MAX9768 10W Mono Class D Speaker Amplifier with Volume Control General Description

MAX9768 10W Mono Class D Speaker Amplifier with Volume Control General Description
19-0854; Rev 1; 3/08
KIT
ATION
EVALU
E
L
B
A
AVAIL
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
The MAX9768 mono 10W Class D speaker amplifier
provides high-quality, efficient audio power with an integrated volume control function.
The MAX9768 features a 64-step dual-mode (analog or
digitally programmable) volume control and mute function. The audio amplifier operates from a 4.5V to 14V
single supply and can deliver up to 10W into an 8Ω
speaker with a 14V supply.
A selectable spread-spectrum mode reduces EMI-radiated emissions, allowing the device to pass EMC testing
with ferrite bead filters and cable lengths up to 1m. The
MAX9768 can be synchronized to an external clock,
allowing synchronization of multiple Class D amplifiers.
The MAX9768 features high 77dB PSRR, low 0.08%
THD+N, and SNR up to 97dB. Robust short-circuit and
thermal-overload protection prevent device damage
during a fault condition. The MAX9768 is available in a
24-pin thin QFN-EP (4mm x 4mm x 0.8mm) package
and is specified over the extended -40°C to +85°C temperature range.
Applications
Notebook Computers
Flat-Panel Displays
Multimedia Monitors
GPS Navigation
Systems
Security/Personal
Mobile Radio
Features
o 10W Output (8Ω, PVDD = 14V, THD+N = 10%)
o Patented Spread-Spectrum Modulation
o Meets EN55022B EMC with Ferrite Bead Filters
o
o
o
o
o
Amplifier Operation from 4.5V to 14V Supply
64-Step Integrated Volume Control (I2C or Analog)
Low 0.08% THD+N (RL = 8Ω, POUT = 6W)
High 77dB PSRR
Two tON Times Offered
MAX9768—220ms
MAX9768B—15ms
o Low-Power Shutdown Mode (0.5µA)
o Short-Circuit and Thermal-Overload Protection
Ordering Information
PART
PIN-PACKAGE
tON (ms)
PKG
CODE
MAX9768ETG+
24 TQFN-EP*
220
T2444+4
MAX9768BETG+
24 TQFN-EP*
15
T2444+4
Note: All devices are specified over the -40°C to +85°C operating temperature range.
+Denotes lead-free package.
*EP = Exposed pad.
Pin Configuration located at end of data sheet.
Simplified Block Diagram
3.3V
4.5V TO 14V
MAX9768 EMI WITH FERRITE BEAD FILTERS
(VDD = 12V, 1m CABLE, 8Ω LOAD)
40
FILTERLESS
CLASS D
SPEAKER
OUTPUT
SHDN
MUTE
ANALOG OR
I2C VOLUME
CONTROL
35
AMPLITUDE (dBμV/m)
SPEAKER
AUDIO
INPUT
30
25
20
OVER 20dB MARGIN
TO EN55022B LIMIT
15
10
5
MAX9768
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
FREQUENCY (MHz)
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642,
or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com.
1
MAX9768
General Description
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
Single-Layer Board:
24-Pin Thin QFN 4mm x 4mm,
(derate 20.8mW/°C above +70°C) .................................1.67W
Multilayer Board:
24-Pin Thin QFN 4mm x 4mm,
(derate 27.8mW/°C above +70°C) .................................2.22W
θJA, Single-Layer Board…...........................................….48°C/W
θJA, Multilayer Board ...................................................….36°C/W
Operating Temperature Range ...........................-40°C to +85°C
Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) ................................+300°C
PVDD to PGND........................................................-0.3V to +16V
VDD to GND ..............................................................-0.3V to +4V
SCLK, SDA/VOL to GND ..........................................-0.3V to +4V
FB, SYNCOUT ............................................-0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
BOOT_ to OUT_........................................................-0.3V to +4V
OUT_ to GND ...........................................-0.3V to (PVDD + 0.3V)
PGND to GND ......................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
Any Other Pin to GND ..............................................-0.3V to +4V
OUT_ Short-Circuit Duration.......................................Continuous
Continuous Current (PVDD, PGND, OUT_) ..........................2.2A
Continuous Input Current (Any Other Pin) .......................±20mA
Continuous Input Current (FB_) .......................................±60mA
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V, GND = PGND = 0V, V SHDN = VDD, VMUTE = 0V; Max volume setting; speaker load resistor connected
between OUT+ and OUT-, RL = ∞, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RF = 30kΩ,
SSM mode. Filterless modulation mode (see the Functional Diagram/Typical Application Circuit). TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
14.0
V
3.6
V
GENERAL
Speaker Supply Voltage
Range
Supply Voltage Range
PVDD
Inferred from PSRR test
4.5
VDD
Inferred from PSRR and UVLO test
2.7
IVDD
Quiescent Current
Shutdown Current
IPVDD
ISHDN
Output Offset
VOS
Turn-On Time
tON
Common-Mode Bias Voltage
7
14.2
Filterless modulation
4
7.6
Classic PWM modulation
4
7.6
ISHDN = IPVDD + IDD, SHDN = GND
0.5
50
Filterless modulation, VMUTE = VDD, TA = +25°C
±2
±12.5
Filterless modulation, VMUTE = 0V, TA = +25°C
±2
±14
MAX9768
220
MAX9768B
15
VBIAS
mA
µA
mV
ms
1.5
V
Input Amplifier OutputVoltage Swing High
VOH
Specified as
VDD - VOH
RL = 2kΩ connect to 1.5V
3.6
100
mV
Input Amplifier OutputVoltage Swing Low
VOL
Specified as
VOL - GND
RL = 2kΩ connect to 1.5V
6
50
mV
Input Amplifier Output
Short-Circuit Current Limit
Input Amplifier GainBandwidth Product
GBW
±60
mA
1.8
MHz
SPEAKER AMPLIFIERS
Internal Gain
2
AVMAX
Max volume setting; from FB to amplifier outputs
|(OUT+) - (OUT-)|; excludes external gain
resistors
29.27
30.1
_______________________________________________________________________________________
31.00
dB
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V, GND = PGND = 0V, V SHDN = VDD, VMUTE = 0V; Max volume setting; speaker load resistor connected
between OUT+ and OUT-, RL = ∞, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RF = 30kΩ,
SSM mode. Filterless modulation mode (see the Functional Diagram/Typical Application Circuit). TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
η
Efficiency (Note 2)
CONDITIONS
POUT = 8W, fIN =
1kHz, RL = 8Ω
PVDD = 5V
Output Power (Note 2)
POUT
PVDD = 12V
PVDD = 14V
Soft Output Current Limit
ILIM
Hard Output Current Limit
ISC
Total Harmonic Distortion
Plus Noise (Note 2)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
(Note 2)
THD+N
Power-Supply Rejection
Ratio
f = 1kHz, RL = 8Ω,
POUT = 5W
87
Classic PWM modulation
85
RL = 8Ω, THD+N = 1%,
filterless modulation
1.3
RL = 8Ω, THD+N = 10%,
filterless modulation
1.7
RL = 8Ω, THD+N = 10%,
classic PWM modulation
9
9
RL = 8Ω, THD+N = 10%,
classic PWM modulation
10
RL = 8Ω, THD+N = 10%,
filterless modulation
10
A-weighted
FFM
94
SSM
93
FFM
97
SSM
97
FFM
93
SSM
89
FFM
97
SSM
dB
91
VDD = 2.7V to 3.6V, filterless modulation,
TA = +25°C
52
68
PVDD = 4.5V to 14V, filterless modulation,
TA = +25°C
67
84
dB
dB
77
f = 1kHz, VRIPPLE = 100mVP-P on VDD
fOCS
%
115
f = 1kHz, VRIPPLE = 200mVP-P on PVDD
Oscillator Frequency
A
0.08
0dB = 8W, f = 1kHz
PSRR
2.5
Classic PWM modulation
Unweighted
%
A
0.09
A-weighted
60
SYNC = GND
1060
1200
1320
SYNC = unconnected
1296
1440
1584
SYNC = VDD (spread-spectrum modulation
mode)
UNITS
2
Filterless modulation
Unweighted
MAX
W
RL = 8Ω, THD+N = 10%,
filterless modulation
SNR
0dB = 8W, RL =
8Ω, BW = 22Hz to
22kHz, classic
PWM modulation
TYP
Filterless modulation
1.75
0dB = 8W, RL =
8Ω, BW = 22Hz to
22kHz, filterless
modulation mode
MUTE Attenuation (Note 3)
MIN
kHz
1200
±30
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3
MAX9768
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V, GND = PGND = 0V, V SHDN = VDD, VMUTE = 0V; Max volume setting; speaker load resistor connected
between OUT+ and OUT-, RL = ∞, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RF = 30kΩ,
SSM mode. Filterless modulation mode (see the Functional Diagram/Typical Application Circuit). TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Class D Switching
Frequency
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
SYNC = GND
265
300
330
SYNC = unconnected
324
360
396
SYNC = VDD (spread-spectrum modulation
mode)
SYNC Frequency Lock
Range
UNITS
kHz
300
±7.5
1000
1600
kHz
Minimum SYNC Frequency
Lock Duty Cycle
40
%
Maximum SYNC Frequency
Lock Duty Cycle
60
%
2
%
Gain Matching
Click-and-Pop Level (Note 2)
Full volume (ideal matching for RIN and RF)
KCP
Peak voltage, 32 samples
per second, A-weighted, RIN
x CIN ≤ 10ms to guarantee
clickless/popless operation
Into shutdown
52.6
Out of shutdown
48
Into mute
67
Out of mute
57
dBV
Input Impedance
DC volume control mode (SDA/VOL)
100
MΩ
Input Hysteresis
DC volume control mode (SDA/VOL)
11
mV
9.5dB Gain Voltage
DC volume control mode (SDA/VOL)
0.1 x VDD
V
Full Mute Voltage
DC volume control mode (SDA/VOL)
0.9 x VDD
V
DIGITAL INPUTS (SHDN, MUTE, ADDR1, ADDR2, SYNC)
Input-Voltage High
VIH
Input-Voltage Low
VIL
Input Leakage Current
SYNC
All other pins
2.33
SYNC
0.8
All other pins
0.3 x VDD
ISYNC
ILK
V
0.7 x VDD
±7.5
All other digital inputs
±13
±1
V
µA
DIGITAL OUTPUT (SYNCOUT)
Output-Voltage High
Load = 1mA
Output-Voltage Low
Load = 1mA
Rise/Fall Time
CL = 10pF
4
VDD - 0.3
V
0.3
5
_______________________________________________________________________________________
V
ns
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V, GND = PGND = 0V, V SHDN = VDD, VMUTE = 0V; Max volume setting; speaker load resistor connected
between OUT+ and OUT-, RL = ∞, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RF = 30kΩ,
SSM mode. Filterless modulation mode (see the Functional Diagram/Typical Application Circuit). TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
THERMAL PROTECTION
Thermal Shutdown
Threshold
150
°C
Thermal Shutdown
Hysteresis
15
°C
DIGITAL INPUTS (SCLK, SDA/VOL)
Input-Voltage High
VIH
Input-Voltage Low
VIL
0.7 x VDD
Input High Leakage Current
IIH
VIN = VDD
±1
µA
Input Low Leakage Current
IIL
VIN = GND
±1
µA
Input Hysteresis
Input Capacitance
V
0.3 x VDD
CIN
V
0.1 x VDD
V
5
pF
DIGITAL OUTPUTS (SDA/VOL)
Output High Current
IOH
VOH = VDD
1
µA
Output Low Voltage
VOL
IOL = 3mA
0.4
V
400
kHz
I2C TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (Figure 3)
Serial Clock
fSCL
Bus Free Time Between a
STOP and START
Condition
tBUF
1.3
µs
Hold Time (Repeated)
START Condition
tHD,STA
0.6
µs
Repeated START Condition
Setup Time
tSU,STA
0.6
µs
STOP Condition Setup Time
tSU,STO
0.6
µs
Data Hold Time
tHD,DAT
0
Data Setup Time
tSU,DAT
100
ns
SCL Clock Low Period
tLOW
1.3
µs
SCL Clock High Period
µs
0.9
µs
tHIGH
0.6
Rise Time of SDA and SCL,
Receiving
tR
(Note 4)
20 +
0.1Cb
300
ns
Fall Time of SDA and SCL,
Receiving
tF
(Note 4)
20 +
0.1Cb
300
ns
_______________________________________________________________________________________
5
MAX9768
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V, GND = PGND = 0V, V SHDN = VDD, VMUTE = 0V; Max volume setting; speaker load resistor connected
between OUT+ and OUT-, RL = ∞, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RF = 30kΩ,
SSM mode. Filterless modulation mode (see the Functional Diagram/Typical Application Circuit). TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise
noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Fall Time of SDA,
Transmitting
tF
Pulse Width of Spike
Suppressed
tSP
Capacitive Load for Each
Bus Line
Cb
CONDITIONS
MIN
(Note 4)
MAX
UNITS
20 +
0.1Cb
TYP
250
ns
0
50
ns
400
pF
Note 1: All devices are 100% production tested at TA = +25°C. All temperature limits are guaranteed by design.
Note 2: Testing performed with a resistive load in series with an inductor to simulate an actual speaker load. For RL = 8Ω, L = 68µH.
Note 3: Device muted by either asserting MUTE or minimum VOL setting.
Note 4: Cb = total capacitance of one bus line in pF.
Typical Operating Characteristics
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V = GND = PGND = 0V, VMUTE = 0V; 0dB volume setting; all speaker load resistors connected between
OUT+ and OUT-, RL = 8Ω, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RFB = 30kΩ,
spread-spectrum modulation mode.)
PVDD = 12V
RL = 8Ω
FILTERLESS MODULATION
10
MAX9768 toc02
10
MAX9768 toc01
10
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. FREQUENCY
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. FREQUENCY
PVDD = 12V
RL = 8Ω
PWM MODE
MAX9768 toc03
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. FREQUENCY
PVDD = 5V
RL = 8Ω
FILTERLESS MODULATION
1
1
OUTPUT POWER = 6W
0.1
THD+N (%)
THD+N (%)
1
THD+N (%)
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
OUTPUT POWER = 5W
OUTPUT POWER = 1W
0.1
0.1
OUTPUT POWER = 300mW
0.01
OUTPUT POWER = 2W
OUTPUT POWER = 2W
0.01
10
100
1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
6
0.001
0.01
10k
100k
10
100
1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10k
100k
10
100
1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
10k
100k
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V = GND = PGND = 0V, VMUTE = 0V; 0dB volume setting; all speaker load resistors connected between
OUT+ and OUT-, RL = 8Ω, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RFB = 30kΩ,
spread-spectrum modulation mode.)
1
OUTPUT POWER = 300mW
0.1
0.01
SPREAD-SPECTRUM
MODULATION
0.01
OUTPUT POWER = 800mW
0.001
100
1k
10k
100k
1k
10k
10
100k
0.1
4
6
8
fIN = 100Hz
10
12
MAX9768 toc06
fIN = 10kHz
1
0.1
0.01
0.01
fIN = 100Hz
fIN = 1kHz
fIN = 1kHz
0.001
0.001
2
PVDD = 5V
RL = 8Ω
FILTERLESS MODULATION
10
THD+N (%)
fIN = 10kHz
1
MAX9768 toc09
PVDD = 12V
RL = 8Ω
PWM MODE
10
fIN = 1kHz
fIN = 100Hz
0
2
4
6
8
0
10
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
OUTPUT POWER (W)
OUTPUT POWER (W)
OUTPUT POWER (W)
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. OUTPUT POWER
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. OUTPUT POWER
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. OUTPUT POWER
PVDD = 12V
RL = 8Ω
fIN = 1kHz
FILTERLESS MODULATION
10
THD+N (%)
fIN = 10kHz
0.1
1
fIN = 100Hz
FIXED-FREQUENCY
MODULATION
OUTPUT POWER (W)
1.6
2.0
SPREAD-SPECTRUM
MODULATION
0.01
0.01
1.2
FIXED-FREQUENCY
MODULATION
0.1
fIN = 1kHz
0.8
1
SPREAD-SPECTRUM
MODULATION
0.001
0.4
PVDD = 12V
RL = 8Ω
fIN = 1kHz
PWM MODE
10
0.1
0.01
100
THD+N (%)
PVDD = 5V
RL = 8Ω
PWM MODE
MAX9768 toc11
100
MAX9768 toc10
100
0
100k
100
MAX9768 toc08
100
MAX9768 toc07
0.1
1
10k
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. OUTPUT POWER
fIN = 10kHz
10
1k
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. OUTPUT POWER
1
0
100
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. OUTPUT POWER
THD+N (%)
THD+N (%)
100
FREQUENCY (Hz)
0.001
THD+N (%)
0.001
10
FREQUENCY (Hz)
PVDD = 12V
RL = 8Ω
FILTERLESS MODULATION
0.01
SPREAD-SPECTRUM
MODULATION
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100
10
FIXED-FREQUENCY
MODULATION
0.1
0.01
0.001
10
PVDD = 12V
RL = 8Ω
PWM MODE
POUT = 4W
MAX9768 toc12
0.1
10
1
FIXED-FREQUENCY
MODULATION
THD+N (%)
THD+N (%)
1
PVDD = 12V
RL = 8Ω
FILTERLESS MODULATION
POUT = 4W
THD+N (%)
PVDD = 5V
RL = 8Ω
PWM MODE
MAX9768 toc05
10
MAX9768 toc04
10
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. FREQUENCY
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. FREQUENCY
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
PLUS NOISE vs. FREQUENCY
0
2
4
6
OUTPUT POWER (W)
8
10
0
2
4
6
8
10
OUTPUT POWER (W)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
7
MAX9768
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V = GND = PGND = 0V, VMUTE = 0V; 0dB volume setting; all speaker load resistors connected between
OUT+ and OUT-, RL = 8Ω, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RFB = 30kΩ,
spread-spectrum modulation mode.)
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
60
50
40
FILTERLESS MODULATION
90
60
50
40
20
THD+N = 10%
89
86
0
4
6
0
8
0
10
0.5
OUTPUT POWER (W)
14
MAX9768 toc16
4.5
86
10
THD+N = 10%
8
6
4
10.5
12.5
6
4
THD+N = 1%
THD+N = 1%
4
14
6
10
12
14
CASE TEMPERATURE vs. OUTPUT POWER
THD+N = 10%
2.0
THD+N = 1%
1.5
8
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
PVDD = 5V
f = 1kHz
PWM MODE
2.5
1.0
90
fIN = 1kHz
RL = 8Ω
80
PVDD = 14V
70
60
50
40
PVDD = 12V
30
20
2
0.5
0
0
15
12
3.0
OUTPUT POWER (W)
THD+N = 10%
8
10
10
3.5
MAX9768 toc19
PVDD = 12V
f = 1kHz
PWM MODE
5
8
OUTPUT POWER vs. LOAD RESISTANCE
OUTPUT POWER vs. LOAD RESISTANCE
12
0
4
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
10
6
0
6
4
14.5
CASE TEMPERATURE (°C)
8.5
14.5
2
MAX9768 toc20
6.5
12.5
THD+N = 10%
8
THD+N = 1%
0
4.5
10.5
RL = 4Ω
fIN = 1kHz
PWM MODE
10
2
80
8.5
OUTPUT POWER vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
12
THD+N = 1%
83
6.5
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
RL = 8Ω
fIN = 1kHz
PWM MODE
12
OUTPUT POWER (W)
THD+N = 10%
89
80
2.0
OUTPUT POWER vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
fIN = 1kHz
RL = 8Ω
PWM MODULATION
92
1.5
OUTPUT POWER (W)
EFFICIENCY vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
95
1.0
OUTPUT POWER (W)
2
MAX9768 toc17
0
THD+N = 1%
83
PVDD = 5V
fIN = 1kHz
RL = 8Ω
10
MAX9768 toc18
PVDD = 12V
fIN = 1kHz
RL = 8Ω
10
EFFICIENCY (%)
92
30
20
20
LOAD RESISTANCE (Ω)
8
fIN = 1kHz
RL = 8Ω
FILTERLESS MODULATION
MAX9768 toc21
30
PWM MODE
70
MAX9768 toc15
PWM MODE
70
95
EFFICIENCY (%)
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
MAX9768 toc13
FILTERLESS MODULATION
90
EFFICIENCY vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT POWER
100
MAX9768 toc14
EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT POWER
100
OUTPUT POWER (W)
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
25
30
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
LOAD RESISTANCE (Ω)
25
30
0
2
4
6
8
OUTPUT POWER (W)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
10
12
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V = GND = PGND = 0V, VMUTE = 0V; 0dB volume setting; all speaker load resistors connected between
OUT+ and OUT-, RL = 8Ω, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RFB = 30kΩ,
spread-spectrum modulation mode.)
POWER-SUPPLY REJECTION RATIO (VDD)
vs. FREQUENCY
POWER-SUPPLY REJECTION RATIO (PVDD)
vs. FREQUENCY
-10
-20
-30
-30
-40
-40
PWM MODE
-60
-70
-70
-80
-80
-90
-90
FILTERLESS MODULATION
10k
FILTERLESS MODULATION
10
100k
100
1k
10k
100k
1μs/div
FREQUENCY (Hz)
OUTPUT FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
OUTPUT WAVEFORM (PWM MODE)
MAX9768 toc25
0
FFM MODE
VIN = -60dBV
f = 1kHz
RL = 8Ω
UNWEIGHTED
5V/div
OUTPUT MAGNITUDE (dBV)
-20
5V/div
OUTPUT FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
-40
0
-60
-80
-100
-120
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
15
-80
-100
20
0
0
RBW = 10kHz
INPUT AC GROUNDED
PWM MODE
-20
0
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-100
-100
1000
RBW = 10kHz
INPUT AC GROUNDED
FILTERLESS MODULATION
-10
-90
100
20
WIDEBAND OUTPUT SPECTRUM
(SPREAD-SPECTRUM MODULATION MODE)
-90
10
15
WIDEBAND OUTPUT SPECTRUM
(FIXED-FREQUENCY MODULATION MODE)
-80
FREQUENCY (MHz)
10
FREQUENCY (kHz)
-80
1
5
FREQUENCY (kHz)
MAX9768 toc29
-20
10
OUTPUT AMPLITUDE (dBV)
OUTPUT AMPLITUDE (dBV)
-10
5
-10
OUTPUT AMPLITUDE (dBV)
RBW = 10kHz
INPUT AC GROUNDED
FILTERLESS MODULATION
MAX9768 toc28
0
-60
-140
0
WIDEBAND OUTPUT SPECTRUM
(FIXED-FREQUENCY MODULATION MODE)
-40
-120
-140
1μs/div
VIN = -60dBV
f = 1kHz
RL = 8Ω
UNWEIGHTED
-20
MAX9768 toc27
FREQUENCY (Hz)
MAX9768 toc30
1k
5V/div
-100
-100
100
PWM MODE
-50
-60
10
5V/div
OUTPUT MAGNITUDE (dBV)
-50
PSRR (dB)
PSRR (dB)
-20
VDD = 3.3V
VRIPPLE = 100mVP-P
RL = 8Ω
MAX9768 toc26
-10
MAX9768 toc23
PVDD = 12V
VRIPPLE = 100mVP-P
RL = 8Ω
MAX9768 toc24
0
MAX9768 toc22
0
OUTPUT WAVEFORM
(FILTERLESS MODULATION)
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
1000
1
10
100
1000
FREQUENCY (MHz)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
9
MAX9768
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(PVDD = 12V, VDD = 3.3V = GND = PGND = 0V, VMUTE = 0V; 0dB volume setting; all speaker load resistors connected between
OUT+ and OUT-, RL = 8Ω, unless otherwise noted. CBIAS = 2.2µF, C1 = C2 = 0.1µF, CIN = 0.47µF, RIN = 20kΩ, RFB = 30kΩ,
spread-spectrum modulation mode.)
TURN-ON/OFF RESPONSE
(MAX9768)
WIDEBAND OUTPUT SPECTRUM
(SPREAD-SPECTRUM MODULATION MODE)
TURN-ON/OFF RESPONSE
(MAX9768B)
MAX9768 toc32
RBW = 10kHz
INPUT AC GROUNDED
PWM MODE
-10
-20
MAX9768 toc33
MAX9768 toc31
0
OUTPUT AMPLITUDE (dBV)
-30
SHDN
2V/div
SHDN
2V/div
OUT
500mA/div
OUT
500mA/div
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
1
10
100
1000
100ms/div
40ms/div
FREQUENCY (MHz)
-20
-40
-60
-80
3.0
PWM MODE
2.5
2.0
1.5
FILTERLESS MODULATION
1.0
-100
0.5
0
-120
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
6
8
10
12
14
12
14
VVOL (V)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
SUPPLY CURRENT (VDD)
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
SHUTDOWN CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
13
PWM MODE
9
0.50
MAX9768 toc37
MAX9768 toc36
15
11
4
3.5
SHUTDOWN CURRENT = IPVDD + IDD
VDD = 3.3V
SHUTDOWN CURRENT (μA)
0
0.45
0.40
0.35
FILTERLESS MODULATION
7
5
0.30
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
10
RL = ∞
3.5
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
0
VOLUME LEVEL (dB)
4.0
MAX9768 toc34
20
MAX9768 toc35
SUPPLY CURRENT (PVDD)
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
VOLUME CONTROL LEVEL
vs. VOLUME CONTROL VOLTAGE
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
3.4
3.6
4
6
8
10
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
______________________________________________________________________________________
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
PIN
NAME
1, 2
OUT+
Positive Speaker Output
FUNCTION
3, 16
PVDD
Speaker Amplifier Power-Supply Input. Bypass with a 1µF capacitor to ground.
4
BOOT+
Positive Speaker Output Boost Flying-Capacitor Connection. Connect a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor
between BOOT+ and OUT+.
I2C Serial-Clock Input and Modulation Scheme Select. In I2C mode (ADDR1 and ADDR2 ≠ GND)
acts as I2C serial-clock input. When ADDR1 and ADDR2 = GND. Connect SCLK to VDD for classic
PWM modulation, or connect SCLK to ground for filterless modulation.
5
SCLK
6
SDA/VOL
7
FB
Feedback. Connect feedback resistor between FB and IN to set amplifier gain. See the Adjustable
Gain section.
8
IN
Audio Input
9, 11
GND
Ground
10
BIAS
12
SYNC
13
SYNCOUT
Common-Mode Bias Voltage. Bypass with a 2.2µF capacitor to GND.
Frequency Select and External Clock Input.
SYNC = GND: Fixed-frequency mode with fS = 1200kHz.
SYNC = Unconnected: Fixed-frequency mode with fS = 1440kHz.
SYNC = VDD: Spread-spectrum mode with fS = 1200kHz ±30kHz.
SYNC = Clocked: Fixed-frequency mode with fS = external clock frequency.
Clock Signal Output
14
VDD
15
BOOT-
17, 18
OUT-
Negative Speaker Output
19
SHDN
Shutdown Input. Drive SHDN low to disable the audio amplifiers. Connect SHDN to VDD for normal
operation
20
MUTE
Mute Input. Drive MUTE high to mute the speaker outputs. Connect MUTE to GND for normal
operation.
21, 22
PGND
Power Ground
23
ADDR2
Address Select Input 2. I2C address option, also selects volume control mode.
24
ADDR1
Address Select Input 1. I2C address option, also selects volume control mode.
EP
EP
I2C Serial Data I/O and Analog Volume Control Input
Power-Supply Input. Bypass with a 1µF capacitor to GND.
Negative Speaker Output Boost Flying-Capacitor Connection. Connect a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor
between BOOTL- and OUTL-.
Exposed Pad. Connect the exposed thermal pad to GND, and use multiple vias to a solid copper
area on the bottom of the PCB.
______________________________________________________________________________________
11
MAX9768
Pin Description
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
MAX9768
Functional Diagram/Typical Application Circuit
2.7V to 3.6V
4.5V to 14V
1μF
1μF
VDD
PVDD
3, 16
14
RF
30kΩ FB 7
4 BOOT+
IN 8
CLASS D
CIN
RIN
0.47μF 20kΩ
MAX9768
VOLUME
CONTROL
1, 2 OUT+
C1
0.1μF
17, 18 OUT15 BOOT-
C2
0.1μF
MUTE 20
SHDN 19
SDA/VOL 6
SCLK 5
VDD
ADDR1 24
ADDR2 23
MUTE
SHUTDOWN
CONTROL
10 BIAS
BIAS
CBIAS
2.2μF
I 2C
ANALOG
CONTROL
SYNC 12
13
OSCILLATOR
9, 11
GND
SYNCOUT
21, 22
PGND
(SHOWN IN ANALOG VOLUME CONTOL MODE, AV = 23.5dB, f-3dB = 17Hz, SPREAD-SPECTRUM MODULATION MODE, FILTERLESS MODULATION MODE, MUTE OFF)
Detailed Description
The MAX9768 10W, Class D audio power amplifier with
spread-spectrum modulation provides a significant step
forward in switch-mode amplifier technology. The
MAX9768 offers Class AB performance with Class D
efficiency and a minimal board space solution. This
device features a wide supply voltage operation (4.5V to
14V), analog or digitally adjusted volume control, externally set input gain, shutdown mode, SYNC input and
output, speaker mute, and industry-leading click-andpop suppression.
The MAX9768 features a 64-step, dual-mode (analog or
I2C programmed) volume control and mute function. In
analog volume control mode, voltage applied to
SDA/VOL sets the volume level. Two address inputs
12
(ADDR1, ADDR2) set the volume control function
between analog and I2C and set the slave address. In
I2C mode there are three selectable slave addresses
allowing for multiple devices on a single bus.
Spread-spectrum modulation and synchronizable
switching frequency significantly reduce EMI emissions. The outputs use Maxim’s low-EMI modulation
scheme with minimum pulse outputs when the audio
inputs are at the zero crossing. As the input voltage
increases or decreases, the duration of the pulse at
one output increases while the other output pulse duration remains the same. This causes the net voltage
across the speaker (VOUT+ - VOUT-) to change. The
minimum-width pulse topology reduces EMI and
increases efficiency.
______________________________________________________________________________________
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
Fixed-Frequency Mode
The MAX9768 features two fixed-frequency modes:
300kHz and 360kHz. Connect SYNC to GND to select
300kHz switching frequency; leave SYNC unconnected
to select 360kHz switching frequency. The frequency
spectrum of the MAX9768 consists of the fundamental
switching frequency and its associated harmonics (see
the Wideband Output Spectrum graphs in the Typical
Operating Characteristics ). For applications where
exact spectrum placement of the switching fundamental is important, program the switching frequency so the
harmonics do not fall within a sensitive frequency band
(Table 1). Audio reproduction is not affected by changing the switching frequency.
frequency bands. Applying a clock signal between
1MHz and 1.6MHz to SYNC synchronizes the
MAX9768. The Class D switching frequency is equal to
one-fourth the SYNC input frequency.
SYNCOUT is equal to the SYNC input frequency and
allows several Maxim amplifiers to be cascaded. The
synchronized output minimizes interference due to
clock intermodulation caused by the switching spread
between single devices. The modulation scheme
remains the same when using SYNCOUT, and audio
reproduction is not affected (Figure 1). Current flowing
between SYNCOUT of a master device and SYNC of a
slave device is low as the SYNC input is high impedance (typically 200kΩ).
Spread-Spectrum Mode
The MAX9768 features a unique, patented spreadspectrum mode that flattens the wideband spectral
components, improving EMI emissions that may be
radiated by the speaker and cables. This mode is
enabled by setting SYNC = V DD (Table 1). In SSM
mode, the switching frequency varies randomly by
±7.5kHz around the center frequency (300kHz). The
modulation scheme remains the same, but the period
of the triangle waveform changes from cycle to cycle.
Instead of a large amount of spectral energy present at
multiples of the switching frequency, the energy is now
spread over a bandwidth that increases with frequency.
Above a few megahertz, the wideband spectrum looks
like white noise for EMI purposes. A proprietary amplifier topology ensures this does not corrupt the noise
floor in the audio bandwidth.
External Clock Mode
The SYNC input allows the MAX9768 to be synchronized to an external clock, or another Maxim Class D
amplifier, creating a fully synchronous system, minimizing clock intermodulation, and allocating spectral components of the switching harmonics to insensitive
OUT+
OUT-
MAX9768
SYNCOUT
MAX9768
SYNC
OUT+
OUT-
Figure 1. Cascading Two Amplifiers
Table 1. Operating Modes
SYNC
GND
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz)
CLASS D FREQUENCY (kHz)
Fixed-frequency modulation with fOSC = 1200
Fixed-frequency modulation with fOSC = 300
Unconnected Fixed-frequency modulation with fOSC = 1440
Fixed-frequency modulation with fOSC = 360
VDD
Clocked
Spread-spectrum modulation with fOSC = 1200 ±30
Spread-spectrum modulation with fOSC = 300 ±7.5
Fixed-frequency modulation with fOSC = external clock
frequency
Fixed-frequency modulation with fOSC = external clock
frequency / 4
______________________________________________________________________________________
13
MAX9768
Operating Modes
Soft Current Limit
When the output current exceeds the soft current limit,
2A (typ), the MAX9768 enters a cycle-by-cycle currentlimit mode. In soft current-limit mode, the output is
clipped at 2A. When the output decreases so the output current falls below 2A, normal operation resumes.
The effect of soft current limiting is a slight increase in
distortion. Most applications will not enter soft currentlimit mode unless the speaker or filter creates impedance nulls below 8Ω.
Switching between schemes while in normal operating
mode with the I2C interface, the output is not click-andpop protected. To have click-and-pop protection when
switching between output schemes, the device must
enter shutdown mode and be configured to the new output scheme before the startup sequence is terminated.
The startup time for the MAX9768 is typically 220ms.
The startup time for the MAX9768B is typically 15ms.
Efficiency
Efficiency of a Class D amplifier is due to the switching
operation of the output stage transistors. In a Class D
amplifier, the output transistors act as current-steering
switches and consume negligible additional power.
Any power loss associated with the Class D output
stage is mostly due to the I2R loss of the MOSFET onresistance, and quiescent-current overhead.
The theoretical best efficiency of a linear amplifier is
78%, however, that efficiency is only exhibited at peak
output power. Under normal operating levels (typical
music reproduction levels), efficiency falls below 30%,
whereas the MAX9768 still exhibits > 80% efficiencies
under the same conditions (Figure 2).
EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT POWER
100
MAX9768 fig02
Filterless Modulation/PWM Modulation
The MAX9768 features two output modulation
schemes: filterless modulation or classic PWM, selectable through SCLK when the device is in analog mode
(ADDR2 and ADDR1 = GND, Table 2) or through the
I2C interface (Table 7). Maxim’s unique, filterless modulation scheme eliminates the LC filter required by traditional Class D amplifiers, reducing component count,
conserving board space and system cost. Although the
MAX9768 meets FCC and other EMI limits with a lowcost ferrite bead filter, many applications still may want
to use a full LC-filtered output. If using a full LC filter,
the performance is best with the MAX9768 configured
for classic PWM output.
MAX9768
90
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
70
60
CLASS AB
50
40
30
20
PVDD = 12V
fIN = 1kHz
RL = 8Ω
10
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
OUTPUT POWER (W)
Figure 2. MAX9768 Efficiency vs. Class AB Efficiency
Table 2. Modulation Scheme Selection In Analog Mode
14
ADDR2
ADDR1
SDA/VOL
SCLK
FUNCTION
0
0
Analog Volume Control
0
Filterless Modulation
0
0
Analog Volume Control
1
Classic PWM (50% Duty Cycle)
______________________________________________________________________________________
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
Thermal Shutdown
When the die temperature exceeds the thermal shutdown threshold, +150°C (typ), the MAX9768 outputs
are disabled. When the die temperature decreases
below +135°C (typ), normal operation resumes. The
effect of thermal shutdown is an output signal turning
off for approximately 3s in most applications, depending on the thermal time constant of the audio system.
Most applications should never enter thermal shutdown. Some of the possible causes of thermal shutdown are too low of a load impedance, high ambient
temperature, poor PCB layout and assembly, or excessive output overdrive.
Shutdown
The MAX9768 features a shutdown mode that reduces
power consumption and extends battery life. Driving
SHDN low places the device in low-power (0.5µA) shutdown mode. Connect SHDN to digital high for normal
operation. In shutdown mode, the outputs are high
impedance, SYNCOUT is pulled high, the BIAS voltage
decays to zero, and the common-mode input voltage
decays to zero. The I2C register retains its contents
during shutdown.
Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
The MAX9768 features an undervoltage lockout protection that shuts down the device if either of the supplies
are too low. The device will go into shutdown if VDD is
less than 2.5V (VDD UVLO = 2.5V) or if PVDD is less
than 4V (PVDD UVLO = 4V).
Mute Function
The MAX9768 features a clickless/popless mute mode.
When the device is muted, the outputs do not stop
switching, only the volume level is muted to the speaker. To mute the MAX9768, drive MUTE to logic-high.
MUTE should be held high during system power-up
and power-down to ensure optimum click-and-pop
performance.
Volume Control
The volume control operates from either an analog voltage input or through the I2C interface. The volume control has 64 levels, with the lowest setting equal to mute.
To set the device to analog mode, connect ADDR1 and
ADDR2 to GND. In analog mode, SDA/VOL is an analog input for volume control, see the Functional
Diagram/Typical Application Circuit. The analog input
range is ratiometric between 0.9 x VDD and 0.1 x VDD,
where 0.9 x VDD = full mute and 0.1 x VDD = full volume
(Table 6).
In I2C mode, volume control for the speaker is controlled
separately by the command register (Tables 4, 5, 6). See
the Write Data Format section for more information
regarding formatting data and tables to set volume levels.
I2C Interface
The MAX9768 features an I2C 2-wire serial interface
consisting of a serial data line (SDA) and a serial clock
line (SCL). SDA and SCL facilitate communication
between the MAX9768 and the master at clock rates up
to 400kHz. When the MAX9768 is used on an I2C bus
with multiple devices, the VDD supply must stay powered on to ensure proper I2C bus operation. The master, typically a microcontroller, generates SCL and
initiates data transfer on the bus. Figure 3 shows the 2wire interface timing diagram.
A master device communicates to the MAX9768 by transmitting the proper address followed by the data word.
Each transmit sequence is framed by a START (S) or
REPEATED START (Sr) condition and a STOP (P) condition. Each word transmitted over the bus is 8 bits long
and is always followed by an acknowledge clock pulse.
The MAX9768 SDA line operates as both an input and
an open-drain output. A pullup resistor, greater than
500Ω, is required on the SDA bus. The MAX9768 SCL
line operates as an input only. A pullup resistor, greater
than 500Ω, is required on SCL if there are multiple masters on the bus, or if the master in a single-master system has an open-drain SCL output. Series resistors in
line with SDA and SCL are optional. The SCL and SDA
inputs suppress noise spikes to assure proper device
operation even on a noisy bus.
______________________________________________________________________________________
15
MAX9768
Hard Current Limit
When the output current exceeds the hard current limit,
2.5A (typ), the MAX9768 disables the outputs and initiates a startup sequence. This startup sequence takes
220ms for the MAX9768 and 15ms for the MAX9768B.
The shutdown and startup sequence is repeated until
the output fault is removed. When in hard current limit,
the output may make a soft clicking sound. The average supply current is relatively low, as the duty cycle of
the output short is brief. Most applications will not enter
hard current-limit mode unless the output is short circuited or incorrectly connected.
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
SDA
tBUF
tSU,STA
tSU,DAT
tHD,STA
tHD,DAT
tLOW
tSP
tSU,STO
SCL
tHIGH
tHD,STA
tR
tF
REPEATED
START
CONDITION
START
CONDITION
STOP
CONDITION
START
CONDITION
Figure 3. 2-Wire Serial-Interface Timing Diagram
Bit Transfer
One data bit is transferred during each SCL cycle. The
data on SDA must remain stable during the high period
of the SCL pulse. Changes in SDA while SCL is high
are control signals (see the START and STOP
Conditions section). SDA and SCL idle high when the
I2C bus is not busy.
START and STOP Conditions
A master device initiates communication by issuing a
START condition. A START condition is a high-to-low
transition on SDA with SCL high. A STOP condition is a
low-to-high transition on SDA while SCL is high (Figure 4).
A START (S) condition from the master signals the
beginning of a transmission to the MAX9768. The master terminates transmission, and frees the bus, by issuing a STOP (P) condition. The bus remains active if a
REPEATED START (Sr) condition is generated instead
of a STOP condition.
S
Sr
P
SCL
SDA
Early STOP Conditions
The MAX9768 recognizes a STOP condition at any point
during data transmission except if the STOP condition
occurs in the same high pulse as a START condition.
Slave Address
The slave address of the MAX9768 is 8 bits and consisting of 3 fields: the first field is 5 bits wide and is
fixed (10010). The second is a 2-bit field, which is set
through ADDR2 and ADDR1 (externally connected as
logic-high or low). Third field is a R/W flag bit. Set R/W
= 0 to write to the slave. A representation of the slave
address is shown in Table 3.
When ADDR1 and ADDR2 are connected to GND, serial interface communication is disabled. Table 4 summarizes the slave address of the device as a function of
ADDR1 and ADDR2.
Acknowledge
The acknowledge bit (ACK) is a clocked 9th bit that the
MAX9768 uses to handshake receipt each byte of data
(Figure 5). The MAX9768 pulls down SDA during the
master-generated 9th clock pulse. The SDA line must
remain stable and low during the high period of the
acknowledge clock pulse. Monitoring ACK allows for
detection of unsuccessful data transfers. An unsuccessful data transfer occurs if a receiving device is
busy or if a system fault has occurred. In the event of
an unsuccessful data transfer, the bus master can reattempt communication.
Figure 4. START, STOP, and REPEATED START Conditions
16
______________________________________________________________________________________
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
SA7 (MSB)
SA6
SA5
SA4
SA3
SA2
SA1
SA0 (LSB)
1
0
0
1
0
ADDR2
ADDR1
R/W
Table 4. Slave Address
ADDR2
ADDR1
CLOCK PULSE FOR
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
SLAVE ADDRESS
0
0
Disabled
0
1
1001001_
1
0
1001010_
1
1
1001011_
Write Data Format
A write to the MAX9768 includes transmission of a
START condition, the slave address with the R/W bit set
to 0 (see Table 3), one byte of data to the command
register, and a STOP condition. Figure 6 illustrates the
proper format for one frame.
Volume Control
The command register is used to control the volume
level of the speaker amplifier. The two MSBs (D7 and
D6) should be set to 00 to choose the speaker register.
V5–V0 is the volume control data that will be written into
the addresses register to set the volume level (see
Tables 5 and 6).
For a write byte operation, the master sends a single byte
to the slave device (MAX9768). This is done as follows:
1) The master sends a start condition.
2) The master sends the 7-bit slave ID plus a write bit
(low).
3) The addressed slave asserts an ACK on the data
line.
START
CONDITION
SCL
1
2
8
9
NOT ACKNOWLEDGE
SDA
ACKNOWLEDGE
Figure 5. Acknowledge
WRITE BYTE FORMAT
S
SLAVE ADDRESS
WR
7 bits
0
SLAVE ADDRESS:
EQUIVALENT TO CHIPSELECT LINE OF A 3WIRE INTERFACE.
ACK
DATA
ACK
P
8 bits
DATA BYTE: GIVES A COMMAND.
Figure 6. Write Data Format Example
4) The master sends 8 data bits.
5) The active slave asserts an ACK (or NACK) on the
data line.
6) The master generates a stop condition.
______________________________________________________________________________________
17
MAX9768
Table 3. Slave Address Block
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
Table 5. Data Byte Format
D7
(MSB)
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
(LSB)
0
0
V5
V4
V3
V2
V1
V0
Table 6. Speaker Volume Levels
18
V5
V4
V3
V2
V1
V0
VOLUME
POSITION
VOLUME
LEVEL (dB)
STEP SIZE
(dB)
1
1
1
1
1
1
63
9.5
0.7
1
1
1
1
1
0
62
8.8
0.7
1
1
1
1
0
1
61
8.2
0.6
1
1
1
1
0
0
60
7.6
0.6
1
1
1
0
1
1
59
7.0
0.6
1
1
1
0
1
0
58
6.5
0.5
1
1
1
0
0
1
57
5.9
0.5
1
1
1
0
0
0
56
5.4
0.5
1
1
0
1
1
1
55
4.9
0.5
1
1
0
1
1
0
54
4.4
0.5
1
1
0
1
0
1
53
3.9
0.6
1
1
0
1
0
0
52
3.4
0.4
1
1
0
0
1
1
51
2.9
0.5
1
1
0
0
1
0
50
2.4
0.4
1
1
0
0
0
1
49
2.0
0.4
1
1
0
0
0
0
48
1.6
0.4
1
0
1
1
1
1
47
1.2
0.7
1
0
1
1
1
0
46
0.5
1.0
1
0
1
1
0
1
45
-0.5
1.5
1
0
1
1
0
0
44
-1.9
1.5
1
0
1
0
1
1
43
-3.4
1.5
1
0
1
0
1
0
42
-5.0
1.1
1
0
1
0
0
1
41
-6.0
1.1
1
0
1
0
0
0
40
-7.1
1.8
1
0
0
1
1
1
39
-8.9
1.0
1
0
0
1
1
0
38
-9.9
1.0
1
0
0
1
0
1
37
-10.9
1.1
1
0
0
1
0
0
36
-12.0
1.2
1
0
0
0
1
1
35
-13.1
1.3
1
0
0
0
1
0
34
-14.4
0.9
1
0
0
0
0
1
33
-15.4
1.0
1
0
0
0
0
0
32
-16.4
1.1
______________________________________________________________________________________
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
V5
V4
V3
V2
V1
V0
VOLUME
POSITION
VOLUME
LEVEL (dB)
STEP SIZE
(dB)
0
1
1
1
1
1
31
-17.5
2.2
0
1
1
1
1
0
30
-19.7
1.9
0
1
1
1
0
1
29
-21.6
1.9
0
1
1
1
0
0
28
-23.5
1.7
0
1
1
0
1
1
27
-25.2
2.0
0
1
1
0
1
0
26
-27.2
2.6
0
1
1
0
0
1
25
-29.8
1.6
0
1
1
0
0
0
24
-31.5
2.0
0
1
0
1
1
1
23
-33.4
2.5
0
1
0
1
1
0
22
-36.0
1.6
0
1
0
1
0
1
21
-37.6
2.0
0
1
0
1
0
0
20
-39.6
2.5
0
1
0
0
1
1
19
-42.1
1.6
0
1
0
0
1
0
18
-43.7
2.0
0
1
0
0
0
1
17
-45.6
2.5
0
1
0
0
0
0
16
-48.1
2.5
0
0
1
1
1
1
15
-50.6
3.5
0
0
1
1
1
0
14
-54.2
2.5
0
0
1
1
0
1
13
-56.7
3.5
0
0
1
1
0
0
12
-60.2
2.5
0
0
1
0
1
1
11
-62.7
3.5
0
0
1
0
1
0
10
-66.2
2.5
0
0
1
0
0
1
9
-68.7
3.5
0
0
1
0
0
0
8
-72.2
2.5
0
0
0
1
1
1
7
-74.7
3.5
0
0
0
1
1
0
6
-78.3
2.5
0
0
0
1
0
1
5
-80.8
3.5
0
0
0
1
0
0
4
-84.3
2.5
0
0
0
0
1
1
3
-86.8
3.5
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
-90.3
2.5
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
-92.8
—
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 (MUTE)
-161.5
—
______________________________________________________________________________________
MAX9768
Table 6. Speaker Volume Levels (continued)
19
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
Applications Information
limits. See Figure 7 for the correct connections of these
components. Select a ferrite bead with 100Ω to 600Ω
impedance, and rated for at least 1.5A. The capacitor
value will vary based on the ferrite bead chosen and
the actual speaker lead length. Select the capacitor
value based on EMC performance.
When doing bench evaluation without a filter or a ferrite
bead filter, include a series inductor (68µH for 8Ω load)
to model the actual loudspeaker’s behavior. If this
inductance is omitted, the MAX9768 will have reduced
efficiency and output power, as well as worse THD+N
performance.
Filterless Class D Operation
The MAX9768 can be operated without a filter and
meet common EMC radiation limits when the speaker
leads are less than approximately 10cm. Lengths
beyond 10cm are possible but should be verified
against the appropriate EMC standard. Select the filterless modulation mode with spread-spectrum modulation mode for best performance.
For longer speaker wire lengths, a simple ferrite bead
and capacitor-based filter can be used to meet EMC
Table 7. Setting Class D Output Modulation Scheme
D7 (MSB)
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0 (LSB)
FUNCTION
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Classic PWM
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
FILTERLESS MODULATION*
*Power-on default.
BOOT_+
C1
0.1μF
OUT_+
MAX9768
C9
330pF
OUT_C2
0.1μF
C10
330pF
BOOT_-
Figure 7. Ferrite Bead Filter
20
______________________________________________________________________________________
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
Adjustable Gain
Gain-Setting Resistors
External feedback resistors set the gain of the
MAX9768. The output stage has an internal 20dB gain
in addition to the externally set gain. Set the maximum
gain by using resistors RF and RIN (Figure 9) as follows:
⎛R ⎞
AV = − 10⎜ F ⎟ V / V
⎝ RIN ⎠
The component selection is based on the load impedance of the speaker. Table 8 lists suggested values for
a variety of load impedances.
Choose RF between 10kΩ and 50kΩ. Please note that
the actual gain of the amplifier is dependent on the volume level setting. For example, with the volume control
set to +9.5dB, the amplifier gain would be 9.5dB +
20dB, assuming RF = RIN.
The input amplifier can be configured into a variety of
circuits. The FB terminal is an actual operational amplifier output, allowing the MAX9768 to be configured as a
summing amplifier, a filter, or an equalizer, for example.
Inductors L3 and L4, and capacitor C15 form the primary output filter. In addition to these primary filter
components, other components in the filter improve its
functionality. Capacitors C13 and C14, plus resistors
R6 and R7, form a Zobel at the output. A Zobel corrects
the output loading to compensate for the rising impedance of the loudspeaker. Without a Zobel, the filter will
have a peak in its response near the cutoff frequency.
Capacitors C11 and C12 provide additional high-frequency bypass to reduce radiated emissions.
4
1, 2
BOOT_+
OUT_+
C1
0.1μF
L4
MAX9768
C11
C13
R6
RL
C15
14, 18
15
L3
OUT_-
BOOT_-
C2
0.1μF
C12
C14
R7
Figure 8. Output Filter for PWM Mode
Table 8. Suggested Values for LC filter
RL (Ω)
L3, L4 (µH)
C15 (µF)
C11, C12 (µF)
R6, R7 (Ω)
C13, C14 (µF)
6
15
0.33
0.01
7.5
0.68
8
22
0.22
0.01
10
0.47
12
33
0.1
0.01
15
0.33
______________________________________________________________________________________
21
MAX9768
Inductor-Based Output Filters
Some applications will use the MAX9768 with a full
inductor-/capacitor-based (LC) output filter. This is
common for longer speaker lead lengths, and to gain
increased margin to EMC limits. Select the PWM output
mode and use fixed-frequency modulation mode for
best audio performance. See Figure 8 for the correct
connections of these components.
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
12V
BOOT+
AUDIO CIN
INPUT
RIN
IN
IN
MAX9768
OUT+
OUT
3.3V
SHDN
RF
FB
OUT-
BOOT-
PVDD
1μF
1μF
VDD
MAX1726
MAX9768
GND
GND
Figure 10. Using a Linear Regulator to Produce 3.3V from a
12V Power Supply
Figure 9. Setting Gain
Power Supplies
The MAX9768 has different supplies for each portion of
the device, allowing for the optimum combination of
headroom power dissipation and noise immunity. The
speaker amplifiers are powered from PVDD and can
range from 4.5V to 14V. The remainder of the device is
powered by VDD. Power supplies are independent of
each other so sequencing is not necessary. Power may
be supplied by separate sources or derived from a single higher source using a linear regulator to reduce the
voltage as shown in Figure 10.
Component Selection
Input Filter
An input capacitor, CIN, in conjunction with the input
resistor of the MAX9768 forms a highpass filter that
removes the DC bias from an incoming signal. The ACcoupling capacitor allows the amplifier to automatically
bias the signal to an optimum DC level. Assuming zero
source impedance, the -3dB point of the highpass filter
is given by:
f − 3 dB =
1
2πRINCIN
Choose CIN so f-3dB is well below the lowest frequency
of interest. Use capacitors whose dielectrics have lowvoltage coefficients, such as tantalum or aluminum electrolytic. Capacitors with high-voltage coefficients, such
as ceramics, may result in increased distortion at low frequencies.
Other considerations when designing the input filter
include the constraints of the overall system and the
actual frequency band of interest. Although high-fidelity
audio calls for a flat-gain response between 20Hz and
20kHz, portable voice-reproduction devices such as cellular phones and two-way radios need only concentrate
22
on the frequency range of the spoken human voice (typically 300Hz to 3.5kHz). In addition, speakers used in
portable devices typically have a poor response below
300Hz. Taking these two factors into consideration, the
input filter may not need to be designed for a 20Hz to
20kHz response, saving both board space and cost due
to the use of smaller capacitors.
BIAS Capacitor
BIAS is the output of the internally generated DC bias
voltage. The BIAS bypass capacitor, CBIAS, improves
PSRR and THD+N by reducing power supply and other
noise sources at the common-mode bias node. Bypass
BIAS with a 2.2µF capacitor to GND.
Supply Bypassing, Layout, and Grounding
Proper layout and grounding are essential for optimum
performance. Use large traces for the power-supply
inputs and amplifier outputs to minimize losses due to
parasitic trace resistance. Large traces also aid in moving heat away from the package. Proper grounding
improves audio performance, minimizes crosstalk
between channels, and prevents any switching noise
from coupling into the audio signal. Connect PGND and
GND together at a single point on the PCB. Route all
traces that carry switching transients away from GND
and the traces/components in the audio signal path.
Bypass VDD and PVDD with a 1µF capacitor to PGND.
Place the bypass capacitors as close to the MAX9768
as possible. Place a bulk capacitor between PVDD and
PGND, if needed.
Use large, low-resistance output traces. Current drawn
from the outputs increase as load impedance decreases. High output trace resistance decreases the power
delivered to the load. Large output, supply, and GND
traces allow more heat to move from the MAX9768 to
the air, decreasing the thermal impedance of the circuit
if possible.
______________________________________________________________________________________
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
Chip Information
OUT-
OUT-
PVDD
BOOT-
VDD
SYNCOUT
PROCESS: BICMOS
18
17
16
15
14
13
TOP VIEW
SHDN 19
12 SYNC
MUTE 20
11 GND
10 BIAS
PGND 21
MAX9768
PGND 22
ADDR2 23
9
GND
8
IN
7
FB
+
1
2
3
4
5
6
OUT+
OUT+
PVDD
BOOT+
SCLK
SDA/VOL
ADDR1 24
TQFN
(4mm × 4mm)
______________________________________________________________________________________
23
MAX9768
Pin Configuration
Package Information
(The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information,
go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.)
24L QFN THIN.EPS
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
24
______________________________________________________________________________________
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
______________________________________________________________________________________
25
MAX9768
Package Information (continued)
(The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information,
go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.)
MAX9768
10W Mono Class D Speaker
Amplifier with Volume Control
Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE
DESCRIPTION
0
9/07
Initial release
1
3/08
Updated package outline.
PAGES
CHANGED
—
24, 25
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are
implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
26 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600
© 2008 Maxim Integrated Products
Heaney
is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
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