HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS Code of Practice

HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS Code of Practice
HOW TO MANAGE WORK
HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
Code of Practice
Safe Work Australia is an Australian Government statutory agency established in 2009. Safe Work
Australia consists of representatives of the Commonwealth, state and territory governments, the
Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the
Australian Industry Group.
Safe Work Australia works with the Commonwealth, state and territory governments to improve
work health and safety and workers’ compensation arrangements. Safe Work Australia is a national
policy body, not a regulator of work health and safety. The Commonwealth, states and territories
have responsibility for regulating and enforcing work health and safety laws in their jurisdiction.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD2
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1
3
Who has responsibility for managing
work health and safety risks?
3
1.2 The meaning of key terms
4
1.3 What is involved in managing risks?
4
1.4 When should a risk management
approach be used?
6
2. STEP 1 – HOW TO IDENTIFY HAZARDS
7
2.1 How to find hazards
8
3. STEP 2 – HOW TO ASSESS RISKS
9
3.1 When should a risk assessment be
carried out?
9
3.2 How to do a risk assessment
10
4. STEP 3 – HOW TO CONTROL RISKS
13
4.1 The hierarchy of risk control
13
4.2 How to develop and implement
control options
15
4.3 How to ensure that controls remain effective 17
5. STEP 4 – HOW TO REVIEW CONTROLS
18
6. KEEPING RECORDS
19
APPENDIX A – ASSESSING HOW THINGS GO
WRONG20
APPENDIX B – RISK REGISTER
21
APPENDIX C – CASE STUDIES
22
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
1
FOREWORD
This Code of Practice on how to manage work health and safety risks is an approved code
of practice under section 274 of the Work Health and Safety Act (the WHS Act).
An approved code of practice is a practical guide to achieving the standards of health, safety
and welfare required under the WHS Act and the Work Health and Safety Regulations (the
WHS Regulations).
A code of practice applies to anyone who has a duty of care in the circumstances described
in the code. In most cases, following an approved code of practice would achieve compliance
with the health and safety duties in the WHS Act, in relation to the subject matter of the code.
Like regulations, codes of practice deal with particular issues and do not cover all hazards
or risks that may arise. The health and safety duties require duty holders to consider all risks
associated with work, not only those for which regulations and codes of practice exist.
Codes of practice are admissible in court proceedings under the WHS Act and Regulations.
Courts may regard a code of practice as evidence of what is known about a hazard, risk
or control and may rely on the code in determining what is reasonably practicable in the
circumstances to which the code relates.
Compliance with the WHS Act and Regulations may be achieved by following another
method, such as a technical or an industry standard, if it provides an equivalent or higher
standard of work health and safety than the code.
An inspector may refer to an approved code of practice when issuing an improvement
or prohibition notice.
This Code of Practice has been developed by Safe Work Australia as a model code of
practice under the Council of Australian Governments’ Inter-Governmental Agreement for
Regulatory and Operational Reform in Occupational Health and Safety for adoption by the
Commonwealth, state and territory governments.
A draft of this Code of Practice was released for public consultation on 7 December 2010
and was endorsed by the Workplace Relations Ministers’ Council on 10 August 2011.
SCOPE AND APPLICATION
This Code provides practical guidance for persons who have duties under the WHS Act and
Regulations to manage risks to health and safety. The duty is placed on persons conducting
a business or undertaking, including employers, self-employed, principal contractors, persons
with management or control of a workplace, designers, manufacturers, importers and
suppliers of plant, substances or structures that are used for work.
This Code applies to all types of work and all workplaces covered by the WHS Act. Other
approved codes of practice should be referenced for guidance on managing the risk of
specific hazards.
This Code can also be used by workers and their health and safety representatives interested
in understanding the hazards and risks associated with confined spaces.
HOW TO USE THIS CODE OF PRACTICE
In providing guidance, the word ‘should’ is used in this Code to indicate a recommended
course of action, while ‘may’ is used to indicate an optional course of action.
This Code also includes various references to sections of the WHS Act and to regulations
which set out the legal requirements. These references are not exhaustive. The words ‘must’,
‘requires’ or ‘mandatory’ indicate that a legal requirement exists and must be complied with.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1
Who has responsibility for managing work health
and safety risks?
The WHS Act and Regulations require persons who have a duty to ensure health and safety
to ‘manage risks’ by eliminating health and safety risks so far as is reasonably practicable,
and if it is not reasonably practicable to do so, to minimise those risks so far as is reasonably
practicable.
Persons conducting a business or undertaking will have health and safety duties to manage
risks if they:
„„engage workers to undertake work for them, or if they direct or influence work carried out
by workers
„„may put other people at risk from the conduct of their business or undertaking
„„manage or control the workplace or fixtures, fittings or plant at the workplace
„„design, manufacture, import or supply plant, substances or structures for use at a
workplace
„„install, construct or commission plant or structures at a workplace.
Deciding what is ‘reasonably practicable’ to protect people from harm requires taking into
account and weighing up all relevant matters, including:
„„the likelihood of the hazard or risk concerned occurring
„„the degree of harm that might result from the hazard or risk
„„knowledge about the hazard or risk, and ways of eliminating or minimising the risk
„„the availability and suitability of ways to eliminate or minimise the risk, and
„„after assessing the extent of the risk and the available ways of eliminating or minimising
the risk, the cost associated with available ways of eliminating or minimising the risk,
including whether the cost is grossly disproportionate to the risk.
The process of managing risk described in this Code will help you decide what is reasonably
practicable in particular situations so that you can meet your duty of care under the
WHS laws.
Officers (for example company directors) must exercise due diligence to ensure that the
business or undertaking complies with the WHS Act and Regulations. This includes taking
reasonable steps to:
„„gain an understanding of the hazards and risks associated with the operations of the
business or undertaking
„„ensure that the business or undertaking has and uses appropriate resources and processes
to eliminate or minimise risks to health and safety.
A person can have more than one duty and more than one person can have the same duty
at the same time.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
3
1. INTRODUCTION
1.2
The meaning of key terms
Hazard means a situation or thing that has the potential to harm a person. Hazards at work
may include: noisy machinery, a moving forklift, chemicals, electricity, working at heights, a
repetitive job, bullying and violence at the workplace.
Risk is the possibility that harm (death, injury or illness) might occur when exposed to a
hazard.
Risk control means taking action to eliminate health and safety risks so far as is reasonably
practicable, and if that is not possible, minimising the risks so far as is reasonably practicable.
Eliminating a hazard will also eliminate any risks associated with that hazard.
1.3
What is involved in managing risks?
MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT
Effective risk management starts with a commitment to health and safety from those who
operate and manage the business or undertaking. You also need the involvement and
cooperation of your workers, and if you show your workers that you are serious about health
and safety they are more likely to follow your lead.
To demonstrate your commitment, you should:
„„get involved in health and safety issues
„„invest time and money in health and safety
„„ensure health and safety responsibilities are clearly understood.
A STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS
A safe and healthy workplace does not happen by chance or guesswork. You have to think
about what could go wrong at your workplace and what the consequences could be. Then
you must do whatever you can (in other words, whatever is ‘reasonably practicable’) to
eliminate or minimise health and safety risks arising from your business or undertaking.
This process is known as risk management and involves the four steps set out in this Code
(see Figure 1 to the right):
„„identify hazards – find out what could cause harm
„„assess risks if necessary – understand the nature of the harm that could be caused by the
hazard, how serious the harm could be and the likelihood of it happening
„„control risks – implement the most effective control measure that is reasonably practicable
in the circumstances
„„review control measures to ensure they are working as planned.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
1. INTRODUCTION
STEP 1
Known
Identify hazards
STEP 2
risk
sa
N
O
TI
S
U
LT
AT
I
Review control
measures
STEP 3
Control risks
CO
N
STEP 4
l
ntro
co
nd
Management
commitment
Assess
risks
N
CO
NS
CO
NS
N
IO
ON
TI
TA
UL
UL
TA
T
The risk management process
O
FIGURE 1:
CO
N
S
UL
TA
Many hazards and their associated risks are well known and have well established and
accepted control measures. In these situations, the second step to formally assess the risk
is unnecessary. If, after identifying a hazard, you already know the risk and how to control it
effectively, you may simply implement the controls.
Risk management is a proactive process that helps you respond to change and facilitate
continuous improvement in your business. It should be planned, systematic and cover all
reasonably foreseeable hazards and associated risks.
CONSULTING YOUR WORKERS
Section 47
The WHS Act requires that you consult, so far as is reasonably practicable, with workers
who carry out work for you who are (or are likely to be) directly affected by a work
health and safety matter.
Section 48
If the workers are represented by a health and safety representative, the consultation
must involve that representative.
Consultation involves sharing of information, giving workers a reasonable opportunity to
express views and taking those views into account before making decisions on health and
safety matters.
Consultation with workers and their health and safety representatives is required at each
step of the risk management process. By drawing on the experience, knowledge and ideas
of your workers you are more likely to identify all hazards and choose effective control
measures.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
5
1. INTRODUCTION
You should encourage your workers to report any hazards and health and safety problems
immediately so that risks can be managed before an incident occurs.
If you have a health and safety committee, you should engage the committee in the risk
management process as well.
CONSULTING, CO-OPERATING AND CO-ORDINATING ACTIVITIES WITH OTHER DUTY
HOLDERS
Section 46
The WHS Act requires that you consult, co-operate and co-ordinate activities with all
other persons who have a work health or safety duty in relation to the same matter,
so far as is reasonably practicable.
Sometimes you may share responsibility for a health and safety matter with other business
operators who are involved in the same activities or who share the same workplace. For
example, if you engage on-hire workers as part of your workforce you share a duty of care
to these workers with the business that provides them. In these situations, you must discuss
the hazards and risks associated with the work and what precautions will be taken with the
on-hire firm.
Never assume that someone else is taking care of a health and safety matter. Find out who
is doing what and work together with other duty holders in a co-operative and co-ordinated
way so that all risks are eliminated or minimised as far as reasonably practicable.
When entering into contracts you should communicate your safety requirements and
policies, review the job to be undertaken, discuss any safety issues that may arise and how
they will be dealt with. Remember that you cannot transfer your responsibilities to another
person.
Further guidance on consultation is available in the Code of Practice: Work Health and Safety
Consultation, Co-operation and Co-ordination.
1.4
When should a risk management approach
be used?
Managing work health and safety risks is an ongoing process that is triggered when any
changes affect your work activities. You should work through the steps in this Code when:
„„starting a new business or purchasing a business
„„changing work practices, procedures or the work environment
„„purchasing new or used equipment or using new substances
„„planning to improve productivity or reduce costs
„„new information about workplace risks becomes available
„„responding to workplace incidents (even if they have caused no injury)
„„responding to concerns raised by workers, health and safety representatives or others at
the workplace
„„required by the WHS regulations for specific hazards
It is also important to use the risk management approach when designing and planning
products, processes or places used for work, because it is often easier and more effective
to eliminate hazards before they are introduced into a workplace by incorporating safety
features at the design stage.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
2. STEP 1 – HOW TO IDENTIFY HAZARDS
Identifying hazards in the workplace involves finding things and situations that could
potentially cause harm to people. Hazards generally arise from the following aspects of work
and their interaction:
„„physical work environment
„„equipment, materials and substances used
„„work tasks and how they are performed
„„work design and management
Table 1 below lists some common types of workplace hazards. Some hazards are part of
the work process, such as mechanical hazards, noise or toxic properties of substances.
Other hazards result from equipment or machine failures and misuse, chemical spills and
structural failures.
A piece of plant, substance or a work process may have many different hazards. Each of
these hazards needs to be identified. For example, a production line may have dangerous
moving parts, noise, hazards associated with manual tasks and psychological hazards due
to the pace of work.
Table 1: Examples of common hazards
Hazard
Potential harm
Manual tasks
Overexertion or repetitive movement can cause
muscular strain
Gravity
Falling objects, falls, slips and trips of people can
cause fractures, bruises, lacerations, dislocations,
concussion, permanent injuries or death
Electricity
Potential ignition source.
Exposure to live electrical wires can cause shock,
burns or death from electrocution
Machinery and equipment
Being hit by moving vehicles, or being caught by
moving parts of machinery can cause fractures,
bruises, lacerations, dislocations, permanent
injuries or death
Hazardous chemicals
Chemicals (such as acids, hydrocarbons, heavy
metals) and dusts (such as asbestos and silica)
can cause respiratory illnesses, cancers or
dermatitis
Extreme temperatures
Heat can cause burns, heat stroke or fatigue
Cold can cause hypothermia or frost bite
Noise
Exposure to loud noise can cause permanent
hearing damage
Radiation
Ultra violet, welding arc flashes, micro waves and
lasers can cause burns, cancer or blindness
Biological
Micro-organisms can cause hepatitis,
legionnaires’ disease, Q fever, HIV/AIDS or
allergies
Psychosocial hazards
Effects of work-related stress, bullying, violence
and work-related fatigue
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
7
2. STEP 1 - HOW TO IDENTIFY HAZARDS
2.1
How to find hazards
INSPECT THE WORKPLACE
Regularly walking around the workplace and observing how things are done can help you
predict what could or might go wrong. Look at how people actually work, how plant and
equipment is used, what chemicals are around and what they are used for, what safe or
unsafe work practices exist as well as the general state of housekeeping.
Things to look out for include the following:
„„Does the work environment enable workers to carry out work without risks to health and
safety (for example, space for unobstructed movement, adequate ventilation, lighting)?
„„How suitable are the tools and equipment for the task and how well are they maintained?
„„Have any changes occurred in the workplace which may affect health and safety?
Hazards are not always obvious. Some hazards can affect health over a long period of time
or may result in stress (such as bullying) or fatigue (such as shiftwork). Also think about
hazards that you may bring into your workplace as new, used or hired goods (for example,
worn insulation on a hired welding set).
As you walk around, you may spot straightforward problems and action should be taken
on these immediately, for example cleaning up a spill. If you find a situation where there is
immediate or significant danger to people, move those persons to a safer location first and
attend to the hazard urgently.
Make a list of all the hazards you can find, including the ones you know are already being
dealt with, to ensure that nothing is missed. You may use a checklist designed to suit your
workplace to help you find and make a note of hazards.
CONSULT YOUR WORKERS
Ask your workers about any health and safety problems they have encountered in doing their
work and any near misses or incidents that have not been reported.
Worker surveys may also be undertaken to obtain information about matters such as
workplace bullying, as well as muscular aches and pains that can signal potential hazards.
REVIEW AVAILABLE INFORMATION
Information and advice about hazards and risks relevant to particular industries and types
of work is available from regulators, industry associations, unions, technical specialists and
safety consultants.
Manufacturers and suppliers can also provide information about hazards and safety
precautions for specific substances (safety data sheets), plant or processes (instruction
manuals).
Analyse your records of health monitoring, workplace incidents, near misses, worker
complaints, sick leave and the results of any inspections and investigations to identify
hazards. If someone has been hurt doing a particular task, then a hazard exists that could
hurt someone else. These incidents need to be investigated to find the hazard that caused
the injury or illness.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
3. STEP 2 – HOW TO ASSESS RISK
A risk assessment involves considering what could happen if someone is exposed to a
hazard and the likelihood of it happening. A risk assessment can help you determine:
„„how severe a risk is
„„whether any existing control measures are effective
„„what action you should take to control the risk
„„how urgently the action needs to be taken.
A risk assessment can be undertaken with varying degrees of detail depending on the type
of hazards and the information, data and resources that you have available. It can be as
simple as a discussion with your workers or involve specific risk analysis tools and techniques
recommended by safety professionals.
3.1
When should a risk assessment be carried out?
A risk assessment should be done when:
„„there is uncertainty about how a hazard may result in injury or illness
„„the work activity involves a number of different hazards and there is a lack of
understanding about how the hazards may interact with each other to produce new or
greater risks
„„changes at the workplace occur that may impact on the effectiveness of control measures.
A risk assessment is mandatory under the WHS Regulations for high risk activities such as
entry into confined spaces, diving work and live electrical work.
Some hazards that have exposure standards, such as noise and airborne contaminants, may
require scientific testing or measurement by a competent person to accurately assess the
risk and to check that the relevant exposure standard is not being exceeded (for example,
by using noise meters to measure noise levels and using gas detectors to analyse oxygen
levels in confined spaces).
A risk assessment is not necessary in the following situations:
„„Legislation requires some hazards or risks to be controlled in a specific way – these
requirements must be complied with.
„„A code of practice or other guidance sets out a way of controlling a hazard or risk that
is applicable to your situation and you choose to use the recommended controls. In these
instances, the guidance can be followed.
„„There are well-known and effective controls that are in use in the particular industry,
that are suited to the circumstances in your workplace. These controls can simply
be implemented.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
9
3. STEP 2 - HOW TO ASSESS RISKS
3.2
How to do a risk assessment
All hazards have the potential to cause different types and severities of harm, ranging from
minor discomfort to a serious injury or death.
For example, heavy liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinders can cause muscular strain when
they are handled manually. However, if the cylinder is damaged causing gas to leak which is
then ignited, a fire could result in serious burns. If that leak occurs in a store room or similar
enclosed space, it could result in an explosion that could destroy the building and kill or
injure anyone nearby. Each of the outcomes involves a different type of harm with a range of
severities, and each has a different likelihood of occurrence.
WORK OUT HOW SEVERE THE HARM COULD BE
To estimate the severity of harm that could result from each hazard you should consider the
following questions:
„„What type of harm could occur (e.g. muscular strain, fatigue, burns, laceration)? How
severe is the harm? Could the hazard cause death, serious injuries, illness or only minor
injuries requiring first aid?
„„What factors could influence the severity of harm that occurs? For example, the distance
someone might fall or the concentration of a particular substance will determine the level
of harm that is possible. The harm may occur immediately something goes wrong (e.g.
injury from a fall) or it may take time for it to become apparent (e.g. illness from long-term
exposure to a substance).
„„How many people are exposed to the hazard and how many could be harmed in and
outside your workplace? For example, a mobile crane collapse on a busy construction site
has the potential to kill or injure a large number of people.
„„Could one failure lead to other failures? For example, could the failure of your electrical
supply make any control measures that rely on electricity ineffective?
„„Could a small event escalate to a much larger event with more serious consequences? For
example, a minor fire can get out of control quickly in the presence of large amounts of
combustible materials.
WORK OUT HOW HAZARDS MAY CAUSE HARM
In most cases, incidents occur as a result of a chain of events and a failure of one or more
links in that chain. If one or more of the events can be stopped or changed, the risk may be
eliminated or reduced.
One way of working out the chain of events is to determine the starting point where things
begin to go wrong and then consider: ‘If this happens, what may happen next?’ This will
provide a list of events that sooner or later cause harm. See the case study in Appendix A.
In thinking about how each hazard may cause harm, you should consider:
„„the effectiveness of existing control measures and whether they control all types of harm,
„„how work is actually done, rather than relying on written manuals and procedures
„„infrequent or abnormal situations, as well as how things are normally meant to occur.
Consider maintenance and cleaning, as well as breakdowns of equipment and failures of
health and safety controls.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
3. STEP 2 - HOW TO ASSESS RISKS
WORK OUT THE LIKELIHOOD OF HARM OCCURRING
The likelihood that someone will be harmed can be estimated by considering the following:
„„How often is the task done? Does this make the harm more or less likely?
„„How often are people near the hazard? How close do people get to it?
„„Has it ever happened before, either in your workplace or somewhere else? How often?
Table 2 contains further questions that can help you estimate likelihood.
You can rate the likelihood as one of the following:
„„Certain to occur - expected to occur in most circumstances
„„Very likely - will probably occur in most circumstances
„„Possible – might occur occasionally
„„Unlikely – could happen at some time
„„Rare – may happen only in exceptional circumstances
The level of risk will increase as the likelihood of harm and its severity increases.
Table 2
Questions to ask in
determining likelihood
Explanation and examples
How often are people
exposed to the hazard?
A hazard may exist all of the time or it may only exist
occasionally. The more often a hazard is present, the
greater the likelihood it will result in harm.
For example:
„„Meshing gears in an enclosed gearbox can cause
crushing only if the gearbox is open during
maintenance, and therefore the potential for harm
will not occur very often.
„„Continuously lifting heavy boxes has the potential to
cause harm whenever the work is done.
How long might people
be exposed to the hazard?
The longer that someone is exposed to a hazard, the
greater the likelihood that harm may result.
For example:
The longer a person is exposed to noisy work, the more
likely it is that they will suffer hearing loss.
How effective are current
controls in reducing risk?
In most cases the risks being assessed will already be
subject to some control measures. The likelihood of harm
resulting from the risk will depend upon how adequate
and effective the current measures are.
For example:
Traffic management controls have been implemented
in a warehouse to separate moving forklifts from
pedestrians by using signs and painted lines on the
floor. These controls may need to be upgraded to
include physical barriers.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
11
3. STEP 2 - HOW TO ASSESS RISKS
Could any changes in your
organisation increase the
likelihood?
The demand for goods or services in many organisations
varies throughout the year. Changes in demand may be
seasonal, depend on environmental conditions or be
affected by market fluctuations that are driven by a range
of events. Meeting increased demand may cause unusual
loads on people, plant and equipment and systems of
work. Failures may be more likely.
For example:
Inner city restaurants and bistros are very busy in the
period prior to Christmas, placing extra demands on
kitchen and serving staff. The increase in volume of food
to be prepared and serving a larger number of patrons
increases the potential for human error and the likelihood
of harm.
Are hazards more likely
to cause harm because of
the working environment?
Examples of situations where the risk of injury or illness
may become more likely:
„„Environmental conditions change. For example, work
performed in high temperatures in a confined space
increases the potential for mistakes because workers
become fatigued more quickly; wet conditions make
walkways and other things slippery.
„„People are required to work quickly. The rate at which
work is done (e.g. number of repetitions) can overstress a person’s body or make it more likely that
mistakes will be made.
„„There is insufficient light or poor ventilation.
Could the way people
act and behave affect
the likelihood of a hazard
causing harm?
The possibility that people may make mistakes, misuse
items, become distracted or panic in particular situations
needs to be taken into account. The effects of fatigue or
stress may make it more likely that harm will occur.
Do the differences
between individuals in the
workplace make it more
likely for harm to occur?
People with disabilities may be more likely to suffer harm
if the workplace or process is not designed for their
needs.
New or young workers may be more likely to suffer harm
because of inexperience.
People who do not normally work at the workplace will
have less knowledge than employees who normally
work there, and may be more likely to suffer harm.
These people include contractors, visitors or members
of the public.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
4.STEP 3 – HOW TO CONTROL RISKS
The most important step in managing risks involves eliminating them so far as is reasonably
practicable, or if that is not possible, minimising the risks so far as is reasonably practicable.
In deciding how to control risks you must consult your workers and their representatives
who will be directly affected by this decision. Their experience will help you choose
appropriate control measures and their involvement will increase the level of acceptance of
any changes that may be needed to the way they do their job.
There are many ways to control risks. Some control measures are more effective than others.
You must consider various control options and choose the control that most effectively
eliminates the hazard or minimises the risk in the circumstances. This may involve a single
control measure or a combination of different controls that together provide the highest
level of protection that is reasonably practicable.
Some problems can be fixed easily and should be done straight away, while others will need
more effort and planning to resolve. Of those requiring more effort, you should prioritise
areas for action, focusing first on those hazards with the highest level of risk.
4.1
The hierarchy of risk control
The ways of controlling risks are ranked from the highest level of protection and reliability to
the lowest as shown in Figure 2. This ranking is known as the hierarchy of risk control. The
WHS Regulations require duty holders to work through this hierarchy when managing risk
under the WHS Regulations.
FIGURE 2:
The hierarchy of risk control
HIGHEST
Level 1
MOST
LOWEST
Level 2
Substitute the hazard with
something safer
Isolate the hazard from people
Reduce the risks through
engineering controls
Level 3
Reliability of control measures
Level of health and safety protection
Eliminate the hazards
Reduce exposure to the hazard using
administrative actions
Use personal protective equipment
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
LEAST
13
4. STEP 3 - HOW TO CONTROL RISKS
You must always aim to eliminate a hazard, which is the most effective control. If this is not
reasonably practicable, you must minimise the risk by working through the other alternatives
in the hierarchy.
LEVEL 1 CONTROL MEASURES
The most effective control measure involves eliminating the hazard and associated risk. The
best way to do this is by, firstly, not introducing the hazard into the workplace. For example,
you can eliminate the risk of a fall from height by doing the work at ground level.
Eliminating hazards is often cheaper and more practical to achieve at the design or planning
stage of a product, process or place used for work. In these early phases, there is greater
scope to design out hazards or incorporate risk control measures that are compatible
with the original design and functional requirements. For example, a noisy machine could
be designed and built to produce as little noise as possible, which is more effective than
providing workers with personal hearing protectors.
You can also eliminate risks by removing the hazard completely, for example, by removing
trip hazards on the floor or disposing of unwanted chemicals.
It may not be possible to eliminate a hazard if doing so means that you cannot make the end
product or deliver the service. If you cannot eliminate the hazard, then eliminate as many of
the risks associated with the hazard as possible.
LEVEL 2 CONTROL MEASURES
If it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the hazards and associated risks, you should
minimise the risks using one or more of the following approaches:
„„Substitute the hazard with something safer
For instance, replace solvent-based paints with water-based ones.
„„Isolate the hazard from people
This involves physically separating the source of harm from people by distance or using
barriers. For instance, install guard rails around exposed edges and holes in floors; use
remote control systems to operate machinery; store chemicals in a fume cabinet.
„„Use engineering controls
An engineering control is a control measure that is physical in nature, including a mechanical
device or process. For instance, use mechanical devices such as trolleys or hoists to move
heavy loads; place guards around moving parts of machinery; install residual current devices
(electrical safety switches); set work rates on a production line to reduce fatigue.
LEVEL 3 CONTROL MEASURES
These control measures do not control the hazard at the source. They rely on human
behaviour and supervision, and used on their own, tend to be least effective in minimising
risks. Two approaches to reduce risk in this way are:
„„Use administrative controls
Administrative controls are work methods or procedures that are designed to minimise
exposure to a hazard. For instance, develop procedures on how to operate machinery safely,
limit exposure time to a hazardous task, use signs to warn people of a hazard.
„„Use personal protective equipment (PPE)
Examples of PPE include ear muffs, respirators, face masks, hard hats, gloves, aprons
and protective eyewear. PPE limits exposure to the harmful effects of a hazard but only if
workers wear and use the PPE correctly.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
4. STEP 3 - HOW TO CONTROL RISKS
Administrative controls and PPE should only be used:
„„when there are no other practical control measures available (as a last resort)
„„as an interim measure until a more effective way of controlling the risk can be used
„„to supplement higher level control measures (as a back-up).
Regulation 44-47
The WHS Regulations include specific requirements if PPE is to be used at the
workplace, including that the equipment is:
„„selected to minimise risk to health and safety
„„suitable for the nature of the work and any hazard associated with the work
„„a suitable size and fit and reasonably comfortable for the person wearing it
„„maintained, repaired or replaced so it continues to minimise the risk
„„used or worn by the worker, so far as is reasonably practicable.
A worker must, so far as reasonably able, wear the PPE in accordance with any
information, training or reasonable instruction.
4.2 How
to develop and implement control options
Information about suitable controls for many common hazards and risks can be obtained
from:
„„codes of practice and guidance material
„„manufacturers and suppliers of plant, substances and equipment used in your workplace
„„industry associations and unions.
In some cases, published information will provide guidance on the whole work process. In
other cases, the guidance may relate to individual items of plant or how to safely use specific
substances. You may use the recommended control options if they suit your situation and
eliminate or minimise the risk.
DEVELOPING SPECIFIC CONTROL MEASURES
You may need to develop specific control measures if the available information is not relevant
to the hazards and risks or circumstances at your workplace. This can be done by referring
to the chain of events that were recorded during the risk assessment.
For each of the events in the sequence, ask: “What can be done to stop or change the event
occurring?” An example of this approach is shown in Appendix A.
Working through the events in the sequence will give you ideas about all possible ways to
eliminate or minimise the risk. There may be more than one solution for each of the events.
The control option you choose should be:
„„one that provides the highest level of protection for people and is the most reliable – that
is, controls located towards the top of the hierarchy in Figure 2.
„„available – that is, it can be purchased, made to suit or be put in place.
„„suitable for the circumstance in your workplace – that is, it will work properly given the
workplace conditions, work process and your workers.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
15
4. STEP 3 - HOW TO CONTROL RISKS
Where the hazard or risk has the potential to cause death, serious injury or illness, more
emphasis should be given to those controls that eliminate or reduce the level of harm, than
those that reduce the likelihood of harm occurring.
Make sure that your chosen solution does not introduce new hazards.
COST OF CONTROL MEASURES
All risks can be controlled and it is always possible to do something, such as stopping the
activity or providing instructions to those exposed to the risk. There will normally be a
number of different options between these two extremes. Cost (in terms of time and effort
as well as money) is just one factor to consider when determining the best control option.
The cost of controlling a risk may be taken into account in determining what is reasonably
practicable, but cannot be used as a reason for doing nothing.
The greater the likelihood of a hazard occurring and/or the greater the harm that would
result if the hazard or risk did occur, the less weight should be given to the cost of
controlling the hazard or risk.
If two control measures provide the same levels of protection and are equally reliable, you
can adopt the least expensive option.
Cost cannot be used as a reason for adopting controls that rely exclusively on changing
people’s behaviour or actions when there are more effective controls available that can
change the risk through substitution, engineering or isolation.
IMPLEMENTING CONTROLS
The control measures that you put into operation will usually require changes to the way
work is carried out due to new or modified equipment or processes, new or different
chemicals or new personal protective equipment. In these situations, it is usually necessary
to support the control measures with:
„„Work procedures
Develop a safe work procedure that describes the task, identifies the hazards and
documents how the task is to be performed to minimise the risks.
„„Training, instruction and information
Train your workers in the work procedure to ensure that they are able to perform the
task safely. Training should require workers to demonstrate that they are competent in
performing the task according to the procedure. It is insufficient to simply give a worker
the procedure and ask them to acknowledge that they understand and are able to perform
it. Training, instruction and information must be provided in a form that can be understood
by all workers.
Information and instruction may also need to be provided to others who enter the
workplace, such as customers or visitors.
„„Supervision
The level of supervision required will depend on the level of risk and the experience of the
workers involved. High levels of supervision are necessary where inexperienced workers are
expected to follow new procedures or carry out difficult and critical tasks.
You may prepare a risk register that identifies the hazards, what action needs to be taken,
who will be responsible for taking the action and by when. An example is provided at
Appendix B.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
4. STEP 3 - HOW TO CONTROL RISKS
4.3 How
to ensure that controls remain effective
The following actions may help you monitor the control measures you have implemented and
ensure that they remain effective:
„„Accountability for health and safety – Accountability should be clearly allocated to ensure
procedures are followed and maintained. Managers and supervisors should be provided
with the authority and resources to implement and maintain control measures effectively.
„„Maintenance of plant and equipment – This will involve regular inspection and testing,
repair or replacement of damaged or worn plant and equipment. It includes checking that
any control measures are suitable for the nature and duration of work, are set up and used
correctly.
„„Up-to-date training and competency – Control measures, particularly lower level controls,
depend on all workers and supervisors having the appropriate competencies to do the job
safely. Training should be provided to maintain competencies and to ensure new workers
are capable of working safely.
„„Up-to-date hazard information – Information about hazards, such as plant and substances,
may be updated by manufacturers and suppliers and should be checked to make sure
controls are still relevant. New technology may provide more effective solutions than were
previously available. Changes to operating conditions or the way activities are carried out
may also mean that control measures need to be updated.
„„Regular review and consultation – Control measures are more effective where there
is regular review of work procedures and consultation with your workers and their
representatives.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
17
5. STEP 4 – HOW TO REVIEW CONTROLS
The control measures that you put in place should be reviewed regularly to make sure they
work as planned. Don’t wait until something goes wrong.
There are certain situations where you must review your control measures under the WHS
Regulations and, if necessary, revise them. A review is required:
„„when the control measure is not effective in controlling the risk
„„before a change at the workplace that is likely to give rise to a new or different health and
safety risk that the control measure may not effectively control
„„if a new hazard or risk is identified
„„if the results of consultation indicate that a review is necessary
„„if a health and safety representative requests a review.
You may use the same methods as in the initial hazard identification step to check controls.
Consult your workers and their health and safety representatives and consider the following
questions:
„„Are the control measures working effectively in both their design and operation?
„„Have the control measures introduced new problems?
„„Have all hazards been identified?
„„Have new work methods, new equipment or chemicals made the job safer?
„„Are safety procedures being followed?
„„Has instruction and training provided to workers on how to work safely been successful?
„„Are workers actively involved in identifying hazards and possible control measures? Are
they openly raising health and safety concerns and reporting problems promptly?
„„Is the frequency and severity of health and safety incidents reducing over time?
„„If new legislation or new information becomes available, does it indicate current controls
may no longer be the most effective?
If problems are found, go back through the risk management steps, review your information
and make further decisions about risk control. Priority for review should be based on
the seriousness of the risk. Control measures for serious risks should be reviewed more
frequently.
Quality assurance processes may be used if you design, manufacture or supply products
used for work to check that the product effectively minimises health and safety risks. Obtain
feedback from users of the product to determine whether any improvements can be made
to make it safer.
Case studies demonstrating how to manage work health and safety risks in consultation with
workers are at Appendix C.
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
6. KEEPING RECORDS
Keeping records of the risk management process demonstrates potential compliance with
the WHS Act and Regulations. It also helps when undertaking subsequent risk assessments.
Keeping records of the risk management process has the following benefits. It:
„„allows you to demonstrate how decisions about controlling risks were made
„„assists in targeting training at key hazards
„„provides a basis for preparing safe work procedures
„„allows you to more easily review risks following any changes to legislation or business
activities
„„demonstrates to others (regulators, investors, shareholders, customers) that work health
and safety risks are being managed.
The detail and extent of recording will depend on the size of your workplace and the
potential for major work health and safety issues. It is useful to keep information on:
„„the identified hazards, assessed risks and chosen control measures (including any hazard
checklists, worksheets and assessment tools used in working through the risk management
process)
„„how and when the control measures were implemented, monitored and reviewed
„„who you consulted with
„„relevant training records
„„any plans for changes.
There are specific record-keeping requirements in the WHS Regulations for some hazards,
such as hazardous chemicals. If such hazards have been identified at your workplace, you
must keep the relevant records for the time specified.
You should ensure that everyone in your workplace is aware of record-keeping requirements,
including which records are accessible and where they are kept.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
19
APPENDIX A – ASSESSING
HOW THINGS GO WRONG
A customer comes into
the service area with an
issue about service
WHAT CAN STOP
OR CHANGE THIS?
Service needs to be provided to
customers who come into the service
area. A telephone complaints service may
remove some potential for customers to
go to the service area.
WHAT MAY HAPPEN NEXT?
The customer service
officer is unable to satisfy
the customer’s concerns
or issues.
WHAT CAN STOP
OR CHANGE THIS?
Providing customers with information
about the extent of services and policies,
and providing training to the customer
service officer, may reduce the chance
of dissatisfaction.
WHAT MAY HAPPEN NEXT?
TIME
During the service
discussion with the
customer service officer,
the customer becomes
upset.
WHAT CAN STOP
OR CHANGE THIS?
Providing customer service officers with
training on conflict resolution and dealing
with difficult situations may prevent
customers becoming upset. Ensuring
other staff are available to assist.
WHAT MAY HAPPEN NEXT?
The customer service
officer’s unable to calm the
customer and the customer
becomes aggressive.
WHAT CAN STOP
OR CHANGE THIS?
Implementing procedures for customer
service officers to disengage with the
customers safely is one way of managing
the escalating situation.
WHAT MAY HAPPEN NEXT?
The situation escalates.
There is no protection
offered by the counter.
WHAT CAN STOP
OR CHANGE THIS?
Change the service counter or area
so that customer service officers are
seperated from customers or provide
an escape route to a safe place.
WHAT MAY HAPPEN NEXT?
The customer service
officer is assaulted and
suffers injury, shock
and related problems.
20
WHAT CAN STOP
OR CHANGE THIS?
Ensure that there are emergency
procedures in place to stop assault.
Ensure that there is first aid available to
deal with the outcomes of an assault.
Ensure that counselling is available to
support the victim.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
What is the
level of risk?
How effective
are the
current
controls?
What further
controls are
required?
Action
by
Due
Date
When
Completed
How will the controls be
implemented?
What is the
likelihood
that the harm
would occur?
Hazard
What is the
harm that the
hazard could
cause?
Date:
Location:
APPENDIX B - RISK REGISTER
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
21
APPENDIX C - CASE STUDIES
CASE STUDY 1:
Two years ago, the Burbs Municipal Council implemented a number of written health and
safety procedures used to train workers how to carry out particular tasks safely. As these
procedures had not been reviewed since their implementation, the Safety Manager (SM)
implemented a new approach to not only review these procedures but also promote health
and safety more widely across the organisation by encouraging staff involvement and cooperation.
To do this, the SM established and facilitated safety workshops each Friday for an hour
where a team would review a particular task and its procedures to identify hazards, assess
risks and options to control these. The team included management, council workers, the
respective health and safety representative and any contractors engaged to carry out the
work.
The SM’s approach was to facilitate the workshops but then hand this role over to the
relevant team supervisor, who would then facilitate future meetings to review other tasks
conducted by the workers. The written health and safety procedures were not used in the
workshops as the SM wanted to learn more about the hazards, risks and controls from the
workers without prompting. However, any changes discussed and agreed during the meeting
would be included in the revised written safety procedures.
The first safety workshop was conducted in the Parks and Gardens Branch and involved
management, workers, their health and safety representatives and a representative from
the maintenance shop that supplied the Parks and Gardens Branch with a variety of vehicles
and equipment.
Safety workshop – 20 August 2010
Team
Parks and Gardens Branch
Task being reviewed
Cleaning of the toilets in the council’s parks
Description of task
Undertaken by two workers each Monday morning in
a Council truck who would clean the eight toilet blocks
across the municipality
What does the task
involve?
At the depot:
„„Load the truck with the compressor and pressure hose
along with cleaning chemicals and materials
At the park:
„„Open toilet block
„„Clean toilets
„„Unload compressor and pressure hose, place them in
toilet block and attach to tap, turn on compressor and
hose walls and floors
„„Put compressor and pressure hose along with cleaning
gear back on truck
„„Dry out toilet block floor by sweeping
„„Leave park and go to next one
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CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
APPENDIX C - CASE STUDIES
In order to gather advice and information from the team, the SM asked the following
questions and shared the responses by writing them on a whiteboard or butchers paper:
Plant
What hazards
are encountered
when doing the
task?
What risks do these
pose to the health
and safety?
How are these
hazards and
risks controlled?
„„Truck
„„Truck - faulty truck
„„Truck and
„„Compressor and
pressure hose
could cause accident
and cause injuries to
workers and others
„„Compressor and
pressure hose - faulty
fuel line in compressor
could cause burns
and injuries through
fire or explosion
Manual
Handling
„„Loading and
unloading the
compressor
„„Carrying the
compressor to
and from the
toilet block
„„Heavy load can
cause sprains,
strains, back
injuries or fractures
and cuts if dropped
on foot
compressor have
maintenance
schedule
„„Checklist for visual
inspection for all
plant before it
leaves depot
„„Reporting and
tagging system for
all defective plant
„„Compressor has
handles fitted
to assist in lifting
and carrying
„„Two persons
required to lift and
carry compressor
„„Only workers who
have been trained
able to lift and
carry compressor
Chemical
„„Cleaning agents
used to clean
toilets and basins
Noise
„„Operating the
compressor in a
closed space with
hard surfaces
Slips, trips
and falls
„„Wet floor when
hosing out the
toilet block.
„„Skin irritation, rashes
and illness caused
by exposure to
chemicals and their
vapours in confined
space
„„Hearing loss from
prolonged exposure
to the noise levels
generated by the
compressor
„„Cuts and bruises
caused by slipping
on wet surface
„„Only non-toxic
cleaning agents
used
„„Gloves provided to
avoid skin contact
„„Hearing protection
provided for
wearing when
hosing out the
toilet block
„„Safety boots were
provided that had
slip-resistant soles
Many staff present at the workshop indicated it was a waste of time as everything discussed
was covered by the health and safety procedure, which they knew backwards. The SM
acknowledged this concern but then asked the team whether the way the task was being
conducted could be changed to improve health and safety.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
23
APPENDIX C - CASE STUDIES
One staff member raised concerns about lugging the compressor around 16 times every
Monday morning and that doing this tempted them to call in sick. The SM was curious about
this and asked why it was necessary to take the compressor off the truck and place it in
the toilet. The workers explained that the length of the hose on the pressure spray was short
and could only be operated with the compressor in the toilet block.
After hearing this, the representative from the maintenance shop who supplied the
compressor mentioned that he could attach a 10-metre hose to the compressor, which
would mean the compressor would not have to be taken off the truck. The team agreed
this was a good idea and would eliminate the manual handling risks associated with lifting
and carrying the compressor. The SM asked what other impacts this would have. The team
agreed this would also reduce the noise as the compressor would now be outside the toilet
block, but that there could be new risks associated with handling and storing a 10-metre
long hose. The team agreed to trial the new hose. It was then installed with a hose
handling system.
Following the workshop, the SM asked the supervisor to ensure the modifications were
made within two weeks and to revise the procedures and have them checked by the health
and safety representative and workers.
CASE STUDY 2:
Jane Smith has been working at the local grocery store for the last 12 months. She had
recently taken on a new role as the bakery supervisor and was eager to review the work
activities and safety procedures. In preparing for the review, Jane considered how she would
conduct the review and who she should speak with.
As a first step, Jane identified the different activities and tasks that were carried out by the
workers. These included:
„„preparing a number of different products such as bread, cakes, slices and doughnuts
„„cleaning items used in product preparation
„„general housekeeping.
The next step was to analyse what was involved with each activity. Jane spent three
mornings that week with the four bakers who worked in the bakery department. She talked
to them about the work activities and what they thought could be changed to improve the
safety of the workplace. One of the bakers had been working in the store for over 10 years,
whilst another had been working for over 25 years. The other two bakers were apprentices
and had only been working with the store for around six months.
From these discussions, Jane identified a number of key tasks the bakers carried out every
day when preparing the baked products:
„„moving the ingredients from their storage locations to the area of use
„„mixing the ingredients together using specialised mixers
„„transferring the mixture to the container for baking
„„putting them in the oven and removing them from the oven
„„slicing and decorating
„„packaging the products.
24
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
APPENDIX C - CASE STUDIES
During an inspection of the bakery, Jane and the bakers identified a number of hazards,
including the following:
„„the doughnut mixer was not guarded and the mixing bowl could be accessed when the
machine was operating
„„the concrete floors were slippery in the mixing room and flour was spilt where the bakers
walked
„„low lighting in the food preparation area
„„there was narrow access and restricted movement in the storage area where the flour bags
were kept.
Jane and the bakers discussed the risks associated with each of the hazards and what
could be done to control these risks. In relation to the unguarded mixer, one of the bakers
suggested purchasing or hiring a new model with an interlocking guard. After considering
the ideas of the bakers, Jane completed the following risk register:
XYZ Grocery Store Pty Ltd
Work area: Bakery department
Form completed by: Jane Smith (Bakery supervisor)
Date form completed: 05/11/2010
Hazard identification
Hazard: Doughnut mixer not guarded and mixing bowl can be accessed when machine
is operating.
Risk Assessment
What is the harm the hazard could cause: The person operating the mixer could be
injured by the moving parts if their hand slipped in while the machine was operating.
Hand could be cut or could even lose a finger.
What is the likelihood of this happening: This machine is used several times a day. Two
of the workers have not been working in the bakery for a long time and are not very
experienced in using the equipment.
Persons at risk: All four bakers who operate the machine.
Existing control measure: Staff follow policy and operating instructions to use the
mixer safely – not very effective because it relies on staff keeping hands away from the
dangerous parts.
Consequence: Serious injuries
Likelihood: Very likely
Outcome: High risk - the mixer must not be used again until the risk has been controlled.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
25
APPENDIX C - CASE STUDIES
Control measures
Possible control options:
„„Elimination – Eliminating the use of the mixer completely will mean the business cannot
continue to sell baked products as the dough cannot be mixed. Business revenue will
suffer.
„„Substitution – Use of the mixer could be substituted by hand mixing the dough. One
day’s production will be lost in the change over. This method can only be considered
an interim option as it is not sustainable for more than a day or two with present staff.
However, part time staff could be hired to mix the dough. Business income would
be reduced and impact on revenue. Alternatively, the mixer could be replaced by
purchasing a new, safer machine with a built-in guard.
„„Engineering – The mixer could be modified by adding an interlocking guard. A mixer
could be hired for the period the old mixer is in for repairs. One day’s production
will be lost in this option. The modifications are estimated to cost $1600. Other
costs included are: one day lost in production plus hire of substitute machine for
approximately 10 days and transport. Estimated cost is less than $6000.
„„Administrative or PPE – All staff told to keep hands away from the mixing bowl while
it is in use. Only the more experienced bakers are to operate the mixer.
Preferred control option: Purchase a new mixer, which would not cost much more than
having the old one modified. Mixing to be done by hand while waiting for replacement
mixer to arrive. The costs involved are outweighed by worker safety and this option
eliminates the risk of injury.
Implementation
Associated activities
Resources
required
Person(s)
responsible
Sign off and date
New mixer to be purchased.
Mixing to be done by hand
while waiting for new mixer.
May require staff working
more hours
Less than
$6000
Jane Smith –
Bakery supervisor
J Smith 9/11/10
Develop new work
procedures
3 hours
Jane Smith –
Bakery supervisor
J Smith 20/12/10
Provide training to bakers
on using the new machine
26
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
APPENDIX C - CASE STUDIES
Review
Scheduled review date: 31 January 2011
Are the control measures in place?
„„Yes – the new machine has an interlocking guard and bakers have been provided with
training on how to use the machine in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Are the controls eliminating or minimising the risk?
„„Yes – the interlocking guard prevents people from putting their hand in the mixing
bowl.
Are there any new problems with the risk?
„„No.
Jane repeated these steps for each hazard that she identified. The review of the work
activities and the implemented control measures improved the safety in the bakery
department at the grocery store.
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
27
Disclaimer
This publication may contain work health and safety and workers compensation information. It may include some of your obligations under the various
legislations that WorkCover NSW administers. To ensure you comply with your legal obligations you must refer to the appropriate legislation.
Information on the latest laws can be checked by visiting the NSW legislation website (www.legislation.nsw.gov.au).
This publication does not represent a comprehensive statement of the law as it applies to particular problems or to individuals or as a substitute for
legal advice. You should seek independent legal advice if you need assistance on the application of the law to your situation.
© WorkCover NSW
28
CODE OF PRACTICE | HOW TO MANAGE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS
THIS CODE PROVIDES PRACTICAL GUIDANCE
ON HOW TO ELIMINATE OR MINIMISE HEALTH
AND SAFETY RISKS IN THE WORKPLACE
USING A RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACH.
Catalogue No. WC03565 WorkCover Publications Hotline 1300 799 003
WorkCover NSW, 92-100 Donnison Street, Gosford, NSW 2250
Locked Bag 2906, Lisarow, NSW 2252 | WorkCover Assistance Service 13 10 50
Website workcover.nsw.gov.au
ISBN 978 1 74218 993 2 © Copyright WorkCover NSW 0112
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