SimpleTech STI-FAX/33.6 System information

SimpleTech STI-FAX/33.6 System information
AS/400 IBM Network Station:
Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Fant Steele, Nick Harris, Joan Barrett, Hernan Coronel,
Andy Grant, Yudhi Haryadi, Gerri Passe
International Technical Support Organization
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com
SG24-5187-00
SG24-5187-00
International Technical Support Organization
AS/400 IBM Network Station:
Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
March 1999
Take Note!
Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in
Appendix D, “Special Notices” on page 285.
First Edition (March 1999)
This edition applies to IBM Network Station Manager Program Version 1 Release 3, Program Number
5648-C05, and OS/400 Version 4 Release 3.
Comments may be addressed to:
IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization
Dept. JLU Building 107-2
3605 Highway 52N
Rochester, Minnesota 55901-7829
When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute the
information in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1999. All rights reserved
Note to U.S Government Users – Documentation related to restricted rights – Use, duplication or disclosure is
subject to restrictions set forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix
Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
The Team That Wrote This Redbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Comments Welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 IBM Network Station Family Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 What is New in IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 Release 3 . . 2
1.2.1 National Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.2 Network Station Manager Group Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.3 Separation of Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.4 Broadcast Boot for AS/400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.5 Converged 5250/3270 Emulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.6 VTxxx Telnet Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.7 Support for Twinax-enabled IBM Network Stations . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.8 Streaming LPR/LPD Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.9 ICA Client Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.10 Lotus eSuite Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.11 JVM 1.1.4 and JIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.2.12 NC Navigator Browser Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.2.13 Inventory Server for AS/400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.2.14 Full-Screen (Kiosk) Solutions Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.2.15 DHCP Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.3 Local versus Remote Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.4 Initialization Options for Remote Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.4.1 Remote Boot Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.4.2 IBM 2212 Nways Access Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.4.3 Flash Memory Card Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.4.4 Network Station Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chapter 2. Planning Considerations .
2.1 Where You Are Currently . . . . . . . .
2.2 What You Are Likely to Have Now .
2.3 What You Are Trying to Achieve . . .
2.4 Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 Network Station Network Data
2.6 Performance Conclusions . . . . . . .
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
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iii
2.7 Problem and Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.8 Migration Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.9 Roaming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.10 Slow Link Boot versus Flash Card Peer Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.11 CISC and RISC Co-existence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.12 Printing with Your IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.12.1 Configuring Printers on an AS/400 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.12.2 Configuring Basic Printer Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.12.3 Printer Administration Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Chapter 3. Using Flash Cards with the Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.1 Flash Card Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.1.1 Flash Card Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.1.2 Flash Card Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.1.3 Separation of Servers, Authentication Login, and the Flash Card 67
3.1.4 Hardware Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.2 Booting from a Flash Card with 5250, 3270, and VTxxx Support . . . . 69
3.2.1 Scenario Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.2.2 Scenario Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.2.3 Scenario Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.2.4 Scenario Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.3 Creating A Flash Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.3.1 Verifying Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.3.2 Creating a Flash Card Boot Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.3.3 Task Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.3.4 Creating a Separate Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
3.3.5 Testing the Boot Image from the AS/400 System . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.3.6 Verifying Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3.3.7 Accessing the Local File Manager and NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.3.8 Formatting the Flash Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.3.9 Loading the Image onto the Flash Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.3.10 Booting the IBM Network Station Using the Flash Card . . . . . . 89
3.3.11 Verifying Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.3.12 House Keeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.3.13 Flash Card Boot Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.4 Peer Booting with 5250, 3270, and VTxxx Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.4.1 Scenario Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.4.2 Scenario Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.4.3 Scenario Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.4.4 Network Configuration Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.5 Task Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.5.1 Planning Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.5.2 Modifying Existing Flash Boot Network Station Configuration . . 100
iv
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.5.6
Creating a Peer Boot Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Configuring the Peer Boot Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Verifying Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Peer Boot Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Chapter 4. Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers . . . . . . .
4.1 Terminology for this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Boot Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Split Boot Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Server Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Scenario Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2 Scenario Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.3 Consolidating Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Roaming Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 Managing User Configurations at Each Remote Site .
4.5.2 Centralized versus Distributed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 5. Twinax Attachment of Network Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.1 Use of Twinax Attached Network Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.2 AS/400 Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
5.3 AS/400 Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
5.4 Basic IP over Twinax Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
5.4.1 Scenario Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.4.2 Scenario Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.4.3 Scenario Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.4.4 Scenario Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.4.5 Scenario Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.4.6 Task Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
5.4.7 Defining a TCP/IP Address Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
5.4.8 Configuring and Starting the IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . 130
5.4.9 Configuring an AS/400 IP Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
5.4.10 Testing Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
5.4.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
5.5 Transparent Subnet Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
5.5.1 Twinax Transparent Subnetting Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
5.6 Advanced IP over Twinax Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
5.6.1 Scenario Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
5.6.2 Scenario Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
5.6.3 Scenario Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
5.6.4 Scenario Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
5.6.5 Scenario Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
5.6.6 Task Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
5.6.7 Planning the TCP/IP Addressing Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
v
5.6.8 Configuring and Starting the IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . 147
5.6.9 Configuring an AS/400 IP Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
5.6.10 Testing Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
5.6.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
5.7 Twinax IBM Network Station with Local DHCP Server Scenario . . . . 154
5.7.1 Scenario Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
5.7.2 Scenario Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
5.7.3 Scenario Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
5.7.4 Scenario Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
5.7.5 Scenario Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
5.7.6 Task Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.7.7 Planning the TCP/IP Addressing Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.7.8 Configuring the DHCP Server As1 for Twinax Support . . . . . . . 157
5.7.9 Configuring and Starting the IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . 164
5.7.10 Testing Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
5.7.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.8 Twinax IBM Network Station with a Remote DHCP Server Scenario 171
5.8.1 Scenario Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.8.2 Task Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5.8.3 Configuring the Local DHCP Configuration File on As1 . . . . . . 173
5.8.4 Power on the IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5.8.5 Manually Changing the Auto Created TCP/IP Interface . . . . . . 177
5.8.6 Configuring and Starting BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent . . . . . . . . 177
5.8.7 Changing the DHCP Server Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
5.8.8 Configuring the Twinax Subnet Address Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.8.9 Starting the IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.8.10 Testing Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.8.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.9 Twinax IBM Network Station with Remote Boot Server . . . . . . . . . . . 191
5.9.1 Scenario Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
5.9.2 Scenario Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
5.9.3 Scenario Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
5.9.4 Scenario Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
5.9.5 Scenario Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
5.9.6 Task Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
5.9.7 Configuring the DHCP Server on As1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
5.9.8 Ensuring the Proper TCP/IP Servers are Started on As2 . . . . . 204
5.9.9 Configuring and Starting the Twinax IBM Network Station . . . . 205
5.9.10 Testing Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
5.9.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Chapter 6. Problem Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6.1 Viewing the IBM Network Station Console Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
6.1.1 Accessing the System Log Using TELNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6.1.2 Accessing the System Log Using the Console Manager . . . . . . 211
Chapter 7. Replicating a Remote Boot Server Environment . . . . . . . 213
7.1 Centralized Authentication Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
7.1.1 IBM Network Station Manager Replication to Remote Server . . 214
7.2 Decentralized Authentication Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
7.2.1 IBM Network Station Manager Replication to Remote Server . . 218
7.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Chapter 8. Using a Network Station to Access Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
8.1 POP3 Mail Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
8.1.1 Basic POP3 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
8.2 Lotus eSuite Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
8.2.1 Starting eSuite on the Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
8.2.2 eSuite Mail Configuration on Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
8.3 NC Navigator Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.3.1 Starting NC Navigator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.3.2 Configuring NC Navigator to Access e-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
8.4 Domino Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.4.1 Deciding What to Specify for Server Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.4.2 Avoiding Conflicts between AS/400 HTTP Server and Domino . 242
8.4.3 Accessing the Web Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
8.4.4 Terminal Server Edition and Citrix MetaFrame Overview . . . . . 248
8.4.5 Connecting IBM Network Station to Windows Terminal Server . 249
8.4.6 Lotus Notes 4.6a Basic Installation on Windows Terminal Server
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Appendix A. Flash Card Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
A.1 Support for 5250, 3270, and VTxxx Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
A.2 Support for 5250, 3270, and VTxxx with Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
A.2.1 The Flash.nsm File Additions to Support Local Font Storage . . . . 261
A.2.2 The Peer.nsm File Additions to Support Local Font Storage . . . . . 261
A.3 Support for NC Navigator with Java Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
A.4 Support for ICA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
A.5 Java Application Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Appendix B. Executable Module Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
B.1 Module Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Appendix C. 5500 Express IP Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
C.1 5500 Express IP Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
C.1.1 Twinax Client Connection Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
C.2 Connection Configurations of the 5500 Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
vii
C.2.1 WAN Configuration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
C.2.2 ISDN Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
C.3 5500 Control Unit and TCP/IP LAN Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
C.3.1 Installing the IBM 5500 into an Existing Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
C.4 Optimizing Twinax Performance for the Client Workstation . . . . . . . . . . 282
C.5 Using the 5500 Control Unit as a Network Station Boot Server . . . . . . . 283
Appendix D. Special Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Appendix E. Related Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
E.1 International Technical Support Organization Publications . . . . . . . . . . 289
E.2 Redbooks on CD-ROMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
E.3 Other Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
How to Get ITSO Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
How IBM Employees Can Get ITSO Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
How Customers Can Get ITSO Redbooks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
IBM Redbook Order Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
ITSO Redbook Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figures
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Roaming User Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Separation of Servers - Load Balancing Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Changing TFTP Attributes for Subnet Broadcast Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Enabling Subnet Broadcast Boot for IBM Network Stations . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Remote Boot Servers Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
IBM 2212 Access Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Remote Site - Flash Memory Card Peer Boot Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Network Components that May Exist in Your Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Network Station Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Possible Network Station Printing Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Flash Card Support for Emulators from a Remote Location . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Remote Flash Card Enabled IBM Network Station Topology Diagram . . . 72
Example Flash.nsm File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Console Log Example: Loading the 5250 Emulator from the Test Image
Directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Updated Example of the Flash.nsm File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Console Log Example: Loading the 5250 Emulator from the Flash Card . 94
Peer Boot Topology Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Peer Boot Detailed Network Topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Example Peer.nsm File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Peer Boot Loading of the 5250 Emulator from the Flash Card . . . . . . . . 105
Boot Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Distributed Server Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Consolidated Server Topology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Users and User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
User ITSCIDGRPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Group Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
User’s Attributes (Part 1 of 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
User’s Attribute (Part 2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Paste Group’s Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Resulting Group’s Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Roaming Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Fully Centralized Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Remote Reboot with Centralized Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Distributed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Centralized Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
TCP/IP Network Topology for Basic IP over Twinax Scenario . . . . . . . . 130
Display of QSYSOPR Message Queue on AS/400 System . . . . . . . . . . 132
Display of QHST Log on the AS/400 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Configuration Status Display of Automatically Created QTDL Descriptors134
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
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QTDL824300 Line Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Automatically Created Device Type 5150 under CTL01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Adding IP Interface for QTDLC824300 Line Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Starting the Interface for the QTDLC824300 Line Description . . . . . . . . 136
Configuration Status of QTDL824300 Line, Controller, and Device . . . . 137
Updated 5150 Device Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
BOOTP Table Entry for Twinax IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Display of BOOTP Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Transparent Subnetting Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Subnet Mask Boundaries and Address Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Transparent Subnetting Twinax Scenario with Class C TCP/IP Address 143
Transparent Subnetting Class C Address Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Network Topology for Advanced IP over Twinax Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Applying Subnet Mask to Carve a Contiguous Range for Twinax Subnet147
Display of QSYSOPR Message Queue on AS/400 System . . . . . . . . . . 148
Configuration Status Display of Automatically Created QTDL Descriptors148
Configuration Status Display of Automatically Created Display Device. . 149
Adding IP Interface for QTDLC827500 Line Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Starting the Interface for the QTDL827500 Line Description . . . . . . . . . . 150
TCP/IP Interface Status Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Configuration Status of QTDL Descriptors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Updated 5150 Device Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
BOOTP Table Entry for Twinax IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Display of BOOTP Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Network Topology for Local DHCP Server Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Applying Subnet Mask to Carve a Contiguous Range for Twinax Subnet157
AS/400 Operations Navigator - Configure DHCP Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
AS/400 Operations Navigator - Selecting Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
AS/400 Operations Navigator - Selecting Network Servers. . . . . . . . . . . 159
AS/400 Operations Navigator - Selecting TCP/IP Servers . . . . . . . . . . . 159
AS/400 Operations Navigator - DHCP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
DHCP Server Configuration Twinax Subnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
DHCP Twinax Address Pool Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Twinax Attached DHCP Options Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
AS/400 Operations Navigator - TCP/IP Server Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
QTDLxxxxxx Line, Controller, and Device Configuration Status . . . . . . . 167
QTDLxxxxxx Line Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Device Type 5150 under CTL01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
TCP/IP Interface for the Local Workstation Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
TCP/IP Interface Updated with an Associated Local Interface Value . . . 170
Using Remote DHCP Server to Configure Twinax IBM Network Stations 172
AS/400 Operations Navigator DHCP Configuration for Twinax Subnet on As1
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
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AS/400 Operations Navigator - TCP/IP Server Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Automatically Created QTDL Descriptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
CFGTCP Option 1 Display Showing the TDLC Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
TCP/IP Interface Updated with an Associated Local Interface Value . . . 177
AS/400 Operations Navigator - Configuring BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent 178
BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
AS/400 Operations Navigator - TCP/IP Server Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Applying Subnet Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
AS/400 Operations Navigator - Creating New Subnet in DHCP . . . . . . . 182
DHCP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
DHCP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
DHCP Configuration - Forming a New Subnet Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
DHCP configuration - New Subnet Group Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
DHCP Configuration - Selection of Subnets for New Subnet Group . . . . 187
DHCP Configuration - Showing Contents of Subnet Group. . . . . . . . . . . 187
DHCP Configuration - New Subnet Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
DHCP Configuration - Remote Twinax IP Address Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Operations Navigator - DHCP Configuration Display Showing Subnet Groups
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
100.Twinax Attached Network Station Obtaining Network Configuration . . . 192
101.Network Topology for Remote Boot Server Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
102.Operations Navigator - DHCP Twinax Subnet Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
103.DHCP Configuration - Defining TFTP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
104.DHCP Configuration - Option 211 Configuration Protocol Template . . . 197
105.DHCP Configuration - Option 212 Terminal Server Template . . . . . . . . 197
106.DHCP Configuration - Option 213 Configuration File Path Template . . . 198
107.DHCP Configuration - Option 214 Protocol to Use Template . . . . . . . . . 198
108.DHCP Configuration - Viewing Available Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
109.DHCP Configuration - Adding Tag 211 Configuration Protocol. . . . . . . . 200
110.DHCP Configuration - Adding Tag 212 Terminal Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
111.DHCP Configuration - Adding Tag 213 Configuration File Path . . . . . . . 202
112.DHCP Configuration - Adding Tag 214 Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
113.Operations Navigator - Modified DHCP Configuration Display . . . . . . . . 204
114.Netstat *CNN Display Showing Active TCP/IP Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
115.Operations Navigator - TCP/IP Server Status Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
116.Set Network Parameters Display (Before Bootup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
117.Set Configuration Parameters Display (Before Bootup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
118.Sample Messages on Network Station during Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
119.Set Network Parameters Display (After Bootup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
120.Set Configuration Parameters Display (After Bootup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
121.Windows 95 RUN Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
122.TELNET Terminal Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
123.TELNET Terminal Connection Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
xi
124.Console Log Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
125.Replicating Remote Boot Servers - Centralized Authentication Server . 214
126.Replicating Remote Boot Servers - Decentralized Authentication . . . . . 218
127.Customize System Default Menu Bar Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
128.Add Custom NC Navigator Button to System Default Menu Bar. . . . . . . 220
129.Add 3270 Menu Bar Button to Group Grp3270’s Preference Settings . . 221
130.Option 12 of the CFGTCP Menu - Change TCP/IP Domain . . . . . . . . . . 225
131.DNS Server Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
132.Display of Host Table Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
133.Directory Entry for POP User - General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
134.Mail Service Level - System Message Storage (Preferred Address) . . . 227
135.Add Directory Entry - SMTP Name for User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
136.eSuite Workplace Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
137.Menu Content Defaults Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
138.QSYSOPR Message Queue Showing Start of eSuite Server . . . . . . . . . 231
139.eSuite Mail Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
140.eSuite Inbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
141.Network Settings - System Defaults Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
142.Main Dsplay of the NC Navigator Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
143.NC Navigator: Mail & News Preferences Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
144.NC Navigator Mail Inbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
145.User ID and Password Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
146.Views Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
147.Web Mail Inbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
148.Configuring an ICA Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
149.Lotus Notes Workstation on IBM Network Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
150.Transition from SNA to TPC/IP with 5500 Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
151.IBM 5500 in an Express Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
152.IBM 5500 with a Combination of Media Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
153.Asynchronous Dialup Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
154.Frame Relay Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
155.5500 Subnet Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
156.Example of a Network before Installing the IBM 5500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
157.Example of a Network after Installing the IBM 5500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
xii
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Tables
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Applications and Printer Data Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Elements Loaded to a Network Station (MB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Time (Seconds) to Perform Hardware Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Load Times (Seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Load Times (Seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Load times (Seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
LAN to Twinax Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Desired Print Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
PCMCIA Flash Card Part Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Kernel and Application Program Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Network Station Local File Manager Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Options for DCHP Server-to-Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Options and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Module Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
The Defaults.dft File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
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xiv
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Preface
Gain an edge implementing an IBM Network Station solution in a Wide Area
Network (WAN). This redbook offers a number of alternative implementation
techniques that demonstrate the IBM Network Station’s flexibility and rapid
deployment capabilities.
As you read this book, you find valuable information about running IBM
Network Station with Network Station Manager Program Release 3 (NSM).
This redbook also discusses the details of the new functions provided with
NSM Release 3 and subsequent Program Temporary Fixes (PTFs). These
functions include Broadcast Boot for AS/400, enhanced converged
3270/5250 emulators, VTxxx Telnet emulation, streaming LPR/LPD print
support, ICA Client protocol, Lotus eSuite Workplace, integrated 40-bit NC
Navigator browser, DHCP support, and Flash memory cards. In addition, this
redbook offers an introduction to the 2212 Nways Access Utility and the 5500
Express IP control unit.
This redbook is intended for the I/T professional who has customers with
existing IBM Network Stations and are planning to implement the new
functions available with Network Station Manager Program Release 3. It also
targets those professional that are planning to replace non-programmable
terminals (NPTs) with IBM Network Stations.
The Team That Wrote This Redbook
This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world
working at the International Technical Support Organization Rochester
Center.
Fant Steele is an Advisory ITSO Specialist for AS/400 in the International
Technical Support Organization, Rochester Center. He writes extensively and
teaches IBM classes worldwide on many areas of AS/400 communications
technologies and e-business. He spent eight years as an instructor and
developer for the AS/400 communications and programming curriculum of
IBM Education and Training. Prior to joining IBM in 1989, he worked on S/36
to AS/400 code conversion, VM/MVS systems programming, and applications
programming for the manufacturing industry.
Nick Harris is an Senior Systems Specialist for the AS/400 in the
International Technical Support Organization, Rochester Center. He writes
and teaches IBM classes worldwide on areas of AS/400 System Design,
Business Intelligence, and Database. He spent 11 years as a System
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
xv
Specialist in the United Kingdom AS/400 Business. Prior to joining IBM, he
worked for the Ministry of Defense as a Mechanical and Electrical Design
Engineer.
Joan Barrett is an Advisory I/T Availability Professional in the AS/400 Software
Support Center in Canada. She has worked for IBM for 10 years. Over the past
five years, she worked in the communications group within the AS/400 platform.
In the previous five years, she worked as a Customer Service Representative in
the Mid-range systems field. Her areas of expertise include AS/400
communications, and specifically TCP/IP and SNA protocols, workstation
controllers, and network stations.
Hernan Coronel is an I/T Specialist in Argentina. He has been working for
IBM for four years and spent the last three years as a system administrator for
the Bueños Aires e-business center. He holds a degree in Computer Science
from University CAECE. His areas of expertise include TCP/IP networking
and IBM Network Stations.
Andy Grant is a communications specialist working for IBM Managed
Operations Group in New Zealand. He has eight years of experience with IBM
mid-range systems, communication, and PC connectivity. His main area of
expertise is the design, implementation, and support of large, multi-platform
networks. This includes host inter-connectivity and desktop-to-host
configuration and trouble shooting over a variety of communication protocols.
Yudhi Haryadi is an I/T Service Specialist working for IBM Product Support
Service in Indonesia. He has four years of experience with IBM Network
hardware device and software, operating systems, and network operating
system. His main area of expertise is in the design, implementation, and
support of small to large customer networks.
Gerri Passe is a Senior Technical Sales Specialist with the IBM North
America Advanced Technical Support Organization. During the last 18
months, she has worked with AS/400 customers and business partners in the
area of IBM Network Station implementation and has also presented at a
number of internal and external technical conferences. In addition, she has
seven years prior experience as an AS/400 Systems Engineer and Services
Specialist working with Client Access and AS/400 Internet connectivity. Prior
to working in the AS/400 environment, she was an IBM S/390 Systems
Engineer.
xvi
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Thanks to the following people for their invaluable contributions to this project:
Ray Romon, Network Station Development Manager
Chuck Carmack, Network Station Development
Dave Limpert, Network Station Software Architect
AJ Meyer, Network Station Development
Ron Stevenson, Network Station Performance
IBM Rochester
Marc Pamely, Product Engineer
Buz Stepanek, 5500 Product Management
IBM Charlotte
Comments Welcome
Your comments are important to us!
We want our redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Please send us your
comments about this or other redbooks in one of the following ways:
• Fax the evaluation form found in “ITSO Redbook Evaluation” on page 299
to the fax number shown on the form.
• Use the online evaluation form found at: http://www.redbooks.ibm.com
• Send us a note at the following address:
[email protected]
xvii
xviii
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Chapter 1. Introduction
Although IBM Network Stations can be locally attached to your AS/400 using
twinax, Ethernet, or Token Ring using TCP/IP. This redbook focuses on
implementing IBM Network Stations at your remote sites. In addition, this
redbook assumes that you have some familiarity with IBM Network Stations.
This chapter includes a brief overview of IBM Network Stations, a summary of
the IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 Release 3 enhancements, and
an introduction to several methods available for deploying IBM Network
Stations throughout your AS/400 wide area network.
1.1 IBM Network Station Family Overview
The IBM Network Station family provides you with an alternative for your
business desktop. Traditionally, your choice was limited to either
non-programmable terminals (NPTs) or personal computers. NPTs are very
simple to install and maintain. However, they often lack the flexibility and
function needed by users. Although PCs are very flexible and functional, they
can end up being under-utilized and installation and ongoing support
requirements can be substantial. The IBM Network Station family consists of
network computers that are designed to combine some of the best
characteristics of NPTs and PCs, which reduces complexity and cost by
placing their management on central servers. IBM Network Stations can be
booted from an IBM AS/400, RISC System/6000, S/390 or NT PC server
when the appropriate software is installed.
All three models of the IBM Network Station allow you to access existing
applications on your network, as well as corporate intranets and the Internet.
In addition, the IBM Network Station takes advantage of leading edge
technologies, such as Java.
The IBM Network Station Series 100, often referred to as the access network
computer, is best suited to provide access to applications residing on servers
in your network. The Series 100 model offers:
• Access to multiple servers (IBM and others)
• Ability to run Windows applications using multi-user implementations of
Windows NT
• Support for 5250, 3270 and VTxxx terminal applications
• Access to applications on AIX and UNIX servers using X-Windows server
support
• Benefit from significant processing power of your server
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
1
The IBM Network Station Series 300, the Internet network computer, is an
ideal solution when your users spend a lot of time on your corporate intranet
or the Internet, as well as access server based applications. In addition to
providing the same Series 100 capabilities listed above, the Series 300 can
run simple or entry level Java applets and applications.
The Java network computer, as the IBM Network Station Series 1000 is
called, offers the robust support that allows your users to access
business-critical applications and/or personal productivity tools that take
advantage of Java. The IBM Network Station Series 1000 allows you to:
• Run Java applets and applications directly on the IBM Network Station
• Run Windows applications using a multi-user implementations of Windows
NT
• Access multiple servers (IBM and others), including corporate intranet and
Internet servers, using Web browsers
• Access applications using 5250, 3270 and VTxxx emulation
• Work with applications on AIX and UNIX servers using X-Windows server
support
• Capitalize on the combined processing power of your servers and the
Series 1000 to optimize network resources and put the right application in
the right place
For additional information about IBM Network Stations and the IBM Network
Station Manager for AS/400 R3 product, refer to the manuals IBM Network
Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664, and IBM Network Station
Use, SA41-0036. You may also find an earlier redbook, AS/400 - IBM Network
Station - Getting Started, SG24-2153, useful. However, it does not contain
Release 3 information. These manuals can be found on-line at the Web site:
www.ibm.com/nc/pubs
1.2 What is New in IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 Release 3
The IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 licensed product provides
several major functions: 5250 emulation, 3270 emulation, the Java Virtual
Machine, and the IBM Network Station Manager program. This program is an
easy-to-use browser based application that enables a single systems
administrator to set up and configure all IBM Network Stations in their
enterprise. It lets you centrally create and manage user-specific desktop
environments and access privileges to accommodate different user needs.
The IBM Network Station Manager provides centralized control for all IBM
Network Station applications and access to server resources, such as
printers. The system administrator can access the IBM Network Station
2
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Manager from any location on their TCP/IP network using an appropriate
browser.
In June of 1998, a new release with significant enhancements to IBM Network
Station Manager for AS/400 became available. Major enhancements included
in Version 1 Release 3 are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
National Language Support
Network Station Manager group support
Separation of servers
Broadcast boot for AS/400
Enhanced converged 3270/5250 emulators
VTxxx Telnet emulation
Support for the new twinax-enabled IBM Network Station model 341
Streaming LPR/LPD print support
ICA Client protocol
Lotus eSuite Workplace
Java Virtual Machine (JVM) 1.1.4
Java Just-In-Time compiler (Series 1000 only)
Integrated 40 bit NC Navigator browser
Inventory Server for AS/400
Full-screen solutions (kiosk) support
DHCP support
In addition, a number of enhancements for Release 3 of IBM Network Station
Manager for AS/400 were recently made available through PTFs (program
temporary fixes). These PTFs, which can be obtained by ordering the AS/400
group PTF SF99082, include support for the following:
Flash memory cards
Allows you to store the IBM Network Station operating system and
applications in specific third-party Series D Type II PCMCIA memory
cards and boot a remote IBM Network Station locally or through peer
(buddy) boot. Please refer to Chapter 3, “Using Flash Cards with the
Network Station” on page 63 for more details.
Multiple serial ports
Allows the use of additional peripheral devices by extending the IBM
Network Station’s serial interface from a single native serial port to
multiple serial ports through the use of a third-party Type II PCMCIA
Card. One, two, or four additional ports can be added to attach serial
devices to the IBM Network Station.
Touch-sensitive display
Provides support for IBM and selected third party touch-sensitive
displays which allows users to select on-display options by placing a
Introduction
3
finger directly on the display and dragging or clicking objects as if you
were using a mouse. With this free enhancement and a
touch-sensitive display, the IBM Network Station can be the client for a
broad range of applications requiring read-only access to data, from
kiosks in shopping malls to hospitals, museums, and libraries.
PCMCIA on Series 1000
Enables the use of a Type II PCMCIA card slot on the IBM Network
Station Series 1000 after it has been installed. Unless you received
one of the few early Ethernet IBM Network Station Series 1000s that
were shipped with a PCMCIA slot, you must order this chargeable
PCMCIA Adapter (part number 07L8336) option by contacting your
IBM representative or an IBM Business Partner.
Note: PTF Enhancements
Additional information on the above four enhancements can be found online
at the Web site at: www.pc.ibm.com/networkstation/solutions/product.html.
Note
If you want to learn more about Release 3 of IBM Network Station
Manager, an educational CD entitled IBM Network Station Manager
Release 3: A Tutorial is now available. This training CD includes a wide
range of cross platform, technical topics pertaining to Network Station
implementation. It can be ordered through the IBM Publications
department as kit number SK3T-3024-01. In the United States, publications
can be ordered by calling: 800-879-2755.
1.2.1 National Language Support
Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 supports the IBM
Network Station across all geographies. The National Language Support
(NLS) enablement includes support for more than 30 languages. This allows
users around the world to use language-specific keyboards, read on-display
system messages and, in some cases, read instruction manuals in their
native languages.
4
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
For additional information about National Language Support, refer to the
manual IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664, and
in the online help text of the IBM Network Station Manager program.
1.2.2 Network Station Manager Group Support
Previous releases of IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 provided
default system, user and workstation level settings. These settings which
define the IBM Network Station’s user desktop environment, can be changed
by the system administrator (and in some instances the user). For example,
the administrator could:
• Configure hardware and workstation settings on a system-wide and user
level. Preference settings include:
-
Specifying primary mouse buttons (left or right-handed).
Setting mouse pointer speeds.
Updating boot monitor version.
Selecting screen saver, desktop background, and more.
• Configure access to applications on a system-wide and user level:
-
5250 emulator to access IBM AS/400 applications.
3270 emulator to access IBM S/390 applications.
X-Windows to access graphical UNIX applications.
Web browsers to access the Internet and corporate intranets.
Desktop (Window Manager) to customize the user's display interface.
Applet viewer to run Java applets and applications.
Windows based applications (running on a multi-user system).
• Configure system wide and user level start up settings such as:
- Programs to automatically load frequently used applications, such as
5250 emulation
- Menu items to provide point-and-click access to other applications
using menu bar buttons
In addition to the above capabilities, Release 3 of IBM Network Station
Manager for AS/400 allows you to define group level settings. Although this
significant function proves useful to all customers, it is particularly helpful if
you are setting up and managing larger numbers of IBM Network Stations
throughout your enterprise. For example, you may have customer service
personnel in your headquarters and in a remote site who share similar
desktop and application needs. Group support allows you to set up a custserv
group which defines a common desktop environment for all the users in that
group, rather than having to define the same settings for each user.
Introduction
5
1.2.3 Separation of Servers
Several IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 server functions that were
previously bundled can now be split and installed on multiple servers. This
allows you to balance network traffic, if desired. Balancing network traffic
enables IBM Network Station end users to access their normal desktop when
they are away from their regular server.
To use separation of servers, you must install the zero-charge IBM Network
Station Manager Release 3 licensed program on each computer system
providing one of the server functions discussed in this topic (except for the
system acting only as a BOOTP/DHCP server). If used on the AS/400
system, the BOOTP or DHCP server function is actually provided by TCP/IP.
Also, DHCP server support on an AS/400 system requires Version 4 Release
2 or later. On any one specific computer system, IBM Network Station
Manager Release 3 can be used to perform more than one server role. It is
also important to remember that, if desired, the server functions can be split
across different supported computer systems. For example, your V4R2
AS/400 with IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 Release 3 can provide
the base code, terminal configuration, and authentication server functions
and have another server (such as, AS/400, NT or RISC System/6000) act as
the DHCP server. A brief description of each server role follows.
BOOTP/DHCP Server
The BOOTP or DHCP server provides the IBM Network Station with
information such as its IP address, the base code server address, and the
address of the terminal configuration server. Unlike BOOTP, the DHCP server
allows you to dynamically assign IP addresses to clients upon request. Refer
to the manual, IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use,
SC41-0664, for examples on how to accomplish load balancing by specifying
a different address for the base code server and configuration server. This
manual and others are online at: www.ibm.com/nc/pubs. As mentioned
previously, the IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 product does not
need to be installed on the AS/400 DHCP server that is servicing DHCP and
BOOTP clients.
Base Code Server
The IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 product on this server provides
the operating system and the application programs that are downloaded to
the IBM Network Stations during initialization. This server is not used to
configure IBM Network Stations.
6
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Terminal Configuration Server
The IBM Network Station Manager program on this server provides
terminal-based configuration settings. The IBM Network Station Manager
program manages these settings. Examples of terminal configuration settings
are a printer that is attached to the network station, or the network station's
keyboard language. The address of the terminal configuration server is the
same as the address of the base code server by default. The inventory server
(AS/400 only) runs on this server.
Authentication Server
The IBM Network Station Manager program on this server provides user
authentication (when the user logs on) and user-based configuration settings.
The IBM Network Station Manager program manages these settings.
Examples of what you can configure on this server are users auto-start
sessions (for example, 5250 sessions) or users browser preferences. The IP
address of the authentication server is the same as the address of the base
code server by default. You may use a different authentication server by
clicking on the Roam button on the IBM Network Station logon display and
then entering the server’s name or IP address. A technique for automating the
use of a different server for authentication is discussed in Chapter 4.,
“Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers” on page 107.
You may have already thought of several uses for this new separation of
server function. The following are instances in which multiple servers can
prove to be an advantage:
• As shown in Figure 1 on page 8, users from Dallas are visiting your central
site in Rochester and want to sign on and receive the same desktop
environment that they have at home using the roaming function. User can
click on the Roam button on the IBM Network Station logon display and
then enter the name or IP address (10.2.1.2) of their Authentication Server
in Dallas. At that time, their own preferences are downloaded over the
TCP/IP network to the IBM Network Station (10.1.1.20) from the Dallas
system and the users see their home desktop.
Introduction
7
Figure 1. Roaming User Example
• Figure 2 on page 9 shows how the separation of servers function might be
used to reduce network congestion if all IBM Network Stations are
powered on at 8:00 on Monday morning. In this case, separation of
servers is used to split the server functions across multiple systems. For
example, one AS/400 (10.1.1.2) provides both the authentication and
terminal configuration server functions and the PC server (10.2.1.2) is the
DHCP server. In addition, there are two AS/400s (10.3.1.2 and 10.4.1.2)
acting as base code servers. This distributes copies of the large
executable files (operating system and applications) across servers.
Although the PC server providing the DHCP server function only, does not
require IBM Network Station Manager Release 3. It must be installed on
the other systems that are providing the base code, terminal configuration
and authentication server functions.
8
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Authentication
Server
Base Code
Server
Base Code
Server
DHCP Server
Terminal
Configuration
Server
10.4.1.2
10.3.1.2
10.2.1.2
10.1.1.2
IBM Network Station
Figure 2. Separation of Servers - Load Balancing Example
For additional information on how to use the separation of servers function
to enable user roaming and provide load balancing, refer to the manual
IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664. This
manual and others are available on-line at the Web site:
www.ibm.com/nc/pubs
Split Boot server is discussed in Chapter 4, “Remote Servers and Split
Boot Servers” on page 107.
Important
All servers must be running IBM Network Station Manager Version 1
Release 3 to use separation of servers. However, as mentioned above, an
exception to this is the BOOTP/DHCP server. A DHCP or BOOTP server
does not need the IBM Network Station Manager licensed product installed
as long as it is not providing any of the other separation of server functions.
Introduction
9
1.2.4 Broadcast Boot for AS/400
The broadcast boot support in IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400
Release 3 provides the capability to boot multiple Network Stations on the
same subnet. This broadcast boot is performed in parallel through a single
transmission. In situations where large numbers of IBM Network Stations
start up at the same time, heavy network usage or boot storms can result.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) Subnet Broadcast (or Broadcast Boot) is
a solution to balancing your network traffic during these boot storms because
it reduces LAN usage and AS/400 CPU utilization.
The reason boot storms may occur is that the AS/400 server is trying to
deliver the boot kernal file to every IBM Network Station in the network. When
the TFTP Subnet Broadcast option is enabled and multiple IBM Network
Stations request their boot files, the server stages the boot file download and
only distributes it once. Essentially, the first Network Station on the subnet
which requests its boot file becomes the master. When other IBM Network
Stations on the same subnet request their boot files, the master serves them.
It passes on the files received during its initialization. The master continues
its role until it has completed its initialization. Once completed, the master
role passes to the next IBM Network Station that requests the kernal file. This
sequence continues until new IBM Network Station assumes the role of
master.
You must enable the TFTP Subnet Broadcast option on both the AS/400
server and the IBM Network Station. By default, the TFTP Subnet Broadcast
option is enabled on your AS/400. However, as shown in Figure 3 on page 11,
you should verify this by typing in CHGTFTPA and ensure that the Enable Subnet
Broadcast parameter value is set to *YES. You must then start up the Network
Station Manager from your browser, and as shown in Figure 4 on page 11,
select the Hardware/Workstation Setup Task to change the Enable Broadcast
Boot to Yes.
10
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Change TFTP Attributes (CHGTFTPA)
Type choices, press Enter.
Autostart server . . . . . . . .
Enable subnet broadcast . . *YES
Number of server jobs:
Minimum . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum . . . . . . . . . . .
Server inactivity timer . . . .
ASCII single byte CCSID:
Coded character set identifier
Maximum block size . . . . . . .
Connection response timeout . .
Allow file writes . . . . . . .
Alternate source directory . . .
*yes, *NO, *SAME
*YES, *NO, *SAME
F3=Exit F4=Prompt
F24=More keys
F12=Cancel
F5=Refresh
2
6
30
1-20, *SAME, *DFT
1-250, *SAME, *DFT
1-1440, *SAME, *DFT
00819
8192
60
*NONE
'*none'
1-65532, *SAME, *DFT
512-65464, *SAME, *DFT
1-600, *SAME, *DFT
*DFT, *NONE, *CREATE...
More...
F13=How to use this display
Figure 3. Changing TFTP Attributes for Subnet Broadcast Boot
Figure 4. Enabling Subnet Broadcast Boot for IBM Network Stations
Introduction
11
Important
Before you use TFTP Subnet Broadcast, you must ensure that certain
PTFS are installed on every AS/400 in your network. Please refer to the
manual IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664, for
the most current list of PTFs. These PTFs prevent unpredictable results,
including possible data loss. This manual can be found online at the Web
site: www.ibm.com/nc/pubs
1.2.5 Converged 5250/3270 Emulators
The 5250 and 3270 emulators have been enhanced to provide additional
function and user interface consistency. Key enhancements in the 5250
emulator include 3489 Image/Fax support (5250 display and print of color
JPEG, monochrome image and fax), user customizable keypads and Hot
Spot highlighting. In addition to the customizable keypads, and the Hot Spot
highlighting, the 3270 emulator has been enhanced to include functions
which were previously available in the 5250 emulator such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Local display print
Record and playback macros
Auto signon
Emulator menu bar customization
Initial window location and size selection
Status line (Operator Information Area)
Copy, cut, and paste using edit menu
Miscellaneous preferences
Although the 5250 and 3270 emulators have separate executables, they
share the same source and have the following additional enhancements in
common:
• IBM Network Station Manager program support for Group level
preferences
• Emulator display print to network printer through remote printer
configuration in IBM Network Station Manager program
• Any key can be used to start a playback file
• Keyboard remapping files can be named (helps administrator when setting
up multiple default remapping files)
• Support for 40+ 3270/5250 emulator session languages (available
languages can be seen by selecting the Language Setup Task in the IBM
12
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Network Station Manager program and selecting the LANG parameter
pull-down list).
• Emulator menu bar or pull downs, dialogue boxes, online help, keyboard
remapping, color mapping, record/playback, and so on, are now translated
into many languages (a list of available languages can be seen by
selecting the Language Setup Task in the IBM Network Station Manager
program and then clicking on the pull down list for the LC_MESSAGES
parameter).
• Operator Information Area (OIA) now includes a communication status
field, which may show some of the following messages:
- COMM655: Waiting for telnet option negotiation (normal to see this
temporarily displayed)
- COMM656: Initializing TCP/IP socket interface
- COMM657: Resolving host name of Telnet server
- COMM658: Initializing TCP connection for Telnet
- COMM659: TCP attachment has been lost
• Single Key Print
• Automatic Communication Error Recovery
• Graphics Print Support
• Display Name enhancements
• TN3270E
Note
Although it was available in the previous release, it is significant that
Network Station 5250 sessions can have static display names. More details
are available in the Network Station Manager or 5250 online help text.
1.2.6 VTxxx Telnet Emulation
This new support allows IBM Network Station users to access systems which
require VTxxx clients. The VTxxx Telnet client supports Latin-1 character sets
for locales other than English in the host session windows. However, its MRI
(Machine Readable Information) is English only. In this context, English only
MRI means that anything outside of the actual host application supplied
content is in English. For example, the VTxxx help text and error messages
only display in English. In addition, the VTxxx client does not provide as many
functions as the 5250 and 3270 emulation clients. For example, the VTxxx
client does not provide a graphical keyboard or color remapping utility or a
Introduction
13
record and playback function. However, hand editing of VTxxx keyboard
mapping files is available. After hand editing a VTxxx mapping file, you can
use the new group support (see Section 1.2.2, “Network Station Manager
Group Support” on page 5) by putting the file into the group’s proper file
path/directory on the authentication server and then using the Network
Station Manager program to associate the desired users with that group.
Also, although the VTxxx client supports display printing, its display print
function is implemented differently than in the 5250 and 3270 clients.
As with 5250 and 3270 sessions, a VTxxx emulation session can be set up for
your users from the IBM Network Station Manager program using the
Programs or Menus setup task. This new VTxxx client is designed to provide
VT320 support. The VTxxx client will work in your environment if you can
answer yes to the question, Can this application work with a real VT320
terminal? Telnet does not equate to direct connect, for example, TCP/IP
encapsulation. In addition to VT320 and Xterm, the following are also
supported:
•
•
•
•
•
VT300
VT200
VT220
VT102
VT100
1.2.7 Support for Twinax-enabled IBM Network Stations
Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 provides support for
the recently announced twinax enabled IBM Network Station Model 341. This
IBM Network Station offers the same functional capabilities as the other
Series 300 IBM Network Station models without requiring you to change your
twinax wiring. Now it is easier for you to:
• Use corporate intranets and the Internet using the NC Navigator for IBM
Network Station browser.
• Enjoy the cost-effectiveness of non-programmable terminals (NPTs) with
simultaneous access to corporate applications using 5250, 3270, VTxxx
and X-terminal emulation.
• Allow access to Windows based applications by running a multi-user NT
version of software, such as WinCenter from NCD, Inc., on an attached PC
Server or Windows NT Server V4.0 -Terminal Server Edition and Citrix
MetaFrame running on a PC server or on the AS/400 IPCS (Integrated PC
Server).
You can set up your network environment on your AS/400 server to allow
some or all of the IBM Network Stations of use twinax connectivity. Beginning
14
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
with OS/400 V4R2, a special type of TCP/IP can run over a twinax network. In
addition, you must create a relationship between the workstation controller
and a TCP/IP interface. A TCP/IP interface is needed to identify your
workstation controller to your AS/400 server and IBM Network Stations. Each
TCP/IP interface must have a unique IP address. The IP addresses for twinax
IBM Network Station models are assigned by the TDLC (Twinax Data Link
Control) component on the AS/400 system.
The IBM Network Stations attached to the workstation controller act as if they
are a TCP/IP subnet. Therefore, the subnet represented by the TCP/IP
interface has a network address and a subnet mask. The twinax subnet also
uses a Domain Name Server (DNS), just like any other subnet.
The twinax interface works like any other local area network (LAN) interface.
It interacts with the other LAN cards on your AS/400 system in much the
same way as a router's multiple interfaces work together. The interface
passes packets from your twinax Network Stations to a LAN card on the same
server. The LAN card forwards the packets to a router and out to the Internet.
Appendix B in the IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use,
SC41-0664, can assist you in planning for and implementing twinax attached
IBM Network Stations. In addition, Chapter 5, “Twinax Attachment of Network
Stations” on page 127 in this redbook discusses the implementation of twinax
IBM Network Stations.
1.2.8 Streaming LPR/LPD Support
Printing capabilities have been significantly enhanced in Release 3 of IBM
Network Station Manager for AS/400 as a result of adding support for the
TCP/IP LPR/LPD protocol (RFC 1179). LPR is an acronym for Line Printer
Requester and LPD is an acronym for Line Printer Daemon. This protocol
enables the IBM Network Station to function as a print client or print server.
This support also includes LPR/LPD streaming support, which is a draft
extension to RFC 1179.
If LPD on the server does not support streaming (AS/400 system has
supported this since V2R2), then LPR on the IBM Network Station attempts
to build a complete spool file using available memory on the Network Station.
This new printing support allows local client applications on the IBM Network
Station to send print jobs to remote print servers or remote printers. In
addition, remote print clients are able to send print jobs to either the serial
port or parallel port on the IBM Network Station. However, more importantly,
the AS/400 (at V4R2 or later) system has the capability to transform one data
Introduction
15
stream into another. If you are using IBM Network Station applications that
generate PostScript data, but you only have a PCL type printer attached to
your IBM Network Station, the print request can be sent to the AS/400
system, transformed from PostScript to PCL, and routed back to the IBM
Network Station attached PCL printer.
You can configure printers for your IBM Network Stations with the IBM
Network Station Manager program unless the data stream generated by the
Network Station application does not match a datastream that your printer
understands. Table 1 describes which data streams the common IBM
Network Station applications produce. If your Network Station application
does not produce a datastream that your printer understands, you must send
the print job to an AS/400 server to transformed it into the datastream of your
choice.
Table 1. Applications and Printer Data Streams
Application
Data streams
5250 Emulator
Postscript, ASCII, PCL
3270 Emulator
Postscript, ASCII, PCL
VTxxx Emulator
ASCII
NC Navigator browser
Postscript
Java Applications
Postscript
Lotus eSuite Workplace
Postscript
For example, in the previous release, you needed a Postscript capable printer
directly attached to your IBM Network Station if you wanted to print from your
NC Navigator browser session. In Release 3, you can continue to print to your
local Postscript printer. Now, you can also route non-Postscript output through
the AS/400 system (V4R2 required) where it is transformed to Postscript and
then routed back to your locally attached Postscript printer. In addition,
assuming the administrator has enabled access to the printer, you can
choose to send the non-Postscript output to a network printer located on your
network.
For comprehensive information on configuring and utilizing printers with your
IBM Network Stations, refer to the manual, IBM Network Station Manager
Installation and Use, SC41-0664 and the redbook, IBM Network Station
Printing Guide, SG24-5212. Both of these technical publications can be
viewed online at the Web site at: as400service.ibm.com
16
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Important
Transforming print jobs requires OS/400 Version 4 Release 2 or later.
Because the host print transform takes place on the server, the AS/400
system resources are utilized.
1.2.9 ICA Client Protocol
In addition to the previously available X11 protocol support, Release 3 also
allows you to use the ICA protocol to access Microsoft Windows based
applications running on a server. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture)
is a general purpose presentation services protocol that provides access to
Windows based applications; ICA also provides support for low bandwidth
connectivity.
If any of your IBM Network Station users requires access to Windows based
programs like personal productivity applications, a multi-user NT server
solution, such as Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Terminal Server Edition and
Citrix MetaFrame must be used.
IBM Network Stations booting from an AS/400 with Release 3 of IBM Network
Station Manager installed continues to access Windows applications running
on a multi-user NT 3.5.1 based WinCenter Pro solution provided by Network
Computing Devices (NCD) Incorporated. If you use the t Windows NT Server
4.0, Terminal Server Edition and Citrix MetaFrame products, your IBM
Network Station users can access WIndows-based applications using the ICA
(Independent Computer Architecture) protocol (see Section 1.2.9, “ICA Client
Protocol” on page 17 for more information on ICA). You can use the
WinCenter for MetaFrame product from Network Computing Devices, Inc.
(when available) if you want to continue using the X.11 protocol to access
Windows-based applications. The WinCenter for MetaFrame product also
provides increased system administration support. Additional details for these
products are found at their respective Web sites:
• www.ncd.com
• www.microsoft.com
• www.citrix.com
1.2.10 Lotus eSuite Workplace
Lotus eSuite Workplace is an innovative new class of productivity software
designed especially for the network computing environment. The eSuite
Workplace provides users with a simple, intuitive interface to an integrated
Introduction
17
set of Java applets that provide a basic set of functions such as email,
calendar, word processing, spreadsheet, address book and presentation
graphics in a single product. IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400
Release 3 allows you (the system administrator) to easily set the eSuite
Workplace product as the default desktop. The eSuite Workplace (with or
without the IBM Network Station menu bar) can be selected through the IBM
Network Station Manager program by changing a setting in the Startup
Menus setup task. An IBM Network Station Series 1000 with 64 MB is
required to use Lotus eSuite Workplace. If the system that used to serve
eSuite Workplace to the IBM Network Station Series 1000s is an AS/400
system, it must have the following installed:
•
•
•
•
OS/400 V4R2 OS/400 V4R2 or V4R3 & latest CUM Tape
5769-JV1 - AS/400 Developer Kit for Java
5648-C05 - IBM Network Station Manager Release 3.0
PTF SF49066 (5769-SS1 V4R2 only) for Security enhancements
Additional installation information on Lotus eSuite Workplace can be found in
the readme documents located on the Web site:
service.boulder.ibm.com/nc/as400/index.html
1.2.11 JVM 1.1.4 and JIT
In previous releases of IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400, a Java
Virtual Machine is included with Release 3. However, in this release of IBM
Network Station Manager for AS/400, an updated Java Virtual Machine (JVM
1.1.4) is included. To improve performance, the Just-In-Time (JIT) Compiler
allows an application's or applet's Java bytecode to be compiled as it is
downloaded into the IBM Network Station Series 1000. Currently, the JIT is
most effective in improving compute-intensive and string manipulation
operations.
1.2.12 NC Navigator Browser Enhancements
Previously, the browser was ordered and installed as a separate product.
However, in Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400, the NC
Navigator browser (40 bit encryption version) is integrated into the base
product. This fully compatible subset of the popular Netscape Navigator 3.0
browser is an upgrade of the existing Navio NC Navigator browser currently
available. This new integrated 40 bit NC Navigator or the separate 128 bit NC
Navigator replaces the earlier Navio NC Navigator in Release 3 of the IBM
Network Station Manager. In fact, the earlier Navio NC Navigator (5648-B10
or 5648-B20) and the IBM Network Station browser (5648-B08 or 5648-B18)
will not run with Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400.
18
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Release 3 also provides a number of other enhancements to the NC
Navigator browser such as:
• Mail client function enables a user to send and receive e-mail using a
POP3 (Post Office Protocol V3) server.
• News Reader function enables a user to read news items on an NNTP
(Network News Transfer Protocol) server.
• The Navigator enables printing to remote printers on the network.
• Localized versions enable French, German, and Korean (in addition to
English) languages.
• The browser enables invoking the 3270 emulator and Telnet from the
browser.
As mentioned previously, if you prefer to use the 128 bit encryption version of
NC Navigator (available only in the United States or Canada), then you must
order it and install it as a separate AS/400 product. The product number for
the 128 bit version of NC Navigator for IBM Network Stations is 5648-C20.
You can order this product by calling 1-800-879-2755 (USA only) and
referring to the CD/publication collection kit SK3T-3020.
1.2.13 Inventory Server for AS/400
The new inventory server allows you to collect information about your IBM
Network Stations. Every IBM Network Station contains a simple network
management protocol (SNMP) agent in its operating system. As a result, an
SNMP manager at a central location can communicate and exchange
information with the IBM Network Station agent. You can use this information
to manage your network environment. SNMP is an industry-standard protocol
for network management.
The AS/400 inventory server collects and stores the hardware information in
a DB2 for AS/400 database. Some examples of the information which can be
collected include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Burnt-in MAC address of the IBM Network Station
IBM Network Station memory size
IP address of the BOOTP or DHCP server
Network Station’s IP address
Network Station network interface type (Ethernet, Token Ring, Twinax)
Boot monitor version installed
For additional information about how to start the inventory server, what data
can be collected, and how it can be retrieved from the database using SQL
statements, refer to the manual IBM Network Station Manager Installation
and Use, SC41-0664. If you want to use SQL queries to retrieve information
Introduction
19
from the database, you must have IBM DB2 Query Manager and SQL
Development Kit for AS/400 installed.
Note
If you decide to use the new separation of servers function, the hardware
inventory server must run on the server providing the Terminal
Configuration server function.
1.2.14 Full-Screen (Kiosk) Solutions Support
In specific environments, you may want the IBM Network Station, after power
is turned, to automatically start up a particular application like 5250 or 3270
emulation without requiring the entry of a user ID and password on the login
display. For example, a public library may want to limit and simplify the user
interface by allowing a user access to only a library book search application
from the IBM Network Station. Another common environment where
full-screen support can be useful is in a shopping mall kiosk.
Although a full-screen solution was feasible with the prior release of IBM
Network Station Manager, it required you to hand edit a number of files and
the login/authentication was bypassed rather than hidden or suppressed.
Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager allows you to suppress the login
and provides an easier implementation because the Network Station
Manager program is primarily used.
Essentially, this solution involves the creation of a special kiosk user ID for
each particular appearance of a full-screen application. The following
full-screen solution applications are supported:
•
•
•
•
•
5250 Emulator
3270 Emulator
PC desktop
Unix Common Desktop Environment
NC Navigator
In addition, these special kiosk user IDs, passwords and the associated IBM
Network Stations IP addresses or names must be placed in an encoded kiosk
user ID file on the server. As a result, when those specified IBM Network
Stations are powered on, the login display is suppressed and the preferences
of the corresponding kiosk user ID are used to automatically bring up the
appropriate full-screen desktop.
20
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Details on implementing full-screen solutions are found online at the Web
site: www.ibm.com/nc/pubs in the Advanced User Information section.
1.2.15 DHCP Support
An AS/400 with TCP/IP and OS/400 Version 4 Release 2 or later installed can
be configured to act as a DHCP server. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol) allows a server to automatically provide IP addresses and
configuration information to clients without needing to manually keep track of
client MAC addresses. (MAC is an acronym for media access control; each
IBM Network Station has a unique burnt-in MAC address.)
Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 provides the support
that allows IBM Network Stations to use an AS/400 DHCP server. Chapter 5,
“Twinax Attachment of Network Stations” on page 127 discusses
implementing twinax IBM Network Stations in an AS/400 DHCP server
environment. For additional information about planning and configuring
DHCP, refer to the redbook, AS/400 TCP/IP Autoconfiguration: DNS and
DHCP Support, SG24-5147, and the manual, TCP/IP Configuration and
Reference, SC41-5420. These manuals are found online at the Web site:
as400service.ibm.com
Important
Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 has increased
memory requirements for the IBM Network Stations. Use the manual, IBM
Network Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664 to estimate and
verify the IBM Network Station memory size required for your environment.
1.3 Local versus Remote Users
Are your users local or remote? A site that is located 500 miles away from
your central AS/400 would be considered remote. However, it is possible that
your friend who works in shipping across the street is really a remote user.
One definition of a remote AS/400 user is someone who is using
communications facilities to connect their workstation to the AS/400 system
rather than directly attaching to the AS/400’s Local Area Network (using token
ring or Ethernet) or to an AS/400 twinax workstation controller.
For example, your friend in shipping across the street may be connected to
the AS/400 over a communications line due to local regulations or other
reasons. In addition, perhaps users attached to the Token Ring LAN in the
Introduction
21
headquarters building one block away are actually remote since that Token
Ring LAN is connected to the AS/400 LAN through a remote bridge. As you
can see, it is very important to understand your existing network. If a current
network diagram does not already exist, it is very important to create one
before implementing network computers.
Sample network diagrams are found throughout other chapters in this
redbook. In addition, other manuals which contain TCP/IP planning
information, including sample network diagrams, are the following:
• TCP/IP Fastpath Setup, SC41-5430
• TCP/IP Configuration and Reference, SC41-5420 (see Chapter 3
"Configuring TCP/IP" for a sample network diagram)
• IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664 (see the
Chapter 1 topic "What Do I Need to Know About TCP/IP Networks" for
sample network diagrams)
1.4 Initialization Options for Remote Sites
As previously mentioned, IBM Network Stations can be locally attached to an
AS/400 boot server using Token Ring, Ethernet or twinax connectivity. In fact,
some of you may already have locally attached IBM Network Stations in your
enterprise. In addition, you may also have users in remote sites who could
benefit from having IBM Network Stations. You may be wondering how to best
implement them in your remote sites. Although it is technically possible to
boot remote IBM Network Stations over a wide area network, it is not
advisable to do because boot up time can range from 10 to 20 minutes over a
56 KB connection. (Remember, the operating system kernel and other files
are being downloaded from the boot server to the IBM Network Station.)
Therefore, we recommend that you boot remote IBM Network Stations from a
remote boot server, through local Flash card peer boot or through the new
IBM 2212 Access Utility solution. Each of these options are outlined in the
following sections and the remote boot server and local Flash card peer boot
options are discussed in subsequent chapters. The 2212 Access Utility was
not yet available when this redbook was being written. Therefore, a chapter
detailing its implementation could not be included. However, an IBM redbook
discussing the IBM 2212 Access Utility is planned for availability in 1999.
1.4.1 Remote Boot Servers
One of the advantages of the IBM Network Station is that it can boot from a
properly configured AS/400, RS/6000, S/390, or PC (NT) server. As a result,
a potential boot server may already exist at your remote site. For example,
22
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
you may have already installed or plan to install distributed AS/400 systems in
some or all of your remote sites for various reasons. These remote AS/400
systems can provide users with local access to applications like Domino and
also act as a boot server.
A remote AS/400 boot server option is one which provides a high degree of
flexibility and function for the current andl future needs of your remote users .
However, as with any installation, time and effort is required to plan for and
implement these remote boot and application servers. The level of effort
varies, depending on the number of remote sites, how autonomous the sites
are, and the applications deployed.
In determining whether a remote boot server is the right solution for your
remote IBM Network Station end users, consider the following items:
• Is there an AS/400 system or other system capable of being a boot server
in the remote site?
If you have a system at a remote site, is it capable of running IBM Network
Station Manager for AS/400 Release 3?
For example, an AS/400 system at V3R7 or later can run Release 3 but
several functions such as DHCP support and print transformation require
V4R2. In addition, OS/400 V3R2 systems can only run Release 2.5 of IBM
Network Station Manager for AS/400. Therefore, all of the new R3
enhancements, like separation of servers and group support, are not
available. In addition, do you already have TCP/IP installed and configured
in your remote site? As expected, implementing TCP/IP requires planning
and effort. For several good resources to start with, refer to the manuals
TCP/IP Fastpath Setup, SC41-5430 and the IBM Network Station Manager
Installation and Use, SC41-0664.
• If there is a potential boot server at the remote site, is it already fully
utilized?
Perhaps you already have an AS/400 system at your remote site that will
soon be upgraded to V4R2 and you need to add 20 new IBM Network
Station users who primarily need access to new AS/400 based
applications. You need to determine whether the existing AS/400 system is
already running at capacity (for example, disk and CPU) to see whether it
can handle the 20 new IBM Network Station users. Depending on your
environment, you may be using the Performance Tools/400 product to
gather performance data and then using the BEST/1 capacity planning
tool. In addition to the potential TN5250 load of the new users, you should
also consider that some AS/400 CPU is needed during the initialization of
the IBM Network Stations. However, due to their low power requirements,
Introduction
23
the general recommendation is to leave the IBM Network Stations
powered on. Therefore, the AS/400 CPU required for Network Station boot
up will most likely be needed only occasionally. On the other hand, your
site may have different policies or habits regarding the powering off of
desktop workstations on a daily or weekly basis. In these cases, it is more
critical to have adequate CPU to handle the more frequent IBM Network
Station initialization. Refer to Section 2.4, “Capacity” on page 37 for
additional details about capacity planning.
• Are you already considering deploying remote application servers? If yes,
are they capable of being boot servers?
If you are planning on installing remote application servers for Domino or
other applications, the same sort of considerations as mentioned
previously, also apply here. For example, will you have TCP/IP and
(preferably) OS/400 V4R2 or later installed on the remote AS/400? In
addition, capacity needs for the IBM Network Station users should be
considered. Will the users need to access AS/400 systems or other
systems across the network. If so, is your network already TCP/IP
capable?
• Does your organization have the necessary skills (either centrally or at the
remote site) to install and maintain remote boot servers?
Although the AS/400 system is well known for its ease of use and is ideally
suited for use as a distributed system, consideration must be given to how
the remote system will be installed and maintained. For example, do you
have available skilled resource, either centrally or remotely located, to
install the systems initially and provide ongoing support? Although a near
lights out operational environment in your remote sites can be achieved,
skilled resources at your central site will be required. In addition, outside
help from sources like IBM Global Services or IBM Business Partners is
also available to provide assistance during initial installation or ongoing
maintenance.
• Is your network already TCP/IP?
If your network is already TCP/IP capable, much of the necessary initial
TCP/IP planning has already been accomplished. However, it may be that
your central site is SNA only, but your remote site system is using TCP/IP
so that IBM Network Stations can be used. If your users at the remote site
are using applications located only on the remote system, then one key
consideration is how to best facilitate central help desk personnel in
supporting these new remote IBM Network Station users. For example, in
the case where the centralized help desk is on an SNA only network, a
centralized help desk person does not have the ability to directly telnet into
the remote AS/400 system or into the IBM Network Station’s User
24
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Services Console log. As an alternative, Display Station Passthru can be
used to sign on to the remote AS/400 system and then a native AS/400
Telnet session can be used to view the Network Station User Services
Console.
An example of a remote boot server environment is shown in Figure 5. In this
scenario, the TCP/IP network is comprised of a central site AS/400 in
Chicago, two remote sites with AS/400s and a mixture of PCs and IBM
Network Stations. The central site in Chicago and the remote site in Boston
are connected through routers across a wide area network. However, a PPP
(point-point protocol) is used to connect the Seattle AS/400 system to the
central site AS/400 system and network in Chicago. (PPP requires OS/400
V4R3 and V4R2 or later allows the AS/400 system to provide routing
functions.) For the Seattle AS/400 system to provide routing functions for the
other devices on its network, its TCP attributes had to be changed using the
Change TCP/IP Attributes (CHGTCPA) command and specifying *YES for the
IP Datagram Forwarding parameter.
10.1.1.35
......
10.1.1.36
10.1.1.7
10.1.1.6
10.1.1.2
AS4CHI
Chicago
10.1.1.40
......
10.1.1.3
Router
AS4BOS
(PPP)
AS4SEA
Router
10.2.1.2
10.2.1.3
10.3.1.2
10.2.1.19
Seattle
Boston
......
10.3.1.24
10.3.1.4
......
10.2.1.6
10.2.1.18
Figure 5. Remote Boot Servers Example
Please refer to Chapter 4, “Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers” on page
107 for additional information on the remote boot server option.
Introduction
25
1.4.2 IBM 2212 Nways Access Utility
The new IBM 2212 Access Utility which was announced on September 22,
1998, is a multi-services networking device that provides more versatility,
integrated functions and performance than a fixed function router or remote
access server. This product offers the combined functions of a router, remote
access server, Virtual Private Network Server and boot server in a cost
effective, single box solution. The planned general availability for the IBM
2212 Access Utility was November 13, 1998. The IBM 2212 Access Utility is
supported by the IBM Access Integration Services (AIS) Version 3.2 which
was built using the same solid software base used by the IBM 2210 Nways
Multiprotocol Router and IBM 2216 Nways Multiaccess Connector. The IBM
2212 and AIS V3.2 offer many features including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Comprehensive multiprotocol routing
Security services
Virtual Private Network (VPN) support
Integrated boot server support for IBM Network Stations
Up to 9 autosensing 10/100 Mbps Ethernet or 16Mbps Token Ring ports
Up to 20 WAN ports supporting Frame Relay, ISDN, PPP, X.25, leased
lines, channelized T1/E1 and X.25
• ISDN Basic Rate and Primary Rate interface
Given the purpose of this redbook, the most significant feature of the IBM
2212 Access Utility is its fully integrated Thin Server Feature which provides
boot server support for IBM Network Stations. Using the IBM 2212 Access
Utility as both a router for Internet and intranet access, as well as a local boot
server can provide you with more efficient service to the IBM Network
Stations and cost savings over the purchase of two separate devices. The
IBM 2212 Access Utility is particularly well suited for the AS/400 environment
for use at both central and remote sites because of its combined functions. In
addition to providing Internet and intranet access and acting as a boot server,
other 2212 Access Utility functions include IP routing, VPN support and
comprehensive SNA and APPN features.
The IBM 2212 Access Utility is modular in design and comes in two standard
model offerings, the model 40F or 40H. The Model 40H is recommended
when using the Thin Server Feature (TSF) because it comes with a standard
3.2GB hard disk and is pre-loaded with the Enterprise software package
which includes the Thin Server feature. The Thin Server Feature of the IBM
2212 Access Utility allows IBM Network Stations to obtain most of its boot
code from the IBM 2212 Access Utility and only a small amount of data needs
transporting across the wide area network infrastructure.
26
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
A major advantage of this remote site solution is that there is minimal setup
and maintenance required in comparison to the remote boot server option. In
addition, unlike the Flash boot option, the boot files located on the IBM 2212
are automatically updated when necessary. Also, keep in mind that this
device provides router and remote access functions, as well as the boot
server function. However, we recommend that no more than thirty IBM
Network Stations be active at one time. Alternatively, an appropriately sized
remote AS/400 boot server using the subnet broadcast boot can handle
significantly more than thirty IBM Network Stations.
An example showing the use of the IBM 2212 Access Utility is shown in
Figure 6. In this example scenario, the central site AS/400 system in San
Diego already has a number of IBM Network Stations booting from it, as well
as attached personal pomputers. In addition, a new remote branch in Raleigh
is opened and the IBM 2212 Access Utility Model 40H and its Thin Server
Feature is used to boot the attached IBM Network Stations at the remote site.
These IBM Network Station users can then use 5250 emulation to access the
central site AS/400 system as well as any of the other native IBM Network
Station applications like 3270, VTxxx emulation or the NC Navigator browser.
10.1.1.75
10.1.1.55
10.1.1.76
10.1.1.98
....
.....
10.1.1.51
Router
10.1.1.50
San Diego
AS/400
IBM 2212
Access Utility
10.2.1.1
.....
10.2.1.10
10.2.1.11
10.2.1.25
Raleigh
Figure 6. IBM 2212 Access Utility
Introduction
27
For additional information about planning for, and implementing the IBM 2212
and the Thin Server Feature, refer to the manuals: IBM 2212 Access Utility
Introduction and Planning Guide, GA27-4215, and IBM 2212 Access Utility
Installation and Initial Configuration Guide, GA27-4216. These manuals are
available online at the Web site: www.networking.ibm.com/did/2212bks.html
In addition, as mentioned previously, a future IBM redbook discussing the IBM
2212 Access Utility is planned for availability in 1999.
1.4.3 Flash Memory Card Boot
Another option available to you for small remote sites is to use local Flash
Memory Cards. The Flash Memory Card enhancement for IBM Network
Station Manager, Release 3, allows you to store the IBM Network Station
operating system and applications on certain third-party Series D Type II
PCMCIA memory cards and boot a remote IBM Network Station locally.
Linear Series C cards are also supported but these are limited in size to
10MB, whereas the Series D cards are available in a range of sizes up to 32
MB and in the near future will most likely support 40MB.
IBM has tested PCMCIA memory cards from both Centennial Technologies
and Simple Technology. After you obtain a new Flash card, it must first be
formatted and then files can be copied to it. The IBM Network Station's
NVRAM is then changed to indicate that the Network Station is to boot itself
from this local media. Details on this procedure are discussed in Section
3.3.10.2, “Modifying the NVRAM Configuration for Local Boot” on page 91.
In addition to the (mandatory) operating system, the code to be booted can
include any of the optional software modules for the IBM Network Station
such as emulators, browser, ICA client, window manager, JVM, and fonts. In
addition, the Flash card may contain user Java applications. One of the first
steps is to determine which files you want to place on the card and what size
Flash memory card you will need. Also, consider that separate files are
sometimes required for the Series 1000 models. Therefore, if you intend to
peer boot a mixture of Series 1000 and other models, you will need both sets
of files and the card size approximately doubles. We highly recommend you
place larger, more stable files on the card and let other smaller files, such as
configuration preference files, download from the server across the network.
The local Flash card and peer boot solution is normally less expensive than
the other solutions. However, a maximum of 10 IBM Network Stations booting
from a peer IBM Network Station have been tested by IBM. In addition, after
selecting the files to put on the card, you must manually maintain the Flash
28
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
cards because there is currently no automated way of keeping the files on the
Flash card and the server synchronized.
For ordering and other information about obtaining Flash memory cards,
software, and documentation necessary to use this functional enhancement,
please contact your IBM representative or an IBM Business Partner and refer
to PRPQ P97000, 5799-GEB, Feature Number 4002. In addition, unless you
have one of the few early Ethernet IBM Network Stations which shipped with
a PCMCIA slot, you must purchase a PCMCIA Adapter option for your Series
1000. This chargeable PCMCIA Adapter (part number 07L8336) option can
be ordered by contacting your IBM representative or an IBM Business
Partner. Additional details on the PCMCIA Adapter option and using Flash
memory cards can be found online at the Web site:
www.pc.ibm.com/networkstation/solutions/product.html
Note
If a boot server capable system exists in your remote sites, give careful
consideration to using it rather than a Flash card solution due to the
non-automated maintenance nature of Flash cards.
A peer boot scenario in which Flash memory cards are used is shown in
Figure 7 on page 30. As shown, the central location consists of an AS/400,
S/390 and RISC/6000 systems, which are connected to a remote location
across a wide area network link. In this case, one of the remote IBM Network
Stations has a Flash memory card inserted into it which contains the
operating system kernel and the executable modules required for the native
5250, 3270 and VTxxx emulators. This Flash card is used to boot the Network
Station it is inserted in and any other Network Stations at the remote site on
that subnet. However, after user authentication is done by the central site
AS/400, user preferences, fonts and other more volatile data is downloaded
from the central site. Please refer to Chapter 3, “Using Flash Cards with the
Network Station” on page 63 for a comprehensive discussion of Flash card
scenarios.
Introduction
29
Central AS/400
Flash Card Enabled
IBM Network Station
Central S/390
Code sourced from
flash card enabled
Network Station
Remote
Location
Central Location
WAN Link
Central RS/6000
Peer Boot
IBM Network Station
Figure 7. Remote Site - Flash Memory Card Peer Boot Example
1.4.4 Network Station Terminology
The following are definitions of terms that are used throughout this redbook.
Kernel (or operating system)
Both terms are used to refer to the IBM Network Station operating
system which consists of a small, multi-tasking, UNIX-derivative
kernel. It provides X Window support and also recognizes a limited
set of commands to run built-in applications. Numerous extensions
and libraries provide modular functionality for emulators, browser,
console, ICA client, and so on.
Flash memory cards
PCMCIA cards which normally vary in memory capacity sizes from
8MB to 32 MB (or 40MB in the near future). These cards can be
loaded with the IBM Network Station operating system kernel, files,
and applications. They are also often referred to as Flash, Flash
memory or Flash card.
Flash boot (or Flash memory boot)
Normally used interchangeably to refer to the process of loading an
IBM Network Station from a PCMCIA Flash memory card.
Peer boot
Process through which an IBM Network Station containing a loaded
Flash memory card can be used to boot other IBM Network Stations
on its own subnet network.
30
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Split boot
Refers to the use of the Release 3 separation of servers function to
split or separate functions that occur during the boot up or
initialization of the IBM Network Station. For example, an IBM
Network Station could obtain its operating system kernel from a
base code server and obtain other files, preferences and
applications from another boot server.
Introduction
31
32
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Chapter 2. Planning Considerations
In this chapter, we discusss the planning considerations for implementing
Network Stations in the AS/400 environment. Implementing Network Stations
can vary from very simple transitions from non-programmable terminals
(NPTs) to network stations with emulation only, to very complex installations
where combinations of NPTs and PCs are migrated to a full function browser
and collaborative environment. Some of the topics we discuss must be
considered for both implementations. Our approach is to ask some basic
questions that you need to answer to fully document your implementation
plan.
2.1 Where You Are Currently
This first question is important: Where are we now? Whether you are the
technical project planner for a multi-national corporation, or the part-time I/T
support specialist on contract to a small business, you need to ask the
following questions:
Current Host Applications (5250, 3270)
What are my current host application?
Define the access requirements that you are currently providing to your
end-users. This helps you plan the desktops on the Network Stations and the
systems to which they will be connected.
Service Levels for these Applications
Do service level agreements exist in your organization?
While you may not have formal arrangements with the end-user departments
you are supporting, but there are implied agreements. For example, the users
expect that the system is always up by 8:00am and available until 7:00pm.
When an end-user powers on a terminal, the sign-on display appears almost
instantly. Existing PC users also have expectations. For example, it takes 20
seconds to boot up Lotus 123 or AmiPro, and file saving is almost
instantaneous.
These end-user expectations must be reset when you embark on your project
to implement Network Stations to replace NPTs and existing PCs. The
following are areas of systems management that must be reviewed as part of
your implementation planning:
• Availability
• Performance
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
33
•
•
•
•
•
Security
Capacity
Operations
Problem
Change Management
Communications Network
How much capacity do you have within your network?
Do you need to increase the capacity to support current and future
requirements of your end-uses ? These items require some detailed
investigation to accurately size the network.
Resource Availability
Are there resources available to support this project?
There is a requirement for skills in networking, host systems, PCs, project
management, system and network sizing. There is also a need for training of
the IT department and end-users.
Future Enhancements
Are there any enhancements required to meet the needs of the business?
Any enhancements should be carefully planned and aligned to defined
business needs. Implementing browser-based or server-based applications is
a complex environment unless you have skilled resources. Consider replacing
the access to an existing application before moving to the a more complex
environment. Then, move to the new environment in phases. This allows you
to analyze the impact on the network and servers without jeopardizing the
service levels of your existing services.
After you have answered the questions, and documented them, you can now
move forward and ask more questions: What are we trying to achieve? How
are we going to get there?
The answer to these questions are driven by the business units. However, not
all the answers are known. There will be a number of iterations of the project
plan before you get something workable. This may seem a large and
extensive piece of work, especially if a project of this size has not been done
before. You will not regret this investment of time later in the project. By
installing Network Stations, you open your NPT users to the world of personal
computing and the Web. You provide access to leading edge applications,
collaboration and stability.
34
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
2.2 What You Are Likely to Have Now
Figure 8 shows examples of network components that may exist in your
organization. We detailed as many example connections as possible
(hopefully not all these examples exist at one time).
AS/400
Router
Local LAN
Local Twinax
Router
Modem
Remote LAN
Modem
Modem
Modem
Local ASCii
5x94
5208/5209
Remote PCs
Remote Host
AS/400, S/390, RS/6000
Remote Twinax
Remote ASCii
Figure 8. Network Components that May Exist in Your Organization
As shown in the example, there are more complex network components, such
as LAN Bridge and Host-to-Host. These types of connection require a higher
level of networking knowledge. However, the planning and installation
concepts are similar to those found in Network Station implementation.
2.3 What You Are Trying to Achieve
The following diagram shows some types of connections you can make with a
Network Station. There is overlap in the methods used. You may not use all of
them.
Planning Considerations
35
AS/400
DHCP Authentication
Server
AS/400
10 users
AS/400
100 Users
50 Users
Flash Card
Figure 9. Network Station Implementation
The best place to start the discussion on these options is at the bottom of
Figure 9. In this scenario, there are 50 users in a stand-alone organization,
which has it’s own I/T function. This is the simplest setup and easiest to
compare with an existing NPT network. All information is stored on the local
AS/400 system. Users have sign on capability to all other AS/400 systems in
the network. Maintenance of these users is performed locally. Customizing is
done in NVRAM, as the users are in easy reach of the IT function. However,
depending on how frequently user requirements or application access
change,s it is better to control configurations centrally. Plan this as though it
were a system replacement. Performance must be considered if the
AS/400system is particularly small. If you are replacing workstations with
twinax attached network stations, do not use broadcast boot.
In the next scenario, there is a small group of 10 users attached to a central
system with no local server capability. This is an example of a potential Flash
card implementation. There are no local servers to hold boot information and
the number of users is small. Provided the users do not have huge Flash
memory requirements, Flash boot is a good choice. Ensure a duplicate Flash
card is sent to the site to reduce the impact of a primary card failure. If Flash
boot is not an option, consider the line speed and the installation of a local
36
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
boot server. A small AS/400 system is a very cost effective solution in
comparison with a local PC server. This system can be managed very
effectively from the central site.
If you look at the 100 users group, there is a local server that can provide boot
information. You do not want to impact its work load. In this scenario, you can
use Broadcast boot. This provides faster bootup, and central management, or
again, you can could implement a small AS/400 system to act as the boot
server.
If you look at the entire diagram as one organization, you can combine all
three methods, depending on your management policies. Management from
the central site is a good solution and this can be achieved very simply. If
there are good AS/400 system, TCP/IP skills, it is possible to introduce a
DCHP server to allow roaming and control the IP addresses (see Chapter 4,
“Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers” on page 107).
2.4 Capacity
When investigating capacity requirements, consider the capacity of the
network, and the utilization of the servers. If the network is old and has limited
capacity, plan to upgrade. When the users realize the functionality delivered
by the Network Station, demands on the network will grow tremendously,
possibly overloading the available bandwidth. The network must be able to
cope with the availability demands of the organization. Backup routes must be
available if one link goes down. A network capacity study is time well spent.
Any network with a mixture of systems and PCs may have a considerable
latent demand.
The servers in the network must have the capacity to support the line of
business applications and the CPU power needed to start up the users during
normal logon and restart after failure. If broadcast boot is an option, then this
reduces the demand on the server. If logon time is critical, consider installing
local boot servers, especially where the network is one of the limiting factors.
Capacity is a very diverse topic and depends on the particular organizational
requirements.
2.5 Performance
Performance information for Releases 1 through 3 for Network Stations
attached to an AS/400 V3R2, V3R7, V4R1 and V4R2 is described in this
Planning Considerations
37
section. The following Network Station functions are included in the
discussion:
• Time to initialize the Network Station (prior to login) for Ethernet,
Token-Ring and twinax
• Time to load the applications (5250 emulation, browser, and so on)
• 5250 application performance
• Browser performance
• Java Virtual Machine (JVM) applet or application performance
• Times for the Network Station Series 100, 300 and 1000
The computer industry has a generic name for the IBM Network Station - the
thin client. Because clients attach to servers, it may seem that an AS/400
server model attached to a Network Station (a thin client) would always be the
best fit (that is, client-to-server). Be cautious when the Network Station is
attached to an AS/400 server model as contrasted to a traditional system
model. When using 5250 applications, the Network Station looks like a
non-programmable terminal (NPT) (such as an interactive job) to the server
and is subject to the AS/400 server interactive rules. Therefore, it may not
always be a good choice. The traditional AS/400 system models with the
Network Station are always a good choice.
2.5.1 Network Station Network Data
Table 2 on page 39 shows the amount of data that flows from the AS/400
system to each Network Station for initialization and each application load.
38
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Table 2. Elements Loaded to a Network Station (MB)
Release
Series
Release 1-2.5
Rel 3
Rel 3 DBCS*
100/300
1000
All
All
Kernel+Configuration
+other
4.0
4.8
3.0
3.9
5250 Emulation
0.9
0.9
1.6
3.8
3270 Emulation
0.3
0.3
0.9
3.2
IBM Network Station
Browser
2.2
2.2
NA
NA
Navio NC Navigator
3.7
3.7
5.0
10.00
Java Virtual Machine
1.5 - 5.0
1.5 - 5.0
1.5 - 5.0
1.5 - 5.0
Note: *DBCS support includes Korean, simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese
Note
The amount of data downloaded may vary, depending on the configuration
selected.
The kernel or configuration data is downloaded when the Network Station is
powered-on. Unless configured otherwise, all other options are downloaded
when they are selected.
When an application (for example, 5250 emulation) is closed or the user logs
out, that application is downloaded again when it is next selected because it
is not kept in memory across log-outs. The kernel or configuration data is kept
in the Network Station across log-outs.
The download data for the Java Virtual Machine varies, depending on the
application. Only the required classes are downloaded.
In Release 3, some of the information that is sent to the Network Station is
compressed. The Network Station decompresses it after it is received. This
compression means fewer bits are shipped from the AS/400 system to the
Network Station, which results in better LAN utilization. More data and
function is shipped to the Network Station in Release 3 than in previous
releases. However, the compression results in boot performance that is about
equal to previous releases.
Planning Considerations
39
Release 3 contains an option, TFTP subnet broadcast, that can significantly
decrease the amount of data transmitted during the boot process, as well as
saving significant CPU cycles in the AS/400 system. This option is described
in more detail in the following sections.
2.5.1.1 IBM Network Station Initialization
Initialization, at this time, is non-trivial and can be a performance concern for
some customers. The time required to initialize the Network Station,
particularly when many Network Stations are initialized simultaneously, can
be prohibitive. In addition, initialization can consume a lot of AS/400 CPU
useage, which may impact other jobs on the AS/400 system.
If possible, it is best to leave the Network Station powered-on after
initialization or to stagger initialization. The IBM Network Station consumes
very little power. If initialization times are a problem and power outages are a
concern, consider battery backups for each IBM Network Station, or server
systems dedicated to initialization.
2.5.1.2 Initialization Mechanisms
Initialization is performed using TCP/IP Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
and AS/400 Remote File System (RFS). Both of these access methods read
files from the AS/400system to the Network Station. For reliability and
performance, both mechanisms subdivide files into blocks for sending, and
then recombine them in the Network Station. The TFTP block size can be
configured as 512 to 8192 bytes. The RFS block size is currently fixed at
8192. TFTP and RFS is used during initialization depending on the
configured initialization options.
There are three possible ways to initialize the Network Station:
• NVRAM
The AS/400 system and Network Station IP addresses and other
information are configured in each Network Station. The Network Station
sends a TFTP request to the configured server to begin initialization.
• BOOTP
The Network Station broadcasts to find a responding AS/400 server. The
AS/400 server is previously configured with the IP address and other
information for each Network Station . After the server receives a
broadcast from a Network Station, it begins the initialization.
• DHCP
The same as BOOTP except the AS/400 server contains a pool of Network
Station IP addresses. BOOTP or DHCP is the preferred method, for
40
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Releases 1 though 2.5. All methods are suitable in Release 3. For
Releases 1 though 2.5, NVRAM uses TFTP to load the
kernel/configuration files and, after login, uses RFS. For Release 3,
NVRAM uses TFTP to load the kernel and RFS for all subsequent files.
BOOTP and DHCP use TFTP to load the kernel and then use RFS to load
all subsequent files.
For Releases 1 though 2.5, the Network Station tries 10 times, with a five
second timeout, to locate and read the kernel using TFTP. After 10 attempts,
an error message is sent. For Release 3, the Network Station can be
configured to try indefinitely to locate and read the kernel.
For Releases 1 though 2.5, if NVRAM is selected, the Network Station reads
the configuration files using TFTP. The Network Station tries 10 times, with a
three second timeout, to read each file. If unsuccessful, it skips that file and
then tries to read the next file, which eventually results in an unsuccessful
initialization. RFS has an infinite retry and does not skip files. From a
reliability perspective, this makes NVRAM, for Releases 1 though 2.5, the
least preferred booting mechanism.
With Network Station Manager Release 3, subnet broadcast is available over
Ethernet, token-ring, and twinax. When this option is selected, TFTP data (for
example, the kernel is about 2MB), is broadcast from the AS/400 server to
any requesting Network Station.That is, the kernel is sent one time so that
each Network Station receives it. When subnet broadcast is off, the kernel is
sent individually to each Network Station, which means a lot more data on the
LAN or twinax. The broadcast is only to a subnet (such as any Network
Station on a single ring, such as 9.5.112.x).
When Network Stations from different subnets request the kernel, the AS/400
server provides a broadcast to each subnet. The data below shows that
subnet broadcast uses less AS/400 CPU. Subnet broadcast is the preferred
boot option (twinax has some special considerations discussed later). There
is a caution, some routers do not support broadcast and broadcast can cause
other problems, if not configured properly.
Subnet broadcast is supported on twinax. Unlike Ethernet and token-ring
protocols, the twinax protocol does not support broadcast. What this means
for twinax, is that, when subnet broadcast is selected, each frame is sent
individually to each device. When all devices are expecting the broadcast,
this option works well (less AS/400 CPU). When all devices are not expecting
the broadcast, this option results in more data on the twinax cable. The
following information shows this. In general, customers should not use subnet
broadcast for twinax.
Planning Considerations
41
Some customers who have Series 1000s have experienced performance
problems. The Series 1000 supports both full duplex and half duplex. In
general, the performance problem is caused by a configuration error. As a
result, the Series 1000 tries to operate in full duplex mode, but a router or
something else in the network supports only half duplex. The Series 1000
almost continuously runs into collisions on the Ethernet, which results in
extremely slow performance.
Some customers, who have Token-Ring network switches that pass 4K
frames, have experienced difficulties. These customers set their LAN frame
size or MTU to a value greater than 8K. In general, these customers used
NVRAM, with a default 1024 TFTP block size. Initialization works fine until
login, when RFS takes over and uses 8K frames. The 8K frames do not pass
through a 4K switch. Some solutions to this problem may be to configure the
switch to allow 8K frames, replace the switch with a router, or configure the
AS/400 LAN frame size/MTU to 4K (twinax is fixed at 4K).
If the network has no Domain Name Server (DNS), performance can be very
slow, since DNS time-outs in the region of 30 seconds occur frequently.
AS/400 V4R2 contains DNS support. If a customer does not wish to use a
DNS, for Release 3, good performance is still possible by performing the
following steps:
1. Enter CFGTCP. Select option 12 (Change TCP/IP domain information). Set
Search priority to *LOCAL.
2. Enter CFGTCP. Select option 10 (Work with TCP/IP host table entries ). Add
the IP address and host name for the AS/400 system and each Network
Station.
3. Using Network Station Manager, select Hardware —> Workstations —>
Domain Name Server. Set Update Network Station Manager DNS file.
The initialization options described in this redbook is adequate for most
customer environments. There are other variations that can occur. For
example, if the customer chooses BOOTP and successfully loads the kernel,
but, for some reason, RFS is not working properly, initialization times out on
RFS and switches back to TFTP. Variations, such as these are not described
in this document. The BOOTP boot sequence is described in greater detail in
the following section.
2.5.1.3 BOOTP Initialization
There are four steps in the BOOTP initialization process. To get a total
initialization time, you need to add together the times from each.
1. Hardware test
42
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
The hardware test is just that, a memory test and other hardware tests to
insure that the Network Station hardware is operational. For the most part,
the length of this test is determined by the amount of memory in the IBM
Network Station.
Table 3. Time (Seconds) to Perform Hardware Test
Memory (MB)
Series 100
Series 300
Series 1000
8
15
14
-
16
18
18
-
32
24
22
10
48
30
26
-
64
36
31
13
2. Kernel or configuration initialization
In this step, the Network Station locates the AS/400 server, reads the
kernel and configuration files, and then displays the login window.
The Network Station broadcasts a BOOTP request to locate the AS/400
server and then the kernel (about 2MB) is read using the TFTP function of
TCP/IP. The configuration files are then read using the Remote File
System (RFS). The time to load the kernel using TFTP is heavily
dependent on:
•
•
•
•
•
TFTP block size
TCP/IP maximum transmission unit (MTU) size
LAN line description frame size
TFTP subnet broadcast option number of TFTP jobs
Number of TFTP jobs
The Network Station negotiates the TFTP block size with the AS/400
server. It can range from 512 to 8192 bytes. The Network Station default is
8192. In general, the Network Station uses the TFTP block size, MTU and
frame size defined by the AS/400 server.
The AS/400 server default TFTP block size is 1024. As shown in the
following tables, best performance is obtained with a large TFTP block size
(such as 8192). If the MTU or frame size is less than 8192 (Ethernet has a
maximum frame size of 1492) performance, can be enhanced by
configuring the block size greater than the MTU or frame size. If the TFTP
block size is greater than the MTU or frame size, TCP/IP fragments
(subdivides) the TFTP blocks to fit into the MTU or frame size. The
Network Station TCP/IP recombines the MTU or frames into TFTP blocks.
This fragmentation provides better performance than setting the TFTP
Planning Considerations
43
block size equal to the MTU or frame size. Users must be aware that some
routers, switches and gateways do not support this fragmentation
capability. Twinax MTU or frame size are fixed. Therefore, fragmentation
does not apply to twinax attached Network Stations.
The number of TFTP jobs on the AS/400 server is also a performance
factor. The optimal number, for a system with a single LAN IOP, is about
six (the default). The TFTP jobs are a pool of AS/400 jobs that download
the kernel to Network Stations. They are on a first come, first serve basis.
If there are more Network Station requests than jobs, the excess is
ignored (not queued). If a request is not satisfied, the Network Station
repeats its request, every five seconds. In general, there should be six
TFTP jobs for each LAN IOP that has attached Network Stations.
The following tables and figures show how the TFTP block size affects the
kernel and configuration initialization time, for a few AS/400 system sizes.
The tables also show what happens when 1, 10, 50, and 100 Network
Stations simultaneously (such as, after a power outage) request TFTP
initialization. The times represent the number of seconds when the last
Network Station completes its TFTP and RFS download. The data in the
following tables was obtained in a dedicated environment. That is, only
BOOTP, TFTP and RFS were running on the AS/400 server and there was
no other load on the LAN. In each test case, the base pool was cleared
before beginning the test.
Important
Results listed here do not represent any particular customer environment.
Actual performance may vary significantly from what is provided here.
Each of the following runs had the following configured:
• 8K Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)
• 8K Frame Size
• 6 TFTP jobs
44
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Table 4. Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time
AS/400 Model F97 (V3R2)
IBM Network Station Series 300 Release 1-2.5
16Mb token-ring
Vary TFTP Block Size
#NS
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
1
109 (5.0)
46 (5.5)
34 (4.2)
29 (2.9)
26 (2.6)
10
225 (27.0
105 (31.0)
77 (26.0)
63 (22.6)
57 (12.2)
50
992 (32.8)
470 (41.7)
327 (30.8)
257 (24.0)
209 (20.1)
100
1885 (35.2)
890 (46.3)
624 (33.6)
503 (25.5)
395 (22.3)
Note: Time in seconds (Average CPU in %)
Table 5. Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time
AS/400 Model 150-2270 (V3R7)
IBM Network Station Series 300 Release 1-2.5
16Mb token-ring
MFIOP Vary TFTP Block Size
#NS
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
1
85 (23.3)
35 (28.6)
31 (22.0)
27 (16.3)
26 (14.8)
10
229 (87.8
126 (82.2)
83 (72.9)
63 (63.4)
55 (53.6)
50
1065(94.2)
565 (95.0)
347 (92.0)
234 (87.6)
193 (77.6)
100
2075 (97.5)
1119
(97.0)
682 (94.5)
448 (92.5)
352 (88.1)
Note: Time in seconds (Average CPU in %)
Planning Considerations
45
Table 6. Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time
AS/400 Model 510-2144 (V3R7)
IBM Network Station Series 300 Release 1-2.5 2619
16Mb token-ring
IOP Vary TFTP Block Size
#NS
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
1
71 (9.8)
59 (7.4)
52 (6.4)
46 (5.8)
43 (5.2)
10
169 (39.3)
117 (30.3)
81 (26.1)
65 (21.2)
62 (17.3)
50
790 (44.5)
451 (42.5)
361(32.6)
265 (28.7)
209 (27.0)
100
1526 (47.3)
875 (45.2)
667 (35.7)
498 (31.7)
384 (30.5)
Note: Time in seconds (Average CPU in %)
Table 7. Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time
AS/400 Model S30-2257 (V4R1}
IBM Network Station Series 300 Release 1-2.5 2629 1
6Mb token-ring
LAN IOP Vary TFTP Block Size
#NS
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
1
96 (1.8)
41 (4.3)
33 (4.5)
30 (3.7)
29 (3.6)
10
182 (14.4)
73 (16.4)
56 (12.7)
52 (8.9)
39 (8.5)
50
735 (18.9)
279 (24.9)
201 (20.2)
146 (17.5)
127 (15.3)
100
1382 (20.2)
513 (27.7)
357 (23.2)
272 (20.0)
244 (16.6)
Note: Time in seconds (Average CPU in %)
46
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Table 8. Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time
AS/400 Model 400-2132
IBM Network Station Series 300 Release 1-2.5 2629
10MB Ethernet
LAN IOP Vary TFTP Block Size
#NS
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
1
76 (35.6)
53 (26.3)
45 (19.8)
39 (17.7)
34 (15.5)
10
280 (90.2)
167 (82.0)
110 (72.6)
83 (63.7)
67 (55.7)
50
1311 (97.5)
745 (93.8)
467 (88.6)
321 (82.1)
277 (69.3)
100
2691
(97.82)
1466 (96.9)
895 (93.4)
623 (86.7)
540 (73.1)
Note: Time in seconds (Average CPU in %)
Table 9. Kernel/Configuration Initialization Time
AS/400 Model 400-2132 (V4R1)
IBM Network Station Series 300 Release 3
All NSs attached to a single twinax adapter
Vary twinax Adapter type, subnet broadcast and TFTP block size
Vary Twinax
#NS
6050
without
subnet
8K TFTP
6180 with
subnet
1K TFTP
6180
without
subnet
1K TFTP
6180 with
subnet
8K TFTP
6180
without
subnet
8K TFTP
1
107 (8.5)
114 (22.0)
116 (22.1)
87 (14.5)
82 (13.3)
2
173
155
133
90
85
3
225
165
154
106
98
4
275
168
159
121
116
5
325
186
178
142
139
6
388
201
199
155
157
7
446 (16.4)
225 (33.6)
221 (70.0)
171 (28.8)
162
(37.5)
Note: Time in seconds (Average CPU in %)
Planning Considerations
47
Note
Notice that subnet broadcast uses less AS/400 CPU. However, as
discussed previously, each twinax device on the subnet gets their own
copy of the broadcast data, even if they did not request it, which would
mean unwanted data on the twinax cable. In general, you should not use
twinax subnet broadcast. Subnet broadcast should be used on LANs.
In Table 9, the Network Stations are all chained to a single cable port. For
the 6180 adapter, faster times can be obtained if the Network Stations are
balanced across cable ports, with half on ports 0 through 3 and the other
half on ports 4 through 7. For example, in Table 10 on page 49, six
Network Stations with an 8K TFTP block size, without subnet broadcast,
booted in 157 seconds. If they were balanced, three on port 0 and two on
port 4, the initialization time would be 130 seconds or 17% faster.
If a Network Station has multiple paths, with the same network address, to
an AS/400 (such as, two IOPs that each have a path to the Network
Station), unexpected results can occur. Whenever the AS/400 server gets
a request from a Network Station, it uses the default path to get back to
the requesting Network Station. The return route (and any subsequent
request or replies) can be different from the original request. This implies
that there is no value to add a second IOP with the same network address
to gain additional TFTP performance.
TFTP jobs are assigned on a first come, first serve basis. There is no
mechanism to allocate a TFTP job to a particular IOP. This implies that it is
possible for Network Stations attached to one network to monopolize all
the TFTP jobs until completion of the kernel download. Other IBM Network
Stations can starve until a TFTP job is available.
3. Login
Login is just that, users enters their user ID and password and then the
desktop appears.
The load times can be found in the Table 10 on page 49.
4. Application Load
Applications are loaded when their respective desktop buttons are
selected. Load times vary by AS/400 machines size.
Getting to a 5250 sign-on display can require two steps:
a. From the menu bar, select the 5250 button to get to the host name
window.
48
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
b. Enter the desired host name to get to the 5250 sign-on window. Most
administrators use the Network Station Manager to configure for direct
menu bar to 5250 sign-on.
5. Getting to the browser is a single step. From the menu bar, select the
Browse button to get to the NC Navigator browser.
Examples of load times can be found in the following tables.
Table 10. Load Times (Seconds)
AS/400 Models 150-2270 and S10-2144 (V3R7)
IBM Network Station Series 100 and 300 Releases 1-2.5
2619 16MB Token-Ring LAN IOP
Processor/NS Model
2270/100
2270/300
2144/100
2144/300
User ID/password to
desktop
10
10
15
11
5250 select to host name
9
6
10
7
Host name to 5250 login
6
6
12
11
33
16
41
22
Browser select to browser
Table 11. Load Times (Seconds)
AS/400 Models 400-2132 (V4R2))
IBM Network Station Series 300 Releases 3
eSuite is IBM Network Station Series 1000 Release 3
Twinax or Ethernet Adapter
6050
6180
2629
2629 DBCS*
User ID/password to
desktop
30
27
18
23
5250 select to host name
57
33
10
19
Host name to 5250 login
15
21
12
14
169
131
41
52
-
-
175
-
Browser select to browser
eSuite to eSuite
Note: * DBCS support includes Korean, simplified Chinese, and Traditional Chinese
In this subnet broadcast example, assume 100 Series 300 Network
Stations attached to an AS/400 V4R2 2132 using a single 10Mb Ethernet
Planning Considerations
49
segment. Assume the electricity on all 100 Networks Stations goes out
and some time later it comes back on. Assume the Network Stations all
have the same memory size (for example, 32MB) and identical monitors
attached. It is possible for all 100 to be at the Login window in 280
seconds (less than five minutes). The 280 seconds comes from: 21
seconds for hardware test, 30 seconds to load the kernel, and 229
seconds to load configuration files.
2.5.1.4 AS/400 5250 Applications
The Network Station user should see 5250 applications almost exactly as
they were on the NPT or PC terminals. However, the load on the AS/400
server may be different. Network Stations use the AS/400 TCP/IP TELNET
path. TELNET consumes 27% more CPU time per transaction than an NPT
attached to a local twinax for a typical commercial workload. This yields a
20% capacity reduction over a twinax attached NPT. For comparison, a
Client/Access PC using 5250 over SNA, when using the same workload,
consumes 10% more CPU time per transaction than a local twinax attached
NPT.
The implication is that customers migrating from local twinax attached NPTs
to LAN attached Network Stations will probably use more CPU to run the
same 5250 applications. Customers migrating from LAN attached SNA
Client/Access PCs will also probably use more CPU. Customers migrating
from LAN attached TCP Client/Access PCs should need no additional CPU
capacity to run their 5250 applications.
2.5.1.5 Browser
In general, the Series 100, 300 and 1000 all perform equally well. Their
performance should be comparable to that seen on a PC.
It is important that either SOCKS or Proxy are configured, but not both. Poor
performance is seen when both are used.
2.5.1.6 Java Virtual Machine Applets and Applications
Java is still evolving. As such, its use on a Network Station is also evolving.
The Series 100 clearly should not be used for Java. The Series 300, while
twice as fast as the 100, can be used for very limited Java applets. The Series
1000 is for Java; however, since Java has varied uses, customers are
encouraged to test their Java applications on the Series 1000 before putting
them into production.
50
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
2.5.1.7 The AS/400 as a Router
The AS/400 is a router (data passes though it) when twinax attached Network
Stations send or receive data from the Internet or other servers. At this time,
limited performance data is available. The following two tables show results
when data is read from an NT server through an AS/400 system to a Network
Station.
Table 12. Load times (Seconds )
AS/400 Model 400-2132 (V4R2)
IBM Network Station Series 300 Release 3, using 10MB Ethernet to AS/400
300Mhz PC NT server using 16MB TR to AS/400
2628 LAN IOPs, 15MB of data. 8K TFTP block
#NS
Time
(sec)
AS/400 Util
(%)
AS/400 Throughput
(KB/s)
1
44
11.2
340.9
2
48
16.9
625.0
3
57
18.1
789.5
4
71
25.7
845.1
5
90
24.4
833.3
10
158
29.9
949.4
15
232
34.9
969.8
Planning Considerations
51
Table 13. LAN to Twinax Throughput
AS/400 Model 400-2132 (V4R2)
IBM Network Station Series 300 Release 3, using Twinax to AS/400
300Mhz PC NT server using 16MB TR to AS/400
2629 LAN IOP, 6180 Twinax Adapter, 2MB of data. 8K TFTP block
#NS
Time
(sec)
AS/400 Util
(%)
AS/400 Throughput
(KB/s)
1
33
9.9
70.1
2
48
9.9
96.4
3
109
10.3
63.7
4
127
10.5
72.9
5
150
11.1
77.1
6
213
11.0
65.2
2.6 Performance Conclusions
The Network Station provides for an excellent working environment. In
general, the Network Station 1000 performs better than the 300, which
performs better than the 100. The following section discusses the
performance of the Network Stations.
Initialization
This section provides the initialization time conclusions for the Network
Servers:
• The Network Station Series 1000 initialization time is about the same as
the 300, except for hardware test, where the 1000 is faster. The 300 is
faster than the 100.
• If possible, consider a boot server for each ring or Ethernet.
• For Releases 1 though 2.5, use BOOTP or DHCP. Do not use NVRAM.
Implementations using BOOTP and DHCP are faster and more reliable.
For Release 3, all three initialization mechanisms are equal in reliability
and performance. BOOTP is slightly (1to 2 seconds) faster than DHCP.
However, NVRAM is less flexible than DCHP or BOOTP because the
entering of IP addresses at the Network Station itself, is required.
• The time to initialize Network Stations depends on many variables, such
as the size of AS/400 system, TFTP block size, number of attached IBM
52
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Network Stations, LAN utilization, CPU utilization, and so on. I/T Technical
Support Staff must evaluate each project to produce the optimum network
design. We recommend that, when you are building Network Station
solutions, you phase the customer projects to ensure the design meets
expectations with no surprises.
• Initialization time varies from AS/400 model to AS/400 model. In general,
the larger the model, the better the performance. On larger models, the
bottleneck is the LAN IOP and, on smaller models, the bottleneck is CPU
and LAN IOP. The 2629 LAN IOP provides better performance than the
2619.
• 10Mb Ethernet, 100Mb Ethernet and 16Mb token-ring are about equal in
performance within this environment.
• During initialization, CPU utilization can be quite high, especially on the
smaller AS/400 systems, which will impact other jobs. In addition, TFTP
requires more CPU than RFS.
• Subnet broadcast can significantly reduce LAN traffic and AS/400 CPU
utilization. Subnet broadcast is available with AS/400 V4R2 and Network
Station Release 3. If possible, we highly recommend that subnet
broadcast be used. In general, subnet broadcast is not advisable with
twinax, except as discussed earlier.
• The network administer should configure TCP/IP, LAN frame size and
TFTP block size for best performance. In general, the larger the size, the
better the performance.
• For twinax, the 6180 adapter is significantly faster than the 6050. The
6180 is about equal to a 4Mb token-ring.
• Because TFTP selects the path to use, there is no value to add a second
IOP, with the same network address, to a LAN to get better initialization
performance. All Network Stations, from the same network, use the TFTP
selected path.
• It is best to configure six TFTP jobs per LAN that has attached Network
Stations. However, for systems that have multiple LANs, since there is no
way, at this time, to dedicate a TFTP job to a particular LAN, initialization
may not perform as well as desired.
• In general, V4R2 provides better performance than V4R1, which provides
better performance than V3R7. V4R2 contains TCP/IP and IOP LAN
enhancements. In some cases, customers will see substantial
improvements in kernel/configuration initialization. In general, these
improvements will be visible when a single Network Station is initialized
with a small TFTP block size. V4R2 contains RFS enhancements.
Planning Considerations
53
• Release 3 boots about as fast as previous releases, even though more
data and function are sent. Much of the data sent is compressed.
• Switches, routers and gateways can cause problems. Ensure your
Network Administrator is involved in the implementation.
• For 6180 twinax attached Network Stations, best performance is obtained
if all Express Datastream enabled devices are on the same cable,
excluding older, non-Express capable devices.
• When Express devices are attached to a single workstation controller, best
performance is obtained by load balancing those devices. That is, half the
devices should be connected to cable ports 0 through 3, and the other half
should be connected to ports 4 through 7.
5250 Application Performance on the AS/400 System
This section provides the 5250 application performance conclusions for the
Network Servers:
• In general, the 100, 300 and 1000 all perform equally.
• Migrating from LAN attached SNA Client/Access PCs will probably use
more CPU (about 17%) to run the same 5250 applications.
• LAN attached TCP/IP Client/Access PCs will use about the same CPU as
IBM Network Stations when running the same 5250 applications.
• Local twinax attached NPTs to IBM Network Stations migration will
probably use more CPU (about 27%) to run the same 5250 applications.
Browsers
This section provides the browser conclusions for the Network Servers:
• In general, the 100, 300 and 1000 all perform equally.
• Poor performance is obtained when both socks and proxy are configured.
Only one should be used.
• Never use disk caching.
Java Virtual Machine
This section provides the Java Virtual Machine conclusions for the Network
Servers:
• The Series 100 should not be used for Java.
• The Series 300 can be used for limited, lightweight Java.
• The Series 1000 is for Java; however, since Java hasn't fully matured and
can be used for many, varied applications, customers should insure that
their Java application and the 1000 are compatible.
54
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
AS/400 as a Router
Limited data is available. A model 400-2132 is able to route about 970kb/s
from one LAN to another and about 75Kb/s from a LAN to twinax.
2.7 Problem and Change Management
At times, the Network Station operating system may stop unexpectedly with a
PANIC error. One of two symptoms may appear:
• PANIC appears on your Network Station and a > cursor is shown.
• The display turns reverse video (mostly black) and a > cursor is presented.
To recover from such a condition, you can power off and on the Network
Station or if the PANIC error persists can contact IBM support. There are
problem determination tools, available within the Release 3 code of the
Network Station, which an IBM support person can invoke for further problem
determination of the PANIC condition.
2.8 Migration Considerations
If you are upgrading from the 5733A07 (R2.5) to the 5648C05 (R3.0) level of
the IBM Network Station Manager licensed program, consider the following
items:
• New Boot Monitor Code:
The boot monitor code in Release 3 contains new functions. We
recommended that you update the boot monitor code on each of your
Network Stations. For instructions on how to update the Boot Monitor
Code, refer to IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use,
SC41-0664.
• NC Navigator:
The IBM Network Station Manager Release 3 licensed program (5648C05)
does not support the IBM browser. When you install Release 3, the 40-bit
NC Navigator automatically installs. The bookmarks that you used with
your IBM browser will be migrated to the new NC Navigator. If your users
were saving both Navio and IBM Network Station bookmarks, the Navio
bookmarks are migrated and the IBM Network Station browser bookmarks
are saved to a file. The save file can then be imported into the NC
Navigator browser. The 128-bit browser (available in the US and Canada)
can be installed after Release 3 is installed successfully. Refer to Chapter
7, “Replicating a Remote Boot Server Environment” on page 213 a known
problem with NC Navigator bookmarks, after migrating to Release 3.
Planning Considerations
55
• Configuration Information and User Data:
Information that has been entered through the IBM Network Station
Manager is migrated. If the configuration files have been manually edited,
you can obtain additional information on how to migrate your configuration
by referring to the Advanced User Information at:
http://www.ibm.com/nc/pubs
2.9 Roaming
With the availability of Release 3 of the IBM Network Station Manager, you
can take advantage of Multiple Server Environments. The servers required for
the Network Station are:
•
•
•
•
BOOTP/DHCP Server
Base Code Server
Terminal Configuration Server
Authentication Server
For example, a user may be accessing one system for the BOOTP, Base
Code and Terminal Configuration Servers. When the Network Station Login
display is presented, the user can click on the ROAM button to enter another
system that has the Authentication server running.
Roaming can also be coupled with load balancing. For further information
about load balancing, refer to IBM Network Station Manager Installation and
Use, SG41-0664.
2.10 Slow Link Boot versus Flash Card Peer Boot
Release 3.0 IBM Network Station Manager has been enhanced to provide
Flash memory card support. This function is available in U.S. English for IBM
Network Stations connected to any of the IBM servers supported by Release
3.0.
Flash memory card support enables the use of a PCMCIA Flash memory
card to boot the IBM Network Station. Because the IBM Network Station has
no disk storage devices, all the software required to make it operational must
be loaded from a server. In environments where there is no local server,
transferring megabytes of code over a WAN (Wide Area Network) can take
several minutes. To reduce the time needed to boot in these environments,
the Network Station operating system and applications can be stored on a
Flash memory card.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Peer boot is a new function that allows multiple IBM Network Stations to boot
from a single Flash card located in a local Network Station. The performance
of Network Stations utilizing peer boot is very acceptable. Up to ten Network
Stations peer booting simultaneously from a single Flash card were tested
with very good results.
Because of the current size limitations of the Flash cards, it is not possible to
store all of the code required to start and operate the Network Station on a
single card. The largest and most static files are placed on the Flash card
such as the kernel and executable modules. User configuration data, fonts
and other slightly more volatile files (files that may change periodically) are
loaded from the central server. Using this split boot technique, the system
administrator can maintain configuration files from a central location using the
IBM Network Station Manager program.
The management of the data on a Flash card is time-consuming and is not
yet automated. There are no tools provided to synchronize the files on the
Flash card with those on the server or even to indicate when the files on the
Flash card are down-level from some designated configuration. In fact, the
files within the Flash card (local) file system, have no timestamps. Therefore,
it is not easy to tell which version of each software module is on the card.
To update the card while it is in the Network Station, it must first be
NFS-mounted to a server and then the new files copied (at two minutes per
Mbyte) to the card. If the link goes down or the card fills up, the card could be
left in a partially-updated state.The Network Station is unusable until a
correctly-formatted card is obtained.
For this reason, when updates are required, we recommend that you send a
new Flash card to the necessary sites. The obsolete cards can be returned,
reformatted, and Flashed again at a central location. This makes the Flash
card very similar to CDROM from the administrator's and user's perspective.
This arrangement works well as long as the environment is rather static and
frequent updates are not required.
2.11 CISC and RISC Co-existence
The IBM Network Station Manager license program for AS/400 V3R2M0 is
5648-B06. All AS/400 internal references to this product, however, are
denoted as 5733-A06. This code runs on CISC AS/400 systems.
There are two different levels of the IBM Network Station Manager license
program that can be installed on AS/400 systems running V3R7M0 and
above. They are the 5648-BOM (5733-AOT in GO LICPGM) (R2.5) and the
Planning Considerations
57
5648-C05 (R3.0) products. It is important to remember that Network Stations
booted from an R3.0 NSM server can assess a V3R2 CISC AS/400 through
5250 Emulation. However, any Network Stations booting from a V3R2 system
does not have the R3.0 enhancements available (for example, roaming
capability, DCHP support, separation of servers, and so on.) because NSM
R2.5 (not R3.0) is supported on V3R2.
Customers running R2.5 should migrate to R3.0 for:
• Support
• Year 2000 certification
• New functions
R2.5 to R3.0 is a seamless migration.
2.12 Printing with Your IBM Network Station
The following sections discuss configuring printers when using the IBM
Network Station.
2.12.1 Configuring Printers on an AS/400 System
You can configure printers for your Network Stations with the IBM Network
Station Manager program unless the datastream generated by the Network
Station application does not match a datastream that your printer
understands. Figure 10 on page 59 describes which datastreams the
common Network Station applications produce. If your Network Station
application does not produce a datastream that your printer understands, you
must send the print job to an AS/400 server. The AS/400 server transforms
the print job into the datastream of your choice.
Note
Transforming print jobs requires OS/400 Version 4 Release 2 or later. For
example, if Network Station A in Figure 10 on page 59 generates a print job
from NC Navigator for Printer 1 (a Printer Control Language (PCL) printer),
the Network Station cannot send its print job directly to the printer. Because
NC Navigator can only generate PostScript (PS) datastreams, the Network
Station must send its print job to the AS/400 server, which will transform the
print job into a PCL datastream. A queue on the AS/400 server then sends
the transformed print job to Printer 1.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 10. Possible Network Station Printing Scenarios
For server-based applications, such as a 5250 application, you must
configure a printer on the server where the application is running. In this
case, think of the Network Station as only a window to the server, in that
server still performs the work. In Figure 10, if Network Station A runs a 5250
session on the AS/400 server and you want to print to Printer 4, you must
create a printer device description on the AS/400 server. The AS/400 server
sends the print job to Printer 4. To create a printing device description on your
AS/400 system, use the Create Printer Device (CRTDEVPRT) command.
For a comprehensive printing information, refer to the IBM Network Station
Printing Guide, SG24-5212.
Planning Considerations
59
2.12.2 Configuring Basic Printer Scenarios
Using Figure 10 as an example, Table 14 explains the basic steps to configure
printers for your Network Stations. Identify the scenario that best meets your
needs and follow the steps to configure your printers.
Table 14. Desired Print Scenarios
Desired Print
Scenario
Print Job Flow
Configuration Instructions
Network Station to
a LAN printer
Network
Station A to
Printer 4
In the Network Station Manager program,
configure an entry in the Remote Printer
Server field for the LAN printer.
Network Station to
a LAN printer with
a different
datastream
Network
Station A to
AS/400 server
to printer 1
On the server that will transform the print job,
create a print device description and queue.
The printer device description must contain
the IP address or host name of the LAN
printer. For more information on configuring
a printer device, review the Create Printer
Device (CRTDEVPRT) command.
In the Network Manager program, configure
an entry in the Remote Printer Server field
with the IP address or host name of the
transform server and its queue name.
Network Station to
a locally attached
printer
Network
Station A to
Printer 6
In the Network Station Manager program,
configure an entry in the Local Parallel
Printer or the Local Serial Printer field,
depending on how the printer connects to
the Network Station.
Network Station to
a locally attached
printer with a
different
datastream
Network
Station B to
AS/400 Server
to Printer 5
On the server that will transform the print
job, create a printer device description and
queue. The printer device description must
contain the IP address or host name of the
Network Station to which the printer is
attached. For more information on
configuring a printer device, review the
CRTDEVPRT command.
In the Network Manager program, configure
an entry in the Remote Printer Server field
with the IP address or host name of the
transform server and its queue name.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Desired Print
Scenario
Print Job Flow
Configuration Instructions
Network Station to
another Network
Station with an
attached printer
Network
Station B to
Network
Station A to
Printer 6
In the Network Manager program, configure
an entry in the Remote Printer Server field
with the IP address of the Network Station to
which the printer is attached. In the Queue
name field, type PARALLEL1 or SERIAL1,
depending on how the printer connects to
the Network Station.
Network Station to
another Network
Station with an
attached printer
and a different
datastream
Network
Station A to
AS/400 Server
to Network
Station B
Printer 5
On the server that will transform the print
job, create a printer device description and
queue.
The printer device description must
contain the IP address or host name of the
Network Station to which the printer is
attached. For more information on
configuring a printer device, review the
CRTDEVPRT command.
In the Network Manager program,
configuration an entry in the Remote Printer
Server field with the IP address or host
name of the transform server and its queue
name.
Network Station to
a server controller
printer
Network
Station A to
AS/400 Server
to Printer 2 or 3
In the Network Manager program,
configure an entry in the Remote Printer
Server field with the host name or IP
address that controls the printer. In the
Queue name field, enter the name of the
queue that controls the printer.
In this scenario, it does not matter if the
datastreams do not match. If you use the
CRTDEVPRT command, the server
automatically transforms the job if
necessary.
2.12.3 Printer Administration Techniques
Administrating a printer environment can be a difficult task. You should create
a printer network diagram. Based on your diagram and printing needs, you
should develop a printing strategy. Under the right conditions, Network
Stations can print to most types of printers.
Planning Considerations
61
One technique is to have a server control the printers for your Network
Stations. In Figure 10 on page 59, the AS/400 server can control a LAN
printer, such as Printer 4. If Network Station A and B always sent their print
jobs to the AS/400 server, the AS/400 server can control the flow of print jobs
to the printer. This scenario reduces the work load on the Network Stations
when the printer’s buffer is full because the AS/400 server can negotiate print
jobs with the printer. However, handling these print jobs can likely draw on the
central processing unit (CPU) of the AS/400 server. This technique can
hinder the server’s performance depending on the size and frequency of your
print jobs. Because you can send the print job from a Network Station, to a
server, and then to a printer, this technique also increase network traffic.
A server that controls your Network Station printing is also advantageous in
an environment with mixed printer datastreams. Because Network Station
applications only generate certain datastreams, you may have to send print
jobs to a server, where the print job can be transformed into a datastream that
your printer understands. Depending on which application generates the job,
you may need to transform your print jobs. This can require more
administration in the Network Station Manager program and on the server.
Your end users also need to have a better understanding of printing and
networking. To eliminate confusion, consider sending all print jobs to the
server, regardless of whether the job needs to be transformed. In the end,
you will have fewer printer entries in the Network Station Manager program
and fewer printer device descriptions on the server.
When you have a server that controls the printers for your Network Stations,
you perform less administration, but you sacrifice performance. When a
server controls your print jobs, its CPU works harder, possibly slowing
performance. Your end users will notice that it takes longer for them to receive
their printouts. If you set up your printing strategy to allow your Network
Stations to send their jobs directly to the printer (whenever datastream
transformation is unnecessary), you can reduce printing time. Because the
print job goes directly to the printer, your server does not carry the load of
controlling print jobs. Sending your print jobs directly to the printer also
reduces the chance of the server misinterpreting your print job. When a
server misinterprets a print job, the job may become lost or damaged.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Chapter 3. Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
This chapter outlines the Flash card support for the IBM Network Station,
describes how they work with the IBM Network Station, when they should be
used and what the limitations are.
Release 3.0 of the IBM Network Station Manager has been enhanced to
provide Flash memory card support. This function is available in U.S. English
for IBM Network Stations connected to any of the IBM servers supported by
Release 3.0.
All the software required to make it operational must be loaded from a server
because the IBM Network Station has no disk storage devices. In
environments where there is no local server, transferring megabytes of code
over a Wide Area Network (WAN) can take 10-20 minutes over a 56kbps line.
In order to reduce the time needed to boot in these environments, the
Network Station operating system and applications can be stored on a
PCMCIA Flash memory card.
Even at larger sites with servers already in place, there may be concerns
about server and network loading after a power failure or first thing in the
morning when many Network Stations are powered on at once. Servers are
very often mission-critical resources. Some customers are reluctant to use
them for other purposes which may put unpredictable loads on the server or
require excess server capacity that is seldom used, such as after a power
failure.
However, if a local server is available at the remote site, it should be used
instead of implementing Flash boot technology. Local servers do not have the
manageability limitations of Flash boot. These limitations are explained in this
chapter.
The Flash memory cards supported are from a select subset of PCMCIA
Series D type II cards (listed in the PRPQ P97000, 5799-GEB, Feature
Number 4002) and are purchased from several third party vendors. The Flash
card product from two of these vendors has been tested and part numbers
and card sizings can be found in Section 3.1, “Flash Card Support” on page
64 and in Section 3.1.1, “Flash Card Sizing” on page 65.
In addition to individual IBM Network Stations being able to boot from their
own Flash card, the offering also provides the capability for several Network
Stations to boot from one Network Station which contains a Flash memory
card. This additional function is called peer boot.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
63
3.1 Flash Card Support
The IBM Network Station products only work with linear C series and linear D
series PCMCIA type II Flash memory cards. The maximum size of C series
technology is limited to 10MB. However, D series cards are currently available
in various sizes with up to 32MB of capacity and in the near future will support
as much as 40Mbytes of storage capacity.
Flash cards can be purchased from several manufacturers. IBM does not
manufacture or resell these cards.
During the residency, we tested Flash cards from Centennial Technologies
(http://www.cent-tech.com) and from Simple Technology
(http://www.simpletech.com).
Simple Technology offers a full line of D series cards. Centennial
Technologies and Simple Technology's part numbers for the various size
cards they can supply, that have been tested, are shown in Table 15.
Table 15. PCMCIA Flash Card Part Numbers
PCMCIA Flash Card Size
(in Megabytes)
Centennial Technologies
Part Number
Simple Technology
Part Number
8 Mb
N/A
STI-ST/8AA
12 Mb
PM24138
STI-FL/12AA
16Mb
PM24114
STI-FL/16AA
20 Mb
PM24162
STI-FL/20AA
24 Mb
PM24136
STI-FL/24AA
28 Mb
PM24501
STI-FL/28AA *
32 Mb
PM24265
STI-FL/32AA *
Note: Some Series 100 IBM Network Stations do not function with these Flash
cards from Simple Technologies. The Network Station does not boot with the card
installed. However, it does boot as soon as the card is removed. IBM is working with
Simple to correct the problem.
Customers who purchased special C/D series Simple Flash memory cards for
use with Release 2 of the Network Station Manager program can continue to
use these cards.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
3.1.1 Flash Card Sizing
Table 16 provides an estimate of the card size required for each IBM Network
Station native application. The Series 1000 IBM Network Stations have a
different boot kernel. There are also separate executable modules required
for supporting the Series 1000. If you intend to peer boot a mixture of Series
1000 and the Series 100 and 300, you need both sets of files and the
required card size approximately doubles.
Table 16. Kernel and Application Program Sizes
Function / Application
Size (MB)
Base operating system (mandatory and this figure
includes all kernels)
8
3270 Emulator
1
5250 Emulator
2
NC Navigator Browser (does not include JVM)
4
Java Virtual Machine
13
ICA Client
2
The sizes assume that the compressed files (.Z or .z suffix) are used for the
kernel and fonts. All of the sizings presume that the login display (ACTLogin)
is being used and that all fonts and locale-specific data (keyboards, message
catalogs, and so on) are loaded from the server. If locale information is
placed on the Flash card, it can require up to 20 MB depending on the
application and the locale (this number is even higher for double-byte
locales).
Note
ACTLogin or authentication login refers to the process in which a user ID
and password is used authenticate a particular user.
You should allow several extra megabytes for future expansion of these files
because of the Network Station software enhancements. You should also
increase the Flash card size by the size of at least the largest file being put on
the card, if there is any plan to update the current card in place.
The numbers are additive. Therefore, the card size for the 5250 emulator is
the combination of the size of the (mandatory) Base OS kernel plus the size
of the 5250 emulator. Sizes are included for each of the example scenarios in
the PRPQ documentation.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
65
The linear Flash memory supported by the Network Station has the
characteristic that space is allocated in contiguous blocks at the end of
existing used memory. If a file is added or replaced it goes at the end of
currently allocated memory and the memory allocated to the previous version
of the file is effectively lost.
A utility to reclaim unused space is available but it must be started manually
from a command shell locally on the Network Station or remotely by starting a
TELNET session to the IBM Network Station.
The PCMCIA Flash cards are formatted using the format utility that is
supplied with the Network Station software. Files are then copied to the card
using the NFS protocol or by using the local file manager utility on the
Network Station. You can also TELNET to the Network Station and invoke the
local file manager remotely. It takes approximately two minutes per megabyte
to copy data to the Flash card. If the copy process is interrupted, the Flash
card may be left in such a state that the Network Station cannot be booted
from it and the card will need to be reformatted.
Due to these limitations, we recommend that PCMCIA Flash be treated as
read-only memory. While it can be written to by applications (such as a
browser), the fact that space is not easily recoverable means that the card will
fill up and be unusable for further updates until space is reclaimed manually.
3.1.2 Flash Card Management
The management of the data on a Flash card is time-consuming and is not
yet automated. There are no tools provided to synchronize the files on the
Flash card with those on the server or even to indicate when the files on the
Flash card are down-level from some designated configuration. In fact, the
files within the Flash card (local) file system have no timestamps. Therefore, it
is not easy to tell which version of each software module is on the card.
A manual Flash card labelling system should to be introduced to identify
which level of software and which applications the card contains.
To update the card while it is in the Network Station, it is best to first mount
the file system to a server using NFS. Then the new files can be copied (at
two minutes per megabyte) to the Flash card. If the link goes down or the card
fills up, the card may be left in a partially updated state and render the
Network Station unusable until a correctly formatted card is obtained.
For this reason, we recommend that when updates are required, a new Flash
card be sent out to the affected sites. The obsolete cards can be returned to
be reformatted and Flashed again (file copy) at a central location. This makes
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
the Flash card similar to CDROM from the administrator's and user's
perspective. This arrangement works well as long as the environment is
rather static and frequent updates are not required.
3.1.3 Separation of Servers, Authentication Login, and the Flash Card
Beginning in Release 3, the Network Station's NVRAM can be configured so
that the kernel is booted from one system, the configuration files are loaded
from another system, and user authentication is performed by a third system.
This capability allows a Network Station with Flash memory to be set up so
that it boots large, stable files from a Flash memory card and the more
volatile configuration files from a centrally-administered server.
User-specific information, such as configuration files, keyboard mapping files,
and browser preferences, cannot be easily accommodated on the Flash
memory media as there is no way to provide per-user authentication and
configuration. Because there is no local user identification and authentication
to the Network Station, a server must be in place to provide the correct user
specific environment setup such as the home directory, before completing the
full start-up of the Network Station.
This restriction does not apply to the case where the Network Station is
configured to merely load its operating system locally (using a Flash card)
and then transfer control to a server to load specific profiles and applications
based on user login. The ACTLogin functionality, combined with separation of
servers, enables the full start-up and user configuration of a Network Station
when utilizing the Flash memory boot option.
We recommend that separation of servers and ACTLogin be used in all Flash
card implementations. The recommended approach is to run Network Station
Manager (NSM) at the central or regional site to configure system-wide and
user-specific parameters. Then, ACTLogin is started from the Flash card and
is used to authenticate the user to the Network Station Manager database on
the central site. This results in very low network traffic while keeping the more
volatile user files and administration at the central site.
3.1.3.1 ACTLogin Description
The procedure for using Flash with ACTLogin is simple. First, the system and
user preferences are configured on the server system using the Network
Station Manager program. Then, the kernel and executable modules are
loaded on the Flash card. The configuration information is read from the
server and augmented by Flash-specific overrides.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
67
By default, ACTLogin attempts to authenticate to the boot server. This
obviously will not work correctly when booting from the Flash because there
is no default boot server. A specific authentication server must therefore be
provided to ACTLogin, as shown in the flash.nsm file Figure 13 on page 77.
In some cases, it is desirable to not have the ACTLogin display (for example,
login display) show. This is the case if, for example, the user just wants to
have an emulator session and ddoes not want to login explicitly to the
Network Station to establish personal preferences.
The Network Station can also be configured so that no login and
authorization is required. If all Network Stations are going to use the same set
of configuration or preference files, then these, along with the executable
files, can be placed on the Flash card. Configuration and preference files are
small and tend to be somewhat volatile. Therefore, managing them at the
server and using separation of servers generally results in less maintenance.
In this case, the Flash memory can be set up to hold a generic set of
configuration files and application programs. Users then validate themselves
directly to the host applications where necessary (an emulation sign on
display) when starting an application.
For example, the Network Station Flash memory can be set up to boot the
kernel and the 5250 emulator without any user login at the Network Station.
However, the user is still required to login to the mainframe after the emulator
has been started. Each user of the Network Station would be presented with
the same base system, including fonts and keyboard mapping.
Attention
Running the Network Station without using NSM and ACTLogin is not a
supported configuration. ACTLogin provides a mode wherein an explicit user
login is not required. Refer to Section 1.2.14, “Full-Screen (Kiosk) Solutions
Support” on page 20 for information on Kiosk or Full Screen support.
File formats cannot be guaranteed across releases. By using NSM and
ACTLogin, you ensure that the system manages most of the data and only
executable and stable data reside on the Flash card.
3.1.4 Hardware Considerations
IBM Network Station Series 100 and 300 systems are supplied with built-in
PCMCIA adapters. For Series 1000 systems, this adapter is an optional
feature on all but the very early Ethernet models. The part number for the
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
PCMCIA Adapter on the Series 1000 is 07L8336 and can be ordered in the
GEMS ordering system in the US and Canada, and the UPOS ordering
system in EMEA. Contact your IBM Network Station Sales Representative or
Business Partner to order these adapters.
IBM has tested Flash cards from Centennial Technologies
(http://www.cent-tech.com) and cards from Simple Technology
(http://www.simpletech.com) the latter of which offers a full line of D series
cards. Refer to Table 15 on page 64 for a list of current Flash card part
numbers available from Centennial Technologies and Simple Technology.
3.2 Booting from a Flash Card with 5250, 3270, and VTxxx Support
In this scenario, we provide a remote site the ability to boot the IBM Network
Station and run the 5250, 3270 and VTxxx emulators from the Flash card.
This connection is through a slow or heavily utilized WAN. The volatile data is
data that is subject to change either on a daily basis or during a software
upgrade which is kept on the central system. User authentication using
ACTLogin also occurs on the central system.
3.2.1 Scenario Objectives
There are four objectives in this scenario. These objectives are:
• Load the Network Station kernel from the Flash card.
• Load the executable modules for running a 5250, 3270 and VTxxx
emulation from the Flash card.
• Use ACTLogin and the server separation function to authenticate the user
at the central site.
• Load the user configuration, fonts and other volatile data from the central
system, allowing it to be maintained centrally using the IBM Network
Station Manager program.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
69
C entral S/390
C entral AS/400
Flash Card Enabled IBM Network Station
C entral RS/6000
W AN Link
R em ote Location
C entral Location
Figure 11. Flash Card Support for Emulators from a Remote Location
3.2.2 Scenario Advantages
The scenario has the following advantages:
• Users at the remote location experience quick boot up times as the
required code to start the IBM Network Station is contained on the local
Flash card or file system.
• The emulation applications is also located on the Flash card and does not
need to be sent across the network.
• The WAN traffic is reduced releasing the bandwidth for other use.
• The volatile user configuration settings continues to be managed on the
central server system.
• User authentication is maintained and authenticated on the central server
system.
• The use of peer boot is allowed in the future.
3.2.3 Scenario Disadvantages
The following disadvantages apply to this scenario:
• There is no automated central management of the Flash cards.
The system administrator must ensure that the remote user’s Flash card
remains up to date when any new releases are applied to the central
server system.
• The Flash card is a single point of failure for the remote user.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
In the event of a Flash card failure, an identical secondary card should be
distributed to the user, along with the first.
• The NVRAM settings cannot be easily changed from local Flash boot to
server boot.
To enable the IBM Network Station to use the Flash card and boot locally,
the settings in NVRAM must be modified. It may not be a simple task for
the end user to change these settings back in the event of a Flash card
failure.
• There is no support in this scenario for the IBM Network Station Series
1000.
The Series 1000 requires a different kernel and some different module
files that do not fit on an 8MB Flash card. You can, of course, use a larger
Flash card and support the IBM Network Station Series 100/300 and 1000
series.
3.2.4 Scenario Network Configuration
In this scenario, the IBM Network Station is located at a remote location,
distant from the central site which houses the main AS/400, S/390 and
RS/6000 systems. The remote location is in the same site, city, or in another
geography. There is no local access to the central site systems.
The link from the end user to the central site that is the bottleneck. That is,
the communication link is adequate for small bursts of information such as
display changes, but has limited file transfer capability due either to the
speed, or the utilization on the communication link.
The WAN link is any type, ranging from dial up to frame relay. The actual type
of link is not as important in this scenario as long as it can carry TCP/IP
traffic.
Figure 12 on page 72 shows the central systems located at the central site
and an IBM Network Station located remotely over a slow or possibly
congested WAN link.
In this scenario, we used the reserved class A TCP/IP addressing scheme of
10.1.1.X with a subnet mask value of 255.255.255.0, which allows up to 254
devices on this network.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
71
S/390
AS/400
Flash Card Enabled IBM Network Station
.2
.3
RS/6000
.10
Network Address:
.4
10.1.1.x
Subnet mask:
255.255.255.0
WAN Link
Central Location
Remote Location
Figure 12. Remote Flash Card Enabled IBM Network Station Topology Diagram
3.3 Creating A Flash Card
To enable an IBM Network Station to boot from the local Flash card, complete
the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Verify prerequisite tasks.
Create a Flash card boot image.
Create a separate configuration file.
Test the boot image from the AS/400.
Verify functionality.
Formatting the Flash Card.
Load the Image onto the Flash Card:
• Using NFS/400.
• Using the IBM Network Station file manager.
8. Boot the IBM Network Station using the Flash card.
9. Do house keeping.
Note
This scenario makes the assumption that you have already configured one
or more menu buttons using Network Station Manager program to enable the
3270, 5250, and VTxxx emulators.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
3.3.1 Verifying Prerequisites
You must ensure that your system is running IBM Network Station Manager
program Release 3.0 and has the latest PTFs have been installed.
To support Flash cards, you must also have the latest OS/400 and NSM PTF
code. The latest PTF for NFS must also be installed if you intend to transfer
the data to the Flash card using NFS/400.
3.3.2 Creating a Flash Card Boot Image
To boot from the Flash card, you must first identify the files that are required,
copy these files, and test them to ensure that the IBM Network Station will
start from this image.
It is necessary to create the image of what will be placed on the Flash card in
the Intergrated File System (IFS) of the AS/400 system. This allows you to
test booting the Network Station from this image before copying it to the Flash
card. After you test the functionality of this image, you can copy it to the Flash
card. The process to copy the boot files to the Flash card is rather slow. Data
is transferred to the card at a rate of about 2MB per minute.
We recommend that you test the Flash Card before distributing it to the
remote office or location. You can perform this test by connecting to a locally
attached IBM Network Station.
The following tasks shows how to create an image that contains the files that
are required to boot the Network Station, and support the 5250, 3270, and
VTxxx emulators. We use the AS/400 system to authenticate the user and
provide the font and user configuration files.
The following steps can also be accomplished using Windows 95 and its
Explorer function by mapping the AS/400 IFS to a local drive, and using the
cut and paste function. The Flash card files can be copied into an nsflash
image directory on the AS/400 system.
3.3.3 Task Summary
The following steps are required to create a test image that is copied to the
Flash card after this testing is successful:
1. Create a test directory structure.
2. Copy the files to the test directory.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
73
3.3.3.1 Creating a Test Directory Structure
By default, the only path in the AS/400 IFS that allows TFTP read access is
the default IBM Network Station path, /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation. To
avoid changing or altering the production directory structure, create an
nsflash directory in the root of the IFS using the following command, which
allows user QTFTP access to this directory:
CHGTFTPA ALTSRCDIR('/nsflash')
Note: TFTP has no built-in security mechanisms. Use caution to prevent the
entire IFS from being exposed to TFTP.
The following steps show how to build and place the Flash card test image in
the production directory structure. In this example, we do not create a new
directory in the root of the IFS for the test image.
Follow these steps to build a test directory structure:
1. Create a subdirectory in the AS/400 IFS called nsflash by entering the
following command on any AS/400 command line:
CRTDIR DIR('/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash')
2. Create a subdirectory under nsflash called mods to contain the module
files by entering the following command:
CRTDIR DIR('/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods')
3.3.3.2 Copying the Files to the Test Directory
Use the following steps to copy the files to the test directory structure:
1. From any AS/400 command line type:
COPY OBJ('/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/filename')
TODIR('/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash')
The filename is:
boot.nsl
kernel.Z
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Note
In this scenario, we use a Flash card that is only 8MB in size. We only have
enough room to place the compressed kernel on this card (denoted by the .Z
extension), and not the uncompressed kernel which is about 4MB in size.
Consequently, in this scenario, we do not intend to boot any IBM Network
Station Series 1000s from this Flash card.
The files specific to the Series 1000 are denoted by the .63 in the extension.
The number 63 relates to the processor found in the Series 1000, the 603e
RISC chip.
Appendix A, “Flash Card Scenarios” on page 255 has more information
about the files required to support the NC Navigator, Java, and so on, from
the Flash card.
2. Copy the module files into the
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods directory by entering the
following command:
COPY OBJ('/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/mods/filename')
TODIR('/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods')
The filename is:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
actlogin.nws
colormap.nws
export.nws
filed.nws
libconf.nws
libmlc.nws
libprapi.nws
libprxapi.nws
mcuis.nws
miscpr32.nws
mwm.nws
nfsd.nws
ns3270.nws
ns5250.nws
ns5250xx.nws
sbcs_im.nws
seriald.nws
setup.nws
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
75
• term.nws
• nsterm.nws
3.3.4 Creating a Separate Configuration File
To enable the Flash card boot function, make the appropriate changes to
redirect the loading of specific files from the AS/400 IFS to the local Flash
memory card.
Note
We recommended that you create a new file called flash.nsm , rather than
edit the supplied system configuration files. The supplied system
configuration files can change or be overwritten with each new release of the
IBM Network Station Manager program.
The flash.nsm file first reads the standard configuration files from the AS/400
server (standard.nsm ) and then overrides the values as necessary. The
flash.nsm file is stored in the /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs
directory on the AS/400 server and not on the Flash card. Therefore, any
changes that are required must made at a central location and no changes to
the Flash card are required.
You can create the flash.nsm file can be created using any simple text editor
such as Windows Notepad and then copied (using Windows Explorer or using
FTP) into the directory /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs in the IFS on
the AS/400 system.
The file may also be edited using the stream file editor (EDTF) on the AS/400.
The following is a sample flash.nsm file for this scenario.
76
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
# flash.nsm - This file resides in the /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs directory
#
# AS/400 File Service Table
#
set file-service-table = {
{"/netstation/prodbase" nil 10.1.1.2 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/" unix 3 30
4096 4096}
{"/QIBM/ProdData" nil 10.1.1.2 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/" unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
}
# Read the configuration files from the server
#
read standard.nsm
#
# Make the necessary mods to the base values
#
set boot-desired-source = tftp
set boot-second-source = none
set boot-third-source = none
set exec-startup-commands = {
{ mcuis }
{ "actlogin -authserv 10.1.1.2" }
}
set file-try-all-matches-on-open = true
# Set up to get executable modules from the Flash card
set modules-directory = /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods
Figure 13. Example Flash.nsm File
3.3.5 Testing the Boot Image from the AS/400 System
To set NVRAM on the IBM Network Station so that it boots using the image
located in the IFS that you created in the previous steps, complete the
following steps:
1. Reset NVRAM on the IBM Network Station.
We highly recommend that, before making any major change to the
configuration of the IBM Network Station, you reset NVRAM to the factory
defaults.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
77
2. Power on the IBM Network Station. The IBM logo is shown, followed by a
memory and keyboard check.
3. After the message NS0500 Search for Host System is shown, press ESC
to stop the start-up sequence.
Note
If prompted for an administrator password, enter it now. This is the
password an administrator sets using the IBM Network Station Manager
program.
4. Start the IBM Network Station Boot Monitor program by pressing the
following sequence of keys:
• For 101/102 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt + Left Ctrl. Press F1.
• For 5250/3270 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt. Press F1.
5. Enter NV at the Boot Monitor prompt (>) to access the NVRAM utility.
6. Enter L to reset the NVRAM.
7. Enter S to save the defaults into NVRAM.
8. Enter Y to the question Are you sure?
9. Enter Q to quit.
10.Enter SE (or press F1) from the boot monitor prompt to start the IBM
Network Station Setup Utility.
11.Press PF3 (Set Network Parameters).
12.The Network parameters should default to Network after the reset. To
change the IP Addressed from field from Network to NVRAM, use the right
arrow key.
13.Enter the Network Station IP address. In this scenario, the IP address of
the Network Station is 10.1.1.10.
14.Enter The First Boot Host IP address of 10.1.1.2. This is the AS/400
system that contains the Flash card image that you want to test.
15.Enter The First Configuration Host IP address of 10.1.1.2. This is the
same AS/400 system that contains the Flash card image.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
16.Enter the correct IP address information for the fields, Gateway IP Address
and Subnet Mask according to your network. The Broadcast IP address
should default to the correct setting environment.
17.Press Enter.
18.Press PF4 (Set Boot Parameters).
19.Type kernel.Z in the Boot File field.
20.In the TFTP Boot Directory field, enter the following:
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/
This forces the Network Station to load the kernel from the Flash card test
image. Be sure to include the final slash (/).
21.Leave the NFS Boot Directory blank.
22.In the Boot Host Protocol section, disable NFS order and Local order by
typing a D next to the corresponding field.
23.Enter 1 next to the TFTP order field.
24.Press Enter.
25.Press PF5 (Set Configuration Parameters).
26.Enter flash.nsm in the Configuration file field.
27.Enter /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/ in the Configuration
Directory: First field.
28.Leave the Configuration Directory: Second field blank.
29.Select TFTP by using the left or right arrow keys in the Configuration Host
Protocol: First field.
30.Leave the Configuration Host Protocol: Second as default.
31.Press Enter.
32.Press Enter again to reboot the IBM Network Station.
The IBM Network Station starts and loads the kernel from the
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash directory. The flash.nsm file points
the Network Station to the /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods
directory to load the emulators and ACTLogin code from.
3.3.6 Verifying Functionality
Verify that the IBM Network Station loads the compressed kernel from the
directory /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash. You must watch the
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
79
Network Station at start up to obtain this information. It can be read from the
display after the POST (Power On Self Tests) are complete.
After the Network Station has started up and presented you with the login
(ACTLogin) display, sign on with the user profile that you have already
configured to show the different emulator choices on the menu bar and start
each emulator by pressing the appropriate menu bar buttons.
Provided you entered the correct system information when configuring the
three emulators using the IBM Network Station Manager program, each one
will start and show the appropriate sign-on displays.
Now we must verify that the modules were in fact loaded from the
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods directory on the AS/400. This
is done by reviewing the console log of the Network Station.
Use the following steps to view the console log and verify that the modules
were loaded from the correct directory:
1. Start the emulators by clicking on the button on the task bar of the Network
Station desktop.
2. After the emulators have started successfully, press Alt + Shift + Home to
start the Network Station console.
3. Click on the Messages button to view the log.
4. Use the vertical scroll bar to move up and down the log file.
5. Please refer to the following example, which shows in bold text the 5250
emulation executable modules being sourced from the
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods directory.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Special Command Check, command = ns5250
NSK8202: loading libprapi from
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods/libprapi.nws
+ 0:00:08:27
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 libprapi 07/14/1998, PTF
fix1998290'
NSK8202: loading libprxapi from
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods/libprxapi.nws
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 libprxapi 05/06/1998, PTF DRV190'
NSK8202: loading ns5250 from /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods/ns5250.nws
+ 0:00:08:32
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 ns5250 07/14/1998, PTF fix1998290'
+ 0:00:08:33
NSK5901: running command: ns5250 as1.mycompany.com
NSK8502: host "localhost" connected with blank authorization
+ 0:00:08:35
NSK0603: reading font file: /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/X11/fonts/pcf/i18n/Rom
8.iso1_UCS.pcf.Z
+ 0:00:08:36
NSK8202: loading sbcs_im from /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods/sbcs_im.nws
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 sbcs_im 05/06/1998, PTFDRV190'
Figure 14. Console Log Example: Loading the 5250 Emulator from the Test Image Directory
After you confirmed that the Network Station was redirected to load the kernel
from the /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash and the modules from the
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods sub directory, proceed with
the next step.
If the current directories are not being accessed, review your NVRAM
configuration and ensure that the flash.nsm file is correct and is being read by
the Network Station at start up time by viewing the system log.
3.3.7 Accessing the Local File Manager and NFS
This section describes, in detail, the changes that must be made to the
flash.nsm file to enable the local file manager and NFS support on the
Network Station containing the Flash card. These changes allow you to
format and copy the test image( created earlier) to the Flash card.
Use the steps described in the following section to modify the flash.nsm file,
which enables access to the local file manager and to enable the NFS
daemon on the IBM Network Station.
3.3.7.1 Enabling the Local File Manager
To enable the local file manager, perform the following steps:
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
81
1. Open the file flash.nsm in /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs using a
PC editor (or FTP to copy to your PC or AS/400 system and edit locally).
2. Add the following lines to flash.nsm after the read standard.nsm statement
set xserver-initial-x-resources = "ncdconsole.disable.TerminalMenu:
false"
set file-manager-password = password
set file-manager-access-control-enabled = true
Replace password with the password of your choice.
3. Save the file into /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs and exit.
3.3.7.2 Enabling the NFS Daemon on the IBM Network Station
The following steps enable you to copy the required files to the Flash card
using NFS. It is recommended that NFS be used to copy the files to the Flash
card. If you intend to use NFS to copy the files to the Flash card, then
complete the following steps.
For NFS support you must add the following line to the flash.nsm file located
in /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs.
1. Open the file flash.nsm using Wordpad.exe if you have a Windows ’95
client.
2. Add the following line to flash.nsm after the read standard.nsm statement
set file-enable-nfs-server = true
3. Save the file into the same directory,
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs, and exit.
3.3.8 Formatting the Flash Card
After you complete the steps in the previous section, and verify that the IBM
Network Station started and functions successfully from the test image, you
must prepare the Flash card for use and copy the image (created previously)
to the Flash card.
You must also complete the previous section to enable the local file manager
on the IBM Network Station.
No changes to NVRAM are required at this stage to complete the tasks
described in the following section.
3.3.8.1 Using the Local File Manager to Format the Flash Card
We recommend that you format the card prior to use. Use the following steps
to verify the Flash card and prepare it for use:
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
1. Power off the IBM Network Station.
2. Ensure that the write protect switch on the Flash card is in the enable write
position.
3. Insert the PCMCIA Flash card into the IBM Network Station as
recommended by the manufacturer.
4. Power on the IBM Network Station.
5. When the messageNS0500 Search for Host System appears, press ESC
to stop the start-up sequence.
If prompted for an administrator password, enter it now (this is the
password an administrator can set using the IBM Network Station
Manager program).
6. Press PF2 (View the Hardware Configuration) .
7. Verify that the Network Station has recognized the Flash card is installed.
8. Reboot the Network Station to load the configuration changes made to
flash.nsm in the previous section.
9. Allow the IBM Network Station start-up to complete. Sign in when the login
display is shown.
10.After the desktop has been loaded, start the Console by pressing Alt +
Shift + Home.
11.Select Terminals from the pull down menu options.
12.Select New Terminal.
13.Select File Local
—>Connect to the Local File Manager.
14.Select OK (at the bottom left of the display).
15.The Local file manager starts. Enter your password (as defined in step 2
on page 82 using the set file-manager-password statement ).
16.Type pwd to verify that you are in the /local directory. This is the root of the
Flash card.
17.Type format to format the Flash card.
18.Answer yes to the message:
Do you want to proceed with formatting [ yes | no ].
A message indicates the estimated time it will take to format the Flash
card. For example, the format command may state it will take 15 minutes
to format an 8Mb card. However, the card should format in 60 to 90
seconds.
19.After the format is complete, please proceed to the next section.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
83
3.3.9 Loading the Image onto the Flash Card
If you completed the steps in Section 3.3.8, “Formatting the Flash Card” on
page 82 to build a Flash card from start to finish, the Local File Manager
display should be active on your Flash Card enabled IBM Network Station. If
the local file manager is not active, follow the previous instructions on how to
start it.
There are several tools that you can use to load the image onto the Flash
card. You can use NFS/400, NFS from a PC or the IBM Network Station local
file manager. There is no FTP daemon on the IBM Network Station.
Therefore, FTP cannot be used. NFS/400 has the least number of steps to
complete the image transfer the Flash card.
3.3.9.1 Coping Data to the Flash Card Using NFS/400
You can use NFS/400 to copy the files from the IFS on the AS/400 to the
Flash card installed in your Network Station. The Network Station has an NFS
server daemon and because the AS/400 system is the NFS client, it is not
necessary to start the NFS servers on the AS/400 system.
Use the following steps to use NFS to copy the required files to the Flash
card:
1. Create a directory in the AS/400 IFS to mount the Flash card over by
entering mkdir ’/nwslocal’ on any AS/400 command line. Press Enter.
2. Mount the Flash card file system over the /nwslocal directory by entering
the following command on any AS/400 command line:
MOUNT TYPE(*NFS) MFS('nwsIPaddr:/local/')
MNTOVRDIR('/nwslocal')
The nwsIPaddr is the TCP/IP address of the IBM Network Station
containing the Flash Card.
Note
If the command to mount the Flash card on the AS/400 fails with the
message: System unable to establish a communication connection to a file
server, please ensure that the line set file-enable-nfs-server = true exists in
the flash.nsm file and that the Network Station has been rebooted. Refer to
Section 3.3.8, “Formatting the Flash Card” on page 82 and refer to step 1 on
page 82 Open the file flash.nsm..... .
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
3. The boot.nsl file, which resides in the path
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash, must be edited before copying it
to the Flash card.
a. Open the file boot.nsl from the directory
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash using a PC editor.
b. Change the following line in boot.nsl to read:
Login.bootConfigType: MOUNT_LOCAL
c. Close and save the file to the same directory,
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash.
4. Enter the following command on any AS/400 command line to copy the
kernel and boot.nsl files to the Flash card:
CPY OBJ('/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/filename')
TODIR('/nwslocal') TOCODEPAGE(*CALC)
The filename is kernel.Z and boot.nsl.
Note
Remember, the data transfer speed to the Flash card is about 2MB per
minute. You can check to see if the copy operation was successful (at any
stage) by using the IBM Network Station local file manager and entering
the dir command to list the current working directory or by entering df
which will display the local file system and show the numbers of bytes used,
remaining and the number of bytes that need to be reclaimed. During a
copy operation, you will see the byte count change.
You can also view the file system using the AS/400 command Work Link
(WRKLNK) command. However, at the time of writing, the Work Link
(WRKLNK) may not show you all the files that reside on the Flash card
even though they are there. Work is being done to fix this problem.
5. Create a subdirectory on the Flash card to contain the executable module
files by entering the following command on any command line on the
AS/400 system:
CRTDIR DIR('/nwslocal/mods')
6. Enter the following command on the AS/400 command line to copy all of
the executable modules in to the mods directory on the Flash card:
CPY OBJ('/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods/*')
TODIR('/nwslocal/mods/') TOCODEPAGE(*CALC)
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
85
7. After the copy operation is complete, look for the message on the AS/400
that informs you that all objects were copied and no (or zero) objects
failed. You can also use the IBM Network Station local file manager to
check that all the files have been copied using the dir command.
8. From the Network Station local file manager, type verify on the /local file
system. This verifies the file structure and reports back any errors.
9. On the AS/400 command line, enter the following command:
UNMOUNT TYPE(*NFS) MNTOVRDIR('/nwslocal')
10.Power off the IBM Network Station.
11.Remove the Flash card and change the write protect switch to write
protect.
12.Replace the Flash card according to the manufacturers recommendations.
13.Please proceed to Section 3.3.10, “Booting the IBM Network Station Using
the Flash Card” on page 89.
3.3.9.2 Using the IBM Network Station File Manager
You can use the local file manager on the IBM network Station to view and
copy files to the local Flash card. The path to the Flash card is /local. You can
also view the IFS directory structure on the AS/400 using the local file
manager by changing to the root directory using the command cd /, assuming
that the host servers have been started on the AS/400.
A full local file manager command list is shown in Table 17 on page 88.
For information about starting the local file manager, refer to Section 3.3.8.1,
“Using the Local File Manager to Format the Flash Card” on page 82. Use the
following the steps to transfer the Flash test image created in the previous
section:
1. Ensure that the host servers are started on the AS/400 by entering the
following command on any AS/400 command line:
STRHOSTSVR SVR(*ALL)
2. Type cd /local and press Enter to ensure that you are in the Flash card
file system.
3. Type mkdir /mods to create the directory to contain the executable modules.
4. Type cd /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash and press Enter.
5. Type pwd and press Enter to verify your current working directory, which
should be /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash as in the previous step.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
6. Copy the kernel to the Flash card file system by entering the following
command in the local file manager:
cp kernel.Z /local/
This copy operation should take approximately four minutes to complete.
7. Edit the boot.nsl file in /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash before
copying it to the Flash card.
a. Open the file boot.nsl from the directory
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash with a PC editor.
b. Change the line to read:
Login.bootConfigType: MOUNT_LOCAL
c. Close and save the file to the same directory,
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash.
8. Copy the boot.nsl file to the Flash card file system by entering the
following command in the local file manager:
cp boot.nsl /local/
9. Change to the /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods directory by
entering the command cd mods or specify the full path name of
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods.
10.Verify your current working directory using the pwd command.
11.Type dir and press Enter. This shows a list of all executable modules that
were copied earlier in Section 3.3.2, “Creating a Flash Card Boot Image”
on page 73.
You must copy each file individually, one at a time, from the AS/400 IFS to
the /local/mods directory on the local Flash card file system using the
following command:
cp filename /local/mods/
The filename is each of the following names:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
actlogin.nws
colormap.nws
export.nws
filed.nws
libconf.nws
libmlc.nws
libprapi.nws
libprxapi.nws
mcuis.nws
miscpr32.nws
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
87
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
mwm.nws
nfsd.nws
ns3270.nws
ns5250.nws
ns5250xx.nws
sbcs_im.nws
seriald.nws
setup.nws
term.nws
nsterm.nws
12.Type verify to check the local Flash card file system once the copy
operation is complete.
13.Type df to display the file system size in bytes.
14.Type exit to end the local file manager program.
15.Click on logout to end the session.
16.Proceed to Section 3.3.10, “Booting the IBM Network Station Using the
Flash Card” on page 89.
Table 17. Network Station Local File Manager Commands
Command
Description
cd directory
Changes the current working directory to
directory.
compare file1 file2 or cmp file1
file2
Compare the contents of the two files and
displays a message stating whether the files
are equivalent.
copy sourcefile destfile or cp
sourcefile destfile
Copies the specified file (sourcefile) to the
specified destination (destfile ). Copying files
may take a long time and affect the kernel's
response time while it is taking place.
Please see the note at the end of this table.
cwd or pwd
Displays the current working directory.
delete file(s) or del file(s) or
remove file(s) or rm file(s)
Delete the specified files from the local file
system. On a PCMCIA card, after using the
delete command, use the reclaim command
to re-pack previously used file space for
subsequent use.
format [/local]
Formats the local file system /local.
Warning: Formatting the file system destroys
any data that is already on it.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Command
Description
help
Displays a list of Local File Manager
commands.
info or df [/local]
Lists the total size in bytes of the local file
system and the total number of free bytes
available.
list or ls or dir [-R] [directory]
Displays a list of the files stored in the local file
system. This command can be used with a -R
option to list subdirectory content recursively.
mkdir dir_name
Makes a directory named dir_name in the local
file system.
quit
Disconnects from the Local File Manager.
reclaim
Reclaims previously used file system space.
This command may take several minutes.
verify
Confirms that the local file system structure is
valid.
Notes: Before copying files to the local file system from a remote file system,
perform the following tasks:
1. On a PCMCIA card, if you deleted files from the local file system recently, use
the reclaim command to ensure that all available space is accessible.
2. Make sure that the terminal's file service table includes an entry for the remote
location.
Before copying files from the local file system to a remote file system,
consider the following points:
• If you are copying files from the local file system to a remote location, an
empty file with the desired name must exist already on the remote file
system when using TFTP.
• Write access must be enabled for the file on the remote file system.
• The Network Station's file service table must include an entry for the
remote location.
3.3.10 Booting the IBM Network Station Using the Flash Card
After the Flash card is prepared, you can test it and verify that the IBM
Network Station can boot from the card.
3.3.10.1 Modify the Flash.nsm File for Local Boot
The flash.nsm file in the path /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs must
be changed before booting from the Flash card:
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
89
1. Open the file flash.nsm in /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs using a
PC editor.
2. Change the following line from:
set boot-desired-source = tftp
to:
set boot-desired-source = local
and
set modules-directory = /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/nsflash/mods
to:
set modules-directory = /local/mods
3. Ensure the file is saved to the directory
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/config .
Refer to Figure 15 on page 91 for an updated example of the flash.nsm file
with all changes and additions made so far.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
# flash.nsm - This file resides in the /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs directory
#
# AS/400 File Service Table
#
set file-service-table = {
{"/netstation/prodbase" nil 10.1.1.30 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/" unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
{"/QIBM/ProdData" nil 10.1.1.30 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/" unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
}
# Read the configuration files from the server
#
read standard.nsm
#
# Make the necessary mods to the base values
#
set boot-desired-source = local
set boot-second-source = none
set boot-third-source = none
set exec-startup-commands = {
{ mcuis }
{ "actlogin -authserv <servIPaddr>" }
}
# Where <servIPaddr> is the AS/400 system IP address, the authentication server.
set file-try-all-matches-on-open = true
# Set up to get executable modules from the Flash card
set modules-directory = /local/mods
#
# The next 4 lines are optional and enable the local file manager which can be accessed using
# TELNET or from the console window on the Network Station.
set xserver-initial-x-resources = "ncdconsole.disable.TerminalMenu: false"
set file-manager-password = nws1red
set file-manager-access-control-enabled = true
# The next line enables the NFS server Daemon for peer boot and is required if the Flash card
# file system is to be mounted to the AS/400 IFS for file transfer.
set file-enable-nfs-server = true
Figure 15. Updated Example of the Flash.nsm File
3.3.10.2 Modifying the NVRAM Configuration for Local Boot
To start the IBM Network Station from the local Flash card, the NVRAM
setting must be changed.
Use the following steps to start the Network Station from the Flash card:
1. Reset NVRAM on the IBM Network Station
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
91
We highly recommend that you reset NVRAM to the factory defaults
prior to any major change to the configuration of the IBM Network
Station.
a. Power on the IBM Network Station. The IBM logo is shown, followed by
a memory and keyboard check.
b. After the message, NS0500 Search for Host System appears, press
ESC to stop the start-up sequence.
If prompted for an administrator password, enter it now. (This is the
password an administrator can set using the IBM Network Station
Manager program.)
c. Invoke the IBM Network Station Boot Monitor program by pressing the
following key sequence:
• For 101/102 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt + Left Ctrl. Press F1.
• For 5250/3270 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt. Press F1.
d. Enter NV at the Boot Monitor prompt (>) to access the NVRAM utility.
e. Enter L to reset the NVRAM.
f. Enter S to save the defaults into NVRAM.
g. Enter Y to the question: Are you sure?
h. Enter Q to quit.
2. Enter SE (or press F1) from the boot monitor prompt to start the IBM
Network Station Setup Utility.
3. Press PF3 (Set Network Parameters).
4. The IP Addressed from field should default to Network after the factory
default reset. Use the right arrow key to change it to NVRAM, if required.
5. Enter the Network Station IP address ; in this scenario the IP address of
the Network Station is 10.1.1.10.
6. Leave The First Boot Host IP address setting of 0.0.0.0.
7. Enter The First Configuration Host IP address of 10.1.1.2. This is the
same AS/400 system that contains the Flash card image.
8. Enter the correct IP address information for the fields; Gateway IP
Address, Subnet Mask. The Broadcast IP address should default to the
correct setting.
9. Press Enter.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
10.Press PF4 (Set Boot Parameters).
11.Type kernel.Z in the Boot File field.
12.Leave the TFTP Boot Directory blank.
13.In the NFS Boot Directory field, enter /local/. This forces the Network
Station to load the kernel from the Flash card image.
14.In the Boot Host Protocol section, disable TFTP order and NFS order by
typing a D next to the corresponding field.
15.Enter 1 next to the local order field.
16.Press Enter.
17.Press PF5 (Set Configuration Parameters).
18.Enter flash.nsm in the Configuration file field.
19.Enter in the Configuration Directory: First field:
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/
20.Leave the Configuration Directory: Second field blank.
21.Select TFTP by using the left or right arrow keys in the Configuration Host
Protocol: First field.
22.Leave the Configuration Host Protocol: Second as default.
23.Press Enter.
24.Press Enter again to reboot the IBM Network Station.
The IBM Network Station now starts and loads the kernel from the Flash card
and the nsflash.nsm file (sourced from
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs) file points the Network Station to
the /local/mods/ directory on the Flash card from which the emulators and
ACTLogin code are loaded.
3.3.11 Verifying Functionality
Verify that the IBM Network Station loads the compressed kernel from the
Flash card (/local file system). You must watch the Network Station at start up
to obtain this information. It can be read from the display once the POST
(Power On Self Tests) are complete. The kernel loads from the Flash card very
quickly.
After, the Network Station has started and shown you the login display, sign
on with the user profile that you have already configured. This shows the
different emulator choices on the task bar. Start each emulator by pressing
the appropriate menu bar button.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
93
Provided that you entered the correct system information when configuring
the three emulators using the IBM Network Station Manager program, each
one starts and the appropriate system sign on display is shown.
Now, you must verify that the modules were loaded from the /local/mods
directory on the Flash card by reviewing the console log of the Network
Station.
Use the following steps to view the console log and verify that the modules
were loaded from the correct directory:
1. On the IBM Network Station press Alt + Shift + Home to start the console.
2. Click on the Messages button to view the log.
3. Use the vertical scroll bar to move up and down through the log file.
4. Please refer to the example in Figure 16 which shows in bold text the 5250
emulation executable modules being sourced from the /local/mods
directory on the Flash card.
Special Command Check, command = ns5250
NSK8202: loading libprapi from /local/mods/libprapi.nws
+ 0:00:08:27
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 libprapi 07/14/1998, PTF fix1998290'
NSK8202: loading libprxapi from /local/mods/libprxapi.nws
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 libprxapi 05/06/1998, PTF DRV190'
NSK8202: loading ns5250 from /local/mods/ns5250.nws
+ 0:00:08:32
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 ns5250 07/14/1998, PTF fix1998290'
+ 0:00:08:33
NSK5901: running command: ns5250 as1.mycompany.com
NSK8502: host "localhost" connected with blank authorization
+ 0:00:08:35
NSK0603: reading font file: /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/X11/fonts/pcf/i18n/Rom
8.iso1_UCS.pcf.Z
+ 0:00:08:36
NSK8202: loading sbcs_im from /loacl/mods/sbcs_im.nws
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 sbcs_im 05/06/1998, PTFDRV190'
Figure 16. Console Log Example: Loading the 5250 Emulator from the Flash Card
3.3.12 House Keeping
After you have confirmed that the IBM Network Station started successfully
and loaded the necessary modules from the Flash card, we recommend that
the flash.nsm file be cleaned up to prevent exposure to any security risks.
For example, several lines of text were added to the flash.nsm file to allow you
to access the local file manager to format the Flash card. You may also have
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
chosen to use the local file manager to copy files from the AS/400 IFS,
instead of using the NFS support.
Use the following steps to change the lines in the file flash.nsm to disable
access to the local file manager:
1. Open the file using a simple text editor.
2. Delete the following lines from the flash.nsm file:
set xserver-initial-x-resources =
"ncdconsole.disable.TerminalMenu: false"
set file-manager-password = password
3. Modify the line that reads:
set file-manager-access-control-enabled = true
to:
set file-manager-access-control-enabled = false
Note
During the previous steps, the NFS server daemon on the Network Station
was also enabled which allowed you to mount the Flash card file system onto
a directory in the IFS of your AS/400 system. If you intend to use the peer
boot functionality to boot and start other Network Stations from one Flash
card-enabled Network Station, then the NFS server daemon must be left
enabled. Otherwise, you can turn off the NFS server daemon by completing
step 4.
If support for peer booting is not required, follow these steps:
4. Modify the line that reads:
set file-enable-nfs-server = true
to:
set file-enable-nfs-server = false
5. Save the file as flash.nsm into the same directory,
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs.
3.3.13 Flash Card Boot Summary
In this section, you created an image in a separate directory in the AS/400
IFS that contained all of the files that were placed onto the Flash card. A new
file called, flash.nsm, was created and placed into the
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs directory. This file reads the
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
95
standard.nsm file and then overrides the values necessary to enable Flash
booting. The image was tested by reading the flash.nsm file and directing the
Network Station, using NVRAM, to load the files and executable modules
from the test image.
After the Network Station started and functioned correctly from the test
image, the Flash card was formatted and the test image was copied to the
Flash card, using either NFS or the local file manager on the Network Station.
Subsequently, file modifications were made to the flash.nsm and boot.nsl files
to load the executable modules from the card, rather than from the test image
in the IFS.
The Flash card boot sequence was tested and verified to ensure that the
Network Station was using the Flash card correctly.
Finally, lines that are not required for every day use were removed from the
flash.nsm file.
The Network Station was restarted again to ensure that the changes to the
flash.nsm file did not adversely affect operation.
3.4 Peer Booting with 5250, 3270, and VTxxx Support
The availability of Flash card support in Release 3 also brings the added
functionality of starting other IBM Network Stations from a single Flash card.
Peer boot allows multiple IBM Network Stations located at a remote site (for
example, over a slow or highly utilized WAN) to boot from a single Flash card
located in another IBM Network Station local to them.
Initial start-up performance for as many as 10 IBM Network Stations booting
simultaneously from a single Flash card located in a Network Station on a
LAN is quite acceptable.
When Peer boot is utilized, the peer IBM Network Stations load either some
or all of the startup files and the executable modules from the serving
Network Station, for example, the Network Station with the Flash card.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
3.4.1 Scenario Objectives
In this scenario, we want to accomplish the following objectives:
• Configure a Network Station to boot from another Network Station
containing a Flash card.
• Load the executable modules required for 5250, 3270 and VTxxx
emulators from the Flash card.
• Use ACTLogin and server separation to authenticate the user at the
central site.
• Load the user configuration, fonts and other volatile data from the central
site, allowing the data to be maintained centrally.
Central AS/400
Flash Card Enabled
IBM Network Station
Central S/390
Code sourced from
flash card enabled
Network Station
Remote
Location
Central Location
WAN Link
Central RS/6000
Peer Boot
IBM Network Station
Figure 17. Peer Boot Topology Diagram
3.4.2 Scenario Advantages
This scenario has the following advantages:
• Users at the remote location experience fast boot up times using peer
boot.
• The executable modules are contained on the Flash card in the serving
Network Station, and are not loaded over the WAN.
• The WAN traffic is reduced.
• User configuration data and preferences remains on the central system,
simplifying the management of the data.
• User authentication is maintained and conducted on the central system.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
97
• Only one Flash card is required at each remote location in this case.
• Multiple Network Stations peer boot from the serving Network Station
without performance degradation.
3.4.3 Scenario Disadvantages
This scenario has the following disadvantages:
• There is no automated central management of the Flash Cards.
The system administrator must ensure that the Flash Cards are updated
when any new applicable releases and/or Network Station PTFs are
applied to the host system.
• The Flash card is a single point of failure for the remote user.
To improve availability, send a second identical Flash card to the remote
site.
• In the event of a Flash card failure, the NVRAM settings cannot be easily
changed from local peer boot to server boot.
To enable the IBM Network Station to peer boot from another Network
station containing a Flash card, the settings in NVRAM must be modified.
It may not be a simple task for the end user to change these settings back
(without assistance) in the event of a Flash card failure.
3.4.4 Network Configuration Scenario
This scenario is similar to the previous Flash Boot section. Once again ,we do
not care what type of WAN link that bridges the central business computers
with the remote office. This link is of any type, such as dial up serial or Frame
Relay, as long as it supports the TCP/IP communication protocol.
However, this link is deemed to be of minimum bandwidth or is perhaps close
to being congested and, therefore, unsuitable for larger file transfers. The
Flash-card-enabled IBM Network Station acts as a server to the other IBM
Network Stations located on the same LAN. The Flash-card-enabled IBM
Network Station serves the kernel and other base operating system code to
the peer Network Station, as well as the executable modules required to run
the different emulators.
The Flash-card-enabled Network Station suffers performance degradation
while it serves the kernel and base code to one or more peer Network
Stations. After the file transfer is complete, the Flash-card-enabled Network
Station continues to function as normal.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
The peer Network Station authenticates and load volatile data from the
central AS/400 system in the same manner as the Flash-card enabled
Network Station.
AS/400
Flash Card Enabled
IBM Network Station
S/390
.2
.10
WAN Link
.3
Code sourced from
flash card enabled
Network Station
Network Address:
10.1.1.x
Subnet mask:
255.255.255.0
RS/6000
.4
Aunthentication,
user preferences & fonts
sourced from the Central
AS/400.
.11
Peer Boot
IBM Network Station
Figure 18. Peer Boot Detailed Network Topology
3.5 Task Summary
To enable an IBM Network Station to load the start-up code and executable
modules from a serving Network Station (for example, Peer Boot), the
following steps must be completed:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Verify Prerequisites.
Planning Considerations.
Modify the existing Flash boot Network Station.
Create a peer boot configuration file.
Configure the peer boot Network Station.
Test the network Station.
3.5.1 Planning Considerations
Because of the limitations of using a Flash card (such as storage size) to boot
the IBM Network Stations, consider the following points:
• What Flash card size is required to support the functions?
For example, does each user require the same emulation function in the
remote office where the Flash card and peer boot functionality is
deployed?
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
99
If each user using different functions, for example one person requires the
Netscape browser, while another requires 5250 and 3270 emulation, then
these modules should reside on the Flash card to reduce network traffic
and load time.
• Is there a mixture of Series 100/300 and Series 1000 Network stations
peer booting from the serving Network Station?
If there is a mixture of Series 100/300 and Series 1000 Network Stations,
should more than one serving Network Station be deployed. Series 1000
requires a different kernel (and other modules) which can exceed the size
limitation of the Flash card.
It is recommended that the Series 1000 Network Stations peer boot from a
separate serving Network Station.
• Is redundancy required?
If all of the people in the remote office are peer booting from one Network
Station, then, this system is a single point of failure. A back up Network
Station, already configured with another Flash card, should be ready for
use if the need arises.
3.5.2 Modifying Existing Flash Boot Network Station Configuration
This scenario assumes you have already configured and tested, or have an
existing Network Station that boots or starts from an installed Flash card. If
you have not already done so, refer to Section 3.2, “Booting from a Flash
Card with 5250, 3270, and VTxxx Support” on page 69.
A change must be made to the flash.nsm file which is read from the central
AS/400 system. This file must be edited to allow peer boot support.
Use the following steps to enable peer boot support on the serving Network
Station which already has the Flash card installed:
1. Edit the file flash.nsm, which is located in the directory
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs. Add the following lines of text
after the read standard.nsm statement:
set file-enable-nfs-server = true
set file-export-directory-list = { { "/peerboot" "/local" } }
set file-nfs-access-control-default = read-only
2. Close and save the file.
3. Restart the Network Station that contains the Flash card to invoke the NFS
server daemon.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
3.5.3 Creating a Peer Boot Configuration File
A new file must be created in /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs, called
peer.nsm , to distinguish it from the flash.nsm file.
This file overrides the normal settings with those required to redirect the
Network Station to load executable modules from the Flash card Network
Station.
An example of the peer.nsm file is shown in Figure 19.
# peer.nsm - place into the /local/configs on the Flash card
#
#Set up the file service table to access the server
set file-service-table = {
{ "/netstation/prodbase/configs/" nil 10.1.1.30 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/"
unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
{ "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/" nil 10.1.1.30 tftp
"/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/" unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
{ "/netstation/prodbase/" nil 10.1.1.30 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/" unix 3 120 4096
4096 }
{ "/QIBM/ProdData/" nil 10.1.1.30 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/" unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
}
# Read the base configuration files on the server.
read standard.nsm
#
# Make the necessary mods to the base values
set boot-desired-source = nfs
set boot-second-source = none
set boot-third-source = none
set exec-startup-commands = {
{mcuis }
{ "actlogin -authserv 10.1.1.30" }
}
set file-try-all-matches-on-open = true
#
# Set up to get Java modules, if any from the Flash card
set java-directory = /peerboot/java
#
# Setup to get executable modules from the Flash card
set modules-directory = /peerboot/mods
Figure 19. Example Peer.nsm File
The peer.nsm file must be placed in to the following path on the serving
AS/400: /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
101
3.5.4 Configuring the Peer Boot Network Station
The NVRAM settings on the peer Network Station must be modified to direct
it to load the kernel and other configuration data from the Network Station
containing the Flash card.
Use the following steps to modify the NVRAM settings on the peer Network
Station:
1. Reset NVRAM on the IBM Network Station.
We highly recommend that you reset NVRAM to the factory defaults before
making any major change to the configuration of the IBM Network Station.
2. Power on the IBM Network Station. The IBM logo is shown, followed by a
memory and keyboard check.
3. After seeing the message, NS0500 Search for Host System, press ESC to
stop the start-up sequence.
If prompted for an administrator password, enter it now. This is the
password an administrator can set using the IBM Network Station
Manager program.
4. Invoke the IBM Network Station Boot Monitor program by pressing the
following key sequence:
• For 101/102 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt + Left Ctrl. Press F1.
• For 5250/3270 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt. Press F1.
a. Enter NV at the Boot Monitor prompt (>) to access the NVRAM utility.
b. Enter L to reset the NVRAM.
c. Enter S to save the defaults into NVRAM.
d. Enter Y to the question: Are you sure?
e. Enter Q to quit.
5. Enter SE (or press F1) from the boot monitor prompt to start the IBM
Network Station Setup Utility.
If you have powered the Network Station off after resetting NVRAM as
described these steps, power the Network Station on again. After seeing
the message, NS0500 Search for Host System, press ESC to stop the
start-up sequence.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
If prompted for an administrator password, enter it now (this is the
password an administrator can set using the IBM Network Station
Manager program).
6. Press PF3 (Set Network Parameters).
7. The Network parameters should default to NVRAM after the reset. To
change the IP Addressed from field from Network to NVRAM, use the right
arrow key.
8. Enter the Network Station IP address, in this scenario the IP address of
the Network Station is 10.1.1.11.
9. Enter The First Boot Host IP address of 10.1.1.10. This is the Flash card
enabled IBM Network Station.
10.Enter The First Configuration Host IP address of 10.1.1.2. This is the
serving AS/400.
11.Enter the correct IP address information for the fields; Gateway IP
Address, Subnet Mask. The Broadcast IP address should default to the
correct setting.
12.Press Enter.
13.Press PF4 (Set Boot Parameters).
14.Type kernel.Z in the Boot File field.
15.In the NFS Boot Directory field enter /peerboot/. This forces the Network
Station to load the kernel from the Flash card.
16.Leave the TFTP Boot Directory blank.
17.In the Boot Host Protocol section, disable TFTP order and Local order by
typing a D next to the corresponding field.
18.Enter 1 next to the NFS order field.
19.Press Enter.
20.Press PF5 (Set Configuration Parameters).
21.Enter peer.nsm in the Configuration file field.
22.Enter /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/ in the Configuration
Directory: First field.
23.Leave the Configuration Directory: Second field blank.
24.Select RFS/400 by using the left or right arrow keys in the Configuration
Host Protocol: First field.
25.Leave the Configuration Host Protocol: Second as Default.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
103
26.Press Enter.
27.Press Enter again to reboot the IBM Network Station.
The IBM Network Station starts and loads the kernel from the Flash card
located in the predefined IBM Network Station.
The file peer.nsm points the Network Station to the /local/mods directory from
which the emulators and ACTLogin code are loaded.
Please proceed to the next section to verify that the peer Network Station has
sourced the executable modules from the Flash card enabled Network
Station.
3.5.5 Verifying Functionality
After you have completed the configuration of the peer Network Station, you
must verify that the peer Network Station loaded the code from the Flash card
enabled Network Station.
The code, that should be sourced from the Flash card, is the kernel,
ACTLogin and executable modules such as the emulators.
Verify that the IBM Network Station loads the compressed kernel from the
Flash card (/peerboot file system). You must watch the Network Station at
start up to obtain this information. It can be read from the display once the
POST (Power On Self Tests) are complete. The kernel loads from the Flash
card very quickly.
After the Network Station has started up and presented you with the login
display, sign on with the user profile that you have already configured. The
different emulators choices are shown on the task bar. Start each emulator by
pressing the appropriate menu bar button.
Assuming that you have entered the correct system information when
configuring the three emulators using the IBM Network Station Manager
program, each one starts and shows the appropriate system sign on display.
Verify that the modules were in fact loaded from the /peerboot/mods directory
on the Flash card, by reviewing the console log of the Network Station.
Use the following steps to view the console log and verify the modules are
loaded from the correct directory.
1. On the IBM Network Station, press Alt + Shift + Home to start the
console.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
2. Click on the Messages button to view the log.
3. Use the vertical scroll bar to move up and down the log file.
4. Please refer to the example in Figure 20, which shows in bold text the
5250 emulation executable modules being sourced from the
/peerboot/mods directory on the Flash card.
Special Command Check, command = ns5250
NSK8202: loading libprapi from /peerboot/mods/libprapi.nws
+ 0:00:08:27
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 libprapi 07/14/1998, PTF
fix1998290'
NSK8202: loading libprxapi from /peerboot/mods/libprxapi.nws
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 libprxapi 05/06/1998, PT
F DRV190'
NSK8202: loading ns5250 from /peerboot/mods/ns5250.nws
+ 0:00:08:32
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 ns5250 07/14/1998, PTF f
ix1998290'
+ 0:00:08:33
NSK5901: running command: ns5250 as1.mycompany.com
NSK8502: host "localhost" connected with blank authorization
+ 0:00:08:35
NSK0603: reading font file: /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/X11/fonts/pcf/i18n/Rom
8.iso1_UCS.pcf.Z
+ 0:00:08:36
NSK8202: loading sbcs_im from /loacl/mods/sbcs_im.nws
NSK8203: loaded 'IBM Network Station model 8361 V1.3.0 sbcs_im 05/06/1998, PTF
DRV190'
Figure 20. Peer Boot Loading of the 5250 Emulator from the Flash Card
3.5.6 Peer Boot Summary
In this scenario, we had an existing Flash-card-enabled IBM Network Station
that we used to serve the kernel and executable modules to another locally
attached (for example, on the same LAN) IBM Network Station.
First, we changed the flash.nsm file to enable NFS and peer boot support.
Subsequently, we built a new file, called peer.nsm, which contained the
necessary parameters to redirect the peer booting Network Station to the
correct target to find the files.
We reset the peer boot Network Stations NVRAM and entered new data in
NVRAM to force it to look on the Flash card in the serving Network Station for
boot code.
Using Flash Cards with the Network Station
105
We started the peer boot Network Station and checked the system logs to
ensure there were no errors and the Network Station was obtaining the
executable modules from the serving Network Station’s Flash card.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Chapter 4. Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
This chapter describes how the split boot feature can be used in different
scenarios. These scenarios range from basic to advanced configurations.
Please notice that not all of the configurations may apply to your own
organization. A mixture of scenarios may better suite your needs.
4.1 Terminology for this Chapter
The following list briefly defines the terms used in this chapter:
Base code server
This server provides the IBM Network Station with its kernel and
support files.
Terminal-based configuration server
This server provides the IBM Network Station with its terminal-based
configuration settings (see below).
Authentication and configuration server
The server is where the IBM Network Station authenticates. It is
provided with its user-based configuration settings.
Terminal-based configuration settings
These settings affect the hardware configuration globally and does not
pertain to any particular user. Any user default can override these
settings.
User-based configuration settings
These setting provide information about each users configuration. The
IBM Network Station Manager program stores this information.
Configuration host IP address
This is a value that controls from which IP address the IBM Network
Station gets its terminal based settings.
Authentication and configuration
The process that the IBM Network Station performs against the
authentication server. Once the user is validated, the IBM Network
Station gets the user-based configuration settings from the same
server.
4.2 Boot Sequence
The following list summarizes each step involved in the Boot sequence (as
shown in Figure 21 on page 108).
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
107
1. Acquire IP address: It may be already configured into NVRAM or it may
be acquired from a DHCP or BOOTP server.
2. Get the kernel: The IBM Network Station gets the kernel using several
available protocols (tftp, nfs, or local) from the base code server
3. Get the configuration files: Usually the standard.nsm file from the base
code server. However, it can be configured to get this file from another
server.
4. Get the support files: This loads the needed support files to initialize the
Network Station.
5. Display log-on display: This gets the actlogin.nws and displays the login
dialog on the Network Station.
6. Authentication and configuration process: This validates the user ID
against the default (or otherwise stated) server and gets the configuration
files that belong to the validating user from the same server.
A c q u ir e
G e t th e
G e t th e
f ile s
G e t th e
IP
a d d re s s
k e rn e l
c o n f ig u r a tio n
s u p p o r t file s
D is p la y lo g - o n
s c re e n
A u th e n t ic a t io n
C o n f ig u r a t io n
&
Figure 21. Boot Sequence
4.3 Split Boot Feature
The split boot feature lets you break out the different functions, for example,
through separation of servers that the IBM Network Station Manager product
would perform on one server as default.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
These functions are:
• Base code server
• Terminal-based configuration server
• Authentication and configuration server
The separation of server function in Release 3 allows you to use the split boot
feature if you have multiple servers in your organization. The reasons for
separating these functions can vary from site to site. The following items are
some reasons why you would separate these function:
• Server consolidation
You may want to consolidate all your user data and configuration files on
one server.
• Flash boot
Flash cards can only provide basic Boot services. As a result the user
authentication and configuration files have to be obtained from other
servers.
• Roaming
When you have mobile users, you have the ability for the user to logon with
his user-based terminal configuration at any location that supports
roaming.
• Load balancing
You may find that a segment or part of your network is not performing. To
improve performance you may want to add a server locally, but keep other
functions at another site.
4.4 Server Consolidation
In this scenario, we provide an example discussion with a common challenge,
server consolidation strategies after initial deployment of IBM Network
Stations. You may encounter this situation after deploying the IBM Network
Station across your network if your company decides to centralize computing
resources, hardware, personnel, and so on.
4.4.1 Scenario Objectives
The following objectives must be achieved to consolidate servers:
1. Start with a distributed configuration and move to a centralized one.
2. Change the authentication and configuration server.
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
109
3. Migrate the user-based configuration and data of the users to the new
server.
4.4.2 Scenario Overview
In Figure 22, site A, which is the central location (perhaps, headquarters) is
connected to the other sites starting from site B, C and so on. In our example,
we assume that the initial implementation involved remote boot servers,
because the sites were autonomous.
10.1.2.3
10.1.1.2
10.1.2.4
Base code server
Terminal-based configs server
Authentication and configuration server
Site A
10.1.x.x
Site B
10.2.x.x
10.3.2.2
10.3.2.3
Site D
Site C
Base code server
Terminal-based configs server
Authentication and configuration server
10.3.x.x
10.4.x.x
10.3.1.2
Figure 22. Distributed Server Topology
This is a very common setup because this is how the IBM Network Station
Manager program is configured by default. As more Network Stations are
deployed, managing many end-user configurations at many sites can become
unmanageable. A strategy for improving the management is to split the
configuration and authentication from the boot code server. In our example,
we concentrate on site C. If needed, the process can be repeated for the
other sites as well. As shown in Figure 23 on page 111, the authentication
and configuration for users at site C are redirected to the central server at site
A.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
10.1.2.3
10.1.2.4
10.1.1.2
Base code server
Terminal-based configs server
Authentication and configuration server
Site A
10.1.x.x
Site B
10.2.x.x
10.3.2.2
10.3.2.3
Site D
Site C
Base code server
10.3.x.x
10.4.x.x
10.3.1.2
Figure 23. Consolidated Server Topology
4.4.3 Consolidating Servers
To consolidate our authentication and configuration servers, perform the
following steps:
1. Change the site C server configuration files to point to the site A server for
authentication and configuration, logon to the site C system as an
administrator.
2. Copy the authentication and configuration files to a PC using FTP or
CA/400 (Client Access/400).
3. Edit the defaults.dft file in QIBM/ProdData/Networkstation/Configs
directory.
4. Add the following statement and ensure that it is the only occurrence of
the statement:
set exec-startup-commands = {
{ mcuis }
{ "actlogin -authserv 10.1.1.2" }
}
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
111
In this example, 10.1.1.2 is used in the previous parameter because it is
our centralized server’s IP address.
After the above steps are completed, users authentication and
configuration files come from the centralized server at site A.
Migrate the group or users configuration and data from site C to site A.
Site C has the users shown in Figure 24:
• ITSCIDGRPA
• ITSCIDGRPB
• Both belong to group ITSCIDGRP
Figure 24. Users and User Group
5. To view the attributes of user ITSCIDGRPA, type a 2 under the Opt column
on the line to the left of ITSCIDGRPA.
6. Press F10 to see more options.
7. Page down once. Notice that the group profile value, ITSCIDGRP,
indicates that the user belongs to that group.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 25. User ITSCIDGRPA
Now create the group profile on site A by completing the following steps:
8. Sign on to the site A AS/400 system using an administrator user ID.
9. At the command line enter the following command and press F4:
CRTUSRPRF
10.Type ITSCIDGRP in the user profile field.
11.The password field should be *NONE, because this is a group profile.
12.Type in a text description for this group.
This should result in a display similar to Figure 26 on page 114.
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
113
Figure 26. Group Creation
Now create the users profile:
13.Type the following command on a command line and press F4.
CRTUSRPRF
14.Type ITSCIDGRPA in the user profile field.
15.Type the password in the password field. Ensure that it is the same
password on the old system. If it is not, inform the user of the new
password.
16.Type the description in the User class field.
17.Press F10 for more options.
18.Page down to scroll down.
19.Type in a user description in the text description field.
20.Go back to step 13 and create user profile ITSCIDGRPB.
The following figures show the creation of user profile ITSC10GRPA.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 27. User’s Attributes (Part 1 of 2)
Figure 28. User’s Attribute (Part 2 of 2)
Now we need to migrate configurations and data.
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
115
We are going to use a PC with Windows 95 and CA/400 connected to an
AS/400 in this example. To continue, we need to have the AS/400
connections folder from CA/400 already configured.
21.Select Tools from the Explorer menu.
22.Select the Map Network Drive menu option.
23.Map any available drive letter to the site C host name preceded by two
backslashes. In our example, it is drive F: to \\MYSERVER.
24.Map any available drive letter to the site A host name preceded by two
backslashes. In our case, it is drive G: to \\MYSERVER. In both cases, you
can leave the Reconnect at logon option unchecked
25.Start with the group’s configuration files on the site C server. Select F:—>
QIBM —> UserData —> NetworkSation —> Groups —> ITSCIDGRP
folder on the left pane. Press the right mouse button over the folder and
select Copy.
26.Select G:—> QIBM —> UserData —> NetworkSation —> Groups
folder on the left pane. On the right pane right-click over a white area and
select Paste, as shown in Figure 29 on page 117.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 29. Paste Group’s Configuration Files
The group configuration files should be copied, as shown in Figure 30 on
page 118.
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
117
Figure 30. Resulting Group’s Configuration Files
In the next steps, the user configuration files are copied.
27.Select the F:—> QIBM —> UserData —> NetworkStation —> Users
—> TSCIDGRPA folder on the left pane. Press the right mouse button
over the folder and select Copy.
28.Select the G:—> QIBM —> UserData —> NetworkStation —> Users
folder on the left pane. On the right pane right-click over a white area and
select Paste.
29.Repeat the above two steps using ITSCIDGRPB. Select the F:—>
QIBM—> UserData —> NetworkStation —> Users —> TSCIDGRPB
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
folder on the left pane. Press the right mouse button over the folder and
select Copy.
30.Select the G:—> QIBM —> UserData —> NetworkStation —> Users
folder on the left pane. On the right pane, right-click over a white area and
select Paste.
31.Finally you have to copy both user data folders, which are in F:—> QIBM
—> UserData —> NetworkStation —> Home —> ITSCIDGRPA and
F:—> QIBM—> UserData —> NetworkStation —> Home —>
TSCIDGRPB. These subdirectories may not exist. If they do, proceed
through steps 32 through 35.
32.Starting with ITSCIDGRPA. Select the F:—> QIBM—> UserData —>
NetworkStation—> Home —>I TSCIDGRPA folder on the left pane.
Press the right mouse button over the folder and select Copy.
33.Select the G:—> QIBM—> UserData —> NetworkStation —> Home
folder on the left pane. On the right pane, right-click over a white area and
select Paste.
34.Now user ITSCIDGRPB. Select the F:—> QIBM —> UserData —>
NetworkStation —> Home —> ITSCIDGRPB folder on the left pane.
Press the right mouse button over the folder and select Copy.
35.Select the G:—> QIBM —> UserData —> NetworkStation —> Home
folder on the left pane. On the right pane right-click over a white area and
select Paste.
As a result of doing the above tasks, the distributed users in site C can
boot locally from their server, but are managed (for example,
authenticated) from the central server at site A.
Note
Be careful not to overwrite other user’s data that may exist.
For example, let us assume that before doing the migration, you have a
user called cashier1 defined on AS/400 systems at site A and B. When you
try to migrate cashier1’s configuration from site B to site A, you will
overwrite Site A cashier1’s configuration because they both sit at
\QIBM\UserData\NetworkStation\users\cashier1 or
\QIBM\UserData\NetworkStation\groups\cashier1. Be sure to plan ahead
and choose your user profile names carefully.
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
119
4.5 Roaming Feature
The roaming feature allows mobile users (for example, users that are not at
their home systems) to use the facilities of a remote system to access their
local user-based terminal setup.
At the Network Station login dialog screen or display there is a Roam button
that allows you to locate your home configuration files. The user that is
visiting New York can still authenticate and get his desktop settings from his
home server in Chicago and boot from the local system, therefore, saving
management overhead, bandwidth utilization, and time.
Roaming Example
New York
10.1.1.2
Chicago 10.2.1.2
Authentication
& Validation
Server
DHCP/BOOT Server
Base Code Server
Terminal Configuration Server
10.1.1.3
Figure 31. Roaming Example
In Figure 31, a user from Chicago is visiting the New York site. There are
servers in both Chicago and New York.
The server in New York provides the following to the Network Station:
•
•
•
•
120
The IBM NetworkStation’s IP address
The operating system and applications
The terminal-based configuration information
A login dialog or display
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
After the Network Station has booted up, the visiting user selects the Roam
button on the login dialog. The user then enters the name or address of the
Chicago authentication server (such as nsm1chicago.mycompany.com or
10.2.1.2).
As a result, the Chicago authentication server validate or authenticates the
user ID and password entered, and downloads any user based configuration
information.
Although the IBM Network Station Manager program on the server in Chicago
manages the user-based configuration information, the IBM Network Station
Manager program on the New York server manages the terminal-based user
configuration.
Roam Feature and Configuration Host IP Address from NVRAM
Although it seems that Roam feature and the configuration host IP address
from NVRA are essentially the same, this is not actually the case. The
configuration host IP address is static and the Roam feature is dynamic.
The Roam feature is for mobile users that want to login to a remote system
and access their desktop configuration (user-based settings) wherever they
are. On the other hand, the configuration host IP address option in the
hardware setup utility is used to obtain terminal-based configuration
settings. These two features are not the same and cannot be used
interchangeably.
4.5.1 Managing User Configurations at Each Remote Site
There are basically three strategies for building and maintaining user
configurations at remote sites.
4.5.1.1 Fully Centralized Configuration
In this basic model (see Figure 32 on page 122), the Network Stations obtain
everything from the centralized server.
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
121
Distributed Configuration
Central Site
Remote Sites
NSM
Boot Code
ConfigurationFiles
Authentication
High Speed
Connection
(T1 or better)
Networkstations
Figure 32. Fully Centralized Configuration
The advantages for this strategy are:
•
•
•
•
Centralized server management
Centralized configuration for all clients
Fewer servers to deploy and manage
Reduced hardware costs (due to fewer servers)
However, there are several significant disadvantages:
• A very high bandwidth connection between the sites (T1 or better) is
needed.
• If the link goes down, the central site is unavailable.
• The time required to download the operating system to the Network
Station could be 10 to 20 minutes, even on a 56k line.
Although the above configuration may apply to some customers, it is not
common for a Network Station implementation. This is a common
configuration for NPTs connected to a mainframe. The main disadvantage of
the this scenario, is that if the link goes down, your remote sites are rendered
useless.
122
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
4.5.1.2 Remote Boot with Centralized Configurations
This example, is perhaps the most common configuration (see Figure 33).
Distributed Configuration
Central Site
Remote Sites
Boot Code
Boot Code
NSM
ConfigurationFiles
Authentication
High Speed
Connection
(T1 or better)
Networkstations
Boot Code
Figure 33. Remote Reboot with Centralized Configurations
By deploying a boot server at each remote site, we get better usage of the
remote and local bandwidth available. We use the remote bandwidth to get
the configuration files from the central server and the local LAN to get the
base code. In this scenario, the user configuration settings are still centralized
on the main server.
The advantages of this strategy are:
• Centralized configuration management
• Lower bandwidth connection
• Faster boot
The disadvantages for this strategy are:
• More hardware is needed
• Somewhat decentralized (more servers to manage, potentially one per
site)
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
123
4.5.1.3 Remote Boot Servers Provide All Functions
Remote boot servers are used to provide all functions (such as boot,
authentication, and so on) to the Network Station.
The advantages for this strategy are:
• Independent from central authentication servers (for example, if the link
goes down)
• Smaller bandwidth required
• Faster bootup
• Remote servers can be used to deploy other applications
The disadvantages for this strategy are:
• More hardware required
• More servers to deploy and manage
4.5.2 Centralized versus Distributed
If you have a distributed site model, it can appear as shown in Figure 34.
D istributed M odel
S ite A
S ite C
S ite B
S ite D
Figure 34. Distributed Model
In this example, you can see that each of the sites is connected by some kind
of WAN link that enables them to share information. Each of the sites is
independent having the applications, configuration and data locally. While this
usually brings a high level of availability, it also brings a high level of
management overhead, thus increasing the total cost of ownership.
124
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
If you are using a centralized model, it can appear as shown in the Figure 35.
Centralized Model
Site A
Site B
Site C
Site D
Figure 35. Centralized Model
In Figure 35, every site is connected to site A and every remote site has a
local server. For example, a bank or insurance company may keep their
branch office data local (for example, in the remote servers), but may transfer
updated statistics or prices from the central location. Another variation can
result because of the size of the different remote branches. While large
remote branches may have a server, like an AS/400 system, for booting
Network Stations. For applications serving, smaller branches may have a PC
Server or no server at all. They may boot from a Flash card, and then transfer
the rest of the code from the central site.
The examples in this chapter depict relatively few remote sites. However, you
may have hundreds or thousands of remote sites in your enterprise. In this
case, it is even more critical to do the appropriate planning before
implementation.
Your current situation and future business needs dictate which of the models
discussed in this chapter are best suited your environment. Each has its
Remote Servers and Split Boot Servers
125
advantages and disadvantages. In general, the distributed model is the
opposite.
The advantages of the centralized model are:
•
•
•
•
Less management overhead
Reduced hardware costs
Reduced hardware deployment costs
Reduced application deployment costs
The disadvantages of the centralized model are:
• Some data or applications may not be accessible if the link goes down .
• Increased communication costs (for example, higher bandwidth).
• Increased cost in communication hardware.
126
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Chapter 5. Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
The non-programmable terminal (NPT) has, traditionally, been one of the user
interfaces to an AS/400 system. The NPT’s limited capabilities however, has
prevented it from connecting to an intranet or Internet. For such connectivity,
a personal computer (PC) would be considered but with an associated cost
for PC hardware, software, on-going maintenance, support costs and possibly
additional wiring. A low cost solution is needed in an environment where NPT
users may require internet access. The answers, for this scenario, came
initially with the ability to run the TCP/IP protocol encapsulated within
Twinaxial Data Link Control frames (available with V4R2 OS/400) and
secondly with the availability of the IBM Network Station Twinax models.
5.1 Use of Twinax Attached Network Stations
In AS/400 twinax environments, where there is a need to upgrade the existing
NPTs for increased function, the IBM Network Station Twinax model is a
solution worth considering.
For customers choosing the IBM Network Station Twinax model, it is easier
to:
• Take advantage of the cost-effectiveness of NPTs with simultaneous
access to applications using 5250, 3270, or VTxxx emulation.
• Use company intranets or the Internet using the NC Navigator.
• Access Windows applications using a multi-user Windows NT based
server.
These same customers can consider the following points:
• No twinax rewiring is needed.
• No additional hardware changes are required on the AS/400 system.
• Having a mixture of NPTs, PCs and Network Stations on the same AS/400
workstation controller.
If the IBM Network Station Twinax model is considered, the customer must
understand that:
• Some AS/400 TCP/IP knowledge is required for the setup of these twinax
Network Stations.
• The twinax Network Station cannot act as a primary console. However, it
can operate as a secondary console.
• The twinax Network Station cannot be attached to an IBM 5494, 5394, or
5294 remote workstation controller.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
127
For further information regarding the IBM Network Station Twinax model, visit
the Web site: http://www.pc.ibm.com/networkstation. Clicking on the Support
and Services tab will present a link to the IBM Network Station Release 3.0,
which contains detailed information on the Model 341.
5.2 AS/400 Software Requirements
The AS/400 software must meet the following requirements:
• OS/400 level must be V4R2 or higher
• Cumulative PTF package C8140420 or later
5.3 AS/400 Hardware Requirements
Both the express and non-express types of work station controllers can be
used in an environment to support IBM Network Station Twinax models.
The non-express adapters, which were available on systems before V4R1,
are types 6050 and 6140.
The express adapters include:
• 2720 (also known as a 266C)
• 2722
• 6180
In general, all work station controllers (WSC), shipped since V4R1, have at
least one of the above express adapters installed.
There are a number of distance limitations on any twinax workstation
controller when used in express mode. Refer to the following Web site for
further information: www.networking.ibm.com/525xpres/525xwire.html
5.4 Basic IP over Twinax Scenario
This particular scenario shows how to get started with IP over twinax. It
demonstrates how to configure a simple environment where one AS/400
system has IBM Network Stations attached by way of twinax.
This scenario attaches the twinax IBM Network Stations to a local workstation
controller on the AS/400 system. The local workstation controller is CTL01,
which also supports the system console.
128
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
5.4.1 Scenario Overview
This scenario shows an example of a twinaxial Network Station subnet
attached to an AS/400 system. This same AS/400 server has connectivity to
a LAN.
There is a minimum configuration needed on the Network Stations and some
TCP/IP configuration required on the AS/400 system. A private set of IP
addresses is used for the twinax subnet.
5.4.2 Scenario Objectives
The objectives of this scenario are to:
• Configure the twinax attached IBM Network Stations.
• Configure the AS/400 server to allow connectivity of these twinax IBM
Network Stations.
5.4.3 Scenario Advantages
The advantages of this scenario are:
• It is easy to implement.
• The twinax-attached Network Stations can access the Web server on the
AS/400 system (if configured). An express adapter, although not
mandatory, is recommended in this type of configuration.
5.4.4 Scenario Disadvantages
The disadvantages of this scenario are:
• No consideration has been given to the future growth of the TCP/IP
network on the AS/400 server.
• Some TCP/IP knowledge is required to configure the necessary elements
on the AS/400 system.
• The twinax attached Network Stations cannot communicate with any hosts
beyond the AS/400 server.
5.4.5 Scenario Network Configuration
Figure 36 on page 130 shows the network topology of the simple TCP/IP
network. The AS/400 system has connectivity only to an internal LAN. A
different network is used for the twinax subnet. This network is 10.10.10.0.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
129
.2
Intranet LAN
10.1.1.0
As2.mycompany.com
.1
*WSC
Twinax Subnet
Subnet ID: 10.10.10.0
Mask: 255.255.255.0
Figure 36. TCP/IP Network Topology for Basic IP over Twinax Scenario
5.4.6 Task Summary
The following tasks are required to implement this scenario:
1. Define a TCP/IP address range to use on the twinax subnet.
2. Configure and start the IBM Network Station.
3. Configure an AS/400 IP interface as determined by messages logged in
the QSYSOPR message queue.
5.4.7 Defining a TCP/IP Address Range
For this scenario, any IP addresses can be assigned to the twinax subnet as
the addresses are not externalized beyond the AS/400 server. The IP network
associated with the AS/400 LAN card are not used. In this example, a
network of 10.10.10.0 is used for the twinax subnet.
5.4.8 Configuring and Starting the IBM Network Station
It is assumed that you have cabled the twinax IBM Network Stations correctly.
If you are replacing non-programmable terminals (NPT) with the twinax IBM
Network Station, you should notice the twinax address and port that the
original NPT was using. In most cases, you should be able to use the same
port and address for the replacement IBM Network Station.
If you plan to use both NPTs and twinax IBM Network Stations on the same
workstation controller, consider isolating the two types of terminals on
different ports. With the system console located on port 0, the twinax IBM
130
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Network Stations can be on port 1 or any other available port that does not
have NPT’s connected. This type of configuration is not mandatory but is
suggested for performance reasons.
When a twinax IBM Network Station is powered on for the first time, it
prompts you to specify the address to use for the port to which it is
connected. This is not the TCP/IP address. It is an address, from 0 through 6,
to use on the workstation controller port to which the IBM Network Station is
connected.
Follow these steps to configure the IBM Network Station to use over twinax:
1. Power on the IBM Network Station after it has been cabled correctly.
2. When prompted to do so, specify the local controller address to use (range
is from 0 to 6).
The IBM Network Station checks to see if any other device is using that
address. If not, the particular address is accepted. If the address is in use
by another device, a message Station Address in Use is displayed and
another address must be chosen. Proceed with choosing another address
(in the 0 to 6 range) until one is accepted.
If you are not prompted for an address, then one has already been defined
for the IBM Network Station. After the station powers up, bootup
messages are logged. On a twinax IBM Network Station, one of those
messages is NS0065 Twinaxial station address...x, where x is an address
from 0 to 6.
If an address has been defined, there may be other configuration
parameters present on the Network Station. For a twinax IBM Network
Station, limited configuration is required. If you suspect the Network
Station has been configured before, we recommend that you Reset
NVRAM with the following steps:
a. Power up the Network Station.
b. After NS0500 Search for Host System posts, press ESC to stop the
start-up sequence.
c. Press one of the following key sequences:
• For 101/102 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt + Left Ctrl. Press F1.
• For 5250/3270 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt. Press F1.
d. Enter NV at the Boot Monitor command prompt (>) to access the
NVRAM utility.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
131
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
Enter L to reset the NVRAM.
Enter S save the defaults into NVRAM.
Enter Y to the question: Are you sure?
Enter Q to quit.
Power the IBM Network Station off and then on again. It starts with the
factory settings and prompts you to input a station address.
If you only want to change the address, wait until the message NS0500
Search for Host System appears on the Network Station. Press Esc and
select option 8 (Set Twinax Station Address), from the IBM Network
Station Setup Utility menu.
3. The other change you must make, in the IBM Network Station Setup Utility,
select option 3 (Set Network Parameters). Either one of the following
settings works for this particular scenario:
• For NVRAM, set all of the addresses to 0.0.0.0.
• For Network, set DHCP IP Addressing Order set to Disabled and
BOOTP IP Addressing Order set to 1.
If you have chosen Network, ensure you have the BOOTP server started
on the AS/400 system. To start the server, enter the following command:
STRTCPSVR *BOOTP
5.4.9 Configuring an AS/400 IP Interface
After the necessary changes are made to the Network Station configuration
using the IBM Network Station Setup Utility, reboot the Network Station. The
boot up process logs messages NS0010 through to NS0500 Search for Host.
When the NS0500 message is logged, review the messages logged in the
QSYSOPR message queue on the AS/400 system. Similar messages, as
shown in Figure 37, should be posted.
Display Messages
Queue . . . . . :
Library . . . :
Severity . . . :
QSYSOPR
QSYS
90
System:
Program . . . . :
Library . . . :
Delivery . . . :
AS1
*DSPMSG
*HOLD
Type reply (if required), press Enter.
Automatic configuration created device description DSP02.
DSP02 cannot connect. TCP/IP interface not added for line QTDL824300.
Line QTDL824300 varied on successfully.
Controller QTDL8NET contacted on line QTDL824300.
Figure 37. Display of QSYSOPR Message Queue on AS/400 System
132
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Note
If the message NS0500 is logged on the Network Station and there are no
messages logged in QSYSOPR message queue, check the System Value
QAUTOCFG using the AS/400 command DSPSYSVAL QAUTOCFG. If this value is
set to OFF, change it to ON to connect and configure twinax IBM Network
Stations to your AS/400 system.
The QHST log on the AS/400 system has additional messages logged, as
shown in Figure 38.
5769SS1 V4R3M0 980729
History Log
MSGID
SEV MSG TYPE
CPC2622 00 COMPLETION Description for device DSP02 created.
QSYSARB
QSYS
004352
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPC2605 00 COMPLETION Vary on completed for device DSP02.
QSYSARB
QSYS
004352
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPC2630 00 COMPLETION Automatic configuration created device description DSP02.
QSYSARB
QSYS
004352
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPC2601 00 COMPLETION Line description QTDL824300 created.
QLUS
QSYS
004357
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPC2623 00 COMPLETION Description for controller QTDL8NET created.
QLUS
QSYS
004357
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPC2622 00 COMPLETION Description for device QTDL8TCP created.
QLUS
QSYS
004357
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPC2607 00 COMPLETION Vary on completed for line QTDL824300.
QLUS
QSYS
004357
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPC2609 00 COMPLETION Vary on completed for controller QTDL8NET.
QLUS
QSYS
004357
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPF5909 00 INFO
Line QTDL824300 varied on successfully.
QSYSARB
QSYS
004352
08/31/98 13:21:00
CPIB461 60 INFO
DSP02 cannot connect. TCP/IP interface not added for line
QTDL824300.
QSYSCOMM1 QSYS
004377
08/31/9813:21:00
CPF5908 00 INFO
Controller QTDL8NET contacted on line QTDL824300.
QSYSARB
QSYS
004352
08/31/98 13:21:01
Figure 38. Display of QHST Log on the AS/400 System
The system automatically creates a QTDLC line, controller and device. Figure
39 on page 134 shows the configuration status display of these auto-created
descriptors.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
133
Work with Configuration Status
AS1
08/31/98 13:28:21
Position to . . . . .
Starting characters
Type options, press Enter.
1=Vary on 2=Vary off 5=Work with job 8=Work with description
9=Display mode status
13=Work with APPN status...
Opt Description
Status
-------------Job-------------QTDL824300
ACTIVE
QTDL8NET
VARIED ON
QTDL8TCP
VARIED OFF
Figure 39. Configuration Status Display of Automatically Created QTDL Descriptors
Figure 40 shows the detail of the twinaxial data link control line description.
Display Line Description
AS1
08/31/98 13:28:52
Line description . . . . . . . . . :
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Category of line . . . . . . . . . :
QTDL824300
*BASIC
*TDLC
Attached work station ctl
Network controller . . . .
Online at IPL . . . . . .
Text . . . . . . . . . . .
CTL01
QTDL8NET
*NO
CREATED BY AUTO-CONFIGURATION
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
Figure 40. QTDL824300 Line Description
The system also creates a display device; in this case it is DSP02.
This device is created underneath the workstation controller (CTL01 in this
case) and its description is shown in Figure 41 on page 135.
134
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Display Device
5769SS1 V4R3M0 980729
Device description . . . . . . .
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Category of device . . . . . . .
Device class . . . . . . . . . .
Device type . . . . . . . . . .
Device model . . . . . . . . . .
Port number . . . . . . . . . .
Switch setting . . . . . . . . .
Online at IPL . . . . . . . . .
Attached controller . . . . . .
Keyboard language type . . . . .
Print device . . . . . . . . . .
Output queue . . . . . . . . . .
Printer file . . . . . . . . . .
Library . . . . . . . . . . .
Workstation customizing object .
Dependent location name . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
F3=Exit
F20=Right
F12=Cancel
F19=Left
Description
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Page
1
AS1
08/31/98 13:28:37
DEVD
DSP02
OPTION
*ALL
*DSP
DEVCLS
*LCL
TYPE
5150
MODEL
3
PORT
1
SWTSET
0
ONLINE
*YES
CTL
CTL01
KBDTYPE
USB
PRTDEV
*SYSVAL
OUTQ
*DEV
PRTFILE
QSYSPRT
*LIBL
WSCST
*NONE
DEPLOCNAME *NONE
F24=More keys
Figure 41. Automatically Created Device Type 5150 under CTL01
The next step is to create an IP interface for the automatically created TDLC
line. For this scenario, the TDLC line is QTDL824300. Complete the following
steps:
1. Type ADDTCPIFC on a command line and press F4.
2. Enter values for the Internet address (INTNETADR), Line description
(LIND) and Subnet mask (SUBNETMASK) parameters. In our scenario,
we used the values shown in Figure 42 on page 136.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
135
Add TCP/IP Interface (ADDTCPIFC)
Type choices, press Enter.
Internet address . . . . . . . .
Line description . . . . . . . .
Subnet mask . . . . . . . . . .
Associated local interface . . .
Type of service . . . . . . . .
Maximum transmission unit . . .
Autostart . . . . . . . . . . .
PVC logical channel identifier
+ for more values
X.25 idle circuit timeout . . .
X.25 maximum virtual circuits .
X.25 DDN interface . . . . . . .
TRLAN bit sequencing . . . . . .
10.10.10.1
QTDL824300 Name, *LOOPBACK, *VIRTUALIP
255.255.255.0
*NONE
*NORMAL
*MINDELAY, *MAXTHRPUT...
*LIND
576-16388, *LIND
*YES
*YES, *NO
001-FFF
F3=Exit F4=Prompt
F24=More keys
F12=Cancel
F5=Refresh
60
64
*NO
*MSB
1-600
0-64
*YES, *NO
*MSB, *LSB
Bottom
F13=How to use this display
Figure 42. Adding IP Interface for QTDLC824300 Line Description
3. Start the interface that you have created. Type the command CFGTCP and
then choose option 1 (Work with TCP/IP interfaces) as shown in Figure 43.
Work with TCP/IP Interfaces
System:
Type options, press Enter.
1=Add 2=Change 4=Remove
Internet
Opt Address
9
9.5.69.219
10.10.10.1
127.0.0.1
Subnet
Mask
5=Display
9=Start
AS1
10=End
Line
Line
Description Type
255.255.255.192 TRNLINE
255.255.255.0
QTDL824300
255.0.0.0
*LOOPBACK
*TRLAN
*TDLC
*NONE
Figure 43. Starting the Interface for the QTDLC824300 Line Description
4. Enter a 9 to start the 10.10.10.1 interface as shown in Figure 44 on page
137. Ensure that the status is Active by pressing F11.
If you return to the Network Station, the boot process should be
continuing. The TDLC component, on the AS/400 system, sends an
initiation link to the IBM Network Station. This initiation link contains:
136
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
• The TCP/IP address (in this scenario 10.10.10.2) assigned to the
Network Station.
• The IP address (in this scenario 10.10.10.1) for the Twinax interface.
• The Configuration Directory (in this scenario
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/)
The IBM Network Station updates its own NVRAM settings with the Boot
Host IP Address and Configuration Directory.
On the AS/400 system, the QTDLC line, controller and device are ACTIVE .
The configuration display is shown in Figure 44.
Work with Configuration Status
AS1
08/31/98 13:30:05
Position to . . . . .
Starting characters
Type options, press Enter.
1=Vary on 2=Vary off 5=Work with job 8=Work with description
9=Display mode status
13=Work with APPN status...
Opt Description
Status
-------------Job-------------QTDL824300
ACTIVE
QTDL8NET
ACTIVE
QTDL8TCP
ACTIVE
QTCPIP
QTCP
004427
Bottom
Parameters or command
===>
F3=Exit F4=Prompt F12=Cancel F23=More options F24=More keys
Figure 44. Configuration Status of QTDL824300 Line, Controller, and Device
The device description, DSP02, has also been updated to include the
assigned IP address. A detailed description of this device is shown in Figure
45 on page 138.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
137
Display Device Description
5769SS1 V4R3M0 980729
Device description . . . . . . . . : DEVD
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : OPTION
Category of device . . . . . . . . :
Device class . . . . . . . . . . . : DEVCLS
Device type . . . . . . . . . . . : TYPE
Device model . . . . . . . . . . . : MODEL
Port number . . . . . . . . . . . : PORT
Switch setting . . . . . . . . . . : SWTSET
Internet address. . . . . . . :
Online at IPL . . . . . . . . . . : ONLINE
Attached controller . . . . . . . : CTL
Keyboard language type . . . . . . : KBDTYPE
Print device . . . . . . . . . . . : PRTDEV
Output queue . . . . . . . . . . . : OUTQ
Printer file . . . . . . . . . . . : PRTFILE
Library . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Workstation customizing object . . : WSCST
Page
1
AS1
08/31/98 13:30:24
DSP02
*ALL
*DSP
*LCL
5150
3
1
0
10.10.10.2
*YES
CTL01
USB
*SYSVAL
*DEV
QSYSPRT
*LIBL
*NONE
Figure 45. Updated 5150 Device Description
5. When the IBM Network Station was initially configured with the IBM
Network Station Setup Utility, a value of either NVRAM or Network could
be chosen (see Section 5.4.8, “Configuring and Starting the IBM Network
Station” on page 130). If Network was chosen, then a BOOTP table entry
was created on the AS/400 system. To view this, run the Work BOOTP
Table (WRKBPTBL.) command. The resulting AS/400 display is shown in
Figure 46.
Work with BOOTP Table
System:
Type options, press Enter.
1=Add 2=Change 4=Remove
Opt
AS1
5=Display
Client
Host
Name
MAC
Address
IP
Address
DSP02_AS1.MYCOMPANY.COM
00.00.a7.02.38.d1
10.1.1.194
Figure 46. BOOTP Table Entry for Twinax IBM Network Station
To see a more detailed view of this bootup entry, type a 5 beside the entry.
The full detail is then shown as in Figure 47 on page 139.
138
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Display BOOTP Table Entry
System:
Network device:
Client host name . . :
MAC address . . . . . :
IP address . . . . . :
Hardware type . . . . :
Network routing:
Gateway IP address . :
Subnet mask . . . . . :
Boot:
Type . . . . . . . . :
File name . . . . . . :
File path . . . . . . :
Press Enter to continue.
AS1
DSP02_AS1.MYCOMPANY.COM
00.00.a7.02.38.d1
10.10.10.2
26
IBMNSM
kernel
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation
Figure 47. Display of BOOTP Table Entry
5.4.10 Testing Connectivity
In this scenario, the IBM Network Station is able to start only 5250 sessions
and access the Web server, using NC Navigator, on the serving AS/400
system.
The server AS/400 system, in this scenario, also has a LAN card installed. If
the AS/400 system is configured as a mail server and has connectivity to the
Internet, the IBM Network Station can use NC Navigator to send and receive
Internet e-mail. For more information about using the IBM Network Station to
access mail, please refer to Chapter 8, “Using a Network Station to Access
Mail” on page 225.
5.4.11 Summary
This scenario installed a twinax subnet on an AS/400 system using an
isolated network of 10.10.10.0. Minimum configuration was performed on
each twinax IBM Network Station, including selecting a workstation address.
With the help of messages logged on the AS/400 server, an IP interface was
manually created for the automatically created QTDLC configuration.
Activating this interface allowed the IBM Network Station to complete the boot
up process.
Connectivity was tested by starting a 5250 session to the server AS/400
system and by accessing the IBM Network Station Manager program with NC
Navigator.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
139
5.5 Transparent Subnet Masking
In this scenario, we allow the twinax subnet access to the local LAN and
beyond. With the introduction of transparent subnet masking , introduced in
V4R2 of OS/400, an addressing scheme for the twinax subnet can be
configured on the AS/400. This implementation allows IP over twinax devices
to appear as though they were on the local network.
Transparent subnet masking uses different masks over the same network ID.
This masking segments contiguous ranges of IP addresses together to use
for either twinax subnets or for remote LANs attached to the AS/400 system.
The transparency part comes into play when Proxy ARP is enabled, which
happens automatically when the hosts on the network share the same
network ID. In effect, the subnetting within your network is transparent
because a router or gateway is not required to join the subnets.
Detailed information concerning Proxy ARP is beyond the scope of this
redbook. Further information is found in the following sources:
• AS/400 TCP/IP DNS and DHCP, SG24-5147
• RFC 826 which discusses Address Resolution Protocol
• RFC 1027 which discusses Proxy ARP
The twinax subnet requires a contiguous range of TCP/IP addresses
assigned to it. You cannot use any address at random from the pool and
dynamically allocate an address to a device on the twinax subnet. The
recommendation is that the maximum amount of TCP/IP addresses, which is
64, be assigned to the twinax subnet, if possible. This limit of 64 is actually
imposed by the workstations controller. It is not a true limit because the
workstation controller can only support up to 56 operational twinax devices.
By initially choosing to use the maximum number of TCP/IP addresses, there
is flexibility later to add devices to the subnet without having to change the IP
addressing scheme within the network. There are, however, smaller subnets
that can be configured for your twinax IBM Network Stations. Detailed tables
are included in Appendix B of the IBM Network Station Manager Installation
and Use, SC41-0664. These tables outline exact ranges of IP Addresses
used in each scenario, depending on the quantity of Network Stations
needing support within the subnet.
Figure 48 on page 141 shows a simple example of a network that is using
transparent subnet masking and Proxy ARP. All the networks and hosts are
on the same TCP/IP network ID, 10.1.x.x.
140
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
T r a n s p a r e n t S u b n e ttin g
1 0 .1 .x .x
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .0 .0
1 0 .1 .1 .x
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .0
1 0 .1 .3 .x
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .0
1 0 .1 .2 .x
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .0
Figure 48. Transparent Subnetting Example
5.5.1 Twinax Transparent Subnetting Example
The twinax subnet requires a contiguous range of TCP/IP addresses defined
and allocated. Figure 49 helps determine which mask to apply and what
range of addresses you can use.
Mapping Subnet Mask Settings to Host Address Ranges
Mask
Settings:
Number of
contiguous
24 bits:
.0
.128
25
.192
26
.224
27
.240
28
.248
0
4
8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 255
29
12 20 28 36 44 52 60 68 76 84 92 100 108 116 124 132 140 148 156 164 172 180 188 196 204 212 220 228 236 244 252
Figure 49. Subnet Mask Boundaries and Address Ranges
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
141
Looking at the Figure 49 on page 141, a mask of 128 in the last octet provides
two address groups:
• .1 to .126
• .129 to .254
The subnet boundaries in both groups cannot be used. In this case, the
addresses .0, .127, .128 and .255 cannot be used.
The same applies for a mask of 240. This mask gives you 16 groups of (16-2)
contiguous addresses, remembering that the boundary addresses in each
group, cannot be used.
For selecting twinax subnets, only consider mask settings of 248, 240, 224
and 192 because these subnets provide a number of IP addresses that are
supported by the workstation controller. A mask of 128 or 0 can be assigned.
However, many addresses in these groups cannot be used and hence are
wasted. As previously mentioned, detailed tables outlining the combinations
of subnet masks and groups of IP addresses can be found in IBM Network
Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664.
The next example uses a class C TCP/IP address that is divided into four
different address groups. Three subnet groups, for three different TCP/IP over
twinax networks, is assigned. A large group of addresses are allocated for the
rest of the network.
Note
The following example does not follow the recommendation of allowing a
maximum contiguous range of 64 TCP/IP addresses allocated to the twinax
subnet. It is only intended to provide an example of transparent subnetting
in a twinax environment. Unless you are limited, by your own network IP
addressing scheme, to using such an example, allocate the maximum
number of IP addresses to the twinax subnet.
Figure 50 on page 143 shows the Network Topology for this example and
Figure 51 on page 143 shows the division of the address space 192.168.1.x.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
T ra n s p a re n t S u b n e ttin g T w in a x S c e n a rio
.1 9 0
1 9 2 .1 6 8 .1 .x
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .0
.1 8 9
.2
.3
25 5 h os ts a v a ila b le
.5
.1 9 3
1 9 2 .1 6 8 .1 .1 9 2
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 2 4
.1 9 4
30 h o s ts a v a ila ble
.2 2 5
.2 4 1
1 9 2 .1 6 8 .1 .2 4 0
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 4 0
1 9 2 .1 6 8 .1 .2 2 4
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 4 0
.2 2 2
T w in a x 1
.4
.2 2 6
.2 3 2
.2 3 8
.2 4 2
T w in ax 2
.2 4 8
.2 5 4
T w in ax 3
14 h o s ts a v a ilab le
14 h o s ts a v a ila ble
Figure 50. Transparent Subnetting Twinax Scenario with Class C TCP/IP Address
192.168.1.x Address space
.0 Local Lan
Twx 1
.191 .192
.223
Twx 2
Twx 3
.224 .239 .240 .255
Figure 51. Transparent Subnetting Class C Address Example
The Local LAN has a network address of 192.168.1.0 and a mask of
255.255.255.0. This mask gives you the entire range of addresses to use in
the last byte or octet of the address. As in our next scenario, we are using a
DHCP configuration here to break up this entire range using masks. As
shown in Figure 51, the Local LAN is configured to have a range of address
from .1 to .191 (boundary address cannot be used). The remainder of the
address space is reserved for different subnets.
The next group of addresses, Twx1, has a subnet address of 192.168.1.192
and a mask of 255.255.255.224. This mask gives you eight groups of 32
contiguous addresses (refer to Figure 17). Only the block containing the
range of addresses from 193 through 222 is used. Remembering that
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
143
boundary addresses within a group cannot be used, the group of addresses
for subnet Twx1 is from 192.168.1.193 to 192.168.1.222.
The third group, Twx2, has a subnet address of 192.168.1.224 and a mask of
255.255.255.240. This mask gives you 16 groups of 16 contiguous IP
addresses. The group of addresses that is defined, within DHCP, is from
192.168.1.225 to 192.168.1.238.
The last group, Twx3, has a subnet address of 192.168.1.240 and a mask of
255.255.255.240. This mask gives you 16 groups of 16 contiguous IP
addresses.
The group of addresses that is defined, within DHCP, is from 192.168.1.241
to 192.168.1.254.
The last address in each of the subnets is reserved as the broadcast address.
5.6 Advanced IP over Twinax Scenario
This scenario extends the one in Section 5.4, “Basic IP over Twinax Scenario”
on page 128. The twinax IBM Network Stations are again attached to the
local workstation controller on the AS/400 system. However, these same
Network Stations now have the capability of communicating with another host
beyond the local workstation controller.
5.6.1 Scenario Overview
This scenario shows an example of a twinaxial Network Station subnet
attached to an AS/400 system. This same AS/400 server has connectivity to
a LAN.
There is a minimum configuration needed on the Network Stations and some
TCP/IP configuration required on the AS/400 system. The twinaxial subnet is
taken out of the main network of 10.1.1.0.
5.6.2 Scenario Objectives
The objectives of this scenario are to:
• Assign an IP subnet to be used by the twinax IBM Network Stations.
• Configure the twinax attached IBM Network Stations.
• Configure the AS/400 server to allow connectivity, for the attached IBM
Network Stations, to other hosts on the LAN.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
5.6.3 Scenario Advantages
The advantages of this scenario are:
• It is easy to connect twinax attached IBM Network Stations to an existing
network.
• Minimal configuration required on the IBM Network Stations.
• The IBM Network Stations have access to hosts beyond the immediate
AS/400 server.
5.6.4 Scenario Disadvantages
The disadvantage of this scenario is that an understanding of concepts, such
as subnetting and Proxy ARP, may be required if the network has a somewhat
restricted addressing scheme.
5.6.5 Scenario Network Configuration
Figure 52 shows the network topology used for this scenario. The twinax
attached IBM Network Stations are connected to the As1 system. The IBM
Network Stations are on their own subnet which is taken out of the address
space 10.1.1.0.
1 0 .1 .1 .0
m a s k 2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .0
.2
.5 0
A s 1 .m y c o m p a n y .c o m
A s 2 .m y c o m p a n y .c o m
*W S C
.1 9 3
T w in a x s u b n e t
S u b n e t a d d re s s :
1 0 .1 .1 .1 9 2
M ask:
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .1 9 2
Figure 52. Network Topology for Advanced IP over Twinax Scenario
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
145
5.6.6 Task Summary
Note
Depending on the TCP/IP addressing scheme of your network, you must
ensure that the address pool, which your are configuring for your twinax
subnet, is not duplicated in another pool within the entire network.
If you have the ability in your network to allocate 64 IP addresses to the
twinax subnet, you should do so and realize that some of the IP addresses
will not be used. It becomes difficult, in networks other than class A, to
reallocate and shift addressing schemes to gain another IP address to
install additional twinax IBM Network Stations.
The following tasks are required to complete this scenario:
1. Plan and assign the TCP/IP addressing for the twinax subnet.
2. Configure and start the twinax IBM Network Station.
3. Configure an AS/400 IP interface as determined by messages logged in
the QSYSOPR message queue.
5.6.7 Planning the TCP/IP Addressing Scheme
In a TCP/IP network, with a potential of multiple subnets and TCP/IP address
ranges, it is imperative to carefully administer an addressing scheme for use
by the twinax subnet.
For this scenario, Class A private IP addresses are used. These addresses
cannot be routed through the internet. However, they provide good growth
potential for your network in the future.
The network for this scenario is 10.1.1.0 with a subnet of 255.255.255.0.
From this existing address space, we use a contiguous range of 64 IP
addresses for use by the twinax IBM Network Stations. Applying a mask of
255.255.255.192 (which gives the maximum allowed TCP/IP address range
of 64 that can be used on a twinax subnet) to this network of 10.1.1.0 gives
us an address range of 10.1.1.192 to 10.1.1.255. Because this address range
is a subset of the main network (10.1.1.0), Proxy ARP is enabled
automatically.
The subnet boundaries in this group cannot be used. In this particular subnet,
the addresses of 10.1.1.192 and 10.1.1.255 are not available, because 192 is
used as the subnet address and 255 is used as the broadcast address. The
146
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
address of 10.1.1.193 is designated for the workstation controller (interface
address).
Figure 53 provides a visual representation of the address space that is
allocated to the twinax subnet.
Mapping Subnet Mask Settings to Host Address Ranges
Mask
Settings:
Number of
contiguous
24 bits:
.0
.128
25
.192
Twinax Subnet range
26
.224
27
.240
28
.248
0
4
8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 255
29
12 20 28 36 44 52 60 68 76 84 92 100 108 116 124 132 140 148 156 164 172 180 188 196 204 212 220 228 236 244 252
Figure 53. Applying Subnet Mask to Carve a Contiguous Range for Twinax Subnet
5.6.8 Configuring and Starting the IBM Network Station
For this scenario, the same steps as described in Section 5.4.8, “Configuring
and Starting the IBM Network Station” on page 130 should be followed.
5.6.9 Configuring an AS/400 IP Interface
After the necessary changes are made to the Network Station configuration
using the IBM Network Station Setup Utility, reboot the Network Station. The
boot up process logs messages NS0010 through NS0500 Search for Host.
When the NS0500 message is logged, review the messages logged in the
QSYSOPR message queue on the AS/400 system. Messages, similar to
those in Figure 54 on page 148, are logged.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
147
Display Messages
Queue . . . . . :
Library . . . :
Severity . . . :
QSYSOPR
QSYS
90
System:
Program . . . . :
Library . . . :
Delivery . . . :
AS1
*DSPMSG
*HOLD
Type reply (if required), press Enter.
Automatic configuration created device description DSP02.
Line QTDL827500 varied on successfully.
DSP02 cannot connect. TCP/IP interface not added for line QTDL827500.
Controller QTDL8NET contacted on line QTDL827500.
Figure 54. Display of QSYSOPR Message Queue on AS/400 System
Note
If the message NS0500 is logged on the Network Station and there are no
messages logged in QSYSOPR message queue, check the System Value
QAUTOCFG using the AS/400 command DSPSYSVAL QAUTOCFG. If this value is
set to OFF, change it to ON before connecting and configuring twinax IBM
Network Stations to your AS/400 system.
The QHST log, on the AS/400 system, has additional messages logged. For a
sample of these messages, refer to Figure 38 on page 133.
The system automatically creates a QTDLC line, controller and device as
shown in Figure 55.
Work with Configuration Status
Position to . . . . .
AS1
10/02/98 10:04:53
Starting characters
Type options, press Enter.
1=Vary on 2=Vary off 5=Work with job 8=Work with description
9=Display mode status
13=Work with APPN status...
Opt Description
QTDL827500
QTDL8NET
QTDL8TCP
Status
ACTIVE
VARIED ON
VARIED OFF
-------------Job--------------
Figure 55. Configuration Status Display of Automatically Created QTDL Descriptors
148
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
The display device created underneath the workstation controller (CTL01 in
this case) is shown in Figure 56. This figure also shows the console, DSP01,
for the AS/400 system.
Work with Configuration Status
Position to . . . . .
AS1
10/02/98 10:06:17
Starting characters
Type options, press Enter.
1=Vary on 2=Vary off 5=Work with job 8=Work with description
9=Display mode status
13=Work with APPN status...
Opt Description
CTL01
DSP01
DSP02
Status
ACTIVE
SIGNON DISPLAY
ACTIVE
-------------Job--------------
Figure 56. Configuration Status Display of Automatically Created Display Device
The next step is to create an IP interface for the automatically created TDLC
line. In Figure 55 on page 148, this line is QTDL827400. Complete the
following steps:
1. Type ADDTCPIFC on any command line and press F4.
2. Enter values for the Internet address (INTNETADR), Line description
(LIND), Subnet mask (SUBNETMASK) and Associated local interface
(LCLIFC) parameters. The LCLIFC parameter is necessary in this
scenario, to allow the IBM Network Stations to communicate beyond the
workstation controller. The LCLIFC parameter associates the twinaxial
interface with the LAN (token ring) interface. The values used in this
scenario are shown in Figure 57 on page 150.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
149
Add TCP/IP Interface (ADDTCPIFC)
Type choices, press Enter.
Internet address . . . . . .
Line description . . . . . .
Subnet mask . . . . . . . .
Associated local interface
Type of service . . . . . . . .
Maximum transmission unit . . .
Autostart . . . . . . . . . . .
PVC logical channel identifier
+ for more values
10.1.1.193
QTDL827500
Name, *LOOPBACK, *VIRTUALIP
255.255.255.192
10.1.1.2
*NORMAL
*MINDELAY, *MAXTHRPUT...
*LIND
576-16388, *LIND
*YES
*YES, *NO
001-FFF
Figure 57. Adding IP Interface for QTDLC827500 Line Description
3. To start the interface that you have created, type CFGTCP on any command
line and press Enter. Select option 1 (Work with TCP/IP interfaces) as
shown in Figure 58. Enter an option 9 beside the 10.1.1.193 interface.
Work with TCP/IP Interfaces
System:
Type options, press Enter.
1=Add 2=Change 4=Remove
Internet
Opt Address
9
10.1.1.2
10.1.1.193
127.0.0.1
Subnet
Mask
5=Display
9=Start
AS1
10=End
Line
Line
Description Type
255.255.255.0
TRLAN2
255.255.255.192 QTDL827500
255.0.0.0
*LOOPBACK
*TRLAN
*TDLC
*NONE
Figure 58. Starting the Interface for the QTDL827500 Line Description
4. Ensure that the status of the interface is Active. Press F11 to see the
status of the interfaces as shown in Figure 59 on page 151.
150
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Work with TCP/IP Interfaces
System:
Type options, press Enter.
1=Add 2=Change 4=Remove
Internet
Opt Address
10.1.1.2
10.1.1.193
127.0.0.1
5=Display
Subnet
Mask
9=Start
AS1
10=End
Interface
Status
255.255.255.0
Active
255.255.255.192 Active
255.0.0.0
Active
Figure 59. TCP/IP Interface Status Display
If you return to the Network Station, the boot process should be
continuing. The TDLC component, on the AS/400 system, sends an
initiation link to the IBM Network Station. This initiation link contains:
• The assigned TCP/IP address (10.1.1.194 in this scenario) for the
Network Station.
• The IP address (10.1.1.193 in this scenario) for the Twinax interface.
• The configuration directory (in this scenario
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/).
The IBM Network Station updated its own NVRAM settings with the Boot
Host IP Address (within the F3 display of the Setup Utility). Within the F5
display of the Setup Utility, the configuration directory is updated.
On the AS/400 system, the QTDLC line, controller and device are now
ACTIVE as shown in Figure 60.
Work with Configuration Status
Position to . . . . .
AS1
10/02/98 10:52:01
Starting characters
Type options, press Enter.
1=Vary on 2=Vary off 5=Work with job 8=Work with description
9=Display mode status
13=Work with APPN status...
Opt Description
QTDL827500
QTDL8NET
QTDL8TCP
Status
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
-------------Job--------------
QTCPIP
QTCP
009024
Figure 60. Configuration Status of QTDL Descriptors
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
151
The display device, DSP02, is also updated to include the assigned IP
address of 10.1.1.194. This is shown in Figure 61.
Display Device Description
Device description . . . . . . . . :
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Category of device . . . . . . . . :
DSP02
*BASIC
*DSP
Device class . . . . .
Device type . . . . .
Device model . . . . .
Port number . . . . .
Switch setting . . . .
Internet address .
Online at IPL . . . .
Attached controller .
Keyboard language type
*LCL
5150
3
1
0
10.1.1.194
*YES
CTL01
USB
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
AS1
10/02/98 10:54:54
Figure 61. Updated 5150 Device Description
5. When the IBM Network Station was initially configured with the IBM
Network Station Setup Utility, a value of either NVRAM or NETWORK
could be chosen (see Section 5.4.8, “Configuring and Starting the IBM
Network Station” on page 130). If Network was chosen, then a BOOTP
table entry was created on the AS/400 system. To view this, run the Work
BOOTP Table (WRKBPTBL) command. The resulting AS/400 display is
shown in Figure 62.
Work with BOOTP Table
System:
Type options, press Enter.
1=Add 2=Change 4=Remove
Opt
AS1
5=Display
Client
Host
Name
MAC
Address
IP
Address
DSP02_AS1.MYCOMPANY.COM
00.00.a7.02.38.d1
10.1.1.194
Figure 62. BOOTP Table Entry for Twinax IBM Network Station
6. To see a more detailed view of this bootup entry, type a 5 beside the entry.
The full detail is then shown as in Figure 63 on page 153.
152
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Display BOOTP Table Entry
System:
Network device:
Client host name . . :
MAC address . . . .
IP address . . . .
Hardware type . . .
Network routing:
Gateway IP address
Subnet mask . . . .
Boot:
Type . . . . . . .
File name . . . . .
. :
. :
. :
AS1
DSP02_AS1.MYCOMPANY.COM
00.00.a7.02.38.d1
10.1.1.194
26
. :
. :
. :
. :
File path . . . . . . :
IBMNSM
kernel
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation
Figure 63. Display of BOOTP Table Entry
If NVRAM was chosen in the IBM Network Station Setup Utility when the
Network Station was configured, a BOOTP table entry is not created.
5.6.10 Testing Connectivity
In this scenario, the IBM Network Station is able to access a host beyond the
workstation controller. A 5250 TELNET session was started successfully to IP
address 10.1.1.50 (AS2 system).
A 5250 TELNET session was also started successfully to the local system,
AS1, at IP address 10.1.1.2.
Proxy ARP is also operational. A ping from the AS2 system to the twinax
attached IBM Network Station, at address 10.1.1.194, was successful.
5.6.11 Summary
This scenario installed a twinax subnet on an AS/400 system using a subnet
of the main 10.1.1.0 network. Minimal configuration was performed on each
twinax IBM Network Station. An IP interface was manually created for the
automatically created QTDL configuration, with the aid of messages logged
on the AS/400 server system. This IP interface included an associated local
interface (LCLIFC) parameter that associated the new twinax interface with
the LAN interface on the AS/400 system. This allowed the IBM Network
Station to connect to a system beyond the workstation controller.
Activating the new IP interface allowed the IBM Network Station to complete
its boot up process. Connectivity was tested by starting a 5250 TELNET
session to a remote AS/400 system, AS2.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
153
5.7 Twinax IBM Network Station with Local DHCP Server Scenario
This scenario attaches the twinax IBM Network Stations to a local workstation
controller on the AS/400 system. The local workstation controller is CTL01,
which also supports the system console. DHCP is used to configure the
workstation controller with an IP address and to provide the twinax IBM
Network Stations with network start-up information.
A network addressing scheme, that enables Proxy ARP, is implemented. This
will allow the twinax IBM Network Stations to see, and be seen, across the
network.
5.7.1 Scenario Overview
This scenario shows an example of a twinaxial Network Station subnet. The
AS/400 server has connectivity to a token ring LAN.
There is minimal configuration needed on the Network Stations. DHCP
configuration is required on the AS/400 server.
5.7.2 Scenario Objectives
The objectives for this scenario are to:
• Configure the DHCP server, system As1, to support the locally attached
twinax IBM Network Stations.
• Configure and start the twinax IBM Network Stations.
• Ensure LAN connectivity across the network.
5.7.3 Scenario Advantages
The advantages of this scenario include:
• Easy to connect twinax-attached IBM Network Stations to an existing
network
• Easier to configure DHCP to support the twinax attached IBM Network
Stations
• Automatic routing of datagrams from the twinax subnet to the attached
LAN and, vice versa, when using Proxy ARP
5.7.4 Scenario Disadvantages
The disadvantage of this scenario is that an understanding of concepts, such
as subnetting and Proxy ARP, may be required if the network has a somewhat
restricted addressing scheme.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
5.7.5 Scenario Network Configuration
Figure 64 shows the network topology used for this scenario. The twinax
attached IBM Network Stations are connected to the DHCP server, As1. The
IBM Network Stations receive their start-up information from the As1 system.
The IBM Network Stations are on their own subnet which is taken out of the
address space 10.1.1.0.
1 0 .1 .1 .0
m ask
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 . 0
.2
.5 0
A s 1 .m y c o m p a n y .c o m
A s 2 .m y c o m p a n y .c o m
D H C P S e rv e r
* W S C .1 9 3
T w in a x s u b n e t
S u b n e t a d d re s s :
1 0 .1 .1 .1 9 2
M ask:
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .1 9 2
Figure 64. Network Topology for Local DHCP Server Scenario
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
155
5.7.6 Task Summary
Note
Depending on the TCP/IP addressing scheme of your network, you must
ensure that the address pool, that you use for your twinax subnet, is not
duplicated in a pool on another DHCP server within the same network.
Operations Navigator DHCP server configuration does not allow you to
create duplicate IP addresses in two subnets on the same DHCP server.
If you have the ability, in your network, to allocate 64 IP addresses to the
twinax subnet, you should do so. Realize that some of the IP addresses will
not be used. It becomes difficult, in networks other than class A, to reallocate
and shift addressing schemes to gain another IP address to install additional
twinax IBM Network Stations.
The following tasks are required to complete this scenario:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Plan and assign the TCP/IP addressing for the twinax subnet.
Configure the DHCP server for twinax support.
Configure and start the twinax IBM Network Station.
Test connectivity.
5.7.7 Planning the TCP/IP Addressing Scheme
In a TCP/IP network, with a potential of multiple subnets and TCP/IP address
ranges, it is imperative to carefully administer an addressing scheme for use
by the twinax subnet.
For this scenario, Class A private IP addresses are used. These addresses
cannot be routed through the internet. However, they do provide good growth
potential for your network in the future.
The network for this scenario is 10.1.1.0 with a subnet of 255.255.255.0.
From this existing address space, we use a contiguous range of 64 IP
addresses for use by the twinax IBM Network Stations. Applying a mask of
255.255.255.192 (which gives the maximum allowed TCP/IP address range
of 64 that can be used on a twinax subnet) to this network of 10.1.1.0 gives
us an address range of 10.1.1.192 to 10.1.1.255. Because this address range
is a subset of the main network (10.1.1.0), Proxy ARP is enabled
automatically.
Refer to Figure 65 on page 157 for a visual representation of the address
space that is allocated to the twinax subnet.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Mapping Subnet Mask Settings to Host Address Ranges
Mask
Settings:
Number of
contiguous
24 bits:
.0
.128
25
.192
Twinax Subnet range
26
.224
27
.240
28
.248
0
4
8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 255
29
12 20 28 36 44 52 60 68 76 84 92 100 108 116 124 132 140 148 156 164 172 180 188 196 204 212 220 228 236 244 252
Figure 65. Applying Subnet Mask to Carve a Contiguous Range for Twinax Subnet
5.7.8 Configuring the DHCP Server As1 for Twinax Support
Note
The Operations Navigator displays shown in this section were captured from
a PC running IBM AS/400 Client Access for Windows 95/NT Version 3
Release 2 Modification Level 0.
Operations Navigator DHCP configuration is twinax aware. If you have
planned the IP addresses to use on the twinax subnet, the configuration of
the DHCP server is straightforward.
On the DHCP server (As1 system), which has the IBM Network Stations
attached using twinax to workstation controller CTL01, follow these steps to
configure DHCP support for TCP/IP over twinax:
1. Start the AS/400 Operations Navigator.
2. Click As1 to select the system. The display shown in Figure 66 on page
158 appears.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
157
Figure 66. AS/400 Operations Navigator - Configure DHCP Server
3. Double-click Network. This display in Figure 67 is shown.
Figure 67. AS/400 Operations Navigator - Selecting Network
158
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
4. Double-click Servers. The display Figure 68 is shown.
Figure 68. AS/400 Operations Navigator - Selecting Network Servers
5. Double click TCP/IP. The display Figure 69 is shown.
Figure 69. AS/400 Operations Navigator - Selecting TCP/IP Servers
6. Double-click DHCP. This shows the DHCP Server Configuration display
(see Figure 70 on page 160). Ensure that Global is highlighted.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
159
Figure 70. AS/400 Operations Navigator - DHCP Configuration
7. Right-click the mouse on Global. Select New-Subnet Advanced.
Figure 71. DHCP Server Configuration Twinax Subnet
160
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
8. As shown in Figure 71 on page 160, select the General tab. Specify
Twinax Subnet 10.1.1.192 in the Name field. Specify a network ID to
make it easier to distinguish the twinax subnet from the other subnets.
9. Check Twinax subnet to enable it.
10.Specify the IP address of the workstation controller in the field Controller’s
IP address. The first usable address of the allocated subnet is used. In this
scenario the address is 10.1.1.193.
11.Specify a short description in the Description field, as shown in Figure 71.
12.Click the Address Pool tab.
In Figure 72 on page 162, notice that the DHCP configuration dialog has
already calculated the correct IP address range. The dialog calculated this
range based on the network ID and the IP address that you supplied for
the twinax workstation controller. You can change the subnet mask on this
dialog and have the DHCP configuration GUI calculate the new values for
you. However, remember, in this scenario, that the maximum number of
addresses that can be allocated to the twinax subnet is 64.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
161
Figure 72. DHCP Twinax Address Pool Range
Tip
You do not need to exclude the workstation controller IP address from the
range as seen in Figure 72. The configuration excludes this address
automatically.
13.Click the Leases tab.
14.Set the lease time to Never expire.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
15.Click the Options tab, as shown Figure 73 on page 163.
16.Add the options for the DHCP server-to-server shown in Table 18 to the
twinax IBM Network Stations.
Table 18. Options for DCHP Server-to-Server
Option
Value
1 Subnet Mask
255.255.255.192
3 Router
10.1.1.193 (the WSC is the first hop attached
device)
66 Server name
10.1.1.193
67 Boot file name
QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/kernel
Note: You should not need to add option 67; it is included in the twinax IBM Network
Station class, IBMNSM3.4.1.
The options, when added, appear as shown in Figure 73.
Figure 73. Twinax Attached DHCP Options Configuration
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
163
17.Click OK.
18.Close the DHCP configuration window. If the DHCP server is running, you
are asked to save the changes you made. Click YES. If the DHCP server is
not running, the configuration GUI closes and returns you back to the
TCP/IP server display.
19.Start the DHCP server by right clicking on DHCP and select Start. If the
DHCP server starts successfully, the status is updated as shown in Figure
74 on page 164.
Figure 74. AS/400 Operations Navigator - TCP/IP Server Status
Note
If the DHCP Server fails to start, ensure that the BOOTP server is stopped.
You cannot run both the BOOTP and DHCP server on the system at the
same time.
5.7.9 Configuring and Starting the IBM Network Station
It is assumed that you have cabled the twinax IBM Network Stations correctly.
If you are replacing non-programmable terminals (NPTs) with the twinax IBM
Network Station, notice the twinax address and port that the old NPT was
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
using. In most cases, you should be able to use the same port and address
for the replacement IBM Network Station.
When a twinax IBM Network Station is powered on for the first time, it
prompts you to specify the address to use for the port to which it is
connected. This is not the TCP/IP address. It is an address, from 0 through 6,
to use on the workstation controller port to which the IBM Network Station is
connected.
Use the following steps to configure the IBM Network Station to use over
twinax:
1. Power on the IBM Network Station after it has been cabled correctly.
2. When prompted to do so, specify the local controller address to use (range
is from 0 to 6).
The IBM Network Station checks to see if any other device is using that
address. If not, the particular address is accepted. If the address is in use
by another device, the message, Station Address in Use, is shown and
another address must be chosen. Proceed with choosing another address
(in the 0 to 6 range) until one is accepted.
If you are not prompted for an address, then one has already been defined
for the IBM Network Station. After the Network Station powers up, bootup
messages are logged. On a twinax IBM Network Station, one of those
messages is NS0065 Twinaxial station address...x, where x is an address
from 0 through 6.
If an address is defined, there may be other configuration parameters
present on the Network Station. For a twinax IBM Network Station,
minimal configuration is required. If you suspect the Network Station has
been configured before, we recommend that you reset NVRAM using the
following steps:
a. Power up the Network Station.
b. After NS0500 Search for Host System is shown, press ESC to stop the
start-up sequence.
c. Press one of the following key sequences:
• For 101/102 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt + Left Ctrl. Press F1.
• For 5250/3270 keyboards:
Press and hold Left Shift + Left Alt. Press F1.
d. Enter NV at the Boot Monitor command prompt (>) to access the
NVRAM utility.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
165
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
Enter L to reset the NVRAM.
Enter S save the defaults into NVRAM.
Enter Y to the question: Are you sure?
Enter Q to quit.
Power the IBM Network Station off and then on again. It starts with the
factory settings and prompts you to input a station address.
If you only want to change the address, wait until message NS0500
Search for Host System appears on the Network Station. Press ESC and
select option 8 (Set Twinax Station Address), from the IBM Network
Station Setup Utility menu.
3. In the IBM Network Station Setup Utility, select option 3 (Set Network
Parameters). Ensure the following settings:
• For NVRAM, set all of the addresses set to 0.0.0.0.
• For Network, set DHCP IP Addressing Order to 1. Set BOOTP IP
Addressing Order to Disabled.
When these values are set, ensure that Network is highlighted.
5.7.9.1 Start-up Sequence
When the first IP over twinax IBM Network Station starts, OS/400 checks to
see if a TCP/IP interface of type *TDLC exists. If not, the workstation
controller calls the program QSYS/QTODDTWX to query the DHCP server
configuration file ( dhcpsd.cfg) for a TCP/IP address and mask to use.
The system automatically builds a QTDLxxxxxx line, controller, and device. A
device type of 5150 is created underneath the workstation controller
description for each Network Station. Figure 75 on page 167 shows the QTDL
objects created by the automatic configuration.
Tip
If the IBM Network Station displays the NS0500 message and no further
messages are logged, ensure that the system value QAUTOCFG is turned
on.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Work with Configuration Status
Position to . . . . .
AS1
09/16/98 16:06:25
Starting characters
Type options, press Enter.
1=Vary on 2=Vary off 5=Work with job 8=Work with description
9=Display mode status
13=Work with APPN status...
Opt Description
QTDL825900
QTDL8NET
QTDL8TCP
Status
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
-------------Job--------------
QTCPIP
QTCP
006736
Figure 75. QTDLxxxxxx Line, Controller, and Device Configuration Status
Figure 76 shows the twinaxial data link control line description.
Display Line Description
AS1
09/16/98 16:26:08
Line description . . . . . . . . . :
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Category of line . . . . . . . . . :
QTDL825900
*BASIC
*TDLC
Attached work station ctl
Network controller . . . .
Online at IPL . . . . . .
Text . . . . . . . . . . .
CTL01
QTDL8NET
*NO
CREATED BY AUTO-CONFIGURATION
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
Figure 76. QTDLxxxxxx Line Description
The device created underneath the workstation controller, CTL01 in our
scenario, is shown in Figure 77 on page 168. This device description also
shows the IP address assigned to this particular IBM Network Station.
Twinax Attachment of Network Stations
167
Display Device Description
Device description . . . . . . . . :
Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Category of device . . . . . . . . :
DSP02
*BASIC
*DSP
Device class . . . . .
Device type . . . . .
Device model . . . . .
Port number . . . . .
Switch setting . . . .
Internet address . . .
Online at IPL . . . .
Attached controller .
Keyboard language type
Print device . . . . .
Output queue . . . . .
*LCL
5150
3
1
0
10.1.1.194
*YES
CTL01
USB
*SYSVAL
*DEV
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
AS1
09/16/98 16:28:16
Figure 77. Device Type 5150 under CTL01
The system automatically creates a TCP/IP interface for the workstation
controller with a link type of *TDLC. This interface contains a parameter that
allows the use of Proxy ARP. This parameter is called the Associated local
interface (LCLIFC). Its value must be the LAN interface of the AS/400 system
where the twinax workstation controller resides. In our scenario, this LAN
interface has an IP address of 10.1.1.2.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 78 shows the interface descriptor when it is first created by the
system. Notice the LCLIFC parameter defaults to *NONE.
Display TCP/IP Interface
Internet address . .
Subnet mask . . . .
Line description . .
Line type . . . . .
Associated local
Interface status . .
Type of service . .
Maximum transmission
Automatic start . .
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
interface. . . . . . . :
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
unit . . . . . . . . . . :
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
System: AS1
10.1.1.193
255.255.255.192
QTDL825900
*TDLC
*NONE
Active
*NORMAL
*LIND
*YES
Figure 78. TCP/IP Interface for the Local Workstation Controller
For the twinax IBM Network Station to see and be seen across the network,
the LAN interface must be manually added in the LCLIFC parameter of the
TCP/IP TDLC interface.
To add the LAN interface, complete the following steps:
1. From an AS/400 session, enter CFGTCP on any command line.
2. Select option 1 (Work with interfaces).
3. To end the TDLC interface, select option 10.
4. Select option 2 to change the interface. In this scenario, the 10.1.1.193
interface is ended.
5. Input the value 10.1.1.2 into the Associated local interface parameter and
press Enter. A display of the Interface description is shown in Figure 79 on
page 170.
6. Start the TDLC interface.
7. At this point, the twinax IBM Network Stations should show the initial login
display. Because of the change we made to the IP interface, reboot the
Network Stations.
169
Display TCP/IP Interface
Internet address . .
Subnet mask . . . .
Line description . .
Line type . . . . .
Associated local
Interface status . .
Type of service . .
Maximum transmission
Automatic start . .
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
interface. . . . . . . :
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
unit . . . . . . . . . . :
. .. . .. . .. .. . .:
System:
10.1.1.193
255.255.255.192
QTDL825900
*TDLC
10.1.1.2
Active
*NORMAL
*LIND
*YES
RCHASM08
Figure 79. TCP/IP Interface Updated with an Associated Local Interface Value
Note
At the time of writing, there was a documented problem with the LCLIFC
parameter within the TCP/IP Interface. After entering an IP address within
this parameter, a display of the interface still showed the previous value (for
example *NONE). The user must do a refresh (F5) on the Work with TCP/IP
Interface display. A subsequent display of the interface then shows the
updated Associated local interface parameter.
A check of the configuration, within the IBM Network Station Setup Utility
shows:
• The Twinax interfaces IP address (in this scenario 10.1.1.193) shown
under NVRAM settings - Boot Host IP Address in F3=Set Network
Parameters.
• The configuration directory (in this scenario
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/ ) shown under the Configuration
Directory in F5=Set Configuration Parameters.
5.7.10 Testing Connectivity
The DHCP server is configured for the twinax environment and a twinax IBM
Network Station is started, after the Associated local interface parameter has
been updated in the interface of type *TDLC. Now, you can test for
connectivity across the network.
To prove that the IBM Network Station sees beyond the local workstation
controller, start a 5250 TELNET session to As2.mycompany.com, which has
an IP address of 10.1.1.50. The attempt was successful.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
A test of Proxy ARP is to ping the twinax attached IBM Network Station from a
remote host. From As2.mycompany.com, a ping is sent to address
10.1.1.194. The attempt was successful.
5.7.11 Summary
This scenario installed a twinax subnet on a DHCP server. The twinax
address range, that was used, is a subset of the address space 10.1.1.x. A
range of 64 IP addresses was allocated for the twinax subnet.
A DHCP server configuration was built for the twinax subnet. When the twinax
IBM Network Stations were powered on, the AS/400 system automatically
built the necessary TDLC configurations and a TCP/IP interface for the
workstation controller. A manual change was required on this TCP/IP
interface and the IBM Network Stations required a reboot.
After the IBM Network Station was restarted, connectivity was tested to the
rest of the network by starting a 5250 TELNET session to a remote host. This
same remote host successfully sent a ping request to the IBM Network
Station.
5.8 Twinax IBM Network Station with a Remote DHCP Server Scenario
This scenario shows how to configure and use a remote DHCP server to
supply network information to twinax connected IBM Network Stations.
It is not necessary to use the same system, to which the twinax attached IBM
Network Stations are connected, as your DHCP server. You can utilize
another DHCP server in your network.
5.8.1 Scenario Overview
In this scenario, there are twinax attached IBM Network Stations connected
to a local AS/400 system. Although this AS/400 system is not acting as a
DHCP server, it is serving as a BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent.
Locally attached IP over twinax devices have their DHCPDISCOVER
messages forwarded to a DHCP server that is running on a different AS/400
system. This is done to obtain a network address and start-up information
that is required for boot up.
Figure 80 on page 172 shows the logical network topology that is used in this
scenario. The twinax IBM Network Stations are attached to the
171
BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent server which forwards all DHCP broadcasts,
originating from the twinax subnet to the primary DHCP server, system As2.
10.1.1.0
m ask 255.25 5.255. 0
.2
.50
As1.m ycom pany.com
BO O TP/D H C P relay agent
*W S C
.193
As2.m ycom pany.com
prim ary D H C P S erver
Twinax subnet
Subnet address:
10.1.1.192
M ask:
255.255.255.192
Figure 80. Using Remote DHCP Server to Configure Twinax IBM Network Stations
5.8.1.1 Scenario Objectives
This scenario’s objective is to use one primary DHCP server to supply the
necessary network information to remote twinax attached devices. This
means that you do not have to run a DHCP server on every AS/400 system
that has twinax attached IBM Network Stations.
5.8.1.2 Scenario Advantages
The advantage of this scenario is that you only need one DHCP server in your
network to support twinax attached IBM Network Stations.
5.8.1.3 Scenario Disadvantages
The disadvantage of this scenario is that an understanding of concepts, such
as subnetting and Proxy ARP, may be required if the network has a somewhat
restricted addressing scheme.
5.8.2 Task Summary
In these setup steps, the assumption is made that the IBM Network Station is
cabled correctly and that a local twinax address is defined on the IBM
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Network Station. It is also assumed that the IBM Network Station can start as
a DHCP client. The following tasks start from the point when the first IBM
Network Station is ready to be powered on:
1. Configure the local AS/400 DHCP configuration file on
As1.mycompany.com.
2. Power on the IBM Network Station. This automatically builds the TCP/IP
interface on the local AS/400 system for the workstation controller. After
this completes, the IBM Network Station can be powered off.
3. Manually change the auto created TCP/IP interface on the As1 system.
4. Configure and start the BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent on the local AS/400
system As1.mycompany.com.
5. Change the DHCP configuration for the pool of addresses from 10.1.1.1
through 10.1.1.254 on the AS/400 system As2.mycompany.com.
6. Configure an address pool, on the As2 system, for the twinax subnet on
the remote AS/400 system As1.mycompany.com.
7. Start the IBM Network Station.
5.8.3 Configuring the Local DHCP Configuration File on As1
There is a requirement to build a DHCP server configuration file (dhcpsd.cfg)
on the system to which the twinax subnet is directly attached. You do not start
the DHCP server on this AS/400 system. However, the configuration must
exist. When the first IBM Network Station is powered on, the workstation
controller calls the program QSYS/QTODDTWX. This program queries the
DHCP configuration file for its IP address and mask.
Refer to Section 5.7.8, “Configuring the DHCP Server As1 for Twinax
Support” on page 157 and follow steps 1 through 12. This scenario uses the
same IP addressing scheme that is defined in Section 5.7.8, “Configuring the
DHCP Server As1 for Twinax Support” on page 157.
Note
It is not necessary to fully configure the DHCP server on the As1 system.
Only the General and Address Pool options must be configured. No Options
need to be provided.
Once the configuration is completed, ensure that the DHCP server is in a
stopped state. The DHCP server does not need to be started. To be safe,
173
disable the subnet on the As1 system by right-clicking on the subnet and
clicking on Disable.
Figure 81 shows the Operations Navigator display that shows the configured
subnet. The current status of this subnet is Disabled.
Figure 81. AS/400 Operations Navigator DHCP Configuration for Twinax Subnet on As1 System
Figure 82 on page 175 shows the TCP/IP servers display within Operations
Navigator. From this figure, we see that the DHCP server on the As1 system
is in a stopped state.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 82. AS/400 Operations Navigator - TCP/IP Server Status
5.8.4 Power on the IBM Network Station
Start the twinax IBM Network Station to allow the AS/400 system to build the
necessary TCP/IP interface and line description for the workstation controller.
Power on the twinax attached IBM Network Station and look for the following
messages:
• NS0500 Search for Host System
• NS0930 Attempting to use DHCP
These messages indicate that the AS/400 system has completed building the
required TCP/IP interface for the workstation controller. Figure 83 on page
176 shows the resulting configuration display for the QTDL objects which
were automatically created by the system.
175
Work with Configuration Status
Position to . . . . .
AS1
09/21/98 12:10:15
Starting characters
Type options, press Enter.
1=Vary on 2=Vary off 5=Work with job 8=Work with description
9=Display mode status
13=Work with APPN status...
Opt Description
QTDL826400
QTDL8NET
QTDL8TCP
Status
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
-------------Job--------------
QTCPIP
QTCP
006736
Figure 83. Automatically Created QTDL Descriptors
A TCP/IP interface has also been automatically created. You can view this by
typing CFGTCP on a command line and then selecting option 1. The resulting
display is shown in Figure 84.
Work with TCP/IP Interfaces
System:
Type options, press Enter.
1=Add 2=Change 4=Remove
Internet
Opt Address
10.1.1.2
10.1.1.193
127.0.0.1
5=Display
Subnet
Mask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.192
255.0.0.0
9=Start
Line
Description
TRLAN2
QTDL826400
*LOOPBACK
AS1
10=End
Line
Type
*TRLAN
*TDLC
*NONE
Figure 84. CFGTCP Option 1 Display Showing the TDLC Interface
Note
If only the message NS0500 is logged on the Network Station and there are
no messages logged in QSYSOPR message queue, check the System
Value QAUTOCFG. If this value is set to OFF, change it to ON before
connecting and configuring twinax IBM Network Stations to your AS/400
system.
After the necessary configuration is created, you can power off the IBM
Network Station and proceed to the next step.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
5.8.5 Manually Changing the Auto Created TCP/IP Interface
For the twinax IBM Network Station to see and be seen across the network,
the LAN interface of the As1 system must be manually added in the TCP/IP
TDLC interface.
To add the LAN interface, complete the following steps:
1. From an AS/400 session, type CFGTCP on any command line.
2. Select option 1 (Work with interfaces).
3. To end the TDLC interface, select option 10. In this scenario, the
10.1.1.193 interface is ended.
4. Select option 2 to change the interface.
5. Enter the value 10.1.1.2 on the Associated local interface parameter and
press Enter. A display of the interface description is shown in Figure 85.
6. Start the TDLC interface.
Display TCP/IP Interface
Internet address . .
Subnet mask . . . .
Line description . .
Line type . . . . .
Associated local
Interface status . .
Type of service . .
Maximum transmission
Automatic start . .
. . .. . .
. . .. . .
. . .. . .
. . .. . .
interface
. . .. . .
. . .. . .
unit . . .
. . .. . .
. .. . .. . :
. .. . .. . :
. .. . .. . :
. .. . .. . :
. .. . .. :
. .. . .. . :
. .. . .. . :
. .. . .. . :
. .. . .. . :
System:
10.1.1.193
255.255.255.192
QTDL826400
*TDLC
10.1.1.2
Active
*NORMAL
*LIND
*YES
AS1
Figure 85. TCP/IP Interface Updated with an Associated Local Interface Value
5.8.6 Configuring and Starting BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent
After building the DHCP configuration file for the twinax subnet, it is time to
turn As1.mycompany.com into a BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent. In this scenario,
the AS/400 BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent is configured to forward DHCP
messages directly, without delay, from the twinax subnet to the primary DHCP
server.
To configure the AS/400 BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent, complete the following
steps:
1. Sign on to the AS/400 system As1.
177
2. From a command line, enter CHGDHCPA MODE(*RELAY),and press Enter. This
changes the mode of the DHCP server to be a BOOTP/DHCP Relay
Agent.
3. From Operations Navigator, select As1—> Network —>Servers
—>TCP/IP and right-click on BOOTP/DHCP relay agent as shown in
Figure 86. Click on Configuration to select it.
Figure 86. AS/400 Operations Navigator - Configuring BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent
4. The BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent properties window appears. Click the
Start when TCP/IP is started check box to ensure that it is checked.
5. Click Add.
6. Use the pull-down option on the Interface address field to select the
TCP/IP interface from which the BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent accepts
DHCP packets. This is the workstation controller interface was
automatically created. Select the 10.1.1.193 interface.
7. Specify the IP address of the DHCP server to which the DHCP messages
from the clients (IBM Network Stations) are sent. In this scenario the
address that is used is 10.1.1.50.
Note: You can specify the system name in this option if your DNS server
resolves IP addresses or if the host table on the system has been
configured correctly.
8. Leave the Maximum hops set to the default of 4.
9. Leave the Packet transmission delay at 0 (zero).
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
10.Click OK. The resulting display is shown in Figure 87.
Figure 87. BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent Configuration
11.From Operations Navigator, right-click BOOTP/DHCP relay agent. Select
Start to start the server. The resulting status display is shown in Figure 88
on page 180.
179
Figure 88. AS/400 Operations Navigator - TCP/IP Server Status
The BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent now forwards DHCP messages from the
workstation controller interface to the DHCP server, As2.
5.8.7 Changing the DHCP Server Configuration
The twinax subnet addresses that you use must be a subset of the address
space 10.1.1.x. Because of this, the pool of addresses from 10.1.1.1 through
10.1.1.254 must be divided into two ranges. The pool must also be further
reduced so that it does not include the addresses from 10.1.1.192 through
10.1.1.254, as these are used for the twinax subnet.
In this scenario, the address range from 10.1.1.1 through 10.1.1.254 is
divided into two groups by applying masks to the range within the DHCP
configuration. The two groups are then put back together, within the DHCP
configuration, to form one group. DHCP option 1 is also used to specify the
correct subnet mask to pass back to the client.
To divide the group into two ranges and allow the range to end at 10.1.1.192,
a mask of 255.255.255.128 is applied in the DHCP configuration. This allows
two groups of 128 addresses. The first group starts at 10.1.1.1 and ends at
10.1.1.127. The second group then has a mask of 255.255.255.192 applied
to it. This creates a range of addresses from 10.1.1.128 through 10.1.1.191.
Refer to Figure 89 on page 181 for a visual representation of the address
space from 10.1.1.1 through 10.1.1.191.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Mapping Subnet Mask Settings to Host Address Ranges
Number of
contiguous
24 bits:
Mask
Settings: .0
.128
25
.192
26
.224
27
.240
28
29
.248
0
4
8
16
24 32 40
12 20 28
36
48
44
56
52 60
64
72 80 88
68 76 84
96 104 112 120 128
136 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 255
92 100 108 116 124 132 140 148 156 164 172 180 188 196 204 212 220 228 236 244 252
Figure 89. Applying Subnet Masks
These pools must be defined in the DHCP configuration. Complete these
steps:
1. From Operations Navigator, select As2
—>TCP/IP.
—>Network—>Servers
2. Right-click DHCP.
3. Ensure that Global is highlighted and right-click on it.
4. Select New Subnet-Advanced as shown in Figure 90 on page 182.
181
Figure 90. AS/400 Operations Navigator - Creating New Subnet in DHCP
5. Click on the Address Pool tab and fill in the Subnet address and the
Subnet mask as shown in Figure 91 on page 183.
6. When you click on Range to Assign, the values are filled in automatically.
Ensure that addresses 10.1.1.2 and 10.1.1.50 are excluded from the pool
because these are the LAN IP interfaces for the AS/400 systems in this
scenario.
The resulting Operations Navigator display for the first group is shown in
Figure 91 on page 183.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 91. DHCP Configuration
The second group display is shown in Figure 92 on page 184.
183
Figure 92. DHCP Configuration
Attention
For both of these groups, select the Options tab and configure DHCP
option 1 to pass the real mask to use on this network, which is
255.255.255.0. You also must configure any other relevant options that
clients on the main network require.
The next step is to group the two address ranges together again to form one
pool in the DHCP server configuration.
To form a subnet group within the DHCP configuration, perform the following
steps:
1. From the Operations Navigator DHCP, right-click Global.
2. Click New Subnet Group as shown in Figure 93 on page 185.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 93. DHCP Configuration - Forming a New Subnet Group
3. Specify a valid description in the Name field. Blanks or special characters
are not valid in this field. Refer to Figure 94 on page 186.
185
Figure 94. DHCP configuration - New Subnet Group Properties
4. Highlight the first address group, under the Available subnets, and click
Add. Repeat this step for the second group. The resulting display is shown
in Figure 95 on page 187.
5. Click the Address Order tab. Click either In order or Balanced to select
the appropriate option. In order is the default.
6. Click OK. The resulting DHCP display is shown in Figure 96 on page 187.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 95. DHCP Configuration - Selection of Subnets for New Subnet Group
Figure 96. DHCP Configuration - Showing Contents of Subnet Group
5.8.8 Configuring the Twinax Subnet Address Pool
A TCP/IP address pool must be added on the primary DHCP server, As2.
This provides network start-up information to the remote twinax client.
To accomplish this, a normal IP address pool must be configured because the
twinax IBM Network Stations are not locally attached. A twinax subnet pool is
187
not configured as discussed in Section 5.7.8, “Configuring the DHCP Server
As1 for Twinax Support” on page 157.
To configure the twinax subnet pool, complete the following steps:
1. Open the DHCP configuration, from Operations Navigator, on As2.
2. Right click Global and select New Subnet - Advanced.
3. Click General and enter the values as shown in Figure 97 on page 188.
Figure 97. DHCP Configuration - New Subnet Group
Note: Ensure that the Twinax subnet box is left unchecked.
4. Click the Address Pool tab.
5. Click Subnet Address and specify the twinax subnet address as
10.1.1.192.
6. Enter the mask 255.255.255.192 into the Subnet mask field.
7. Click Range to assign. The addresses are automatically filled in. See
Figure 98 on page 189 for the resulting display.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 98. DHCP Configuration - Remote Twinax IP Address Pool
8. Click the Options tab and add the options shown in Table 19.
Table 19. Options and Values
Option
Value
1 Subnet Mask
255.255.255.192
3 Router
10.1.1.193 (the WSC is the first hop for the devices)
66 Server name
10.1.1.193
67 Boot file name
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/kernel
9. Click OK. The resulting display is shown in Figure 99 on page 190.
189
Figure 99. Operations Navigator - DHCP Configuration Display Showing Subnet Groups
10.Update or start the DHCP server on the As2 system.
5.8.9 Starting the IBM Network Station
When the DHCP configuration has completed correctly, the twinax IBM
Network Station can be powered on. The Network Station should now boot to
completion.
5.8.10 Testing Connectivity
In this scenario a 5250 TELNET session was started to both the
As1.mycompany.com and As2.mycompany.com systems. Both attempts were
successful.
5.8.11 Summary
This scenario included building a DHCP configuration file on the local AS/400
system, As1, from which the workstation controller receives the necessary
network information.
The first IBM Network Station that powers on causes the workstation
controller to query the DHCP configuration file. The AS/400 system
automatically builds the necessary TDLC configuration and an associated
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
TCP/IP interface. It was then necessary to manually change the TCP/IP
interface to include the As1 LAN address as the Associated Local Interface.
The As1 system was then configured as a BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent. This
relay agent was configured and started through Operations Navigator. The
configuration was set to forward DHCP messages from the locally attached
twinax subnet to the remote DHCP server, As2.
The address pool, 10.1.1.x, was split within the DHCP configuration on the
As2 system. The two configured pools were then re-grouped to form a single
pool within DHCP.
An IP address pool for the remote twinax subnet was configured, within
DHCP, on the As2 system. The DHCP server was then started on the As2
system.
After the configuration was complete the IBM Network Station was again
started. However, this time the DHCP messages were forwarded by the local
DHCP/BOOTP Relay Agent (As1) to the remote DHCP server, As2. The IBM
Network Station then obtained the necessary network start up information
that it required to boot up successfully.
5.9 Twinax IBM Network Station with Remote Boot Server
It is possible to have the IBM Network Station send a request to a DHCP
server, for network information, and have that information returned. The
returned information contains the name or IP address of another host that
serves the IBM Network Station with its kernel and user configuration.
You can also configure the AS/400 DHCP server to provide the options that
are necessary to instruct the IBM Network Station to load its kernel from a
server other than the DHCP server host. Up to two systems can be specified
from which the user configuration data can be loaded.
Figure 100 on page 192 shows a twinax Network Station attached to an
AS/400 system, As1. In this scenario, the twinax Network Station goes to As1
system for its network configuration. The As1 system then replies to the
Network Station that it should go to address 10.1.1.50, system As2, for the
kernel and configuration data. The Network Station then accesses As2, using
the workstation controller and the LAN for its base code and configuration
data.
191
TFTP
S e rv e r
DHCP
S e rv e r
As1
As2
.5 0
1 0 .1 .1 .0
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .0
.2
WSC
AS1
3 ) 1 0 .1 .1 .5 0 , B o o t m e
up
1 ) M y n e tw o rk
C o n fig u ra tio n ?
2 )G o to 1 0 .1 .1 .5 0 fo r yo u r
k e rn e l a n d c o n fig u ratio n
d a ta
Figure 100. Twinax Attached Network Station Obtaining Network Configuration
5.9.1 Scenario Overview
This scenario shows an example of a twinaxial Network Station attached to a
local workstation controller on an AS/400 system. This AS/400 system is a
DHCP server and provides the network configuration to the Network Station.
It also provides the address of the base code server and the terminal
configuration server to the Network Station. In this scenario, the As2 system
is the system that the As1 system directs the Network Station to for its base
code and terminal configuration server.
The As2 system is set up with the TFTP server running and the Network
Station Login Daemon server.
5.9.2 Scenario Objectives
The objectives of this scenario are to:
• Configure twinax-attached IBM Network Stations.
• Configure the DHCP server, As1, to provide the locally attached twinax
IBM Network Stations with network configuration.
• Configure the DHCP server, As1, to provide information to the attached
twinax IBM Network Stations on where to -obtain kernel and configuration
data.
• Start the Network Station and ensure LAN connectivity.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
5.9.3 Scenario Advantages
The advantages of this scenario include:
• Easier to connect twinax-attached IBM Network Stations to an existing
network
• Multiple servers do not need to exist on one system but can be configured
on different systems
• Routing of datagrams, from the twinax subnet to the attached LAN and
vice versa, occurs automatically
5.9.4 Scenario Disadvantages
There is a requirement for an extensive understanding of DHCP. The variety
of options required to setup within the DHCP configuration is the main
disadvantage.
5.9.5 Scenario Network Configuration
Figure 101 shows the network topology used for this scenario. The twinax
attached Network Stations are connected to the DHCP server, As1. The IBM
Network Stations receive their start-up information from the As1 system and
then are directed to the As2 system for their base and configuration code.
1 0 . 1 .1 . 0
m a s k 2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .0
.5 0
.2
A s 2 .m y c o m p a n y .c o m
A s 1 .m y c o m p a n y .c o m
D H C P S e rv e r
.1 9 3
*W S C
T w in a x s u b n e t
S u b n e t a d d re s s :
1 0 .1 .1 .1 9 2
M ask:
2 5 5 .2 5 5 .2 5 5 .1 9 2
Figure 101. Network Topology for Remote Boot Server Scenario
193
5.9.6 Task Summary
Note
It is assumed, in this scenario, that the DHCP server on the As1 system
already functions correctly and supports the attached twinax Network
Stations. If this is not the case, refer to Section 5.7, “Twinax IBM Network
Station with Local DHCP Server Scenario” on page 154. This section
outlines the necessary steps needed to configure the DHCP server for
twinax support.
The following tasks are required to complete this scenario:
1. Configure the DHCP server As1 for returning information to the twinax
subnet that contains the IP address of a base and configuration server.
2. Ensure that the proper TCP/IP servers are started on the As2 system.
3. Configure and start the twinax IBM Network Station.
4. Test connectivity.
5.9.7 Configuring the DHCP Server on As1
Note
The Operations Navigator displays, shown in this section, were captured
from a PC running IBM AS/400 Client Access for Windows 95/NT Version 3
Release 2 Modification Level 0.
We will configure a boot server for the IBM Network Station. This is different
from the DHCP server to which the Network Station is connected.
To configure the boot server, complete the following steps:
1. Use the AS/400 Operations Navigator on System As1 to open the DHCP
server configuration window. Right click on the Twinax Subnet that was
previously configured. Highlight Properties. The resulting display is
shown in Figure 102 on page 195.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 102. Operations Navigator - DHCP Twinax Subnet Properties
2. Click the Options tab.
3. From the previous DHCP configuration, options 1, 3, 66 and 67 were
defined. They are shown in the Selected options. For this scenario,
however, option 66 must be modified to show the address of the TFTP
server: 10.1.1.50. See Figure 103 on page 196 for the resulting display.
195
Figure 103. DHCP Configuration - Defining TFTP Server
4. Click Templates.
5. Click New. To add user option 211 (protocol to use for loading the user
configuration data), specify the data as shown in Figure 104 on page 197.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 104. DHCP Configuration - Option 211 Configuration Protocol Template
6. Click OK.
7. Repeat the steps 4 and 5 to add the user options 212, 213 and 214 as
shown in Figure 105, Figure 106 on page 198, and Figure 107 on page
198.
Figure 105. DHCP Configuration - Option 212 Terminal Server Template
197
Figure 106. DHCP Configuration - Option 213 Configuration File Path Template
Figure 107. DHCP Configuration - Option 214 Protocol to Use Template
8. You are returned to the main Options display. Under the Available options
scroll down to the end of the list to see that options 211 through 214 have
been added. The resulting display is shown in Figure 108 on page 199.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 108. DHCP Configuration - Viewing Available Options
9. The newly defined tags must now have the corresponding values added.
For each of the tags from 211 to 214, click the TAG number in the Available
options window and then click Add to add the value into the Selected
options. Figure 109 on page 200, Figure 110 on page 201 through Figure
112 on page 203 shows the addition of these tags.
199
Figure 109. DHCP Configuration - Adding Tag 211 Configuration Protocol
200
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 110. DHCP Configuration - Adding Tag 212 Terminal Server
201
Figure 111. DHCP Configuration - Adding Tag 213 Configuration File Path
202
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 112. DHCP Configuration - Adding Tag 214 Protocol
10.After the tags are added, click OK. You are returned to the main DHCP
server display. With the twinax subnet still highlighted, the options are
shown with their corresponding Hexadecimal data. The resulting display is
shown in Figure 113 on page 204.
203
Figure 113. Operations Navigator - Modified DHCP Configuration Display
11.Close the DHCP window. You are prompted to update the server. Click Yes
on this window. If the server is already running, stop and restart the server
from Operations Navigator.
5.9.8 Ensuring the Proper TCP/IP Servers are Started on As2
The TFTP Server and the Network Station Login Daemon Server must both
be started on the As2 system for this scenario. This can be checked through a
green screen interface entering the command, NETSTAT *CNN. The resulting
display is shown in Figure 114 on page 205. Notice that the Network Station
Login Daemon uses port 256.
The status of these servers can also be checked using Operations Navigator.
The resulting display is shown in Figure 115 on page 205.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Work with TCP/IP Connection Status
System:
Local internet address . . . . . . . . . . . :
As2
*ALL
Type options, press Enter.
4=End 5=Display details
Remote
Opt Address
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Remote
Port
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Local
Port
ftp-con >
telnet
smtp
tftp
www-http
pop3
snmp
256
as-svrmap
Idle Time
014:37:50
000:00:05
183:47:21
013:53:47
018:21:35
183:47:11
141:49:43
013:49:59
000:00:22
State
Listen
Listen
Listen
*UDP
Listen
Listen
*UDP
Listen
Listen
Figure 114. Netstat *CNN Display Showing Active TCP/IP Servers
Figure 115. Operations Navigator - TCP/IP Server Status Display
5.9.9 Configuring and Starting the Twinax IBM Network Station
As mentioned prevously, it is assumed that the DHCP server on As1 fully
supports the attached twinax Network Stations. There exists a QTDL line,
controller, device and an TCP/IP interface for this same QTLD line. The
TCP/IP interface has an Associated local interface that points to the LAN
205
adapter of the system. In this case, this parameter has the value of 10.1.1.2.
A display device also exists for each of the attached Network Stations.
Note
If your system currently does not have DHCP configured and running, refer
to Section 5.7, “Twinax IBM Network Station with Local DHCP Server
Scenario” on page 154 for instructions on how to set up the DHCP server.
Figure 116 and Figure 117 show the information that can be viewed within the
Network Station’s Setup Utility. However, these displays are what you see
before the Network Stations are powered up in this scenario. The Setup Utility
can be accessed by powering off the Network Station and then powering it
back on. When the message, NS0500 Search for Host System ,is shown on
the display, press ECS.
IBM Network Station
Set Network Parameters
IP Addressed from ................................ NVRAM
Boot Host IP Address:
First Host ..................................... 10.1.1.193
Second Host .................................... 0.0.0.0
Third Host ..................................... 0.0.0.0
Configuration Host IP Address:
First Host ..................................... 0.0.0.0.
Second Host .................................... 0.0.0.0
Figure 116. Set Network Parameters Display (Before Bootup)
Note
Figure 117 on page 207 shows the NVRAM settings. However, when the
Network Station is ready to boot, the F3 display must show the Network
setting.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
IBM Network Station
Set Configuration Parameters
Configuration File ..........................
Configuration Directory:
First ..................................... /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/con
figs/
Second ....................................
Configuration Host Protocol:
First ..................................... Default
Second .................................... Default
Figure 117. Set Configuration Parameters Display (Before Bootup)
The Network Station is now ready to be powered up. The messages seen on
the initial display, when the Network Station is powering up, are similar to
what is shown in Figure 118.
NS0500
NS0930
NS1090
NS0520
NS0530
Search for Host System ...
Attempting to use DHCP ...... successful
System 10.1.1.50 contacted from 10.1.1.194
Request startup information ...
Loading startup information ...
Figure 118. Sample Messages on Network Station during Startup
The NS1090 message shows that the Network Station has contacted the As2
system, which has an IP address of 10.1.1.50.
When the bootup is completed, a login display is shown from the 10.1.1.50
system, As2.
If the Setup Utility is now reviewed, on the Network Station, the display shows
updated information as shown in Figure 119 on page 208 and Figure 120 on
page 208.
207
IBM Network Station
Set Network Parameters
IP Addressed from ................................ NVRAM
Boot Host IP Address:
First Host ..................................... 10.1.1.193
Second Host .................................... 0.0.0.0
Third Host ..................................... 0.0.0.0
Configuration Host IP Address:
First Host ..................................... 10.1.1.50
Second Host .................................... 0.0.0.0
Figure 119. Set Network Parameters Display (After Bootup)
IBM Network Station
Set Configuration Parameters
Configuration File ..........................
Configuration Directory:
First ..................................... /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/con
figs/
Second ....................................
Configuration Host Protocol:
First ..................................... RFS/400
Second .................................... Default
Figure 120. Set Configuration Parameters Display (After Bootup)
5.9.10 Testing Connectivity
After the Network Station is powered up and is signed on, TELNET 5250
sessions can be started to both the As1 and As2 systems.
5.9.11 Summary
This scenario showed the DHCP configuration on an AS/400 system that
supported attached twinax IBM Network Stations. The DHCP configuration
involved modifying the twinax subnet so that the twinax Network Stations
obtain their kernel and configuration data from another server, As2.
No change was required on the Network Station itself. However, it required a
power off and a power on after the required DHCP configuration was
completed on system As1.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Chapter 6. Problem Determination
This section outlines some of the more commonly used tools that can help
you in diagnosing some common IBM Network Station errors.
6.1 Viewing the IBM Network Station Console Log
The IBM Network Station maintains a system log of almost every event that
has occurred on the Network Station. This system log can be very useful in
helping to diagnose configuration problems with your Network Station.
There are two methods to view the system log of the IBM Network Station.
You can use TELNET to gain access to the Network Station on port 5998 or
you can access the system log locally from the IBM Network Station.
Tip
To enhance the messages logged to the system console log, you can turn
on an extended diagnostics message by placing the following line in the
defaults.dft file and restart the Network Station:
set file-extended-diagnostics = true
6.1.1 Accessing the System Log Using TELNET
Complete the following steps to use TELNET to view a system log for an IBM
Network Station from a Windows 95 platform:
1. From the Windows 95 task bar, select Start, then select Run.
2. Type TELNET into the dialog box and press Enter.
Figure 121. Windows 95 RUN Dialog Box
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
209
3. From the file pulldown menu select Terminal.
4. Select Preferences
5. Change the Buffer size to 9999, as shown in to Figure 122. This enables
you to scroll back through the entire console log file.
Figure 122. TELNET Terminal Preferences
6. Click on OK.
7. Select Connect from the file pull down menu.
8. Click on Remote System.
9. Enter the TCP/IP address of the desired Network Station and the console
log port ID of 5998. Please refer to Figure 123.
Figure 123. TELNET Terminal Connection Dialog Box
10.Click on Connect.
11.The console scrolls by as it fills up the buffer space within the Telnet
Terminal session. The vertical scroll bar enables you to scroll back through
the log file.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
6.1.2 Accessing the System Log Using the Console Manager
You can also view the system log directly on the Network Station by
accessing the User Services Console.
The following steps assume you were able to start the Network Station and
have the Login display on the display, or you have signed on and
authenticated against a host server.
Use the follow steps to view the console log (see Figure 124):
1. Press Alt + Shift + Home to start the Network Station User Service
console.
2. Click on Messages to view the log.
3. Use the vertical scroll bar to move up and down through the log file.
Figure 124. Console Log Example
Problem Determination
211
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Chapter 7. Replicating a Remote Boot Server Environment
If you determine that remote boot servers are the best option for your planned
remote IBM Network Station users, one of your next tasks is to develop an
implementation plan. In addition, you must make a key decision about
whether you will use the separation of servers function or if your remote boot
servers will also act as authentication servers.
Another task in your plan is determining how (and when) the IBM Network
Station Manager product is installed on your remote servers. The normal,
supported installation method, found in the manual , can used to install the
5648-C05 CDs or you can download the code from the Web. However, this
chapter discusses an alternative method for getting the IBM Network Station
Manager for AS/400 product installed on the remote servers. Your
implementation plan should also include a task that determines if there are
common or unique system-wide, group or user level desktop preferences for
the remote site users. Additional information on planning for TCP/IP and IBM
Network Stations is included in the manual IBM Network Station Manager
Installation and Use, SC41-0664.
The following sections discuss several example scenarios for replicating the
IBM Network Station Manager environment from a central boot server to
remote boot servers. Please notice that these methods have not been tested
by development and therefore are not formally supported
7.1 Centralized Authentication Server
In this scenario, assume that a central AS/400 (AS1) system located at
company headquarters in New York is connected to twenty remote AS/400
systems through an existing TCP/IP based wide area network. The central
AS/400 system, at V4R3 and Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager for
AS/400, was installed for a recently completed pilot. Because the IBM
Network Station pilot was successful, the decision was made to begin a roll
out of IBM Network Stations at each of the twenty remote sites. Because
these remote AS/400s are at V4R3, they are capable of running IBM Network
Station Manager for AS/400 Release 3. The planned network diagram is
shown in Figure 125 on page 214. The first remote site is in St. Louis. The
AS2 AS/400 system installed there has V4R3 installed with a number of PCs
currently connected to it on an Ethernet LAN. The plan is to replace a number
of existing under-utilized, out-dated PCs with IBM Network Stations and leave
the more current PCs in place for those users who need a PC.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
213
In developing the implementation plan, the company decided to use the
central AS/400 system at headquarters to authenticate the IBM Network
Station users at the remote sites. In this case, the Release 3 IBM Network
Station Manager for AS/400 is used for the separation of servers function.
The AS1 AS/400 system in New York acts as a base code server for the IBM
Network Stations in New York and also provide the DHCP, Authentication and
Terminal Configuration server functions to all IBM Network Stations. The AS2
AS/400 system in St. Louis acts as a base code server for the IBM Network
Stations located in that remote site.
10.1.1.56
DHCP
S erver
10.1.1.70
10.1.1.6
....
Base Code
Server
.....
10.1.1.98
Term inal C onfig.
S erver
A uthentication
S erver
10.1.1.2
N ew York
AS/400
AS1
10.1.1.3
Router
B ase C ode
S erver
....
....
....
S t. Louis
A S/400
A S2
Router
10.2.1.1
N ew O rleans
A S/400
A S21
10.21.1.1
...
.....
10.2.1.15
10.2.1.35
10.2.1.5
10.2.1.10
Figure 125. Replicating Remote Boot Servers - Centralized Authentication Server
7.1.1 IBM Network Station Manager Replication to Remote Server
Because the central site AS/400 system is providing the authentication server
function for all IBM Network Stations, the objective in this scenario is to easily
copy the IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 product from the installed
central site to the remote AS2 AS/400 server which allows it to act as a base
code server. In this environment, the users in St. Louis have user IDs on both
AS/400 systems because they need to access applications running on both
the headquarters AS/400 system, AS1 and their local AS/400 system, AS2.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Because our central and remote system are both at the same OS/400 V4R3
level, the document referenced at the end of this paragraph was used to verify
that there were no prerequisite PTFs required before installing IBM Network
Station Manager for AS/400 on AS2. However, if the remote server had been
at an earlier release level, we would need to verify that the prerequisite PTFs
were installed before doing the following steps. In addition, the steps involving
saving products and files change would need to reflect the correct target
release. The prerequisite PTFs for each OS/400 version/release/modification
level are listed on the Web site: as400service.ibm.com in the AS/400
Software Knowledge Database. The title of the document is OS/400 Pre-Req
PTFs for 5648C05 (NSM R3).
Use the following steps to replicate the IBM Network Station Manager for
AS/400 environment to the remote server:
1. On the central AS1 AS/400 (source system), use the following command
to create a save file to contain the IBM Network Station Manager for
AS/400 product and its installed PTFs.
CRTSAVF FILE(WORKLIB/C05SAVF) TEXT(’savf for savlicpgm of 5648C05’)
2. On the central AS1 AS/400, use the following command to save the IBM
Network Station Manager for AS/400 product to the previously created
save file.
SAVLICPGM LICPGM(5648C05) DEV(*SAVF) SAVF(WORKLIB/C05SAVF)
TGTRLS(*CURRENT)
3. From the central AS1 system, use the following commands to FTP the
C05SAVF containing the 5648-C05 product to the remote server:
ftp as2
(Enter user ID and password as prompted.)
bin
cd /QSYS.LIB/as2work.lib/
lcd worklib
put c05savf
4. On the target system AS2 (for example, the remote server), use the
following command:
RSTLICPGM LICPGM(5648C05) DEV(*SAVF) OPTION(*BASE) RSTOBJ(*ALL)
SAVF(AS2WORK/C05SAVF)
Messages similar to the following should appear near the bottom of your
joblog, indicating a successful installation.
Object moved.
Object moved.
Object moved.
Replicating a Remote Boot Server Environment
215
Object moved.
Object moved.
Object QAYTCSNC1P in QUSRSYS type *FILE created.
1 objects duplicated.
Ownership of object QAYTCSNC1P in QUSRSYS type *FILE changed.
Object STRNSSA in QSYS type *CMD deleted.
Object STRNSSA in QSYS type *CMD created.
1 objects duplicated.
Ownership of object STRNSSA in QSYS type *CMD changed.
Object QAYTCSNC1 in QUSRSYS type *FILE created.
1 objects duplicated.
Ownership of object QAYTCSNC1 in QUSRSYS type *FILE changed.
File QAYTCSNC1P started journaling to journal QYTCSJRN.
Migration program completed successfully.
*LNG objects for NLV 2924 for product 5648C05 option *BASE release
*FIRST restored.
Objects for product 5648C05 option *BASE release *FIRST restored.
5. On the remote server, run the Start Network Station Setup Assistant
(STRNSSA) command to start the Network Station setup assistant. Go
through each task and sub-task as appropriate, even though the
Completed column may already indicate a status of YES.
Note: If you receive a message in your job log indicating that ...task 5000
failed/port 80 was not active, start the HTTP server default instance by
running the command, STRTCPSVR SERVER(*HTTP) HTTPSVR(DEFAULT), and
then re-try task 5000)
6. Because the central AS/400 server (10.1.1.2 ) is used to authenticate the
IBM Network Station users in St. Louis, the defaults.dft configuration file
on AS2 in St. Louis must be modified. In this example, FTP was used to
download this file from the /QIBM/UserData/NetworkStation/StationConfig
IFS directory to a PC. Wordpad was used to insert the following
statements into the defaults.dft file.
Note: 10.1.1.2 in the -authserv statement is the IP address of the
Authentication server.
set exec-startup-commands = {
{ mcuis }
{ "actlogin -authserv 10.1.1.2" }
}
7. Use FTP to upload the modified defaults.dft file to the AS2 AS/400 remote
server. You can also rename this file to remdef.dft and FTP it up to the
central AS1 AS/400 server. You can FTP the file numerous times as
defaults.dft to the various remote AS/400 base code servers.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
8. In this case, since DHCP is being used, ensure that the DHCP server
options are set up correctly on AS1 server so that the IBM Network
Stations in St. Louis have AS2 server as their base code server. For
example, option 66 would point to different TFTP servers to allow IBM
Network Stations in different locations to get their base code from the
appropriate server. For more details on DHCP configuration, refer to the
manual, IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664
and TCP/IP Configuration and Reference, SC41-5420, available online at
www.ibm.com/nc/pubs, and www.as400service.ibm.com respectively. In
addition, the AS/400 TCP/IP Autoconfiguration: DNS and DHCP,
SG24-5147 is available online at: www.redbooks.ibm.com
Refer to the manual IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use,
SC41-0664, for performance tuning information. It is available online at the
Web site: www.ibm.com/nc/pubs
After completing the steps, the IBM Network Stations at the remote site were
powered on or re-booted. They were able to obtain their base code from their
local AS2 AS/400 server and authenticate against the central AS1 AS/400
server.
7.2 Decentralized Authentication Server
In this example, the central site in Chicago has an AS/400 system (SYSAS1),
a S/390 system (SYS390), and a development AS/400 system (SYSAS3)
installed. In addition, sixty remote AS/400 systems are installed across a
TCP/IP based wide area network. The central AS/400 system (SYSAS1) in
Chicago has V4R3 and Release 3 of IBM Network Station Manager for
AS/400 already installed because they recently completed an IBM Network
Station pilot project. Because the IBM Network Station pilot was successful.
An implementation of IBM Network Stations at the various remote sites was
also planned. The planned network is shown in Figure 126 on page 218.
Although, the normal installation process using either the shipped 5648-C05
CDs or the downloaded code from the Internet and group PTF SF99082 can
be used (as documented in the manual IBM Network Station Manager
Installation and Use, SC41-0664), the company decided that a replication
technique would be used instead. We choose the development AS/400
system (SYSAS3) to be the master remote server copy for replicating the
master IBM Network Station Manager environment to the remote servers.
Because the remote sites are primarily autonomous and do not want to rely
on the connection to the central site to obtain user preferences, decentralized
authentication was selected. However, for ease of installation, the decision
Replicating a Remote Boot Server Environment
217
was made to copy the base IBM Network Station Manager environment to the
remote sites from the AS/400 system, SYSAS3 at the central site. In addition,
common system-wide and group-level preferences were determined.
Because they applied to all remote servers, the changes were made on the
master SYSAS3 system before replication. IBM Network Station Manager on
SYSAS3 was used to omit the 3270 button from the system default desktop
for the remote sites because the majority of remote users do not need access
to the S/390 system in Chicago. There is a set of users at each remote site
that do need S/390 access. Therefore, a group profile called grp3270 was
created. The desktop preferences for the grp3270 group was changed so that
a 3270 button appears on those users’ IBM Network Station menu bars.
1 0.1.1.10
1 0.1.1.85
1 0.1.1.40
A S/400
S YSAS 1
....
1 0.1.1.50
....
D HC P
Server
B a s e C o de
S e rve r
1 0.1.1..4
Term inal C onfig.
Server
1 0.1.1.2
C hicago
Authentication
Server
1 0.1.1.5
R ou ter
S /390
S YS390
1 0.1.1.3
A S/400
S YSAS 3
("M aster C opy" )
B a s e C o de
S e rve r
Term inal C onfig.
Server
Authentication
Server
....
....
R ochester
A S/400
S YSAS 4
B a se C o de
S e rve r
Term inal C onfig.
Server
P ortland
A S/400
S YSAS 63
Authentication
Server
R o uter
1 0.4.1.1
1 0.4.1.2
...
.....
1 0.4.1.40
1 0.63.1.1
1 0.4.1.70
1 0.4.1.10
1 0.4.1.35
Figure 126. Replicating Remote Boot Servers - Decentralized Authentication
7.2.1 IBM Network Station Manager Replication to Remote Server
The plan is to use the Network Station Manager environment on the central
site development AS/400 (SYSAS3) system as a master copy and replicate it
to the remote AS/400 boot servers. The AS/400 system, SYSAS1, continues
to be a production boot server for the IBM Network Station users located at
the central site. Our central and remote system are both at the same OS/400
V4R3 level. We used the document referenced at the end of this paragraph to
218
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
verify that there were no prerequisite PTFs required prior to installing IBM
Network Station Manager for AS/400 Release 3. However, if the remote
server had been at an earlier release level, then we would need to ensure
that the prerequisite PTFs were installed before doing the following steps.
The prerequisite PTFs are listed for each OS/400
version/release/modification level in the AS/400 Software Knowledge
Database on the Web site: as400service.ibm.com
The title of the document is OS/400 Pre-Req PTFs for 5648C05 (NSM R3) .
Note
The following steps were used in an environment where both the source
and the target systems were at OS/400 V4R3. These steps were not tested
with systems at different OS/400 levels. As a result, the following steps
could change if systems at different levels are used. For example, you
would possibly need to change the target release on the save commands
and install prerequisite PTFs on target AS/400 systems having a release
prior to V4R3 installed (or one different from the source system).
After determining which (if any) system wide, group or user preferences were
common to all remote servers and therefore, be set on the source (SYSAS3)
system, the following steps were used to set up and then replicate the master
remote IBM Network Station Manager environment from SYSAS3 system to
the remote AS/400 server, SYSAS4.
1. As shown in Figure 127 on page 220, use IBM Network Station Manager
to omit the 3270 button from the System Defaults Menu Setup Task by
removing the check mark for Include default menu bar buttons (5250, 3270
and NC Navigator) and then, adding a 5250 Session button again.
Complete the process by adding an NC Navigator button as shown in
Figure 128 on page 220.
Tip
${BOOTHOST} can be used in the AS/400 system parameter if a session
to the boot server is desired. In this case, rather than the user being
prompted for an AS/400 system name or IP address, a 5250 session to
the associated remote boot server is started when the 5250 menu bar
button is selected.
Replicating a Remote Boot Server Environment
219
Figure 127. Customize System Default Menu Bar Buttons
Figure 128. Add Custom NC Navigator Button to System Default Menu Bar
220
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
2. The group profile must already exist to set group preferences. Therefore,
create the group profile grp3270 and a dummy user ID (which references
grp3270 in its profile) on the master copy system, SYSAS3.
Note: The grp3270 profile is a normal AS/400 group profile.
Use the IBM Network Station Manager to add a 3270 button to the Menu
Setup Task for the group grp3270 as shown in Figure 129.
Figure 129. Add 3270 Menu Bar Button to Group Grp3270’s Preference Settings
3. On the central SYSAS3 AS/400 system (source system), run the following
command to create a save file which will contain the IBM Network Station
Manager for AS/400 product and its installed PTFs. (In our environment,
no one was actively using Network Station Manager when we performed
this step.)
CRTSAVF FILE(WORKLIB/C05SAVF) TEXT(’savf for savlicpgm of 5648C05’)
4. On the central SYSAS3 AS/400 system, run the following command to
save the IBM Network Station Manager for AS/400 product to the
previously created save file.
SAVLICPGM LICPGM(5648C05) DEV(*SAVF) SAVF(WORKLIB/C05SAVF)
TGTRLS(*CURRENT)
Replicating a Remote Boot Server Environment
221
From the central SYSAS3, use the following commands to FTP the
C05SAVF containing the 5648-C05 product to the existing as4work library
on the remote server SYSAS4:
ftp sysas4
(Enter user ID and password when prompted.)
bin
cd /QSYS.LIB/as4work.lib/
lcd worklib
put c05savf
5. On the target system (the remote server SYSAS4), run the following
command:
RSTLICPGM LICPGM(5648C05) DEV(*SAVF) OPTION(*BASE) RSTOBJ(*ALL)
SAVF(AS4WORK/C05SAVF)
You should see messages similar to the following near the bottom of your
job log, indicating a successful installation.
Object moved.
Object moved.
Object moved.
Object moved.
Object moved.
Object QAYTCSNC1P in QUSRSYS type *FILE created.
1 objects duplicated.
Ownership of object QAYTCSNC1P in QUSRSYS type *FILE changed.
Object STRNSSA in QSYS type *CMD deleted.
Object STRNSSA in QSYS type *CMD created.
1 objects duplicated.
Ownership of object STRNSSA in QSYS type *CMD changed.
Object QAYTCSNC1 in QUSRSYS type *FILE created.
1 objects duplicated.
Ownership of object QAYTCSNC1 in QUSRSYS type *FILE changed.
File QAYTCSNC1P started journaling to journal QYTCSJRN.
Migration program completed successfully.
*LNG objects for NLV 2924 for product 5648C05 option *BASE release
*FIRST restored.
Objects for product 5648C05 option *BASE release *FIRST restored.
6. On the remote server, run the Network Station Setup Assistant
(STRNSSA) command to start the Network Station Setup Assistant. Go
through each task and sub-task as appropriate, even though the
Completed column may indicate a status of YES.
Note: If you receive a message in your job log indicating that task 5000
failed .... port 80 was not active, start the HTTP server DEFAULT instance
by running the following command and then trying task 5000 again.
222
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
STRTCPSVR SERVER(*HTTP) HTTPSVR(DEFAULT)
7. Because the central AS/400 SYSAS3 system was used to create the
master system wide default preferences and the grp3270 group
preferences, these configuration files must be transferred to the remote
boot server from the master SYSAS3.
8. Although Windows Explorer can be used to drag and drop whole IFS
directories from one AS/400 system to another, in this case, we decided to
save all of the files in the path /QIBM/UserData/NetworkStation/ and then
FTP them to the remote server.
Note: Alternatively, if you know which files are affected and there are only
a few of them, FTP the specific configuration files instead.
On the source system, after creating a group’s save file in the WORKLIB
library, run the following command to save the files in the
/QIBM/UserData/NetworkStation IFS path to the save file:
SAV DEV('/QSYS.LIB/WORKLIB.LIB/groups.file')
OBJ(('/QIBM/UserData/NetworkStation/*')) DTACPR(*YES)
On the source system, start an FTP session to the target system and then
use the following commands to transfer the IFS files to a save file in the
existing library as4worklib:
bin
cd /QSYS.LIB/as4work.lib/
lcd worklib put groups
On the target system, issue the following command to restore the files:
RST DEV('/QSYS.LIB/as4work.lib/groups.file')
OBJ(('/QIBM/UserData/NetworkStation/*')) ALWOBJDIF(*ALL)
If the desired group profile (such as grp3270) does not already exist on the
target system, create the group profile now. For users on the SYSAS4
(target) system to utilize the group preferences, their user profiles on that
target system must have the group profile named in the GRPPRF field.
9. Ensure that the DHCP server options are set up correctly on SYSAS1 so
that the IBM Network Stations in Rochester have SYSAS4 system defined
as their base code server. For example, option 66 needs to point to
different TFTP servers to allow the IBM Network Stations in different
remote sites to obtain their base code from the appropriate server. For
more details on DHCP configuration, refer to the manual, IBM Network
Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664, and TCP/IP
Configuration and Reference, SC41-5420, which are online respectively at
the Web sites: www.ibm.com/nc/pubs and www.as400service.ibm.com
Replicating a Remote Boot Server Environment
223
In addition, the AS/400 TCP/IP Autoconfiguration: DNS and DHCP,
SG24-5147, is available online at: www.redbooks.ibm.com
As a result of the previous steps, the IBM Network Station users at the
Rochester remote site boot from their local SYSAS4 AS/400 system which
was replicated from the master copy SYSAS3 AS/400 system at the central
site. Because preference files were copied from SYSAS3 to SYSAS4, all IBM
Network Station users in the Rochester location see a default desktop that
contains the custom 5250 and NC Navigator menu bar buttons. In addition,
users who are members of the grp3270 l also see a 3270 button on their IBM
Network Station desktop.
7.3 Summary
The information in this chapter includes as-is, non-supported techniques for
replicating an IBM Network Station Manager Release 3 environment from one
AS/400 to another when implementing multiple AS/400 boot servers. In
review, some crucial tasks when using one of the replication techniques in
this chapter are:
• Develop an implementation plan and draw or revise a network diagram.
• Determine whether the Release 3 separation of servers function will be
used. For example, will you be using a central server for authentication
and the remote sites for base code serving or will each remote server fulfill
the authentication, terminal configuration and base code server roles? If
you are using DHCP, consider the location of the server. Also, there may
be a requirement to install multiple DHCP servers. Refer to the manual,
TCP/IP Configuration and Reference, SC41-5420.
• Review the desktop customizing needs of the remote users. If the remote
servers are providing the authentication server function, are there certain
system level, group, or even user defaults which can be set on the master
copy so that these preferences can be replicated initially to all remote
AS/400 boot servers?
• Are the remote servers and the source master copy system at the same
OS/400 levels? The techniques in this chapter were tested in an
environment where both the source and the target systems were at V4R3.
If they are not at the same level, ensure that you verify that pre-requisite
PTFs are installed as directed in the previous sections. In addition, the
steps involving the saving of products or files must reflect the proper target
release level.
• If using these replication techniques, please test them in your own
environment before using them to create production systems.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Chapter 8. Using a Network Station to Access Mail
Electronic mail, called e-mail, is information that is sent electronically to and
from users on an interconnected network by using a computer with special
application software.
In this chapter, we describe how the IBM Network Station can access e-mail
from POP3 Server and Domino Server.
8.1 POP3 Mail Configuration
The Post Office Protocol (POP) is the AS/400 implementation of the Post
Office Protocol Version 3 mail interface. This server allows AS/400 systems to
act as a POP server for any clients that support the POP mail interface.
The POP3 Server is a simple store-and-retrieve mail system which manages
temporary electronic mailboxes for the POP3 users’ mail. The mail is stored
until the client retrieves it from the mail box. If the client configuration
specifies the delete option, the mail items is deleted as they are retrieved.
The mail remains in its original form (ASCII) while it is stored on the AS/400
system acting as the POP3 server.
8.1.1 Basic POP3 Configuration
Use the following steps to perform the basic configuration that you need to
deliver mail to and from POP3 clients:
1. To configure the AS/400 SMTP serve, use these steps:
a. Configure the host name and domain name using the Change TCP
Domain (CHGTCPDMN) command or Configure TCP/IP (CFGTCP)
command, menu option 12 (see Figure 130).
Change TCP/IP Domain (CHGTCPDMN)
Type choices, press Enter.
Host name . . . . . . . . . . .
'AS1'
Domain name . . . . . . . . . .
'MYCOMPANY.COM'
Host name search priority . . .
Domain name server:
Internet address . . . . . . .
*REMOTE
*REMOTE, *LOCAL, *SAME
'10.1.1.1'
Figure 130. Option 12 of the CFGTCP Menu - Change TCP/IP Domain
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
225
b. Verify that there is an IP address associated with the host name for the
system, either in the DNS server configuration or local host table.
For the DNS server, add an A record in the DNS server configuration
for the SMTP mail server host as shown in the following example:
DNS
as1.mycompany.com IN A 10.1.1.1
Figure 131. DNS Server Configuration
For the local host table, use the Add TCP Host Table Entry
(ADDTCPHTE) command or Configure TCP/IP (CFGTCP) command,
menu option 10 to add the host’s IP address. The host table entry is
shown in Figure 132.
Display TCP/IP Host Table Entries
System:
Internet Address . . . . . . . . . . . :
Host names:
Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
11.3.1.283
ASM0719.MYCOMPANY.COM
Figure 132. Display of Host Table Entry
2. Add an entry in the system distribution directory for the user. Use the Work
with Directory Entry command, WRKDIRE ,and then select menu option 1.
Figure 133 shows the display with only the relevant parameters.
Add Directory Entry
Type choices, press Enter.
User ID/Address .
Description . . .
System name/Group
User profile . .
Network user ID .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
USER1
AS1
Pop3 User
AS1
USER1
USER1
F4 for list
F4 for list
Figure 133. Directory Entry for POP User - General Information
Figure 133 on page 226 shows the first display for adding a new directory
entry. From this first display, page down 3 times to get to the display as shown
in Figure 134 on page 227.
226
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Add Directory Entry
Type choices, press Enter.
Mail service level . .
2
1=User index
2=System message store
4=Lotus Domino
9=Other mail service
For choice 9=Other mail service:
Field name . . . .
Preferred address . . .
F4 for list
3
1=User ID/Address
2=O/R name
3=SMTP name
9=Other preferred address
F4 for list
Address type . . . .
For choice 9=Other preferred address:
Field name . . . .
F4 for list
Figure 134. Mail Service Level - System Message Storage (Preferred Address)
On the display, as shown in Figure 134, press F19 to configure the SMTP
name for the user. The display in Figure 135 appears.
Add Name for SMTP
System:
Type choices, press Enter.
User ID . . . . . . . . :
Address . . . . . . . . :
USER1
AS1
SMTP user ID . . . . . .
SMTP domain . . . . . . .
user1
as1.mycompany.com
SMTP route . . . . . . .
Figure 135. Add Directory Entry - SMTP Name for User
3. To start the applicable mail servers on the AS/400 system, use the
following steps:
a. To start the SMTP server, run the following command:
STRTCPSVR SERVER(*SMTP)
Using a Network Station to Access Mail
227
b. To start the POP3 server, run the following command:
STRTCPSVR SERVER(*POP)
c. To start the Mail server Framework, run the following command:
STRMSF
For more detail information about how to configure the POP3 Server on an
AS/400 System, refer to the redbook AS/400 Electronic-Mail Capabilities,
SG24-4703. This manual is available at the Web site: www.redbooks.ibm.com
The term POP or POP3 is used throughout this chapter and should be
considered synonymous.
8.2 Lotus eSuite Workplace
Lotus eSuite Workplace is an all-Java business application suite which
provides users with an interactive desktop that includes the following
functions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Web-browser
Word processor
Spreadsheet
Presentation graphics
Calendar
Address book
e-mail client
The eSuite mail applet is a lightweight e-mail client, designed for Internet
environments, that supports standard messaging formats and open protocols.
It provides a complete, easy-to-use solution for reading and composing mail
messages.
Please read Implementation of Lotus eSuite WorkPlace for IBM Network
Station for AS/400. This documentation can be obtained from the Web site:
http://service.boulder.ibm.com/nc/as400
These readme files contain detailed information about installing Lotus eSuite
Workplace on the AS/400 system. In addition, a redbook pertaining to Lotus
eSuite Workplace is planned for 1999.
Note
A IBM Network Station Series 1000, with 64MB of memory, is required for
Lotus eSuite Workplace.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 136 on page 229 shows the main Lotus eSuite Workplace desktop.
Figure 136. eSuite Workplace Desktop
8.2.1 Starting eSuite on the Network Station
To enable users to start eSuite, perform the following tasks:
1. Enable users or groups to access eSuite.
2. Start RMI and eSuite registry server on the AS/400.
8.2.1.1 Enabling Users or Groups to Access eSuite
Before users or groups can access eSuite, the system administrator must
enable these users or groups to use eSuite.
To enable users, sign on to the IBM Network Station Manager with an
administrative level user ID and complete the following steps:
1. Click Startup and then Menus on the left side of the display. The Menu
Contents Default display is shown (see Figure 137).
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229
Figure 137. Menu Content Defaults Display
2. Click Group defaults or User defaults depending on which group or user
you want to enable and then click Browse.
3. Select the group or user you want to enable, then click Select and return.
4. Click Next at the bottom of Menu Content Defaults, this shows you the
Menu Content for the group or user you wish to enable.
5. The next display is the Desktop and Menu Bar options. Click the Desktop
style field and select Lotus eSuite Workplace without menu bar or
Lotus eSuite Workplace with menu bar.
6. Click Finish to save the preferences.
The eSuite Workplace loads automatically every time the designated group or
user logs in to their Network Station. Figure 136 on page 229 appears if the
logon completed successfully.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Note
If the user or group does not receive the main Lotus eSuite Workspace
desktop, after logging on to the Network Station, ensure that both the RMI
and eSuite servers are active on the AS/400. These jobs, QESRRMI and
QESRSVR, run in the QSYSWRK subsystem. Details on starting these
servers are included in the following section.
8.2.1.2 Starting RMI and eSuite Registry Server from AS/400 System
The RMI and eSuite Registry servers run on the AS/400 system and must be
started before starting the eSuite Workplace on your Network Station.
To start the RMI and eSuite registry servers, run the following command at an
AS/400 command prompt:
QESUITE/STRESRSVR
A message indicating the eSuite registry server has started is sent to the
QSYSOPR message queue. The message is shown in Figure 138.
Display Messages
Queue . . . . . :
Library . . . :
Severity . . . :
QSYSOPR
QSYS
90
System:
Program . . . . :
Library . . . :
Delivery . . . :
*DSPMSG
*HOLD
Type reply (if required), press Enter.
Adapter has inserted or left the ring on line TRNLINE.
Adapter has inserted or left the ring on line TRNLINE.
Adapter has inserted or left the ring on line TRNLINE.
eSuite registry server (014486/QESUITE/QESRSVR) starting.
Figure 138. QSYSOPR Message Queue Showing Start of eSuite Server
8.2.2 eSuite Mail Configuration on Network Station
This section describes how to setup and configure eSuite mail on the Network
Station to access POP3 Server on the AS/400 system.
1. To access eSuite mail, click My mail under Mailbox in the eSuite
Workplace. The following display is shown (see Figure 139 on page 232).
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Figure 139. eSuite Mail Configuration
2. The first time you start eSuite mail, you are prompted to enter some
information. Ask your system administrator for the following login
information:
• Login name. For example, if you are John Doe, your login name to
your eSuite mail account might be jdoe
• Mail account password. For example, your password is: lotus.
Note: The asterisk (*) character is shown when you type in your
password.
• Name. Enter your full name here or as you would like it to appear to the
mail recipient. For example, if your full name is John B. Doe, you can
enter John Doe or any other combination.
• e-mail address. This is the e-mail address that your mail recipients
see when they receive your messages. For example, if you are John
Doe, your e-mail address might be: [email protected] In
this example, the AS/400 host name is sysnam, the domain name is
mycompany.com ., and jdoe is the AS/400 profile name for the user on
the AS/400 system.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
• Mail server path. This is the path to the mail server where your
messages are stored, for example: sysnam.mycompany.com
• Mail server type (IMAP4 or POP3). This identifies the mail server type
to which you are going to login. In this case, click POP3 instead of
IMAP4.
• SMTP server path. This is path to the SMTP server that sends your
messages over the Internet. For example: sysnam.mycompany.com. In
this example, we use the same AS/400 system as both our POP3 and
SMTP server.
After you enter your login information, click Connect to start eSuite mail.
Figure 140 shows the eSuite Inbox.
Figure 140. eSuite Inbox
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233
Tip
You can set eSuite mail to automatically log the user into the mail account
using the user name and password from the initial login. Follow these
steps to accomplish this:
1.
2.
3.
4.
In the action bar at the bottom of the display, click Mail.
In the pop-up menu, click Preferences.
In the pop-up-display, click Management.
Click one or more options:
• Move deleted messages intothe Trash folder.
• Always save a copy of a message when sending mail.
• Automatically add author to address book when opening mail
message.
• Skip mail login (save user name and password)
5. Click OK. Your changes take effect immediately.
8.3 NC Navigator Access
NC Navigator mail has many capabilities to help you read and manage E-mail
messages. These functions are available by clicking various pulldown options
from the NC Navigator Mail menu bar. This section describes how to
configure and setup the NC Navigator to access the POP3 server on the
AS/400 system.
8.3.1 Starting NC Navigator
To start NC Navigator on your Network Station, you must perform the
following tasks:
1. Configure proxy.
2. Load NC Navigator on the from Network Station.
8.3.1.1 Configure Proxy
Use the following steps to configure a Proxy within the IBM Network Station
Manager:
1. Before you can use NC Navigator to surf the Internet, sign on to IBM
Network Station Manager with a user ID that has administrator authority.
2. On the left side of the display, click Internet —> Network. Select System
Defaults for all users.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
3. Click Next at the bottom of the display. The Network Setting display
appears as shown in Figure 141.
Figure 141. Network Settings - System Defaults Display
4. Enter the HTTP Proxy address and Port number.
5. Click Finish to end and save configuration.
8.3.1.2 Loading NC Navigator from Network Station
Use the following steps to load the NC Navigator on the IBM Network Station:
1. Logon to the Network Station.
2. After the login is complete, clicks NC Navigator on the menu bar.
After a few moments, the NC Navigator display is shown. An example of
this display is shown in Figure 142 on page 236.
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Figure 142. Main Dsplay of the NC Navigator Browser
8.3.2 Configuring NC Navigator to Access e-mail
Before you can access e-mail using the NC Navigator, you must first setup
the e-mail configuration.
Use the following steps to configure e-mail:
1. Select the Mail options.
2. Set up server information.
3. Set up your identity.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
8.3.2.1 Selecting Mail Options
The first time you start NC Navigator mail, you may need to enter some
information.
1. From NC Navigator display, click Options
Preferences.
—> Mail and News
2. Click the Servers tab. The display in Figure 143 is shown.
Figure 143. NC Navigator: Mail & News Preferences Display
3. To access e-mail on POP3 server, you must provide the server
information. As shown in Figure 143, enter the following information:
• SMTP Server—For example: sysnam.mycompany.com. If the field is
disabled, ask your system administrator to enter it using IBM Network
Station Manager. In this example, sysnam is the SMTP server that runs
on the AS/400 and the domain name is mycompany.com.
• POP3 Server—For example: sysnam.mycompany.com. In this example
we use the same AS/400 system for both the SMTP and POP3 server.
• User Name—For example: jdoe.
4. To allow your mail recipient to see your identity on incoming e-mail
messages, click on Identity tab, and enter the information:
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237
• Name—This is the name that your mail recipient will see when they
receive your message.For example: John Doe,
• Email Address—For example: [email protected] In this
example, jdoe is the AS/400 profile name for the user on the AS/400
system. The AS/400 host name is sysnam and the domain name is
mycompany.com .
An example of the NC Navigator mailbox is shown in Figure 144.
Figure 144. NC Navigator Mail Inbox
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
8.4 Domino Access
Domino for AS/400 is the implementation of a Lotus Domino server on the
AS/400 platform. Lotus Domino, on any of the supported platforms, can
provide users with a range of server functions.
Some of these server functions are:
•
•
•
•
Mail server for Notes, POP3, or IMAP4 clients
Database server
Database replication server
HTTP server
In providing these server functions, Domino supports many protocols. These
protocols include:
• For messaging, Domino supports: Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), Internet
Message Access Protocol (IMAP), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
(LDAP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extension (MIME).
• For Web use, Domino supports: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP),
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), and Network News Transfer
Protocol (NNTP).
To allow Notes clients or Web browsers to connect to a Domino server
running on the AS/400 system, the OS/400 TCP/IP support must be
configured and started. Therefore, TCP/IP Connectivity Utilities product must
be installed on your AS/400 system.
This section describes how the Domino server, on the AS/400 system, can be
assessed by an IBM Network Station user though the NC Navigator browser
or by using the X11 or ICA protocol to access a service running a multi-user
implementation of NT ( such as, Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0, Terminal
Server Edition and Citrix MetaFrame).
8.4.1 Deciding What to Specify for Server Characteristic
When you set up the first Domino server, you must provide information that
defines the key characteristics of the server. These characteristics include:
•
•
•
•
The name of the server
The location of the server's data directory
The name of your organization
Details about the person who is the server administrator
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Before you run the Configure Domino Server (CFGDOMSVR) command,
decide what to use for these key characteristics. These characteristics are
discussed here briefly. For more information, see Planning the Domino
System.
8.4.1.1 Server Name
To avoid additional TCP/IP configuration, use the TCP/IP host name of your
AS/400, as the Domino server name.
Each Domino server has a unique name that is maintained in its own ID file.
Domino creates the server ID automatically during the server setup
processing.
8.4.1.2 Data Directory
The data directory contains files used by the Domino server and users of the
server. On a PC-based platform, the data directory typically has the directory
path:
x:\notes\data
The x is the drive letter. On the AS/400 system, the files are stored in the
integrated file system, which supports a directory structure similar to DOS or
Windows. To make the path easy to remember, specify a similar directory
path on the AS/400 system. For example:
/notes/data
Notice that a forward slash (/) is used to specify a path in the AS/400
integrated file system.
Each server must have its own data directory. Therefore, if you set up more
than one Domino server (partitioned servers) on your AS/400 system, use a
unique directory path for the second and subsequent servers. For example:
/servername/notes/data
The servername is the name of the second or subsequent Domino server.
Note
If you use an existing directory as the data directory, make sure that you set
up the necessary authorities to the directory. The QNOTES user profile
must have *RWX data authority as well as *OBJEXIST and *OBJMGT object
authority to the directory. The owner of the data directory and subdirectories
must have *OBJEXIST and *OBJMGT authority to the directory.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
8.4.1.3 Organization
Typically, the organization name is the name of your company or a major
division within your company.
Each organization has a Certifier ID that is stored in a file named CERT.ID.
During the server setup processing, Domino creates the organization Certifier
ID automatically using the organization name you specify and an optional
country code. When you register new users or servers, Domino uses the
Certifier ID to certify each user or server. You also use the organization
Certifier ID when you create organizational unit certifiers for a hierarchical
name scheme.
8.4.1.4 Administrator
The administrator can perform operations, on the Domino server, such as
starting and stopping the Domino server. Although you only need to provide a
last name, use a first name and, if needed, a middle initial to ensure that the
administrator's name is unique. It is very important that you remember and
record the name and password that you specify for the administrator. Domino
creates a user ID for the administrator during the setup processing.
Some Domino server options are not automatically set up for you. As a result,
you must request these options through fields in the Configure Domino
Server (CFGDOMSVR) command. For example:
• Web browser
Use this option to set up the HTTP Web server. If you enter *HTTP in this
parameter, the Web server feature automatically starts the Domino HTTP
server and enables Web browser access to the Domino server.
• Internet mail packages
Use this option to set up mail support such as POP3 or SMTP/MIME MTA.
• Advanced services
If you installed the Domino Advanced Services, use this option to include
one or more Advanced Services features such as setting up the Domino
server as a partition server or as part of a server cluster.
Refer to Lotus Domino for AS/400, Installation, Customization,
Administration, SG24-5181, for detailed information about configuring
Domino on the AS/400 system. You can find additional information on the
Web site at: www.as400.ibm.com/notes
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8.4.2 Avoiding Conflicts between AS/400 HTTP Server and Domino
The AS/400 operating system (OS/400) includes several TCP/IP application
servers, including an HTTP server, that is known as the Internet Connection
Secure Server (ICS). This HTTP server processes HTML documents, CGI
scripts, and Java scripts for home pages. Domino for AS/400 also provides an
HTTP server capability which enables Notes databases to be seen as HTML
documents on the Web.
You can have both HTTP servers installed and running. However, the Domino
HTTP server and the Internet Connection Secure Server are both set up to
use TCP/IP port 80. Because both HTTP servers use the same port, the
server that is started second will have a problem accessing the port. To
eliminate this problem, do one of the following:
• End TCP/IP HTTP server by entering the following AS/400 command:
ENDTCPSVR *HTTP
Then use the AS/400 Work with HTTP Configuration (WRKHTTPCFG)
command to change the TCP/IP server to allow it to use a port other than
port 80.
Note
If a port number other than 80 is used, the port number must be specified if
accessing the IBM Network Station Manager from a browser or from NC
Navigator on the IBM Network Station. For example, if port 9999 has been
set in the HTTP configuration, the URL that can access the IBM Network
Station Manager is: http://sysipadr:9999/networkstation/admin
The sysipadr is the IP address of the AS/400 system that has the IBM
Network Station Manager installed.
• Alternatively, change the Domino HTTP server to allow it to use a port
number other than port 80. You change the HTTP server port number in
the server document for the Domino server.
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Note
If you set a port number other than 80, the client must include a specific port
number on requests to the Domino server. The port number is preceded by
a colon and follows the host name in the URL. In this example we use port
8080 for Domino HTTP server, the URL, http://as1.mycompany.com:8080/,
requests the default page from a host named as1.mycompany.com that is
listening on port 8080. The AS/400 system on which the Domino server is
installed and running is as1.
For more information, refer to the manual Internet Connection Services and
Internet Connection Secure Server for AS/400 Webmasters Guide,
GC41-5434. Notice that with V4R3, the ICS product was renamed to IBM
HTTP Server for AS/400.
8.4.3 Accessing the Web Browser
In addition to the Notes Mail template (MAIL46.NTF) that ships with Domino
4.6.2 for AS/400, Lotus also supplies two additional Mail templates that allow
increased functionality to a Domino Mail file when being accessed by a Web
browser. The two templates are called WebMail (MAILW46.NTF) and
combined Mail (MAILC46.NTF).
The WebMail templates are designed for the Domino Mail user that is using a
Web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator or NC
Navigator. For example, these users may include a Client Access user or an
IBM Network Station user accessing Domino through the NC Navigator Web
browser.
The combined Mail template is designed for the mail user who needs to
access their Domino Mail using a Notes client and a browser. Both templates
provide access to the integrated Mail, Calendaring & Scheduling and Task
Management features provided on the Domino Mail Server.
8.4.3.1 Setting Up Web Mail for Web Users
You can set up mail for Web users on a Domino server. Web mail is a mail
database created with either the MAILW46.NTF or MAILC46.NTF mail
template. Follow these steps to setup mail access for Web users:
1. Ensure the Domino server is set up as a Web server running the HTTP
server task.
2. Ensure you have registered the user on the server and select Set Internet
Password to set an Internet password in the Person Document.
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3. In the Public Address Book, open the Server document for the Web
server. In the Agent manage r section, enter the name of a person or
server in the Run restricted LotusSript agents field. This person or
server is anyone you want to have this access on the server, and whose ID
to which you have access. It is not necessarily the name of the Web use
because the user does not have a Notes ID.
4. Start the Notes workstation and switch to the ID specified in step 2.
5. From the administration display, do the following steps to sign the
templates using an ID allowed to run restricted LotusScript agents:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Click Database Tools.
Select Sign a Database.
Click Update existing signatures only.
Enter the template name in the Filename field and click Sign.
6. Create the database using one of the mail templates (MAILW46.NTF or
MAILC46.NTF).
7. Add the name of the person or server from the ID specified in step 2 to the
database access control list (ACL) of the mail file as a designer.
8. Add the Web user’s name to the ACL as a Manager and change the
Default access to No Access.
9. Change the Maximum Internet name & password access field in the
Advanced tab on the ACL to Designer.
10.Change the default mail file in Person Document with the mail file that you
created in step 5.
Every time you access the Domino server using a Web browser, it prompts
you to enter a user name and password as shown in Figure 145 on page 245.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 145. User ID and Password Prompt
8.4.3.2 Views
User are presented with a full variety of Mail File views when accessing their
WebMail templates. When using a browser to access the Mail file on the
Domino Server, the user sees the views as shown in Figure 146 on page 246.
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Figure 146. Views Display
These views are presented as icons on the left side of the window. Figure 147
on page 247 shows a sample Inbox view with a message visible on the right
and other Views and Folders on the left.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 147. Web Mail Inbox
The Web mail template uses the familiar Notes mail interface and contains
many of the features found in the Notes mail template, including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Create messages and provide address information
Create draft messages
Create replies to messages
Receive delivery reports for sent messages
Specify a delivery priority and importance
Organize messages in folders
Create and view calendar entries and accept meeting invitations sent by
others
• Look up free time for invitees
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•
•
•
•
Send broadcast meeting invitations
Confirm, cancel, or reschedule meetings
Review invitee responses
Create and view bookmarks, phone messages, and tasks
Because of browser limitation, the following features are not yet available for
Web mail users:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Convert a mail message to a task
Reply with history or forward documents
Sign messages
Schedule repeating appointments
Reserve resources or rooms for a meeting
Set and receive alarm notices
Accept counter proposal for an RSVP
Remove a person from an invitation list
Delegate invitations to another person
Counter propose invitation details
Display tasks in the calendar view
Enable and disable out of office agent
Automatically accept invitations
Add the sender of the memo to the Personal Address Book
Choose letterhead or stationery
Apply mood stamps
8.4.4 Terminal Server Edition and Citrix MetaFrame Overview
This section describes how the IBM Network Station, which is not an
Intel-based processor, can run Windows NT desktop as well as other
Windows applications. For example, an IBM Network Station user could run
the Lotus Notes PC Client to access a Domino server on the AS/400.
Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0, Terminal Server Edition (WTSE), formerly
called Hydra, is an extension of the Windows NT Server network operating
system product line that delivers the Windows operating system experience
to diverse desktop hardware through terminal emulation.
What Windows Terminal Server provides is the same multi-user functionality
that was provided by Citrix WinFrame, but at the Windows NT 4.0 level and an
additional protocol to connect into the server. This protocol is called the
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), and is the protocol used by Windows
Terminals.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
The IBM Network Station can use either the protocol called Independent
Computing Architecture (ICA) or X11 to connect into WTSE. These protocols
are not provided by WTSE.
The ICA functionality provided by Citrix’s ICA protocol is still available but
requires the installation of Citrix’s MetaFrame product in addition to WTSE.
If the X11 functionality is also desired, then NCD’s Unix Integration Services
are required, in addition to MetaFrame.
Additional details on Citrix MetaFrame and NCD’s UNIX Integration Service
can be found respectively on the Web at: www.citrix.com and www.ncd.com
Note
This section does not cover Windows NT 4.0, Terminal Server Edition and
Citrix MetaFrame Installation. For more detail about how to install this
software, refer to IBM Network Station Manager Release 3 Guide for
Windows NT, SG24-5221. This redbook can be found on the Web site:
www.redbooks.ibm.com
8.4.5 Connecting IBM Network Station to Windows Terminal Server
The IBM Network Station supports either the ICA protocol, using a native ICA
client running on the IBM Network Station (new with release 3 of the Network
Station Manager) or the X11 protocol using the native X-server functionality
as in previous releases. This section only describes connectivity to a
Windows Terminal Server using ICA protocol that is provided by Citrix
MetaFrame.
As mentioned previously, IBM Network Station now includes a local client
called ICACLNT which uses ICA protocol to connect to a server running
Terminal Server Edition and Citrix MetaFrame.
To setup the ICA client on your Network Station, sign on to the IBM Network
Station Manager to access the Startup tasks. Then, define a local program
Menu item as shown in Figure 148 on page 250.
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249
Figure 148. Configuring an ICA Client
The client, ICACLNT, must be entered in the Program to run box. The term e
-host is required in the Parameter i box. This is needed to indicate the target
host. In our, example (Figure 148) we also used the term -colors 16 to ensure
no color blinking.
The syntax and usage of the ICACLNT client name is shown in the following
example:
ICACLNT [-host hostname or ip address] [-options ...] [- - command args]
-help
<print out this message>
-ca[che]
<large cache size in KB>
-c[olor]
<16 | 256 color>
-g[eometry] <Width x Height>
-ti[tle]
<Window name>
-na[me]
<client name>
8.4.6 Lotus Notes 4.6a Basic Installation on Windows Terminal Server
To access a Domino server from a Network Station using the Lotus Notes
4.6a client, the code must first be installed on the server.
The following procedure is intended to explain the basics of how to install
Lotus Notes on Windows Terminal Server and probably need to be adapted
according to the specific requirements of a given environment.
1. Log on as Administrator and map an h: (or whatever letter you want to
use as the home drive for all your users) to the administrator’s home
directory.
2. Open a command prompt and enter the following command:
CHANGE USER /INSTALL
3. Run the Lotus Notes 4.6 install program.
4. Check the Install On a File Server option on the very first window of the
Notes Install. You are prompted for a Name and Company on this display.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
5. Select the File Server Install option on the next Notes Install display.
6. The next display asks if you want to change the defaults option in the
Typical vs. Custom Setup display. It is recommended that the Custom
Setup option be chosen and that all features that are not needed are
deselected. One very obvious feature is the Notes Modem definitions. The
only options left selected are Notes Workstation and Attachment viewer.
7. Ensure that the destination directory is the server drive c: (or possibly m:
if you remapped it).
8. Notes Installation copies all the files to your hard drive.
9. Click on Done when the Successful Installation message appears.
10.Run the Lotus Notes Node Installer by selecting Start
Lotus Applications —> Node Installer.
—> Programs —>
11.Do not put a person’s name in the Name field because all users will get
this setting. It is recommended that you put the company name in this
field.
12.Specify H: drive as the Personal Directory. It is recommended that you
leave the default directory. Therefore, you are installing to h:\notes\data.
13.The files are copied to the Administrator’s h: drive. Click Done when
successful installation has completed.
Attention
Do not launch Notes at this time.
14.Open Windows Explorer. Cut and paste c:\wtsrv\notes.ini to
h:\notes\data\
15.Copy the entire h:\notes directory to c:\users\template. This is done a
in Windows Explorer by selecting the h:\notes directory.
a. Right click on the h:\notes directory.
b. Select Copy.
c. Select the c:\users\template directory.
d. Right click on the c:\users\template directory.
e. Select Paste.
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16.Create a text file called nclogin.bat in the
c:\wtsrv\system32\repl\import\scripts\ directory that contains the same
lines as this sample file lotusnotesinstall.txt shown in the following
example. Be sure to replace SERVERNAME with your server’s name.
REM This section is to determine if the user home directory exists
REM and create one if it does not
net use x: /d
net use x: \\SERVERNAME\users
if not exist x:\%username% md x:\%username%
net use x: /d
REM This part is for mapping the user home directory to H:
subst h: /d
subst h: \\SERVERNAME\users\%username%
REM This section is for setup of Lotus Notes client
if not exist h:\notes md h:\notes
if not exists h:\notes\data md h:\notes\data
if not exists h:\notes\data\notes.ini
copy c:\users\template\notes\data\*.* h:\notes\data
17.Use the following steps to assign the login script to all users in User
Manager for Domains:
a. Select Start —> Programs
Manager for Domains.
—> Administrative Tools — > User
b. While holding down the Ctrl key, click on all the users who will be using
Notes.
c. After all desired users are selected, click on User
—> Properties.
d. Select Profile and enter nclogin.bat in the login Script field.
18.Use the following steps to create a common icon for all users to run Lotus
Notes:
a. Right click on the Start button.
b. Select Explore All Users.
c. Select Profiles
—> Shortcut.
—> All Users —> Desktop click on File —> New
d. Enter c:\notes\notes.exe from the command line and click Next.
e. Enter Lotus Notes for the description and click on Finish.
19.From the Windows Explorer, right click on the newly created Lotus Notes
Shortcut. Select Properties. Go to the Shortcut tab. Change the Start In
field to be h:\notes\data.
20.Go to the command prompt and enter the following command:
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
CHANGE USER /EXECUTE
When a user logs on the next time, their user directory is automatically
created, mapped to h:\, and the Lotus Notes Workstation set up as an
application as shown in Figure 149.
Figure 149. Lotus Notes Workstation on IBM Network Station
Using a Network Station to Access Mail
253
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Appendix A. Flash Card Scenarios
This appendix contains examples of the flash.nsm and peer.nsm files and a
list of the files and directory structure that must be loaded onto the Flash card
for the relevant application support.
In all cases the source directory structure is /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation.
For example, the file ACTLogin is sourced from
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/mods/ and must be placed in the directory
/local/mods/ on the Flash card. The path /local/ is the root directory of the
Flash card.
In each of the following examples, the kernels are listed. You must decide on
which kernel to use depending on the available space on the Flash card file
system.
A.1 Support for 5250, 3270, and VTxxx Emulation
The following files must be copied to the Flash card to support the start-up of
the IBM Network Station and to run the 5250, 3270 and VTxxx support from
the Flash Card.
The number of bytes used for this scenario is 5,608,358 if the compressed
kernel for the series 100 and 300 is used.
The path /local is the root of the Flash Card file system.
/local/boot.nsl
kernel[kernel.Z, kernel.63a, kernel.63Z]
/local/mods/
actlogin.nws
colormap.nws
export.nws
filed.nws
libconf.nws
libmlc.nws
libprapi.nws
libprxapi.nws
lpd.nws
lprd.nws
mcuis.nws
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
255
miscpr32.nws
mwm.nws
nfsd.nws
ns3270.nws
ns5250.nws
ns5250xx.nws
nsterm.nws
sbcs_im.nws
seriald.nws
term.nws
The flash.nsm file and peer.nsm files are also shown as an example. Please
note that the flash.nsm file contains lines that are optional depending on
whether you intend to use the peer boot functionality.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Flash.nsm File Example
# flash.nsm - This file resides in the /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs directory
#
# AS/400 File Service Table
#
set file-service-table = {
{"/netstation/prodbase" nil 10.1.1.30 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/" unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
{"/QIBM/ProdData" nil 10.1.1.30 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/" unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
}
# Read the configuration files from the server
#
read standard.nsm
#
# Make the necessary mods to the base values
#
set boot-desired-source = local
set boot-second-source = none
set boot-third-source = none
set exec-startup-commands = {
{ mcuis }
{ "actlogin -authserv <servIPaddr>" }
}
# Where <servIPaddr> is the AS/400 system IP address, the authentication server.
# The next line enables the NFS server Daemon for peer boot and is required if the flash card file
#system is to be mounted to the AS/400 IFS.
set file-enable-nfs-server = true
#
#The next two lines are required for peer boot only.
set file-export-directory-list = { { "/peerboot" "/local" } }
set file-nfs-access-control-default = read-only
#
# The next 4 lines are optional and enable the local file manager which can be accessed using
# TELNET or from the console window on the Network Station.
set xserver-initial-x-resources = "ncdconsole.disable.TerminalMenu: false"
set file-manager-password = nws1red
set file-manager-access-control-enabled = true
set file-try-all-matches-on-open = true
# Set up to get executable modules from the flash card
set modules-directory = /local/mods
Flash Card Scenarios
257
Peer.nsm File Example
#
# peer.nsm - place onto the flash card in /local/configs and into
# /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs
#
#Set up the file service table to access the server
set file-service-table = {
{"/netstation/prodbase/configs/" nil 10.1.1.2 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/" unix 3 30 4096
4096 }
{ "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/" nil 10.1.1.2 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/configs/" unix
3 30 4096 4096 }
{ "/netstation/prodbase/" nil 10.1.1.2 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/" unix 3 120 4096 4096 }
{ "/QIBM/ProdData/" nil 10.1.1.2 tftp "/QIBM/ProdData/" unix 3 30 4096 4096 }
}
# Read the base configuration files on the server.
read standard.nsm
#
# Make the necessary mods to the base values
set boot-desired-source = nfs
set boot-nfs-directory = /peerboot/
set boot-second-source = none
set boot-third-source = none
set exec-startup-commands = {
{mcuis }
{ "actlogin -authserv <serverIPaddr>" }
}
# Where <servIPaddr> is the AS/400 system IP address, the authentication server.
set file-try-all-matches-on-open = true
#
# Set up to get Java modules, if any from the flash card
# set java-directory = /peerboot/java
#
# Setup to get executable modules from the flash card
set modules-directory = /peerboot/mods
A.2 Support for 5250, 3270, and VTxxx with Fonts
Network traffic can be reduced by adding the font files required for the
application to the Flash card. It is difficult, and is often a case of trial and
error, to ensure all of the necessary fonts required by the application are
located on the Flash card.
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Attention
Please be aware that when the fonts directories are stripped down, the
fonts.dir file (this file contains a directory of available fonts) must be updated
to reflect that not all of the original fonts are located on the Flash card. The
utility required to do this, mkfontdir, is generally only available on UNIX
systems. This limits your ability to scale down the font directories unless you
have access to a UNIX system.
This section was added for your reference.
If the uncompressed kernel for the Series 100 and 300 Network Stations is
used, the number of bytes required is 7,966,842 bytes.
There are over 25MB of font files and these also vary by locale. However, we
recommend that font information is loaded from the server.
/local/
KeysymDB
boot.nsl
kernel [kernel.Z,kernel.63,kernel.63Z]
rgb.txt
/local/SysDef/
ibmwall.xbm
inetvars.nsm
nsminv.txt
startup.nsm
tiles.xbm
/local/SysDef/NCDwm/
pref
/local/SysDef/NS3270/
pref
/local/SysDef/NS5250/
pref
Flash Card Scenarios
259
/local/X11/app-defaults/
mcuis
Mwm
system.mwmrc
/local/X11/fonts/pcf/i18n/
Block11.iso1_UCS.pcf.Z
Block17.iso1.UCS.pcf.Z
Ergo15.iso1_UCS.pcf.Z
Ergo17.iso1_UCS.pcf.Z
fonts.dir
/local/X11/locale/
locale.alias
locale.dir
/local/X11/locale/UTF-8_BASE-0/XLC_LOCALE
/local/X11/locale/UTF-8_C/XLC_LOCALE
/local/X11/locale/UTF-8_iso8859-1/XLC_LOCALE
/local/mods/
actlogin.nws
colormap.nws
export.63a
export.nws
filed.nws
libconf.nws
libmlc.nws
libprapi.nws
libprxapi.nws
lpd.nws
lprd.nws
mcuis.nws
miscpr32.nws
mwm.nws
nfsd.nws
ns3270.nws
ns5250.nws
ns5250xx.nws
nsterm.nws
sbcs_im.nws
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
seriald.nws
term.nws
A.2.1 The Flash.nsm File Additions to Support Local Font Storage
To support local font storage, the following lines must be added to your
flash.nsm file.
Flash.nsm File Additions
# Add these lines to flash.nsm
#
# Get the background screen and screensaver from the flash card filesystem
set
set
set
set
set
pref-screen-background-bitmap-file = "/local/SysDef/ibmwall.xbm"
pref-screensaver-bitmap-file = "/local/SysDef/ibmwall.xbm"
xserver-keysym-file = /local/XKeysymDB
xserver-rgb-file = /local/rgb.txt
xserver-default-font-path = {
{"/local/X11/fonts/pcf/i18n"}
{"built-ins"}
}
A.2.2 The Peer.nsm File Additions to Support Local Font Storage
To support local font storage, the following lines are required in your peer.nsm
file.
Peer.nsm File Additions
# Add these lines to peer.nsm
#
# Get the background screen and screensaver from the flash card file system.
set
set
set
set
set
pref-screen-background-bitmap-file = "/peerboot/SysDef/ibmwall.xbm"
pref-screensaver-bitmap-file = "/peerboot/SysDef/ibmwall.xbm"
xserver-keysym-file = /peerboot/XKeysymDB
xserver-rgb-file = /peerboot/rgb.txt
xserver-default-font-path = {
{"/peerboot/X11/fonts/pcf/i18n"}
{"built-ins"}
}
Flash Card Scenarios
261
A.3 Support for NC Navigator with Java Virtual Machine
The files required to start the Network Station and run the NC Navigator
Browser and the Java Virtual Machine from the Flash card is found in this
section.
There is no change to the flash.nsm and peer.nsm files because all of the
configuration for NC Navigator is done on the server using IBM Network
Station Manager program. The only difference is the files which are required
on the Flash card. This setup requires at least 20 megabytes of storage
space on the Flash card, if the uncompressed kernels for all systems are
used.
If the compressed kernel and mods files for only the Series 100/300 or Series
1000 is required, the size drops to less than 16 Mbytes.
For more information about configuring and using NC Navigator for the
Network Station, refer to the manual IBM Network Station Manager
Installation and Use, SC41-0664.
Disk caching should not be used when running NC Navigator with Flash card
support. The system is shipped with disk caching disabled, and this setting
should not be changed because of the limitation of the Flash card. Refer to
Chapter 3, “Using Flash Cards with the Network Station” on page 63 for more
information.
The byte count for the files listed here, with support for the Series 100,300
and 1000 using uncompressed kernels, is 21,333,568 bytes.
The following is a list of the files required on the Flash card:
/local/
boot.nsl
kernel [kernel.Z, kernel.63a, kernel.63Z]
/local/java/
classes.zip
javacpa0.gif
javacpat.gif
nwshacl.zip
nwspackg.zip
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
/local/java/lib/
appletviewer.properties
awt.properties
content-types.properties
font.properties
font.properties.en
javac.properties
rmic.properties
serialver.properties
/local/java/lib/security/
java.security
/local/mods/
actlogin.nws
desktop.nws
export.63a
export.nws
filed.nws
java.63a
java.nws
jawt.63a
jawt.nws
jcomm.nws
jjpeg.63a
jjpeg.nws
jmath.63a
jmath.nws
jmmedia.63a
jmmedia.nws
jnet.63a
jnet.nws
jsysresource.nws
jzip.63a
jzip.nws
libconf.nws
libmlc.nws
libprapi.nws
libprxapi.nws
loaddb.nws
lpd.nws
Flash Card Scenarios
263
lprd.nws
mcuis.nws
miscpref.nws
mwm.nws
navio.nws
nfsd.nws
sbcs_im.nws
seriald.nws
A.4 Support for ICA Client
In this scenario, the Network Station is started and the ICA client is loaded
from the Flash card. The ICA client enables the Network Station to connect to
a multi-user NT server running WinCenter or Citrix MetaFrame.
There is no change required to the flash.nsm and peer.nsm files. This setup
requires at least 10 megabytes of free space on the Flash card if the
uncompressed kernels for all systems are used.
If the compressed kernel and executable modules for only the Series 100/300
or Series 1000 are required, the size drops to less than 6 megabytes.
The following files are required to support ICA when booting from a Flash
card:
/local/
boot.nsl
kernel [kernel.63a, kernel.Z, kernel.63Z]
/local/mods/
actlogin.nws
export.63a
export.nws
filed.nws
icaclnt.nws
icaui.nws
libconf.nws
libmlc.nws
libprapi.nws
libprxapi.nws
lpd.nws
lprd.nws
mcuis.nws
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
nfsd.nws
sbcs_im.nws
seriald.nws
A.5 Java Application Support
In this example, the Network Station is started from the Flash card with the
intent to run a Java application from the Flash card. Using compressed
kernels requires approximately 16 megabytes of space on the Flash card plus
the java application you want to run.
This example has not been tested. The list is intended as a starting point to
identify which files are required by the Network Station to support a Java
application. Some modification to this list maybe required to support your java
application.
/local/
boot.nsl
kernel [kernel.63a, kernel.Z, kernel.63Z]
/local/java/
classes.zip
javacpa0.gif
javacpat.gif
nwshacl.zip
nwspackg.zip
/local/java/lib/
appletviewer.properties
awt.properties
content-types.properties
font.properties
font.properties.en
javac.properties
rmic.properties
serialver.properties
/local/java/lib/security/
java.security
/local/mods/
actlogin.nws
Flash Card Scenarios
265
export.63a
export.nws
filed.nws
java.63a
java.nws
jawt.63a
jawt.nws
jcomm.nws
jjitc.63a
jjpeg.63a
jjpeg.nws
jmath.63a
jmath.nws
jmmedia.63a
jmmedia.nws
jnet.63a
jnet.nws
jsysresource.nws
jzip.63a
jzip.nws
libconf.nws
libmlc.nws
libprapi.nws
libprxapi.nws
libprdbcs.nws
mcuis.nws
mwm.nws
nfsd.nws
sbcs_im.nws
seriald.nws
setup.nws
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Appendix B. Executable Module Descriptions
The appendix attempts to outline each module, found in release 3.0, with a
brief description of the modules function. This is not a definitive listing.
However, it provides some information on what each module is used for.
B.1 Module Information
Table 20. Module Information
Module Name
Module file ID
Type
Description
ACTLogin
actlogin.nws
client
Login Authentication
Manager
audio
audio.nws
extension
Network Audio
color map
colormap.nws
extension
3270/5250 color map
desktop
desktop.nws
extension
Used by NC Navigator
export
export.nws
export63a.nws
library
Symbols exported by
the kernel
filed
filed.nws
daemon
Local file manager
daemon
help
helpview.nws
extension
Help Viewer
Java Agent
jagent.nws
extension
Domino Support
Java
java.nws
extension
Java Virtual Machine
Java Abstract
Window
Support
jawt.nws
extension
Java Windowing
Package
Java JPEG
jjpeg.nws
extension
Java JPEG
Java Math
jmath.nws
extension
Java Mathematical
Formulas
Java
MultiMedia
jmmedia.nws
extension
Java Multi Media
Java
Networking
jnet.nws
extension
Java Networking
Java NWS
Browser
jnsb.nws
extension
Java Network Station
Browser
Executable Module Descriptions
267
Module Name
268
Module file ID
Type
Description
Java system
information
jsysresource.nws
extension
Java System
Resource Info.
Java Zip
jzip.nws
extension
Uncompress Java ZIP
files
keymap52
keymap52.nws
extension
5250 Keyboard map
editor local client.
libconf
libconf.nws
library
Configuration Library
libmlc
libmlc.nws
library
Used by Console =>
Setup
libppp
libppp.nws
library
PPP Protocol library
libprapi
libprapi.nws
library
AIX printer library
libprxapi
libprxapi.nws
library
X Windows library
loadb
loadb.nws
utility
module loader (NC
Navigator)
login
login.nws
utility
login local client
Mini-Console
mcuis.nws
utility
Provides a pop up
error console
miscpref
miscpref.nws
utility
5250 Miscellaneous
Preference
Motif Window
Manager
mwm.nws
client
Window manager
NC Navigator
nav128.nws
Client
NC Navigator 128 bit
(US Only)
NC Navigator
navio.nws
client
NC Navigator browser
40 bit.
NFS Daemon
nfsd.nws
daemon
Network File System
Daemon
Terminal
Emulation
nsterm.nws
client
VTxxx Emulator
NS3270
ns3270.nws
client
3270 Emulator
NS5250
ns5250.nws
client
5250 Emulator
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Module Name
Module file ID
Type
Description
pref
pref.nws
utility
Change user
preferences (from the
console)
qsetup
qsetup.nws
utility
Change Quick Setup
(from the console)
Serial Daemon
seriald.nws
extension
Serial/Parallel port
daemon
Setup
setup.nws
utility
Change setup
parameters (from the
console)
show
show.nws
utility
Show Memory usage
(from the console)
SIE
sie.nws
extension
SImple Image
Extension (not used)
Statistics
stats.nws
utility
Show system
statistics (from the
console)
Terminal
Emulator
term.nws
client
VTxxx Emulator
Touch display
touchscr.nws
client
Touch Screen Support
Network test
test.nws
utility
Test Network (from
the console)
Window
Manager
wm.nws
client
Built in Window
manager
Xinput
xinput.nws
client
Required for Touch
Screen calibration
Executable Module Descriptions
269
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Appendix C. 5500 Express IP Control Unit
This appendix, which presents an overview of the IBM 5500 Express IP
control unit, includes some technical details and example configurations. This
product was not available at the time of writing. However, we provide this
information to give you a more complete view of WAN connection capabilities.
C.1 5500 Express IP Control Unit
The 5500 Express IP Control Unit allows you to connect Network Stations or
personal computers equipped with an IBM Express Twinax Adapter to a
remote AS/400 system. The unit establishes these connections using TCP/IP.
The 5500 manages traffic between clients and the AS/400 system.
Although the clients physically connect to the twinax cable, these connections
appear to as a LAN connection to the client IP applications.
AS/400
WAN
IB M
WAN
5494
RE
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KD
IS
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DD
IS
5500
IBM
K
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PC (SNA Router)
ER
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A
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K
CD
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D
S
I K
IS K
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ET
- -
ER
O
LAN
SNA over
Twinax
R
TCP/IP
over Twinax
5250 DISPLAYS
PC (TCP/IP)
PC (TCP/IP)
Printers
twinax Network Station
SNA Applications
TCP/IP Applications:
Traditional 'Green Screen'
e-business over twinax!
Figure 150. Transition from SNA to TPC/IP with 5500 Control Unit
In Figure 150, you can see the simplicity of transition and coexistence with an
existing SNA network.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
271
The 5500 control unit provides connection to:
• Express twinax clients attached to AS/400 systems running V4R1 or
earlier. This connection is established either though LAN or WAN and
SLIP.
• For AS/400 systems running V4R2 or later release, the connection is still
through LAN or WAN, but the PPP and SLIP are available.
The 5500 supports the latest IP/Twinax devices. IBM 5250 Express Adapters
and IBM 5250 Adapters (ISA) PCs with IBM 5250 adapters require no new
hardware Twinax Network Stations (8361-341). However, the 5500 Controller
does not currently support PC's using SNA, NPT's or printers
This new controller provides new capabilities for twinax attached PCs. These
PCs can run Web Browsers, Lotus Notes or Domino, file or printer sharing,
and so on.
You now have compatibility with Client Access/400 and Personal
Communications AS/400 (by changing protocol from SNA to TCP/IP)
The 5500 uses the 5250 Express support to increase throughput by four
times over legacy twinax. There is also support for enhanced cable lengths:
Twinax:
1.2Km (4K ft.) @ 2Mbps, 1.4Km (5K ft.) @ 1Mbps
UTP:
.96Km (3.2K ft.) @ 2Mbps, 1.3Km (4.2K ft.) @ 1Mbps (w/IBM
7299)
UTP+Fiber: 3.2Km (10.7K ft.) @ 2Mbps, 3.7Km (12K ft.) @ 1Mbps (w/IBM
7299)
C.1.1 Twinax Client Connection Requirements
The following list of requirements allow connection of the 5500 Express IP
control unit to the client workstation:
• PC workstations with a minimum 486 processor and PCI (Peripheral
Component Interconnect), PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association), or ISA (industry standard architecture) slots.
– IBM 5250 Express Adapter or 5250 Enhanced Emulation Adapter as
listed below 1.
– Twinax cabling to 5500 Control Unit control unit eight-port breakout
box.
Note: Cables are not included in the 5500 control unit package.
– IBM 5250 Express TCP/IP Driver 1.27 or higher. To obtain the latest
copy of the driver, see the website:http://www.networking.ibm.com
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
– One of the following operating systems:
• MS Windows NT 4.x with Service Pack 3
• MS Windows 95 with Service Pack 1
• MS Windows 98
• Twinax IBM Network Station 8361-341 with 24 megabytes RAM minimum
memory and Network Station Manager program Release 3.0 or higher.
Note
The 5500 Control Unit is not a router or a DHCP relay agent. Therefore,
5500 twinax clients cannot make DHCP requests unless there is a DHCP
server on the twinax segment, or a DHCP Server on a 5500 LAN segment
and the twinax subnet is configured as part of that LAN. Clients on the
second 5500 LAN segment cannot communicate with the DHCP server on
the first LAN. For DHCP requests to travel across a WAN, a LAN-based
router must be installed with a relay agent.
C.2 Connection Configurations of the 5500 Control Unit
The IBM 5500 Express IP controller can be part of your network in a number
of different configurations. Five typical network layouts are shown in this
section.
Although typical applications of the 5500 control unit, these examples are just
a few of the many ways you can exploit the unique features and
characteristics of this controller.
IBM recommends that, when using the 2Mbps Mode, install your Express
devices on a different port than your legacy devices. Also, ensure that you
have Express-enabled hubs and multiplexers (IBM 7299). IBM 5500 in an
Express environment.
5500 Express IP Control Unit
273
Figure 151 shows an example of an IBM 5500 used in a 5250 Express
environment with a fiber optic link to a multiplexer.
Figure 151. IBM 5500 in an Express Environment
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 152 shows an example of an IBM 5500 in a complex combination of
network media types.
Figure 152. IBM 5500 with a Combination of Media Types
5500 Express IP Control Unit
275
Figure 153 shows an example of the synchronous modem for the WAN
connection between an AS/400 system and IBM 5500.
Figure 153. Asynchronous Dialup Connectivity
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Figure 154 shows an example of a frame relay WAN connection to the IBM
5500 providing connectivity for remote terminals.
Figure 154. Frame Relay Connectivity
C.2.1 WAN Configuration Data
To successfully configure the WAN connection for the 5500 control unit to the
host (AS/400 system), the following information is necessary:
• Valid Phone Number and Baud Rate
A valid baud rate must have one of the following values:
110
300
1200
2400
4800
9600
19200
38400
57600
115200
5500 Express IP Control Unit
277
C.2.1.1 Understanding IP Address Requirements
Obtaining contiguous IP addresses may be difficult. Be prepared by obtaining
extra addresses for future use.
Valid Internet protocol (IP) addresses must meet the following criteria:
• Four decimal numbers separated by periods.
• Number one must be greater than or equal to 1 and less than or equal to
223.
• Numbers two, three, and four must be greater than or equal to zero (0) and
less than or equal to 255.
• All IP addresses must be unique.
• The IP Address must not equal the Net Address
• IP Address must not equal the Broadcast Address
C.2.2 ISDN Modems
If you use an ISDN modem with your 5500 control unit for dial-up WAN
connectivity, additional configuration is necessary. Parameters, such as
Switch Type, Service Profile IDs (SPIDs), Directory Numbers (DNs), Terminal
End-point Identifiers (TEIs), and Call Type, must be entered and saved on
your ISDN modem. Typically, these fields can be configured using the AT
command set or software provided with your ISDN modem. Because these
parameters must be set prior to connecting the modem to the 5500 control
unit, IBM recommends that you use a personal computer (PC) or other
RS-232 capable device to configure these parameters. Attach the ISDN
modem the 5500 control unit.
Consult the documentation provided with your ISDN modem for more details
on the parameters required by your modem and the steps necessary to
configure them.
C.3 5500 Control Unit and TCP/IP LAN Concepts
The most common configurations for the IBM 5500 Express IP control unit
are:
• The AS/400 system is connected through the WAN interface with the LAN
connected using Ethernet or token-ring interface. Workstations on LAN
are twinax-attached workstations (either Network Stations or PCs with
5250 Express emulation adapters).
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
• The AS/400 system is connected through the WAN interface of the 2210
router. LAN is connected to the 2210 router and existing 5494 with twinax
workstations initially connected to the 5494 migrating to the IBM 5500
control unit.
C.3.0.1 Gateways and IP Addresses
As part of planning the installation of your 5500 control unit, determine the
range of addresses to be used by each network port of the 5500 control unit.
The twinax port allows up to 56 twinax-attached workstations to exploit the
TCP/IP protocol for access to network resources.
C.3.0.2 Subnetting
The 5500 control unit is unique because it allows you to use the subnetting of
an address space to define the addresses that can be used for the twinax
workstations without making subnet mask or default router changes to
existing LAN workstation or router configurations.
The 5500 control unit forwards IP packets, allowing all devices attached to the
5500 control unit to communicate with each other. It is not necessary to
configure a default router for devices attached to the 5500 control unit. Any
TCP request that is sent to an IP address in the network associated with any
port of the 5500 control unit is routed to that port. The 5500 control unit
implements an extended ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) agent to send
packets to twinax-attached TCP/IP workstations based on the twinax port
using a subnet of the network assigned to the LAN port 0 of the 5500 control
unit . If the destination IP address is outside the range of addresses known to
the 5500 control unit (or any default gateways configured for the workstation),
then the request fails.
If a LAN-attached device performs the function of a router to the Internet, the
IP address of that device should be used as the default gateway for that
network segment. This action grants Internet access to all workstations
attached to the 5500 control unit provided the address space used by those
workstations is properly coordinated so that your domain is known to the
Internic domain name server.
C.3.1 Installing the IBM 5500 into an Existing Network
One of the most common applications of the IBM 5500 control unit is to allow
existing twinax workstations that are remotely connected to an AS/400
system through a 5494 control unit, to be properly migrated to the IBM 5500
control unit. This application expands their use to the new e-business
applications. Under this circumstance, or for any other application where the
IBM 5500 Unit is placed on an existing LAN, you must decide whether to
5500 Express IP Control Unit
279
subnet the IBM 5500 control unit or to obtain an additional set of addresses
for the twinax workstations attached to the control unit. Should you decide to
obtain a new address space, the routing tables in routers that are upstream
from the IBM 5500 control unit must be manually updated to include the new
address space. You would have to coordinate those addresses with the
Internic (if Internet access is desired) and default router addresses to be
configured in the twinax workstations, which are more complex to determine.
Manual table updates are required because the IBM 5500 control unit does
not run any routing protocols (RIP, RSPF, and so on). IBM recommends that,
when you install the 5500 control unit into an existing network, you should
subnet your existing address space to avoid problems.
C.3.1.1 Subnetting Example
Subnetting is accomplished by partitioning an existing address space and
using each set of addresses for different sets of devices. Partitioning is
accomplished by using a subnet mask that is more restrictive for the twinax
workstations attached to the 5500 control unit than for the LAN to which the
5500 control unit is also attached. The following is a simple example:
LAN
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Address range: 100.100.100.0
through 100.100.100.191
Subnet
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.192.
Address range: 100.100.100.192
through 100.100.100.255
Figure 155. 5500 Subnet Example
280
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
• Original network uses subnet mask 255.255.255.0 and is assigned
addresses 100.100.100.0 through 100.100.100.255 (See Figure 155)
• Desire to split this address space so that 64 addresses are reserved for
use by the twinax workstations attached to the IBM 5500 control unit and
192 addresses are left for other LAN devices.
• Twinax workstation use subnet mask 255.255.255.192 and can take any
contiguous 64 addresses between 100.100.100.0 and 100.100.100.255.
We is highly recommended that the twinax workstations use the upper end
of the available range of addresses, in this case 100.100.100.192 through
100.100.100.255. It is also critically important that none of the addresses
in the range reserved for the twinax workstations be assigned to any
device anywhere else on the network.
• Because three of these addresses are consumed by the TCP/IP network
architecture (you should not use the first, second or last address in the
range), there are 61 addresses left for use by twinax workstations
attached to the IBM 5500 control unit.(100.100.100.194 through
100.100.100.254).
• No upstream router table changes are required because the IBM 5500
control unit and the total address space is already properly routed to the
existing LAN.
LAN
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Address range: 100.100.100.0
through 100.100.100.255
Figure 156. Example of a Network before Installing the IBM 5500
• No subnet mask changes are required on devices attached to the LAN
(any other time you subnet a network all of the subnet masks must be
changed to reflect the network number for each subnet). You must assign
5500 Express IP Control Unit
281
a different address to any device on the LAN that is using one of the
addresses in the range of addresses subnetted to the twinax workstations.
LAN
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Address range: 100.100.100.0
through 100.100.100.191
Subnet
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.192.
Address range: 100.100.100.192
through 100.100.100.255
Figure 157. Example of a Network after Installing the IBM 5500
C.4 Optimizing Twinax Performance for the Client Workstation
To maximize your twinax performance for the client workstation, follow these
recommendations when using the configuration program:
IP Broadcasting Setting
Use the Local or None setting. The Local setting allows the devices on the
twinax subnet to recognize each other. The IP Broadcasting Transparent (or
default) setting allows non-twinax devices to include the twinax subnet in the
Network Neighborhood, and the twinax devices subnet to include the
non-twinax subnet in the Network Neighborhood. However, this function can
degrade twinax performance if the 5500 control unit is attached to a large
network.
Dual Mode Setting
Every twinax workstation controller (WSC) handles ports one at a time. Every
device must wait until the WSC can handle its port. An older WSC has eight
282
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
ports to time slice. However, the 5500 control unit’s WSC is actually two
mini-controllers, each responsible for servicing 4 ports.
Setting the 5500 control unit’s dual mode operation to Enable allows each
device to obtain quicker service. To maximize performance, balance the load
between the two mini-controllers, dividing your devices equally between ports
0 through 3 and ports 4 through 7.
Using Twinax Multiplexers
The use of twinax multiplexers can prevent and increase in performance.
Multiplexers combine the signals of multiple ports into a single cable for a
longer transmission run. The signals are de-multiplexed into separate ports.
Older multiplexers, such as the IBM 6299, were developed before the
invention of a dual mode WSC. For an older multiplexer to combine all eight
ports of a dual mode WSC, the two mini-controllers must be reconfigured to
function as a single controller. This can result in a loss of performance.
Setting the 5500 control unit’s dual mode operation to Disable reproduces this
action and can reduce performance.
Instead of decreasing performance, we recommend that you use a new
multiplexer, the IBM 7299. This multiplexer uses time domain multiplexing to
combine the signals from the two active mini-controllers.
5250 Express Data Stream
The independent modes available on the 5250 Express data stream is the
Optimized Mode. It offers point-to-point communications with an Express
device. This mode is ignored by other devices and works in any valid cabling
configuration.
C.5 Using the 5500 Control Unit as a Network Station Boot Server
The 5500 control unit makes a good alternative boot server. This help reduce
network traffic and improves local bootup times. This control unit can be used
at any remote site that does not have a local server. It serves the remote NPT
customers as a great way to improve the function delivered to their remote
sites, allowing twinax NPTs to move to twinax Network Stations without the
need to change cabling.
Using the 5500 control unit as a boot server for IBM Network Stations
requires that you perform NVRAM setup on your Twinax Network Station.
When used in this mode, the NSM (Network Station Manager) configuration
server builds a text file called defaults.dft. This file is built in the configuration
directory of the client's NSM configuration server, for example: \nstation\
prodbase\configs.
5500 Express IP Control Unit
283
This file also prevents the NSM configuration server from changing the
NVRAM settings. The 5500 control unit uses TFTP protocol to transfer the
operating system kernel files but changes to NFS by default.
The NC user should avoid selecting the ROAM function. By default, the
authentication login display points to the TCP/IP address of the 5500 control
unit (when using the 5500 control unit to boot from). The user is forced to click
on the ROAM button and enter the TCP/IP address of the NSM configuration
server.
To prevent these actions, add the following information to the
\nstation\prodbase\configs\ directory.
Table 21. The Defaults.dft File
284
set config-auto-save-nvram = false
Causes the NC not to update its NVRAM
set exec-startup-commands = {{“actlogin
-authserve TCPI-PADDR”}}
Allows the NSM Admin to boot server and
have login display on Configuration NSM
Host Server. Replaces the IP with
Configuration NSM Host Server IP where
the TCP/IP address of your 5500 Control
Unit instead of TCPI-PADDR.
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Appendix D. Special Notices
This publication is intended to help System Specialists and Business Partners
who are assisting customers to implement an IBM Network Station solution
for their network user needs. The information in this publication is not
intended as the specification of any programming interfaces that are provided
by the IBM Network Station and the Network Station Manager Program.
References in this publication to IBM products, programs or services do not
imply that IBM intends to make these available in all countries in which IBM
operates. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not
intended to state or imply that only IBM's product, program, or service may be
used. Any functionally equivalent program that does not infringe any of IBM's
intellectual property rights may be used instead of the IBM product, program
or service.
Information in this book was developed in conjunction with use of the
equipment specified, and is limited in application to those specific hardware
and software products and levels.
IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter
in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any
license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to the IBM
Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, 500 Columbus Avenue, Thornwood,
NY 10594 USA.
Licensees of this program who wish to have information about it for the
purpose of enabling: (i) the exchange of information between independently
created programs and other programs (including this one) and (ii) the mutual
use of the information which has been exchanged, should contact IBM
Corporation, Dept. 600A, Mail Drop 1329, Somers, NY 10589 USA.
Such information may be available, subject to appropriate terms and
conditions, including in some cases, payment of a fee.
The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any
formal IBM test and is distributed AS IS. The information about non-IBM
("vendor") products in this manual has been supplied by the vendor and IBM
assumes no responsibility for its accuracy or completeness. The use of this
information or the implementation of any of these techniques is a customer
responsibility and depends on the customer's ability to evaluate and integrate
them into the customer's operational environment. While each item may have
been reviewed by IBM for accuracy in a specific situation, there is no
guarantee that the same or similar results will be obtained elsewhere.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
285
Customers attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments
do so at their own risk.
Any pointers in this publication to external Web sites are provided for
convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of
these Web sites.
Any performance data contained in this document was determined in a
controlled environment, and therefore, the results that may be obtained in
other operating environments may vary significantly. Users of this document
should verify the applicable data for their specific environment.
The following document contains examples of data and reports used in daily
business operations. To illustrate them as completely as possible, the
examples contain the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.
All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and
addresses used by an actual business enterprise is entirely coincidental.
Reference to PTF numbers that have not been released through the normal
distribution process does not imply general availability. The purpose of
including these reference numbers is to alert IBM customers to specific
information relative to the implementation of the PTF when it becomes
available to each customer according to the normal IBM PTF distribution
process.
The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines
Corporation in the United States and/or other countries:
AIX
AS/400
IBM 
OS/400
RS/6000
400
APPN
DB2
Nways
RISC System/6000
S/390
The following terms are trademarks of other companies:
Citrix and Citrix MetaFrame are trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc.
C-bus is a trademark of Corollary, Inc.
Java and HotJava are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Incorporated.
Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows 95 logo are trademarks
or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
286
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
PC Direct is a trademark of Ziff Communications Company and is used
by IBM Corporation under license.
Pentium, MMX, ProShare, LANDesk, and ActionMedia are trademarks or
registered trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other
countries.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other
countries licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Limited.
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or
service marks of others.
Special Notices
287
288
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Appendix E. Related Publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a
more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this redbook.
E.1 International Technical Support Organization Publications
For information on ordering these ITSO publications see “How to Get ITSO
Redbooks” on page 291.
• AS/400 - IBM Network Station - Getting Started, SG24-2153
• AS/400 Electronic-Mail Capabilities, SG24-4703
• AS/400 TCP/IP Auto Configuration: DNS and DHCP Support, SG24-5147
• AS/400 - IBM Network Station Printing , SG24-5212
• Lotus Domino for AS/400, Installation Customization, Administration,
SG24-5181
• IBM Network Station Manager Release 3 Guide for Windows NT,
SG24-5221
E.2 Redbooks on CD-ROMs
Redbooks are also available on CD-ROMs. Order a subscription and
receive updates 2-4 times a year.
CD-ROM Title
System/390 Redbooks Collection
Networking and Systems Management Redbooks Collection
Transaction Processing and Data Management Redbook
Lotus Redbooks Collection
Tivoli Redbooks Collection
AS/400 Redbooks Collection
RS/6000 Redbooks Collection (HTML, BkMgr)
RS/6000 Redbooks Collection (PostScript)
RS/6000 Redbooks Collection (PDF Format)
Application Development Redbooks Collection
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
Subscription
Number
SBOF-7201
SBOF-7370
SBOF-7240
SBOF-6899
SBOF-6898
SBOF-7270
SBOF-7230
SBOF-7205
SBOF-8700
SBOF-7290
Collection Kit
Number
SK2T-2177
SK2T-6022
SK2T-8038
SK2T-8039
SK2T-8044
SK2T-2849
SK2T-8040
SK2T-8041
SK2T-8043
SK2T-8037
289
E.3 Other Publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
• IBM 2212 Access Utility Introduction and Planning Guide, GA27-4215
• IBM 2212 Access Utility Installation and Initial Configuration Guide,
GA27-4216
• Internet Connection Services and Internet Connection Secure Server for
AS/400 Webmasters Guide, GC41-5434
• AS/400 - IBM Network Station Use, SA41-0036
• AS/400 - IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use, SC41-0664
• TCP/IP Configuration and Reference, SC41-5420
• TCP/IP Fastpath, SC41-5430
• RFC 826 - Address Resolution Protocol
• RCF 1027 - Proxy ARP
290
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
How to Get ITSO Redbooks
This section explains how both customers and IBM employees can find out about ITSO redbooks,
CD-ROMs, workshops, and residencies. A form for ordering books and CD-ROMs is also provided.
This information was current at the time of publication, but is continually subject to change. The latest
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Redpieces
For information so current it is still in the process of being written, look at "Redpieces" on the
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
291
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AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
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293
294
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
Index
Symbols
. 207
A
Access Integration Services (AIS) 26
AIS (Access Integration Services) 26
applet viewer 5
ASCII 16
authentication server, decentralized 217
B
boot
broadcast 3, 10
flash memory 28
peer (buddy) 3
sequence 107
storms 10
boot image
creation 73
loading 82
testing 73
booting
peer 96
browser
NC Navigator 3
web access 243
C
centralized authentication server 213
defaults.dft 216
Citrix 14
co-existence CISC/RISC 57
configuration
AS/400 IP 132
centralized 121
eSuite mail 231
mail 225
POP3 225
twinax connection 131
D
datastream, transferring 16
DHCP
MAC addresses 21
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1999
remote 171
twinax 154
display, touch screen 3
distributed site model 124
Domino 239
server conflicts 242
E
emulator
AS/400 5
S/390 5
emulators
3270 3
5250 3
VT100 14
VT102 14
VT200 14
VT220 14
Vt300 14
VTxx Telnet 3
eSuite 228, 231
station 229
executable module 267
F
file manager
commands 86
local 86
flash boot network station configuration 100
flash card
3270 65
5250 65
ACTLogin 65
boot image 65
booting network station 89
copying from NFS 82
creation 65
emulation 255
formatting 82
housekeeping 91
loading 82
management 65
sizing 65
VTxxx 65
flash cards 3, 63, 255
centennial 63
295
part numbers 63
PCMCIA 63
simple technology 63
flash memory card 28
FLASH.NSM 261
fonts, emulators 258
G
group preferences creation sample 221
H
HTTP server 242
I
IBM Network Station
overview 1
IBM Network Station Manager
omitting default menu bar buttons 219
prerequisite PTFs 215
replicating to remote server 214
ICA
support 264
X11 17
initialization
BOOTP 42
mechanisms 40
options 22
Integrated PC Server (IPCS) 14
IPCS (Integrated PC Server) 14
J
Java 2
support 265
Java Virtual Machine
NC Navigator 262
Java Virtual Machine (JVM) 2, 262
JVM (Java Virtual Machine) 2, 262
K
kernal 10
kiosk 3
eSuite workplace 228
Lotus Notes installation 250
M
mail, accessing from Network Station 225
management
capacity 36
change 55
performance 36
problem 55
remote sites 121
MetaFrame 14
migration considerations 55
N
National Language Support (NLS) 4
NC Navigator 234
configuring 235
Network
Ethernet 4
Token Ring 4
Network Station
booting from flash 90
eSuite 229
eSuite mail 231
file manager 86
local file manager commands 88
mail access 225
Series 100 1
Series 1000 2
Series 300 2
TSE connection 249
twinax attached 127
use of twinax 127
Network Station Manager
group support 5
NFS, copying data 82
NLS 4
NVRAM 36
local boot modifications 91
O
Operator Information Area 13
L
local file manager
NFS 81
Lotus
296
P
PCL 16
PCMCIA
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
adapter 4
memory card 28
slot 4
peer boot
configuration file 101
network topology 97
PEER.NSM 261
performance
5250 applications 44
AS/400 router 50
browser 50
flash card peer boot 55
JVM 50
slow link boot 55
TFTP jobs 44
POP3 225
configurations 225
PostScript 16
print
LPR/LPD 3
printing 15
administration 58
basics 58
configuring 58
scenarios 58
problem determination 209
console log 209
system log 209
Proxy AR 145
R
remote boot server
replicate 213
replicating 213
replication, decentralized authentication
STRNSSA 222
remote servers 107
remote sites, managing user configuration 121
replicating 213
replicating remote boot servers
transferring IFS directories 223
replication, remote boot server 213
roaming 120
function 7
router 26
AS/400 performance 51
S
separation of servers 6, 65
server
authentication 6
base code 6
BOOTP/DHCP 6
centralized 213
local DHCP 154
remote access 26
remote boot 191
remote DHCP 171
replicator 213
terminal configurator 6
server consolidation 109
servers
Citrix 248
Domino 242
HTTP 242
metaframe 248
remote 107
remote boot 22
separater 6
separation of 3
split boot 107
TSE 248
service levels 33
setting 243
setup
hardware 10
workstation 10
split boot servers 107
STRNSSA, centralized authentication (remote boot
server replication) 216
subnet 10
address pool 187
subnetting
transparent 141
twinax 141
T
TCP/IP 24
addressing 146
TDLC (Twinax Data Link Control) 15
Terminal Server Edition (TSE) 14, 248
transparent subnetting
twinax 141
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) 10
TSE (Terminal Server Edition 14, 248
297
twinax 3
advanced IP 144
attached network stations 127
basic IP 128
DHCP 154
remote boot 191
remote DHCP 171
Twinax Data Link Control (TDLC) 15
twinax subnet address pool 187
U
user configuration management 121
users
local 21
remote 21
V
Views 245
W
WinCenter 14
298
AS/400 IBM Network Station: Techniques for Deployment in a WAN
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