160 PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT Electric Typewriter

160  PERIPHERAL  EQUIPMENT Electric  Typewriter
160 PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT
Electric Typewriter
This is an IBM electric typewriter modified by
Soroban Corporation. It has a standard keyboard.
The typewriter is mounted on a cabinet with the
controls and power supply inside the cabinet -connected to the 160 by the input-output cable.
It accepts input data at normal typ1.ng speeds. It
prints output data from the 160 at a rate of 10 to
12 characters per second. Associated with the typewriter is a control panel. It houses two switches
and two lights. The switches denote Operation Mode
and Input Disconnect.
1606 High Speed Printer
The Line Printer consists of an Anelex series 56160 printer and the necessary control circuitry.
This printer provides high speed printing at a normal rate of 350 lines per minute. It will handle
forms from 4 to 20 inches wide and any length up
to 22 inches. It provides 120 columns of characters
and 47 characters per column. These may be digital,
digital and signs, or full alpha-numeric; also
foreign language and plotting symbols. It will
print on single or multiple carbons, pressure sensitive or heat transfer type papers, pre-printed forms
or card stock.
Additional Description - General
Operation of the 160 is sequenced by an internally
stored program. This program, as well as the data
being processed, is contained in the high-speed,
random-access memory. An instruction is a 12-bit
word consisting of: a 6-bit function code F, and
a 6-bit execution address E. By means of the direct,
relative, and indirect addressing features, it is
very simple to operate on data in the computer and
to make program modifications when desired.
A general purpose input channel and output channel
are provided for attaching a variety of input-output devices to the 160 Computer. Standard inputoutput equipment consists of a Ferranti punched paper
tape reader that reads 350 characters per second;
and the Teletype high-speed paper tape punch that
operates at 60 characters per second. Optional
input-output equipment includes an on-line electric
typewriter, up to 8 magnetic tape handlers (Ampex
FR-300 handlers that operate at 30 KC character rate
or Ampex FR-400 handlers that operate at 15 KC character rate), card reader-punch units, and line printer. Input-output transmissions are either a single
6-bit or 7-bit character, or a 12-bit word.
1609 Card Read and Punch Unit
This is an IBM 521 punching unit. It provides
the 160 with punched card ihput and output. There
are three card stations: first reading station,
punching station, second reading station. Calculated results are punched at the punching station.
At the second reading station, a card can be read
for gang punching, re-calculation for proof, and
double punch, blank column checking. Cards are fed
continuously without interruption for calculation.
As the results are being p~ched in one card, factors are being read from the following card. May
be operated as an independent gang punch. It operates at a speed of 100 cards per minute. Two double
section, 22-hub control panels and standard complements of self-contacting wires are furnished.
Basic Magnetic Tape Unit
It contains controls for a total of four tape
handlers. Uses Ampex FR-300 tape handler, with a
character rate of 30 KC. "Change-on-ones" type of
recording is used compatible with that used by IBM
727 tape units. Reflective spots indicate beginning
and end of tape. Thus, a reel of tape generated by
the tape unit can be used on an IBM 727 tape unit
and vice versa. Forward, reverse, and rewind tape
speed is 150 inches per second. Recording density
is 200 characters per inch, with 6 information bits
and one parity bit per character. Tape width is
1/2 inch. Data is recorded in variable-length
blocks, with practical limits determined by the size
of memory. Length of inter-block spacing is approximately one inch. Data transmissions to and from
the tape system are in the form of 6-bit words.
Tape can be read in either the forward or backward
direction. For writing, the control section receives a 6-bit word and generates a parity bit for
each word. Reading follows the reverse procedure:
r{_bit characters are read off the tape and the
lower 6 bits are transmitted to the computer. Parity checks are made on reading and writing by a
read-head mounted 0.4 inches following the write
head. Parity errors are registered on a flip-flop
for subsequent sensing by the computer. A parity
error does not immediately halt operations, unless
a program stop is specified. The reading and recording heads are electrically isolated on this
tape unit. This feature allows the tape to be
read back during recording for a positive check on
both the recording circuits and the magnetic tape
quality. Same unit is available using FR-400 tape
handler, with a character rate of 15 KC. Additional
magnetic tape units are available.
CDC 160
Description of Registers
The 160 Computer contains three operational registers: A, Z, and P. The contents of these re~isters
are shown in arabic numerals (octal notation) on
the control panel of the computer. There are also
three transient registers: B, F, and S. These
registers are described below; a block diagram of
the 160 Computer is shown in the figure.
A Register (12 bits): principal arithmetic register. For most arithmetic operations, A operates
as a 12-bit subtractive accumulator. The quantity
zero is represented b~ all zeros.
Z Register (12 bits): performs several functions.
One, it serves as a buffer register for storage. In
this capaCity, it receives the word read out of
storage and holds the word to be written into storage. Also, for addition and subtraction operations,
the contents of the Z register are added to or subtracted from the contents of A.
P Register (12 bits): program control register.
Its contents are the address of the current instruction. At the beginning of each instruction, the
contents of P are increased by one to provide the
address of the instruction; a jump address is entered in P if a jump is called for.
200
B Register (12 bits): auxiliary arithmetic register. The results of arithmetic operations are first
formed in B, then transmitted to the A, Z, or S
registers.
S Register (12 bits): functions as the storage
address register. Prior to any storage reference,
the address word is entered in S. The contents of
S are then used to select the storage location involved in the reference.
F Register (6 bits): holds the upper six bits
of an instruction word, i.e., the function code,
throughout the execution of an instruction. The
execution of an instruction is under the control
of the quantity in F.
Addressing Modes
In the direct addressing mode, the address refers
to a 12-bit operand in one of the first 64 storage
locations.
Indirect addr.essing provides for operand references and jump addresses. Where indirect addressing is used with an instruction, E refers to one
of the first 64 storage locations; the contents of
this register are then read out and used as the
address of the operand or as the jump address.
Relative addressing provides for operand adqresses
and Jump addresses that are in the immediate vicinity of the storage location Which contains th~ current instruction. In relative addressing forward,
the E portion is added to the current content$ of
the program control register P. Thus, the operand
or jump address is one of the 63 storage locations
immediately preceding the address of the current
instruction. An exception is the Indirect .Junj.p,
in which the Jump address is read from. the address
found when the contents of P are added to E.
In the no address mode, constants are stored in
the address portion of the instruction. The 1t portion of the instruction is not used as an address.
Instead, it is used as a 6-bit oPerand. This operand is automatically extended to l2 bits, witij. the
upper six bits being zeros. With this feat~,
arithmetic and logical operations can be carried
out with a 6-bit quantity contained in the instruction. Thus the need for entering many constants
into memory is eliminated.
201
CDC 160
CDC 1604
MANUFACTURER
Control Data Corporation
Control Data Corporation Model 1604
Photo by Control Data Corporation
APPLICATIONS
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Manufacturer
Actual applications include engineering, scientific,
business, radar, missile tracking, and educational.
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
I~cated at Monterey, California, the system is used
for scientific applications, including student and
faculty research in practically all phases of the
physical sciences; for data processing, including
weather prediction, and for simulatIon, including
electronics systems, and games (busIness, industrial
and military).
National Bureau of Standards - Boulder, Colo.
Located at Boulder, Colorado, the system is used for
scientific computing on Radio Propagation, Radio
Standards, and Cryogenics Research.
CDC 1604
Manufacturer
Internal number system
Binary digits/word
Binary digits/instruction
Instructions per word
Instructions decoded
Arithmetic system
Binary
48
24
2
62
Floating point
one's complement
Fixed point
one's complement
Instruction type
One address
Number range Fixed point ± (2 47 _ 1)
Floating point 10 bit exponent plus
sign, 36 bit coefficient plus sign
202
Photo by U.S. Navy - Post Graduate School
Q may be shifted right or left, singly or in conjunction with A. Q also contains mask in logical operation.
Program Control Register, Ul Holds program step
while the two instructions contained in it are executed. The 48-bit instruction word taken from storage
location specified by P and entered in Ul, the upper
instruction being executed first. Execution of lower
instruction follows, except when upper instruction
is a jump or when it provides for conditional skipping of lower instruction.
Auxiliary Program Control Register, U2 An accumulator used in the modification of execution address
of current instruction. This modification consists
of adding contents of an Index Register to execution
address of current instruction.
P-Register (Operational) Functions as the program
address counter. Provides co~tlnuity between 1ndividual steps of program by generating the addresses
at which individual steps are contained. Upon completion of each sequential step, count in P is advanced by one to specify address of next step. Jump
instructions clear P and enter new address in it.
Index Registers, Bl-B6 (Operational) Provide modi-
Instruction word format
6 bits
Instruction
Code
3
Index
Design..
15
Execution Address
Indirect addressing built in.
Registers include 6 index registers of 15 bits each
and a Ones-complement arithmetic register.
A-Register (Operational) Principal arithmetic register. Functions as a 48-bit accumulator in most
ari thmetic operations. Quantity zero represented by
a binary zero in each stage. Contents of A may be
shifted either to the right or left. Shifting may
involve only the contents of A or may include the
contents of Q. Leftmost sign. bit extended on shifts
to right; bits shifted off the right end of A or Q
are dropped. Left shifts are Circular, with lower
order bits being replaced by higher order bits.
MUltiply, divide, and floating point instructions
are sequenced operations involving both A and Q.
Q-Register (Operational} Assists accumulator in
performing more complicated arithmetic operations.
Used with A to perform double precision arithmetic.
203
CDC 1604
1liagram of Model 1604 Input-Output Facilities
R-Register Functions as exchange register for
tranmnission involving B-Index Registers. Used in
advanCing or reducing count in a given B-Register.
During several instructions, used to count repetitive operations. R used with floating point instructions 1.n performing arithmetic operations on the exponent or characteristic.
X-Register An exchange and auxiliary arithmetic
register. All input-output data passes through X.
External Function Register, 00 Used for exchanging control information with input-output equipment.
Output Registers, 01 through 04 01 through 03
used for output buffer operations where data is
transmitted at speed of input-output equipment.
Where high-speed transfer is required, output transfer operations carried out via 04.
AR ITHMETI C UNIT
Incl Stor Access
Micro sec
4.8 - 9.6
25.2 + .BN
63.6 - 66.4
Add
Molt
Div
N = Number of ones in multiplier
Arithmetic mode
Parallel
Timing
Synchronous
Concurrent
Operation
STORAGE
Manufacturer
No. of
No. of
Words
Digits
Media
Magnetic Core
48
32,768
Magnetic Tape
No. of units that can be connected 24 Units
No. of characters/linear inch
200 CharS/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape
7 Tracks/tape
Blank tape separating each record
3/4 Inches
Tape speed
150 InChes/sec
Transfer rate
30K Chars/sec
1.2 Millisec
Stop time
Average time for experienced
20 Seconds
operator to change reel of tape
Physical properties of tape
Width
1/2 Inches
Length of reel
2, 500 Feet
24 tape stations is a practical maximum, although
more may be used.
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
No. of
No. of
Access
Medium
Words
Dig/Word
Microsec
32,768
48
approx. 4.8
Magnetic Core
National Bureau of Standards - Boulder, Colo.
Magnetic Core
32,768
48
4.8 (effective)
fication of execution addresseo in program loops.
Contents of an Index Register can be advanced each
pass through a loop, \tith an exit initiated on a
given threshold. Alternate approach allows an Index
Register to be preset, then reduced by one count each
pass through. the program-with an exit after zero.
Storage Address Registers, Sl-S2 Represent even
and odd 16,,a4-word memory units respectively. Receive addresses of instructions fram P and addresses
of operaruls fram U2.
Storage Restoration Registers, Zl-Z2 Represent
even and odd 16,}84-word memory units respectively.
Bold the 48-bit word to be written in a given storage
location.
CDC 16~
INPUT
Manufacturer
Media
Speed
Paper Tape
350 char/sec
Typewriter
Punched Cards
150 cardS/min
Magnetic Tape
30, 000 char/sec
Faster punched card units will be available soon.
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
Paper and Magnetic Tapes
204
PRODUCTION RECORD
National Bureau of Standards - Boulder, Colo.
Manufacturer
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
Number in current production
Number on order
Anticipated production rates
Time required for delivery
Media
Speed
IBM 088 Collator
650 cards/min
Two read feeds are available.
~aper Tape (Ferranti)
350 char/sec
6
6
10
6
1 per month
9 months
OUTPUT
Manufacturer
Speed
Media
Paper Tape
60 char/sec
Typewriter
Punched Cards
100 cards/min
Magnetic Tape
30,000 char/sec
Line Printer
667/1,000 lines/min
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
Paper Tape
60 char/sec
Magnetic Tape
150 in/sec 200 char/in
Monitoring Typewriter
IBM 717 Printer
150 lines/min 120 char/line
Off line Mag tape to printer
National Bureau of Standards - Boulder, Colo.
IBM 523 Punch
100 cards/min
IBM 407 Printer
150 lines/min
Magnetic Tape
COSTv PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Manufacturer
Lease Price/MOnth
Purchase 1 Year
3 Year
Price Contract Contract
Basic computer, with
$750,000 $22,500
$18,750
8,192 words Mag Core Stor
16,384 words Mag Core
Stor
830,000
25,000
20,750
32,768 words Mag Core
Stor
990,000
30,100
24,750
Above computer includes:
Magnetic Core Storage:
Two phase system with
3.2 microseconds effective cycle time, alternate
banks
6.4 microseconds cycle time, each bank
Fixed Point Arithmetic
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Floating Point Arithmetic Feature
Manufacturer
Quantity
Type
100,000
Diodes
Transistors
25,000
Magnetic Cores
1,500,000
Indirect addressing
Control and Maintenance Conscle
Motor-generator
Input Punched Paper Tape Reader (7 channels, 350
characters per second)
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Manufacturer
Power, computer
Volume, 1604 Computer
Volume, 1604 Console
Area, computer
Area, console
Floor loading
7.5 Kw
98 cu ft
112 cu f't
17 sq ft
30 sq ft
150 Ibs/sq f't
2,650 Ibs/concen max
Capacity, air conditioner
5 Tons
Weight, computer and
console
5,450 Ibs
Weight, air conditioner
500 Ibs
Power, space and weight figures are for 1604.
Computer and console peripheral equipment is not
included. The alternator is driven by a 15 HP motor.
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
Power, computer
4 Kw
Room size
2,800 sq ft
Floor loading
200 Ibs/sq ft
700 Ibs concen max
Capacity, air conditioner
25 Tons
Weight, computer
2,200 Ibs
The lobby section of one of the school buildings
was partitioned. False flooring, air conditioning
and power were installed in the laboratory section
which houses two computers (CDC-1604 & NCR-102A)
and their associated peripheral equipment.
National Bureau of Standards - Boulder, Colo.
Power, computer
15 Kw
Room size
24 ft x 24 f't
Capacity, air conditioner
6 Tons
System is installed on a raised floor in a specially prepared computer room.
205
Output Punched Paper Tape Punch (7 channels, 60
characters per second)
Input/Output Modified IBM Typewriter (directconnected)
Installation and checkout at customer premises
Site preparation not included
Maintenance and instruction books
Model 1607 Magnetic
Tape Subsystem
Includes Magnetic Tape Synchronizer
Four magnetic tape handlers
30 KC character rate
6 information bits, 1 parity bit per character
Parity-bit check on read and write
48-bit assembly for central computer
IBM 727 Format
Note: Up to 6 Magnetic Tape Subsystems can be used
with each Model 1604.
Model 1605 Adaptor
$70,000
$2,050
$1,750
Permits direct communication between
Model 1604 and following IBM input/output
equipment:
IBM 714 card reader (via 759 control unit)
IBM 727 magnetic ta~e units (via 754 synchronizer)
IBM 722 card punch (via 758 control unit)
IBM 717 line printer (via 757 control unit)
Transistor Chassis Tester $9,000
(non-automatic)
CDC 1604
Purchase
Price
Lease Price/Month
1 Year
3 Year _
Contract Contract
CDC 1604 operates apprOximately 14 hours per day
and the NCR 102A 20 hours per day, 7 days per week.
National Bureau of Standards - Boulder, Col.o.
One 8-Hour Shift
Supervisor's
1
Analysts
3
Programmers
3
Operators
2
Methods of training used include programming tra~
ing courses using CDC manu.al.s.
Modifications Added after
Model 1604 Construction
or Delivery:
Magnatic Core Storage:
Add 8,192 words to 1604
with 8,192 words
$100,000
Add 16,384 words to 1604
with 16,384 words
200,000
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Add Model 1607 Magnetic
Tape Subsystem (each) 150,000
Model 1606 High Speed
Printer
110,000
3,300
3,300
Operates at a rate
of 1,000 lines per
minute with the 1604.
All prices are f .0. b. Minneapolis, Minnesota, and do
not include Federal, State, and Local Taxes which
may be applicable. Prices are subject to change
without notice.
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
Computer, with 4 tape drives, console, photo elec~
tric reader and teletype punch is approx. $800,000.
IBM 717, 727 and 757 rent at approx. $2300 per
month.
Maintenance/service contract with Control Data
Corporation amounts to $17,500/year.
National Bureau of Standards - Boulder, Colo.
Rates for basic system is $36,660 per month.
Rental rate for IBM Input-Output equipment is
$1, 340/month.
'
Manufacturer
System features and construction techniques utilized by manufacturer to insure reqUired reliability
include solid state components throughout and wide
tolerances designed into all circuits.
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
Passed Customer Acceptance Test 16 Jan 60
Time is not available for rent to outside organizations.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Manufacturer
One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour
Shift
Shifts
Shifts
Engineers
1
2
2
1
2
Technicians
1
Training made available by the manufacturer to the
user includes regularly scheduled training courses,
furnished for customer personnel at our plant in
Mi,nneapolis, Minnesota. These courses are included
in the eqUipment price.
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
One 8-Hour Shift
Used Recommended
Supervisors
1
Programmers
1
3
Clerks
1
3
Operators
2
1
Engineers
2
1
Technicians
2
Operation tends toward open shop.
M~thods of training includes course work given in
the Engineer School on programming, operation and
applications and also seminars are given at the
school.
The computers are available for student and faculty
research 24 hours per day. Those students and faculty who have been checked-out on the operation of
the computers and peripheral equipment are permitted
out-of-ho~'s production runs on the computers.
Potentially the school hgs approximately 1000 programmeroperators lInder this system. At the present time the
CDC 1604
206
Manufacturer
Outstanding features include 48 bit word length,
6 buffer input-output channels, program interrupt
feature, six index, registers, and floating point
arithmetic.
Unique system advantages include high speed .transfer channel, and satellite operation with 160 computer.
Summary of Buffer Operation
. The Model 1604 buffer control continually interro ..
gates all communication channels to determine if a
peripheral equipnent is ready' to send or receive
information.
If a peripheral equipnent has data ready for transfer, interrogation waits momentarily while a word
is being buffered. The buffer control then resumes
interrogating the communication channels.
Buffering initiates communication between computer
memory, the three buffer input channels, and the
three buffer output channels. These buffer information in and out asynchronously with the main computer program.
The three buffer input channels and the three
buffered output chann1es, the interrupt line, and
the real-time clock are rapidly scanned by a scanner
which looks for action re~ests from all channels.
These action re~ests are initiated by the peripheral
equipnent by indicator "flags". A complete scan is
made in 3.2 microseconds, which corresponds to the
pbase rate of magnetic core memory.
When a re~est is detected by the scanner, the
main computer program is halted momemtarily to
move the data between memory and the requesting
channel. The main program proceeds immediately
after this action unless the scanner detects that
another channel has re~ested servicing. For example, if the system includes six 1607 magnetic tape
systems, all three buffered input channels and all
three buffered output channels of the 1604 can operate' in the buffer mode, simultaneously servicing
at full tape-rate three 1607 magnetic tape units
operating in the read mode and three 1607 magnetic
tape units operating in the write mode.
Summary of High Speed Transfer Operation
The main computer program performs the high-speed
input-output transfer of information between 1604's
or between one 1604 and peripheral equipment having
comparable speed.
Only one instruction is required for a block of
input or output data. A 48-bit word is transferred
in or out in 4.8 microseconds.
All transfer operations are carried out via channel 7.
Summary of Program Interrupt
~e Model 1604 recognizes an interrupt signal
which may be either a signal indicating that a
peripheral equipment has completed sending or receiving information or it may be a fault condition,
e.g., an overflow.
A subroutine determines what has caused the interrupt, e.g., what specific peripheral equipment is
causing the interrupt and on which channel the interrupt is taking place.
The subroutine takes action with the originating
peripheral equipment by first removing the interrupt signal to prevent re-recognition.
The appropriate condition is set up in compliance
with the interrupt. If it has come from a peripheral
equipment, the action is completed-after which there
is a return to the main computer program.
Summary of External Function
This instruction provides control and communication between the Model 1604 and peripheral equipment. It contains eight sub-instructions which
select and sense peripheral equipments, or activate
buffer channels.
The select sub-instruction (74.0) is interpreted
as follows: the leftmost 6 bits are the operation
code, the next 3 bits designate that this is a select sub-instruction, the next 3 bits are the channel or internal condition selection code, the next
3 bits are the equipment selection code, and the
last 9 bits specify the operation for the selected
equipment.
The channel activate sub-instructions 74.1 through
74.6 are interpreted as follows: the leftmost 6
bits are the operation code, the next 3 bits designate that his is an activate sub-instruction (plus
indicating the channel), and the last 15 bits indicate the initial address for data storage in the
buffer operation.
The sense sub-instruction 74.7 is interpreted as
follows: the leftmost 6 bits are the operation code,
the next 3 bits designate that this is a sense subinstruction, the next 3 bits are the channel or internal condition selection code, the next 3 bits
are the equipment s~lection code, and the last 9
bits specify the operation for the selected equipment.
Model 1607 Magnetic Tape System
A MOdel 1607 Magnetic Tape System consists of four
.Ampex magnetic tape handlers. The system is selfcontained in a single cabinet, including data-handling and control circuitry; 48-bit assembly and disassembly registers; parity bit assignment for each
~itten character; parity bit read-check immediately
following each character written; longitudinal parity bit generation and recording at end of block;
parity bit detection for each character read; and end
of tape sensing.
Each 1607 tape system can be connected to any of
the three buffer input and three output channels,
and each 1607 is independently addressable. A number of 1601's ca be connected to a 1604 Computer.
207
Simultaneously among these 1607 tape systems, three
tape handlers can be reading, and three tape handlers
can be writing. Each 1607 system has the facility
for simultaneously reading from one tape handler and
writing on one tape handler, while ,the remaining two
tape handlers are rewinding. Any tape can read either
in a forward or reverse direction.
Magnetic tapes of the 1607 tape system are completely compatible electrically and mechanically with IBM
Model 727 magnetic tape handlers.
Model 1605 Adaptor
The Control Data Model 1605 Adaptor permits communication between the 1604 Computer and any of the following IBM peripheral equipment:
714 Card Reader (via 759 Control Unit)
727 Magnetic Tape Units (Via 754 Synchronizer)
717 Line Printer (Via 757 Control Unit)
722 Card Punch (via 758 Control Unit)
The 1605 selects one of these peripheral equipments,
as well as the operation to be performed, on the
basis of an instruction from the main computer program. For example, a buffer instruction initiates
the transfer of information between the 1604 Computer
and the selected equipment via the Model 1605 Adaptor. A parity check is made on all information transmitted from the 1605 to peripheral equipment.
Each 1605 Adaptor can be connected to any of the
three buffer input and three buffer output channels,
and each 1605 is independently addressable. The
1605 has the same 48-bit input and output buffer register characteristics as the 1607 Magnetic Tape System. A number of 1605's together with a number of
1607's can be operated with a single 1604 Computer.
For special applications, Control Data Corporation
will supply special input-output adaptors for peripheral equipments, such as special display and output
systems, radar and sonar systems, digital communication. systems, and real-time instrumentation systems.
FUTURE PLANS
u.s.
Naval Postgraduate School
Plans include procurement of the CDC 160 system consisting of the Central Processor, Card Reader and
Punch, Magnetic Tape and Printer. This system can
be connected on-line to the CDC 1604 and used either
on or off line.
INSTALLATIONS
U. S. Naval Postgraduate School, MOnterey, Calif.
National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colo.
U. S. Army Signal Corps, Signal Procurement Office,
Fort George G. Meade, Maryland
U. S. Navy, Bureau of Ships, Washington 25, D. C.
U. S. Naval Air Materiel Center, Aeronautical Structures Laboratory, Philadelphia 12, Pennsylvania
U. S. Air Force Ballistic Missile Center, Air Materiel Command, Los Angeles 45, California
U. S. Air Force 4925 T.G.A. (Area E), Kirtland Air
Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Proposed)
U. S. Air Force, Vandenberg Air Force Base
U. S. Air Force Structures Test Laboratory, WADe,
Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio
Convair AstronautiCS, Dayton, Ohio
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, Missiles Systems
Division, Sunnyvale, California (2)
Institute for Defense Analyses, Weapons Systems
Evaluation Division, Room ID863, Pentagon, Wash 25, D.C.
Institute for Defense Analyses, Upper Payne Bldg.,
76 1/2 Nassau Street, Princeton, N. J.
New York University, University Heights, NYC 53, NY
University of California, Institute of GeophySics,
La Jolla, Calif.
CDC 1604
CI RCL E
MANUFACTURER
Hogan Laboratories, Incorporated
Circle Digital Computer
Photo by Hogan Laboratories, Incorporated
APPLICATIONS
Arithmetic system
Instruction type
Number range
Manufacturer
General purpose, scientific computation
Engineer Research and Development Laboratories
Scientific and engineering computation
Fixed point
One address code
-1 to +1 (1_2- 44 )
Shift, Print, Convert Binary to Decimal, and Feed
Instructions make use of Address Dig:its to determine
number of shifts, digits, etc.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary digits per word
Binary
40 - 44 plus 2 sign
digits
Binary digits per instruction
Instructions not decoded
Instructions per word
Instructions decoded
Instructions used
20
CIRCLE
AR ITHMETI C UNIT
Add
Mult
Div
Construction
3
2
64
33
208
Exclud Stor Access
Micro sec
500
20,000
20,000
Vacuum tubes
Rapid access word registers
Basic pulse repetition rate
Arithmetic mode
Timing
Operation
Operating Registers
82 Kc/sec
Serial
Synchronous
Sequential
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced
2
Number in current operation
2
This system is no longer being manufactured.
ConYersion from decimal to binary requires 2,000
microseconds and one instruction.
COST,) PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
STORAGE
Medium
Drum
Words
1,024-4,096
42-46 digits per word
Approximate cost of basic system
$80,000 with 4,096 word storage
$60,000 with 1,024 word storage
Optional features at extra cost were:
Twenty binary digit word operation
Special orders for unusual problems checking
2,048 word storage
Microsec Access
8,000 (ayg)
INPUT
Speed
10 dig/sec
Manual
30 dig/sec
Media
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
Keyboard (Flexowriter)
Paper Tape (Reader)
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Daily Operation
The paper tape reader is optional.
Engineers
Technicians
OUTPUT
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Speed
10 dig/sec
10 dig/sec
Media
Hard Copy (Flexowriter)
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour
Shift
Shifts
Shifts
0.5
0.5
0.5
1
2
3
Manufacturer
Good time
813 Hours
Attempted to run time
996 Hours
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.82
Passed Acceptance Test
June 54
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Tubes
800-1,000
Tube types
3
Different plug in units 18
Separate cabinets
2
INSTALLATIONS
u.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Engineer Research and Development Laboratories
Fort BelYoir, Virginia
CHECKING FEATURES
Westinghouse Electric Company
Atomic Products Division
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Even-odd check on instructions
Programmed check is normally used.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT v AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Weight, computer
3 - 3.5 Kw
54-81 cu ft
1,600 Ibs
209
cmCLE
CU BIC AI R TRAFF Ie
Cubtc Air Traffic
MANUFACTU RER
Cubic Corporation
INPUT
APPLICATIONS
Computer is intended for future air traffic control applications. The computer now is a specialpurpose unit, providing 42-target capacity when used
with Cubic Corporation c-w tracking equipment. The
computer is a special-purpose, magnetic memory-drum
variety (used with MOPTAR Cubic multi-aircraft tracking system) which sequentially determines slant range
and two direction cosines by phase-mearurement techniques to each of 42 separate airborne targets at the
rate of 4 samples (each) per second. Input equipment
converts phase information into a series of binary
numbers. The computer successively performs, for
each input sample, (a) special digital, smoothing
and filtering operations on each input binary number,
(b) ambiguity resolution between overlapping number
dig:l ts to produce a single range and two direction
cosine numbers, (c) computation of aircraft X, Y,
and Z position data and (d) conversion and transmission of computed X, Y, and Z positions in IBM
704 format over transmission lines.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary
Binary digits/word
20
Arithmetic system
Fixed point
Instruction type
Words handled serially
Arithmetic unit effectively programmed to operate
on recirculating data corresponding to particular
target sample being handled.
Medium
Input equipment includes special phase-to-digital
conversion equipment conSisting mainly of flip-flop
counters fiLnd clocks. Its overall'operation is programmed by the memory drum.
OUTPUT
Medium
A Cubic standard unit (Model DR-10) places the
computed X, Y, and Z target sample values in IBM 704
format on output transmission lines.
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Type
Quantity
Diodes
2,000
Transistors
2,600
Computer itself has 750 transistors, input equipment has 1200 tranSistors, and the DR-10 output unit
has 600 transistors.
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Data sample is not taken if a poor signal is received form the target. Also, the basic digital
filtering technique is self-correcting in the event
of intermittent arithmetic failures.
AR ITHMETI C UNIT
Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access
Microsec
Microsec
Add
250
250
Mult
250
250
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
750
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Sequential
Combination external high-speed multiplier and
square-root extractor employed for multiplication
and square rooting. Additions performed during
drum recirculation.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number on order
1
12 months
Time required for delivery
This computer is intended for future air-traffic
control application.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Special-purpose techniques enable this relatively
slOW, serial memory-drum computer, with external
high-speed multiplier, to perform slightly more
arithmetic operations per unit time than can be performed by the IBM 709 class of general-purpose
computers.
STORAGE
Medium
Magnetic Memory Drum
Digital filtering requires equivalent of 168 words;
ambiguity resolution and coordinate conversion are
both performed in temporary storage corresponding
to 5 words in length. Drum has 12 recirculating
channels of approximately 20,500 bits total.
CUBIC AIR TRAFFIC
210
CUBIC TRAC,KER
MANUFACTU RER
Cubic Tracker
Cubic Corporation
APPLICATIONS
CHECKING FEATURES
In the test made of operation all inputs can be
simulated and the clock switched to manual.
All digital computers built by Cubic are Special
Purpose Fixed Program Real Time Computers. Two are
in operation at PMR. Five are scheduled for delivery
to WSMR in September, 1960. One in production for
NOTS. Prototype developed and delivered to Eglin
A.F.B. Systems are used on line in real-time.
POWER, SPACE, WEI GHT p AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Power, air conditioner
Volume, computer
Volume, air conditioner
Area, Computer
Area, air conditioner
Room size, computer
Floor loading
CapaCity, air conditioner
Weight, computer
Weight, air conditioner
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary
Binary Digits/word
up to 21
Arithmetic system
Fixed point
There are several modes of operation, each one containing its own program. Arithmetic Section contains
21-bit shift registers plus numerous index registers.
ARITHMETIC UNIT
200
50
40
20
20
50
1
2,000
1,000
cu ft
cu ft
sq ft
sq ft
x 20
lbs/sq ft
Ton
lbs
lbs
PRODUCTION RECORD
Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access
Microsec
Microsec
Add
20
10
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
100 - 2N597,
100 - TlT78
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Sequential
Number produced to date
7
Number in current operation
2
Number in current production
5
Number on order
5
Anticipated production rates l2/year
Time required for delivery
8 - 12 months
COST PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
STORAGE
p
No. of
No. of
Access
Words
Media
Digits/word
Microsec
Flip-Flops
64
8 - 20
10/bit
Magnetic Tape
No. of units that can be connected
1 Unit
200 CharS/inch
No. of characters/linear inch
Channels or tracks on the tape
7 Tracks/tape
Blank tape separating each
.367- .7045 Inches
record
Tape speed
30 - 1.875 Inches/sec
Transfer rate
15 k/s Chars/sec
Width
0.5 Inches
INPUT
Medium
Flip Flop
1 Kw
1 Kw
List of Components of Basic System
Digital phasemeter
Processor
Format translator
Tape handler
List of Additional Equipment
Co-ordinate Converter
Test unit
Field services are available.
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
System requires one operator for each 8-hour shift.
Training made available by the manufacturer to
users includes in ~lant and field training.
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Speed
96 Kc
All transistors undergo an aging process.
OUTPUT
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Speed
96 Kc
Medium
Flip Flop
Outstanding features include reliability and simplicity.
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Type
Diodes
PSI720
lN276
IN270
Transistors
2N597
2N50l
TlT78
2N385
Quantity
Use
200
450
600
Gating
Gating
Gating
600
600
200
200
Low speed Flip Flop
High speed Flip Flop
Nor Gates
Emitter Follower
FUTURE PLANS
Computers now in production contain automatic calibration.
2ll
CUBIC TRACKER
CYCLON E
MANUFACTU RER
Iowa State University
CYCLONE
Photo by Iowa State University
APPLICATIONS
Instruction word format
Utilized for general purpose computing to support
research work on campus.
4 bit
basic
op
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
12 bit
address
4 bit
basic
op
4 bit
va.rient
12 bit
address
Automatic built-in subroutines include multiplication.
Internal number system
Binary
Number of binary digits/word
40
Number of binary digits/instruction
20
Number of instructions/word
2
Total number of instructions decoded
112
To be increased to 152 when modifications are
completed
Arithmetic system
Fixed point
(Fractional base)
Instruction type
One address
Number range
CYCLONE
4 bit
varient
Automatic codine. assembly program will be completed
with machine modification.
Registers include an accumulator register, a multiplier-quotient reglster, an operand register, and
an order register.
212
AR ITHMETI C UNIT
Md
Mult
Div
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
Not manufactured for sale.
Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access
Microsec.
Microsec.
100 avo
70
990 avo
960
1200 av.
1170
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Construction, arithmetic unit only
Vacuum tubes
Type
Quantity
5844
1,521
7044
386
5670
431
5726
233
Arithmetic mode
Timing
Operation
1
1
One 8-Hour
Shift
Analysts
Programmers
Coders
Operators
Engineers
Technicians
Parallel
Asynchronous
Sequential
Two 8-Hour
Shifts
Three 8-Hour
Shifts
8
12
16
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
2
Training made available to users includes programming classes conducted on a regular schedule.
Operation tends toward open shop.
STORAGE
No. of No. of
Words Digi ts
1,024 40,960
Medium
Williams tube Electro-static
Access
Microsec
30 avo
Good time
Attempted to run time
Operating ratio (good time/
attempted to run time)
INPUT
Medium
Speed
Paper Tape - 5 level
300 Char/sec
Local Design and construction
Premium components, all connections soldered.
Greatest source of failure is input-output equipment. Anticipated error rate is one error in 40
hours of operation.
Speed
60 Char/sec
10 Char/sec
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Type
386
40
4
6x4
5844
6080
6005
57 2 6
5654
C6J/K
The prototype of this machine is ILLIAC, the University of Illinois Digital Computer. Pertinent information on this system will be found under this
listing.
Quantity
Tubes
7044
6571
813
40.9 hrs/week avo
41.2 hrs/week avo
0·992
Above figures based on period 1 M~ to 30 Jun 60.
System was placed in operation in Jul 59.
OUTPUT
Media
Paper Tape -5 level
Model 28 Teleprinter
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
FUTURE PLANS
8
Plans for new components include a 64 word output
buffer memory (mag. core) (under construction), a
16,380 word mag. core memory (under construction
to replace 1,024 word Electrostatic Williams tube
(CRT) memory, and two IBM 726 tape units to be
coupled into computer (tape units on hand).
1,521
12
61
233
113
18
Under consideration are a card reader, a CRT output
camera, and a high speed line printer.
CHECKING FEATURES
Fixed
Division error
Optional
CRO on memory read amplifier
Single order execution
Step-wise gating within single order execution
INSTALLATIONS
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Area, computer
Room size, computer
Floor loading
Weight, computer
Capacity, air conditioner
19
400
62
18
150
5,000
6
Kw
cu ft
sq ft
ft x 25 ft
lbs/sq ft
lbs
Tons
213
CYCLONE
DATAMATIC 1000
MANUFACTU RER
Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Company
DATAmatic Division
Newton 61, Massachusetts
Datamatic 1000 Electronic Data Processing System
Photo by Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company
APPLI CATIONS
Manufacturer
System is designed and used ~or commercial (business)
and scienti~ic applications.
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
Located on the lOth Floor, B&O Central Building,
Baltimore, Maryland, the system is used ~or payroll,
~reight revenue accounting, and car accounting.
First National Bank o~ Boston
Located at the Main O~~ice in Boston, Massachusetts,
the system is used ~or Deposit Accounting, Check
Reconcilement, and Corporate Trust Accounting including maintenance o~ stockholders' ledgers, preparation and processing o~ cash dividends, stock
dividends, proxies, addressing mailable materials,
stock subscriptions, etc. It is used ~or Loan
Accounting, including ~actoring (accounts receivable)
consumer loans, commercial and real estate loans,
revolving Check-Credit loans, etc. Additional applications ~or the fUture include Savings Accounting,
Payroll, Expense Distribution, Personal Trust Account-
DATAMATIC 1000
214
ing and Sa~e Deposit Accounting.
Michigan Hospital Service
Located on the 6th Floor at 441 E. Je~~erson, Detroit
26, Michigan, the system is used ~or daily maintenance o~ subscriber records and veri~ication o~
hospital and medical bene~its, premium billing, premium accounting and statistiCS, and claim accounting
and statistics.
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TeG Division
Located at 2T53 4th Avenue South,Minneapolis, Minnesota, the system is used ~or payroll, account distribution, accounting ledgers, ~actory labor e~~i­
cency, ~ile maintenance, sales statistics, ~actory
scheduling, standard cost calculation, and inventory
extension.
Treasury Department
The system is located on the Second Floor at 214
Seventh Street, Parkersburg, West Virginia. Operations are concerned with the issuance and retirement
o~ Series E, United States Savings Bonds in punch
card ~or.m sold to the public beginning October 1,195T.
Photo by the First National Bank of Boston
Instructions per word
Instructions decoded
Arithmetic system
Instruction type
The original bonds and registration stubs are used
to prove the accuracy of shipments from issuing and
paying agents and establish alphabetic and numeric
registration records to provide a status record of
every United States Savings card bond printed. Alphabetic files are maintained by the name of the
bond owner and numeric files are maintained by bond
serial number to reflect the issuance and retirement
of each bond. These records serve as search media
to answer inquiries relative to card bond holdings
and the status thereof. Reports are produced to
reflect classified charges to the U.S. Treasurer's
account and to provide the Division of Public Debt
Accounts and Audit, Washington, with accounting data
for the maintenance of outstanding savings bond interest accounts.
Fixed point
Three address (normal)
Four address (subsequence
operation)
Number range
0-9, 0-16 and 0-64
Floating point operation may be programmed.
AR ITHMETI C UNIT
Add
Mult
Manufacturer
Incl Stor Access
Microsec
230.4
1,008
Div
Construction
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Manufacturer
Internal number system
1
1
2,304
Exclud Stor Access
Microsec
58
835
2,131
Vacuum tube amplifiers, crystal diodes
logic and packaged type construotion.
Rapid access word registers
7
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Sequential
Binary coded decimal and
coded alphanumeric
12
Decimal digits/word
Alphanumeric digits/word 8
Decimal digitS/instruction 12
215
DATAMATIC 1000
Photo by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
System. is primarily sequential. Transf'er of' information to and f'rom the high speed storage unit is
concurrent. The operation times given above under
IIIncluding Storage Access ll include checking time.
The capacity of' the accumulator is 11 decimal digits
with sign in addition and subtraction or 22 decimal
digits with sign in multiplication and division.
Parallel reading and writing of' 31 channels on magnetic tape with serial handling of' bits comprising
each character and word. Access to high speed storage is parallel. .Arithmetic operations are serial.
Decllrual digits are in binary coded decimal, alphanumeric characters are in a six-bit code.
DATAMATIC 1000
STORAGE
Manufacturer
No. of'
Access
Dec:1mal
Words
Digits
Media
Microsec
Magnetic Cores
2,000
24,000
12
Magnetic Cores
248
20
2,976
Magnetic Tape
No. of' units that can be connected 100 Units
No. of' chars/linear inch 600 dec, 400 alpha char/in
Channels or tracks on the tape
31 Channels
Tape speed
100 Inches/sec
Transf'er rate
60,000 dec, 40,000 alpha char/sec
216
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
Speed
Media
1400 Output Gonverter
800 lines/min
1300 Output Converter
150 lines/min
(Modified IBM 407)
1300 Output Converter
100 cards/min
(Modified Iffi.1 519)
First ~rational Bank of Boston
Printed Page
900 lines/min
(160 characters/line, 2 printers)
Printed Page
150 lines/min
(120 characters/line, 1 printer)
Cards
100 cards/min
Michigan Hospital Service
Magnetic Tape
60,000 digits/sec
Printed Page
900 lines/min
Anelex high speed printer at 120 char/line.
Minneapolis.-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TCG Division
Printed Page
900 lines/min
Printer has 120-160 char/line, 55 characters
Printed Page
150 lines/min
Printer has 120-120 char/line, 47 characters
Cards
100 cards/min
Treasury Department
Magnetic Tape
60,000 dec dig/sec
Punched Card
100 cards/min
Printed Page
900 lines/min
The output of the central processor is on magnetic
tape only. The data on the tape is printed and/or
punched "off line".
Physical properties of tape
Width
3 Inches
Length of reel
2,700 Feet
Composition
Plastic sandwich
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
Medium
No. of Words
No. of Digits/Word
Core
2,000
12 num
8 alpha
First National Bank of Boston
No. of
No. of
Access
Medium
Words
Digits
Microsec
Core
2,000
24,000
28
Michigan Hospital Service
Magnetic Core 2,000
24,000
28.8/52-bit word
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TCG Division
Core
2, 000
12
10
Treasury Department
Ferrite Core 2,000
24,000
Approx. 10
Magnetic Tape 3,100,000
37,200,000
2.5 Min.
The ferrite core storage is internal, the magnetic
tape storage is external.
INPUT
Manufacturer
Media
Punched Cards
Paper Tape
Keyboard
Magnetic Tape
Speed
900 cards/min (Input Converter)
10 char/sec (via console)
Manual (via console)
60,000 dec dig/sec (On line tape
units)
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
Cards (1200 Input
900 cards/min
Converter)
First National Bank of Boston
Punch Cards
900 cards/min
Paper tape is to be added.
Michigan Hospital Service
Cards
900 cards/min
Magnetic Tape
60,000 dig/sec
Input is via card reader to magnetic tape to central processor.
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TCG Division
Punched Card
900 cards/min
Card editing is possible.
Treasury Department
Paper Tape
60 char/min
(Flexowriter)
Cards
900 cards/min
Card data is converted on magnetic tape. Magnetic
tape is input to central processor at 60,000 decimal
digits/sec.
One reel of tape is 2,700 feet long, 3 inches wide,
and can store 37,200,000 decimal digits or 28,200,000
alphabetic characters. Input to the system is punched cards; input to the central processor is magnetic
tape or paper tape.
CI RCU ItT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Manufacturer
Tubes
3,600
Tube types Type 6145 and other computer quality types
Crystal Diodes
60,000
Magnetic Cores
117,000
Transistors
500
The above figures are for the Central Machine.
Separate Cabinets 10 Types (building block units)
Size of installation is dependent on application.
Up to 100 magnetic tape units may be used in on-line
operation.
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Manufacturer
Every word eontains checking digits. Transfer
weight count eheck. Arithmetic weight count check.
Special circu:lt checking. Selection and order verification checl~ing.
Blank COlwml and multiple punch column detection is
under control of the operator of the Input Converter.
Marginal checking circuitry included in addition to
the above.
OUTPUT
Manufacturer
Speed
Media
Punched Cards
100/min (Output Converter)
Printing
900 lines/min (Output Converter)
Paper Tape
10 char/sec (via console)
Magnetic Tape
60,000 dec dig/sec (On line tape
units)
Character-at-a-Time
10 char/sec (Console Typewriter)
Paper Tape
Input Converter
Paper Tape
Output Converter
217
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Manufacturer
Power, computer 94.6 Kw
110 ¥:VA
0.86 pf
Power, air condo 49.2 Kw
60 ¥:VA
0.82 pf'
Area, computer
550 sq ft
Floor loading
Less than 125 Ibs/sq ft
Weight, computer
70,000 Ibs
Air conditioner is built in. No user requirements.
The above weight and power figures include 10 magnetic tape inBtallations. Space figure excludes
aisles and work areas. The total is 4,500 sq ft.
DATAMATIC 1000
The clear space to ceiling is 8 ft. 3 in.
Recommended floor space 40 by 100 feet (for minimum
installation) .
Voltage requirements - 208 volts, 3 phase, 60 cycle.
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
Power, computer
230 KVA
Volume, computer
67,500 cu ft
Area, computer
7,500 sq ft
Floor loadlng
60 lbs/sq ft
50 lbs/sq ft
Weight, computer
123,000 lbs
Site is prepared with perforated metal false ceiling. Plemun between false and building ceiling,
false floor - 2 f't x 4 ft sections made of aluminum
honeycomb, power distribution units supplied b~
manufacturer. oAir conditioning (chilled water) installed for 70 F. + 2~.
First Nation~ Bank of Boston
Power, computer 160 Kw
200 KVA
0.8 pf
Power, air condo 40 Kw
44 KVA
0.9 pf
Volume, computer
6,065 cu ft
Volume, power room
825 cu ft
Volume, air conditioner
60 cu ft
Area, computer
945 sq ft
Area, power room
200 sq ft
Area, air conditioner
20 sq ft
Room size, computer
5,025 sq ft
Room Size, power room
600 sq ft
Room Size, air condition
95 sq ft
Floor loading
22 lbs/sq ft
125 lbs concen max
35 lbs/sq ft power roam
Capacity, air conditioner
15 Tons
170,300 lbs
Weight, computer
Weight, power room
22,000 lbs
Weight, air conditioner 3,065 lbs
Site preparation included a l5-ton air conditioner
for ma~etic tape room (including circulating water
Bupply), false floors and partitions for three rooms
(MFU, CPU, and converters) and an independent power
supply.
Michigan Hospital Service
0.8 pf
Power, computer 184 Kw
200 KVA
Volume, computer
5,700 cu ft
Area, computer
4,450 sq ft
Floor loading
24 lbs/sq ft
710 lbs concen max
CapaCity, air conditioner
64 Tons
Weight, computer
106,400 lbs
Air conditioning system packaged units include 35
tons built into computer, 16 tons for Tape File
Room, 8 tons for High Speed Printer and Personnel,
and 5 tons for Personnel in Central Processor~
The site has a dropped metal pan ceiling with
sound proof bats in each pan. This ceiling is not
u.sed as an air condition plenum. The building is of
steel and concrete construction. Power for the Data
Processor is located on the roof of the building together with the motor generators, electrical panels,
compressors, vacuum pump, and individual water tower.
The compressors are situated on the 6th floor of the
building. Power, water, and air lines come from the
8th floor to the ceiling of the 5th floor. All such
lines are suspended from the ceiling of the 5th floor
and stub up through the concrete floor wherever
necessary to feed the individual units. A free floor
was designed and installed to cover all signal wires.
Air conditioning is by package units which feed
through ducts above the pan ceiling to various outlets. Package air conditioning units are equipped
with steam to be used for either heating or humidity
control.
DATAMATIC 1000
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TeG Division
KVA, computer
20C
Volume, computer
62,000 cu ft
Area, computer
5,900 sq ft
Room size
5,900 sq ft
Floor loading
125 Ibs/sq ft
40 lbs concen :max
Capacity, air conditioner
35 Tons .
Weight, computer
110,000 Ibs
Each unit is self cooled. False ceiling is installed for appearance. Fower central setup to provide stable power. Power is 208 volts, 3 phases,
4 wire, 60 cycles.
Treaswry Department
Power, computer 170.44 Kw 213.05 KVA 0.80 pf 208V.
Volume, computer
9,751 cu ft
Volume, air conditioner
891 cu ft
Area, computer
1,513 sq ft
Area, air conditioner
270 sq ft
Room size
8,400 sq ft
Floor loading
101 lbs/sq ft
267 lbs concen max
Capacity, air conditioner
45 Tons
Weight, computer
153,250 lbs
Total includes built in air conditioning
Weight, air conditioner 8,175 lbs
Total includes 3 separate air cinditioning units
Site preparations were made at the time the building was erected. The building is of brick and concrete construction with steel girders and concrete
floors. Special features in the area include: false
flooringj glass enclosures for the input-output converter room, central processor room, magnetic file
room, and engineers' room; inter-com.system between
four areas; dehumidifiers in the magnetic file room;
air and water ducts; acoustical tile ceiling for all
rooms; power ducts to all rooms from central power
roam; and air conditioning for the area.
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
1 Model 1000 Central Processor
$2l,500/mo •
12 Model 1100 Magnetic File Units
10,800/mo.
3 Model 1170 File Switching Units
570/mo •
1 Model 1200 Input Converter, with
3, 325!mo.
card reader
1 Model 1300 Output Converter
1,800/mo.
1 Model 1400 Output Converter, in3,500!mo.
cluding high speed printer
1 MOdel 1900 Central Power
Additional equiJilllent includes IBM 407 at $BOO/month
and IBM 519 at ~944/month.
First National Bank of Boston
For the equipment listed, the total monthly rental
is $43,475.
Michigan Hospital Service
Monthly
Rental
One Central Processor
$21,500
Eight Magnetic Tape Units
7,200
One Card Reader and Input Converter
3,325
One File Reference Unit
550
One Output Converter and High Speed
3,500
Converter
(Including maintenance)
218
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TCG Division
Quantity Model
1
1000
11
2
1
1100
1170
1200
1
1
1300
1310
1
1320
1
1400
Unit
Central Processor including High-Speed Memory
Arithmetic-Control Units
Input and Output Buffers
Read-Write Unit
Central Console
Unit Air Conditioning
Magnetic File. Unit including Amplifier Unit
File Switching Unit
Card Input System including 900-card-per-minute Card
Analyzer and Converter Control Unit
Output Converter Control Unit
Adapter for 150-line-per-minute printer (used with
Model 1300 Output Converter Control Unit)
Adapter for 100-card-per-minute punch (used with
Model 1300 Output Converter Control Unit)
Output Printing System including 900-line-per-minute
printer and Converter Control Unit
Total
Purchase
Price
Monthly
Rental
One Shift
$98 5,000
660,000
19,200
$21,500
14,850
380
185,000
100,000
3,325
1,800
13,000
200
1,900
35
21 5,000
4,;00
$2,179,100
$46,390
Maintenance service contract is $20,000 month (Purchased).
Treasury Department
Installation of the DATAmatic System
Components:
Central Processor
Auxiliary Central Processor
16 Magnetic File Units
4 File Switching Units
3 Card Input Systems
Converter Control Unit, Low Speed
IBM 519 Summary Punch
Output Printing System, High Speed
Power Room installation and equipment
Cost of False Flooring
Approximate Installation Cost
$87,TI7
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
One 8-Hour Shift
Supervisors
5
Analysts and Programmers
35
Librarians
1
Operators
4
Operation tends toward closed shop.
Methods of training used includes a combination
manufacturer's formal sessions and informal on-Job
training.
First National Bank of Boston
One 8-Hour Shift
Supervisors
1
Analysts
5
11
Programmers
Coders
2
Clerks
3
Operators
2
In-Output Ope:r
6
Tape Handlers
2
Methods of training used includes 4 weeks in manufacturer's school and on-the-Job training.
Michigan Hospital Service
One 8 -Hour Shift
Supervisors
1
Analysts
3
Programmers
12
Clerks
2
Operators
1
In-Output Opel'
2
Tape Handlers
1
Operation tends toward open shop.
Methods of training used includes programming
training by Mi.nneapolis-Honeywe11 and operator training by Michi~an Hospital Service (detailed operating
instructions) .
176 Hours, Basic Monthly Rental Charge:
Central Processor
$21,500
Auxiliary Central Processor
3,900
16 Magnetic File Units at $1,350
21,600
4 Switching Units at $190
760
3 Card Input Systems at $3,325
9,975
Converter Control Unit, Low Speed
535
IBM 519 Summary Punch
144
Output Printing System, High Speed
4.300
Basic Monthly Rental $62,714
Excess Use Time per Month:
Central Processor at $61.08/hour
$20,161.80
Auxiliary Central Processor at
$ll.08/hour
3,7ll.80
16 Magnetic File Units at $3.84/hr
6,566.40
4 Switching Units at $.54/hour
115.56
3 Card Input Systems at $9.45/hour
132.30
Output Printing System at $12.22/hr
2,566.20
Average Excess Use Time Cost per Month $33,254.06
Basic Cost
$62,714.00
Excess Use Time Cost
33,254.06
Total Approximate Monthly Cost
$95,968.06
System maintenance and service are included in the
monthly rental charge. Power room maintenance and
service are covered under a separate contract which
averages $4,000 annually.
219
DATAMATIC 1000
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TCG Division
One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour
Three 8-Hour
Shift
Shift
Shift
Supervisors
1
1
1
17
17
17
Programmers
Clerks
4
4
4
Librarians
1
1
1
Operators
2
4
5
Engineers
3
5
7
In-Output Oper
2
4
6
Tape Handlers
1
2
3
Operation tends toward open shop.
Methods of training used
Six. weeks programming course for analysts and
programmers.
Operation 3 weeks on-the-job
Console
6 weeks on-the-job
.Treasury Department
One 8-Hour Shift
Two 9-Hour Shifts
Used
Recomm Used
Recomm
Supervisors
2
4
Anal.ysts
2
3
Programmers
14
Coders
Clerks
6
3
Librarians
1
2
Operators
6
5
Engineers
Technicians
1
8
8
In-Output Oper
6
4
Tape Handlers
Operation tends toward open shop.
One DATAmatic representative is assigned full time
for guidance in the programming activities and the
operations of the system. Periodically, special
training courses are conducted by the DATAmatic Corporation either at the site or company location. Onthe-job training is given continuously to peripheral
equipment and console operators.
Personne.l listed under the two 9-hour shifts are
assigned to the Electronic Data Processing Section
which is responsible for the scheduling of machine
time and operation of the electronic equipment. Programming is one of' the activities of the Methods and.
Procedures Section. This staff performs all planning,
programming and checking out of the routines to place
them in an operational state and provides all operating instructions necessary for successful performance. This group of' employees operates on an 8-hour
basis but each individual programmer is on 24-hour
call.
RELIAB I LlTY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENeE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Haltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
Good time
42. 3 Hour s /Week (Average)
Attempted to run time
45 Hours/Week (Average)
'Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.94
Above figures based on period Feb 60 to Mar 60
Passed Customer Acceptance Test Mar 59
Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations.
First National Bank of Boston
Good time
39.5 Hours/Week (Average)
Attempted to run time
40 Hours/Week (Average)
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.98+
Above figures based on period Jul 58 to 31 Mar 60
Passed Customer Acceptance Test Jul 58
Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations.
Time is rented to Datamatic Service Bureau (1 fULl
shift) •
DATAMATIC 1000
220
The operating ratio is approximately the same for
the Service Bureau.
Michigan Hospital Service
Average error-free running period
4.9 Hours
Good time
53.3 Hours/Week (Average)
Attempted to run time
58.2 Hours/Week (Average)
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.916
Above figures based on period 1 Jan 60 to 6 Aug 60
Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1 Mar 58
Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations.
Use by outside organizations is arranged through
Minneapoli s -Honeywell Regulator Company, DATArnatic
Division.
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TCG Division
Good time
92 Hours/Week (Average)
Attempted to run time
100 Hours/Week (Average)
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.92
Above figures based on period 1 Jul 59 to 1 Jul 60
Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1 Jul 59
Time is not available for rent to outside organizations.
Treasury Department
Average error-free running period 8.2 hours per 9
hour shift
Good time
115 Hoursjweek (Average)
Attempted to run time
126 Hours/Week (Average)
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.913
Above figures based on period 1 Apr 60 to 30 Jun 60
Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1 Nov 58
Time is not available for rent to outside organizations.
The operating ratio is based on a 7 day week, two
9-hour shifts a day.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company
Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage
include generation of labels in computer program
used for tape assignment, tape storage in closed
file-type cabinets, and air-conditioned atmosphere
for humidity and temperature control.
First National Bank of Boston
Outstanding features include exceptional reliability,
very high error-free recording, and recovery of information on magnetic tapes. Unique system advantages include high capacity of tapes, 465,000 punched
cards ~er tape (reel), hi~h speed, simultaneous read/
write (60,000 digits/sec.), and ability to edit on
off-line converters, saving CPU time.
Michigan Hospital Service
Outstanding features include large storage capacity
of magnetic tape (37,200,000 digits per reel), read/
write magnetic tape at 60,000 digits per second, and
three address instruction system (simplifies programming) .
Unique system advantages include system and instructions designed for data processing, particularly for
low activity updating of large record files.
Tape reels are numbered with ink marking pen. Data
is labelled with L~belon Tape. Tape room is controlled
for temperature, humidity, and dust. Security Tapes
are stored in first floor lobby for 24 hour period.
Security Tapes are alternated in warehouse storage
on a semi-monthly basis.
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TCG Division
Outstanding features include 3" wide tape, orthotronic control, 900 lines per'minute printing speed.
Tape storage is dust, humidity and temperature controlled. A distant vault is used for backup tapes.
Treasury Department
Outstanding features are (1) Transfer rate of
60,000 decimal digits per second; (2) efficient and
speedy sorting; (3) searches 10 tapes at once at
transfer rate of 600,000 decimal digits; (4) "OFF
Lllffi" input and output; (5) built in air conditioning for central processor.
Unique system advantages include (1) ability to
read and search forward and backward and (2) Modulo
9 weight count checking system.
Adopted procedure for magnetic tape labelling,
storage, shipping and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other
damage include:
Tape Labelling
Reels are labeled with color code, name and
run number(s). Dates, names and run codes are written
on tape.
Storage
Active tape records are stored on shelves in
the Magnetic File area. Security tapes are stored
in a vault in another building.
. Shipping
Reels are placed in plastic bags and boxed in
corrugated cartons cushioned with fillers.
Protection from Humidity, Temperature, etc.
Air conditioning and normal protection.
The tape utilized in this System is divided into
36 linear recording channels. 31 of these channels
are used for storing information. All other channels
are used for control purposes. Data is arranged
along the 31 information channels in arbitrary units
called words and blocks. Each block contains a total
of 62 information words. There are 52 bits in a
word. Four are used for checking purposes and the
remaining 48 may represent either numeric or alphabetic data. A word may be made up of 12 four-bit
decimal digits, 8 six-bit alphabetic characters or
any combination of these adding up to 48 binary
digits.
221
FUTURE PLANS
First Iiational Bank of Boston
There is a tEmtative plan to switch to Honeywell
H-800 in 196~~, when a third high-speed printer, a
high-speed pftper tape input, and high-speed MICR
input (2 systems) will be added.
Treasury Department
Present planfl are to carry out the program relating
to punch card U. S. Savings Bonds established at the
inception of the system, all available machine time
is required. Plans are in a formulative stage to
include the Ilrocessing of Series E paper bond retirements abel reissue transactions as machine time
is made available through improved programming techniques and ltquidation of the backlog which antedates instalJ.ation of the equipment.
INSTALLATIONS
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company
B&O Central Building
Baltimore 1, Maryland
The First National Bank of Boston
67 Milk Street
Boston, Massachusetts
Michigan Hospital Service
441 E. Jefferson
Detroit 26, Michigan
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co.-TCG Division
2753 4th Avenue South
Minneapolis 8, Minnesota
Datamatic Division
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company
60 Walnut Street
Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts
Treasury Department
Bureau of Public Debt
214 Seventh Street
Parkersburg, West Virginia
DATAMATIC 1000
DE 60
MANUFACTURER
Clary Corporation
Clary Model DE 60 Computer
Photo by Clary Corporation
APPLICATIONS
System is designed for general purpose, scientific,
engineering, commercial, on-line, and real time
uses.
Instruction word format
Source
Destination
Format
(Output)
(one source) (up to four) (up to four) Print, Word
Length, Decimal Point
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary Coded Decimal
18 and sign
Decimal digits/word
System is externally programmed.
Instructions decoded
37
Arithmetic system
Fixed point (to right
of word)
Instruction type
Multiple address (up to five) and
multiple operations/instruction
Number range
Less than 1018 and equal to or
greater than O.
DE 60
Operation
Automatic built-in subroutines are contai~ed in a
plug-in catrridge. Any standard function (.J , Sin,
cos, eX, etc.) may be obtained. Special subroutines
are furnished to customers' specifications.
Registers include multiplicand, dividend, quotient,
remainder, registers and a special register to retain last operand used.
222
Photo by Clary Corporation
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Operation
Add
Inc1 Stor Access
Micro sec
60,090
STORAGE
N,o. of
No. of
Medium
w.ords
Digits
Microsec
Drum
32
576
I,500 (Avg)
Capacity may be expanded to 160 words 5120 digits)
in units of 16 words. Access time will be unchanged.
Exc1ud Stor Access
Microsec
3,000
Mult
200,000 (Avg)
140,000
Diy
220,000 (Avg)
160,000
Time includes access to 5 addresses and automatic
aligmnent (shif'ting) of dec:lmal point.
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Se~ential.
223
DE 60
Photo by Clary Corporation
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
INPUT
Speed
Media
Manual
Keyboard
Paper Tape
20 char/sec
Punched Cards
20 cOl/sec
On-line Equipment
Except f'or Keyboard, above equipment is optional
or engineered to meet requirements.
OUTPUT
Type
Tubes
Thyratrons
Diodes
Transistors
14
2,000
200
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Area, computer
Room size
Weight, computer
Media
Speed
Printer
20 char/sec 10 char/line
Typewriter
10-15 char/sec
Paper Tape
20 char/sec
Punched Cards
20 COl/sec
Speeds are limits of' peripheral equipment, not the
computer. Exceptf'or Printer, above equipment is
optional.
DE 60
Quantity
224
0.15 Kw
76.5
Cll f't
25.5 sq f't
8 f't x 8 f't
300 lbs
Photo by Clary Corporation
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
Number in current production
Number on order
Anticipated production rates
Time required for delivery
9
9
Optional and Additional Equipment
IBM or Remington Rand typewriter output (20" carriage
standard) in lieu of standard output 6402, $2,000.00
4 - 10 months
Punch Tape output (in addition to standard output
6402),
$2,000.00
10
8
3 Months
Additional stan.dard cartridges $45.00 (Square root,
log, antilog, power series, sin, cos, plus others as
they become ava.ilable).
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Description and Price
Standard Clary Computer Model DE-60
Custom cartridges $2. 50 per step.
90
1
1
1
1
1
Arithmetic center - 6102 and 6202
Input - 6302
Output - 6402
Desk - 6602.01 and 6702.01
Programmer - 6502.01 (including one cartridge of
customer's choice)
2 Plugboards with wires - 6802
$18,000.00 ex-factory San Gabriel, plus all applicable taxes.
~s
delivery for typewriter equipped models.
Contract Terms
Purchase Plan
Prices are ex-factory San Gabriel, plus all applicable taxes.
Ninety (90) day free service and parts warranty.
After first 90 days, service contract available as
follows:
Within 50 miles of service facility 3~ of purchase price per year, plus parts.
Over 50 miles from service facility 3~ of purchase price per year, plus actual round trip travel
expense, plus $10.00 per hour for time actually spent
by each member of service group to and from location,
plus parts.
90 days delivery, unless otherwise provided.
225
DE 60
Photo by Clary Corporation
Lease Plan
Minimum lease period contract three (3) years.
MOnthly lease price, payable in advance, 3 1/2~
of purchase price per month, including service.
Ninety day warranty from installation date for parts.
If unit is located over 50 miles from service facility, customer pays actual round trip mileage additional, plus $10.00 per hour for time spent by each
member of service group for travel time to and from
location.
Ai'ter three (3) year initial period, lease may be
renewed annually as follows:
1. Within 50 mile radius of service facility,
l~ of purchase price per month, including service
plus parts.
2. Over 50 mile radius, l~ of purchase price
per month plus actual round trip mileage, plus $10.00
per hour for actual time spent by each member of service group traveling, plus parts.
Rental Plan
Minimum rental period twelve (12) months.
MOnthly rental is 3% of purchase price per month,
payable in advance, including service and parts if
located within 50 mile radius of service facility.
If located over 50 miles from service facility,
customer pays actual mileage expense of service personnel, plus $10.00 per hour per man for time spent
traveling to and from location.
Sixty (60) day minimum cancellation notice required
after contract period expires.
In the event customer elects to purchase within
two years after renting, 50% of first year's rental
and 40~ of second year's rental may be applied toward the purchase price.
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
System may be used for "open shopll. operation with
no permanent personnel assigned.
Training made available by the manufacturer to
users includes programming and operating instruction
at no charge. A two week maintenance and repair
course is given at no charge. A six week maintenance
and repair course is giV'en at a charge of $600.
DE 60
226
RELIAB I L1TY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
System features and construction techniques utilized
by the manufacturer to insure required reliability
includes modular construction, and plug-in components.
Experience shows 96.5% - 99.9% uptime.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
System is easy to use and program, may be used
manually as a high speed claculator or under auto·
matic control. Large words for high accuracy are
used. Completely decimal with no conversion routines necessary, small size and low power requirements (150 watts), and no cooling are additional
features. System is complete and small enough to
fit right into an office without special site
preparation. Computation may then be done by the
originator at his location.
227
DE 60
DIANA
MANUFACTURER
LFE Diana Computing System
Laboratory for Electronics, Incorporated
APPLICATIONS
System is designed for general purpose business
applications.
quotient appears in the multiplicand register and
the remainder in the product register.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
STORAGE
Internal number system
Binary coded decimal
Decimal digits/word
Variable word and block length
Decimal digits/instruction
10
Instructions per word
1
Instructions decoded
20
Arithmetic system
Fixed point
Instruction type
Two address
(Source and destination)
Number range
Alphanumeric: 0 to 99 characters per
word for computing up to 12 places
Instruction word format
~-
X
Y
Z
D
d
0
P
No. of
No. of
Access
Words
Digits
Micro sec
Variable 200 - 10,000
34
Variable
58 ,500
6 11,000
Variable (1.875-652) x 10 197,000
(sign)
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Incl Stor Access
Exclud Stor Access
Microsec
Micro sec
Add
560
186
Mult
3,137
2,577
Div
4,830
4,270
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Magnetj c Core s
Arithmetic mode
Parallel
Timing
Synchronous (Excepting File Drums)
Operation
Sequential and Concurrent
The operation times given above for addition and
multiplication are for the number 999,999 as operands.
The divide time is for a 5 digit quotient. Computer
operations are mainly sequential. Input-output operations are concurrent with computation. The arithmetic unit may also work concurrently with non-arithmetic operations. Non-arithmetic operations may be
performed concurrently during the last 113 microseconds of the addition time, during the last 2,265
microseconds of multiplication, and during the last
3,966 microseconds of division.
The arithmetic unit consists of the produa;t, multiplier, and multiplicand registers. These registers
are 13 digits in length, with character position 0
holding the sign and character position 12 holding
the most significant character.
Since the system is capable of handling British
sterling notation, the adder, which is part of the
arithmetic unit, operates in sterling notation if
digit d of the addition, subtraction, multiplication,
and round instructions is not a zero. In this case,
scale of 10 operation is specified. Multiplication
is accomplished by halving the multiplier and doubling the multiplicand, with the contents of the multiplicand register being added to the contents of
the product register each time the number in the
multiplier is odd. On the whole, this method of
multiplication is faster than one involving successive additions. Division is accomplished by repeated
subtraction of the divisor from the dividend, with
the dividend initially in the multiplicand register
and the divisor in the multiplier register. The
DIANA
228
Media
Magnetic Core
Hi-Speed Drum
File Drums
Magnetic Tape
Access times given above include drum switching.
The high speed drum rotates at a speed of 100 revolutions per second, recording is performed in parallel and includes 6,000 characters of input-output
buffers.
The file drum rotates at 3 revolutions per second,
recording 6s serial. Each file drum has a capacity
of 15 x 10 bits. Characters may be alphanumeric
or numeric only. The magnetic file drum is the bulk
storage medium. It is 15 inches in diameter by 15
inches long, having a capacity of 1,875,000 alphanumeric characters or 2,500,000 numeric characters.
Any number of these file drums (up to a maximum of
330) can be used in a given installation, and regardless of how many are used, the average random access
time to any part of the entire file remains onesixth of a second. For intermediate and buffer storage a single high-speed drum is used, having a capacity of 58,500 alphanumeric characters and an average
random access time of 10 milliseconds.
Internal working storage (OAST) consists of from
200 to 10,000 characters of magnetic core storage
with an average access time of 34 microseconds. In
addition, there are twelve transfer registers, each
with magnetic core storage for 10 alphanumeric characters.
Since the storage capacity of the magnetic file
drums and of OAST is scalable, a user need acquire
only the ca1>acity required by his application. This
factor, together with a choice of the type and quantity of input and output deVices, provides a flexible
system that can be tailored to the individual requirements of any given application.
File drums are grouped into units of from one to
33 drums per unit (actually from 300 to 10,000 tracks
per unit, which, at 300 tracks per drum, would be a
maximum of 33 1/3 drums per file drum unit.) The
maximum number of file drum units in a given installation is 10. Both the number of file drums per unit
and the number of units are determined by the requirements of the application for which the system
is intended.
Each file drum unit contains its own reading and
writing mechanism and track selection devices. In
locating a record in a file drum unit the computer
must first select the proper track by plaCing the
track number in the track address register. The
track number may be wholly contained in the record
number (tag), or it may be found on an index track
which relates record numbers to the appropriate
track numbers.
Transfers from a file drum unit can be in the form
of a block transfer to OAST, or a word or character
transfer to the arithmetic unit or one of the transfer register. Multiple-block transfer to OAST are
also possible, provided OAST is large enough. Information can be transferred from one file drum
unit to another, a track at a time. If the installation includes a magnetic tape unit, information can
also be transferred from a file drum unit to tape,
a track at a time.
Information can be written on the file drum in
only three ways: by a block transfer from OAST, by
a track transfer from another file drum unit, or by
a track transfer from magnetic tape. During track
transfers in either direction, the computer may perform other operations which do not require the use
of the drums. The time required for a track transfer is 0.6 second. One drum, therefore, can be
loaded or unloaded in three minutes.
On the file drums, information is stored in serial
by bit fashion. On the magnetic tape it is stored
in parallel by bit, serial by character fashion.
The high speed drum serves as an intermediate speed
general storage for the computer and in addition
contains the input-output buffers. This drum sets
the system pulse repetition frequency of 150 kc by
means of an engraved clock track. A second clock
track is used in locating sectors on the drum. This
sector clock track has 20 equal divisions which are
used to locate the 20 sectors of any given band.
The use of bands (adjacent tracks in groups of 7)
permits parallel by bit handling of handling of
characters and a 150 kc frequ~ncy. The capacity of
this drum can be specified for each system arrangement.
Magnetic Core Storage (OAST, Transfer Registers)
OAST has a maximum size of 10,000 characters
arranged into 100 sectors of 10 decades per sector,
10 characters per decade. Its minimum size is two
sectors or 200 characters. Information is located
by sector, decade, and character pOSition, or by
sector and word number. Data is handled in parallel
by bit, serial by character at' a character frequency
of 150 kc. The maximum access time to any characters
is 9 bit times or 60.3 microseconds (the time required to move from the first to the last character
in a decade.)
Information recorded in OAST wipes out the previous characters, while that read from OAST is retained in storage by recirculation of the characters.
In a single-block transfer to OAST, the most significant character of the block transferred is placed
in the zero position of the decade addressed. In a
multiple-block transfer to OAST, the most significant character of the first block transferred is
placed in the zero position of the decade addressed;
following blocks are written densely. The number
of-blocks to be transferred is specified in the
instruction.
Information to be processed or stored can be entered into the system in a number of different ways;
via punched paper tape, punched cards, direct keyboard or in certain cases, via magnetic tape. Output can be via punched paper tape, punched cards,
line printer, direct typewriter cathode ray tube
viewer, or in certain cases, magnetic tape. The
magnetic tape input and output units are more in the
nature of drum loading and unloading devices; they
are used chiefly to store information to which random access is not currently required, or to provide
duplicate storage for security purposes. The International Computers Tabulators MOdel 915.
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Quantity
Tubes
8 types
1,300
Diodes
6 types
62,000
Magnetic Cores
2 types
15,000
Above information is based on the ICT computer
Type
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Single bit errors are detected in all information
and control paths except in the arithmetic unit.
This includes input-output paths, and all data on
the addressed file drum track.
Dual (parallel) arithmetic unit. I f the dual
arithmetic unit is not included, arithmetic operations can be checked by program.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT AND SITE PREPARATION
p
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Area, computer
Room size
Floor loading
90 Kw
12,000 cu ft
1,200 sq ft
30 ft x 40 ft
200 Ibs/ sq ft
250 Ibs concen max
Weight, computer
20,000 Ibs
3 phase, 115V ac, 60 cycles/sec.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
1
I NSTALLAT IONS
This computer is now installed operating at The
International Computers Tabulators, facilities in
England.
INPUT
Media
Paper Tape
Typewriter
Speed
300 char/sec
Manual
OUTPUT
Media
Speed
Paper Tape
60 char/sec
Line Printer
150 lines/min ICT 915
Many different types of input-output equipment may
be used Simultaneously, each working concurrently
with the others and with the computer.
229
DIANA
DIGITRONIC
CONVERTER
MANUFACTU RER
Digitronics Corporation
Digitronics Converter Data Processor
Photo by Digitronics Corporation
APPLICATIONS
System is designed for data conversion from magnetic
tape to paper tape or vice versa, or from one magnetic tape to another, with numerous editing and format
control operations.
trolled selection of alternative outputs and a provision is made for grouping several input messages
into one output message or vice versa.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
STORAGE
Internal number system Binary Coded Decimal
Timing
Asynchronous
Operation
Sequential
System is plugboard programmed. Code translation
is possible from any 6-bit to any other 6-bit code.
Selective translation is based on character position
in a message or on the column splits. Automati~
zero suppression and insertion of editing characters
may be performed as required. There is data-con-
Media
No. of Char
Access Microsec
20
Core Matrix Up to 1,024
Magnetic Tape
2 Units
No. of units that can be connected
No. of chars/linear inch of tape
200 CharS/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape
8 Tracks/tape
Tape speed
75 Inches/sec
Transfer rate
15,000 Chars/sec
5 Millisec
Start time
DIGITRONIC
CONVERTER
230
Stop time
5 Millisec
Tape units normally furnished have above characteristics and handle IBM or Univac compatible tape.
Optional provision for control of Uniservo or IBM
high density tape units.
INPUT
Media
Speed
Tape
15,000 char/sec
Compatible with IBM, Univac, or other specified
system
Punched Paper Tape
1,000 char/sec
Reel/strip or strip only
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Input magnetic tape parity check with automatic reread, output memory parity check, and input paper
tape parity check, if applicable, are among the
checking features. An output magnetic tape readafter-write check is optional.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Y~gnetic
A 30 amp, 115 volts, 60 cycle, power outlet is
required.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
Number on order
Time required for delivery
OUTPUT
Media
Speed
Magnetic Tape
15,000 char/sec
Compatible with IBM, Univac, or other specified
system
Punched Paper Tape
100 char/sec
Using Teletype punch
Punched Paper Tape
240-300 char/sec
Using Soroban punch
Two or more output units can be provided with
selection controlled by first character of message
through plugboard.
Diodes
General Transistor
DX2, DX3
Transistors
GTl170
1228
1229
2
6 - 7 months
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
One technician is required per 8-hour shift.
Training made available by the manufacturer to
the user includes maintenance training.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
There is a wide choice of editing features, all
plugboard controlled. The system relieves a general
purpose computer of the necessity for communication
with any medium slower than magnetic tape, and
handles large proportion of the input and output
editing.
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Type
3
3
Use
All logic circuits
For amplification. These
three types account for over
95% of all transistors used.
231
DIGITRONIC
CONVERTER
DISTRIBUTAPE
MANUFACTURER
Litton Industries
Monroe Calculating Machine Division
Distributing Tape Computer
l~oto
by Monroe Calculating Machine Division
APPLICATIONS
ARITHMETIC UNIT
ConstI~ction (Arithmetic unit only)
Distributape was designed as a special purpose
computer to sort and summarize at high speed unit
record information which as been recorded in the
medium of punched paper tape. This computer finds
application in those areas where source data can
be recorded on punch tape--such data being recorded
in random sequence and whose subsequent processing
requires sorting and summarizing for use in statistical or financial reports.
Vacuum-Tubes
Diodes
Arithmetic mode
Timing
Operation
STORAGE
No. of
Medium
Words
Magnetic Drum
1,000
Access time is average.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Arithmetic system
Number range
0 to ±lOll
Binary
Fixed point
INPUT
Programming is controlled partially by instructions contained in input tapes and partially by control switch selection.
DISTRIBUTAPE
Type 5965
130
Type IN636 1,700
Serial
Synchronous
Sequential
232
Medium
Paper Tape
Speed
235 char/sec
Access
Microsec
8,000
OUTPUT
COSTv PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Speed
17 char/sec
Medium
Paper Tape
The Distributape Computer and the Model 135 Printer
are available at a total cost of $45,000 or a monthly
rental of approximately $1,250.
Service contracts are available for customer owned
machines at $2,000/year. Rental contract prices
include service.
, CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Quantity
Type
Tubes
Primarily 5965
Diodes,
Primarily lN636
Transistors
150
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
1,964
64
System reQuires 1 operator for each 8-hour shift.
Training is made available by the manufacturer
to the user.
CHECKI NG FEATURES
RELIAB I L1TY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENCE v
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Checking features include a paper tape parity
check, a proof total balance check, and an instruction code seQuence check.
POWER SPACED WEIGHT v AND SITE PREPARATION
Operating experience with two machines currently
in use indicates that usable computer time as a percent age of operating time can be maintained at 95
per cent or higher.
8
Power, computer
2
Volume, computer
45
Area, computer
9
Room size
300
Floor loading
50
Weight, computer
450
Utilities reQuired is one 30
115 volts, AC, 60 cycles.
Kw
cu ft
SQ ft
SQ ft
lbs/sQ ft
lbs
amp service outlet,
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Address selection and sort control feature permits
a rapid flexible means of sorting data in many different ways without use of plugboards.
This system provides a means for sorting and
summarizing data which has been recorded in random
seQuence in the medium of punched paper tape.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
Time reQuired for delivery
3
2
6 months
233
DISTRIBUTAPE
DYSEAC
MANUFACTURER
Second Standards Electronic Automatic Computer
Electronic Computer Laboratory
Data Processing Systems Division
National Bureau of Standards
U. S. Department of Commerce
Photo by the National Bureau of Standards
APPLICATIONS
ARITHMETIC UNIT
General purpose, Simulation, real-time control.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary digits/word
Binary digitS/instruction
Instructions per word
Instructions decoded
Instructions used
Arithmetic system
Instruction type
NUmber range
UYSEAC
Binary
45 plus check digit
45 plus check digit
1
16
16
Fixed point
Three address
(4 - 2-42 ) ~
n
~ (4 _ 2- 42 )
Time
Add
Mult
Div
Construction
Incl Stor Access
Mlcrosec
192 - 1,536
2,304 - 3,648
2,304 - 3,648
Exclud Stor Access
Mlcrosec
48
2,112
2,112
Diode gates, tube amplifiers, and
electrical delay lines
Rapid access word registers
3
Basic pulse repetition rate
One megacycle/sec.
A four phase clock is used.
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Storage and arithmetic processing are
serial. Input-output external control are concurrent
with arithmetic operations. In addition to the normal complement of operations, the operations of summation, accumulation, overflow check, justification,
shift, and file are also included.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT v AND SITE PREPARATION
STORAGE
Access
Words
Digits
Micro sec
Media
Mercury Delay Line
48-384
24,576
512
There is provision for up to 4,096 words of high
speed storage. In addition, the computer has provisions for the attachment of many multi-channel
magnetic tape or wire units, and a magnetic drum.
These would operate concurrently with computation
operations.
12 Kw
20 KVA
Power, computer
Power, air condo
35 KVA
Volume, computer
270 cu ft
Volume, air conditioner
750 cu ft
CapaCity, air conditioner
18 Tons
There are two trailer vans. Van No. 1 contains the
control console, input-output, computer, storage, and
12 tons of refrigeration capacity. Its internal dimensions are approximately 39 x 7 x 9 feet and weighs
about 12 tons. Van No. 2 contains DC power supplies,
6 tons of refrig~ration capacity, and 1,700 cubic
feet of spare space. This van also has internal dimensions of 39 x 7 x 9 feet. It weighs 8 tons.
INPUT
Speed
Media
Keyboard
Paper Tape Reader
Magnetic Wire
Manual
PRODUCTION RECORD
10 char/sec
3,500 dig/sec
Keyboard and punched paper tape reader is a Flexowriter. Alpha-numeric operation is utilized. There
is provision for the attachment of a wide variety of
input devices that would operate concurrently with
computation. There is also a one-word addressable
switch memory via a serializer unit.
Number produced
1
Number operating
1
The DYSEAC was designed and constructed by the
Electronic Computer Laboratory of the National Bureau
of Standards as part of a developnent program under
the sponsorship of the Department of Defense. It
was delivered to the Signal Corps in May 1954.
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCED
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
OUTPUT
Acceptance test passed in April 1954.
Speed
10 alphanum char/sec
60 char/sec
2,000 words/sec
3,500 dig/sec
There is provision for the attachment of a wide
variety of output devices that would operate concurrently with computation.
Media
Typewriter (Flexowriter )
Paper Tape Punch
CRT Display Unit
Magnetic Wire
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
For fUrther information on this system see
Transactions of the IRE-PGEC, Vol. EC-3, No.1,
Mar. 1954.
Transactions of the IRE-PGEC, Vol. EC-3, No.2,
June 1954.
Journal of the ACM, Vol. 1, No.2, pp 57-81,
April 1954.
Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 41, Oct. 1953,
pp 1380-1387.
Circular No. 551 National Bureau of Standards,
January 1955.
Two counter-registers are provided for progr~
sequencing. Each counter holds a twelve-binarydigit address. The coder may select the address in
either counter as the address of the next instruction to be performed. Also, either counter-register
can fUrnish the base number for relative addresses.
Major design emphasis was placed on versatility of
control facilities and on latitude for expansion of
the installation. The versatility is achieved by
(1) the concurrent input-output property, (2) a
self-regulation property which allows the external
environment to automatically control the pace of the
internal work program, (3) an interruption property
which enables the machine to handle unscheduled job
assignments which originate externally without advance notice and must be executed as soon as possible,
and (4) the preceding three properties acting in concert enable the machine to be employed as a control
element in a generalized feedback loop.
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Tubes
Tube type s
Crystal diodes
Separate cabinets
900
90~ are 1 type
24,500
2
There are 524 tubes in the central computer and 350
in the storage unit. The central computer utilizes
21,500 crystal diodes. The central computer has two
basic types of package. One type contains tube
amplifiers and diode gates. The other type contains
delay lines and diode gates. There are 524 tube
packages and 251 delay-line packages.
CHECKING FEATURES
Fixed
Odd - even parity check on storage.
Optional
Automatic program jump or print-outs are optional
upon detection of a memory error. Also available
for program checking are a wide variety of automonitoring operations for loading and printing out
of internal storage locations and substituting new
instructional addresses. Each word is checked as
it is read from. the memory. A real-time clock periodically initiates a storage scan which checks the
entire storage.
235
DIBEAC
EDVAC
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
MANUFACTU RER
Moore School of Electrical Engineering
University of Pennsylvania
U. S. Army Photo
APPLICATIONS
Ballistic Research Laboratories
Exterior ballistics problems such as high altitude, solar and lunar trajectories, computation for
the preparation of firing tables and guidance control data for Ordnance weapons, including free,
flight and guided missiles.
Interior ballistic problems, including projectile,
propellant and launcher behavior, e.g. physical
characteristics of solid propellants, equilibrium
composition and thermodynamic properties of rocket
propellants, computation of detonation waves for
reflected shock waves, vibration of gun barrels
and the flow of fluids in porous media.
Terminal ballistic problems, including nuclear,
fragmentation and penetration effects in such areas
as explosion kinetics, shaped charge behavior,
ignition, and heat transfer.
Ballistic measurement problems, including photogrammetric, ionospheric, and damping of satellite
spin calculations, reduction of satellite doppler
tracking data, and computation of satellite orbital
EDVAC
elements.
Weapon systems eValuation problems, including
anti-aircraft and anti-missile evaluation, war
game problems, Linear programming for solution of
Army logistical problems, probabilities of mine
detonations, and lethal area and kill probabilities
of mine detonations, and lethal area and kill
probabilits studies of missiles.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary
Binary digits per word
44
B~ary digits per instruction
4 bits/command
10 bits each address
Instructions per word
1
Instructions decoded
16
Instructions used
12
Arithmetic system
Floating and Fixed point
Instruction type
Four-address code
EDVAC Floating Point
U. S . .Army Photo
Number range
Fixed
Construction
Number o~ rapid access
Basic pulse repetition
Arithmetic mode
Timing
Operation
The ~ractional part o~ ~loating point number has 33
bits plus sign, and the exponent o~ 2 may range ~rom
-512 to +511.
Instruction word
STORAGE
~ormat
Number
Number o~
Access Microsec
Media
of Words
Digits
Mercury A.D.L. 1,024
48-384
48-384
Magnetic Drum 4,608
48/Word
17,000
Includes relay hunting and closure.
The rate o~ information trans~er to and from the
drum is at one megacycle per second. The block
length is optional from 1 to 384 words per trans~er
instruction.
Magnetic Tape
48/Word
Maximum number o~ units that can
be connected to the system
7 Units
Maximum number o~ characters per
112 Char/inch
linear inch o~ tape
Channels or tracks on the tape
8 Track/tape
Blarik tape separating each record 1.5 Inches
AR ITHMET'I C UNIT
Microsec
Add time (includ. store access)
(min 192 max 1,536)
Mult time (includ. store access)
(min 2,.208 max 3,552)
Div time (includ. store access)
(min 2,256 max 3,600)
Vacuum-tubes and Diode-gates
word registers
4
rate
1.0 megacycle/sec
Serial
Synchronous
Sequential
864
2,880
2,930
237
EDVAC
75 Inches/sec
Tape speed
3 Milliseconds
Start time
3 Milliseconds
Stop time
Average time for experienced
30 Seconds
operator to change reel of tape
Physical properties of tape
Width
5/8 Inches
Length of reel
1250/2500 Feet
Composition
Red Oxide
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Space, computer
Weight, computer
P~~r, air condo
Space, air condo
Weight, air condo
Capacity, air condo
The magnetic tape system has the following
features:
Variable block length from 2 to 1,024 words.
The search order releases the machine for computation during search.
Information which has been taken from a block
wld operated upon, can be automatically re-recorded
in the same block.
52 K.W.
490 sq. ft. floor
17,300 lbs.
25 K.W.
6 sq. ft. floor
4,345 Ibs.
20 Tons
PRODUCTION RECORD
Nwnber produced
Nwnber in current operation
1
1
COSTv PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
INPUT
Media
Photoelectric Tape Reader
Speed
sexadec Char/sec
words/sec
cards/min
words/card
942
78
146
8
Card Reader (IBM)
Approximate cost, basic system
$467,000
Rental rates for additional equipment
I.B.M.
card reader
$82.50 per month
I.B.M.
card punch
$93.50 per month
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Typical Personnel
OUTPUT
Media
Paper Tape Perf.
6
30
6
30
125
1,000
Teletypewri:ter
Card Punch
Supervisors
Analysts
Programmers Wld Coders
Clerks
Engineers
Technicians
Speed
sexadec Char/sec
words/min
sexadec Char/sec
words/min
cards/min
words/min
6v6
Quantity
Type
Quantity
6AN5
2D2l
6SN(
6AS6
Misc
275
160
150
50
500
6
5,937
1,000
1,500
1,127
900
275
6L6
12,000
Diodes, total
6,000
Misc
lN297
4,800
IN 34
Transistors, total
328
2N123
256
2N398
60
2NlO08B
2N167
4
2N 43
RELIABILITY OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
p
Average error-free running time
Good time
Attempted to run time
Operating ratio
1,200
Approx. 8 hours
145 hours/week
168 hours/week
0.87
Figures based on last 3 years.
The 23 hours per week are devoted to scheduled and
unscheduled maintenance, testing, modifications and
improvements, time lost due to error, etc. The 145
hours are good, useful production time.
EDVAC has been operating since 1949.
4
4
CHECKING FEATURES
Two arithmetic units perform computation simultaneously, discrepancies halt machine.
Unused commands halt machine.
Paper tape reader error detection.
EDVAC
1
1
No engineers are assigned to the operation of the
machine, but are used for development and design of
additions to the machine. The techniciWls consult
the engineers when a total break-down occurs.
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Type
Tubes, total
6y6
6J6
6AG7
Three 8-Hour Shifts
6
3
14
238
I NSTALLATI ONS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Oscilloscope and neon indicator for viewing contents of any storage locations at any time.
Exceed capacity options: halt, ignore, transfer
control, or go to selected location.
Unused instruction (command) halt.
Storage of previously executed instruction and
which storage location it came from, for viewing
during code checking.
Storage of current instruction and storage location it originated from.
Address halt when prescribed address appears in
any of 4 addresses of instruction to be executed by
computer.
Tape reader error detection.
Built in automatic floating point equipment.
Magnetic tape auxiliary storage unit and high
speed printing techniques are being investigated.
Punching one card requires from 384 to 768 microseconds. The computer may proceed between cards.
Ballistic Research Laboratories
Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
FUTURE PLANS
A second magnetic drum system, of 16,128 words
capacity is being added to the EDVAC. The transistorized track selector will permit channel switching in 48 microseconds.
Synchronous Magnetic Drum
U. S. Army Photo
239
EDVAC
ELECOM 50
MANUF ACTU RER
Underwood Corporation
Electronic Computer Division
Electronic Computer Type 50
Photo by UnderNood Corporation, Electronic Computer Division
APPLICATIONS
STORAGE
Commercial (Out of Production)
Media
Words
Magnetic Drum (Main)
100
Magnetic Drum (Working
3
Registers)
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Dec imaJ. digit s per word
Instructions decoded
Arithmetic system
Number range
Decimal
10 plus sign
42 plus combinations
Fixed point
.000001 to 99999999
Access
Microsec
33,000
325
INPUT
Med1.a
Keyboard
Paper Tape
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Exclud Stor Access
Microsec
650
39,000
Vacuum tubes
Speed
Manual
20 dec dig/sec
OUTPUT
Add time
Mu.lt time
Construction
Rapid access word registers
3
Basic pulse re~etition rate
67 Kc/sec
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Sequential
One minor cycle is 650 microseconds. Multiplication requires 60 minor cycles.
ELECOM 50
Digits
1,000
30
Media
Speed
Printers (Two-gang)
10 char/sec
Paper Tape
2 dec dig/ sec
The printers operate in parallel.
240
RELIAB I LlTY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENCE
AND TIME AVAI LAB I LlTY
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Tubes
160
Tube types
5
Crystal diodes
2,000
Number of different kinds of plug-in units
Number of separate cabinets, excluding
power supplies and air conditioners
Manufacturer
Average error-free running period
2
50
20
750
6 Hours
42
3
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Manufacturer
Simple operation
Programming by manufacturer
2,400 step program tape
Interchangeable program tapes
POWER. SPACE. WEIGHT. AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Area, computer
Weight, computer
D
Kw
cu ft
sq ft
Ibs
INSTALLATIONS
(As of June 1957)
Underwood Corporation
Electronic Computer Division
35-10 36th Avenue
Long Island City 6, New York (1)
PRODUCTION RECORD
System is out of production. As of June 1957,
the following figures were reported:
Produced
3
In production
50
Operating
3
On order
50
Underwood Corporation
One Park Avenue
New York, New York (2)
American Telephone and Telegraph Company
195 Broadway
New York 7, New York
COSTv PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Approximate cost of basic system
Rental rates of basic system
(As of June 1957)
$22,500
600/month
$
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Manufacturer
Daily Operation
One 8-hour shift
Two 8-hour shifts
Three 8-hour shifts
Tech and Operators
1
2
3
241
ELECOM 50
ELECOM
100
MANUFACTU RER
Underwood Corporation
Electronic Computer Division
Electronic Computer Model 100
APPLI CATIONS
Photo by Underwood Corporation, Electronic Computer Division
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Manufacturer
Engineering and scientific. System not in production.
U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground
Missiles, aircraft systems accuracy, expansion of
firing tables, fire control problems.
Reeves Instrument Company
The computer is owned by the U.S. Navy, Bureau of
Aeronautics, and is operated by Reeves Instrument
Company under Project Cyclone.
Construction
Basic pulse repetition
Arithmetic mode
Timing
Vacuum tubes
rate
100 Kc/sec
Serial
Synchronous (Magnetic Drum)
Asynchronous (Magnetic Tape)
Operation
Sequential
25-50 operations per second may be performed, including drum storage access.
PROGRAMMI NG AND NUMER I CAL SYSTEM
STORAGE
Internal number system
Binary
30
Binary digits per word
Binary digits/instruction
30
Instructions per word
1
Instructions decoded
8
Instructions used
8
Arithmetic system
Fixed point
Instruction type
Three address
Number range
_ ( 4-2 -27) to (4-2 -27 )
'rhe 8 instructions include an "external operation"
which, in turn, includes six different operations.
Octal number system is used.
Media
Words
Access Microsec
Magnetic Drum
512
20,000
Magnetic Tape
60,000
Access time is the maximum value. One block of tape
is equivalent to one channel on the drum (64 words).
A transfer, or movement of one block takes approximately 2 seconds.
ELECOM 100
INPUT
Media
Typewriter (Flexowriter)
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
Typewriter
242
OUTPUT
Speed
Manual
7.5 octal dig/sec
7.5 char dig/sec
Photo by U. S. Army Development and Proof Services
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Tubes
230
Tube types
6
Crystal diodes
2,200
Separate cabinets
2
Number of different kinds of plug-in units
5
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Overflow indication and halt
Out of synchronous for tape and halt
Engineering diagnostic tests
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Area, computer
3.5 Kw
120 SQ ft
PRODUCTION RECORD
(June 1957 figures)
Number produced
Number operating
System out of production
3
3
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
One engineer and one technician required per 8 hour
shift.
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
First unit passed acceptance test on 9 December 1952.
u. s. Army, Aberdeen Proving Ground, D & PS
Good time
1,471 Hours
Attempted to run time
2,225 Hours
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time)
0.66
FUTURE PLANS
System is no longer being manufactured.
I NSTAllATI ONS
Development and Proof Services
Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Reeves Instrument Corporation
215 E. 91st Street
New York 28, New York
COSTv PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
(June 1957 figures)
Approximate cost of basic system $60,000.
System is no longer in production.
ELECOMloo
ELEGOM 120
MANUFACTURER
Underwood Corporation
Electronic Computer Division
Electronic Computer Model 120
Photo by Underwood Corporation, Electronic Computer Division
APPLI CATIONS
Manufacturer
Engineering and scientific applications. (Out of
production) .
Westinghouse Electric Corporation
IDcated at the Kansas City, Missouri, Engineering
Department, the system is used for all types scientific computing, e.g. mechanical design, and stress
calculations, and for semi-automatic data reduction.
Shell Development Company
IDcated at 3737 Bellaire Blvd., Hou:::;ton, Texas, the
system is used for scientific calculations arising
in research and for data processing.
HADC Griffiss Air Force Base
IDcated in Bldg. 102, HADC, Griffiss AFB, N. Y., the
system is used for scientific and engineering applications.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Decimal digits/word
Decimal digits/instruction
Instructions per word
Instructions decoded
Instructions used
BLECOM 120
Decimal
8 plus sign
10
1
33
33
244
Arithmetic system
Instruction type
Number range
Fixed point
Fixed and floating point
Two address
- ( 10-10 -10)
~ n ~
(1-10
-10)
Floating point Exponent -50 ~ c ~ 49
8
Coefficient _(1_10- 8 ) ~ c ~ (1-10- )
Floating point operation is optional and is supplied
with fixed point at extra cost.
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Manufacturer
Exclud Stor Access
Microsec
Add time
330
Mult time
18,300
Div time
18,700
Construction
Vacuum tubes and crystal diodes
Rapid access word registers
3
Basic pulse repetition rate
105 Kc/sec
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Sequential
Above operation times are for average 10 digit multiplier, dividend and divisor, respectively.
Photo by Griffiss Air Force Base, RADC
STORAGE
Manufacturer
Access
Media
Words
Microsec
Magnetic Drum
1,000-10,000
8,300 avg.
Magnetic Drum
10-100
1,670 avg.
Main storage is on singl'e head per channel basis.
Fast access storage is a group of recirculating
channels.
Griffiss .AFB
Access
Digits
Microsec
Words
Media
1,000
8 plus sign 20,000 max.
Magnetic Drum
330 min.
8 plus sign
Magnetic Tape (2) 125,000
1,600
(Potter Mod 902)
Shell
8 plus sign 20 000 max
Magnetic Drum
1,000
8 plus sign 10~/50 words
Magnetic Tape
100,000
Westinghouse
8
Drum
1,010
330
INPUT
Manufacturer.
Media
Speed
Typewriter
Manual and 8 Char/sec
Paper Tape reader
8 to 400 char/sec
Magnetic Tape
400 char/sec
The typewriter is standard equipment. The nigh-speed
paper tape reader is optional. One magnetic tape
unit is supplied as standard equipment. Standard
model includes controls for additional tape units.
Griffiss AFB
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
8 Char/sec
Paper Tape (Ferranti)
200 char/sec
Manual
Keyboard (Flexowriter)
Shell
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
1 word/sec
Paper Tape (Ferranti)
20 words/sec
Manual
Keyboard (Flexowriter)
·For program check-out and manual modification of
program on data. Paper tape reading system does not
operate satisfactorily. There is no error detection
in reading.
Westinghouse
Paper Tape
200 Char/sec
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
8 char/sec
ELECOM 120
Photo by Griffiss Air Force Base, RADC
OUTPUT
CHECKING FEATURES
Manufacturer
Media
Speed
Typewriter
8 char/sec
Paper Tape
8 or 60 char/sec
Magnetic Tape
400 char/sec
Typewri ter is standard equipment. High speed
paper tape punch is optional.
Griffiss AFB
Typewriter (Flexowriter)
8 char/sec
Shell
Typewriter (Flexowriter)
1 word/sec
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
1 word/sec
Paper Tape (Yawman)
6 words/sec
Westinghouse
Paper Tape
60 char/sec
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
8 char/sec
Typewriter (Flexowriter)
8 char/sec
Internal check for forbidden pulse combinations and
check of drum-writing operations. Parity check on
tapes with automatic re-read.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Tubes
400
Crystal diodes
4,500
95% of tubes are of two basic types. This system
utilizes the 12AT7, 6CL6, 5687, and 2C51 in the arithmetic unit. Diodes used are lN34A, lNl40 and lN91.
ELECOM 120
246
Manufacturer
Power, computer
5 to 7 Kw
Volume, computer
200 cu ft
Weight, computer
3,500 Ibs
These figures are for computer complete with control
desk and one tape unit.
Griffiss AFB
Power, computer
7 Kw
7.5 KVA
0.9 pf
Volume, computer
200 cu ft
Area, computer
50 sq ft
Room size
400 sq ft
Weight, computer
4,500 lbs
Computer sets on locally fabricated false floor.
Air conditioner is shared with many other equipments.
Photo by Republic Aviation Corporation
Shell
Power, computer
7 Kw
7.5 KVA
0.9 p~
Volume, computer
200 cu ~t
Area, computer
93 sq ~t
Room size
10 ~t x 20 ~t
Floor loading
35 lbs/sq ~t
Weight, computer
3,500lbs
Sound-proo~ material on walls.
Exhaust system.
Two tons additional air-conditioning in air-conditioned
room.
Westinghouse
Power, computer
5 Kw
5 KVA
Power, air cond
4.4 KVA
0.8 p~
Volume, computer
250 cu ~t
Volume, air conditioner
42 cu ~t
Area; computer
95 sq ~t
Area, air conditioner
6.5 sq ~t
Room size, computer
20 ~t x 20 ~t
Room size, air conditioner
5 ~t x 4 ~t min
Floor loading
40 lbs/sq ~t
800 lbs concen max
Capacity, air conditioner
5 Tons
Weight, computer
4,000 lbs
Weight, air conditioner
940 lbs
Power distribution trans~ormer. 5 ton air conditioner.
PRODUCTION RECORD
(June 1957)
Number produced
5
Number in operation
5
System is no longer in production.
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Manu~acturer
(June 1957)
Approximate cost o~ basic system
$97,000. Rental
rates o~ basic system $3,500/month ~or complete system, including maintenance.
System is out o~ production.
Griffiss AFB
System purchased at $90,000 plus $35,000 ~or additional equipment.
Shell
Purchased at $90,000, for central processor, control
desk, Ferranti reader, Yawman punch, and Potter tape
device.
Westinghouse
Basic system purchased at $90,000.
Mditional equipment
High Speed Punch
$ 3,600
Photo Electric Reader
5,000
(2) Flexowriters
5,200
Test Equipment
2,000
ELECOM 120
Photo by Shell Development Company, Exploration and Production Research Division
Westinghouse
Card to tape converter rents at $85.
Maintenance performed by local computer group.
One 8-Hour Shift
Recommended
Used
1
1
1
0
3
3
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
One 8-Hour
Shift
Engineers
1
Tech and Operators 1
Griffiss AFB
Two 8-Hour
Shifts
2
2
Three 8-Hour
Shifts
3
3
One 8-Hour Shift
Used
Recommended
l!;ng1.neers
1
1
Operation tends toward closed shop.
Methods of training used include instruction manuals
and on-the-job training.
Shell
Five persons are utilized with the system, covering
two 8-hour shifts and performing the functions of
supervision, analysis, programming, coding,. operating,
and engineering.
ELECOM 120
248
Supervisors
Analysts
Programmers
4
Coders
3
Clerks
0
2
1
Operators
1
1
Engineers
1
Operation tends toward open shop.
Methods of training include on-the-job training,
formal classes, assign new personnel to work with
experienced. All system information for Elecom 120
only. Magnetic tape use has been discontinued.
RELIAB I LlTY, OPERATI NG ·EXPER I ENeE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run) 0.90 to 0.95
Figure based on eight month period.
Above up-times (machine time available for problem
work divided by total time) reported for 5 Elecom 120
Computer installations. At one location, up-times
of 100~ and 99.9~ were obtained for two successive
months.
Photo by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Aviation Gas Turbine Division
Shell
Average error-free running period
5 Hours
Good time
80 Hoursjweek (Average)
Attempted to run time
100 Hours/Week (Average)
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run t~me) 0.80
Above figures based on period from Jun 59 to May 60
Passed Customer Acceptance Test
Jun 54
Time is not available for rent to outside organizations.
Westinghouse
Good time
60 Hours/Week (Average)
Attempted to run time
62 Hours/Week (Average)
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.97
Above figures based on period from May 54 to Apr 60
Passed Customer Acceptance Test
May 54
Time is not available for rent to outside organizations.
Above time is average for a 6 year period. Drastic
changes in scheduled work load have occurred during
this time.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Westinghouse
An outstanding feature is the high speed input-output, compared to internal speed mixture of numeric
and alphebetic information. System is very good with
automatic data taking and plotting equipment.
Little is given to magnetic tape protection except
air conditioning for temperature.
Little preventive maintenance done. Circuit modifications have been made that increase reliability. 6677
tubes to replace 6CL6 have improved system.
FUTURE PLANS
Shell
Retirement is planned during last quarter of 1960.
INSTALLATIONS
Rome Air Development Center
Griffiss Air Force Base, New York
Shell Development Company
3737 Bellaire Blvd.
Houston, Texas
Westinghouse Electric Company, Box 288
Kansas City, Missouri
ELECOM 120
ELECOM 125 125 FP
Elecom Type 125 Computer and Elecom Type 125 File
Processor
MANUFACTU RER
Underwood Corporation
Electronic Computer Division
Photo by Underwood Corporation, Electronic Computer Division
collate-separate, SUbstitute-separate, collate-select-separate.
APPLICATIONS
Manufacturer
Commercial, engineering and scientific. The Elecom
125FP is primarily commercial. The system is no
long~r in production.
Sandia Corporation
Located in Building 880 at the Sandia Corporation,
Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Elecom 125 is used for
scientific computation and engineering studies.
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Exclud Stor Access
Micro sec
~time
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Decimal
Decimal digits/word
10 and sign
Decimal digitS/instruction 10
Instructions/word
1
Instructions decoded
36
Instructions used
36
Arithmetic system
Floating and fixed
Instruction type
Two address
Number range
8
Coefficient range _(1_10- ) ~ c ~ (1_10~8)
Exponent range
Fixed point range
-50 < e < 49
_(l_~O-lO) <
n < (1_10-10 )
Floating point is optional at extra cost and is
additional to fixed point. Fixed point is standard.
The Elecom 125FP utilizes 2 decimal dig/alpha char.
It operates on "Items" containing any integral number of words. Fixed program, switch-selected; sequ.ence, collate, select, collate and select, separate,
and substitute. The following combinational operations are available as an option: Select-separate,
ELECOM 125
125 FP
3~
Mult time
18,300
Div time
18,700
Construction
Vacuum tubes
Rapid access word registers
3
Basic pulse repetition rate
132 Kc/sec
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Sequential
Above operation time is based on average 10 decimal
digit multiplier, dividend and divisor.
Sandia Corporation
Incl Stor Access
Exclud Stor Access
Microsec
Micro sec
~time
3,500
330
Mult time
22,000
18,000
Div time
22,000
18,000
The above figures are obtained for 10 digit numbers.
250
STORAGE
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
5-7 Kw
Volume, computer
400 cu ft
Weight, computer
4,000 lbs
Capacity, air conditioner
5 Tons
Volume and weight figures are for computer (complete)
with control desk and three tape units. Room air
conditioning is recommended. No built-in air conditioning is supplied with system.
Elecom 125 FP requires 7 Kw and occupies 200 cu ft,
including control desk and 5 magnetic tape units.
Five tons of room air conditioning is recommended.
No built-in air conditioning is supplied with system.
Sandia Corp.
Power, computer
20 KVA
Power, air conditioner
2 KVA
Volume, computer
250 cu ft
Area, computer
50 sq ft
Weight, computer
8,000 lbs
Site preparation includes platforms over connecting
cables, duct work over units to draw air through units
for cooling, and normal dust prevention.
Access
Media
Words
Microsec
Magnetic Drum
4,000 to 10,000
8,300 avg.
Magnetic Drum
50 to 100
1,670 avg.
Main storage operates on a single head per channel
basis. The rapid-access storage is a recirculation
channel. The Elecom 125 FP has a 100 word acoustic
delay line.
Sandia Corp.
Digits
Media
Words
10 plus sign
Magnetic Drum
4,000
Paper Tape
Magnetic Tape
INPUT
Media
Speed
Typewri ter
8 char/sec and Manual
Paper Tape
8 to 400 char/sec
Magnetic Tape
6,000 char/sec
Cards (IBM 528 or similar)
The typewriter is standard equipment. The high
speed tape reader and punched card unit is optional.
Magnetic tape synchronizing circuits and controls
are included as standard equipment. The Elecom 125
FP unit is utilized in conjunction with magnetic tape
and typewriter. The typewriter and punched paper
tape are used for checking and control.
Sandia Corp.
Paper Tape
400 char/sec
Magnetic Tape
7,500 char/sec
Manual
PRODUCTION RECORD
Manufacturer
(June 1957 figures)
Number produced
6
In production
2
Number in operation
6
On Order
3
System is no longer in production.
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Manufacturer
(June 1957 figures)
OUTPUT
Speed
Media
Typewriter
8 Char/sec
Paper Tape
8 or 60 Char/sec
Magnetic Tape
6,000 Char/sec
6,000 Char/sec
Cards (IBM 523)
Tabulation (IBM 407)
Typewriter is standard equipment. High speed
paper tape and card equipment are optional.
Sandia Corp.
8 Char/sec
Typewriter (Flexowri~er)
Paper Tape
60 char/sec
Magnetic Tape
7,500 Char/sec
Price
$155,000
Computer only
Computer System with File Processor
File Processor only
350~000
to
450,,000
85 1 000
Monthly
Rental
$4, 18 5
8,500 to 9,500
2,295
Computer only
Computer System with File Processor
File Processor only
Sandia Corp.
Console, main frame, power supply, storage, tape
drive (4 ea.), paper tape punch, Ferranti, paper tape
reader, and Flexowriter cost $122,500.
Three Flexowriters are used at a total cost of
$7,578 •
CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM
Manufacturer
Tubes
450 for Elecom 125; 250 for 125 FP
Diodes
2,500 for Elecom 125 FP
95% of the tubes are of 2 types. Tube types used
are the 6CL6, l2AT7, 5687, and the 5670.
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour
Shifts
Shifts
Shift
Engineers
1
2
3
Tech & Operators
1
2
3
Above figures are the same for the File Processor.
Sandia Corp.
One operator, trained on the job, is required. Present use is primarily for engineering studies with Job
requestor operating facility himself.
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Manufacturer
Internal check for forbidden pulse combinations
Check of drum writing circuits
Parity check on tape with automatic re-read.
The Elecom 125 FP makes a parity check on all data.
Sandia Corp.
Magnetic tape circuits contain check to determine if
block read contains same number of digits as block
contained when written. Automatic re-read takes
place if error is detected. The storage signals are
continuously monitored for forbidden combinations.
251
ELECOM 125
125 FP
RELIAB I LlTY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
FUTURE PLANS
Manufacturer
Elecom Universal Data Converter - A device for
transcribing data between Elecom magnetic tapes and
those of other manufacturers. In addition, the converter will be able to handle punched paper tape and
punched cards. The converter is designed to make
the Elecom 125 System, or the Elecom 125 Computer
compatible with the input/output from it to any other
data processing equipment currently manufactured.
Manufacturer
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run) 0.90 to 0.95
Figures based on an eight-month period.
Above up-times (machine time available for problem
work divided by total time) reported for 5 Elecom
120 computer installations. (Much of the Elecom
l25 internal circuitry is substantially the same as
that of Elecom 120). At one location, up times of
100% and 99.9% were obtained for two successive
months.
Sandia Corp.
System is used very little at present time.
INSTALLATIONS
(As of June 1957)
Sand,ia Corporation (2)
Albuquerque, New Mexico
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Underwood Corporation (1)
Data ProceSSing Center
New York City, New York
Manufacturer
Two (2) four-digit base registers (B-boxes) are
included as standard equipment.
An important partner in the Elecom 125 System is
the Elecom File Processor. This is an entirely separate piece of equipment, designed and engineered
to handJ.e the sequencing, collating, extracting and
similar operations necessary in day-to-day business
applications.
The Elecom File Processor extracts from the voluminous "Library Tapes", the particular items upon
which processing is to be done. It is the job of
the Elecom File Processor to pick the pertinent
items out of the tape file, so that the associated
Computer wastes no time in "searching" through unwanted items. Once the items have been processed
by the Elecom 125 Computer the Elecom File Processor
puts them back into their proper place (in sequence)
in the main file.
The picture shows the Elecom File Processor on the
left, the Elecom 125 Computer on the right. The
Magnetic Tape Units and the Magnetic Tape Interconnecting panel are in the rear. The Elecom HighSpeed Line Printer is not shown.
ELECOM 125
125 FP
The Texas Company
Houston, Texas
Sylvania Electric Corporation (1)
Waltham, Massachusetts
252
253
ELECOM
125 125
FP
FADAC
Field Artillery Digital Automatic Computer
MANUFACTU RER
Autonetics Division
North American Aviation, Incorporated
Photo by U.
APPLICATIONS
FADAC -Field Artillery Digital Automatic Computer
is a rugged, general purpose, portable computer developed under the sponsorship of Frankford Arsenal.
FADAC design is based on the existing requirements
for solving gunnery problems of tube artillery, free
rockets, and missiles. Extreme versatility also enables solution of field artillery support computations related to surveying, counter battery, fire
planning, flash and sound ranging, reduction of meteorological data, and master control and programming
for automatic checkout of missile systems.
Mechanization of FADAC is based on solution of the
differential equations of projectile motion from
firing to impact. Necessary input data such as target location, powder temperature, gun location, meteorological data (inserted manually or by tape reader)
are entered by means of a simplified keyboard. FADAC
training time for experienced fire control personnel
is extremely short. When all data are entered, de-
FADAC
s.
Army
pression of a button initiates computation; gun orders
comprising def:Lection, quadrant elevation, fuze time,
and charge are displayed in decimal form.
A high-speed automatic logic tester and a component
tester are also available with FADAC; these are in
addition to the self-checking features within the
computer.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary
Binary digits/word
35
Binary digitS/instruction
35
Instructions/word
I
Arithmetic system
Fixed point
Instruction type
I plus I
Address of operand and next instruction
Control Panel of the FADAC Computer
Photo by U. S. Army
The matrix switches (A) allow the operator to enter fire control parameters or select prestored parameters.
Depression of one button in the vertical row and one button in the horizontal row selects one of sixty-four
locations and identifies one particular problem parameter. The manual keyboard (B) allows the operator to
enter problem infor.mation for different type fire missions which has not been prestored in the memory. The
mechanical tape reader (C) is used for entering the meteorological data which are contained on a punched
tape. Final problem solutions are displayed on the 16 Nixie tubes (D).
Timing
Pulse repetition rate
Operation
Word for.mat
31
Numerical Absolute Value
Synchronous
448,000 pulses/sec
Sequential
STORAGE
Five l-word registers for arithmetic and control
One 2-word register for output information storage
System is straight binary for internal operations
with automatic conversions to other codes for inputoutput. Twos complement notation for negative numbers is used.
Media
Words
Magnetic Disc (Main)
4,096
Magnetic Disc (Hi-Speed)
32
32 channels of 128 words each, of which 24 channels
are designated as per.manent storage and 8 channels
as working storage.
The 32 words are two word high speed loops. Disc
rotates at 6,000 rev/min and its storage is nonvolatile.
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Add time
7.8 Microseconds
Execution time for each instruction is 7.8 microseconds. High speed (2-bits at a time) multiplication, division and shifts.
Arithmetic mode
Parallel by function
Serial by bit
255
FADAC
ADDITI!ONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
INPUT
Speed
Manual
Mechanical
700 char/sec
Manual
Media
Keyboard
Paper Tape
Paper Tape
Gunnery Off Console
Another FADAC
Magnetic Tape
Other FIELData Equipment
Teletype
Five or eight channel paper tape, 5-level teletype
or FIELData code. Automatic conversion to machine
language provided. Maximum inputrate is 4,250 chari
sec.
Additional features include logic provision for expandable memory; standardized etched boards utilized
for reduction of logistics problems; ruggedized for
field use; system design provides auxiliary equipment on an integrated basis for computer memory loading, automatic computer testing, and subassembly
maintenance, and peripheral equipment for additional
operator control in program checkout.
OUTPUT
Media
Visual Display (Nixie)
Signal Level (Console)
Another FADAC
Battery Display
Printer
Magnetic Tape
FIELData Equipment
Teletype Equipment
System provides information in either 5-level teletype, 2-wire teletype, or FIELData codes. Maximum
output rate is approximately 4,250 characters per
second.
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Transistorized
CHECKING FEATURES
Parity check on FIELData information transfer.
Verify feature on input in program-full mode.
Marginal test provision for preventive maintenance.
Voltage transient and temperature warning indicators.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
0.700 Kw
Three phase, 4-wire, 400 cycles/sec, 120/208 volts.
Automatic power loss interlocks and phase reversing
features are provided.
Volume, computer
5 cu ft
Weight, computer
175 Ibs
System operates from -250F to 1250 F (external ambient at sea level). Capable of operating to _40oF
with kit. Automatic temperature protection is provided.
FADAC
256
257
FADAC
FOSDIC
MANUFACTU RER
Film OpticaL Sensing Device for Input to Computers
U. S. Department of Commerce
National Bureau of Standards
Photo by the Bureau of the Census
APPLICATIONS
System is utilized for the reading and conversion
of microfilm copies of Decennial Census Schedules
(position marked documents) to magnetic tape for
computer input.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Interna.L number system
Number bin cod dec dig/word
Number instructions decoded
Arithmetic system
Instruction type
Binary coded decimal
Variable
45
None
Plugboard
FOSDIC converts coded marks on microfilmed documents to information on magnetic tape in the following manner: (1) A flying spot scanner tube is programmed to make several calibration tests on each
document measuring dark level, light level, tilt,
horizontal and vertical reduction ratios. (2) The
beam is then programmed using major and minor jump
l"OSDIC
instructions (coordinate increases or decreases) to
locate 1/4" black reference marks called "indexes".
(3) From a given index, program steps then positions
the beam over each possible marking position, measuring light output and interpreting the result as
either an "answer" or "no answer". (4) The most
dominant (darkest) of the answers is held in memory
until all positions for a given question have been
scanned. This answer (as coded by the program plugboard) is written on magnetic tape. (5) Magnetic
tape format is UNIVAC compatible, 100 pulses/inch,
720 character blocks in fixed format. The FOSDIC
internal word and frame lengths are variable, however, and many formats (number of frames per block,
number of digits per word) are possible under program control.
STORAGE
Temporary fast storage by means of flip-flops.
Photo by the Bureau of the Census
INPUT
Medium
Microfilm
CHECKING FEATURES
Speed
2 -
4 frames/sec
Numerous scan, magnetic tape and program interlocks,
sprocket and parity checking on magnetic tape output
are utilized.
Flying spot tube scanning
Medium
Magnetic tape
OUTPUT
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Speed
2,376 char/sec
Speed depends on amount of document information
Power, computer
5 Kw
5 ¥;VA
1.0 pf
Volume, computer
3,000 cu f t
Area, computer
300 sq f t
Room size, computer
20 x 20 x 10 ft
Floor loading, computer
140 Ibs/sq ft
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Type
Tubes
Diodes
Transistors
Quantity
1,200
2,000
3,000
Figures are for each system. Air conditioner is
part of integrated system.
Site preparation included alteration of area from
previously subdivided sections onto single enclosed
area; provision of air ducts and space air conditioning equipment; alteration of lighting fixtures; provision of power consuits and outlets; fire wall construction.
FOSDIC consists of a Scan Unit constructed of
vacuum tubes, cathode ray tubes, photocells, magnetron beam-switching tubes, and conventional pointto-point wiring; and a Program Control Unit constructed of solid-state components, transistors,
diodes, etc., mounted on printed circuit boards.
259
FOSDIC
~['his early model FOSDIC served Census well.
Several special tasks were successfully processed
through its use. Its chief contribution, however,
was in showing the way to a more versatile, faster,
less restrictive system. Subsequently, Bureau of
Standards and Census engineers collaborated on a
successor, FOSDIC III. In the meantime, the Bureau
of Standards had produced FOSDIC II which is used
by the Weather Bureau to do a high-speed search on
large punch card files which have been reduced to
microfilm.
FOSDIC III captured our imagination. It features
a completely programmable scan, permits tremendous
flexibility in schedule and questionnaire deSign,
and has such features as automatic calibration on
each microfilm frame measuring dark level, light
level; compensation for tilt or non-parallelism due
to photography or printing; compensation for size
Variation in the filming reduction process; blank
line elimination (conditional jumps over partiallyfilled out documents); and dominant mark, an ability to choose the darkest of several competing marks,
thus eliminating the problem of erasures. It is
plugboard programmed and has about 45 instructions
and program loops. Iterations are possible as with
internally-stored program computers. Documents are
limited only to be 20" x 14" or less, and their
microfilm counterparts will be translated to programmer-chosen codes on magnetic tape at about
100 frames or documents per minute. This works out
to an average character rate of about 19,000 24,000 characters per minute. A tough rate for a
key punch operator to match.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number prod.uced to date
5
Number in current operation
4
Number in current production
4
FOSDICs currently manufactured by Bureau of the
Census personnel for their own production needs.
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Total cost for development and construction of 5
FOSDIC systems with 1 magnetic tape unit each
$633,000
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Three 8-Hour Shifts
Supervisors
Analysts
Programmers
Coders
Engineers
Technicians
In-Output Oper
3
2
10
12
Operation tends toward open shop.
Methods of training used
Training branch conducts formal classroom sessions
for programmers, operators (followed by on-the-job
training) executive orientation, brush-up seminars.
Classroom and on-the-job training al,so conducted for
engineers and technicians.
Programmers are customer employees.
The 1960 Decennial Census
The equipment utnized 5 FOSDIC systems consists
ot':
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Date this system. passed Acceptance Test Sep 59-Mar 60
Time is not available for rent to outside organizations.
Each system is operated an average of about 100
hours per week, excluding scheduled maintenance.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Prior to the inY~ntion of FOSDIC the bulk input
medium has generally been punch cards but a few
figures showing our experience in 1950 points out
certain of their limitations. At that time we used
a force of nearly 2000 key punch operators at the
peak of operations, and over 14 months was needed
at a cost of almost six million dollars just to
record the enumerated population and housing data
on cards.
These facts led Census back to the Bureau of
Standards for additional study and review of the
input problem. Out of this interchange grew FOSDIC
1. The name is an abbreviation of Film Optical
Sensing Device for Input to Computers. Designed
and built for Census by the Bureau of Standards, it
promised a breakthrough in the input problem area.
The principle was based on field documents being
position coded (by checking the proper box), microfilming the documents, and scanning the microfilm
with an electronic beam. The detected position
codes are written on the magnetic tape which is our
computer input medium.
FOSDIC
4 Univac Scientific 1105 Computers with 18 tape
units each, 2 Univac I Computers with 10 tape units
each, 2 600 lines per minute High-Speed Printers,
equipped with Block Buffers, 1 Card-to-Magnetic
Tape Converter, and a host of miscellaneous auxiliary
equipment of a minor nature.
Adopted procedures for magnetic tape handling include fire wall construction; metallic containers
for magnetic tape, fire fighting organization and
training, control system for defective and damaged
tapes, and standardization of tape reel lengths
and markings.
INSTALLATIONS
Bureau of the Census
Washington, D. C.
260
261
FOSDIC
GE 100 ERMA
MANUFACTU RER
General Electric 100 Electronic Recording Method
Accounting
General Electric Company
Computer Department
Phoenix, Arizona
Photo by Bank of America (Abbate Photo)
APPLICATIONS
Located in San Francisco, Berkeley, San Jose, Los
Angeles, North Hollywood, COvina, and Paramount,
Calif'ornia, the systems are being used f'or commercial
deposit accounting (checking accounts). The Bank of
America is now operating i ERMA Centers in the locations indicated above. Each center is equipped with
2 to 3 GE-IOO Computing Systems depending on projected
account volume for area being serviced. Checks and
deposits, which are delivered to the ERMA Centers
in the early evening, are processed and sorted at
night for early morning return to the branches.
GENERAL ELECTRIC 100 ERMA
262
STORAGE
No. of
No. of
Access
Medium
Words
Digits
Microsec
Magnetic Core
4,000
28,000
32
Work structure consists of 7 decimal characters.
The first character contains sign, numeric-alpha
numeric designation and checking digits.
INPUT
Media
Speed
Magnetic Tape
30,000 char/sec
3/4 inch tape - 10 channel - 2 digit in parallel.
Paper Tape
200 char/sec
7 channel punch paper tape photo reader
Flexowriter
10 char/sec
7 channel punch paper tape mechanical reader
Sorter/readers
750 items/min
Magnetic ink coded documents. The sorter/readers
are equipped with character recognition.
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
AYerage error-free running period
2 Hours
Good time
60 Hours/Week (Ayerage)
Attempted to run time
62 Hours/Week (Ayerage)
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.967
Aboye figures based on period 1 Aug 60 to 31 Aug 60
Passed Customer Acceptance Test
1 Jul 59
Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations. Although we have available computer
time now, it is not being offered on a rental basis
due to our projected volume which will utilize this
time.
OUTPUT
Media
Speed
Magnetic Tape
30,000 char/sec
Flexowriter
10 char/sec
Printer
600-900 lines/min
ReYolYing drum/hammer type, operable both off-line
and on-line. The printer is used off-line with magnetic tape input.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
150 Kw
Power, air conditioner
185 Kw
Volume, computer
18,000 cu ft
Volume, air conditioner 33,500 cu ft
Area, computer
2,000 sq ft
Area, air conditioner
1,900 sq ft
Room size, computer
80 ft x 25 ft x 9 ft
Room size, air conditioner
87 ft x 20 ft x Mezzanine
Floor loading
250 Ibs/sq ft
Capacity, air conditioner
150 Tons
Weight, computer
23,000 Ibs
False ceilings and plenums are required for air
supply and negative pressure. Building type is
either of pre-stressed concrete panels or cast concrete: no modifications are necessary since the
buildings are specifically designed as ERMA Centers.
Power distribution is provided by under floor conduit
and pull boxes.
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Because of the recent development and installation
of our current GE 100 Systems, accurate figures are
not yet available on our ultimate personnel requirements. Howeyer, typical operating personnel in an
ERMA Center consist of a manager, assistant managers,
branch liaison officers, console operators, sorter/
reader operators and printer operators. Programming
activities for all our various installations are centralized within the Bank of America's Systems and
Equipment Research Department. Engineer and technician requirements are to be determined by the manufacturer, General Electric Company, under terms of
the contractual agreement to provide necessary maintenance.
Operation tends toward open shop.
Key personnel, i.e. managers, liaison officers and
console operators receive a six-month training course
prior to their initial assignment. The first seven
weeks consist of attendance at a programming school.
The remaining weeks are spent in controlled on-thejob training in all phases of an ERMA Center's operation. All other employees are given on-the-job training in their respective assignments.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Outstanding features include magnetic ink character
recognition and simultaneous read one tape, write
one tape, and compute is permitted. Magnetic ink
character recognition units on the sorter/readers
allow computer input directly from source documents.
Magnetic tapes receive an internal label under program control as well as a manually produced external
label. Tapes are stored in a fire-proof tape vault
which has humidity and temperature control. Critical
"back-up" tapes are sent daily to off-premise storage
locations.
The system was designed by General Electric as a
general purpose computer to be used primarily in
deposit accounting. Therefore, in order to utilize
source documents as immediate input, the system was
provided with magnetic character recognition facilities rather than punched card input.
Components of a basic system are a central processing unit, main power unit, console, eight tape units,
tape control unit, printer, printer control unit,
three sorter/readers, and a sorter/reader control
unit.
Under the term of the sales contract, cost/price
figures per system will not be available prior to
equipment acceptance at final installation.
FUTURE PLANS
Additional ERMA Centers are planned to service the
branches of the Bank of America in the Sacramento,
Fresno, West Los Angeles, Southwest Los Angeles,
Montebello, and San Diego areas. It is anticipated
that these centers will all be in operation by June
30, 1961.
Due to the fact that our ERMA Centers are either
relatively new or still in the planning stage, and
since the equipment has yet to be utilized to the
maximum extent of which it is capable, no additional
components, major modifications or plans for retirement are under consideration at the present time.
INSTAllATIONS
Bank of America NT & SA
Systems and Equipment Research Department
500 Howard Street
San FranciSCO, California
GENERAL ELECTRIC 100 ERMA
MANUFACTU RER
General Electric Model 210
General Electric Company
Computer Department
flloto by General Electric Company
APPLICATIONS
Manufaeturer
System is (iesigned for general purpose, commercial,
data process:!.ng and utility billing applications.
Computl:lr Department, General Electric
System is 1ilsed for banking, utility billing, and
inventory
Instruction word format
I
Operation
Code
I
I
Operand Addre s s
1here are automatic built-in subroutines. A complete library of subroutines for business data processing is available.
G. E. Com. and General Electric Common Language
(Common to all G. E. Machines) including Automatic
Coding Techniques and Assembly Compiler are available.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Manufacturer
Binary coded decimal
Internal number system
Decimal digits/word
6
Decimal digits/instruction 6
InstructiOns/word
1
Instructions decoded
124
Fixed point
Arithmetic system
Instruction type
One address
Number range
-999,999,999,999 to
Registers
N Location of next instruction
M Input & output memory transfer
J
Memory Buffer
I
Contains current instruction
R Accumulator
+999,999,999,999
GENERAL ELECTRIC 210
I
264
L
B
P
Used with R for double length word operations
Address portion on instruction
Peripheral Buffer
AR ITHMETI C UNIT
Manufacturer
Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access
Micro sec
Microsec
Add
64
32
Mult
550 Aug.
518
Div
1200 Aug.
n68
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
9,998
Condensers
7,430
Diodes
39,333
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Concurrent
No. of
No. of
Access
Media
Words
Digits
Microsec
Core Memory
4,000 or 8,000 24,000 or 48,000 32
Magnetic Tape
1,400,000
8,400,000
5000
No. of units that can be connected
13 Units
No. of chars/linear inch
66 Chars/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape
11 Tracks/tape
Blank tape separating each record
1 Inch
Tape speed
60 or 100 Inches/sec
Transfer rate
30 to 50 KC Chars/sec
Start time
4.5 Millisec
Stop time
4.5 Millisec
Average time for experienced
30 Seconds
operator to change reel
Physical properties of tape
Width
3/4 Inches
Length of reel
1200, 2400, 3600 Feet
Composition
Mylar
INPUT
30
750
200
400
10
Speed
or 50 Char/sec
or 1200 documents/min
or 500 Char/sec
or 1500 cards/min
Char/sec
OUTPUT
Manufacturer
Media
Magnetic Tape
Magnetic Documents
Paper Tape
Console Typewriter
High Speed Printer
WEIGHT~
AND SITE PREPARATION
Manufacturer
KVA, computer
10
Area, computer
50
Room size
680
Floor loading
150
Weight, computer
10,000
Capacity, air conditioner
7
KVA
208v
sq ft
sq ft
lbs
lbs
Tons
Computer Department, General Electric
KVA, computer
40 KVA
Area, computer
1100 sq ft
Floor loading
250 lbs concen max
Weight, computer
9,650 lbs
Weight, air conditioner
centr~
Site preparation included a false ceiling and floor,
and brick construction.
PRODUCTION RECORD
STORAGE
Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Media
Magnetic Tape
Magnetic Documents
Paper Tape
Punched Cards
Console Typewriter
POWER, SPACE,
Speed
30 or 50 Char/sec
750 or 1200 documents/min
60 Char/sec
10 char/sec
72 Column 600 (Alpha) lines/min
1200 (Numeric) lines/min
120 Columm 600 to 1000 lines/min
E13B Magnetic Font (off line)
300 line s /min
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Manufacturer
Internal checking is performed on all operations
by the Mbdulo-3 method.
A 2-way parity check is performed in all magnetic
tape operations.
Manufacturer
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
Number in current production
Number on order
Time required for delivery
8
8
8
50
12 - 15 months
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Manufacturer
Basic system
Central Processor
Cost
$225,000
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Manufacturer
Entirely dependent on application and utilization.
Training made available by manufacturer to users
includes complete training in all aspects of electronic data processing - programming classes, operator training, and consultation service. Full time
site application engineer assinged to customer from
time of order until 3 months after installation.
Computer Department, General Electric
One 8-Hour Shift
Supervisors
1
Analysts
2
Programmers
2
Coders
3
Clerks
8
Librarians
1
Operators
2
Engineers
4
Technicians
2
In-Output Oper
5
Operation tends toward open shop.
RELIA~~~TiiM~Pl~~r~~li~i~RIENCE,
Manufacturer
Large scale computer fully transistorized and p~oven
by 1 1/2 years of continuous daily operation in processing an actual application.
Computer Department, General Electric
Average error-free running period
95i
Good time
35 Hours/Week (Average)
Attempted to run time
40 Hours/Week (Average)
Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time)
95i
Passed Customer Acceptance Test
June 59
Time is available for rent to outside organizations.
GENERAL ELECTRIC 210
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
FUTURE PLANS
Manufacturer
Future plans for this system include thermo plastic
tape storage, broader use of magnetic ink, and
character readj.ng.
Manufa·:::turer
Outstanding features include automatic address
modification, blockette write, table look-up
command, special commands for internal sorting, and
ease of programming.
Unique system advantages include dual document
lmndlers on-line; automatic Mod-3 and parity check,
and sim~ltaneous read/write/compute ability.
Computer Department, General Electric
System is completely solid-state. It has the
ability to read ABA E13B Font.
Magnetic tapes are stored in vaults and fireproof
cabinets.
GENERAL }:LECTRIC 210
INSTALLATIONS
General Electric Company
Computer Department
13430 North Black Canyon Highway
Phoenix, Arizona
266
GENJ!:RAL ELECTRIC 210
GE
MANUFACTU RER
General Electric Model 225
General Electric Company
Computer Department
t'hoto by General Electric Company
APPLICATIONS
modern computers.
System is designed for business data processing,
business paper processing, and scientific computing.
Registers
A Register
Q Register
M Register
N Register
I Register
B Register
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal nUIIlber system
Binary digits/word
Instructiom; /word
Instruction::; decoded
Arithmetic ::;ystem
Instruction type
Instruction word format
4
6
5
Operation
Code
Binary
(19 + sign) = 20
One
59 plus input and output
Floating point
optional
Fixed point
standard
One address
Address Modification
Bits
P Counter
GE 225 accomodates alphabetic or numeric, binary
or decimal information.
ARITHMETIC UNIT
7
Operand
Process
Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access
Micro sec
Microsec
Add
40
20
Mult
250
230
Div
500
480
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
3,194
Condensers
4,747
Diodes
4,183
Magnetic Cores 327,680
Automatic built-in subroutines include double precision add and subtract. Standard double precision
multiply and. divide are optional.
The standard GE 225 is equipped with a compiler
which is an automatic coding technique which allows
the program to be prepared with little or no knowledge of the intricacies or internal language of
GENERAL
EL~CTRIC
225
an accumulator
used for double length operations
memory location
output register for typing
instruction register
memory buffer, holds information during arithmetic operations
instruction counter
268
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Sequential
System is concurrent in that input-output equipment operates simultaneously with central processor,
which perf'orms calculations. This substantially
reduces processing time.
STORAGE
Media
Magnetic Core
Magnetic Drum
No. of' Binary Words
2048, 4096, 8192 or
16,384
8192 or 16,384
20-bit words
Access
Microsec
20
8,300
Magnetic Tape
No. of' units that can be connected
64 Units
No. of' chars/linear inch
200 Chars/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape
7 Tracks/tape
Blank tape separating each record
3/4 Inches
Tape speed
75 Inches/sec
Transf'er rate
15,000 Chars/sec
Average time for experienced
operator to change reel of tape
30 Seconds
Physical properties of tape
Width
1/2 Inch
Length of reel
2,400 or 3,600 Feet (Max)
Composition
Mylar
The tape language is compatible with most existing
tape installations.
INPUT
Media
Speed
Magnetic Tape
15,000 Char/sec
Horizontal and vertical parity checking
Document Sorter
1,200 do cum/min
Sorter under control of central processor
Paper Tape Reader
1,000 char/sec
Parity check
Card Reader
400 cards /min
Reads binary or Hollerith CD. Photoelectric
Control Console
OUTPUT
Media
Speed
Console Typewriter
10 char/sec
This is under the control of the central processor
Card Punch
100 cards/min
Punches binary or Hollerith cards
High Speed Printer
600 lines/min
Flexible print format-parity check
Magnetic Tape
15,000 Char/sec
Horizontal and vertical checking
Punched Paper
60 char/sec
5, 6, 7, 8 channel tape
Data Transmitter 60 char/sec
Receiver Unit
CHECKING FEATURES
Parity checking
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
KVA, computer
Room size
Capacity, air conditioner
Weight, computer
15
1,200 sq ft
3 Tons
8,900 Ibs
PRODUCTION RECORD
Time required for delivery from receipt of order
12 months
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Basic System
Central Processor
Cost
$200,000 or $4,OOO/mo.
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Entirely dependent on application and utilization.
Training made available by manufacturer to users
includes complete training in all aspects of electronic data processing - programming classes, operator training, and consultation service. Full time
site application engineer from time of order until
3 mos. after installation.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
The data mating function of GE 225 provides a
common control and inter-communication link for the
wide range of either data processing peripheral
units or unusual special purpose input-output devices
associated with the system.
A general compiler provides the programmer with a
highly advanced and effective automatic coding
technique.
The equipment flexibility of the GE 225 offers an
additional degree of freedom in the planning of a
system by allowing the computer to grow to meet the
demands of expanding systems requirements.
INSTALLATIONS
General Electric Company
Missile and Space Vehicle Department
3198 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia 1, Pennsylvania
GENERAL ELECTRIC 225
GE 250
MANUFACTURER
General Electric 250 Information Searching Selector
Computer Department
General Electric Company
Photo by Computer Department, General Electric Company
APPLICATIONS
metals, petroleums, pharmaceuticals), government
(patents, military, personnel, intelligence, law
enforcement, census), and the professions (law, medicine, applied research, libraries).
The first GE 250 Information Searching Selector will
be delivered to the Center for Documentation and Communications Research at Western Reserve University.
It will be used to accelerate the abstracting service
of a metals information center now in operations, as
well as to facilitate further effort into other documentation and library research - including language
translation.
The GE 250 Information Searching Selector is a data
processing system specifically designed to provide
rapid inquiry and selection from large data files.
In its simplest form, the Information Searching
Belector provides: storage of information, storage
of the search questions, and the means for comparing
the two, detecting desired information, and recording
the result.
'rhe information file is stored on magnetic tape
which provides a compact record with unlimited expansion. Search questions are stored in the memory
of the Selector. Whenever search questions are satisfied, answers are recorded.
It can be used to retrieve information from vast
files of data as found in: industry (chemicals,
GE 250
270
CHECKI NG FEATURES
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Up to ten inquiries may be prepared on punched
'paper tape and entered into the Selector's main memory for simultaneous processing. Successive reels
of magnetic tape file are searched at the rate of
15,000 characters per second for satisfaction of any
or all of the ten inquiries. Each tape may contain
four million or more characters.
A printed text or identifying information is provided in answer to all selected questions and the
search criteria they fulfill. If desired, acceptance
through partial satisfaction of requirements can be
specified.
The GE 250 Information Searching Selector retrieves
selected information from a large storage file, permits immediate and efficient use of recorded knowledge, answers questions through high-speed electronic
searching, correlates scattered information in complex files, reduces costs of file preparation and
searching, and simplifies updating of information
with new material - simplifies elimination of obsolete information.
Adequate checking provides accuracy.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
The GE 250 Information Searching Selector can operate with any indexing, classifying or coding systemeven simple English notation. Professional assistance will be provided for developing systems and
adapting well-tested procedures.
Outstanding features are that it is compact, easy
to install, and easy to operate. It requires little
power as it is fully transistorized.
FUTURE PLANS
The first Information Searching Selector will be used
by Western Reserve University, Center for Documentation and Communication Research, to provide rapid
inquiry and selection of information from vast data
files.
ARITHMETIC UNIT
System reviews and compares 15,000 Char/sec.
Several thousand abstracts can be processed per
minute.
Up to ten unrelated inquiries can be searched
simultaneously.
INSTALLATIONS
Western Reserve University
Center for Documentation and Communication Research
Cleveland, Ohio
General Electric Company
Computer Department
Deer Valley Park
Phoenix, Arizona
STORAGE
Magnetic Tape
15,000 char/sec
Buffer Storage
Expansible
Number of magnetic tape units is variable.
I NPUT
Media
Magnetic Tape
Cards
OUTPUT
Speed
15,000 Char/sec
Read-punch unit
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
System is fully transistorized.
271
GE 250
GE 312
MANUF ACTU RER
General Electric Company
Computer Department
General Electric Model 312
Photo by General Electric Company
APPLICATIONS
System is designed for process and production control
as well as for data logging and monitoring.
Registers
A Primary Arithmetic Register
Q Arithmetic and Temporary Storage
N I/O Buffer
X Instruction Modification
X Current Instruction
B Location of Next Instruction
PROGRAMMI NG AND NUMER ICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary
Binary digits/word
20 19 + Sign
Binary digits/instruction 19
Instructions/word
Single address or 1+1 Mode
Instructions decoded
More than 60
Arithmetic system
Fixed point
Instruction type
One address
Number range
-524,288 to +524,288
Instruction word basic format
P£216 ~rand
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Incl. Store Access Exclud. Store Access
Microsec
Microsec
Add
192(1 Add) 288(1+1 Add)
96
Mult
2016 Max (1+1)
1920 Max
Diy
2592 Max (1+1)
2496 Max
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
2,572
Condensers
1,409
19
Maxe..
1
An eleyen bit automatic modification of instruc-
tion address is proyided for automatic instruction
G~~ E~CTRIC
312
modification, linkage for sub-routines, counters,
etc.
272
Diodes
Arithmetic mode
Timing
Operation
2,265
Serial
Synchronous
Sequential
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Area, computer
Floor loading
Weight, computer
Air conditioner
STORAGE
Access
Medium
No. of Words
Micro sec
Magnetic Drum
2,048 to 50,000
6,250 avg
Optional: Fast Access Core Storage can be provided.
60 cps
120v ± 10%
168 cu ft
27 sq ft
110 Ibs/sq ft
3,000 Ibs
Self contained
105°C max, 95% humidity
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
Number in current production
Number on order
Time required for delivery
INPUT
Speed
Media
Paper Tape Reader
20 char/sec
Standard equipment
Paper Tape Readers
Up to 240 char/sec
Optional equipment. Additional or alternatives.
Process Analog and
Digital Information
Requires optional equipment
When coupled to process instrumentation, analog
or digital inputs may be accommodated within limits
which virtually are determined only by the requirements of the users.
4 (1 Aug 60)
4
12
12
8-12 months
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
GE 312 Digital Control Computer System
Standard Basic Price with 8,000 word
drum memory
$85,200
In usual applications the GE 312 is Price range from
used as Central Processor for On
$150,000 to
Line Data Processing & Computer
$500,000
Control Systems for utility &
industrial plants, depending upon
the system configuration.
OUTPUT
Speed
Media
Paper Tape Punch
20 Char/sec
Standard equipment
Electric Typewriter
10 char/sec
Standard equipment
Paper Tape & Card Punch
60 char/sec
Optional
Analog Output
(Digital-to-Analog Converter)
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Completely dependent upon application.
Training made available by manufacturer to users
includes a 3 week programming course and an 8 week
maintenance course. Following the 3 and 8 week
courses, is on-site training during installation
and initial operation.
RELIAB I LlTY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENeE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
On-Line reliability of 99~ over a 6 month period.
Quantity
Type
Diodes
HD2160
lID.692
HD2231
Transistors
2N219
2N321
2N527
2N388
4 Kw
445
32
1,788
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Outstanding features include up to 52,000 word
drum memory expansion, single & 1 + 1 address, and
automatic address modification.
Unique system advantages include a flexible command
structure, including a special instruction for computer direction of system input/output e~ipments.
2,290
51
135
96
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Parity checking
273
GENERAL ELECTRIC
312
GENERAL MILLS AD/ EC ~ANUFACTURER
General Mills
Mechanical Division
General Mills AD/ECS Computer
Photo by General IviLl.ls
APPLICATIONS
Instruction word format
System is a general purpose digital computer, which
may be used for on-line and real time applications
as well. System can communicate with conventional
digital I/O, as well as A/D converters, and other
buffering equipment.
Break.point
Oper
1
6
Address
Oper
Address
1---
12
6
12
Instructions are not permanently designed into the
machine, but are constructed from microprogrammed
lIinstructions ll by means of placing appropriate diode
logic on a special circuit card called an lIinstruction card ll • Many specialized orders can be constructed using this technique.
One index counter is standard. There are up to
8 additional index counters available as an option.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary
Binary digits/word
36 + sign
Binary digits/instruction
18
Instructions per word
2
Instructions decoded
Up to 64
Arithmetic system
Fixed point (Floating optional)
Data processing is in alphanl~eric
Instruction type
One address
Number range
_ (1_2- 36 ) through + (1_2- 36 )
GENERAL MILLS AD/ECS
,.-
Instr II
Instr I
274
Photo by General Mills
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Incl Stor Access
Microsec
No. of chars/linear inch of tape
200 Chars/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape
7 Tracks/tape
Blank tape separating each rec:ord 0.75 Inches
Tape speed
150 Inches/sec
Trru1sfer rate
30,000 Chars/sec
Start time
5 Millisec
Stop time
5 Millisec
Average time for experienced
operator to change reel of tape
60 Seconds
Physical properties of tape
Width
0.5 Inches
Length of reel
2,100 Feet
Composition
3M 186 magnetic instrumentation tape
Exclud Stor Access
Micro sec
Add
80
60
Mult
840
800
Div
940
920
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
1,000
Diodes
10,000
Arithmetic mode
Parallel
Timing
Asynchronous
Operation
Sequential
System is entirely solid state.
INPUT
STORAGE
No. of
Words
No. of
Digits/Word
36 bits + sign
36 bits + sign
Media
Magnetic Core
4,096
Magnetic Drums 10,000
(optional)
Magnetic Tape
No. of units that can be connected
Media
Speed
Paper Tape
150 char/sec
Typewriter
12 char/sec
Paper tape is standard but computer can also accommodate a wide variety of other input devices, e.g.
cards. Unit will read any code one 8 bit character
at a time or std word or block.
Access
Microsec
8
8,000 (avg)
64 Units
275
GENERAL MILLS AD /ECS
OUTPUT
PRODUCTION RECORD
Media
Speed
Paper Tape
60 char/sec
Typewriter
12 char/sec
Paper tape is standard but computer can also accommodate a wide variety of other output devices, e. g.
cards, printers. Unit will punch any code one 8 bit
character at a time or std word or block. Alphanluueric with format control.
Paper tape units will handle data in any format up
to 8 levels. System is capable of handling up to
61} input-output devices of almost any sort. These
devices could exchange information with two 64-word
.magnetic core buffers at the normal input-output
device information rate. The central computer initiates these external machine and buffer operations
but does not wait for their execution. The AD/ECS
goes on with other computation while buffer operations
are proceeding and then takes in the buffer information at the central computer rate.
Number produced to date
2
2
Number in current operation
Number in current production 1
1
Number on order
Time required for delivery
6 months
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Basic System
Paper Tape Reader (150 Char/sec)
Paper Tape Punch (60 Char/sec)
Central Computer
Typewriter
Console plus Desk
Total
Additional Equipment
Floating point
Extra index, counters: 1 through 4
Cost
$ 3,932
3,283
109,956
12,952
11,857
~ I41,98O
$ 3,200
5 through 8
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
CHECKING FEATURES
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Programming and, if deSired, maintenance training
courses are available. Personnel requirements
depend on application and size of system.
Marginal checking
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Area, computer
1 Kw
65 cu ft
10.5 sq ft (not including
console)
Floor loading
60 Ibs/sq ft
Weight, computer
600 Ibs
No special site preparation or air conditioning
required.
GENERAL MILLS AD/ECS
plus
each
plus
each
Binary to BCD and BCD to binary
instruction cards
155 each
Bin to alphanum and alphanum to bin
instruction cards
205 each
Not available for rent.
On-site or on-call maintenance is available.
Type
Quantity
Di0des
15,000
Transistors
1,500
Magnetic Cores
37,000; 74,000; or 148,000
System is entirely solid state. Quantity of magnetic cores is dependent upon the memory option.
Parity check on all input-output.
on frequencies and voltages.
760
1,930
1,520
1,930
RELIABILITY OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
p
Completely transistorized. Designed to work without
air-conditioning in range of 320 F - 1250 F.
System constructed of very few basic buildin~ blocks.
Has operated reliably outdoors for extended tmonths)
periods.
276
FUTURE PLANS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Outstanding features include the ability to have
extremely flexible order structure, due to instruction card principle, flexible external machine communications, magnetic core I/O buffers, and air-cond.itioning is not required.
Unique system advantages include special instruction for individual requirements without any modification of the computer, and ease of addition of a
wide variety of peripheral equipment without computer
modification.
277
Continued development of I/O equipment.
INSTALLATIONS
General Mills
Mechanical Division
2003 East Hennepin Avenue
Minneapolis 13, Minnesota
GENERAL MILLS .AD/EeS
GENERAL MI LLS APSAC
MANUFACTURER
General Mills
Mechanical Division
General MiJ.ls APSAC Computer
Photo by General Mills
Dust Covers Removed
APPLICATIONS
Explanation of last three bits in each instruction
General :purpose computer used in on-line automatic
survey system.
Clear A
Register
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary digits/word
Binary digits/instruction
Instructions :per word
Instructions decoded
Arithmetic system
Instruction type
Number range
First two bits in this group are not used by every
instruction.
Binary
35 (:plus sign)
18
Registers include an accumulator register (A) and
a remainder register (R).
2
29
Fixed point
One address
2- 35 to 2+35
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Incl Stor Access
Microsec
Instruction word format
L·12~~--'------'
Add
[ . _~:per
Div
[---6
_L~~_dr_e_s_s_L--_L--~__
G}t:::NERAL MlI.LS APSAC
Breakpoint
Mult
...J._ _ _ _ _J...
278
120
1,520
16,200
Exclud Stor Access
Microsec
120
1,500
Done by sub routine
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
Approx 1,200
Condenser-Diodes Approx 16,000
Magnetic Cores
Approx 20,000
Arithmetic mode
Parallel
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Sequential
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT AND SITE PREPARATION
p
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Area, computer
Floor loading
0.9 pf
cu ft
sq ft
lbf:3/ s q ft
lbs concen max
Weight, computer
520 lbs
No special site preparation or air conditioner
needed.
STORAGE
Access
No. of
Digits
Microsec
Medium
10
35 + Sign
Magnetic Core
Magnetic Tape
No. of units that can be connected
2 Units
No. of chars/linear inch
48 CharS/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape
7 Tracks/tape
Blank tape separating each record 0.667 Inches
Tape speed
25 InChes/sec
Transfer rate
1,200 Chars/sec
Start time
3 Millisec
Stop time
3 Millisec
Average time for experienced
60 Seconds
operator to change reel of tape
Physical properties of tape
0.5 Inches
Width
approx 300 Feet
Length of reel
Mylar
Composition
No. of
Words
512
0.96 KVA
52
15
35
35
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
Number in current production
Number on order
Time required for delivery
1
1
Now in field test
Now in field test
6 months
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Operator, programming, and maintenance courses are
optional. Ordinarily GMI trains maintenance personnel, although it can be handled on contract basis
i f desired.
INPUT
RELIAB I LlTY. OPERATI NG EXPER I ENCE.
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Speed
10 chars/sec
Medium
Flexowriter
0.86 Kw
Both computer and magnetic tape equipment designed
to operate under field conditions. Average operating
time between component failures is about 600 hours.
OUTPUT
Speed
Medium
10 chars/sec
Flexowriter
Typewriter and punch
System has, in addition to Flexowriter and magnetic
tape, real-time input from digital clock and from
astrolabe.
FUTURE PLANS
AntiCipate repackaging to minimize space requirements.
INSTALLATIONS
General Mills Mechanical Division
1620 Central Avenue
Minneapolis 13, Minnesota
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Type
Diodes
Transistors
Magnetic Cores
Quantity
20,000
1,500
20,000
CHECKI NG FEATURES
Magnetic tape has parity check across tape, and
markers for usable and non-usable tape. Paper tape
also has parity check.
279
GENERAL MILLS APSAC
GEORGE
MANUFACTURER
Argonne National Laboratory "GEORGE" Computer
Argonne National Laboratory
Photo by Argonne National Laboratory
APPLICATIONS
Scientific problems.
Data handli.ng and data reduction.
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Al1tomatic built-in subroutines
Square root on floating point
Automatic coding
GAR - George Assembly Routine (with Macro-instructions)
Registers and B-boxes
Fixed and floating point arithmetic registers
Four high speed floating point registers
16 high speed index registers and any memory lotion
An index of significance is carried with each floating point number and 1s corrected with each operation as to the number of bits which are still
significant.
Internal number system
Binary
Number of binary digits per word
40 or 80
Number of binary digits per instruction 20 to 100
Variable
Number of instructions per word
220
Total number of instructions decoded
Arithmetic system
Floating Point
Fixed Point
Sign + 62 bit fraction
Sign + 39 bit fraction
Sign + 10 bit power
20 bit positive integers
6 bit index of significance
Modif1ed two-address
Instruction type
for fixed point
Variable zero through
four-address for floatLng point
Number range
Fixed Point
-1 < n ~ 1-2- 39
Floating Point [-1/2 ~ c
GEORGE
~ +1/2J
[2- 1024
~ € "2102 4)
280
Photo by Argonne National Laboratory
STORAGE
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Operation time, excluding storage access, Microseconds
Fixed Point
Floating Poi!J.t
Add
3
7
Mult
26
485
Div
27
595
Construction, arithmetic unit only
Vacuum tubes
1,800
20,000
Transistors
6,000
Crystal diodes
Arithmetic mode
Parallel
Asynchronous
Timing
Concurrent
Operation
GEORGE is composed of two arithmetic units, a fixed
point unit and a floating point unit. Each has its
own word length and instruction code. The two
arithmetic units work concurrently with a single
memory.
281
Media
Number
of Words
4,096 6
4 x 10
Number
Access
of Digits
Microse.conds
42 bits/word
7·5
42 bits/word
Magnetic core
Wide magnetic
tape
Magnetic tape system features are:
Maximum number of units that can be
connected to the system
4 Units
Channels or tracks on the tape
42 Trac:k/tape
Tape speed
43 Inches/sec
Physical properties of tape
Width
2 Inches
Length of reel
1200 Feet
Composition
Mylar Sandwich
Tape has fixed blocks of 128 words. The time per
block is 70 millisec: Including start, read or
write, and stop. Tape m~ be searched for a particular block while the computer is computing.
GEORGE
Description of the order structure and the programming sys tems available are found in ANL- 5995,
GEORGE Programming Manual by Loretta Kassel.
INPUT
Media
Paper tape (2 readers)
Narrow mag tape
Keyboard
Speed
1,000 alphanumeric char/sec
15,000 alphanumeric char/sec
Manual
RELIABI L1TY OPERATING EXPERIENCED
p
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Fixed Point GEORGE has been operating two and 1/2
years with an average effective time over 8afo. In
the past year the effective time has been about 90%.
OUTPUT
Media
Speed
Pa:l?er tape
60 alphanumeric char/sec
Narrow mag tape
15,000 alphanumeric Char/sec
Buffered 16 microsecond tieup for computer
On-line printer
72 columns; 600 lines/minute
Buffered 28 microsecond tieup for computer
Console typewriter
10 Char/sec
Cathode ray tube
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Outstanding Features:
J.. FLIP (Floating Point Unit) numbers have index
of significance, i.e. an indication of how many
significant bits remain in the number.
2. In fixed point (GEORGE) the first 12 bits of
any memory location can be used as an index register.
Thus, 4096 "index registers" are available.
3. In fixed point operations, GEORGE Instructions
2-nd address (B-address) has a variety of uses, it
can be used as an index address, a "preliminary add"
address, a store address, and/or a jump address.
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Tubes
Type
567 0
Diodes
LN19l
LN628
S55G
'rransistors
2N393
Magnetic cores
Quantity
70% of 3,500
3afo
2afo
5afo
of 6,000
of 6,000
of 6,000
Unique System Advantages:
1. Flexibility of B-address allows for compact
coding - to make for better use of the 4096 word
memory in fixed point operations.
2. Length of floating point word, and the index
of significance, allow for more accuracy in floating
point operations.
85% of 20,000
164,060
CHECKING FEATURES
Parity on Input, Output, and Core memory.
Complete redundancy and Dropout error.
Correction on wide magnetic tapes.
I NSTALLAT IONS
Argonne National Laboratory
9'rOO Cass Avenue
Argonne, Illinois
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
50 K.W.
Air conditioner part of building system.
FUTURE PLANS
Present plans call for a 128,000 word drum and for
a l.arger, faster core memory.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Number in current operation
1
1
Floating point is under construction. Completion
date is 31 December 1960. Fixed point has been
in operation since September 1957.
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Two 8-Hour Shifts
Supervisors
Analysts
Programmers
Clerks
Librarians
Operators
Ell~ineers
Technicians
In-Output Oper
GEORGE
3
3
15
2
1
2
l.
2
2
282
GEORGE
GEOTECH AUTOMATIC
MANUFACTU RER
The Geotechnical Corporation
Geotechnical Automatic Chart Reader
Photo by the Geotechnical Corporation
APPLICATIONS
System reads information contained on plotted
cherts, converts into several forms of output, and
performs simultaneous computations, digital or analoe,ue. The recorded charts are scanned optically,
output is produced proportional to trace ordinate,
and operations are performed on the output.
So many dtfferent sizes and configurations of charts
and film.s are recorded by such a variety of techniques
that no one instrument configuration could possibly
be designed to read them all. However, the basic
techniques, utilizing the BASIC READER, the CONVER-
GEOTECH AUTOMATIC
284
SION UNITS, or the COMPUTING UNITS, can be applied
successfully to many unusual types of charts and
films. A drive system for the chart is often obtained by employing a drive similar to the one on
which the chart was originally recorded. For best
results, the trace on the chart should have good
contrast with the chart paper. For example, a BASIC
READER, with the digital computer, reads year-long
river and stream water level charts, feeds the computer which computes daily mean discharge and water
level, and reads out to punched tape, then automatic
typewriters.
PROGRAMMINGAND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Computations are performed with modular computing
units. Rack mounted computing units may be added
in building block fashion. Computing units perform
integration, multiplication, addition, subtraction,
reciprocal, variab:~ functions and others.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT p AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Weight, computer
1 Kw
16 cu ft
300 lbs
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
I NPUT OUTPUT
The BASIC READER consists of an optical projection
system, a scanning system, and electronic circuitry.
It is located so that a thin strip of light, focused
on the chart at right angles to the long axis of the
chart, reflects a narrow cross-sectional image of the
chart onto a rotating scan disk. The dark trace of
the chart does not reflect light; however, the white
paper background on either side of the trace does
reflect. Therefore, the strip of light imaged on
the scan disk appears to be broken by a dark "spot."
When the drive is turned on and the chart is set
into motion, this spot undulates back and forth
across the surface of the disk exactly as the trace
undulates on the chart. The rotating scan disk is
made of glass with an opaque coating through which
two or more transparent slits have been scribed.
These scribed slits are usually in the form of involute curves because a rotating involute provides
a linear sweep and always intersects the strip of
light from the chart at right angles. The type and
number of slits scribed on the scan disk, as well
as the rotational speed of the disk itself may vary
according to particular requirements, however a
speed of 3600 RPM and two involutes are common. As
the disk rotates and its involute slit first intersects the strip of light imaged on it, light is
allowed to pass through the slit to strike a photomultiplier tube. As rotation continues, the involute
next intersects the dark spot, i.e. the reflected
trace, and light to the photomultiplier is momemtarily cut off, generating a pulse. A reference trace
on the chart or reference marks on the disk are often
used to generate another pulse which defines the
base of the chart. A gating circuit then forms a
measuring pulse whose duration is proportional to
the spacing of these two pulses, and therefore proportional to the ordinate of the recorded trace. By
rotating the disk containing the two slits at 3600
RPM, the location of the ordinate of the trace is
pin-pointed 7200 times a minute. This system provides a continuous or periodic pulse-width output
proportional to the trace ordinate of the moving
chart, accurate to ± .1% of full scale, and this
output is all that is required for many purposes,
however, additional outputs are available with modular conversion units. By adding optional rack-mounted conversion units in building-block fashion, the
basic pulse-width output may be converted to digital,
analog voltage or current, or mechanical rotation or
displacement.
$10,000 for analog
$20,000 for digital
Maintenance contract is available
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
One operating technician is required.
taught on-the-job.
He can be
RELIAB I LlTY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENCE
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Good time
Attempted to run time
D
150 Hours/Week (Average)
180 Hours/Week (Average)
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
SPECIFICATIONS
Synchronous motor
12" per minute. Others available
upon request.
Scan Rate
120 scans per second. Approximately 600 scans and PWM pulses
per linear inch of chart at speed
of 12" per minute.
Accuracy
PWM pulses proportional to trace
ordinate are accurate to within
+ 0.1% of full scale.
Analog voltage output proportional
to trace ordinate is accurate to
within + 1% of full scale.
Output
This model: 1 MA into 40 K ohms,
designed to match a TI recti/riter
recorder.
Power Requirements 500 VA, 115 volts, 60 cps.
Dimensions
24" deep; 24" wide; 50 1/2" high.
Weight
250 Ibs (115 kg.)
Chart Requirements This model is designed to read 6"
rectilinear, single-trace charts.
Extraneous Marks
Charts must be free from marks
that will produce spurious signals.
Trace
Continuous black line at least
.020" wide.
Trace Contrast
Trace should have good contrast
with chart paper.
Grid Lines
Preferably none; watery-green
grid lines acceptable.
Chart Drive
Chart Speed
GEOTECH AUTOMATIC
HAMPSHJRE
eee
500
MANUFACTURER
Hampshire Engineering Company
Coordinate Conversion Computer Model 500
l~oto
by Hampshire Engineering Company
APPLICATIONS
Computer is used with automatic tracking theodolites to give real time display and rapid tabula-
HAMPSHIRE CCC 500
tion of aircraft position in rectangular coordinates.
286
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary digits/word
Arithmetic system
Instruction type
Number range
Automatic built-in subroutines include translation of binary to binary coded decimal excess 3.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Time required for delivery
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access
Microsec
Microsec
Add
428
428
8500
Mult
8500
8000
Div
8000
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Vacuum-tubes, magnetic cores, and diodes
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Concurrent
Arithmetic functions are performed concurrently
by several small units connected directly with
magnetic storage registers. Diode logic and vacuum
tube amplifiers are used.
STORAGE
No. of
Medium
Words
Core-Diode Shift Registers
9
Magnetic tape used for output only.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
1.0 Kw
Volume, computer
38 cu ft
Area, computer
7 sq ft
Room size
Any room
No special site preparation requirements.
Binary
20
Fixed point
Wired program
Fractional
No. of
Digits
22
INPUT
Input is by cable connection to shift registers
in theodolites, and is in the form of binary coded
pulse trains.
OUTPUT
Media
Speed
Analogue Voltages for X, Y, Z
Real time
Used by plotting board
Punched tape
60 char/sec
Feeds ELECOM 120 Computer or Flexowriter
Magnetic tape
2 & 4 in/sec
X, Y, Z in serial form. X, Y, and Z refer to
rectangular coordinates.
1
6 months
COSTv PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Computer only
Computer with output equipment
Approx $50,000
Approx $80,000
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
No special operators needed. EqUipment can be
operated by one man after a few hours' checkout.
Service easily handled on part-time basis by one
engineer or senior technician.
RELIAB I LlTY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Simplicity is obtained by semi-permanently wiring
computer to perform a specific problem solution.
Magnetic core storage driving diode logic directly
reduces active elements and increases reliability.
Dynamic pulse techniques used.
Total failures to date consists of 4 diodes, 1
reSistor, and 3 printed circuit board connections.
This covers a period of 3 years.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Outstanding features include speed ample for realtime uses, computer is very simple with high reliability, and is unusually accurate in analogue output.
FUTURE PLANS
This system is being superseded by Model 932
Computer, which is faster, is more flexible, has
greater capacity, and uses transistors rather than
tubes.
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Quantity
98
66
Diodes
Approx 1,000
Magnetic Cores
SR-100
450
Type
Tubes
in computer
in output units
CHECKING FEATURES
Checking features include built-in marginal checking and built-in test problem input and output monitor.
HA..-r..{P8HIRE CCC 500
HAMPSHIRE
TRTDS 932
MANUFACTU RER
Hampshire Engineering Company
Hampshire 'rbeodolite Real Time Display System
Model 932
APPLICATIONS
OUTPUT
Media
30" x 30" Plotting Board
Magnetic Tape
Iimched Tape
Flexowriter
Analogue Voltages for
The real time computer and display system is used
with Contraves Phototheodolites to produce precision
plots and tabulation of aircraft position in rectane~ar coordinates.
It can also be used for radar
coordinate conversion and other real time problems
with appropriate problem changes.
Speed
Real time
Real time
1/3 real time
1/10 real time
Real time
X, Y, Z
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary
Binary digits/word
22
Binary digits/instruction Wired problem
Arithmetic system
Fixed point
Instruction type
Wired problem
Number range
22 bits (Fractional, incl. sign)
Tubes
Diodes
Transistors
Automatic built-in subroutines include sine, cosine,
tangent and translation of binary to binary coded
decimal.
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access
Microsec
Micro sec
Add
220
220
Mult
1760
1760
Div
5300
5300
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
85
Magnetic Cores 165 Core-transistor shift registers
Arithmetic mode
Serial
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Concurrent
CHECKING FEATURES
Checking features include built-in marginal checking, built-in test probleminputs and output monitor,
and parity check on data transmission.
POWER, SPACE~ WEIGHT o AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
1.5 Kw, appro x
Power includes auxiliary equipment.
PRODUCTION RECORD
STORAGE
Medium
Core-Transistor Shift
Register
Quantity
Use
Output units
65
3,000
500
Computer
400
Auxiliary equipment
Magnetic Cores
650
Computer
450
Auxiliary equipment
All figures are approximate. The computer cores
are in the core-transistor shift register.
Type
Number in current production
1
Number on order
1
Time required for delivery
Approx 6 months
No. of
No. of Words
Dig/Word
15-easily expanded
22
COSTo PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Computer
Complete system
INPUT
Media
Speed
Magnetic Tape
Real time
Telephone Lines
Real time
Telephone lines connect to the theodolites.
HAMPSHIRE TRTDS 932
288
$50,000 to $100,000
$100,000 to $250,000
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
One 8-Hour
Shift
Operators
Engineers
Technicians
8-Hour
Shifts
Two
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Three 8-Hour
Shifts
1
2
1/4
1/4
3
1/2
1
1
l~
RELIAB I LlTY, OPERATI NG EXPER I ENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
Simplicity is obtained by semi-permanently wiring
computer to handle a specific problem. Extremely
conservative design is used. Magnetic cores are
used for storage. Cores drive diode logic directly, thereby reducing number of active elements. A
modified dynamic pulse technique with magnetic cores
is used.
Outstanding features include ample speed for real
time use, simplicity with high reliability, operability by personnel with minimum training and unusual
accuracy in analogue output.
INSTALLATIONS
Hampshire Engineering Company
2300 Washington Street
Newton Lower Falls 62, Mass.
HAMPSHIRE TRTDS 932
HONEYWELL
Honeywell
Com~uter
290
MANUFACTURER
M1nnea~lis-Honeywell
Regulator Company
Special Systems Division
MOdel 290
Photo by
M1nnea~olis-Honeywell
Regulator
Com~any
APPLICATIONS
The Honeywell 290 Com~uter is a general ~ur~ose,
internally stored ~rogram digital com~uter es~ecially
designed for use as a highly reliable on-line com~ut­
er for process or operation monitoring and-or control.
The H290 features all solid state circuitry, high
speed, low clock rate, both core and drum memory, concurrent input, out~ut and compute operation. The
H290 can be furnished with over 70 instructions
selectable by the user from a list of over 150 available instructions.The H290 Computer with associated
HONEYWELL 290
290
peripheral equipment can accept over 4,000 inputs
at scanning s~eeds up to 1,000 points per second,
perform calculations in real-time and produce over
4,000 outputs.
,
Outputs To Operator
..
I
,
1".:.:11 Typewriters
,----, ,
Outputs
L---L---t----L--...J
Inputs
From
Process
Paper
Tape
Punch
I
L~
To
/Visual
.-.-,...,-/r-r-. Numerical
Display
Process
I
__ _
----I
L---------i
I
I
1
I
I
L ____ .J
Multiplexer
I
---------------J
Manua I
Input
Papertape Reg i"sters
Reader
~--------~v~---------J'
.Inputs From Operator
---Data
---- - Control
c::a Registers
HONEYWELL INDUSTRIAL DIGITAL COMPUTER
CONTROL SYSTEM DIAGRAM
Diagram by Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary digits/word
Binary digits/instruction
Instructions per word
Instructions decoded
Binary or Bin. Coded Dec.
18 Binary or 4 1/2 decimal
18 Binary
One
Variable - any 70 or so
out of over 150
Arithmetic system
Floating point
Can be provided as single instructions
Fixed point
Fractional (2's complement arithmetic)
Instruction type
One address
6 bit operation code and 12 bit address. Several
complex orders use two words as a single order.
Number range
0 to 262, 143 in Binary
and 0 to 39,999 in Binary-Coded- Decimal
Instruction word f rmat
6 bits
12 bits
Operation Code
18
13
comparative ease. A Control Section will be supplied
according to the application and the user's desires
and it can be modified or changed if the need arises.
Assembly routines are provided.
The H290 utilizes over 26 registers. Three are
for inputs, 5 for outputs, 1 for instruction sequence,
4 for arithmetic and the balance for other internal
computer functions. The entire core memory could be
utilized as index registers.
Address
12
1
There is no need for "built-in" subroutines. A
group of 80-micro-instructions are assembled into macro
macro-instructions dependent upon the Control Section
logic. These macro-instructions may be changed with
291
The basic operation code consists of 6 bits, 64
orders involving memory addresses. A "no-address"
type of order allows for 64 additional orders not
involving variable addresses. If additional orders
involving memory are required, the Control Section
may be easily modified to utilize a "no-address"
order as one addressing memory. The Control Section
by being mostly magnetiC, can have its entire order
structure completely altered if desired. Because
it is not conceivable that anyone application would
have need of the complete possible instruction vocabulary, it can be said that the number of available
instructions is limitless for a particular application.
HONEYWELL 290
OUTPUT
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Incl Stor Incl Stor Access No Access to
Access to to One Operand
Operands and
both Oper- & "HousekeepNo "Houseands &
ing"
keeping"
Microsec
"Housekeep- Microsec
ing"
Operation Microsec
Add
100
200
140
Mult
860
800
760
Div
1420
1320
1360
"Housekeeping" consists of those portions of each
order that are identical for all orders and it
a.ccounts f'or 40 microseconds.
Construct:1.on (Arithmetic unit only)
Transistors
500 approx.
Diodes
1,500 approx.
Arithmetic mode
Parallel
2's complement arithmetic is used throughout which
allows a powerful but comparatively simple add net
work. No special logic is needed to handle sign
determination. Arithmetic is completely binary with
a relatively simple decimal translator for addition
and subtraction. Binary-to-Decimal and Decimal-toBinary conversion orders are provided for complete
flexibility.
Timing
Synchronous and Asynchronous
The baSic clock frequency of 50 kc is realized
through use of an asynchronous logical clock of six
unique time periods each of which is independently
variable.
Operation
Sequential and Concurrent
Instructions are executed in sequence but input,
output and internal computations are easily realized
simultaneously. The computer itself is synchronized
by the clock, but the clock is not an oscillator or
multivibrator. A basic timing device and logic
manipulator have been combined into the Primary Clock
which can have no false moves. Separate Core Memory
and Drum Memory Clocks are synchronized by the Primary Clock.
Media
Speed
On-line to Digital-to- Up to 10,000 l8-bit Char/sec
Analog Converter or
to Digital Devices
For real-time on-line control of process variables
or for actuating alarms, on-off devices, etc.
Numerical Display Lights
For decimal or hexadecimal notation of computer
words.
Punched Paper Tape
Up to 60 char/sec
For subsequent feed to electric typewriters
On-line Digital
Up to 10,000 18 bit Char/sec
Two paths for selection of Input and Output
Channels.
By means of a unique order structure and proper
programming, it is possible to interlace an input
program, an output program and a computation program.
The input program will initiate input commands to
peripheral devices and then switch control to the
computation program. The computation program will
periodically check to see if the input device has
completed its conversion. When complete, the input
program may then call for the next input and then
jump to the output program. An output command may
then initiate action by an appropriate output device
and then jump to the computation program. This may
be considered as a form of "traffic control". Proper
programming prevents a series of input and output
commands from "bacIdng up" and virtually eliminates
any waiting time for peripheral devices. The order
structure enables the checking of peripheral devices
for the completion of their last task and upon completion another command is issued to the peripheral
device and the program can then immediately branch
to another routine, periodically checking for the
completion of the latest command issued to the peripheral device. The manner in which this is
achieved by the program is quite simplified and
flexible. Input and output channels are selectable
by the twelve address bits of the input or output
instruction thereby enabling the selection of any
one of 4,096 inputs or 4,096 outputs.
STORAGE
No. of
Access
No. of Words
Digits (Max) Microsec
1,024; 2,048; Binary 73,728
20
or 4,096
Decimal 16,384
Drum
4,096 or
Binary 147,456 1700 Avg
8,192
Decimal 32,768
Drum capacity is expandable to 32,000 words. Drum
successive locations will require only 128 microseconds up to a maximum of 252 words. The first word
of a series will average 1700 microseconds.
CI RCU tT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Media
Magnetic Core
Type
Diodes
Transistors
Magnetic Cores
CHECKING FEATURES
Due to the nature of the applications on which this
computer is intended to be used there is no requirement for parity checks nor checking bits associated
with any word. Programmed system self checks and
input and output reasonableness checks can be easily
incorporated into the complete program. Particular
types of checking can be incorporated in the order
structure as a part of the Control Section on special order at additional cost. Simple program checks
and verifying diagnostic routines can easily be incorporated in the complete program.
INPUT
Media
Speed
On-line from Analog-toUp to 10,000 l8-bit
Digital Converter or
char/sec
from Digital Inputs directly
For real-time on-line acquisition of process
measurements.
Manual Dials
Approx 60 microsec
per setting of the dials
For occasional entry of new fixed information or
new instructions.
Punched Paper Tape
20 char/sec
Primarily for Program Loading.
HONEYWELL 290
Approx Quantity
9,000
1,500
75,000
292
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT v AND SITE PREPARATION
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Power, computer wlair cond 1.4 Kw 2.3 KVA 0.6 pf
Power, air condit ioner
o. 3 Kw 1.1 KVA
Volume, comp wlair cond
56 cu ft
Area, comp wlair cond
8 S'l ft
Room size
10 ft x 10 ft
Floor loading
144 Ibsls'l ft
Load is uniformly distributed over rectangular
2 ft x 4 ft frame with 1 5/8 inch frame width.
Capacity, air conditioner
0.5 Tons
The H290 is designed for industrial use and therefore no extreme site preparation is re'luired. The
air conditioner is built in.
Outstanding features include high performa~ce and
speed, high reliability, protected program storage,
flexible instruction vocabulary, use of both core
and drum memory, and ease of programming and maintenance. Single instructions can be provided for
complex sub-routines without re'luiring more than
one reference to memory.
Uni'lue system advantages include random selection
of inputs and outputs in accordance with the ~rogram,
concurrent input, output and compute operation, and
up to 1,000 points per second input selection speed.
The Honeywell Computer Control System utili~ing
the H290 Computer is applicable for all types of
industrial, commercial an<i military process or
operation monitoring and control. Complete application assistance can be provided extending from
economical and technical feasibility study through
installation and maintenance of the system. All
process transmitters, transducers and peripheral
e'luipment can be provided by HONEYWELL.
Concurrent Operation
Execution of internal computations, concurrent
with operation of almost any number of peripheral
devices (such as paper tape reader, a tape punch,
a typewriter, an analog-to-digital converter, etc.)
is possible due to the internal logic and ra.ndom
access core memory of the computer. This feature
effectively permits the attention of the computer
to be devoted to continuous process control of the
particular process and to the calculation of process formulae.
For instance, the computer program can randomly
select an input channel. If this input channel represents a process variable such as a temperature
(read by a thermocouple), its value is usu~ in
analog form (continuous signal) and must be converted to digital form (discrete digits) for presentation to the computer~ Conversions of this sort are
handled by the computer peripheral e'luipment; in
this case, the analog-to-digital converter. While
the computer peripheral e'luipment carries out this
conversion, the computer itself is free to perform
other operations. Between operations, the computer
"looks at" its input registers to see if the .conversion is completed. When the peripheral equipment has completed the requested conversion, the
computer is signaled and will accept the digitized
value.
The same principle applies to all peripheral operations. All of these can occur concurrently.
Transistorized for Reliability
The Honeywell 290 has solid state components
throughout all electronic circuits and is designed
to operate in an industrial environment with a minimum of maintenance • Reliability is further assured
not only by the low clock rate but also by operating
the transistors and diodes far below the max:1mum
levels recommended by the component manufacturers.
This lengthens component life. In addition, the
Honeywell 290 contains a cooling unit to substantially lower the internal temperature in the computer
proper to further increase component life.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Time re'luired for delivery from receipt of order
12 to 18 months.
COSTv PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
For 1 Honeywell 290 Computer with 4,096 words of
core memory and 8,192 words of drum memory, 1 Paper
Tape Reader, and 1 Paper Tape Punch, the selling
price is approx. $170,000.
Electric typewriters or printers, analog-to-digital converter, digital-to-analog converter, multiplexers, operator console(s), and control amplifiers
are available. The selling price of total system,
including additional e'luipment, varies, depending
upon the application re'luirements. Various leasing
and maintenance arrangements are available.
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Maintenance, programming and operator training are
provided according to the purchaser's re'luirement.
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABILITY
The H290 Computer has been designed for maximum
reliability and 100% availability for continuous
operation. The "mean time between failures" is well
over a thousand hours of continuous operation. Wirewrap and jet soldering techni'lues have been used
throughout. Individual package construction utilizes
ladder type arrangement of components. The number
of components per package greatly reduces the usual
number of mechanical connections; and floating
connections are used throughout. Circuit parameters
have been derated better than 50%. Computer operation
is such that complete protection is provided for the
prevention of the stored program or constants from
being inadvertently destroyed by the operator or an
external disturbance.
293
HONEYWELL 290
HONEYWELL 800
Honeywell 800
MANUFACTU RER
Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Company
Datamatic Division
Newton 61, Massachusetts
Photo by Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Company
APPLICATIONS
Aritbmetic system
Designed for general purpose business, businessscientific, and scientific applications, system
capable of running eight programs simUltaneously.
Instruction type
Number range
e
Decimal
nd • 10 d
-64 ~ ed~ 63
_(1_10-10)~ nd ~ (1_10- 10 )
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system
Binary and binary-coded
decimal
Number of binary digits/word
48
Number of decimal digits/word 12 plus checking
Number of binary digits/
instruction
48
Number of decimal digits/
instruction
12 plus checking
Number of instructions/word
1
Number of instructions decoded 59 basic types
HONEYWELL 800
Floating point (optional)
Fixed point (standard)
Three address
Binary
-64~ ~s:;:
63
_(1_2- 39 ) ~ ~!G (1_2- 39 )
294
Diagram by Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company
Instruction and information word format
Word Structure - The Honeywell 800 word consists
of 54 bits, of which six are used for checking.
The 48 information bits ~ represent an ll-decimaldigit number with its sign, several smaller decimal
numbers, with signs for each, eight alphabetic
characters, or a combination of these. A word ~
also be interpreted as a 44-bit binary number with
its sign, or as an instruction. Using the floating-point option, a word ~ represent a sign bit,
a seve~bit exponent, and a 40-bit mantissa in
binary form.
Instructions - In the instruction word, the information bits are divided logically into four sections
which are interpreted as an operation code followed
by three addresses.
Instruction Word
Operation
Code
12 bits
Numeric
Example
~
Alphanumeric
R
Al,phanumeric
Compressed
C
Binary
Instruction
Floating
Point
1112
0
±
1
Operation
Code
+ Exponent
- (7
8
0
61
71
B
I
N
S
o
W
E
B
B
1/ 7
3 415
I
~=
91 1
I
Address
B
12 bits
Address
C
12 bits
Indexing - Each address in an instruction may be
designated as absolute or indexed. A total of eight
index registers are available to each program.
HONEYWELL 800 WORD STRUC'roRE
Type
Address
A
12 bits
Masking - The ability to mask words allows most
internal processing instructions in the Honeywell
800 to work with fields of variable length. Each
program ~ designate a group of 32 memory locations
as masking registers. Such a designation ~ be
changed by the programmer at any point in his program. Thus, an essentially unlimited number of
masking registers is at his disposal.
1
N
14
(44 Binary Digits)
Automatic built-in subroutines
Exponential Overflow
Exponential Underflow
Division overCapacity
Addition or Subtraction Overflow
Read or Write Error
Begin or End of Tape
Parity Failure
I
Address 1Address Address
ABC
Mantissa
(40 Binary Digits)
295
HONEYWELL 800
Automatic coding
Argus (Automatic Routine Generating and Updating
System)
Fact (fully Automatic Compiling Technique)
Algebraic Compiler
Library of Subroutines
Executive Routine
Registers and B-boxes
64 Index Registers
8 Mask Index Registers
32 Input-Output Control
32 Sequencing and History
96 Special (Programmer's Usage)
8 Automatic Subroutines
16 Internal Control
Accumulator Register
Low Order Product-Quotient Register
Mask Constant Storage Register
Program Control Register
Machine Control Register
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Incl. Store Access
Microsec.
Add time
24
Mult time
162
Div time
450
Construction, arithmetic unit only
Vacuum tubes
None
Transistors
2,000
Condenser-Diodes
10,000 diodes
Arithmetic mode
Parallel-Serial-Parallel
Timing
Synchronous
Operation
Concurrent
STORAGE
Access
Medium
No. of Words No. of Digits Microsec
Ferrite Cores Up to 32,000 Up to 384,000
2.1
Magnetic Tape
No. of units that can be connected
64 Units
No. of chars per linear inch
533 CharS/inch
No. of decimal digits per linear in. 800 dd/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape
10 Tracks/tape
Blank tape separating each record
0.66 Inches
Tape speed
120 Inches/sec
Transfer rate
64,000 Chars/sec
Decimal digit transfer rate
96,000 dd/sec
Start time
3.5 Millisec ,
Stop time
3.5 Millisec
Average time for experienced
operator to change reel
30 Seconds
Physical properties of tape
Width
3/4 Inches
Length of reel
2,400 Feet +
leaders
Composition
1.5 mil mylar
INPUT
Media
Punched Cards
Paper Tape
240
650
200
1,000
Speed
cards/min
cards/min
chars/ sec
chars/sec
OUTPUT
Media
Punched Cards
Printer
Paper Tape
100
250
150
900
60
Speed
cards/min
cards/min
lines/min
lines/min
Chars/sec
CI RCU IT ELEMENTS OF ENTI RE SYSTEM
Quanti ty
Diodes
30,000
Transistors
6,000
Above excludes peripheral equipment
Type
CHECKING FEATURES
Verification of all data transmission, arithmetic
processe~address modification, memory selections,
and central processing. Orthotronic correction of
tape data and marginal checking for preventive
maintenance.
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer
32 Kw
57 KYA
Capacity, air conditioner
9.11 Tons
Weight, computer
15,720 lbs
Requirements for the physical installation of a
typical system are approximately as follows:
Data Processing Area
1,200 square feet
Service Engineering Area
400 square feet
(including parts storage)
8 feet
Ceiling Height
75 lbs/square
Floor Load Capacity
feet (max)
It is recommended that a raised floor be installed
over the existing base floor for the protection
of interconnecting cables. This floor should be a
free-access type, 9 inches high with a minimum of
5 1/2 inches clearance underneath for accomodating
cables.
PRODUCTION RECORD
Deliveries start in December 1960.
COST, PRICE-AND RENTAL RATES
Figures given are for a typical system.
Basic system, including a Central Processor, 4,096
words of memory, High-Speed Printer Type Control,
High-Speed Card Reader, Six Magnetic Tape Units,
High Speed Card Punch, Printer-Card, Reader-Card
Punch Control.
Purchase price
$975,000
Floating-point option
101,800
Additional memory blocks
153,600
(4,096 words/block)
Rental, basic system above, monthly
20,665
Rental, floating point option, monthly
2,100
Rental, additional memory blocks
3,200
Maintenance service contract available.
HONEYWElL 800
0.80 pf
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
PERSONNEL REQU I REMENTS
Personnel requirements depend on equipment configuration and application. Complete training courses
for programming and operating staff included with
purchase and rental charge.
Outstanding features include parallel processing,
traffic control, system modularity, outstanding
system reliability, open-ended design, automatic
programming aids (FACT, ARGUS, Algebraic compiler).
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABI LlTY
Unique system advantages include ability to run up
to 8 programs simultaneously Without !:!!l. specie.l
programming or special instructions.
Each unit and entire system incorporate fail-safe
checking. Special construction techniques minimize
cold-solder joints and intermittent contacts. All
units are designed for simplicity of maintenance
and speed of replacement of parts.
Special procedures for magnetic tape labelling,
storing, shipping, and protection from humtdity,
temperature, electrical, fire, or other damage are
that relative humidity in area should be held at
approximately 40% to insure maximum tape life, dry
bulb temperature shall not exceed 74 0 F, and wet
bulb temperature shall not exceed 59 0 F.
INSTALLATIONS
Army Map Service
6500 Brooks Lane
WaShington 25, D. C.
Ames Research Center
MOffett Field, California (Anticipated)
AVCO Corporation
Crosley Division
1329 Arlington Street
Cincinnati 29, Ohio (Proposed)
297
HOWEYWELL 800
HRB SINGER
Haller Raymond and Brown - Singer Electronic
Memory Computer
MANUF ACTU RER
Singer Manufacturing Company
HRB-Singer, Incorporated, SubSidiary
Science Park, State College, Pennsylvania
Photo by HRB - Singer
APPLICATIONS
It will accept numerical information for storage
from either a push button or telephone input. It
will readout on tape, punch tape or cards or vocally.
Confirmation of instructions is obtained so corrections can be made prior to telling the machine to
proceed.
D
Power, computer
Volume, computer
Area, computer
Weight, computer
0.01 Kw
5 cu ft
2.25 sq ft
85lbs
Nothing is required in the way of site preparation.
STORAGE
No. of
Medium
Words
Magnetic Drum
1,024
16 binary digits per word
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT AND SITE PREPARATION
Access
Microsec
5,000
INPUT
Speed
Media
'relephone
regular dial telephone
'ren-kGY Push Button
Telephone can be located any place. Vocal confirmation is given.
OUTPUT
Medium
Speed
Paper Tape
1 line/second
Regular adding machine output
HRB - Singer Electronic Memory Computer
PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date
Number in current production
Several
Several
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Price of basic system, including telephone and push
button input, printed paper tape output and
computer
$15,000
Additional 1,024 word storage drum
4,000
Monthly rental rate for basic system
400
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE,
AND TIME AVAILABI LlTY
Attempted to run time
167 Hours/Week (Average)
Time is available for rent to outside organizations.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
INSTALLATIONS
Outstanding features include low cost solution to
critical inventory problems.
HRE - Singer, Inc.
State College, Fa.
299
HRE - Singer Electronic Memory Computer
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