MAX1771 12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low I , Step-Up DC-DC Controller

MAX1771 12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low I , Step-Up DC-DC Controller
19-0263; Rev 2; 3/02
NUAL
KIT MA
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AVAILA
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
The MAX1771 step-up switching controller provides
90% efficiency over a 30mA to 2A load. A unique current-limited pulse-frequency-modulation (PFM) control
scheme gives this device the benefits of pulse-widthmodulation (PWM) converters (high efficiency at heavy
loads), while using less than 110µA of supply current (vs.
2mA to 10mA for PWM converters).
This controller uses miniature external components. Its
high switching frequency (up to 300kHz) allows surface-mount magnetics of 5mm height and 9mm diameter. It accepts input voltages from 2V to 16.5V. The
output voltage is preset at 12V, or can be adjusted
using two resistors.
The MAX1771 optimizes efficiency at low input voltages
and reduces noise by using a single 100mV current-limit
threshold under all load conditions. A family of similar
devices, the MAX770–MAX773, trades some full-load
efficiency for greater current-limit accuracy; they provide
a 200mV current limit at full load, and switch to 100mV
for light loads.
The MAX1771 drives an external N-channel MOSFET
switch, allowing it to power loads up to 24W. If less power
is required, use the MAX756/MAX757 or MAX761/MAX762
step-up switching regulators with on-board MOSFETs. An
evaluation kit is available.
Applications
Features
♦ 90% Efficiency for 30mA to 2A Load Currents
♦ Up to 24W Output Power
♦ 110µA (max) Supply Current
♦ 5µA (max) Shutdown Current
♦ 2V to 16.5V Input Range
♦ Preset 12V or Adjustable Output Voltage
♦ Current-Limited PFM Control Scheme
♦ Up to 300kHz Switching Frequency
♦ Evaluation Kit Available
Ordering Information
PART
TEMP RANGE
PIN-PACKAGE
MAX1771CPA
0°C to +70°C
8 Plastic DIP
MAX1771CSA
MAX1771C/D
MAX1771EPA
MAX1771ESA
MAX1771MJA
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-55°C to +125°C
8 SO
Dice*
8 Plastic DIP
8 SO
8 CERDIP**
* Contact factory for dice specifications.
** Contact factory for availability and processing to MIL-STD-883B.
Positive LCD-Bias Generators
Flash Memory Programmers
High-Power RF Power-Amplifier Supply
Palmtops/Hand-Held Terminals
Battery-Powered Applications
Pin Configuration
Portable Communicators
Typical Operating Circuit
TOP VIEW
INPUT
2V TO VOUT
OUTPUT
12V
MAX1771 EXT
ON/OFF
SHDN
CS
REF
FB AGND GND
V+
N
EXT
1
8
CS
V+
2
7
GND
FB 3
6
AGND
SHDN 4
5
REF
MAX1771
DIP/SO
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim/Dallas Direct! at
1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com.
1
MAX1771
General Description
MAX1771
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Supply Voltage
V+ to GND ...............................................................-0.3V, 17V
EXT, CS, REF, SHDN, FB to GND ...................-0.3V, (V+ + 0.3V)
GND to AGND.............................................................0.1V, -0.1V
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
Plastic DIP (derate 9.09mW/°C above +70°C) ............727mW
SO (derate 5.88mW/°C above +70°C) .........................471mW
CERDIP (derate 8.00mW/°C above +70°C) .................640mW
Operating Temperature Ranges
MAX1771C_ A .....................................................0°C to +70°C
MAX1771E_ A ..................................................-40°C to +85°C
MAX1771MJA ................................................-55°C to +125°C
Junction Temperatures
MAX1771C_ A/E_ A.......................................................+150°C
MAX1771MJA ..............................................................+175°C
Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +160°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10sec) .............................+300°C
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(V+ = 5V, ILOAD = 0mA, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Input Voltage Range
CONDITIONS
MIN
Standby Current
12.5
MAX1771C/E (external resistors)
3.0
16.5
MAX1771MJA (external resistors)
3.1
16.5
UNITS
V
1.8
2.0
V
V+ = 16.5V, SHDN = 0V (normal operation)
85
110
µA
V+ = 10V, SHDN ≥ 1.6V (shutdown)
2
5
V+ = 16.5V, SHDN ≥ 1.6V (shutdown)
4
µA
Output Voltage (Note 1)
V+ = 2V to 12V, over full load range,
Circuit of Figure 2a
Output Voltage Line Regulation
(Note 2)
V+ = 5V to 7V, VOUT = 12V
ILOAD = 700mA, Circuit of Figure 2a
5
mV/V
Output Voltage Load Regulation
(Note 2)
V+ = 6V, VOUT = 12V, ILOAD = 0mA to
500mA, Circuit of Figure 2a
20
mV/A
11.52
12.0
12.48
V
Maximum Switch On-Time
tON(max)
12
16
20
µs
Minimum Switch Off-Time
tOFF(min)
1.8
2.3
2.8
µs
V+ = 5V, VOUT = 12V, ILOAD = 500mA,
Circuit of Figure 2a
Efficiency
Reference Voltage
VREF
IREF = 0µA
REF Load Regulation
0µA ≤ IREF ≤ 100µA
REF Line Regulation
3V ≤ V+ ≤ 16.5V
FB Trip Point Voltage
2
MAX
2.0
Minimum Start-Up Voltage
Supply Current
TYP
MAX1771 (internal feedback resistors)
VFB
92
%
MAX1771C
1.4700
1.5
1.5300
MAX1771E
1.4625
1.5
1.5375
MAX1771M
1.4550
1.5
1.5450
MAX1771C/E
4
10
MAX1771M
4
15
40
100
MAX1771C
1.4700
1.5
1.5300
MAX1771E
1.4625
1.5
1.5375
MAX1771M
1.4550
1.5
1.5450
_______________________________________________________________________________________
V
mV
µV/V
V
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
MAX1771
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(V+ = 5V, ILOAD = 0mA, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.)
PARAMETERS
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX1771C
±20
MAX1771E
±40
FB Input Current
IFB
SHDN Input High Voltage
VIH
V+ = 2V to 16.5V
SHDN Input Low Voltage
VIL
V+ = 2V to 16.5V
MAX1771M
SHDN Input Current
VCS
UNITS
nA
±60
1.6
V
V+ = 16.5V, SHDN = 0V or V+
Current-Limit Trip Level
MAX
V+ = 5V to 16V
0.4
V
±1
µA
MAX1771C/E
85
100
115
MAX1771M
75
100
125
0.01
±1
CS Input Current
mV
µA
EXT Rise Time
V+ = 5V, 1nF from EXT to ground
55
ns
EXT Fall Time
V+ = 5V, 1nF from EXT to ground
55
ns
Note 1: Output voltage guaranteed using preset voltages. See Figures 4a–4d for output current capability versus input voltage.
Note 2: Output voltage line and load regulation depend on external circuit components.
Typical Operating Characteristics
(TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
85
VIN = 3V
80
75
VIN = 5V
70
VOUT = 12V
CIRCUIT OF
FIGURE 2a
65
VIN = 8V
85
80
VIN = 5V
75
70
VOUT = 12V
CIRCUIT OF
FIGURE 2b
65
60
60
1
10
100
1000
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
10,000
1
10
100
1000
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
10,000
MAX1771-TOC3
VIN =10V
90
VIN = 8V
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
90
95
VOUT = 12V, CIRCUIT OF FIGURE 2a
EXTERNAL FET THRESHOLD
LIMITS FULL-LOAD START-UP
BELOW 3.5V
600
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
VIN = 10V
700
MAX1771–02
95
100
MAX1771–01
100
LOAD CURRENT vs.
MINIMUM START-UP INPUT VOLTAGE
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
(NON-BOOTSTRAPED MODE)
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
(BOOTSTRAPED MODE)
500
400
300
200
100
0
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
MINIMUM START-UP INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
ENTIRE
CIRCUIT
2
SCHOTTKY DIODE
LEAKAGE EXCLUDED
0.2
0
25
50
CEXT = 2200pF
CEXT = 1000pF
150
CEXT = 446pF
CEXT = 100pF
100
NON-BOOTSTRAPPED
CIRCUIT OF FIGURE 2b
0
-75 -50 -25
75 100 125
0
2
6
4
12
10
8
2
6
4
12
10
8
TEMPERATURE (°C)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
REFERENCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE vs.
TEMPERATURE
REFERENCE vs. TEMPERATURE
MAXIMUM SWITCH ON-TIME vs.
TEMPERATURE
16.5
MAX1771-08
1.506
MAX1771-07
250
1.504
200
10µA
150
100
50µA
1.500
1.498
16.0
1.496
100µA
50
tON(MAX) (µs)
1.502
REFERENCE (V)
1.494
15.5
1.492
0
-60 -40 -20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-60 -40 -20
0
30
60
90
120 150
TEMPERATURE (°C)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
SHUTDOWN CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE
MINIMUM SWITCH OFF-TIME vs.
TEMPERATURE
MAXIMUM SWITCH ON-TIME/
MINIMUM SWITCH OFF-TIME RATIO
vs. TEMPERATURE
tON(MAX)/tOFF(MIN) RATIO
3.0
2.5
2.0
V+ = 15V
1.5
2.25
V+ = 8V
1.0
MAX1771-12
3.5
8.0
MAX1771-11
2.30
MAX1771-10
4.0
0.5
-60 -30
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
TEMPERATURE (°C)
tOFF(MIN) (µs)
REFERENCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)
0.4
200
50
0
7.5
7.0
6.5
V+ = 4V
2.20
0
-60 -40 -20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
TEMPERATURE (°C)
4
BOOTSTRAPPED
CIRCUIT OF
FIGURE 2a
0.6
MAX1771-09
1
EXT RISE/FALL TIME (ns)
3
250
MAX1771-05
MAX1771-04
VOUT = 12V
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
VOUT = 12V, VIN = 5V
CIRCUIT OF FIGURE 2a
BOOTSTRAPPED MODE
EXT RISE/FALL TIME vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
0.8
MAX1771-06
SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE
4
SHUTDOWN CURRENT (µA)
MAX1771
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
6.0
-60 -30
0
30
60
90
TEMPERATURE (°C)
120 150
-60 -30
0
30
60
90
TEMPERATURE (°C)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
120 150
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
HEAVY-LOAD SWITCHING WAVEFORMS
MEDIUM-LOAD SWITCHING WAVEFORMS
VOUT
VOUT
A
A
0V
0V
ILIM
ILIM
B
B
0A
0A
C
C
2µs/div
VIN = 5V, IOUT = 900mA, VOUT = 12V
A: EXT VOLTAGE, 10V/div
B: INDUCTOR CURRENT, 1A/div
C: VOUT RIPPLE, 50mV/div, AC-COUPLED
10µs/div
VIN = 5V, IOUT = 500mA, VOUT = 12V
A: EXT VOLTAGE, 10V/div
B: INDUCTOR CURRENT, 1A/div
C: VOUT RIPPLE, 50mV/div, AC-COUPLED
LINE-TRANSIENT RESPONSE
A
LOAD-TRANSIENT RESPONSE
7V
500mA
5V
A
0A
0V
B
B
5ms/div
IOUT = 700mA, VOUT = 12V
A: VIN, 5V to 7V, 2V/div
B: VOUT RIPPLE, 100mV/div, AC-COUPLED
5ms/div
VIN = 6V, VOUT = 12V
A: LOAD CURRENT, 0mA to 500mA, 500mA/div
B: VOUT RIPPLE, 100mV/div, AC-COUPLED
_______________________________________________________________________________________
5
MAX1771
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Circuit of Figure 2a, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
MAX1771
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(Circuit of Figure 2a, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
ENTERING/EXITING SHUTDOWN
A
0V
B
5V
0V
2ms/div
IOUT = 500mA, VIN = 5V
A: SHDN, 5V/div
B: VOUT, 5V/div
Pin Description
6
PIN
NAME
FUNCTION
1
EXT
Gate Drive for External N-Channel Power Transistor
2
V+
Power-Supply Input. Also acts as a voltage-sense point when in bootstrapped mode.
3
FB
Feedback Input for Adjustable-Output Operation. Connect to ground for fixed-output operation.
Use a resistor divider network to adjust the output voltage. See Setting the Output Voltage section.
4
SHDN
5
REF
6
AGND
7
GND
8
CS
Active-High TTL/CMOS Logic-Level Shutdown Input. In shutdown mode, VOUT is a diode drop
below V+ (due to the DC path from V+ to the output) and the supply current drops to 5µA
maximum. Connect to ground for normal operation.
1.5V Reference Output that can source 100µA for external loads. Bypass to GND with 0.1µF.
The reference is disabled in shutdown.
Analog Ground
High-Current Ground Return for the Output Driver
Positive Input to the Current-Sense Amplifier. Connect the current-sense resistor between CS
and GND.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
The MAX1771 is a BiCMOS, step-up, switch-mode
power-supply controller that provides a preset 12V output, in addition to adjustable-output operation. Its
unique control scheme combines the advantages of
pulse-frequency modulation (low supply current) and
pulse-width modulation (high efficiency with heavy
loads), providing high efficiency over a wide output
current range, as well as increased output current
capability over previous PFM devices. In addition, the
external sense resistor and power transistor allow the
user to tailor the output current capability for each application. Figure 1 shows the MAX1771 functional diagram.
Bootstrapped/Non-Bootstrapped Modes
Figure 2 shows the standard application circuits for
bootstrapped and non-bootstrapped modes. In bootstrapped mode, the IC is powered from the output
(VOUT, which is connected to V+) and the input voltage
range is 2V to VOUT. The voltage applied to the gate of
the external power transistor is switched from VOUT to
ground, providing more switch gate drive and thus
reducing the transistor’s on-resistance.
In non-bootstrapped mode, the IC is powered from the
input voltage (V+) and operates with minimum supply
current. In this mode, FB is the output voltage sense
point. Since the voltage swing applied to the gate of the
external power transistor is reduced (the gate swings
from V+ to ground), the power transistor’s on-resistance
The MAX1771 offers three main improvements over
prior pulse-skipping control solutions: 1) the converter
operates with miniature (5mm height and less than
9mm diameter) surface-mount inductors due to its
300kHz switching frequency; 2) the current-limited PFM
control scheme allows 90% efficiencies over a wide
REF
FB
DUAL-MODE
COMPARATOR
SHDN
MAX1771
50mV
BIAS
CIRCUITRY
1.5V
REFERENCE
ERROR
COMPARATOR
MIN OFF-TIME
ONE-SHOT
Q
TRIG
V+
N
2.3µs
F/F
S
Q
R
MAX ON-TIME
ONE-SHOT
TRIG
Q
16µs
LOW-VOLTAGE
OSCILLATOR
2.5V
CURRENT-SENSE
AMPLIFIER
EXT
0.1V
CS
Figure 1. Functional Diagram
_______________________________________________________________________________________
7
MAX1771
range of load currents; and 3) the maximum supply
current is only 110µA.
The device has a shutdown mode that reduces the
supply current to 5µA max.
Detailed Description
MAX1771
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
VIN = 5V
C1
68µF
C2
0.1µF
4 SHDN
2
L1
22µH
V+
L1
22µH
MAX1771
3 FB
6
C2
0.1µF
2
V+
5 REF
C3
0.1µF
VIN = 5V
EXT
CS
AGND
1
5 REF
C1
68µF
D1
1N5817-22
VOUT = 12V
AT 0.5A
C3
0.1µF
4 SHDN MAX1771
6 AGND
N
CS
Si9410DY/
MTD20N03HDL
8
FB
GND
C4
300µF
RSENSE
40mΩ
GND
EXT
7
7
R2 = (R1)
VOUT
(V
REF
-1
1
VOUT = 12V
AT 0.5A
D1
1N5817-22
C4
300µF
N
MTD20N03HDL
8
3
RSENSE
40mΩ
R1
18kΩ
)
R2
127kΩ
C5
100pF
VREF = 1.5V
Figure 2a. 12V Preset Output, Bootstrapped
Figure 2b. 12V Output, Non-Bootstrapped
VIN = 4V
C2
0.1µF
2
5 REF
C3
0.1µF
V+
4 SHDN MAX1771
6
EXT
CS
AGND
FB
GND
7
R2 = (R1)
C1
47µF
L1
22µH
D1
1N5817-22
1
VOUT = 9V
N
Si9410DY/
MTD20N03HDL
8
RSENSE
40mΩ
3
R1
28kΩ
( VVOUT -1)
C4
200µF
R2
140kΩ
C5
100pF
REF
VREF = 1.5V
Figure 2c. 9V Output, Bootstrapped
increases at low input voltages. However, the supply
current is also reduced because V+ is at a lower voltage, and because less energy is consumed while
charging and discharging the external MOSFET’s gate
capacitance. The minimum input voltage is 3V when
using external feedback resistors. With supply voltages
below 5V, bootstrapped mode is recommended.
Note: When using the MAX1771 in non-bootstrapped mode, there is no preset output operation
because V+ is also the output voltage sense point
8
for fixed-output operation. External resistors must
be used to set the output voltage. Use 1% external
feedback resistors when operating in adjustable-output
mode (Figures 2b, 2c) to achieve an overall output voltage accuracy of ±5%. To achieve highest efficiency,
operate in bootstrapped mode whenever possible.
External Power-Transistor
Control Circuitry
PFM Control Scheme
The MAX1771 uses a proprietary current-limited PFM
control scheme to provide high efficiency over a wide
range of load currents. This control scheme combines the
ultra-low supply current of PFM converters (or pulse skippers) with the high full-load efficiency of PWM converters.
Unlike traditional PFM converters, the MAX1771 uses a
sense resistor to control the peak inductor current. The
device also operates with high switching frequencies
(up to 300kHz), allowing the use of miniature external
components.
As with traditional PFM converters, the power transistor
is not turned on until the voltage comparator senses
the output is out of regulation. However, unlike traditional PFM converters, the MAX1771 switch uses the combination of a peak current limit and a pair of one-shots
that set the maximum on-time (16µs) and minimum offtime (2.3µs); there is no oscillator. Once off, the minimum off-time one-shot holds the switch off for 2.3µs.
After this minimum time, the switch either 1) stays off if
the output is in regulation, or 2) turns on again if the
output is out of regulation.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
Low-Voltage Start-Up Oscillator
The MAX1771 features a low input voltage start-up oscillator that guarantees start-up with no load down to 2V
when operating in bootstrapped mode and using internal feedback resistors. At these low voltages, the supply
voltage is not large enough for proper error-comparator
operation and internal biasing. The start-up oscillator
has a fixed 50% duty cycle and the MAX1771 disregards the error-comparator output when the supply voltage is less than 2.5V. Above 2.5V, the error-comparator
and normal one-shot timing circuitry are used. The lowvoltage start-up circuitry is disabled if non-bootstrapped
mode is selected (FB is not tied to ground).
Shutdown Mode
When SHDN is high, the MAX1771 enters shutdown
mode. In this mode, the internal biasing circuitry is
turned off (including the reference) and VOUT falls to a
diode drop below V IN (due to the DC path from the
input to the output). In shutdown mode, the supply
current drops to less than 5µA. SHDN is a TTL/CMOS
logic-level input. Connect SHDN to GND for normal
operation.
Design Procedure
Setting the Output Voltage
To set the output voltage, first determine the mode of
operation, either bootstrapped or non-bootstrapped.
Bootstrapped mode provides more output current capability, while non-bootstrapped mode reduces the supply
current (see the Typical Operating Characteristics). If a
decaying voltage source (such as a battery) is used,
see the additional notes in the Low Input Voltage
Operation section.
The MAX1771’s output voltage can be adjusted from
very high voltages down to 3V, using external resistors
MAX1771
The control circuitry allows the IC to operate in continuous-conduction mode (CCM) while maintaining high
efficiency with heavy loads. When the power switch is
turned on, it stays on until either 1) the maximum ontime one-shot turns it off (typically 16µs later), or 2) the
switch current reaches the peak current limit set by the
current-sense resistor.
The MAX1771 switching frequency is variable (depending on load current and input voltage), causing variable
switching noise. However, the subharmonic noise generated does not exceed the peak current limit times the
filter capacitor equivalent series resistance (ESR). For
example, when generating a 12V output at 500mA from
a 5V input, only 100mV of output ripple occurs using
the circuit of Figure 2a.
R2
VOUT
FB
MAX1771
R1
C5*
R1 = 10kΩ TO 500kΩ
GND
R2 = R1
V
-1)
( VOUT
REF
VREF = 1.5V
* SEE TEXT FOR VALUE
Figure 3. Adjustable Output Circuit
R1 and R2 configured as shown in Figure 3. For
adjustable-output operation, select feedback resistor
R1 in the 10kΩ to 500kΩ range. R2 is given by:
VOUT -1
R2 = (R1) –––––
VREF
(
)
where VREF equals 1.5V.
For preset-output operation, tie FB to GND (this
forces bootstrapped-mode operation.
Figure 2 shows various circuit configurations for bootstrapped/non-bootstrapped, preset/adjustable operation.
Determining RSENSE
Use the theoretical output current curves shown in
Figures 4a–4d to select RSENSE. They were derived
using the minimum (worst-case) current-limit comparator threshold value over the extended temperature
range (-40°C to +85°C). No tolerance was included for
R SENSE . The voltage drop across the diode was
assumed to be 0.5V, and the drop across the power
switch rDS(ON) and coil resistance was assumed to be
0.3V.
Determining the Inductor (L)
Practical inductor values range from 10µH to 300µH.
22µH is a good choice for most applications. In applications with large input/output differentials, the IC’s
output current capability will be much less when the
inductance value is too low, because the IC will always
operate in discontinuous mode. If the inductor value
is too low, the current will ramp up to a high level before
the current-limit comparator can turn off the switch.
The minimum on-time for the switch (t ON (min)) is
_______________________________________________________________________________________
9
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
3.5
3.5
VOUT = 5V
L = 22µH
3.0
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
MAX1771
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
RSENSE = 20mΩ
2.5
RSENSE = 25mΩ
2.0
RSENSE = 35mΩ
1.5
1.0
RSENSE = 50mΩ
0.5
VOUT = 12V
L = 22µH
3.0
RSENSE = 20mΩ
RSENSE = 25mΩ
2.5
RSENSE = 35mΩ
2.0
1.5
1.0
RSENSE = 50mΩ
0.5
RSENSE = 100mΩ
0
2
3
4
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
5
Figure 4a. Maximum Output Current vs. Input Voltage
(VOUT = 5V)
3.5
2
RSENSE = 20mΩ
RSENSE = 35mΩ
2.0
10
12
VOUT = 24V
L =150µH
RSENSE = 25mΩ
2.5
6
8
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
0.8
VOUT = 15V
L = 22µH
3.0
4
Figure 4b. Maximum Output Current vs. Input Voltage
(VOUT = 12V)
1.5
1.0
RSENSE = 50mΩ
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
RSENSE = 100mΩ
0
0.6
RSENSE = 50mΩ
RSENSE = 100mΩ
0.4
0.2
0.5
RSENSE = 200mΩ
RSENSE = 100mΩ
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
2
6
10
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
14
Figure 4c. Maximum Output Current vs. Input Voltage
(VOUT = 15V)
Figure 4d. Maximum Output Current vs. Input Voltage
(VOUT = 24V)
approximately 2µs; select an inductor that allows the current to ramp up to I LIM.
Inductors with a ferrite core or equivalent are recommended; powder iron cores are not recommended for
use with high switching frequencies. Make sure the
inductor’s saturation current rating (the current at which
the core begins to saturate and the inductance starts to
fall) exceeds the peak current rating set by RSENSE.
However, it is generally acceptable to bias the inductor
into saturation by approximately 20% (the point where
the inductance is 20% below the nominal value). For
highest efficiency, use a coil with low DC resistance,
preferably under 20mΩ. To minimize radiated noise,
use a toroid, a pot core, or a shielded coil.
Table 1 lists inductor suppliers and specific recommended inductors.
The standard operating circuits use a 22µH inductor.
If a different inductance value is desired, select L such
that:
VIN(max) x 2µs
L ≥ —————----—-ILIM
Larger inductance values tend to increase the start-up
time slightly, while smaller inductance values allow the
coil current to ramp up to higher levels before the
switch turns off, increasing the ripple at light loads.
10
______________________________________________________________________________________
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
Diode Selection
The MAX1771’s high switching frequency demands a
high-speed rectifier. Schottky diodes such as the
1N5817–1N5822 are recommended. Make sure the
Schottky diode’s average current rating exceeds the
peak current limit set by RSENSE, and that its breakdown voltage exceeds V OUT. For high-temperature
applications, Schottky diodes may be inadequate due
to their high leakage currents; high-speed silicon
diodes such as the MUR105 or EC11FS1 can be used
instead. At heavy loads and high temperatures, the
benefits of a Schottky diode’s low forward voltage may
outweigh the disadvantages of its high leakage current.
The bypass capacitor on V+ (C2) must instantaneously
furnish the gate charge without excessive droop (e.g.,
less than 200mV):
Qg
∆V+ = ——
C2
Continuing with the example, ∆V+ = 17nC/0.1µF = 170mV.
Figure 2a’s application circuit uses an 8-pin Si9410DY
surface-mount N-FET that has 50mΩ on-resistance with
4.5V VGS, and a guaranteed VTH of less than 3V. Figure
2b’s application circuit uses an MTD20N03HDL logiclevel N-FET with a guaranteed threshold voltage (VTH)
of 2V.
Capacitor Selection
Output Filter Capacitor
The primary criterion for selecting the output filter capacitor (C4) is low effective series resistance (ESR). The
product of the peak inductor current and the output filter
capacitor’s ESR determines the amplitude of the ripple
seen on the output voltage. Two OS-CON 150µF, 16V
output filter capacitors in parallel with 35mΩ of ESR each
typically provide 75mV ripple when stepping up from 5V
to 12V at 500mA (Figure 2a). Smaller-value and/or higher-ESR capacitors are acceptable for light loads or in
applications that can tolerate higher output ripple.
Since the output filter capacitor’s ESR affects efficiency, use low-ESR capacitors for best performance. See
Table 1 for component selection.
Input Bypass Capacitors
The input bypass capacitor (C1) reduces peak currents
drawn from the voltage source and also reduces noise
at the voltage source caused by the switching action of
the MAX1771. The input voltage source impedance
determines the size of the capacitor required at the V+
input. As with the output filter capacitor, a low-ESR
capacitor is recommended. For output currents up to
1A, 68µF (C1) is adequate, although smaller bypass
capacitors may also be acceptable.
Bypass the IC with a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor (C2)
placed as close to the V+ and GND pins as possible.
Reference Capacitor
Bypass REF with a 0.1µF capacitor (C3). REF can
source up to 100µA of current for external loads.
Feed-Forward Capacitor
In adjustable output voltage and non-bootstrapped
modes, parallel a 47pF to 220pF capacitor across R2,
as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Choose the lowest capacitor value that insures stability; high capacitance values
may degrade line regulation.
______________________________________________________________________________________
11
MAX1771
Power Transistor Selection
Use an N-channel MOSFET power transistor with the
MAX1771.
To ensure the external N-channel MOSFET (N-FET) is
turned on hard, use logic-level or low-threshold
N-FETs when the input drive voltage is less than 8V. This
applies even in bootstrapped mode, to ensure start-up.
N-FETs provide the highest efficiency because they do
not draw any DC gate-drive current.
When selecting an N-FET, three important parameters
are the total gate charge (Qg), on-resistance (rDS(ON)),
and reverse transfer capacitance (CRSS).
Qg takes into account all capacitances associated with
charging the gate. Use the typical Qg value for best
results; the maximum value is usually grossly overspecified since it is a guaranteed limit and not the measured value. The typical total gate charge should be
50nC or less. With larger numbers, the EXT pins may
not be able to adequately drive the gate. The EXT
rise/fall time varies with different capacitive loads as
shown in the Typical Operating Characteristics.
The two most significant losses contributing to the
N-FET’s power dissipation are I2R losses and switching
losses. Select a transistor with low rDS(ON) and low
CRSS to minimize these losses.
Determine the maximum required gate-drive current
from the Qg specification in the N-FET data sheet.
The MAX1771’s maximum allowed switching frequency
during normal operation is 300kHz; but at start-up, the
maximum frequency can be 500kHz, so the maximum
current required to charge the N-FET’s gate is
f(max) x Qg(typ). Use the typical Qg number from the
transistor data sheet. For example, the Si9410DY has a
Qg(typ) of 17nC (at VGS = 5V), therefore the current
required to charge the gate is:
IGATE (max) = (500kHz) (17nC) = 8.5mA.
MAX1771
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
Table 1. Component Suppliers
PRODUCTION
Surface Mount
Through Hole
SUPPLIER
INDUCTORS
CAPACITORS
Sumida
CD54 series
CDR125 series
Coiltronics
CTX20 series
Coilcraft
DO3316 series
DO3340 series
Matsuo
267 series
Sprague
595D series
AVX
TPS series
Sumida
RCH855 series
RCH110 series
Sanyo
OS-CON series
Nichicon
PL series
PHONE
DIODES
Central Semiconductor
CMPSH-3
CMPZ5240
Nihon
EC11 FS1 series (highspeed silicon)
Motorola
MBRS1100T3
MMBZ5240BL
Motorola
1N5817–1N5822
MUR115 (high voltage)
MUR105 (high-speed
silicon)
FAX
AVX
USA: (803) 448-9411
(803) 448-1943
Central
Semiconductor
USA: (516) 435-1110
(516) 435-1824
Coilcraft
USA: (708) 639-6400
(708) 639-1469
Coiltronics
USA: (516) 241-7876
(516) 241-9339
Matsuo
USA: (714) 969-2491
Japan: 81-6-337-6450
(714) 960-6492
81-6-337-6456
Motorola
USA: (800) 521-6274
(602) 952-4190
Nichicon
USA: (708) 843-7500
(708) 843-2798
Nihon
USA: (805) 867-2555
(805) 867-2556
Sanyo
USA: (619) 661-6835
Japan: 81-7-2070-1005
(619) 661-1055
81-7-2070-1174
Siliconix
USA: (800) 554-5565
(408) 970-3950
Sprague
USA: (603) 224-1961
(603) 224-1430
Sumida
USA: (708) 956-0666
Japan: 81-3-3607-5111
(708) 956-0702
81-3-3607-5144
12
TRANSISTORS
Siliconix
Si9410DY
Si9420DY (high voltage)
Motorola
MTP3055EL
MTD20N03HDL
MMFT3055ELT1
MTD6N1O
MMBT8099LT1
MMBT8599LT1
______________________________________________________________________________________
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
VIN*
3V TO 11V
D2
1N5817
2
4
V+
SHDN
L1
20µH
1 CTX20-4
3V = OFF
C4 5
REF
0.1µF
MAX1771
EXT
CS
GND AGND
6
7
C2
Q1** 47µF
16V
1
8
L2
VOUT
5V
500mA
C3
220µF
10V
R1
0.1Ω
FB
3
D1
1N5817
R3†
R2†
C5
47pF
SEE TEXT FOR FURTHER COMPONENT INFO
**VIN MAY BE LOWER THAN INDICATED IF THE SUPPLY IS NOT
**REQUIRED TO START UNDER FULL LOAD
**MOTOROLA MMFT3055ELT1
† FOR 5V: R2 = 200kΩ, R3 = 470kΩ
3.3V: R2 = 100kΩ, R3 = 20kΩ
Figure 5. Step-Up/Down for a 5V/3.3V Output
Applications Information
Low Input Voltage Operation
When using a power supply that decays with time
(such as a battery), the N-FET transistor will operate in
its linear region when the voltage at EXT approaches
the threshold voltage of the FET, dissipating excessive
power. Prolonged operation in this mode may damage
the FET. This effect is much more significant in nonbootstrapped mode than in bootstrapped mode, since
bootstrapped mode typically provides much higher
VGS voltages. To avoid this condition, make sure VEXT
is above the VTH of the FET, or use a voltage detector
(such as the MAX8211) to put the IC in shutdown mode
once the input supply voltage falls below a predetermined minimum value. Excessive loads with low input
voltages can also cause this condition.
Starting Up Under Load
The Typical Operating Characteristics show the StartUp Voltage vs. Load Current graph for bootstrappedmode operation. This graph depends on the type
of power switch used. The MAX1771 is not designed to
start up under full load in bootstrapped mode with low
input voltages.
Due to high current levels and fast switching waveforms, which radiate noise, proper PC board layout is
essential. Protect sensitive analog grounds by using a
star ground configuration. Minimize ground noise by
connecting GND, the input bypass capacitor ground
lead, and the output filter capacitor ground lead to a
single point (star ground configuration). Also, minimize
lead lengths to reduce stray capacitance, trace resistance, and radiated noise. Place input bypass capacitor C2 as close as possible to V+ and GND.
Excessive noise at the V+ input may falsely trigger the
timing circuitry, resulting in short pulses at EXT. If this
occurs it will have a negligible effect on circuit efficiency. If desired, place a 4.7µF directly across the V+ and
GND pins (in parallel with the 0.1µF C2 bypass capacitor) to reduce the noise at V+.
Other Application Circuits
4 Cells to 5V (or 3 Cells to 3.3V), 500mA
Step-Up/Down Converter
The circuit shown in Figure 5 generates 5V (or 3.3V) at
500mA with 85% efficiency, from an input voltage that
varies above and below the output. The output couples
to the switching circuitry via a capacitor. This configuration offers two advantages over flyback-transformer
and step-up linear-regulator circuits: smooth regulation
as the input passes through the output, and no output
current in shutdown.
This circuit requires two inductors, which can be wound
on one core with no regard to coupling since they do
not work as a transformer. L1 and L2 can either be
wound together (as with the Coiltronics CTX20-4) or
kept as two separate inductors; both methods provide
equal performance. Capacitors C2 and C3 should be
low-ESR types for best efficiency. A 1µF ceramic
capacitor will work at C2, but with about 3% efficiency
loss. C2’s voltage rating must be greater than the maximum input voltage. Also note that the LX switch must
withstand a voltage equal to the sum of the input and
output voltage; for example, when converting 11V to
5V, the switch must withstand 16V.
LX switch pulses are captured by Schottky diode D2 to
boost V+ to (VOUT + VIN). This improves efficiency with
a low input voltage, but also limits the maximum input
supply to 11V. If the input voltage does not fall below 4V
and if a 3V logic threshold FET is used for Q1, you may
omit D2 and connect V+ directly to the input supply.
12V Output Buck/Boost
The circuit in Figure 6 generates 12V from a 4.5V to
16V input. Higher input voltages are possible if you
______________________________________________________________________________________
13
MAX1771
Layout Considerations
C1
2.2µF
MAX1771
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
VIN
4.5V TO 15V
C1
33µF
2 16V
OFF
4
L1
20µH
V+
C2*
1µF
SHDN
ON
MAX1771
EXT
CS
AGND
5
C5
0.1µF
REF
R3
28kΩ
1%
GND
FB
3
1
Q1**
L2*
20µH
8
6
7
D2*
1N4148
NOTE: KEEP ALL TRACES CONNECTED
TO PIN 3 AS SHORT AS POSSIBLE
VOUT
12V
250mA
D1
1N5819
R1
0.1Ω
C4
C3
100µF 100µF
16V
16V
NOTE: HIGHCURRENT GND
R2
200kΩ
1%
*SEE TEXT FOR FURTHER
COMPONENT INFORMATION
**Q1 = MOTOROLA MMFT3055ELT1
L1 + L2 = ONE COILTRONICS CTX20-4
Figure 6. 12V Buck/Boost from a 4.5V to 15V Input
carefully observe the component voltage ratings, since
some components must withstand the sum of the input
and output voltage (27V in this case). The circuit operates as an AC-coupled boost converter, and does not
change operating modes when crossing from buck to
boost. There is no instability around a 12V input.
Efficiency ranges from 85% at medium loads to about
82% at full load. Also, when shutdown is activated
(SHDN high) the output goes to 0V and sources no current. A 1µF ceramic capacitor is used for C2. A larger
capacitor value improves efficiency by about 1% to 3%.
D2 ensures start-up for this AC-coupled configuration
by overriding the MAX1771’s Dual-Mode feature, which
allows the use of preset internal or user-set external
feedback. When operating in Dual-Mode, the IC first
14
tries to use internal feedback and looks to V+ for its
feedback signal. However, since V+ may be greater
than the internally set feedback (12V for the MAX1771),
the IC may think the output is sufficiently high and not
start. D2 ensures start-up by pulling FB above ground
and forcing the external feedback mode. In a normal
(not AC-coupled) boost circuit, D2 isn’t needed, since
the output and FB rise as soon as input power is
applied.
Transformerless -48V to +5V at 300mA
The circuit in Figure 7 uses a transformerless design to
supply 5V at 300mA from a -30V to -75V input supply.
The MAX1771 is biased such that its ground connections are made to the -48V input. The IC’s supply voltage (at V+) is set to about 9.4V (with respect to -48V)
by a zener-biased emitter follower (Q2). An N-channel
FET (Q1) is driven in a boost configuration. Output regulation is achieved by a transistor (Q3), which level
shifts a feedback signal from the 5V output to the IC’s
FB input. Conversion efficiency is typically 82%.
When selecting components, be sure that D1, Q1, Q2,
Q3, and C6 are rated for the full input voltage plus a
reasonable safety margin. Also, if D1 is substituted, it
should be a fast-recovery type with a trr less than 30ns.
R7, R9, C8, and D3 are optional and may be used to
soft start the circuit to prevent excessive current surges
at power-up.
Battery-Powered LCD Bias Supply
The circuit in Figure 8 boosts two cells (2V min) to 24V
for LCD bias or other positive output applications.
Output power is boosted from the battery input, while
V+ voltage for the MAX1771 is supplied by a 5V or 3.3V
logic supply.
5V, 1A Boost Converter
The circuit in Figure 9 boosts a 2.7V to 5.5V input to a
regulated 5V, 1A output for logic, RF power, or PCMCIA
applications. Efficiency vs. load current is shown in the
adjacent graph.
______________________________________________________________________________________
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
4
C5
0.1µF
EXT
SHDN
5
3
7
MAX1771
V+
+5V
300mA
C8
1µF
R9
5.1kΩ
1
C7
220pF
R7
200Ω
Q2
MMBT8099LT1
-48V
6
R6
200kΩ
R5
1kΩ
R1
0.15Ω
C6
10µF
100V
R2
47kΩ
1%
C1
220µF
10V
C2
220µF
10V
C3
0.33µF
Q3
MMBT8599LT1
D3
CMPSH-3
2
AGND
GND
3
Q1
MTD6N10
2
8
CS
REF
FB
1
D1
MBRS1100T3
MAX1771
L1
D03340
220µH–680µH
R4
100kΩ
C4
2.2µF
20V
R3
16kΩ
1%
D2
CMPZ5240/
MMBZ5240BL
Figure 7. -48V Input to 5V Output at 300mA, Without a Transformer
BATTERY
INPUT
2V TO 12V
3.3V OR 5V
LOGIC
SUPPLY
OFF
ON
L1
22µH
0.1µF
4
2
V+
EXTL
SHDN
CS
1
0.1µF
N
MMFT3055ELT1
47µF
8
MAX1771
REF
5
1N5817
OUTPUT
ADJ = 12V TO 24V
(AS SHOWN)
FB 3
GND
6, 7
R2
150kΩ
RSENSE
0.2Ω
R3
10kΩ
10kΩ
Figure 8. 2V Input to 24V Output LCD Bias
______________________________________________________________________________________
15
INPUT
2.7V TO 5.5V
22µH
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
150µF
1N5820
EXT
OFF
4
CS
SHDN
1
100
OUTPUT
5V
1A
90
MTD20N03HDL
EFFICIENCY (%)
MAX1771
12V or Adjustable, High-Efficiency,
Low IQ, Step-Up DC-DC Controller
8
ON
330µF
0.04Ω
MAX1771
5
V+
REF
2
0.1µF
GND
7
AGND FB
6
0.1µF
232kΩ
80
VIN = 4V
VIN = 3V
70
60
100pF
3
50
1m
100kΩ
10m
100m
1
LOAD CURRENT (A)
Figure 9. 5V/1A Boost Converter
___________________Chip Topography
EXT
V+
CS
0.126"
(3.200mm)
GND
AGND
FB
SHDN
0.080"
REF
(2.032mm)
TRANSISTOR COUNT: 501
SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO V+
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are
implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
16 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600
© 2002 Maxim Integrated Products
Printed USA
is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.
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