includes
complete board layouts and bill of materials with manufacturer and part numbers. The reference design can
be downloaded from the CC2520 product folder [7].
RBIAS 23
AVDD4 22
14 AVDD3
RESETn 25
11 AVDD5
13 XOSC32M_Q1
VREG_EN 26
10 GPIO0
AVDD_GUARD 24
DCOUPL 27
9 GPIO1
12 XOSC32M_Q2
SCLK 28
Digital interface
8 DVDD
Note that decoupling capacitors are not shown in the figure below. See the reference design for complete
bill of materials.
Figure 3: Typical application circuit with transmission line balun for single-ended operation
See the antenna selection guide [12] for further details on other compact and low-cost alternatives.
9.1
Input / Output Matching
The RF input/output is high impedance and differential.
When using an unbalanced antenna such as a monopole, a balun should be used in order to optimize
performance. The balun can be implemented using low-cost discrete inductors and capacitors only or in
combination with transmission lines replacing the discrete inductors.
Figure 4 shows the balun implemented in a two-layer reference design. It consists of three transmission
lines (L1, L2 and L3) and the discrete components C191, C171, C192, C173 and C174. The circuit will
present the optimum RF termination to CC2520 with a 50Ω load on the antenna connection.
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SMA
connector
PCB
antenna
C192
CC2520
C191
R201
C174
C171
C173
C172
Figure 4: Actual board layout of the RF section of the reference design (rev 2.1).
9.2
Bias Resistor
The bias resistor R231 is used to set an accurate bias current. A high precision (±1%) 56kΩ resistor should
be used.
9.3
Crystal
An external 32MHz crystal with two loading capacitors (C121 and C131) is used for the crystal oscillator.
It is possible to feed a single-ended signal to the XOSC32M_Q1 pin and thus not use a crystal.
9.4
Digital Voltage Regulator
The on chip voltage regulator supplies 1.8 V to the digital part of CC2520. C271 is a decoupling capacitor for
the voltage regulator. Note that this should not be used to provide power to other IC’s.
9.5
Power Supply Decoupling and Filtering
Proper power supply decoupling must be used for optimum performance. This is shown as a lumped
capacitor C1 in Figure 4. The placement and size of the decoupling capacitors and the power supply filtering
are very important to achieve the best performance in an application. TI provides a compact reference
design that should be followed very closely.
9.6
Board Layout Guidelines
It is highly recommended to copy the board layout from the reference design [5].
•
•
•
•
30
It is recommended to use star topology for the power supplies to CC2520.
The power supply decoupling capacitor C1 is a lumped component. On the actual board layout
there should be separate decoupling capacitors as close to each of the power pins as possible.
The balun is highly layout sensitive. The inductors in Figure 4 are actually transmission lines
embedded in the PCB and their values must be adapted according to the board layout. The values
of the capacitors C192, C172, C173 and C174 must also be adapted to the actual board layout.
The GPIO pins can be configured to use internal pull-up resistors. They are not enabled after a
reset or in LPM2. Remember to take the default GPIO configuration into consideration when
connecting these signals, because there will be some time before the MCU is able to change the
configuration. In LPM2 GPIO5 (which is configured as an input) should be connected to either
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•
•
•
•
9.7
ground or VDD. The other GPIO pins should be grounded or high impedance. Failing to do this, will
result in significantly higher current consumption than necessary.
The SO pin is configured as an input when CSn is high or the device is in reset or LPM2. This
makes it possible to connect multiple SPI slaves to one SPI master. This pin should not be left
floating when in LPM2, as this will draw more current than necessary. If the voltage level can not be
controlled in any other way, use a 1MOhm pull-down resistor.
The crystal input lines should be routed as far away from each other as practically possible.
The NC pins can be left floating.
Glitches on the digital inputs may create serious issues in a system design. The digital input pads
have Schmitt-triggers to help make them less sensitive to glitches, but the board layout should still
avoid routing the digital input lines close to other noisy signals.
Antenna Considerations
The reference design contains two antenna options. As default, the SMA connector is connected to the
balun through a 0Ω resistor. This resistor can be soldered off and rotated 90° clockwise in order to connect
to the PCB antenna, which is a planar inverted F antenna (PIFA).
Note that all testing and characterization has been done using the SMA connector. The PCB antenna has
only been functionally tested by establishing a link between two EMs. In our experiment, the PCB antenna
gave approximately the same range as when using an antenna connected to the SMA connector.
Please refer to the antenna selection guide [12] and the Inverted F antenna app note [11] for further details.
9.8
Choosing the Most Suitable Interconnection with a Microcontroller
•
•
•
•
•
Connect the 4 SPI signals; CSn, SCLK, SI and SO to the microcontroller.
These signals are required in order to configure CC2520 and exchange data with it.
Connect RESETn to the microcontroller. Using the RESETn signal is the recommended way to
reset CC2520 for instance after powering up. If saving a pin is critical, the RESETn pin can be
connected to VDD. The CC2520 can still be reset with the SRES command strobe. This will also
require a manual start of the crystal oscillator by issuing a SXOSCON command strobe.
Connecting VREG_EN to the microcontroller will make it possible to put CC2520 into LPM2 to save
power. VREG_EN may be connected to VDD and thus always leave the regulator on. If power
saving is not important in the target application, this may be an acceptable way of saving a pin.
Connecting one or more of the GPIOs to the microcontroller is optional.
The number of GPIOs to connect depends on the application. Connecting more GPIOs to the
microcontroller generally gives more flexibility and less SPI traffic because it reduces the need to
keep reconfiguring the GPIOs for different uses.
If CC2520 will be providing clock to the microcontroller, GPIO0 should be connected to the clock
input of the microcontroller. After reset, GPIO0 will output a 1MHz clock signal with 50/50 duty cycle.
The digital IO of CC2520 is described in more detail from section 12.
9.9
Interfacing CC2520 and MSP430F2618
The MSP430F2618 is well suited for use with the CC2520. The suggested interfacing of these two chips is
given in Table 5. The interconnections shown in Table 6 are exactly the same as is used in the CC2520
development kit [5].
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Table 6: Interconnection of MSP430F2618 and CC2520
CC2520
MSP430F2618
VREG_EN
P01.0/TACLK/CAOUT
RESETn
P05.7/TBOUTH/SVSOUT
SCLK
P05.3/UCB1CLK/UCA1STE
SO
P05.2/UCB1SOMI/UCB1SCL
SI
P05.1/UCB1SIMO/UCB1SDA
CSn
P05.0/UCB1STE/UCA1CLK
GPIO0
P01.3/TA2
GPIO1
P01.5/TA0
GPIO2
P01.6/TA1
GPIO3
P01.1/TA0/BSLTX
GPIO4
P01.2/TA1
GPIO5
P01.7/TA2
A simplified drawing of the interconnection of MSP430F2618 and CC2520 is shown in Figure 8. For further
details on the MSP430F2618, please refer to [10].
RESETn
VREG_EN
4
SPI
6
GPIO
Figure 5: Interconnection of MSP430F2618 and CC2520
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10 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
The SPI provides an interface for giving instructions to the CC2520 and transferring data between CC2520
and a microcontroller. The CC2520 4-wire slave interface consists of three input signals (CSn, SCLK and SI)
and one output signal (SO).
In section 15 all instructions available via the SPI interface are listed and described. The instructions are
byte oriented and required bytes sent over the interface to CC2520 vary from 1 and up. To transfer one byte
CSn must be pulled low and SCLK must complete 8 periods starting with a positive edge. There are no
requirements to maximum period for SCLK or that it needs to be continuous. As long as CSn is held low,
SCLK can be halted at any time and started again when desired.
10.1 CSn
CSn is an input enable signal for the SPI and is controlled by the external MCU. The CSn signal is used as
an asynchronous active high reset to the SPI module.
CSn must be held low during all SPI operations and must also be held low for more than two periods of
XOSC before the first positive edge of SCLK and more than two periods of XOSC after the last negative
edge of SCLK.
When CSn is high it must be held high for at least 2 periods of XOSC.
CSn can be held low between SPI operations in the case where the last instruction completed has a
constant number of bytes, but this will result in unnecessary power consumption since parts of the
instruction controller will then be running.
The instructions that have a constant number of bytes can be found in the instruction summary table in
section 15.3. I.e. SRXON (1 byte) and RXMASKAND (3 bytes) has constant number of bytes and REGRD
(2 bytes or more) has user controlled number of bytes indicated in the table by three dots (…) in the byte
column after the last required byte of the instruction command (Byte 3 for REGRD).
Instructions that have user controlled number of bytes are ended by rising CSn.
Status is output as the first byte on SO during the first byte of all instructions. When instructions are
transferred consecutively without rising CSn between them, the status byte on SO may not contain the
correct current status. However, the status will be updated for the second byte of an instruction so i.e
RXMASKAND which outputs status also during the second instruction byte will then output the correct status
during the second byte.
When pulling CSn low after power-up, SO outputs the internal XOSC stable signal combinatorically, so no
edge on SCLK is necessary to find the XOSC stable status. In any case where CSn is pulled low and SO is
low it means that XOSC is still not stable and thus there is no clock in the digital part. The maximum time
from power up to XOSC should be stable is described in section 5.3.
10.2 SCLK
SCLK is controlled by an external MCU and is an input clock to CC2520. SCLK is asynchronous to the
internal XOSC clock in CC2520. The maximum SCLK frequency is 8 MHz. There is no minimum frequency
requirement.
10.3 SI
SI is the serial data input from the microcontroller to CC2520. Data shall be sent with MSB first (bit 7 in each
byte of instruction commands).
Data should be set up on the negative edge of SCLK and will be clocked into CC2520 by the next positive
edge of SCLK.
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10.4 SO
SO is serial data out from CC2520 to an external MCU. Data is clocked out on the negative edge of SCLK,
so the SO signal should be sampled on the following rising edge of SCLK. MSB (bit 7 in register definitions)
will be clocked out first.
SO is configured as an input when CSn is high or RESETn is low. Note that the SO pin should not be left
floating while in LPM1 or LPM2, as this will result in higher current consumption than necessary.
10.5 SPI Timing Requirements
tsclk
SCLK
I
CSn
I
tcsckh
tcsnh
tsclkl
tsclkh
tcscks
tsis
tsih
SI
I
SO
O
1
0
7
6
5
4
tsod
0
7
7
6
5
4
Figure 6: SPI timing relationships
The following table and figure shows required timing relations between an external microcontroller and the
SPI interface on CC2520.
Table 7: SPI timing requirements
34
PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
MIN
tcscks
CSn to SCLK setup time
62.5
TYP
MAX
ns
tcsckh
SCLK to CSn hold time
62.5
ns
tcsnh
CSn high
62.5
ns
tsclk
SCLK period
125
ns
tsclkh
SCLK high time
62.5
ns
tsclkl
SCLK low time
62.5
ns
tsis
SI to SCLK setup time
31
ns
tsih
SI to SCLK hold time
31
ns
tsod
SCLK to SO delay
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11 GPIO
CC2520 has 6 GPIO pins that can be individually configured as inputs, outputs and activate pull-up
resistors. Each GPIO has an associated register, GPIOCTRLn, where the MSB configure the pin to either
input or output. The GPIOCTRL register control pull-up for each individual GPIO pin, extra drive strength for
all pins and analog function for pin 0 and 1. See section 30 for details about test functionality and
observability through GPIO.
Note that GPIO5, which is configured as an input in LPM2, should be tied either to ground or VDD when
entering LPM2. If GPIO5 (or any other input) is left floating, the current consumption will be unpredictable.
11.1 Reset Configuration of GPIO Pins
The reset setting for GPIO pins are as shown in the table below. This is also the configuration that is used
when the device is in LPM2. If a different GPIO setup is required, the GPIOs have to be re-configured every
time CC2520 has been in LPM2.
This particular reset configuration was selected so that CC2520 looks as much like CC2420 as possible.
Table 8: GPIO reset state
GPIO Dir
pin
Value Pull
up
Extra
drive
Polarity
Signal
GPIOCTRLn
value (hex)
Description
0
Out
0
No
No
Positive
clock
0x00
1MHz clock signal with 50/50 duty cycle.
1
Out
0
No
No
Positive
fifo
0x27
High when one or more bytes are in the RX FIFO.
Low during RX FIFO overflow.
2
Out
0
No
No
Positive
fifop
0x28
High when the number of bytes in the RX FIFO
exceeds the programmable threshold or at least one
complete frame is in the RX FIFO. Also high during
RX FIFO overflow.
3
Out
0
No
No
Positive
cca
0x29
Clear channel assessment. See FSMSTAT1 register
for details on how to configure the behavior of this
signal.
4
Out
0
No
No
Positive
sfd
0x2A
Pin is high when SFD has been received or
transmitted. Cleared when leaving RX/TX
respectively.
5
In
Tie to No
ground
or VDD
No
Positive
0x90
No function
11.2 GPIO as Input
When configured as input, the GPIO pin can be used to trigger one of 16 different command strobes (See
section 15) as shown in the GPIO configuration table in section 12.6. These command strobes are a subset
of all the SPI instructions available. The command strobe is triggered by applying a rising or falling edge to
the GPIO pin depending on the setting in the GPIOPOLARITY register. Which command strobe the pin
triggers is set by the 7 LSBs in GPIOCTRLn.
Example: Set up GPIO2 to run SACK instruction on rising edge.
•
•
Set GPIOPOLARITY[2] to ‘1’. GPIO pin 2 set to rising edge active.
Set GPOICTRL2[7:0] to “1000 0101” . GPIO pin 2 is now an input and connected to the SACK
instruction.
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11.3 GPIO as Output
When a GPIO pin is configured as an output, the signal corresponding to the CTRLn setting in GPIOCTRLn
register (CTRLn values are shown in Table 8 in section 12.6). The polarity of the pin is set in the
GPIOPOLARITY register.
Example: Set up GPIO3 to output sniff_data with active high level indication.
•
•
Set GPIOPOLARITY[3] to ‘1’’. GPIO pin 3 set to active high level indication.
Set GPIOCTRL3[7:0] to “0011 0010”. GPIO pin 3 is now an output and outputs sniff_data.
11.4 Switching Direction on GPIO
When switching from output to input, care must be taken so that command strobes are not triggered
unintentionally. Changing GPIOn to a command strobe triggering input (one of the first 16 entries in Table 8)
needs to be done using the following procedure to avoid changing direction while the pin is high:
1. Write 0x7E to GPIOCTRLn to make it output a constant 0.
2. Drive a ‘0’ from the microcontroller to the GPIO pin.
3. Write for instance 0x88 to GPIOCTRLn to change to input that triggers the STXON command
strobe.
11.5 GPIO Configuration
Table 8 summarizes the signals that are available as output on any GPIO pin. The CTRLn column shows
the configuration value that needs to be written to any one of the GPIOCTRL0-GPIOCTRL5 registers in
order to get the described functionality. The IN column in Table 8 shows which command strobe that will be
executed if the GPIO is configured as input and an edge (with the correct polarity) is applied. The OUT
column shows the name of the internal signal that is observable on the pin if the GPIO is configured as an
output.
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Table 9: GPIO configuration
CTRLn
(hex)
IN
OUT
Description of OUT signal
0x00
SIBUFEX
Clock
Clock signal. Programmable frequency from 1MHz to 16MHz
0x01
SRXMASKBITCLR
RF_IDLE
RF_IDLE exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary for
details.
0x02
SRXMASKBITSET
TX_FRM_DONE
TX_FRM_DONE exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary
for details.
0x03
SRXON
TX_ACK_DONE
TX_ACK_DONE exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary
for details.
0x04
SSAMPLECCA
TX_UNDERFLOW
TX_UNDERFLOW exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary
for details.
0x05
SACK
TX_OVERFLOW
TX_OVERFLOW exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary
for details.
0x06
SACKPEND
RX_UNDERFLOW
RX_UNDERFLOW exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary
for details.
0x07
SNACK
RX_OVERFLOW
RX_OVERFLOW exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary
for details.
0x08
STXON
RXENABLE_ZERO
RXENABLE_ZERO exception. See Table 14: Exceptions
summary for details.
0x09
STXONCCA
RX_FRM_DONE
RX_FRM_DONE exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary
for details.
0x0A
SFLUSHRX
RX_FRM_ACCEPTED
RX_FRM_ACCEPTED exception. See Table 14: Exceptions
summary for details.
0x0B
SFLUSHTX
SRC_MATCH_DONE
SRC_MATCH_DONE exception. See Table 14: Exceptions
summary for details.
0x0C
SRXFIFOPOP
SRC_MATCH_FOUND
SRC_MATCH_FOUND exception. See Table 14: Exceptions
summary for details.
0x0D
STXCAL
FIFOP
FIFOP exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary for details.
0x0E
SRFOFF
SFD
SFD exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary for details.
0x0F
SXOSCOFF
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_L exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary for
details.
0x10
DPU_DONE_H
DPU_DONE_H exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary for
details.
0x11
MEMADDR_ERROR
MEMADDR_ERROR exception. See Table 14: Exceptions
summary for details.
0x12
USAGE_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary
for details.
0x13
OPERAND_ERROR
OPERAND_ERROR exception. See Table 14: Exceptions
summary for details.
0x14
SPI_ERROR
SPI_ERROR exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary for
details.
0x15
RF_NO_LOCK
RF_NO_LOCK exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary for
details.
0x16
RX_FRM_ABORTED
RX_FRM_ABORTED exception. See Table 14: Exceptions
summary for details.
0x17
RXBUFMOV_TIMEOUT
RXBUFMOV_TIMEOUT exception. See Table 14: Exceptions
summary for details.
0x18
UNUSED
UNUSED exception. See Table 14: Exceptions summary for
details.
...
Reserved
0x21
Exception channel A
(Command strobes)
Pin is high when one or more of the exception flags in collection A
are active. It is configurable which exceptions to include in
collection A.
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CTRLn
(hex)
IN
OUT
Description of OUT signal
0x22
Exception channel B
Pin is high when one or more of the exception flags in collection B
are active. It is configurable which exceptions to include in
collection B.
0x23
Complementary exception
channel A
Pin is high when one or more exception flags not in collection A
are active.
0x24
Complementary exception
channel B
Pin is high when one or more exception flags not in collection B
are active.
0x25
Predefined exception channel
for RX related errors.
Predefined exception channel. High when one or more of the
following exception flags are active: RX_UNDERFLOW,
RX_OVERFLOW, RX_FRM_ABORTED and
RXBUFMOV_TIMEOUT
0x26
Predefined exception channel
for general error conditions.
High when one or more of the following exception flags are active:
MEMADDR_ERROR, USAGE_ERROR, OPERAND_ERROR and
SPI_ERROR.
0x27
fifo
Pin is high when one or more bytes are in the RXFIFO. Low
during RXFIFO overflow.
0x28
fifop
Pin is high when the number of bytes in the RXFIFO exceeds the
programmable threshold or at least one complete frame is in the
RXFIFO. Also high during RXFIFO overflow. Not to be confused
with the FIFOP exception.
0x29
cca
Clear channel assessment. See FSMSTAT1 register for details on
how to configure the behavior of this signal.
0x2A
sfd
Pin is high when a SFD has been received or transmitted. Cleared
when leaving RX/TX respectively. Not to be confused with the
SFD exception.
0x2B
lock
Pin is high when frequency synthesizer is in lock.
0x2C
rssi_valid
Pin is high when the RSSI value has been updated at least once
since RX was started. Cleared when leaving RX.
0x2D
sampled_cca
A sampled version of the CCA bit from demodulator. The value is
updated whenever a SSAMPLECCA or STXONCCA strobe is
issued.
0x2E
rand_i
Random data output from the I channel of the receiver. Updated
at 8MHz.
0x2F
rand_q
Random data output from the Q channel of the receiver. Updated
at 8MHz
0x30
rand_xor_ i_q
XOR between I and Q random outputs. Updated at 8MHz
0x31
sniff_clk
250kHz clock for packet sniffer data.
0x32
sniff_data
Data from packet sniffer. Sample data on rising edges of sniff_clk.
0x33
mod_serial_clk
250kHz serial data clock from modulator.
0x34
mod_serial_data
Serial data from modulator. Sample data on rising edges of
mod_serial_clk.
...
Reserved
0x43
rx_active
(Command strobes)
Indicates that FFCTRL is in one of the RX states. Active high.
Note: This signal might have glitches, because it has no output
flip-flop and is based on the current state register of the FFCTRL
FSM.
0x44
tx_active
Indicates that FFCTRL is in one of the TX states. Active high.
Note: This signal might have glitches, because it has no output
flip-flop and is based on the current state register of the FFCTRL
FSM.
...
Reserved
0x5E
dpu_core_activepri(0)
High when the DPU is busy processing a low priority thread.
0x5F
dpu_core_activepri(1)
High when the DPU is busy processing a high priority thread.
38
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
CTRLn
(hex)
IN
OUT
Description of OUT signal
(Command strobes)
...
Reserved
0x62
dpu_state_l_active
High when low priority thread is pending or active.
0x63
dpu_state_h_active
High when high priority thread is pending or active.
…
Reserved
0x7E
‘0’
Constant value
0x7F
‘1’
Constant value
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39
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
12 Power Modes
CC2520 has three power modes as described below. In all these power modes the supply voltage is applied
to the circuit.
In Low Power Mode 2 (LPM2) the digital voltage regulator is turned off (VREG_EN=0) and no clocks are
running. No data is retained. All analog modules are in power down state.
In Low Power Mode 1 (LPM1) the digital voltage regulator is on (VREG_EN=1), but no clocks are running.
Data is retained. The power down signals to the analog modules are controlled by the digital part.
In Active mode the digital voltage regulator is on (VREG_EN=1) and the crystal oscillator clock is running.
The power down signals to the analog modules are controlled by the digital part.
12.1 Switching Between Power Modes
When the device has been in LPM2, all register content is lost. To bring the device up to active mode, a
reset is required or the device will be in an unknown state. The reset can be applied either by setting the
RESETn pin low, or issuing a reset instruction (SRES) over the SPI. It is recommended that the RESETn
method is used, because it will give a controlled start and automatic start of the crystal oscillator.
Before entering LPM2, it is strongly recommended that the device is reset. This way, the configuration will
always be the same when the power to the digital part is removed, and it is less likely that there will be
issues with current spikes or other side effects of the power being removed.
Set RESETn=1
Set VREG_EN=1
Wait until regulator
has stabilized.
Use a timeout.
Set RESETn=0
Set VREG_EN=1
SRES
Wait until regulator
has stabilized.
Use a timeout.
SXOSCON
SNOP
Set RESETn=1
Set CSn=0
Set CSn=0
LPM2
Set VREG_EN=0
Set GPIO5=0
Set RESETn=0
Set CSn=1
SRES
Wait until SO=1
Set CSn=1
SXOSCOFF
(Radio must be idle)
LPM1
SXOSCON
SNOP
Set CSn=0 and
wait until SO=1
Active mode
Set CSn=1
Figure 7: Procedures for switching between power modes.
40
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
12.2 Power Up Sequence Using RESETn (recommended)
When the RESETn pin is used it must be held low until the internal regulator has stabilized. This typically
takes 0.1 ms. When the RESETn pin is set high, the crystal oscillator (in the CC2520 reference design) uses
typically 0.2 ms to start. See section 6 for crystal specific parameters.
The GPIO pins are configured according to Table 8: GPIO reset state when power is applied to the chip and
RESETn is held low.
VDD
I
VREG_EN
I
RESETn
I
Tdres
O
CSn
I
SCLK
I
SI
GPIO
[5..0] IO
Txr
Internal XOSC
O
SO
O
XOSC stable and running
Figure 8: Power up sequence using RESETn
12.3 Power Up With SRES
If one prefers to use the SRES command strobe to reset the device after powering up, the CSn signal must
be set low and SRES must be issued after the internal regulator has stabilized. Until the SRES command
strobe has been issued, the chip will be in an unknown state. Note that this means it could theoretically for
instance be transmitting.
The time from power is applied to the XOSC has started depends on the clock frequency used on the SPI
(max 8MHz) and the startup time for the crystal.
Note that the crystal oscillator does not necessarily start automatically when the SRES command strobe is
issued. That means one also has to issue an SXOSCON command strobe to be sure that the oscillator
starts. Unlike the RESETn pin, the SRES command strobe will not influence the state of the crystal
oscillator, so if the oscillator accidentally comes up in the “off” state, issuing a SRES will not make it start.
VDD
I
VREG_EN
I
RESETn
I
Tdres
O
CSn
I
SCLK
I
SI
GPIO
SRES B0
SRES B1
SXOSCON
SNOP
[5..0] IO
Txr
Internal XOSC
O
SO
O
XOSC stable and running
STATUS
STATUS
STATUS
STATUS
Figure 9: Power up sequence using SRES
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41
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
Table 10: Start-up Timing
Name
Description
Time
Tdres
Time required after VREG_EN is activated until RESETn is released or CSn
is set low.
≥ 0.1 ms
Txr
Time for internal XOSC to stabilize after RESETn is released or SXOSCON
strobe is issued.
0.2 ms (crystal dependent)
42
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
13 Instruction Set
The CC2520 has a comprehensive instruction set. The instructions are transferred to CC2520 via the SPI,
and can consist of one or more bytes. The first byte contains the unique op-code and the following bytes are
parameters needed to execute the selected instruction. In the following sections, every instruction and
parameter is described in detail.
13.1 Definitions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
All parameters and data are transferred over the SPI with their most significant bit first and their
least significant bit last.
For instructions that read data from CC2520, the data byte will replace the status byte on the SO
pin.
Address parameters point to the least significant byte in a block of data. The address A+1 contains
the next but least significant byte and so on.
When CC2520 automatically increments addresses, it will wrap around when incrementing beyond
the highest possible address (0xFFF).
An instruction is ended by either sending the complete instruction (for finite instructions) or raising
CSn (For infinite instructions, indicated by “...” in the instructions summary).
Once an instruction is ended a new instruction can be started.
If an instruction is ended before it is complete or if the instruction is not recognized, an
OPERAND_ERROR exception is raised.
If the user sets parameter bits explicitly marked as ‘0’ in instruction summary table to ‘1’ an
OPERAND_ERROR exception is raised.
When an instruction is aborted an error exception is raised and the SPI interface ceases to receive
further data until CSn has been set high then low again. The instruction that was aborted may have
made changes to memory contents before it was aborted.
If the SPI interface is reset (by pulling CSn high) in the middle of an SPI byte transfer (i.e. not
between bytes) an SPI_ERROR exception is raised.
13.2 Instruction Descriptions
The codes shown below are used in the descriptions of the instructions. They represent bits selectable by
the user. A sequence of bits thus represented by the same letter, even when spanning multiple bytes
represents a word with a width equal to the number of repeated letters and with MSB the leftmost bit in the
first byte transferred with this encoding. Such words may be represented in the text as a capital letter of the
encoding letter in which case they shall be interpreted as a positive integer encoded by the bits represented
in the encoding by the same letter only in lower-case.
Note that the bits that refer to one such integer need not be continuous in the encoding. So the encoding
aaaaeeee aaaaaaaa eeeeeeee represents two 12 bit words transferred in three bytes with the most
significant bits of each word transferred in the first byte.
Table 11: Codes used in instruction set description
Code
Description
a, e, k, n
Address data
b
Bit address
i
Instruction
d
Data
s
Status byte
p
Priority
m
Security parameter
c, f
Count
-
Don’t care
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43
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
Table 12: CC2520 instruction set
OPCODE
Inputs
Outputs
Description
Possible exceptions
Peripheral instructions
IBUFLD
i[7:0]
s[7:0]
Load instruction into instruction buffer. The instruction
buffer holds a single instruction 1 byte long. The
instruction to be loaded, I, is held and shall be parsed as
a normal instruction when SIBUFEX is executed as if
those bytes had just been transferred to the SPI
interface.
Once the instruction held in the instruction buffer is
executed it is replaced by SNOP.
SIBUFEX
s[7:0]
Command strobe
Execute the instruction stored in the instruction buffer as
though those bytes had been transferred on the SPI
interface.
USAGE_ERROR
Special.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if the instructions
stored are not valid for use with the instruction buffer.
The executed instruction may raise any exception it
normally can.
SSAMPLECCA
s[7:0]
Sample the value of the CCA status signal, and store in
status register.
SNOP
s[7:0]
No Operation (has no other effect than reading out
status-bits)
SXOSCON
s[7:0]
Turn on the crystal oscillator. If this instruction is
executed when the XOSC is already on, the instruction
has no effect.
Command strobe
OPERAND_ERROR
This instruction can only be run as the first instruction
after CSn has been pulled low.
Must be immediately followed by a SNOP instruction in
order to terminate properly.
STXCAL
s[7:0]
Command strobe
Enable and calibrate frequency synthesizer for TX; Go
from RX / TX to a wait state where only the synthesizer
is running. For test purposes only.
RX_FRM_ABORTED
If a frame is currently being received a
RX_FRM_ABORTED exception is raised.
SRXON
s[7:0]
Command strobe
STXON
RX_FRM_ABORTED
If a frame is currently being received a
RX_FRM_ABORTED exception is raised.
s[7:0]
Command strobe
STXONCCA
Enable RX.
Enable TX after calibration (if not already performed)
RX_FRM_ABORTED
If a frame is currently being received a
RX_FRM_ABORTED exception is raised.
s[7:0]
If CCA indicates a clear channel:
Command strobe
Enable calibration, then TX.
else
do nothing
Also sample the value of the CCA status signal, and
store in status register.
SRFOFF
Command strobe
s[7:0]
Disable RX/TX and frequency synthesizer.
If RX, TX and frequency synthesizer is already off a
USAGE_ERROR exception is raised and the instruction
has no effect.
If a frame is currently being received a
RX_FRM_ABORTED exception is raised.
44
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USAGE_ERROR
RX_FRM_ABORTED
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
OPCODE
Inputs
SXOSCOFF
Outputs
Description
Possible exceptions
s[7:0]
Turn off the crystal oscillator.
USAGE_ERROR
If the RF section is not idle a USAGE_ERROR is
generated.
RX_FRM_ABORTED
Command strobe
If a frame is currently being received a
RX_FRM_ABORTED exception is raised.
SFLUSHRX
s[7:0]
Command strobe
Flush the RX FIFO and reset the demodulator.
RX_FRM_ABORTED
If a frame is currently being received a
RX_FRM_ABORTED exception is raised.
SFLUSHTX
s[7:0]
Flush the TX FIFO
s[7:0]
Send acknowledgement frame, with the frame pendig
subfield cleared, following reception of the current frame.
Command strobe
SACK
Command strobe
USAGE_ERROR
Raises USAGE_ERROR exception if a frame is currently
not being received. In this case no ACK frame is sent.
SACKPEND
s[7:0]
Command strobe
Send acknowledgement frame, with the frame pendig
subfield set, following reception of the current frame.
USAGE_ERROR
Raises USAGE_ERROR exception if a frame is currently
not being received. In this case no ACK frame is sent.
SNACK
s[7:0]
Command strobe
Do not send an acknowledgement frame to the currently
received frame, even if the rfr_autoack is set.
USAGE_ERROR
Raises USAGE_ERROR exception if a frame is currently
not being received. In this case no ACK frame is sent.
SRXMASKBITSET
s[7:0]
Set bit 13 in the RXMASK.
s[7:0]
Clear bit 13 in the RXMASK.
Command strobe
SRXMASKBITCLR
Command strobe
RXENABLE_ZERO
Raises RXENABLE_ZERO exception if this causes the
RXENABE registers to be zero.
RXMASKOR
d[15:0]
s[7:0]
Perform bitwise OR between RX enable mask and D.
RXMASKAND
d[15:0]
s[7:0]
Perform bitwise AND between RX enable mask and D.
Raises RXENABLE_ZERO exception if this causes the
RXENABLE registers to be zero.
RXENABLE_ZERO
Data IO
BSET
a[7:3]
b[2:0]
s[7:0]
Set a single bit. Writes 1 to bit B in address A. This is
done without affecting the value of, or triggering sideeffects of other bits at the same address. Only the
address range [0, 31] is accessible with this instruction.
MEMADDR_ERROR
BCLR
a[7:3]
b[2:0]
s[7:0]
Clear a single bit. Writes 0 to bit B in address A. This is
done without affecting the value of, or triggering sideeffects of other bits at the same address. Only the
address range [0, 31] is accessible with this instruction.
MEMADDR_ERROR
MEMRD
a[11:0]
s[7:0]
d[7:0]
...
Read memory. The n’th byte of data D is read from
address (A+n). Note that when an address with LSB=0 is
read the content of the corresponding address with
LSB=1 is buffered. If that address is read immediately
after within the same MEMRD instruction, the buffered
copy is read. In this way a read of a complete 16 bit word
is performed as an atomic operation.
MEMADDR_ERROR
MEMWR
a[11:0]
d[7:0]
...
s[7:0]
d[7:0]
...
Write memory. The n’th byte of data D input with the
instruction is written to address (A+n).
MEMADDR_ERROR
a[5:0]
s[7:0]
d[7:0]
...
Same functionality as MEMRD, except the operation can
only be started from addresses below 0x40.
REGRD
In addition, the n’th byte of data D output from the
instruction is the unaltered data read from the memory
location (A+n).
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MEMADDR_ERROR
45
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
OPCODE
Inputs
Outputs
Description
Possible exceptions
REGWR
a[5:0]
d[7:0]
...
s[7:0]
d[7:0]
...
Same functionality as MEMWR, except the operation
can only be started from addresses below 0x40.
MEMADDR_ERROR
MEMXWR
a[11:0]
d[7:0]
...
s[7:0]
d[7:0]
...
XOR memory. Writes the bitwise XOR of the n’t data
byte D following the instruction and the current contents
of address (A+n) to memory location (A+n).
MEMADDR_ERROR
In addition, the n’th byte of data D output from the
instruction is the unaltered data read from the memory
location (A+n).
RXBUF
s[7:0]
d[7:0]
...
Read the oldest byte in the RX FIFO. At the first data
transfer the oldest byte in the RX FIFO is read and
removed from the RX FIFO. This operation is repeated
for subsequent SPI transfers.
RX_UNDERFLOW
If this instruction is performed when the RX FIFO is
empty, an RX_UNDERFLOW exception is raised.
Note: Do not execute RXBUF while RXBUFMOV is in
progress. It could result in loss of data.
RXBUFCP
a[11:0]
s[7:0]
c[7:0]
d[7:0]
...
This instruction functions as RXBUF except it also
copies the data bytes read from the RX FIFO to the
memory location starting at address A.
RX_UNDERFLOW
The second byte transferred is the number of bytes, C,
currently in the RX FIFO.
Note: Do not execute RXBUFCP while RXBUFMOV is in
progress. It could result in loss of data.
TXBUF
d[7:0]
...
s[7:0]
c[7:0]
Write to the end of TX FIFO. Data bytes transferred after
the opcode are appended to the end of TX FIFO.
TX_OVERFLOW
The SPI interface will output the number of bytes, C, in
TX FIFO before the currently transferred byte has been
entered. I.e. 0x00 is returned when transferring the first
byte to TX FIFO.
If this instruction is performed when the TX FIFO is full, a
TX_OVERFLOW exception is raised.
RANDOM
...
s[7:0]
d[7:0]
...
RXBUFMOV
p
a[11:0]
c[7:0]
s[7:0]
c[7:0]
Read randomly generated bytes D, generated from noise
in the receiver chain.
Data management instructions
Moves the C oldest bytes from the RX FIFO to the
memory location starting at address A.
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
An RXBUFMOV_TIMEOUT exception is raised if the RX
FIFO empties before the instruction is completed, as
defined by DPUCON.RXTIM. The remaining bytes to be
moved is available in status register. Note that running
RXBUFMOV on high priority with DPUCON.RXTIM=’1’
will block execution of other DPU instructions while a
frame is beeing received, which is more than 4ms for a
128 byte frame.
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
46
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RXBUFMOV_TIMEOUT
OPERAND_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
MEMADDR_ERROR
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
OPCODE
Inputs
Outputs
Description
Possible exceptions
TXBUFCP
p
a[11:0]
c[7:0]
s[7:0]
c[7:0]
Copy C bytes of data starting from the memory location
starting at address A to the end of TXBUF.
T
T
The SPI interface will output the number of bytes, C, in
TXBUF.
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
TX_OVERFLOW
OPERAND_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
MEMADDR_ERROR
If TXBUF fills before the operation is completed a
TX_OVERFLOW exception is raised. The remaining
bytes to be moved is available in status register.
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
MEMCP
p
c[7:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
s[7:0]
Copy data from one memory block to another. Copies
the block of C bytes of data from the memory location
starting at address A to the memory location starting at
address E.
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
MEMCPR
p
c[7:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
s[7:0]
Copy data from one memory block to another, and revert
endianess. Copies the block of C bytes of data from the
memory location starting at address A to the memory
location starting at address E, while reverting the
endianess of the data block. I.e., data from memory
location (A+n) is written to memory location (E+C-1-n).
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
MEMXCP
p
c[7:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
s[7:0]
XOR one memory block with another memory block. The
input to the instruction are two memory blocks, both of
size C bytes, starting at address A and E respectively.
The output is the bitwise XOR of the two memory blocks,
written to the memory location starting at address E.
MEMADDR_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
USAGE_ERROR
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
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47
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
OPCODE
Inputs
Outputs
Description
Possible exceptions
Security instructions
INC
p
c[1:0]
a[11:0]
s[7:0]
C
Increment the 2 byte word with least significant byte at
th
address A. The n least significant byte beyond the least
is located at address (A+n). (n’ < n means n’ has less
significance than n)
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
C shall be in the range 0 through 2, i.e. 1, 2 or 4 bytes
are incremented. If C equals 3, a USAGE_ERROR
exception shall be raised.
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
The instruction will always access 4 bytes regardless of
the C parameter, so a MEMADDR_ERROR exception is
raised if A > 0x3FC.
ECB
p
k[7:0]
c[3:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
s[7:0]
ECB encryption. Encrypt one 16 byte block of plaintext
consisting of (16-C) bytes of data read from memory,
starting at address A, concatenated with C zero-bytes,
using the key stored at address (16⋅K) and storing the
output at address E.
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
The output is 16 AES-128 encrypted bytes.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
ECBO
p
k[7:0]
c[3:0]
a[11:0]
s[7:0]
ECB encryption. Encrypt one 16 byte block of plaintext
consisting of (16-C) bytes of data read from memory,
starting at address A, concatenated with C zero-bytes,
using the key stored at address (16⋅K) and storing the
output by overwriting the data from address A.
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
The output is 16 AES-128 encrypted bytes.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
ECBX
48
p
k[7:0]
c[3:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
s[7:0]
ECB encryption and XOR. As ECB except each
ciphertext byte is bitwise XOR’ed with the existing byte in
the destination address E before it is written to that
address.
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USAGE_ERROR
MEMADDR_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
OPCODE
Inputs
Outputs
Description
Possible exceptions
CTR
p
k[7:0]
c[6:0]
n[7:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
s[7:0]
Encryption instruction using counter mode encryption.
Process C bytes of plaintext with a starting address at A
using the key stored at address (16⋅K), the counter
stored at address (16⋅N) storing the output starting at
address E.
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
If the destination address E provided in the instruction
equals zero, the destination address E is set equal to A,
thereby replacing the plaintext directly with the ciphertext
(or vice versa, in the case of an UCTR instruction).
The output is C encrypted bytes processed according to
802.15.4 standard for security level 4 (CTR).
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
UCTR
CBCMAC
p
k[7:0]
c[6:0]
n[7:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
s[7:0]
p
k[7:0]
c[6:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
m[2:0]
s[7:0]
Decryption instruction using CTR mode decryption.
This instruction is the same as CTR, since counter mode
encryption and decryption are symmetrical operations.
Authentication instruction using CBC-MAC security.
Process C bytes of plaintext starting at address A, using
the key stored at address (16⋅K), storing the output
starting at address E.
T
T
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
OPERAND_ERROR
If the destination address E provided in the instruction
equals zero, the destination address E is set equal to (A
+ C), thereby writing the output directly following the
plaintext input data.
The output is 4, 8, or 16 bytes of integrity code for
instructions M[1:0] equals 1, 2, or 3 respectively. For
M[1:0]=0, no integrity code output is generated.
If M[2]=0, the plaintext data to be authenticated is
automatically prefixed with C, as used in IEEE 802.15.42003.
If M[2]=1, the plaintext data is not prefixed with C. This
mode can be used for backwards compatibility with
existing systems.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
WWW.TI.COM
49
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
OPCODE
Inputs
Outputs
Description
Possible exceptions
UCBCMAC
p
k[7:0]
c[6:0]
a[11:0]
m[2:0]
s[7:0]
Reverse authentication instruction using CBC-MAC
security. Process C bytes of plaintext starting at address
A, using the key stored at address (16⋅K)
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
The instruction generates 4, 8, or 16 bytes of integrity
code (for M[1:0] equals 1, 2 or 3 respectively) and
compares them to the received integrity code at address
(A + C). The result (pass / fail) is stored in the AUTHSH /
AUTHSL status bits for high / low priority security
operations respectively. For M[1:0]=0, no integrity code
checking is performed and the result will always be
‘pass’.
If M[2]=0, the plaintext data to be authenticated is
automatically prefixed with C, as used in IEEE 802.15.42003.
If M[2]=1, the plaintext data is not prefixed with C. This
mode can be used for backwards compatibility with
existing systems.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
CCM
p
k[7:0]
c[6:0]
n[7:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
f[6:0]
m[1:0]
s[7:0]
Encryption and authentication instruction using CCM /
CCM* security. Authenticate F bytes of plaintext starting
at address A. Authenticate and encrypt C bytes starting
at address (A+F). Use the key stored at address (16⋅K),
the counter starting at address (16⋅N) and storing the
output starting at address E.
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
If the destination address E provided in the instruction
equals zero, the destination address E is set equal to
(A+F), thereby replacing the last C bytes of plaintext with
the ciphertext and the integrity code.
The output is C encrypted bytes followed by 0, 4, 8 or 16
bytes of integrity code for M equals 0, 1, 2 or 3
respectively.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
A USAGE_ERROR exception is also raised if ((C+F) >
128).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
50
WWW.TI.COM
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
OPCODE
Inputs
Outputs
Description
Possible exceptions
UCCM
p
k[7:0]
c[6:0]
n[7:0]
a[11:0]
e[11:0]
f[6:0]
m[1:0]
s[7:0]
Decryption and reverse authentication instruction using
CCM / CCM* security. Authenticate F bytes of plaintext
with a starting at address A. Decrypt and authenticate C
bytes starting at address (A+F). Use the key stored at
address (16⋅K), the counter stored at address (16⋅N),
storing the output starting at address E.
MEMADDR_ERROR
USAGE_ERROR
DPU_DONE_L
DPU_DONE_H
T
T
The priority of the instruction is defined by P, which is
either low (if P=0) or high (if P=1).
The output is C plaintext bytes. Note that for the
authentication part of the instruction to succed, these
bytes should be written back to the address the
ciphertext was read from (A+F). This can easily be done
by setting E=0x000.
In addition, the instruction generates 0, 4, 8, or 16 bytes
of encrypted integrity code (for M equals 0, 1, 2 or 3
respectively) and compares them to the stored integrity
code at address (A+C+F). The result (pass / fail) is
stored in the AUTHSH / AUTHSL status bits for high /
low priority security operations respectively.
A USAGE_ERROR exception is raised if an instruction is
already active with the requested priority level (high or
low).
A USAGE_ERROR exception is also raised if
((C+F) > 128).
A DPU_DONE_L or DPU_DONE_H exception is raised
when the operation completes, depending on the priority
of the instruction. This happens regardless of whether
the operation was successful or not.
Other
ABORT
c[1:0]
s[7:0]
Abort ongoing data management or security instruction.
c[1]=1: Abort high priority data management or security
instructions
c[0]=1: Abort low priority data management or security
instructions
c[1]=0: Don’t abort high priority data management or
security instructions
c[0]=0: Don’t abort low priority data management or
security instructions
Once a class of instructions is aborted, the ongoing
instruction is immediately ended leaving the device state
as it is at that time. Any pending data management
instructions are flushed.
SRES
s[7:0]
Reset the device except the SPI interface.
This instruction can only be run as the first instruction
after CSn has been pulled low.
13.3 Instruction Set Summary
A summary of the CC2520 instruction set with op-codes is shown in the table below.
WWW.TI.COM
51
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
Mnemonic
SNOP
Pin
SI
SO
IBUFLD
SI
SO
SIBUFEX
SI
SO
SSAMPLECCA
SI
SO
SRES
SI
SO
MEMRD
SI
SO
MEMWR
SI
SO
RXBUF
SI
SO
RXBUFCP
SI
SO
RXBUFMOV
SI
SO
TXBUF
SI
SO
TXBUFCP
SI
SO
RANDOM
SI
SO
SXOSCON
SI
SO
STXCAL
SI
SO
SRXON
SI
SO
STXON
SI
SO
STXONCCA
SI
SO
SRFOFF
SI
SO
SXOSCOFF
SI
SO
SFLUSHRX
SI
SO
SFLUSHTX
SI
SO
SACK
SI
SO
SACKPEND
SI
SO
SNACK
SI
SO
SRXMASKBITSET SI
SO
SRXMASKBITCLR SI
SO
RXMASKAND
SI
SO
RXMASKOR
SI
SO
MEMCP
SI
SO
MEMCPR
SI
SO
MEMXCP
SI
SO
MEMXWR
SI
SO
BCLR
SI
SO
BSET
SI
SO
CTR / UCTR
SI
SO
CBCMAC
SI
SO
UCBCMAC
SI
SO
CCM
SI
SO
UCCM
SI
SO
ECB
SI
SO
ECBO
SI
SO
ECBX
SI
SO
INC
SI
SO
ABORT
SI
SO
REGRD
SI
SO
REGWR
SI
SO
52
Byte 1
7 6 5 4
0 0 0 0
s s s s
0 0 0 0
s s s s
0 0 0 0
s s s s
0 0 0 0
s s s s
0 0 0 0
s s s s
0 0 0 1
s s s s
0 0 1 0
s s s s
0 0 1 1
s s s s
0 0 1 1
s s s s
0 0 1 1
s s s s
0 0 1 1
s s s s
0 0 1 1
s s s s
0 0 1 1
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 0
s s s s
0 1 0 1
s s s s
0 1 0 1
s s s s
0 1 0 1
s s s s
0 1 0 1
s s s s
0 1 0 1
s s s s
0 1 0 1
s s s s
0 1 1 0
s s s s
0 1 1 0
s s s s
0 1 1 0
s s s s
0 1 1 0
s s s s
0 1 1 0
s s s s
0 1 1 1
s s s s
0 1 1 1
s s s s
0 1 1 1
s s s s
0 1 1 1
s s s s
0 1 1 1
s s s s
1 0a a
s s s s
1 1a a
s s s s
3
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
a
s
a
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
a
s
a
s
2
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
a
s
a
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
a
s
a
s
1
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
a
s
a
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
a
s
a
s
0
0
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
a
s
a
s
0
s
0
s
p
s
0
s
p
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
0
s
1
s
p
s
p
s
p
s
0
s
0
s
1
s
p
s
p
s
p
s
p
s
p
s
p
s
p
s
p
s
p
s
1
s
a
s
a
s
Byte2
Byte3
Byte4
Byte5
Byte6
Byte7
Byte8
Byte9
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
i i i i i i i i
s s s s s s s s
s
a
s
a
s
d
0
c
c
c
d
c
c
c
-
s
a
s
a
s
d
0
c
c
c
d
c
c
c
-
s
a
s
a
s
d
0
c
c
c
d
c
c
c
-
s
a
s
a
s
d
0
c
c
c
d
c
c
c
-
s
a
s
a
s
d
a
c
c
c
d
c
c
c
-
s
a
s
a
s
d
a
c
c
c
d
c
c
c
-
s
a
s
a
s
d
a
c
c
c
d
c
c
c
-
s
a
s
a
s
d
a
c
c
c
d
c
c
c
-
d
s
d
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
0
s
a
s
a
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
0
s
0
s
d
d
d
d
s
d
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
0
s
a
s
a
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
0
s
0
s
d
d
d
d
s
d
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
0
s
a
s
a
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
c
s
0
s
d
d
d
d
s
d
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
0
s
a
s
a
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
c
s
0
s
d
d
d
d
s
d
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
a
s
0
s
d
d
d
d
s
d
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
b
s
b
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
a
s
0
s
d
d
d
d
s
d
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
b
s
b
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
a
s
c
s
d
d
d
d
s
d
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
b
s
b
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
k
s
a
s
c
s
d
d
d
- d d
d d
d d
...
...
a a
s s
0 0
s s
d d
s s
0 0
s s
- d d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
...
...
...
...
a
s
0
s
d
s
0
s
d
a
s
0
s
d
s
0
s
d
a
s
a
s
d
s
a
s
d
a
s
a
s
d
s
a
s
d
a
s
a
s
d
s
a
s
d
a
s
a
s
d
s
a
s
d
- d d
a a
s s
...
...
a a
s s
...
...
d
a
s
d
s
d
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
s
d
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
s
d
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
s
d
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
s
d
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
a
s
d
s
d
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
a
s
d
s
d
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
a
s
d
s
d
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
d
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
d
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
d
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
d
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
d
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
d
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
d
a
s
a
s
a
s
d
d
e e
s s
e e
s s
e e
s s
...
...
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
0
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
c
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
n
s
a
s
0
s
n
s
n
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
n
s
a
s
0
s
n
s
n
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
n
s
a
s
0
s
n
s
n
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
n
s
a
s
0
s
n
s
n
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
n
s
e
s
a
s
n
s
n
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
n
s
e
s
a
s
n
s
n
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
n
s
e
s
a
s
n
s
n
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
n
s
e
s
a
s
n
s
n
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
0
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
0
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
a
s
0
s
e
s
a
s
a
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
a
s
a
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
a
s
a
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
e
s
a
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- ...
d ...
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a a a a a a
s s s s s s
...
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s s s s
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s s s
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0 0 0 0e e e e e e e e e e e e
s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s
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mmm
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mm
s s
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
13.4 Status Byte
All instructions sent over the SPI to CC2520 result in a status byte being output on SO when the first byte of
the instruction is clocked in on SI. The status byte is latched internally when a falling edge is detected on
CSn and on the last falling edge of SCLK within each byte. The latched status value is then shifted out on
the following falling SCLK edges.
The SNOP instruction can be used to read the status byte without causing any side effects.
Table 13: Status byte contents
Status byte (MSB clocked out first)
Bit no
Signal
Description
7
XOSC stable and running
0: XOSC off or not yet stable
1: XOSC stable and running (Digital part has clock)
6
RSSI valid
0: RSSI value is not valid
1: RSSI value is valid
5
EXCEPTION channel A
0: No exceptions selected in EXCMASKAn has corresponding flag
in EXCFLAGn set
1: At least one exception selected in EXCMASKAn has
corresponding flag EXCFLAGn set
4
EXCEPTION channel B
0: No exceptions selected in EXCMASKBn has corresponding flag
in EXCFLAGn set
1: At least one exception selected in EXCMASKBn has
corresponding flag EXCFLAGn set
3
DPU H active
0: No high priority DPU instruction is currently active.
1: A high priority DPU instruction is currently active.
2
DPU L active
0: No low priority DPU instruction is currently active.
1: A low priority DPU instruction is currently active.
1
TX active
0: Device is not in TX mode
1: Device is in TX mode
0
RX active
0: Device is not in RX mode
1: Device is in RX mode
13.5 Command Strobes
Most of the instructions in section 15.3 that are only one byte long are referred to as command strobes.
There are two exceptions to this: SNOP and SXOSCON. SNOP is used to read the status byte without
causing any side effects. SXOSCON turns on the crystal oscillator and must be run via the SPI. It is not
possible to load SXOSCON into the instruction buffer using IBUFLD and then execute it using IBUFEX.
The command strobes can be executed by configuring GPIO pins as input in accordance to GPIO
configuration table in section 12.6 and be triggered with a selected edge in the GPIOPOLARITY register.
Thus SPI traffic can be omitted for command strobes.
There are also two channels, X and Y, for binding exceptions to the command strobes, so that CC2520 may
automatically react to different internal events. This feature is described in more detail in section 16.1.
13.6 Command Strobe Buffer
The command strobe buffer provides another mechanism for execution of command strobes. The buffer is
loaded with the help of the IBUFLD instruction sent via SPI. Once the buffer is loaded, the instruction is
executed when CC2520 receives the SIBUFX strobe. The SIBUFX strobe can be triggered from any of the
triggering sources (SPI, GPIO, exceptions bound to SIBUFX instruction). When the instruction in the
instruction buffer has been executed, it is replaced by a SNOP instruction. If both the SIBUFEX strobe and
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the IBUFLD instruction are received at the same time, the old command strobe is executed. The new strobe
that the user tried to write to the buffer is lost and will never be executed.
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14 Exceptions
Exceptions in CC2520 are used to indicate that different events have occurred. Exceptions are used both for
error conditions such as incorrect use of the SPI and for events that are perfectly normal and expected such
as transmission of a start of frame delimiter (SFD). Exception flags are stored in status registers and can be
read over the SPI or observed on GPIO. To clear an exception flag, the user must write ‘0’ to the correct bit
in the status register. If the user tries to clear an exception flag in the exact same clock period as the same
exception occurs, the flag will not be cleared.
Table 14 shows a summary of the available exceptions in CC2520. The NUM column shows how the
exceptions are numbered. The number correspond to the bits in the EXCFLAGn registers, and must be
used when binding exceptions to instructions.
Table 14: Exceptions summary
Mnemonic
Num
(hex)
Description
RF_IDLE
0x00
The main radio FSM enters its idle state from any other state. This
exception is not generated when the FSM enters the idle state because of
a device reset.
TX_FRM_DONE
0x01
TX frame successfully transmitted, which means that TX FIFO is empty
and no underflow occurred. Exception is not generated when TX is aborted
with SRFOFF, SRXON or STXON.
TX_ACK_DONE
0x02
ACK frame successfully transmitted. Exception is not generated when the
acknowledge transmission is aborted with SRFOFF, SRXON or STXON.
TX_UNDERFLOW
0x03
Underflow has occurred in the TX FIFO. TX is aborted and the TX FIFO
must be flushed.
TX_OVERFLOW
0x04
An attempt was made to write to TX FIFO while it is full. The instruction is
aborted.
RX_UNDERFLOW
0x05
An attempt has been made to read the RX FIFO without any bytes
available to read. Instruction is aborted.
Note that the RX_UNDERFLOW exception should only be used for
debugging software, and should not be trusted in a RX FIFO readout
routine. In some scenarios the RX_UNDERFLOW exception will not be
issued when a reading starts even when the RX_FIFO is empty.
RX_OVERFLOW
0x06
An attempt has been made by RF_core to write to RX FIFO while the RX
FIFO is full. The byte that was attempted written to the RX FIFO is lost.
Reception of data is aborted and the FSM enters the rx_overflow state.
Recommended action is to issue a SFLUSHRX command strobe to empty
the RX FIFO and restart RX.
RXENABLE_ZERO
0x07
RX enable register has changed value to all zeros.
RX_FRM_DONE
0x08
A complete frame has been received. I.E the number of bytes set by the
length field is received.
RX_FRM_ACCEPTED
0x09
When frame filtering is enabled, this exception is generated when a frame
is accepted (happens immediately after receiving the fields required to
determine the outcome).
SRC_MATCH_DONE
0x0A
When source address matching is enabled, this exception is generated
upon completion of source address matching. The exception is generated
regardless of the result.
SRC_MATCH_FOUND
0x0B
If a source match is found, this exception is generated immediately before
SRC_MATCH_DONE.
FIFOP
0x0C
The RX FIFO is filled up with bytes that have passed address filtering to
the FIFOP threshold value defined in register, or at least one complete
frame has been written to the RX FIFO. High when FFCTRL is in the
rx_overflow state.
SFD
0x0D
Start of frame delimiter received when in RX or start of frame delimiter
transmitted when in TX.
DPU_DONE_L
0x0E
Low priority DPU operation completed. Will not be issued if operation fails
or is aborted.
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Mnemonic
Num
(hex)
Description
DPU_DONE_H
0x0F
High priority DPU operation completed. Will not be issued if operation fails
or is aborted.
MEMADDR_ERROR
0x10
An illegal address has been used for an instruction. Instruction is aborted.
USAGE_ERROR
0x11
Instruction performed in a context that does not permit this instruction.
Instruction is aborted.
OPERAND_ERROR
0x12
Wrong format for instruction. Instruction is aborted. This will happen for a
multi-byte fixed-length instruction if CSn is raised on a byte boundary but
before the required number of operands has been transferred.
SPI_ERROR
0x13
An SPI transfer was aborted by raising CSn in the middle of a byte. (I.e.
not on a byte boundary)
RF_NO_LOCK
0x14
If no lock has been found before 256 us after entering RX this exception
will go active. Also a negative edge on LOCK_STATUS when in RX will
trigger this exception.
RX_FRM_ABORTED
0x15
Frame reception aborted. Not issued when RX_OVERFLOW occurs.
RXBUFMOV_TIMEOUT
0x16
RXBUFMOV has timed out. There were not enough bytes available in the
RX FIFO and the wait time set by DPUCON.RXTIMEOUT has expired.
UNUSED
0x17
Reserved
14.1 Exceptions on GPIO Pins
All exception flags can be routed individually to a GPIO pin by writing the CTRLn value corresponding to the
desired exception in Table 8 into the GPIOCTRLn registers.
CC2520 has two exception channels, A and B, that let the user select a collection of exceptions to combine
to output on a GPIO pin. If any of the selected exceptions goes active, the GPIO pin goes active. It is also
possible to output the complementary collection of exceptions of each of the two channels.
Example: Collect RF_IDLE and RX_UNDERFLOW in exception channel B and output on GPIO3.
•
•
•
•
Write 0x22 to GPIOCTRL3. Set GPIO3 as output and select exception channel B from the GPIO
configuration table in section 12.6.
Write 0x21 to EXCMASKB0. Select RF_IDLE and RX_UNDERFLOW exceptions in accordance with
table Exceptions overview (section 16).
Write 0x00 to EXCMASKB1. Mask all other exceptions.
Write 0x00 to EXCMASKB2. Mask all other exceptions.
The complementary exception channel B with the settings in the example above will include all other
exceptions than RF_IDLE and RX_UNDERFLOW. This channel can be routed to another GPIO pin by
writing 0x24 to the corresponding GPIOCTRLn register.
Exceptions linked to GPIO pins separately or as a group in a channel will be consistent with the
corresponding bits in the EXCFLAGn registers. EXCFLAGn register bits that are high can only be cleared by
writing zero to the bit.
14.2 Predefined Exception Channels
There are two predefined exception channels that can be observed on GPIO pins. They are not included in
the status byte and no complementary channel is available.
The first predefined exception channel is a collection of exceptions that indicate that something has gone
wrong during RX.
• RX_UNDERFLOW
• RX_OVERFLOW
• RX_FRM_ABORTED
• RXBUFMOV_TIMEOUT
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The second predefined exception channel includes exceptions that indicate general error conditions.
• MEMADDR_ERROR
• USAGE_ERROR
• OPERAND_ERROR
• SPI_ERROR
Exceptions bus
Figure 10 shows how the exceptions are linked to the instruction set of CC2520. Note that there are several
sources that may trigger instructions. The large or-gate illustrates that it only takes one of these sources to
trigger the execution of an instruction.
Figure 10: Functional details of exception handling and instruction triggering.
14.3 Binding Exceptions to Instructions (command strobes)
An exception can be bound to trigger a command strobe so that a command strobe can be automatically
executed when an exception occurs. There are two possible binding combinations, X and Y, defined in the
registers EXCBINDXn and EXCBINDYn.
Example
Run SACKPEND instruction when RX_FRM_ACCEPTED exception is activated.
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1. Write 0x06 to EXCBINDX0. This will select SACKPEND as the bound instruction from Table 8: GPIO
configuration.
2. Write 0x89 to EXCBINDX1. Enables X-binding and selects RX_FRM_ACCEPTED as the bound
exception from Table 14: Exceptions summary.
Note
Be aware of the offset in numbering in the tables Exceptions summary (section 16) and GPIO configuration
(section 12.6) for exceptions.
It is for example possible to route the exception RF_IDLE to a GPIO pin in the GPIOCTRLn.CTRLn register
bit when the pin is set as output. In this case, the exception RF_IDLE has the numbering 0x01 in
accordance to Table 9: GPIO configuration
When RF_IDLE is to be bound with an instruction the numbering to be used in EXCBINDX/Y1 is 0x00 in
accordance to Table 14: Exceptions summary.
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15 Memory Map
The configuration registers in CC2520 are located at addresses from 0x000 to 0x07F. From 0x080 to 0x0FF
there is currently a reserved area that is not used. CC2520 contains 768 bytes of physical RAM located at
addresses 0x100 to 0x3FF.
Figure 11: CC2520 memory map
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15.1 FREG
FREG is 128 fast access 8-bit registers that can be reached with REGRD and REGWR instructions.
REGRD and REGWR instructions that begin in the FREG memory area can be continued into the SREG
and wrap around at 0x07F. FREG can also be accessed with MEMRD and MEMWR instructions which
require one extra byte over the SPI with respect to REGRD and REGWR.
Registers in FREG between 0x000 and 0x01F are bit wise writeable with the BCLR and BSET instructions.
The registers located in FREG are described in section 28. Note that not all 128 addresses are used.
15.2 SREG
SREG is 128 8-bit registers that are accessible with MEMRD and MEMWR instructions.
The registers located in SREG are described in section 32. Note that not all 128 addresses are used.
15.3 TX FIFO
The TX FIFO memory area is located at addresses 0x100 to 0x17F and is thus 128 bytes. Although this
memory area is intended for the TX FIFO, it is not protected in any way, so it is still accessible with for
instance the MEMWR and MEMRD instructions. Normally, only the designated instructions should be used
to manipulate the contents of the TX FIFO. The TX FIFO can only contain one frame at a time. More details
on the TX FIFO can be found in section 22.3.
15.4 RX FIFO
The RX FIFO memory area is located at addresses 0x180 to 0x1FF and is thus 128 bytes. Although this
memory area is intended for the RX FIFO, it is not protected in any way, so it is still accessible with for
instance the MEMWR and MEMRD instructions. Normally, only the designated instructions should be used
to manipulate the contents of the RX FIFO. The RX FIFO can contain more than one frame at a time.
15.5 MEM
The MEM memory area from address 0x200 to 0x37F is 384 bytes long. The two 16-byte temporary areas
CBCTEMPH and CBCTEMPL are used for CBCMAC, UCBCMAC, CCM and UCCM instructions, with high
and low priority respectively. The remaining MEM area is general purpose memory.
15.6 Frame Filtering and Source Matching Memory Map
The frame filtering and source address matching functions use a 128-byte block of CC2520 memory to store
local address information and source matching configuration and results. This memory space is described in
Table 15. Values that do not fill an entire byte/word are in the least significant part of the byte/word.
Table 15: Frame Filtering and Source Matching Memory map
Address
REGISTER / Variable
Endian
Description
Reserved
0x3F6-3FF
Temporary storage
Memory space used for temporary storage of variables.
Local address information
0x3F4-0x3F5
SHORT_ADDR
LE
The short address used during destination address filtering.
0x3F2-0x3F3
PAN_ID
LE
The PAN ID used during destination address filtering.
0x3EA-0x3F1
EXT_ADDR
LE
The IEEE extended address used during destination address
filtering.
Source address matching control
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Address
REGISTER / Variable
Endian
Description
0x3E9
SRCSHORTPENDEN2
0x3E8
SRCSHORTPENDEN1
0x3E7
SRCSHORTPENDEN0
8 LSBs of the 24-bit mask that enables / disables automatic
pending for each of the 24 short address.
0x3E6
SRCEXTPENDEN2
8 MSBs of the 24-bit mask that enables / disables automatic
pending for each of the 12 extended addresses. Entry n is
mapped SRCEXTPENDEN[2n]. All SRCEXTPENDEN[2n+1]
bits are don't care.
0x3E5
SRCEXTPENDEN1
0x3E4
SRCEXTPENDEN0
8 MSBs of the 24-bit mask that enables / disables automatic
pending for each of the 24 short address.
8 LSBs of the 24-bit mask that enables / disables automatic
pending for each of the 12 extended addresses. Entry n is
mapped SRCEXTPENDEN[2n]. All SRCEXTPENDEN[2n+1]
bits are don't care.
Source address matching result
0x3E3
SRCRESINDEX
The bit index of the least significant '1' in SRCRESMASK, or
0x3F when there is no source match.
Upon a match, bit 5 is '0' when the match is on a short address
and '1' when it is on an extended address.
Upon a match, bit 6 is '1' when the conditions for automatic
pending bit in acknowledgment have been met (see the
description of SRCMATCH.AUTOPEND). The bit gives no
indication of whether or not the acknowledgment actually is
transmitted, and does not take the PENDING_OR register bit
and the SACK/SACKPEND/SNACK strobes into account.
0x3E2
SRCRESMASK2
0x3E1
SRCRESMASK1
0x3E0
SRCRESMASK0
24-bit mask that indicates source address match for each
individual entry in the source address table.
Short address matching: When there is a match on entry
panid_n + short_n, bit n will be set in SRCRESMASK.
Extended address matching: When there is a match on entry
ext_n, bits 2n and 2n+1 will be set in SRCRESMASK.
Source address table
ext_11
0x3DE-0x3DF
short_23
LE
0x3DC-0x3DD
panid_23
LE
0x3DA-0x3DB
short_22
LE
0x3D8-0x3D9
panid_22
LE
LE
2 individual short address entries (combination of 16 bit PAN
ID and 16 bit short address) or 1 extended address entry.
----ext_01
0x38E-0x38F
short_03
0x38C-0x38D
panid_03
LE
0x38A-0x38B
short_02
LE
0x388-0x389
panid_02
LE
0x386-0x387
short_01
0x384-0x385
panid_01
LE
0x382-0x383
short_00
LE
0x380-0x381
panid_00
LE
ext_00
LE
LE
LE
2 individual short address entries (combination of 16 bit PAN
ID and 16 bit short address) or 1 extended address entry.
LE
2 individual short address entries (combination of 16 bit PAN
ID and 16 bit short address) or 1 extended address entry.
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16 Frequency and Channel Programming
The carrier frequency is set by programming the 7 bit frequency word located in FREQCTRL.FREQ[6:0].
CC2520 supports carrier frequencies in the range 2394MHz to 2507MHz. The carrier frequency FC in MHz is
given by FC = (2394 + FREQCTRL.FREQ[6:0]) MHz, and is programmable in 1 MHz steps.
IEEE 802.15.4-2006 specifies 16 channels within the 2.4 GHz band. They are numbered 11 through 26 and
are 5 MHz apart. The RF frequency of channel k is given by [2].
Fc = 2405 + 5(k − 11)
[MHz]
k ∈ [11,26]
For operation in channel k, the FREQCTRL.FREQ register should therefore be set to
FREQCTRL.FREQ = 11 + 5 (k-11)
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17 IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Modulation Format
This section is meant as an introduction to the 2.4 GHz direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) RF
modulation format defined in IEEE 802.15.4-2006. For a complete description, please refer to the standard
document [2].
The modulation and spreading functions are illustrated at block level in Figure 12. Each byte is divided into
two symbols, 4 bits each. The least significant symbol is transmitted first. For multi-byte fields, the least
significant byte is transmitted first, except for security related fields where the most significant byte it
transmitted first.
Each symbol is mapped to one out of 16 pseudo-random sequences, 32 chips each. The symbol to chip
mapping is shown in Table 16. The chip sequence is then transmitted at 2 Mchips/s, with the least
significant chip (C0) transmitted first for each symbol. The transmitted bit stream and the chip sequences are
observable on GPIO pins. See Table 9 for details on how to configure the GPIO to do this.
Figure 12: Modulation
Table 16: IEEE 802.15.4-2006 symbol to chip mapping
Symbol
Chip sequence (C0, C1, C2, … , C31)
0
11011001110000110101001000101110
1
11101101100111000011010100100010
2
00101110110110011100001101010010
3
00100010111011011001110000110101
4
01010010001011101101100111000011
5
00110101001000101110110110011100
6
11000011010100100010111011011001
7
10011100001101010010001011101101
8
10001100100101100000011101111011
9
10111000110010010110000001110111
10
01111011100011001001011000000111
11
01110111101110001100100101100000
12
00000111011110111000110010010110
13
01100000011101111011100011001001
14
10010110000001110111101110001100
15
11001001011000000111011110111000
The modulation format is Offset – Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) with half-sine chip shaping.
This is equivalent to MSK modulation. Each chip is shaped as a half-sine, transmitted alternately in the I and
Q channels with one half chip period offset. This is illustrated for the zero-symbol in Figure 13.
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Figure 13: I / Q Phases when transmitting a zero-symbol chip sequence, TC = 0.5 µs
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18 IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Frame Format
This section gives a brief summary of the IEEE 802.15.4 frame format [2]. CC2520 has built in support for
processing of parts of the frame. This is described in the following sections.
Figure 18 shows a schematic view of the IEEE 802.15.4 frame format. Similar figures describing specific
frame formats (data frames, beacon frames, acknowledgment frames and MAC command frames) are
included in the standard document [2].
0 to 20
1
2
Frame
Data
Address
Control Field
Sequence
Information
(FCF)
Number
MAC Header (MHR)
n
Bytes:
MAC
Layer
Bytes:
PHY
Layer
1
1
Start of frame
Frame
Delimiter
Length
(SFD)
Synchronisation Header
PHY Header
(SHR)
(PHR)
Frame payload
MAC Payload
2
Frame Check
Sequence
(FCS)
MAC Footer
(MFR)
5 + (0 to 20) + n
MAC Protocol
Data Unit
(MPDU)
PHY Service Data Unit
(PSDU)
4
Preamble
Sequence
11 + (0 to 20) + n
PHY Protocol Data Unit
(PPDU)
Figure 14: Schematic view of the IEEE 802.15.4 Frame Format [1]
18.1 PHY Layer
Synchronization Header
The synchronization header (SHR) consists of the preamble sequence followed by the start of frame
delimiter (SFD). In the IEEE 802.15.4 specification [2], the preamble sequence is defined to be 4 bytes of
0x00. The SFD is one byte with value 0xA7.
PHY Header
The PHY header consists only of the frame length field. The frame length field defines the number of bytes
in the MPDU. Note that the value of the length field does not include the length field itself. It does however
include the FCS (Frame Check Sequence), even if this is inserted automatically by CC2520 hardware.
T
T
The frame length field is 7 bits long and has a maximum value of 127. The most significant bit in the length
field is reserved, and should always be set to zero.
PHY Service Data Unit
The PHY Service Data Unit contains the MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU). It is the MAC layer’s
responsibility to generate/interpret the MPDU, and CC2520 has built in support for processing of some of
the MPDU subfields.
18.2 MAC Layer
The FCF, data sequence number and address information follows the length field as shown in Figure 14.
Together with the MAC data payload and Frame Check Sequence, they form the MPDU. The format of the
FCF is shown in Figure 15. For full details, please refer to the IEEE 802.15.4 specification [2].
Bits: 0-2
3
4
5
6
7-9
10-11
12-13
14-15
Frame
Type
Security
Enabled
Frame
Pending
Acknowledge
request
Intra
PAN
Reserved
Destination
addressing
mode
Reserved
Source
addressing
mode
Figure 15: Format of the Frame Control Field (FCF)
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Frame Check Sequence
A 2-byte frame check sequence (FCS) follows the last MAC payload byte as shown in Figure 14. The FCS is
calculated over the MPDU, i.e. the length field is not part of the FCS.
The FCS polynomial defined in [2] is
G( x) = x 16 + x 12 + x 5 + 1
CCC2520 supports automatic calculation/verification of the FCS. See sections 20.3 and 22.1.3 for details.
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19 Transmit Mode
This section describes how to control the transmitter, the integrated frame processing and how to use the
TX FIFO.
19.1 TX Control
CC2520 has many built in features for frame processing and status reporting. Note that CC2520 provides
features that make it easy for the microcontroller to have precise control of the timing of outgoing frames.
This is very important in an IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee system, because there are strict timing requirements to
such systems.
Frame transmission will be started by the following actions:
• The STXON command strobe
o The SAMPLED_CCA signal is not updated.
• The STXONCCA command strobe, provided that the CCA signal is high.
o Aborts ongoing transmission/reception and forces a TX calibration followed by transmission.
o The SAMPLED_CCA signal is updated
Clear channel assessment is described in detail in section 19.7.
Frame transmission will be aborted by the following command actions:
• The SRXON command strobe
o Aborts ongoing transmission and forces a RX calibration
• The SRFOFF command strobe
o Aborts ongoing transmission/reception and forces the FSM to the IDLE state.
• The STXON command strobe
o See above.
To enable the receiver after transmission with STXON, the FRMCTRL1.SET_RXENMASK_ON_TX bit
should be set. This will set bit 14 in RXENABLE when STXON is executed. When transmitting with
STXONCCA, the receiver would be on before the transmission and will be turned back on afterwards
(unless the RXENABLE registers have been cleared in the mean time).
19.2 TX State Timing
Transmission of preamble begins 192 us after the STXON or STXONCCA command strobe. This is referred
to as "TX turnaround time" in [2]. There is an equal delay when returning to receive mode.
When returning to idle or receive mode, there is a 2 us delay while the modulator ramps down the signals to
the DACs. The down ramping happens automatically after the complete MPDU (as defined by the length
byte) has been transmitted or if TX underflow occurs. This affects:
• The SFD signal, which is stretched by 2 us.
• The radio FSM transition to the IDLE state, which is delayed by 2 us.
19.3 TX FIFO Access
The TX FIFO can hold 128 bytes and only one frame at a time. The frame can be buffered before or after
the TX command strobe is executed, as long as it does not generate TX underflow (see the error conditions
listed below).
Figure 16 illustrates what needs to be written to the TX FIFO (marked blue). Additional bytes are ignored,
unless TX overflow occurs (see the error conditions listed below).
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Figure 16. Frame data written to the TX FIFO
There are three ways to write to the TX FIFO:
• The TXBUF instruction transfers bytes from the microcontroller to the TX FIFO in CC2520.
• The TXBUFCP instruction copies bytes from the general RAM in CC2520 into the TX FIFO.
• Frame buffering always begins at the start of the TX FIFO memory. By enabling the
FRMCTRL1.IGNORE_TX_UNDERF bit, it is possible to MEMWR, MEMCP and other memory
instructions to write the frame. Note, however, that using dedicated TXBUF and TXBUFCP
instructions should be preferred.
The number of bytes in the TX FIFO is stored in the TXFIFOCNT register.
The TX FIFO can be emptied manually with the SFLUSHTX command strobe. TX underflow will occur If the
FIFO is emptied during transmission.
19.3.1 Retransmission
In order to support simple retransmission of frames, the CC2520 does not delete TX FIFO contents as they
are transmitted. After a frame has been successfully transmitted, the FIFO contents are left unchanged. To
retransmit the same frame again, simply restart TX by issuing a STXON or STXONCCA command strobe.
If a different frame is to be transmitted, just write the new frame to the TX FIFO. In this case, the TX FIFO is
automatically flushed before the actual writing takes place.
19.3.2 Error Conditions
There are two error conditions associated with the TX FIFO:
• Overflow happens when the TX FIFO is full and it is attempted to write another byte.
• Underflow happens when the TX FIFO is empty and CC2520 attempts to fetch another byte for
transmission.
TX overflow is indicated by the TX_OVERFLOW exception. When this error occurs, the writing will be
aborted, i.e. the data byte that caused the overflow will be lost. The error condition must be cleared with the
SFLUSHTX strobe.
TX underflow is indicated by the TX_UNDERFLOW exception. When this error occurs, the ongoing
transmission is aborted. The error condition must be cleared with the SFLUSHTX strobe.
The TX_UNDERFLOW exception can be disabled by setting the FRMCTRL1.IGNORE_TX_UNDERF bit. In
this case, the CC2520 will continue transmitting the bytes that happen to be in the TX FIFO memory, until
the number of bytes given by the first byte (i.e. the length byte) has been transmitted
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19.4 TX Flow Diagram
Figure 17 summarizes the previous sections in a flow diagram:
No CSMA-CA
Unslotted CSMA-CA
Slotted CSMA-CA
Data buffering
SSAMPLECCA
Yes
(SAMPLED_CCA = 1)
STXON
STXONCCA
Yes
(SAMPLED_CCA = 1)
TX started?
Write a frame to the TX
buffer using:
- TXBUF
- TXBUFCP
- Memory access
- A combination of
these methods
Success?
No
(SAMPLED_CCA = 0)
This can be done
before, after or in
parallel with the TX
strobe.
No
(SAMPLED_CCA = 0)
TX buffer overfilled
TX completes?
No
Why?
TX is aborted by
SRXON,
STXON or SRFOFF
Yes
TX_FRM_DONE
TX_UNDERFLOW
Frame transmitted successfully
Error condition
TX_OVERFLOW
Incomplete or no frame transmission
TIME
Error condition
(left side of the flow
diagram should be
ignored since the TX
buffer is corrupted)
Between two transmissions there can be multiple other activities such as frame reception, RX FIFO access and acknowledgment transmission (using SACK, SACKPEND or
AUTOACK), or idle periods (random backoffs). This will have no side effects on the state of the TX buffer.
The placement of the SFLUSHTX strobe in the diagram shows the latest point in time where this strobe can be executed. If fewer special cases is desired, it is always possible to
use the SFLUSHTX strobe and then load or reload TXBUF with the next frame to be transmitted.
Next time...
To retransmit the
current frame...
To transmit a
different frame...
Restart from the
top of the diagram
Restart from the
top of the diagram
Do not write
anything to the TX
buffer
Write the new
frame to the TX
buffer
(before, after or in
parallel with the
TX strobe)
Next time...
To retransmit or
transmit a
different frame...
SFLUSHTX
Restart from the
top of the diagram
To retransmit or
transmit a
different frame...
To (re)transmit
what is
currently in
the TX buffer...
To transmit a
different frame...
Restart from the
top of the diagram
SFLUSHTX
SFLUSHTX
Restart from the
top of the diagram
Restart from the
top of the diagram
Write the new
frame to the TX
buffer
(before, after or in
parallel with the
TX strobe)
Write the next
frame to the TX
buffer
(before, after or in
parallel with the
TX strobe)
If anything is
written to the TX
buffer, it will be
appended to the
current data.
Write the next
frame to the TX
buffer
(before, after or in
parallel with the
TX strobe)
Figure 17: TX flow
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19.5 Frame Processing
CC2520 performs the following frame generation tasks for TX frames:
Transmitted frame
Preamble
SFD
1
LEN
MHR
2
MAC Payload
FCS
3
1. Generation and automatic transmission of the PHY Layer synchronization header which consists of
the preamble and the SFD.
2. Transmission of the number of bytes specified by the frame length field.
3. Calculation of and automatic transmission of the FCS (can be disabled).
The recommended usage is to write the length field followed by MAC header and MAC payload to the TX
FIFO, and let CC2520 handle the rest. Note that the length field must include the two FCS bytes even
though CC2520 adds these automatically.
19.5.1 Synchronization Header
Figure 18: Transmitted Synchronisation Header
CC2520 has programmable preamble length. The default value is compliant with [2] and changing the value
will make the system non-compliant to IEEE 802.15.4.
T
T
The preamble sequence length is set by MDMCTRL0.PREAMBLE_LENGTH. Figure 18 shows how the
CC2520 synchronization header relates to the IEEE 802.15.4 specification.
T
T
When the required number of preamble bytes have been transmitted, CC2520 will automatically transmit the
one byte long SFD. The SFD is fixed and it is not possible to change this value from software.
19.5.2 Frame Length Field
When the SFD has been transmitted, the modulator in CC2520 will start to read data from the TX FIFO. It
expects to find the frame length field followed by MAC header and MAC payload. The frame length field is
used to determine how many bytes that is to be transmitted.
Note that the minimum frame length is 3 when AUTOCRC=’1’ and 1 when AUTOCRC=’0’.
19.5.3 Frame Check Sequence
When the FRMCTRL0.AUTOCRC control bit is set, the FCS field is automatically generated by CC2520 and
appended to the transmitted frame at the position defined by the length field. The FCS is not written to the
TXFIFO, but stored in a separate 16-bit register. It is recommended to always have AUTOCRC enabled,
except possibly for debug purposes. If FRMCTRL0.AUTOCRC=’0’ then the modulator will expect to find the
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FCS in the TX FIFO, so software must generate the FCS and write it to the TX FIFO along with the rest of
the MPDU.
The CC2520 hardware implementation of the FCS calculator is shown in Figure 22. Please refer to [2] for
further details.
T
T
Figure 19: CC2520 FCS hardware implementation
19.6 Exceptions
The SFD exception will be raised when the SFD field of the frame has been transmitted. At the end of the
frame, the TX_FRM_DONE exception will be raised when the complete frame has been successfully
transmitted.
Note that there is a second SFD signal available on GPIO (config value 0x2A) that should not be confused
with the SFD exception.
19.7 Clear Channel Assessment
The clear channel assessment (CCA) status signal indicates whether the channel is available for
transmission or not. The CCA function is used to implement the CSMA-CA functionality specified in the
IEEE 802.15.4 specification [2]. The CCA signal is valid when the receiver has been enabled for at least 8
symbol periods. The RSSI_VALID status signal can be used to verify this.
The CCA is based on the RSSI value and a programmable threshold. The exact behavior is configurable in
the CCACTRL0 and CCACTRL1 registers.
There are two variations of the CCA signal, one that is updated at every new RSSI sample and one that is
only updated on SSAMPLECCA and STXONCCA command strobes. They are both available in the
FSMSTAT1 register.
Note that the CCA signal is updated 4 clock cycles (32 MHz) after the RSSI_VALID signal has been set.
19.8 Output Power Programming
The RF output power of CC2520 is controlled by the 7 bit value in the TXPOWER register. Table 17 shows
the typical output power and current consumption for the recommended settings when the centre frequency
is set to 2440 GHz. Note that the recommended settings are only a small subset of all the possible register
settings. Using other settings than those in Table 17 might result in very high current consumption and
generally poor performance. Please refer to section 5.11 for details on the optional temperature
compensated TX.
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Table 17: Output power and current consumption measured on the CC2520 reference design @
+3.0 V, +25°C, fc=2.440 GHz
TXPOWER
register (hex)
Typical output
power (dBm)
Typical current
consumption (mA)
F7
5
33.6
F2
3
31.3
AB
2
28.7
13
1
27.9
32
0
25.8
81
-2
24.9
88
-4
23.1
2C
-7
19.9
03
-18
16.2
19.9 Tips And Tricks
•
•
•
•
72
Trigger the STXON and STXONCCA strobes from GPIO pins. This gives the microcontroller very
accurate control of the timing of the outgoing frame.
Use a timer in the microcontroller to capture the timing of the SFD exception. This gives the
microcontroller exact knowledge of when the frame was transmitted.
Note that there is no requirement to have the complete frame in the TXFIFO before starting a
transmission. Bytes may be added to the TX FIFO during transmission.
It is possible to make CC2520 transmit non-IEEE 802.15.4 compliant frames by setting
MDMTEST1.MODULATION_MODE=’1’.
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20 Receive Mode
This section describes how to control the receiver, integrated RX frame processing, and how use the RX
FIFO.
20.1 RX Control
The CC2520 receiver is turned on and off with the SRXON and SRFOFF command strobes, and with the
RXENABLE registers. The command strobes provide a "hard" on/off mechanism, while RXENABLE
manipulation provides a "soft" on/off mechanism.
The receiver will be turned on by the following actions:
• The SRXON strobe:
o Sets RXENABLE[15]
o Aborts ongoing transmission/reception by forcing a transition to RX calibration.
• The STXON strobe when FRMCTRL1.SET_RXENMASK_ON_TX is enabled:
o Sets RXENABLE[14]
o The receiver is enabled after transmission completes.
• Setting RXENABLE != 0x0000:
o Does not abort ongoing transmission/reception.
The receiver will be turned off by the following actions:
• The SRFOFF strobe:
o Clears RXENABLE[15:0]
o Aborts ongoing transmission/reception by forcing the transition to IDLE mode.
• Setting RXENABLE = 0x0000
o Does not abort ongoing transmission/reception. Once the ongoing transmission/reception is
finished, the CC2520 will return to IDLE state.
There are several ways to manipulate the RXENABLE registers:
• The REGWR and MEMWR instructions
• The BSET and BCLR instructions
• The RXENABLEAND and RXENABLEOR instructions
• The SRXMASKBITSET and SRXMASKBITCLR strobes (affecting RXENABLE[13])
• The SRXON, SRFOFF and STXON strobes, including the FRMCTRL1.SET_RXMASK_ON_TX
setting
20.2 RX State Timing
The receiver is ready 192 us after RX has been enabled by one of the methods described above. This is
referred to as "RX turnaround time" in [2].
When returning to receive mode after frame reception, there is by default an interval of 192 us where SFD
detection is disabled. This interval can be disabled by clearing FSMCTRL.RX2RX_TIME_OFF.
20.3 Frame Processing
CC2520 integrates critical portions of the RX requirements in IEEE 802.15.4-2003 and -2006 in hardware.
This reduces the microcontroller interruption rate, simplifies the software that handles frame reception, and
provides the results with minimum latency.
During reception of a single frame, the CC2520 performs the following frame processing steps:
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1. Detection and removal of the received PHY synchronization header (preamble and SFD), and
reception of the number of bytes specified by the frame length field.
2. Frame filtering as specified by [1] and [2], section 7.5.6.2, third filtering level.
3. Matching of the source address against a table containing up to 24 short addresses or 12 extended
IEEE addresses. The source address table is stored on-chip in RAM.
4. Automatic FCS checking, and attaching this result and other status values (RSSI, LQI and source
match result) to received frames.
5. Automatic acknowledgment transmission with correct timing, and correct setting of the frame
pending bit, based on the results from source address matching and FCS checking.
20.3.1 Synchronization Header And Frame Length Fields
Frame reception starts with detection of a start-of-frame delimiter (SFD), followed by the length byte, which
determines when the reception is complete. The SFD signal, which is default output on GPIO4, can be
connected to a timer input on a microcontroller to capture the start of received frames:
Figure 20: SFD signal timing
Preample and SFD are not written to the RX FIFO.
The CC2520 uses a correlator to detect the SFD. The correlation threshold value in
MDMCTRL1.CORR_THR determines how closely the received SFD must match an "ideal" SFD. The
threshold must be adjusted with care:
• If set too high, CC2520 will miss lots of actual SFDs, effectively reducing the receiver sensitivity.
• If set too low, CC2520 will detect lots of false SFDs. Although this does not reduce the receiver
sensitivity, the effect will be similar, since false frames might overlap with SFDs of actual frames. It also
increases the risk of receiving false frames with correct FCS.
In addition to SFD detection, it is also possible to require a number of valid preamble symbols (also above
the correlation threshold) prior to SFD detection. Refer to the register descriptions of MDMCTRL0 and
MDMCTRL1 for available options and recommended settings.
For CC2520 rev. A the default correlation threshold is too low, and must updated after reset (before RX is
attempted).
20.3.2 Frame Filtering
The frame filtering function rejects non-intended frames as specified by [1] and [2], section 7.5.6.2, third
filtering level. In addition, it provides filtering on:
•
The 8 different frame types (see the FRMFILT1 register)
•
The reserved bits in the frame control field (FCF)
The function is controlled by:
•
The FRMFILT0 and FRMFILT1 registers
•
The LOCAL_PAN_ID, LOCAL_SHORT_ADDR and LOCAL_EXT_ADDR values in RAM
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Filtering Algorithm
The FRMFILT0.FRM_FILTER_EN bit controls whether frame filtering is applied or not. When disabled, the
CC2520 will accept all received frames. When enabled (which is the default setting), the CC2520 will only
accept frames that fulfill all of the following requirements:
•
The length byte must be equal to or higher than the “minimum frame length”, which is derived from the
source- and destination address mode and PAN ID compression subfields of the FCF.
•
The reserved FCF bits [9:7] and’ed together with FRMFILT0.FCF_RESERVED_BITMASK must equal
0b000.
•
The value of the frame version subfield of the FCF cannot be higher than
FRMFILT0.MAX_FRAME_VERSION.
•
The source and destination address modes cannot be reserved values (1).
•
Destination address:
•
•
If a destination PAN ID is included in the frame, it must match LOCAL_PANID or must be the
broadcast PAN identifier (0xFFFF).
•
If a short destination address is included in the frame, it must match either LOCAL_SHORT_ADDR
or the broadcast address (0xFFFF).
•
If an extended destination address is included in the frame, it must match LOCAL_EXT_ADDR.
Frame type:
•
•
•
•
•
Beacon frames (0) are only accepted when:
•
FRMFILT1.ACCEPT_FT0_BEACON = 1
•
Length byte >= 9
•
The destination address mode is 0 (no destination address)
•
The source address mode is 2 or 3 (i.e. a source address is included)
•
The source PAN ID matches LOCAL_PANID, or LOCAL_PANID equals 0xFFFF
Data (1) frames are only accepted when:
•
FRMFILT1.ACCEPT_FT1_DATA = 1
•
Length byte >= 9
•
A destination address and/or source address is included in the frame. If no destination address
is included in the frame, the FRMFILT0.PAN_COORDINATOR bit must be set and the source
PAN ID must equal LOCAL_PANID.
Acknowledgment (2) frames are only accepted when:
•
FRMFILT1.ACCEPT_FT2_ACK = 1
•
Length byte = 5
MAC command (3) frames are only accepted when:
•
FRMFILT1.ACCEPT_FT3_MAC_CMD = 1
•
Length byte >= 9
•
A destination address and/or source address is included in the frame. If no destination address
is included in the frame, the FRMFILT0.PAN_COORDINATOR bit must be set and the source
PAN ID must equal LOCAL_PANID for the frame to be accepted..
Reserved frame types (4, 5, 6 and 7) are only accepted when:
•
FRMFILT1.ACCEPT_FT4TO7_RESERVED = 1 (default is 0)
•
Length byte >= 9
The following operations are performed before the filtering begins, with no effect on the frame data stored in
the RX FIFO:
• Bit 7 of the length byte is masked out (don’t care).
• If FRMFILT1.MODIFY_FT_FILTER is unlike zero, the MSB of the frame type subfield of the FCF is
either inverted or forced to 0 or 1.
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If a frame is rejected, CC2520 will only start searching for a new frame after the rejected frame has been
completely received (as defined by the length field) to avoid detecting false SFDs within the frame. Note that
rejected frames can generate RX overflow if it occurs before the frame is rejected.
Exceptions
When frame filtering is enabled and the filtering algorithm accepts a received frame, an
RX_FRM_ACCEPTED exception will be generated. It will not be generated if frame filtering is disabled or
RX_OVERFLOW or RX_FRM_ABORTED is generated before the filtering result is known.
Figure 24 illustrates the three different scenarios (not including the overflow and abort error conditions).
Figure 21: Filtering scenarios (exceptions generated during reception)
The FSMSTAT1.SFD register bit will go high when start of frame delimiter is completely received and
remain high until either the last byte in MPDU is received or the received frame has failed to pass address
recognition and been rejected.
SFD exception can be routed to a GPIO pin alone or as a part of a group of exceptions in channel A or B.
SFD exception should preferably be connected to a timer capture pin on the microcontroller to extract timing
information of transmitted and received data frames. SFD exception is also stored in EXCFLAG1 register.
The register bit (and possibly the GPIO pin) will go high when the start of frame delimiter has been
completely received and will continue to be high until cleared by SW.
Tips and Tricks
The following register settings must be configured correctly:
• FRMFILT0.PAN_COORDINATOR must be set if the device is a PAN coordinator, and cleared if not.
• FRMFILT0.MAX_FRAME_VERSION must correspond to the supported version(s) of the IEEE
802.15.4 standard.
• The local address information must be loaded into RAM.
To completely avoid receiving frames during energy detection scanning, set FRMCTRL0.RX_MODE = 0b11
and then (re)start RX. This will disable symbol search and thereby prevent SFD detection.
To resume normal RX mode, set FRMCTRL0.RX_MODE = 0b00 and (re)start RX.
During operation in a busy IEEE 802.15.4 environment, CC2520 will receive large numbers of non-intended
acknowledgment frames. To effectively block reception of these frames, use the
FRMFILT1.ACCEPT_FT2_ACK bit to control when acknowledgment frames should be received:
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•
Set FRMFILT1.ACCEPT_FT2_ACK after successfully starting a transmission with acknowledgment
request, and clear the bit again after the acknowledgment frame has been received, or the timeout
has been reached.
•
Keep the bit cleared otherwise.
It is not necessary to turn off the receiver while changing the values of the FRMFILT0/1 registers and the
local address information stored in RAM. However, if the changes take place between reception of the SFD
byte and the source PAN ID (i.e. between the SFD and RX_FRM_ACCEPTED exceptions), the modified
values must be considered as don’t care for that particular frame (CC2520 will use either the old or the new
value).
Note that it is possible to make CC2520 ignore all IEEE 802.15.4 incoming frames by setting
MDMTEST1.MODULATION_MODE=’1’.
20.3.3 Source Address Matching
CC2520 supports matching of the source address in received frames against a table stored in the on-chip
memory. The table is 96 bytes long, and hence it can contain up to:
• 24 short addresses (2 + 2 bytes each)
• 12 IEEE extended addresses (8 bytes each).
Source address matching will only be performed when frame filtering is also enabled, and the received
frame has been accepted. The function is controlled by:
• The SRCMATCH, SRCSHORTEN0, SRCSHORTEN1, SRCSHORTEN2, SRCEXTEN0,
SRCEXTEN1 and SRCEXTEN2 registers
• The source address table in RAM.
Applications
Automatic acknowledgment transmission with correct setting of the frame pending bit: When using indirect
frame transmission, the devices will send data requests to poll frames stored on the coordinator. To indicate
whether it actually has a frame stored for the device, the coordinator must set or clear the frame pending bit
in the returned acknowledgment frame. On most 8- and 16-bit MCUs, however, there is not enough time to
determine this, and so the coordinator ends up setting the pending bit regardless of whether there are
pending frames for the device (as required by IEEE 802.15.4 [2]). This is wasteful in terms of power
consumption, because the polling device will have to keep its receiver enabled for a considerable period of
time, even if there are no frames for it. By loading the destination addresses in the indirect frame queue into
the source address table and enabling the AUTOPEND function, CC2520 will set the pending bit in outgoing
acknowledgment frames automatically. This way the operation is no longer timing critical, as the effort done
by the microcontroller is when adding or removing frames in the indirect frame queue and updating the
source address table accordingly.
Security material look-up: To reduce the time needed to process secured frames, the source address table
can be set up so the entries match the table of security keys on the microcontroller. A second level of
masking on the table entries allows this application to be combined with automatic setting of the pending bit
in acknowledgment frames.
Other applications: The two previous applications are the main targets for the source address matching
function. However, for proprietary protocols that only rely on the basic IEEE 802.15.4 frame format, there
are several other useful applications. For instance, by using it together with the exception binding
mechanism, it is possible to create firewall functionality where only a specified set of nodes will be
acknowledged.
The Source Address Table
The source address table begins at address 0x380 in RAM as shown in Figure 11. The space is shared
between short and extended addresses, and the SRCSHORTEN0/1/2 and SRCEXTEN0/1/2 registers are
used to control which entries are enabled. All values in the table are little-endian (as in the received frames).
• A short address entry starts with the 16-bit PAN ID followed by the 16-bit short address. These
entries are stored at address 0x380 + (4 × n), where n is a number between 0 and 23.
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•
An extended address entry consists only of the 64-bit IEEE extended address. These entries are
stored at address 0x380 + (8 × n), where n is a number between 0 and 11.
Address Enable Registers
Software is responsible for allocating table entries and for making sure that active short and extended
address entries do not overlap. There are separate enable bits for short and extended addresses:
• Short address entries are enabled in the SRCSHORTEN0, SRCSHORTEN1 and SRCSHORTEN2
registers. Register bit n corresponds to short address entry n.
• Extended address entries are enabled in the SRCEXTEN0, SRCEXTEN1 and SRCEXTEN2
registers. In this case register bit 2n corresponds to extended address entry n. This mapping is
convenient when creating a combined bit vector (of short and extended enable bits) to find unused
entries. Moreover, when read, register bit 2n+1 will always have the same value as register bit 2n,
since an extended address occupies the same memory as two short address entries.
Figure 22 - Example of enabled table entries
Matching Algorithm
The SRCMATCH.SRC_MATCH_EN bit controls whether source address matching is enabled or not. When
enabled (which is the default setting) and a frame passes the filtering algorithm, the CC2520 will apply one
of the algorithms outlined in Figure 22, depending on which type of source address is present.
The result is reported in two different forms:
•
•
A 24-bit vector called SRCRESMASK contains a ’1’ for each enabled short entry with a match, or two
’1’s for each enabled extended entry with a match (the bit mapping is the same as for the address
enable registers upon read access).
A 7-bit value called SRCRESINDEX:
•
When no source address is present in the received frame, or there is no match on the received
source address:
•
•
78
Bits 6:0: 0x3F
If there is a match on the received source address:
•
Bits 4:0: The index of the first entry (i.e. the one with the lowest index number) with a match, 023 for short addresses or 0-11 for extended addresses.
•
Bit 5: ’0’ if the match is on a short address, ’1’ if the match is on an extended address.
•
Bit 6: The result of the AUTOPEND function
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Extended Source Address (mode 3)
Short Source Address (mode 2)
The received source PAN ID is called srcPanid. The received extended address is called srcExt.
The received short address is called srcShort.
SRCRESMASK = 0x000000;
SRCRESINDEX = 0x3F;
for (n = 0; n < 24; n++) {
bitVector = 0x000001 << n;
if (SRCSHORTEN & bitVector) {
if ((panid[n] == srcPanid) &&
(short[n] == srcShort)) {
SRCRESMASK |= bitVector;
if (SRCRESINDEX == 0x3F) {
SRCRESINDEX = n;
}
}
}
}
SRCRESMASK = 0x000000;
SRCRESINDEX = 0x3F;
for (n = 0; n < 12; n++) {
bitVector = 0x000003 << (2*n);
if (SRCEXTEN & bitVector) {
if (ext[n] == srxExt) {
SRCRESMASK |= bitVector;
if (SRCRESINDEX == 0x3F) {
SRCRESINDEX = n | 0x20;
}
}
}
}
Figure 23 - Matching algorithm for short and extended addresses
SRCRESMASK and SRCRESINDEX are written to CC2520 memory as soon as the result is available.
SRCRESINDEX is also appended to received frames if the FRMCTRL0.AUTOCRC and
FRMCTRL0.APPEND_DATA_MODE bits have been set. The value then replaces the 7-bit LQI value of the
16-bit status word.
Exceptions
When source address matching is enabled and the matching algorithm completes, a SRC_MATCH_DONE
exception will be generated, regardless of the result. If a match is found, a SRC_MATCH_FOUND exception
will also be generated, immediately before SRC_MATCH_DONE.
Figure 24 illustrates the timing of these exceptions:
Figure 24 - Exceptions generated by source address matching
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Tips and Tricks
• The source address table can be modified safely during frame reception. If one address replaces another
while the receiver is active, the corresponding enable bit should be turned off during the modification.
This will prevent CC2520 from using a combination of old and new values, because it will only consider
entries that are enabled throughout the whole source matching process.
The following measures can be taken to avoid that the next received frame overwrites the results from
source address matching:
• Use the appended SRCRESINDEX result instead of the value written to RAM (this is the recommended
approach).
• Read the results from RAM before RX_FRM_ACCEPTED occurs in the next received frame. For the
shortest frame type this will happen after the sequence number, so the total available time (absolute
worst-case with a small safety margin) becomes:
16 µs (required preamble) + 32 µs (SFD) + 128 µs (4 bytes) = 176 µs
•
To increase the available time, clear the FSMCTRL.RX2RX_TIME_OFF bit. This will add another 192
µs, for a total of 368 µs. This will also reduce the risk of RX overflow.
20.3.4 Frame Check Sequence
In receive mode the FCS is verified by hardware if FRMCTRL0.AUTOCRC is enabled. The user is normally
only interested in the correctness of the FCS, not the FCS sequence itself. The FCS sequence itself is
therefore not written to the RX FIFO during receive. Instead, when FRMCTRL0.AUTOCRC is set the two
FCS bytes are replaced by other more useful values. Which values that are substituted for the FCS
sequence is configurable in the FRMCTRL0 register.
Figure 25: Data in RX FIFO for different settings.
Field descriptions:
• The RSSI value is measured over the first 8 symbols following the SFD.
• The CRC_OK bit indicates whether the FCS is correct (1) or incorrect (0). When incorrect, software is
responsible for discarding the frame.
• The correlation value is the average correlation value over the 8 first symbols following the SFD.
• SRCRESINDEX is the same value that is written to RAM after completion of source address matching.
Calculation of the LQI value used by IEEE 802.15.4 is described in section 20.5.
80
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20.3.5 Acknowledgement Transmission
CC2520 includes hardware support for acknowledgment transmission after successful frame reception (i.e.
the FCS of the received frame must be correct). Figure 26 shows the format of the acknowledgment frame
T
T
Bytes:
1
1
Start of Frame
Preamble
Frame
Delimiter
Sequence
Length
(SFD)
Synchronisation Header
PHY Header
(SHR)
(PHR)
4
1
2
Frame
Data
Control Field
Sequence
(FCF)
Number
MAC Header (MHR)
2
Frame Check
Sequence
(FCS)
MAC Footer
(MFR)
Figure 26. Acknowledge frame format
There are three variable fields in the generated acknowledgment frame:
• The pending bit, which may be controlled with command strobes and the AUTOPEND feature
• The data sequence number (DSN), which is taken automatically from the last received frame
• The FCS, which is given implicitly.
There are three different sources for setting the pending bit in an ACK frame (i.e. the SACKPEND strobe,
the PENDING_OR register bit and the AUTOPEND feature). The pending bit is set if one or more of these
sources are set.
Transmission Timing
Acknowledgment frames can only be transmitted immediately after frame reception. The transmission timing
is controlled by the FSMCTRL.SLOTTED_ACK bit:
Figure 27: Acknowledgement timing
802.15.4 requires unslotted mode in non-beacon enabled PANs, and slotted mode for beacon-enabled
PANs.
Manual Control
The SACK, SACKPEND and SNACK command strobes can only be issued during frame reception. If the
strobes are issued at any other time, they will have no effect but generating a USAGE_ERROR exception:
Figure 28: Command strobe timing
The command strobes may be issued several times during reception, however, only the last strobe will have
an effect:
• No strobe / SNACK / incorrect FCS: No acknowledgment transmission
• SACK: Acknowledgment transmission with the frame pending bit cleared
• SACKPEND: Acknowledgment transmission with the frame pending bit set
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Automatic Control (AUTOACK)
When FRMFILT0.FRM_FILTER_EN and FRMCTRL0.AUTOACK are both enabled, the CC2520 will
determine automatically whether or not to transmit acknowledgment frames:
• The RX frame must be accepted by frame filtering (indicated by the RX_FRM_ACCEPTED
exception)
• The acknowledgment request bit must be set in the RX frame
• The RX frame must not be a beacon or an acknowledgment frame
• The FCS of the RX frame must be correct
Automatic acknowledgments can be overridden by the SACK, SACKPEND and SNACK command strobes.
For instance, if the microcontroller is low on memory resources and cannot store a received frame, the
SNACK strobe can be issued during reception and prevent acknowledging the discarded frame.
By default, the AUTOACK feature never sets the frame pending bit in the acknowledgment frames. Apart
from manual override with command strobes, there are two options:
• Automatic control, using the AUTOPEND feature
• Manual control, using the FRMCTRL1.PENDING_OR bit
Automatic Setting of the Frame Pending Field (AUTOPEND)
When the SRCMATCH.AUTOPEND bit is set, the result from source address matching determines the
value of the frame pending field. Upon reception of a frame, the frame pending field in the (possibly)
returned acknowledgment will be set, given that:
• FRMFILT0.FRAME_FILTER_EN is set.
• SRCMATCH.SRC_MATCH_EN is set.
• SRCMATCH.AUTOPEND is set.
• The received frame matches the current SRCMATCH.PEND_DATAREQ_ONLY setting.
• The received source address matches at least one source match table entry, which is enabled in
both SRCSHORTEN and SRCSHORTPENDEN, or SRCEXTEN and SRCEXTPENDEN.
If the source matching table runs full, the FRMCTRL1.PENDING_OR bit may be used to override the
AUTOPEND feature and temporarily acknowledge all frames with the frame pending field set.
20.4 RX FIFO Access
The RX FIFO can hold one or more received frames, provided that the total number of bytes is 128 or less.
There are two ways to determine the number of bytes in the RX FIFO:
• Reading RXFIFOCNT register
• Using the FIFOP and FIFO signals in combination with the FIFOPCTRL.FIFOPTHR setting
There are several ways to access the RX FIFO:
• The RXBUF instruction transfers received bytes from CC2520 to the microcontroller
• The RXBUFCP instruction transfers received bytes from CC2520 to the microcontroller and makes
a copy of the read bytes in CC2520 RAM
• The RXBUFMOV instruction transfers received bytes from the RX FIFO to CC2520 RAM
• The RXFIRST register allows software to peek at the head byte in the RX FIFO
The SFLUSHRX command strobe resets the RX FIFO, removing all received frames, and clearing all
counters, status signals and sticky error conditions.
20.4.1 Using the FIFO and FIFOP Signals
The FIFO and FIFOP signals are useful when reading out received frames in small portions while the frame
is received:
• The FIFO signal (default output on GPIO1) goes high when there is one or more bytes in the RX
FIFO, but low when RX overflow has occurred.
• The FIFOP signal (default output on GPIO2) goes high when
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•
The number of valid bytes in the RX FIFO exceeds the FIFOP threshold value programmed into
FIFOPCTRL. When frame filtering is enabled, the bytes in the frame header are not considered
as valid until the frame has been accepted.
The last byte of a new frame is received, even if the FIFOP threshold is not exceeded. If so,
FIFOP will go back low at the next RX FIFO read access.
•
Received frame
Preamble
SFD
LEN
MPDU (LEN[6:0] bytes)
Accepted frame
SFD
FIFO
FIFOP (low threshold)
Rejected frame
FIFOP (high threshold)
SFD
FIFO
FIFOP
First byte
received
Frame
filtering
complete
Last byte
received
Figure 29: Behavior of FIFO and FIFOP signals.
When using the FIFOP signal as an interrupt signal for the microcontroller, the FIFOP threshold should be
adjusted by the interrupt service routine to prepare for the next interrupt. When preparing for the last
interrupt for a frame, the threshold should match the number of bytes remaining.
20.4.2 Error Conditions
There are two error conditions associated with the RX FIFO:
• Overflow, in which case the RX FIFO is full when another byte is received
• Underflow, in which case software attempts to read a byte from an empty RX FIFO
RX overflow is indicated by the RX_OVERFLOW exception and by the signal values FIFO = 0 and FIFOP =
1. When the error occurs, frame reception will be halted. The frames currently stored in the RX FIFO may be
read out before the condition is cleared with the SFLUSHRX strobe. Note that rejected frames can generate
RX overflow if the condition occurs before the frame is rejected.
RX underflow is indicated by the RX_UNDERFLOW exception. RX underflow is a serious error condition
that should not occur in error-free software, and the RX_UNDERFLOW exception should only be used for
debugging or in a "watchdog" function. Note that the RX_UNDERFLOW exception will not be generated
when the read operation occurs simultaneously with reception of a new byte.
20.5 RSSI
CC2520 has a built-in RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) which calculates an 8 bit signed digital
value that can be read from a register or automatically appended to received frames. The RSSI value is the
result of averaging the received power over 8 symbol periods (128 µs) as specified by IEEE 802.15.4 [2].
The RSSI value is a 2’s complement signed number on a logarithmic scale with 1dB steps.
The statusbit RSSI_VALID should be checked before reading the RSSI value register. RSSI_VALID
indicates that the RSSI value in the register is in fact valid, which means that the receiver has been enabled
for at least 8 symbol periods.
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To find the actual signal power P at the RF pins with reasonable accuracy, an offset has to be added to the
RSSI value.
P = RSSI - OFFSET [dBm]
The offset is an empirical value which is found during characterization and is approximately 76 dBm for the
CC2520 reference design. E.g. reading a RSSI value of -10 from the RSSI register means that the RF input
power is approximately -86 dBm.
It is configurable how CC2520 updates the RSSI register after it has first become valid. If
FRMCTRL0.ENERGY_SCAN=’0’ (default), the RSSI register contains the latest value available, but if this
bit is set to ‘1’, a peak search is performed and the RSSI register will contain the largest value since the
energy scan was enabled.
20.6 Link Quality Indication
The link quality indication (LQI) is a measurement of the strength and/or quality of the received frame as
defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard [2]. The LQI value is required by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard [2] to
be limited to the range 0 through 255, with at least 8 unique values. CC2520 does not provide a LQI value
directly, but reports several measurements that can be used by the microcontroller to calculate a LQI value.
The RSSI value may be used by the MAC software to calculate the LQI value. This approach has the
disadvantage that e.g. a narrowband interferer inside the channel bandwidth will increase the RSSI and thus
the LQI value although it actually reduces the true link quality. CC2520 therefore also provides an average
correlation value for each incoming frame, based on the 8 first symbols following the SFD. This unsigned 7bit value can be looked upon as a measurement of the “chip error rate,” although CC2520 does not do chip
decision.
As described in section 20.3.4, the average correlation value for the 8 first symbols is appended to each
received frame together with the RSSI and CRC OK/not OK when MDMCTRL0.AUTOCRC is set. A
correlation value of ~110 indicates a maximum quality frame while a value of ~50 is typically the lowest
quality frames detectable by CC2520.
Software must convert the correlation value to the range 0-255 as defined by [2], for instance by calculating:
LQI = (CORR - a)b
limited to the range 0-255, where a and b are found empirically based on PER measurements as a function
of the correlation value.
A combination of RSSI and correlation values may also be used to generate the LQI value.
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21 Radio Control State Machine
The FSM module is responsible for maintaining the TX FIFO and RX FIFO pointers, control of analog
“dynamic” signals such as power up / power down, control of the data flow within the RF core, generation of
automatic acknowledgement frames and control of all analog RF calibration.
na
rxe
ble
=0
idle
0
SRFOFF and
tx_active=’0'
all states
rxenable != 0
RX
calibration
2
SR
XO
No
r SF
STXON
TX
calibration
32
LUS
HR
X
STXONCCA and cca=’1'
SF
LU
SH
R
X
Timeout
192 µs
Timeout
192 µs
SFD wait
3-6
TX underflow
56
Timeout 190 µs
Timeout 2 µs
SFD detected
RXFIFO
reset
16
RX/RX wait
14
Fr
a
no me
ac com
k
sc ple
he te
du d a
le nd
d
TX
34-38
Underflow
Ti
m
eo
rx
u
2r
x_ o t 19
2
tim r
µs
e_
of
f=
’1
'
any RX state
TX/RX transit
40
Frame sent
TX final
39
rxenable! = 0
Frame not for me
RX
7-13
TX shutdown
26, 57
Overflow
Slotted ACK
ACK delay
55
0
rxenmask!=
RX overflow
17
Unslotted ACK
ACK
calibration
48
Timeout X µs
(depending on length byte of
the received frame)
Timeour 192 µs
rxenable = 0
ACK
49-54
SRFOFF or
SRXON
all TX and
ACK states
Figure 30: Main FSM
Table 18 shows the mapping from FSM state to the number which can be read from the FSMSTAT0
register. Note that although it is possible to read the state of the FSM, this information should not be used to
control the program flow in the application software. The states may change very quickly (every 32 MHz
clock cycle) and an 8 MHz SPI is not able to capture all the activities.
Table 18: FSM State Mapping
State name
State number
decimal
Number
hex
tx_active
rx_active
Idle
0
0x00
0
0
RX calibration
2
0x02
0
1
SFD wait
3-6
0x03 – 0x06
0
1
RX
7 - 13
0x07 – 0x0D
0
1
RX/RX wait
14
0x0E
0
1
RXFIFO reset
16
0x10
0
1
RX overflow
17
0x11
0
0
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86
State name
State number
decimal
Number
hex
tx_active
rx_active
TX calibration
32
0x20
1
0
TX
34 - 38
0x22 – 0x26
1
0
TX final
39
0x27
1
0
TX/RX transit
40
0x28
1
0
ACK calibration
48
0x30
1
0
ACK
49 - 54
0x31 – 0x36
1
0
ACK delay
55
0x37
1
0
TX underflow
56
0x38
1
0
TX shutdown
26, 57
0x1A, 0x39
1
0
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22 Crystal Oscillator
The internal crystal oscillator generates the main frequency reference. The reference frequency must be
32 MHz. Because the crystal frequency is used as reference for the data rate as well as other internal signal
processing functions, other frequencies cannot be used.
The crystal must be connected between the XOSC32M_Q1 and XOSC32M_Q2 pins. The oscillator is designed
for parallel mode operation of the crystal. In addition, loading capacitors (C121 and C131) for the crystal are
required. The loading capacitor values depend on the total load capacitance, CL, specified for the crystal.
The total load capacitance seen between the crystal terminals should equal CL for the crystal to oscillate at
the specified frequency. CC2520 has the ability to add more capacitance in order to tune the oscillator
frequency. The amount of extra capacitance is configurable with the FREQTUNE register.
C L = C tune + C parasitic +
1
1
1
+
C121 C131
The parasitic capacitance is constituted by pin input capacitance and PCB stray capacitance. The total
parasitic capacitance is typically 2 pF - 5 pF.
Note that the default value for the FREQTUNE register means “no added capacitance”, which means that
only reduction of the frequency is possible. By reducing the external capacitors (C121 and C131), the
default frequency is increased. This way, the actual frequency tuning range can be moved so that both
positive and negative tuning around the target frequency is possible.
The crystal oscillator is amplitude regulated. This means that a high current is used to start up the
oscillations. When the amplitude builds up, the current is reduced to what is necessary to maintain a stable
oscillation. This ensures a fast start-up and keeps the drive level to a minimum. The ESR of the crystal must
be within the specification in order to ensure a reliable start-up.
See section 6 for crystal specific parameters (including tuning).
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23 External Clock Output
CC2520 can provide a 50-50 duty cycle clock signal to external circuits. This is an advantage for low-cost
systems where one wants as few components as possible, because both the microcontroller and CC2520
can run on the same crystal. CC2520 has a clock divider that can make glitch free changes between many
different frequencies between 1 and 16 MHz.
After a reset, CC2520 will output a 1MHz clock on GPIO0. Note that CC2520 needs to be in active mode in
order for the crystal oscillator to be running and thus have the ability to provide an external clock.
The procedure for waking a system up from LPM2 is as follows:
• MCU is running on RC oscillator, CC2520 is in LPM2
• Change CC2520 from LPM2 to active mode.
• Switch the MCU over to the 1 MHz clock that CC2520 outputs on GPIO0.
• Change to the desired clock frequency.
The procedure for bringing a system from active mode to LPM2 is as follows:
• Switch MCU over to RC oscillator.
• Set CC2520 in LPM2.
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24 Random Number Generation
CC2520 can output random bits in two different ways. Common for these are that the chip should be in RX
when generation of random bits are required. One must also make sure that the chip has been in RX long
enough for the transients to have died out. A convenient way to do this is to wait for the RSSI valid signal to
go high.
• Single random bits from either the I or Q channel (configurable) can be output on GPIO pins at a rate of
8MHz. One can also select to xor the I and Q bits before they are output on a GPIO pin. These bits are
taken from the least significant bit in the I and/or Q channel after the decimation filter in the demodulator.
• CC2520 supports an instruction called RANDOM that allows the user to read randomly generated bytes
over the SPI. These bytes are generated from the least significant bit of the I channel output from the
channel filter in the demodulator.
ADC I
Decimator
I
Channel
filter I
ADC Q
Decimator
Q
Channel
filter Q
LSB
SPI
LSB
LSB
GPIO
Figure 31: Random bit generation in the demodulator
A simple test of the RANDOM instruction shows satisfactory performance for most practical uses. About 20
million bytes were read using the RANDOM instruction. When interpreted as unsigned integers between 0
and 255, the mean value was 127.6518, which indicates that there is a DC component.
The FFT of the 214 first bytes is shown in Figure 33. Note that the DC component is clearly visible. A
histogram (32 bins) of the 20 million values is shown in Figure 34.
5
6.5
0
x 10
6.45
-10
6.4
-20
6.35
dB
-30
6.3
-40
6.25
6.2
-50
6.15
-60
6.1
-70
-80
6.05
-3
-2
-1
0
Frequency [rad]
1
2
Figure 32: FFT of the random bytes
6
3
0
50
100
150
200
250
Figure 33: Histogram of 20 million bytes generated
with the RANDOM instruction
For the first 20 million individual bits, the probability of a one is P(1)=0.500602 and P(0)=1-P(1)=0.499398.
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Note that to fully qualify the random generator as “true random”, much more elaborate tests are required.
There are software packages available on the internet that may be useful in this respect [8], [9].
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25 Memory Management Instructions
CC2520 has several instructions for managing the memory contents. These instructions are supported in
order to allow the user to manipulate the memory contents in a flexible way so that SPI traffic is reduced to a
minimum. These instructions are particularly useful when working with secure frames.
Note that the parameters for these instructions may be set to values that make the blocks of input data and
output data overlap. This is perfectly OK for all instructions except MEMCPR which will only work with
overlapping input/output if C≤16. For example: to shift a 9 byte block of data one byte up, the MEMCP
instructions can be used as follows: MEMCP(P=0,C=9,A=0x22A,E=0x22B).
Figure 34: Illustration of the memory management instructions
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25.1 RXBUFMOV
The RXBUFMOV instruction reads data from the RX FIFO and places the data at a specified memory
location as illustrated in Figure 35.
25.2 TXBUFCP
The TXBUFCP instruction copies a block of data starting at a specified memory location into the TX FIFO as
illustrated in Figure 35.
25.3 MEMCP
The MEMCP instruction copies a block of data starting at a specified memory location into another memory
location as illustrated in Figure 35.
25.4 MEMCPR
The MEMCPR instruction copies a block of data starting at a specified memory location into another
memory location while reversing the endianess. In other words the byte at memory location A+n is copied to
memory location E+C-1-n.
25.5 MEMXCP
The MEMXCP instruction xors two blocks of data and writes the result back to the memory location of the
second block. This is primarily used as a subroutine for some of the security instructions. It can also be used
to clear (set to zero) blocks of RAM with one short SPI instruction. By using the same source and target
address, the data is xor’ed with itself, which always results in zero being written back to the RAM.
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26 Security Instructions
CC2520 has extensive support for security operations defined in IEEE 802.15.4. The latest specification
version [2] describes only the CCM* mode of operation. CCM* uses CTR-mode encryption for confidentiality
and CBC-MAC for authentication. In CC2520 these operations are available as separate instructions. In
addition the basic ECB instruction is available and an instruction for manipulation of the counter used in
CTR-mode encryption/decryption.
Note that all the different security operations in IEEE802.15.4 only use AES 128bit encryption. Decryption is
never used and thus CC2520 only supports encryption. ECB decryption is not supported.
Note that for all the security instructions, the key and counter should reside in RAM in reversed byte order
compared to the data. This can either be done by reversing the byte order of the key/counter before it is
written to the RAM, or the MEMCPR instructions can be used to reverse the byte order of keys/counters that
are already in the RAM.
26.1 Decoding of the Flags Field in CC2520
This section defines the security flags used during counter mode encryption and CBC-MAC mode
authentication (also includes CCM*) and how these are represented in CC2520 RAM.
m(1:0)
7
-
Flags byte written to RAM
6
5
4
3
2
CTR Flag
CBC Flag
bits 7:6
bits 7:6
1
0
L
LUT(m(1:0))
7
6
5
4
3
Res
Res
0
0
0
2
1
0
L
7
6
Res
Adata
Flags byte used for CTR operation
5
4
M
3
2
1
0
L
Flags byte used for CBCMAC operation
Figure 35: Security flags
Figure 36 shows how the most significant byte of the counter in CC2520 RAM represents both the CTR and
CBC-MAC security flags.
For the CBC-MAC flags, a lookup procedure is used to translate the two least significant bits of the m
parameter to the CBCMAC instruction in the M value that is used in the flag byte. The same translation is
used for the CBC-MAC part of the CCM instruction.
Table 19: Lookup table for M value
m(1:0)
M
00
000
01
001
10
011
11
111
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Memory before
Memory after
INC(P,C,A)
A+2C-1
2C bytes
A
Increment
A+2C-1
A
2C bytes
0≤C≤2
ECB(P,K,C,A,E)
A+15-C
A
16-C bytes plaintext
zero
padding to
16 bytes
AES
encryption
E+15
E
16 bytes ciphertext
A+15-C
16-C bytes plaintext
16K+15
A
16K
16K+15
16 bytes key
16 bytes key
16K
ECBO(P,K,C,A)
A+15-C
A
16-C bytes plaintext
zero
padding to
16 bytes
AES
encryption
A+15
A
16 bytes ciphertext
16K+15
16K+15
16K
16K
16 bytes key
16 bytes key
ECBX(P,K,C,A,E)
E+15-C
E+15-C
E
E
16-C bytes plaintext
A+15
A
16 bytes counter
16-C bytes ciphertext
A+15
AES
encryption
A
16 bytes counter
16K+15
16K+15
16K
16K
16 bytes key
16 bytes key
Figure 36: Simple encryption instructions
26.2 INC
The INC instruction increments 1, 2 or 4 bytes, with the LSB at address A. Note that C=3 is an illegal
parameter value.
26.3 ECB
The ECB instruction performs basic block encryption. It is mainly intended as a function used by the more
complicated instructions such as CBC-MAC and CCM. ECB by itself is not very useful, because there is no
decryption instruction. The cipher text output can not be recovered. This should not be considered as a
weakness, because ECB block encryption/decryption is not considered to be a secure form of
communicating.
The values of the parameters E and C should be selected with care so that the instruction does not
overwrite a section of the memory that is already in use. The ECB instruction will work exactly as ECBO if
E=A.
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26.4 ECBO
The ECBO instruction is identical to ECB, except that it will store its output to the same memory locations as
the input was read from. It will always output 16 bytes even though the input was not a full 16 bytes.
26.5 ECBX
The ECBX instruction is identical to ECB, except that it will bitwise XOR the result from the encryption with
the memory contents of the output address.
The values of the parameters E and C should be selected with care so that the instruction does not
overwrite a section of the memory that is already in use. The ECBX instruction will work exactly as ECBXO if
E=A.
Note that the terminology from counter mode encryption is used in Figure 37.
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Memory before
Memory after
CTR/UCTR(P,K,C,N,A,E)
A+C-1
A
C bytes plaintext
blocks of
16 bytes
E
A
AES
encryption
16 bytes key
16N+15
16N
E+C-1
C bytes ciphertext
A+C-1
16K+15
16K
Repeat until C bytes
have been consumed
16K+15
Increment 2 least
significant bytes
16 bytes counter
C bytes plaintext
16 bytes key
16K
16N+15
16N
16 bytes counter
CBC-MAC(P,K,C,A,E,M)
blocks of
16 bytes
A+C-1
A
i+1
C bytes plaintext
16K+15
16 bytes key
16K
Repeat until C bytes have
been consumed
E+[NaN,3,7,15]
[0,4,8,16] bytes MIC
E
A+C-1
i
i=0 else
truncate last
iteration
A
C bytes plaintext
16K+15
16 bytes key
16K
AES
encryption
i = block index
CCM(P,K,C,N,A,E,F,M)
A+F+C-1
C bytes plaintext
A+F
A+F-1
A
F bytes plaintext
CBC-MAC
MIC
CTR
index=0
16N
index>0
16K+15
16K
16 bytes key
E
C bytes ciphertext
A+F+C-1
C bytes plaintext
16N+15
16 bytes counter
E+C+[NaN,3,7,15]
[0,4,8,16] bytes encrypted MIC
E+C
E+C-1
A+F
A+F-1
A
CTR
F bytes plaintext
16N+15
16N
16 bytes counter
16K+15
16K
16 bytes key
Figure 37: Advanced security instructions
26.6 CTR / UCTR
The CTR instruction will perform counter mode encryption on a configurable number C of plaintext bytes. It
outputs C ciphertext bytes. The 2 least significant bytes of the counter are incremented after each 16 byte
block of plaintext has been processed.
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If the last block of plaintext is not 16 bytes long, only the required number of bits (from the MSB end) from
the encryption is used in the XOR operation.
The UCTR instruction performs counter mode decryption and is absolutely identical to the CTR instruction
because counter mode encryption and decryption are symmetrical operations.
26.7 CBC-MAC
The CBC-MAC instruction performs authentication.
Note that if M[1:0]=0 no authentication code is output. For other values of M[1:0] the number of
authentication bytes that are output is 2M[1:0]+1. If M[2]=0 the plaintext data is prefixed with the value of C
expanded to 8 bits by concatenation of a 0 at the MSB end.
26.8 CCM / UCCM
The CCM instruction uses both CBC-MAC and CTR to perform both authentication and encryption. It
supports the CCM* mode of operation as specified in IEEE 802.14.5-2006 [2].
The authentication (CBC-MAC) part calculates a Message Integrity Code (MIC) over the address range A to
A+F+C-1. The resulting MIC is encrypted with CTR mode encryption using the counter value with index 0.
The encryption (CTR) part encrypts the address range A+F to A+F+C-1 using CTR mode encryption and
counter values with index 1 and up, and thus generates C bytes of ciphertext.
The output which is the concatenation of the ciphertext and the encrypted MIC is written to memory starting
at address E.
The UCCM instruction decrypts the ciphertext in the address range A+F to A+F+C-1 using CTR mode
decryption. A MIC is then generated in the same way as for the CCM instruction, and compared to the MIC
in the input data. The result of the MIC comparison is stored in the DPUSTAT register.
26.8.1 Inputs to the CCM and UCCM Instructions
The input parameters to the CCM and UCCM instructions are described in detail in Figure 38 and Figure 39
with notes on how they related to the terminology used in the IEEE 802.15.4 specifications.
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Figure 38: Details of the input parameters to the CCM instruction.
Figure 39: Details of the input parameters to the UCCM instruction.
26.9 Examples from IEEE802.15.4-2006
This section contains a detailed step-by-step guide to reproducing the CCM* examples given in annex C of
IEEE802.15.4-2006 [2]. The addresses that are used in these examples are chosen at random. Other
addresses can be used as well. Note that all the parameters to the instructions in the examples use hex
notation, and that section 13.3 describes the exact bit order that is required for the SPI communication.
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26.9.1 Authentication Only Using CCM*
This example uses a MAC beacon frame and demonstrates how to apply authentication using the
CCM/UCCM instructions.
//Write frame data to RAM
//Start at address 0x200
MEMWR(A={02 00} D={08 d0 84 21 43 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 02 05 00 00 00 55 cf 00 00 51 52 53 54})
//Write key to RAM in reverse byte order
//Start at address 0x230
MEMWR(A={02 30} D={cf ce cd cc cb ca c9 c8 c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 c0})
//Write concatenation of flags, nonce and counter to RAM in reversed byte order
//Start at address 0x240
MEMWR(A={02 40} D={00 00 02 05 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 09})
//Do CCM operation with high priority
//Append the output to the frame data (by setting the output address E to 0x000)
CCM(P={01} K={23} C={00} N={24} A={200} E={000} F={1a} M={02})
The expected output from the CCM instruction is {22 3B C1 EC 84 1A B5 53}.
To verify the authentication code in the receiver, the following steps are required.
It is assumed that frame data is already present in RAM from address 0x200.
//Write key to RAM in reverse byte order
//Start at address 0x230
MEMWR(A={02 30} D={cf ce cd cc cb ca c9 c8 c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 c0})
//Write concatenation of flags, nonce and counter to RAM in reversed byte order
//Start at address 0x240
MEMWR(a={02 40} D={00 00 02 05 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 09})
//Do UCCM operation with low priority
UCCM(P={00} K={23} C={00} N={24} A={200} E={2c0} F={1a} M={02})
//Read DPUSTAT register at address 0x02C to check whether the authentication passed or not
REGRD(A={2c})
26.9.2 Encryption Only Using CCM*
This example uses a MAC data frame and demonstrates how to apply encryption/decryption of the payload
using the CCM/UCCM instructions.
//Write frame data to RAM
//Start at address 0x200
MEMWR(A={02 00} D={69 dc 84 21 43 02 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 04 05 00 00 00 61
62 63 64})
//Write key to RAM in reverse byte order
//Start at address 0x230
MEMWR(A={02 30} D={cf ce cd cc cb ca c9 c8 c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 c0})
//Write concatenation of flags, nonce and counter to RAM in reversed byte order
//Starting at address 0x240
MEMWR(A={02 40} D={00 00 04 05 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 01})
//Do CCM instruction.
CCM(P={01} K={23} C={04} N={24} A={200} E={2c0} F={1a} M={00})
The expected output from the CCM instruction is {D4 3E 02 2B}.
To decrypt the frame in the receiver, the following steps are required. It is assumed that the packed data is
already present in RAM from address 0x200.
//Write key to RAM in reverse byte order
//Start at address 0x230
MEMWR(A={02 30} D={cf ce cd cc cb ca c9 c8 c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 c0})
//Write concatenation of flags, nonce and counter to RAM in reversed byte order
//Starting at address 0x240
MEMWR(A={02 40} D={00 00 04 05 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 01})
//Decrypt the frame data and put the plaintext at address 0x2C0.
UCCM(P={01} K={23} C={04} N={24} A={200} E={2c0} F={1a} M={00})
The expected output from the CCM instruction is {61 62 63 64}.
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26.9.3 Combination of Encryption and Authentication Using CCM*
This example uses a MAC command frame and demonstrates how to apply both encryption/decryption and
authentication using the CCM/UCCM instructions.
//Write frame data to RAM
//Start at address 0x200
MEMWR(A={02 00} D={2b dc 84 21 43 02 00 00 00 00 48 de ac ff ff 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 06 05 00 00
00 01 CE})
//Write key to RAM in reverse byte order
//Start at address 0x230
MEMWR(A={02 30} D={cf ce cd cc cb ca c9 c8 c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 c0})
//Write concatenation of flags, nonce and counter to RAM in reversed byte order
//Starting at address 0x240
MEMWR(A={02 40} D={00 00 06 05 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 09})
//Do CCM instruction.
//Replace the last byte in the plaintext frame with the cipehertext and encrypted MIC by setting
the output address E to 0x000.
CCM(P={01} K={23} C={01} N={24} A={200} E={000} F={1d} M={02})
The expected output from the CCM instruction is {D8 4F DE 52 90 61 F9 C6 F1}.
To decrypt the frame in the receiver, the following steps are required. It is assumed that the packed data is
already present in RAM from address 0x200.
//Write key to RAM in reverse byte order
//Start at address 0x230
MEMWR(A={02 30} D={cf ce cd cc cb ca c9 c8 c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 c0})
//Write concatenation of flags, nonce and counter to RAM in reversed byte order
//Starting at address 0x240
MEMWR(A={02 40} D={00 00 06 05 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 48 de ac 09})
//Decrypt the frame data and authenticate the MIC. Note that the output address E is set to 0x000.
UCCM(P={01} K={23} C={01} N={24} A={200} E={000} F={1d} M={02})
//Read DPUSTAT register at address 0x02C to check whether the authentication passed or not
REGRD(A={2c})
The expected plaintext output from the UCCM instruction is {CE}.
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27 Packet Sniffing
Packet sniffing is a non-intrusive way of observing data that is either being transmitted or received by
CC2520. The packet sniffer outputs a clock and a data signal which should be sampled on the rising edges
of the clock. The two packet sniffer signals are observable as GPIO outputs. For accurate time stamping,
the SFD signal should also be output.
Because CC2520 only supports a data rate of 250kbps, the packet sniffer clock frequency is 250 kHz. The
data is output serially with the MSB of each byte first, which is opposite of the actual RF transmission, but
more convenient when processing the data. It is possible to use an SPI slave to receive the data stream.
When sniffing frames in TX mode, the data that is read from the TX FIFO by the modulator is the same data
that is output by the packet sniffer. However, if automatic CRC generation is enabled, the packet sniffer will
NOT output these 2 bytes. Instead, it will replace the CRC bytes with 0x8080. This value can never occur as
the last two bytes of a received frame (when automatic CRC checking is enabled), and thus it provides a
way for the receiver of the sniffed data to separate frames that were transmitted by the CC2520 and frames
that were received by the CC2520.
When sniffing frames in RX mode, the data that is written to the RX FIFO by the demodulator is the same
data that is output by the packet sniffer. In other words, the last two bytes are either the received CRC value
or the CRC OK/RSSI/correlation/SRCRESINDEX value that may automatically replace the CRC value,
depending on configuration settings.
Note that in order to observe the packet sniffing data on GPIO pins, the packet sniffer module must be
enabled in the MDMTEST1 register, and the correct GPIO configuration must be written to any of the GPIOn
registers.
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28 Registers
The table below shows the memory mapping for the configuration registers in CC2520.
The FREG registers are accessible with the REGRD and REGWR instructions. Registers in address space
0x000 to 0x01F (marked with gray) are also accessible with the BSET and BCLR instructions.
The SREG registers are only accessible with the MEMRD and MEMWR instructions.
Please also refer to Figure 11: CC2520 memory map for information on the rest of the address range.
Table 20: Register overview
Address (hex)
+0x000
+0x001
+0x002
+0x003
FREG registers
0x000
FRMFILT0
FRMFILT1
SRCMATCH
0x004
SRCSHORTEN0
SRCSHORTEN1
SRCSHORTEN2
0x008
SRCEXTEN0
SRCEXTEN1
SRCEXTEN2
0x00C
FRMCTRL0
FRMCTRL1
RXENABLE0
0x010
EXCFLAG0
EXCFLAG1
EXCFLAG2
0x014
EXCMASKA0
EXCMASKA1
EXCMASKA2
0x018
EXCMASKB0
EXCMASKB1
EXCMASKB2
0x01C
EXCBINDX0
EXCBINDX1
EXCBINDY0
EXCBINDY1
0x020
GPIOCTRL0
GPIOCTRL1
GPIOCTRL2
GPIOCTRL3
0x024
GPIOCTRL4
GPIOCTRL5
GPIOPOLARITY
0x028
GPIOCTRL
DPUCON
0x02C
DPUSTAT
FREQCTRL
FREQTUNE
0x030
TXPOWER
TXCTRL
FSMSTAT0
FSMSTAT1
0x034
FIFOPCTRL
FSMCTRL
CCACTRL0
CCACTRL1
0x038
RSSI
RSSISTAT
0x03C
RXFIRST
RXFIFOCNT
TXFIFOCNT
0x040
CHIPID
VERSION
0x044
EXTCLOCK
MDMCTRL0
0x048
FREQEST
RXCTRL
0x04C
FSCTRL
FSCAL0
FSCAL1
0x050
FSCAL2
FSCAL3
AGCCTRL0
AGCCTRL1
0x054
AGCCTRL2
AGCCTRL3
ADCTEST0
ADCTEST1
0x058
ADCTEST2
MDMTEST0
MDMTEST1
0x05C
DACTEST0
DACTEST1
ATEST
DACTEST2
0x060
PTEST0
PTEST1
RESERVED
RXENABLE1
SREG registers
MDMCTRL1
0x064-0x077
0x078
0x07C
DPUBIST
ACTBIST
RAMBIST
NOTE: When accessing unmapped addresses a MEMADDR_ERROR exception will be generated. This is
valid for address space from 0x064 to 0x079 and addresses above 0x07F. Other unmapped addresses like
i.e. 0x003 will not generate a MEMADDR_ERROR.
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28.1 Register Settings Update
This section contains a summary of the register settings that need to be updated from their default value.
Note that these values must be written every time CC2520 has been in LPM2 and is being brought back to
active mode.
Table 21: Registers that need update from their default value
Register name
Address
(hex)
New value
(hex)
Description
TXPOWER
030
32
Set 0 dBm output power. Use only the values listed in Table
17 in this register.
CCACTRL0
036
F8
Raises the CCA threshold from about -108dBm to about 84 dBm input level.
MDMCTRL0
046
85
Makes sync word detection less likely by requiring two zero
symbols before the sync word.
MDMCTRL1
047
14
Make it more likely to detect sync by removing the
requirement that both symbols in the SFD must have a
correlation value above the correlation threshold, and make
sync word detection less likely by raising the correlation
threshold.
RXCTRL
04A
3F
Adjust currents in RX related analog modules.
FSCTRL
04C
5A
Adjust currents in synthesizer.
FSCAL1
04F
2B
Adjust currents in VCO.
AGCCTRL1
053
11
Adjust target value for AGC control loop.
ADCTEST0
056
10
Tune ADC performance.
ADCTEST1
057
0E
Tune ADC performance.
ADCTEST2
058
03
Tune ADC performance.
28.2 Register Access Modes
The “Mode” columns in the tables below show what kind of accesses that are allowed for each bit. Table 22
shows the meaning of the different alternatives.
Table 22: Register bits access modes
Mode
Description
R
Read
W
Write
R0
Read constant zero
R1
Read constant one
W1
Only possible to write one
W0
Only possible to write zero
R*
The value read is not the actual register value, but rather the value seen by the module. This is typically used where a
configuration value may be generated automatically (through calibration, dynamic control etc.) or manually overridden with
a register value. An example structure is shown below for the AGCCTRL2 register.
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read_data
write_data
AGCCTRL2
register
LNA_CURRENT_OE
rf_input
LNA
1
AGC
module
0
Figure 40: Example hardware structure for the R* register access mode.
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28.3 Register Descriptions
The heading for each register is built up according to the following pattern:
<Register name>, A <address>, R <reset value>, <Short register description>
FRMFILT0, A 0x000, R 0x0D, Frame filtering
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
RESERVED
0
R/W
Reserved. Always write ‘0’
6:4
FCF_RESERVED_MASK[2:0]
000
R/W
Used for filtering on the reserved part of the frame control
field (FCF). FCF_RESERVED_MASK[2:0] is AND'ed with
FCF[9:7]. If the result is non-zero, and frame filtering is
enabled, the frame is rejected.
3:2
MAX_FRAME_VERSION[1:0]
11
R/W
Used for filtering on the frame version field of the frame
control field (FCF).
If FCF[13:12] (the frame version subfield) is higher than
MAX_FRAME_VERSION[1:0], and frame filtering is
enabled, the frame is rejected.
1
PAN_COORDINATOR
0
R/W
Should be set high when the device is a PAN coordinator,
to accept frames with no destination address (as specified
in section 7.5.6.2 in 802.15.4(b))
0 - Device is not PAN coordinator
1 - Device is PAN coordinator
0
FRAME_FILTER_EN
1
R/W
Enables frame filtering.
When this bit is set, CC2520 will perform frame filtering as
specified in section 7.5.6.2 of 802.15.4(b), third filtering
level. FRMFILT0[6:1] and FRMFILT1[7:1] together with
the local address information, define the behavior of the
filtering algorithm.
0 - Frame filtering off. (FRMFILT0[6:1], FRMFILT1[7:1]
and SRCMATCH[2:0] are don't care).
1 - Frame filtering on.
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FRMFILT1, A 0x001, R 0x78, Frame filtering
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
ACCEPT_FT_4TO7_RESERVED
0
R/W
Defines whether reserved frames are accepted or not.
Reserved frames have frame type = (100, 101, 110, 111).
0 - Reject
1 - Accept
6
ACCEPT_FT_3_MAC_CMD
1
R/W
Defines whether MAC command frames are accepted or
not. MAC command frames have frame type = 011.
0 - Reject
1 - Accept
5
ACCEPT_FT_2_ACK
1
R/W
Defines whether acknowledgment frames are accepted or
not. Acknowledgement frames have frame type = 010.
0 - Reject
1 - Accept
4
ACCEPT_FT_1_DATA
1
R/W
Defines whether data frames are accepted or not. Data
frames have frame type = 001.
0 - Reject
1 - Accept.
3
ACCEPT_FT_0_BEACON
1
R/W
Defines whether beacon frames are accepted or not.
Beacon frames have frame type = 000
0 - Reject
1 - Accept
2:1
MODIFY_FT_FILTER[1:0]
00
R/W
These bits are used to modify the frame type field of a
received frame before frame type filtering is performed.
The modification does not influence the frame that is
written to the RX FIFO.
00 : Leave as it is
01 : Invert MSB
10 : Set MSB to ‘0’
11 : Set MSB to ‘1’
0
106
RESERVED
0
R/W
Reserved. Always write ‘0’
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SRCMATCH, A 0x002, R 0x07, Source address matching and pending bits
Bit no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:3
RESERVED[4:0]
0x00
R/W
Reserved. Always write ‘0’
2
PEND_DATAREQ_ONLY
1
R/W
When this bit is set, the AUTOPEND function also
requires that the received frame is a "DATA REQUEST"
MAC command frame.
1
AUTOPEND
1
R/W
Automatic acknowledgment pending flag enable.
Upon reception of a frame, the pending bit in the
(possibly) returned acknowledgment will be set
automatically, given that:
- FRMFILT0.FRAME_FILTER_EN is set.
- SRCMATCH.SRC_MATCH_EN is set.
- SRCMATCH.AUTOPEND is set.
- The received frame matches the current
SRCMATCH.PEND_DATAREQ_ONLY setting.
- The received source address matches at least one
source match table entry, which is enabled in both
SHORT_ADDR_EN and SHORT_PEND_EN or
EXT_ADDR_EN and EXT_PEND_EN.
Note: Details for SHORT_PEND_EN and
EXT_PEND_EN is found in memory map description.
0
SRC_MATCH_EN
1
R/W
Source address matching enable (This bit is “don’t care” if
FRMFILT0.FRAME_FILTER_EN = 0)
SRCSHORTEN0, A 0x004, R 0x00, Short address matching
Bit no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
SHORT_ADDR_EN[7:0]
0x00
R/W
The 7:0 part of the 24-bit word SHORT_ADDR_EN that
enables / disables source address matching for each of
the 24 short address table entries.
Optional safety feature: To ensure that an entry in the
source matching table is not used while it is being
updated, set the corresponding SHORT_ADDR_EN bit to
0 while updating.
SRCSHORTEN1, A 0x005, R 0x00, Short address matching
Bit no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
SHORT_ADDR_EN[15:8]
0x00
R/W
The 15:8 part of the 24-bit word SHORT_ADDR_EN
See description of SRCSHORTEN0.
SRCSHORTEN2, A 0x006, R 0x00, Short address matching
Bit no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
SHORT_ADDR_EN[23:16]
0x00
R/W
The 23:16 part of the 24-bit word SHORT_ADDR_EN
See description of SRCSHORTEN0.
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
SRCEXTEN0, A 0x008, R 0x00, Extended address matching
Bit no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXT_ADDR_EN[7:0]
0x00
R/W
RO
The 7:0 part of the 24-bit word EXT_ADDR_EN that
enables / disables source address matching for each of
the 12 extended address table entries.
Write access: Extended address enable for table entry n
(0 to 7) is mapped to EXT_ADDR_EN[2n]. All
EXT_ADDR_EN[2n + 1] bits are read only and don’t care
when written to.
Read access: Extended address enable for table entry n
(0 to 7) is mapped to both EXT_ADDR_EN[2n] and
EXT_ADDR_EN[2n+1].
Optional safety feature: To ensure that an entry in the
source matching table is not used while it is being
updated, set the corresponding EXT_ADDR_EN bit to 0
while updating.
SRCEXTEN1, A 0x009, R 0x00, Extended address matching
Bit no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXT_ADDR_EN[15:8]
0x00
R/W
The 15:8 part of the 24-bit word EXT_ADDR_EN
See description of SRCEXTEN0.
SRCEXTEN2, A 0x00A, R 0x00, Extended address matching
Bit no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXT_ADDR_EN[23:16]
0x00
R/W
The 23:16 part of the 24-bit word EXT_ADDR_EN
See description of SRCEXTEN0.
108
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
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FRMCTRL0, A 0x00C, R 0x40, Frame handling
Bit no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
APPEND_DATA_MODE
0
R/W
When AUTOCRC = 0:Don’t care
When AUTOCRC = 1:
0: RSSI + The crc_ok bit and the 7 bit correlation value is
appended at the end of each received frame
1: RSSI + The crc_ok bit and the 7 bit SRCRESINDEX is
appended at the end of each received frame. See Table 15 for
details.
6
AUTOCRC
1
R/W
In TX:
1: A CRC-16 (ITU-T) is generated in hardware and appended to
the transmitted frame. There is no need to write the two last bytes
to TXBUF.
0: No CRC-16 is appended to the frame. The two last bytes of the
frame must be generated manually and written to TXBUF (if not,
TX_UNDERFLOW will occur).
In RX
1: The CRC-16 is checked in hardware, and replaced in the RX
FIFO by a 16-bit status word which contains a CRC OK bit. The
status word is controllable through APPEND_DATA_MODE
0: The last two bytes of the frame (crc-16 field) are stored in the
RXFIFO. The CRC check (if any) must be done manually.
Note that this setting does not influence acknowledgment
transmission (including AUTOACK)
5
AUTOACK
0
R/W
Defines whether CC2520 automatically transmits acknowledge
frames or not. When autoack is enabled, all frames that are
accepted by address filtering, have the acknowledge request flag
set and have a valid CRC, are automatically acknowledged 12
symbol periods after being received.
0 - Autoack disabled
1 - Autoack enabled
4
ENERGY_SCAN
0
R/W
Defines whether the RSSI register contains the most recent signal
strength or the peak signal strength since the energy scan was
enabled.
0 - Most recent signal strength
1 - Peak signal strength
3:2
RX_MODE[1:0]
00
R/W
Set RX modes
00: Normal operation, use RXFIFO.
01: Reserved
10: RXFIFO looping ignore overflow in RXFIFO, infinite reception.
11: Same as normal operation except that symbol search is
disabled. Can be used for RSSI or CCA measurements when it is
undesired to find symbol.
1:0
TX_MODE[1:0]
00
R/W
Set test modes for TX
00: Normal operation, transmit TXFIFO
01: Reserved. Should not be used.
10: TXFIFO looping ignore underflow in TXFIFO and read cyclic,
infinite transmission.
11: Send pseudo random data from CRC, infinite transmission.
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CC2520 DATASHEET
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FRMCTRL1, A 0x00D, R 0x01, Frame handling
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:3
RESERVED
0x00
R0
Read as zero
2
PENDING_OR
0
R/W
Defines whether the pending data bit in outgoing acknowledgment
frames are always set to ‘1’ or controlled by the main FSM and
the address filtering.
0 - Pending data bit is controlled by main FSM and address
filtering
1 - Pending data bit is always ‘1’.
1
IGNORE_TX_UNDERF
0
R/W
Defines whether TX underflow should be ignored or not.
0 - Normal TX operation. TX underflow is detected and TX is
aborted if underflow occurs
1 - Ignore TX underflow. Transmit the number of bytes given by
the length field.
0
SET_RXENMASK_ON_TX
1
R/W
Defines whether STXON will set bit 14 in the RXENABLE register or
leave it unchanged.
0: Do not affect RXENABLE.
1: Set bit 14 in RXENABLE. Used for backwards compatibility with
CC2420.
110
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2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
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RXENABLE0, A 0x00E, R 0x00, RX enabling
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
RXENMASK[7:0]
0x00
R/W
LSB part of the 16 bit word RXENMASK
RXENABLE enables the receiver. A non-zero value in this
register will cause the main FSM to enable the receiver when in
idle, after transmission and after acknowledgement transmission.
The following strobes can modify RXENMASK:
SRXON: Set bit 15 in RXENMASK
STXON: Set bit 14 in RXENMASK if SET_RXENMASK_ON_TX = ‘1’
SRFOFF: Clears all bits in RXENMASK
The following instructions modifies RXENMASK:
RXMASKAND : Performs a bitwise AND between RXENMASK
and the 16 bit parameter given with the instruction
RXMASKOR : Performs a bitwise OR between RXENMASK and
the 16 bit parameter given with the instruction
RXENABLE can also be written and is bit accessible. BSET and
BCLR set and clear any of the 16 bits in RXENMASK.
SRXMASKBITSET and SRXMASKBITCLR will set and clear bit
13 in RXENMASK.
There are several sources which might try to modify RXENMASK
simultaneously. To handle the case of simultaneous access to
RXENMASK from different sources the following rules apply:
- If two sources are not in conflict (they modify different parts of
the register) both their requests to modify RXENMASK will be
processed.
-Data bus has priority over all sources (BSET, BCLR, REGWR,
MEMWR)
Strobes which modify RXENMASK are prioritized as following:
1
SRFOFF
2
SXTON
3
SRXON
4
RXMASKOR
5
RXMASKAND
6
SRXMASKBITSET
7
SRXMASKBITCLR
RXENABLE1, A 0x00F, R 0x00, RX enabling
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
RXENMASK[15:8]
0x00
R/W
MSB part of the 16 bit word RXENMASK
Se description of RXENABLE0.
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
EXCFLAG0, A 0x010, R 0x00, Exception flags
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCFLAG[7:0]
0x00
R/W0
Exception pending bits for exceptions 7 to 0. Whenever an
exception occurs this bit will be set by hardware. Only software
can clear this bit. EXCFKLAG is write zero only and attempts to
write ‘1’ to any bits in EXFLAG will not result in a register change.
1: This exception has occurred and not yet cleared.
0: This exception has not yet occurred or has been cleared by
software.
Bit no
Exception
0
RF_IDLE
1
TX_FRM_DONE
2
TX_ACK_DONE
3
TX_UNDERFLOW
4
TX_OVERFLOW
5
RX_UNDERFLOW
6
RX_OVERFLOW
7
RXENABLE_ZERO
EXCFLAG1, A 0x011, R 0x00, Exception flags
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCFLAG[15:8]
0x00
R/W0
Exception pending bits for exceptions 15 to 8. See description
above.
112
Bit no
Exception
8
RX_FRM_DONE
9
RX_FRM_ACCEPTED
10
SRC_MATCH_DONE
11
SRC_MATCH_FOUND
12
FIFOP
13
SFD
14
DPU_DONE_L
15
DPU_DONE_H
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2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
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EXCFLAG2, A 0x012, R 0x00, Exception flags
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCFLAG[23:16]
0x00
R/W0
Exception pending bits for exceptions 23 to 16. See description
above.
Bit no
Exception
16
MEMADDR_ERROR
17
USAGE_ERROR
18
OPERAND_ERROR
19
SPI_ERROR
20
RF_NO_LOCK
21
RX_FRM_ABORTED
22
RXBUFMOV_TIMEOUT
23
UNUSED
EXCMASKA0, A 0x014, R 0x00, Exception masking channel A
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCMASKA[7:0]
0x00
R/W
The 7:0 part of 24 bit word EXCMASKA
Mask exceptions for channel A. If channel A is selected as output
configuration for a pin, an exception indication will be generated on
that pin when a selected exception occurs. If the complementary
channel is selected, then an exception will be indicated when a
masked exception occurs.
For each bit:
1: Selected
0: Masked
EXCMASKA1, A 0x015, R 0x00, Exception masking channel A
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCMASKA[15:8]
0x00
R/W
The 15:8 part of 24 bit word EXCMASKA
See description of EXCMASKA0.
EXCMASKA2, A 0x016, R 0x00, Exception masking channel A
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCMASKA[23:16]
0x00
R/W
The 23:16 part of 24 bit word EXCMASKA
See description of EXCMASKA0.
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EXCMASKB0, A 0x018, R 0x00, Exception masking channel B
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCMASKB[7:0]
0x00
R/W
The 7:0 part of 24 bit word EXCMASKB
Mask exceptions for channel B. If channel B is selected as output
configuration for a pin, an exception indication will be generated on
that pin when a selected exception occurs. If the complementary
channel is selected, then an exception will be indicated when a
masked exception occurs.
For each bit:
1: Selected
0: Masked
EXCMASKB1, A 0x019, R 0x00, Exception masking channel B
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCMASKB[15:8]
0x00
R/W
The 15:8 part of 24 bit word EXCMASKB
See description of EXCMASKB0.
EXCMASKB2, A 0x01A, R 0x00, Exception masking channel B
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
EXCMASKB[23:16]
0x00
R/W
The 23:16 part of 24 bit word EXCMASKB
See description of EXCMASKB0.
EXCBINDX0, A 0x01C, R 0x00, Exception binding channel X
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:4
RESERVED
0x0
R0
Read as zero
3:0
INSTRUCTIONX
0x0
R/W
Instruction for channel X
Instruction number to bind to exception. See documentation for
GPIO configuration for list over possible instructions that can be
bound.
EXCBINDX1, A 0x01D, R 0x12, Exception binding channel X
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
BINDX_EN
0
R/W
Defines whether exception binding for channel X is enabled or not.
0 - Binding disabled.
1 -: Binding enabled. Whenever the exception given by
EXCEPTIONX occurs the instruction given by INSTRUCTIONX is
executed.
6:5
RESERVED
00
R0
Read as zero
4:0
EXCEPTIONX
0x12
R/W
Exception for channel X
Exception number to bind to an instruction. Se table in Exception
overview for valid configurations
114
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EXCBINDY0, A 0x01E, R 0x00, Exception binding channel Y
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:4
RESERVED
0x0
R0
Read as zero
3:0
INSTRUCTIONY
0x0
R/W
Instruction for channel Y
Instruction number to bind to exception. See documentation for
GPIO configuration for list over possible instructions that can be
bound.
EXCBINDY1, A 0x01F, R 0x12, Exception binding channel Y
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
BINDY_EN
0
R/W
Defines whether exception binding for channel Y is enabled or not.
0: Binding disabled.
1: Binding enabled. Whenever the exception given by
EXCEPTIONY occurs the instruction given by INSTRUCTIONY is
executed.
6:5
RESERVED
0
R0
Read as zero
4:0
EXCEPTIONY
0x12
R/W
Exception for channel Y
Exception number to bind to an instruction. Se table in Exception
overview for valid configurations
GPIOCTRL0, A 0x020, R 0x00, Control GPIO0
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
IN0
0
R/W
Defines whether GPIO0 is an input or output. Must be set as input
when using analog test functionality.
0 - GPIO0 is output
1 - GPIO0 is input
6:0
CTRL0
0x00
R/W
GPIO0 Configuration
When output: mux selector. See GPIO description for table over all
possible signals that can be set as output to the pin.
When input: 4 LSBs chose one of 16 instructions to be triggered
on the active edge of this GPIO input line. Values above 0x0F
have no effect.
GPIOCTRL1, A 0x021, R 0x27, Control GPIO1
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
IN1
0
R/W
Defines whether GPIO1 is an input or output. Must be set as input
when using analog test functionality.
0 - GPIO1 is output
1 - GPIO1 is input
6:0
CTRL1
0x27
R/W
GPIO1 configuration.
For details, see GPIOCTRL0 register
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GPIOCTRL2, A 0x022, R 0x28, Control GPIO2
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
IN2
0
R/W
Defines whether GPIO2 is an input or output.
0 - GPIO2 is output
1 - GPIO2 is input
6:0
CTRL2
0x28
R/W
GPIO2 configuration
For details, see GPIOCTRL0 register
GPIOCTRL3, A 0x023, R 0x29, Control GPIO3
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
IN3
0
R/W
Defines whether GPIO3 is an input or output.
0 - GPIO3 is output
1 - GPIO3 is input
6:0
CTRL3
0x29
R/W
GPIO3 configuration.
For details, see GPIOCTRL0 register
GPIOCTRL4, A 0x024, R 0x2A, Control GPIO4
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
IN4
0
R/W
Defines whether GPIO4 is an input or output.
0 - GPIO4 is output
1 - GPIO4 is input
6:0
CTRL4
0x2A
R/W
GPIO4 configuration.
For details, see GPIOCTRL0 register
GPIOCTRL5, A 0x025, R 0x90, Control GPIO5
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
IN5
1
R/W
Defines whether GPIO5 is an input or output.
0 - GPIO5 is output
1 - GPIO5 is input
6:0
CTRL5
0x10
R/W
GPIO5 configuration
For details, see GPIOCTRL0 register
GPIOPOLARITY, A 0x026, R 0x3F, Polarity control for GPIO pins
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:6
RESERVED
00
R0
Read as zero
5:0
POLARITY
0x3F
R/W
Selects output polarity or input edge of GPIO pins.
0 - Negative polarity. Level indication is active low.
When input, falling edge is active.
1 - Positive polarity. Level indication is active high.
When input, rising edge is active.
116
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GPIOCTRL, A 0x028, R 0x00, Other GPIO options
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
SC
0
R/W
Select extra drive strength for pads.
0 - No extra drive
1 - Extra drive
6
GPIO_ACTRL
0
R/W
5:0
GPIO_PUE
0x00
R/W
Controls analog functionality for GPIO[1:0]. When set both GPIO
pin 0 and 1 will be set to analog pads.
0 - Disable analog pads
1 - Enable analog pads
Set pull up enable individually on GPIO pads 0 through 5
Pull up is 20 kohm +/- 15%
0 - Pull up disabled
1 - Pull up enabled
DPUCON, A 0x02A, R 0x01, Timeout control for DPU
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:1
RESERVED
0x00
R0
Read as zero
0
RXTIMEOUT
1
R/W
Defines whether the RXBUFMOV instruction will time out after 32
us or immediately when the RXFIFO is empty. When the 32 us
timeout is enabled, the RXBUFMOV instruction can be run with a
higher number of bytes than the number of bytes currently stored
in RXFIFO since one byte is received every 32us.
0 - Immediate time out
1 - 32us time out
DPUSTAT, A 0x02C, R 0x00, DPU status register
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:4
RESERVED
0000
R0
Read as 0
3
AUTHSTAT_H
0
R
Authentication status, high priority Updated when a high priority
UCBCMAC or UCCM instruction completes and keep result until a
new instruction completes. Reports the result of the last run
authentication operation.
0: Authentication check failed.
1: Authentication check passed or no authentication check was
performed.
2
AUTHSTAT_L
0
R
Authentication status, low priority Updated when a low priority
UCBCMAC or UCCM instruction completes and keep result until a
new instruction completes. Reports the result of the last run
authentication operation.
0: Authentication check failed.
1: Authentication check passed or no authentication check was
performed.
1
DPUH_ACTIVE
0
R
High Priority Active
0: No high priority DPU instruction is currently active.
1: A high priority DPU instruction is currently active.
0
DPUL_ACTIVE
0
R
Low Priority Active
0: No low priority DPU instruction is currently active.
1: A low priority DPU instruction is currently active.
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
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FREQCTRL, A 0x02E, R 0x0B, Controls the RF frequency
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
RESERVED
0
R0
Read as zero
6:0
FREQ[6:0]
0x0B
R/W
Frequency control word.
f RF = f LO = (2394 + FREQ [6 : 0]) MHz
(2405
MHz)
The frequency word in freq[6:0] is an offset value from 2394. The
device supports the frequency range from 2394MHz to 2507MHz.
The usable settings for freq[6:0] is consequently 0 to 113. Settings
outside this (114-127) will give a frequency of 2507MHz.
IEEE802.15.4-2006 specifies a frequency range from 2405MHz to
2480MHz with 16 channels 5 MHz apart. The channels are
numbered 11 through 26. For an IEEE802.15.4-2006 compliant
system, the only valid settings are thus
freq[6:0] = 11 + 5(channel number - 11)
FREQTUNE, A 0x02F, R 0x0F, Crystal oscillator frequency tuning
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:4
RESERVED
0x0
R0
Read as zero
3:0
XOSC32M_TUNE[3:0]
0xF
R/W
Tune crystal oscillator
The default setting “1111” will leave the XOSC not tuned.
Changing setting from default will switch in extra capacitance to
the oscillator, effectively lowering the XOSC frequency. Hence
higher setting gives higher frequency.
TXPOWER, A 0x030, R 0x06, Controls the output power
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
PA_POWER [7:0]
0x06
R/W
PA power control. Use only the values listed in in this register.
NOTE
This value should be updated to one of the values listed in Table
17 before going to TX.
FSMSTAT0, A 0x032, R 0x00, Radio status register
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
CAL_DONE
0
R
Note that this signal can not be used as a “calibration completed”
signal. It will only be high for a very brief period of time (one 32
MHz clock cycle) when the calibration module is ready to be turned
off (which does not necessarily mean that the calibration has
completed) and is thus difficult to capture with a register read over
the SPI.
This signal should not be documented in the datasheet.
Falling edges on CAL_RUNNING should be used in stead.
6
CAL_RUNNING
0
R
Frequency synth calibration status.
0 - Calibration done or not started
1 - Calibration in progress.
5:0
FSM_FFCTRL_STATE[5:0]
-
R
Gives the current state of the FIFO and Frame Control (FFCTRL)
finite state machine.
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FSMSTAT1, A 0x033, R 0x00, Radio status register
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
FIFO
0
R
FIFO is high whenever there is data in the RXFIFO. Low during
RXFIFO overflow
6
FIFOP
0
R
FIFOP is set high when there are more than FIFOP_THR bytes of
data in the RXFIFO that has passed frame filtering.
FIFOP is set high when there is at least one complete frame in the
RXFIFO. FIFOP is set low again when a byte is read from the
RXFIFO and this leaves less than FIFOP_THR bytes in the FIFO.
FIFOP is high during RXFIFO overflow
5
SFD
0
R
In TX:
0: When a complete frame with SFD has been sent or no SFD has
been sent
1: SFD has been sent
In RX:
0: When a complete frame has been received or no SFD has been
received
1: SFD has been received
4
CCA
0
R
Clear channel assessment. Dependent on CCA_MODE settings.
See CCACTRL1 for details.
3
SAMPLED_CCA
0
R
Contains a sampled value of the CCA. The value is updated
whenever a SSAMPLECCA or STXONCCA strobe is issued
2
LOCK_STATUS
0
R
'1' when PLL is in lock, otherwise '0'.
1
TX_ACTIVE
0
R
Status signal, active when FFCTRL is in one of the transmit states
0
RX_ACTIVE
0
R
Status signal, active when FFCTRL is in one of the receive states
FIFOPCTRL, A 0x034, R 0x40, FIFOP threshold
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7
RESERVED
0
R0
Read as zero
6:0
FIFOP_THR[6:0]
0x40
R/W
Threshold used when generating FIFOP signal
FSMCTRL, A 0x035, R 0x01, FSM options
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:2
RESERVED
0x00
R0
Read as zero
1
SLOTTED_ACK
0
R/W
Controls timing of transmission of acknowledge frames
0: The acknowledge frame will be sent 12 symbol periods after
the end of the received frame which requests the aknowledge.
1: The acknowledge frame will be sent at the first backoff slot
boundary more than 12 symbol periods after the end of the
received frame which requests the aknowledge
0
RX2RX_TIME_OFF
1
R/W
Defines whether or not a 12 symbol time out should be used after
frame reception has ended.
0 - No time out.
1 - 12 symbol period time out.
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119
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
CCACTRL0, A 0x036, R 0xE0, CCA threshold
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
CCA_THR[7:0]
0xE0
R/W
Clear Channel Assessment threshold value, signed 2’s
complement number for comparison with the RSSI.
The unit is 1 dB, offset is about 76dBm. The CCA signal goes
high when the received signal is below this value. The CCA signal
is available on the CCA pin and in FSMSTAT1 register.
Note that the value should never be set lower than CCA_HYST128 in order to avoid erroneous behavior of the CCA signal.
NOTE
The reset value translates to an input level of approximately -32 –
76 = -108 dBm, which is well below the sensitivity limit. That
means the CCA signal will never indicate a clear channel.
This register should be updated to 0xF8, which translates to an
input level of about -8 - 76 = -84dBm.
CCACTRL1, A 0x037, R 0x1A, Other CCA options
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:5
RESERVED
000
R0
Read as zero
4:3
CCA_MODE[1:0]
11
R/W
00 : CCA always set to ‘1’
01 : CCA = ‘1’ when RSSI < CCA_THR-CCA_HYST, CCA = ‘0’
when RSSI >= CCA_THR
10 : CCA = ‘1’ when not receiving a frame, else CCA = ‘0’
11 : CCA = ‘1’ when RSSI < CCA_THR-CCA_HYST and not
receiving a frame, CCA=0 when RSSI >= CCA_THR or receiving a
frame
2:0
CCA_HYST[2:0]
010
R/W
Sets the level of CCA hysteresis. Unsigned values given in dB.
RSSI, A 0x038, R 0x80, RSSI status register
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
RSSI_VAL[7:0]
0x80
R
RSSI estimate on a logarithmic scale, signed number on 2’s
complement.
Unit is 1 dB, offset is TBD [depends on the absolute gain of the
RX chain, including external components, and should be
measured]. The RSSI value is averaged over 8 symbol periods.
The RSSI_VALID status bit should be checked before reading
RSSI_VAL the first time.
The reset value of –128 also indicates that the RSSI value is
invalid.
RSSISTAT, A 0x039, R 0x00, RSSI valid status register
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:1
RESERVED
0000
000
R0
Read as zero
0
RSSI_VALID
0
R
RSSI value is valid. Occurs eight symbol periods after entering
RX
120
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
RXFIRST, A 0x03C, R 0x00, First byte in RXFIFO
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
DATA[7:0]
0x00
R
First byte of the RXFIFO. Note: Reading this register will not
modify the contents of the FIFO.
RXFIFOCNT, A 0x03E, R 0x00, Number of bytes in RXFIFO
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
RXFIFOCNT[7:0]
0x00
R
Number of bytes in the RXFIFO. Unsigned integer.
TXFIFOCNT, A 0x03F, R 0x00, Number of bytes in TXFIFO
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
TXFIFOCNT[7:0]
0x00
R
Number of bytes in the TXFIFO. Unsigned integer.
CHIPID, A 0x040, R 0x84, Chip ID
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
CHIPID[7:0]
0x84
R
Chip ID number. 0x84 = CC2520
VERSION, A 0x042, R 0x00, Chip version number
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
VERSION[7:0]
0x00
R
Chip version. Unsigned integer.
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121
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
EXTCLOCK, A 0x044, R 0x20, Controls clock output
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:6
RESERVED
00
R0
Read as zero
5
EXTCLOCK_EN
1
RW
Defines whether the clock generator module for the external clock
is enabled or not. Note that a GPIO pin must be configured as
output and Clock must be selected in one of the GPIOCTRLn
registers to get the clock at the selected pin.
1 - Clock running
0 - Clock off
4:0
122
EXT_FREQ
0x00
RW
Frequency setting of external clock. Changes of frequencies are
glitch free and have 50/50 duty cycle. I.e. a change of frequency
will not have effect before a complete period of the current clock
setting is finished.
Setting
Div. factor
Frequency [MHz]
00000
32
1,00
00001
31
1,03
00010
30
1,07
00011
29
1,10
00100
28
1,14
00101
27
1,19
00110
26
1,23
00111
25
1,28
01000
24
1,33
01001
23
1,39
01010
22
1,45
01011
21
1,52
01100
20
1,60
01101
19
1,68
01110
18
1,78
01111
17
1,88
10000
16
2,00
10001
15
2,13
10010
14
2,29
10011
13
2,46
10100
12
2,67
10101
11
2,91
10110
10
3,20
10111
9
3,56
11000
8
4,00
11001
7
4,57
11010
6
5,33
11011
5
6,40
11100
4
8,00
11101
3
10,67
11110
2
16,00
11111
2
16,00
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
MDMCTRL0, A 0x046, R 0x45, Controls modem
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:6
DEM_NUM_ZEROS[1:0]
01
R/W
Sets how many zero symbols have to be detected before the sync
word when searching for sync. Note that only one is required to
have a correlation value above the correlation threshold set in
MDMCTRL1 register.
00 : reserved
01 : 1 zero symbols
10 : 2 zero symbols
11 : 3 zero symbols
NOTE
This value should be updated to “10” before attempting RX.
Testing has shown that the reset value causes too many false
frames to be received.
5
DEMOD_AVG_MODE
0
R/W
Defines the behavior or the frequency offset averaging filter.
0 - Lock average level after preamble match. Restart frequency
offset calibration when searching for the next frame.
1 - Continuously update average level.
4:1
PREAMBLE_LENGTH
[3:0]
0010
R/W
The number of preamble bytes (2 zero-symbols) to be sent in TX
mode prior to the SFD, encoded in steps of 2. The reset value of
2 is compliant with IEEE 802.15.4
0000 - 2 leading zero bytes
0001 - 3 leading zero bytes
0010 - 4 leading zero bytes
…
1111 - 17 leading zero bytes
0
TX_FILTER
1
R/W
Defines what kind of TX filter that is used. The normal TX filter is
as defined by the IEEE802.15.4 standard. Extra filtering may be
applied in order to lower the out of band emissions.
0 - Normal TX filtering
1 - Enable extra filtering
MDMCTRL1, A 0x047, R 0x2E, Controls modem
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:6
RESERVED
00
R0
Read as zero
5
CORR_THR_SFD
1
R/W
Defines requirements for SFD detection:
0 - The correlation value of one of the zero symbols of the
preamble must be above the correlation threshold.
1 - The correlation value of one zero symbol of the preamble and
both symbols in the SFD must be above the correlation threshold.
NOTE
This value should be changed to ‘0’ before attempting RX. This
will give the best trade off between good sensitivity and few false
SFD detections.
4:0
CORR_THR[4:0]
0x0E
R/W
Demodulator correlator threshold value, required before SFD
search.
Threshold value adjusts how the receiver synchronizes to data
from the radio. If threshold is set too low sync can more easily be
found on noise. If set too high the sensitivity will be reduced but
sync will not likely be found on noise.
I combination with DEM_NUM_ZEROS the system can be tuned
so sensitivity is high with less synch found on noise.
NOTE
This value should be changed to 0x14 before attempting RX.
Testing has shown that too many false frames are received if the
reset value is used.
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123
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
FREQEST, A 0x048, R 0x00, Estimated RF frequency offset.
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:0
FREQEST[7:0]
0x00
R
Signed 2’s complement value. Contains an estimate of the
frequency offset between carrier and the receiver LO. The offset
frequency is FREQESTx7800 Hz. DEM_AVG_MODE controls when
this estimate is updated. If DEM_AVG_MODE = 0 it is updated until
sync is found. Then the frequency offset estimate is frozen until
the end of the received frame. If DEM_AVG_MODE = 1 it is updated
as long as the demodulator is enabled.
MDMTEST1, A 0x05B, R 0x08, Test register for modem
Bit
no.
Bit mnemonic
Reset
value
Mode
Description
7:4
RESERVED
0000
R0
Read as zero
3
RESERVED
1
R/W
Do not write.
2
RFC_SNIFF_EN
0
R/W
0 - Packet sniffer module disabled
1 - Packet sniffer module enabled. The received and transmitted
data can be observed on GPIO pins.
1
MODULATION_MODE
0
R/W
Set one of two RF modulation modes for RX / TX
0 - IEEE 802.15.4 compliant mode
1 - Reversed phase, non-IEEE compliant
0
124
RESERVED
0
R/W
Do not write.
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CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
The following registers in the address range 0x04A to 0x07F are for performance tuning and test purposes
and should generally not be written. The registers that require updates to give the performance described in
this datasheet are listed in Table 21: Registers that need update from their default value.
RXCTRL, A 0x04A, R 0x29, Test/tuning of RX modules
FSCTRL, A 0x04C, R 0x55, Test/tuning of synthesizer
FSCAL0, A 0x04E, R 0x24, Test/tuning of synthesizer
FSCAL1, A 0x04F, R 0x29, Test/tuning of VCO
FSCAL2, A 0x050, R 0x20, Test/tuning of VCO
FSCAL3, A 0x051, R 0x2A, Test/tuning of VCO
AGCCTRL0, A 0x052, R 0x5F, Test/tuning of AGC
AGCCTRL1, A 0x053, R 0x0E, Test/tuning of AGC
AGCCTRL2, A 0x054, R 0x00, Test/tuning of LNA
AGCCTRL3, A 0x055, R 0x2E, Test/tuning of AGC and AAF
ADCTEST0, A 0x056, R 0x66, Test/tuning of ADC
ADCTEST1, A 0x057, R 0x0A, Test/tuning of ADC
ADCTEST2, A 0x058, R 0x05, Test/tuning of ADC
MDMTEST0, A 0x05A, R 0x05, Test/tuning of modem
DACTEST0, A 0x05C, R 0x00, Test/tuning of DAC
DACTEST1, A 0x05D, R 0x00, Test/tuning of DAC
ATEST, A 0x05E, R 0x00, Controls analog test mode
DACTEST2, A 0x05F, R 0x00, Test/tuning of DAC
PTEST0, A 0x060, R 0x00, Test/tuning of power down signals
PTEST1, A 0x061, R 0x00, Test/tuning of power down signals
RESERVED, A 0x062, R 0x00, Not currently in use
DPUBIST, A 0x07A, R 0x00, Test/tuning of DPU ROM
ACTBIST, A 0x07C, R 0x00, Test/tuning of ACT ROM
RAMBIST, A 0x07E, R 0x02, Test/tuning of RAM
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125
CC2520 DATASHEET
2.4 GHZ IEEE 802.15.4/ZIGBEE® RF TRANSCEIVER
SWRS068 – DECEMBER 2007
29 Datasheet Revision History
Literature
Number
Release Date
Comments
SWRS068
2007-12-20
Initial release
NOTE: Page and figure numbers refer to the respective document revision.
126
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
19-May-2016
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
CC2520RHDR
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHD
28
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 125
CC2520
CC2520RHDRG4
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHD
28
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 125
CC2520
CC2520RHDT
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHD
28
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU | Call TI
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 125
CC2520
CC2520RHDTG4
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHD
28
250
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
Call TI
Level-3-260C-168 HR
-40 to 125
CC2520
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability
information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that
lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between
the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight
in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
19-May-2016
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
21-Mar-2013
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
CC2520RHDR
VQFN
RHD
28
3000
330.0
12.4
5.3
5.3
1.5
8.0
12.0
Q2
CC2520RHDT
VQFN
RHD
28
250
180.0
12.4
5.3
5.3
1.5
8.0
12.0
Q2
Pack Materials-Page 1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
21-Mar-2013
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
CC2520RHDR
VQFN
RHD
28
3000
338.1
338.1
20.6
CC2520RHDT
VQFN
RHD
28
250
210.0
185.0
35.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
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