Systems Reference Library

Systems Reference  Library

Systems Reference Library

Operator's Guide for IBM 7040 -7044 Systems

This publication is intended for personnel operating

IBM

7040 and 7044 systems. It describes lights, switches, indicators, and keys of the systems, and of units within the systems. Instructions and operation code lists are included. The reader should be familiar with

IBM 7040-7044 Principles of Operation,

Form

A22-6649.

File Number 7040-01

Form A22-6741-1

This edition, Form A22-6741-1, obsoletes the preceding edition,

Form A22-6741.

Copies of this and other IBM publications can be obtained through IBM Branch Offices.

Address comments concerning the content of this publication to:

IBM ClJrporation, Customer Manuals, Dept. B98, PO Box 390, Poughkeepsie, N. y~

12602

Contents

Introduction

Instructions and Data .

Machine Cycles

Operator's Console

Processing Unit Data Flow

Input-Output Devices

Magnetic Tape Units

IBM

7330 Magnetic Tape Unit Keys and Lights

13

. 16

Card Devices. . . . .

IBM

1402 Card Read Punch, Model 2

IBM

1402 Card Read Punch, Model 2

Printer

IBM

1403 Printer, Models 1 and 2

Telecommunication Devices .

IBM

IBM

IBM

1009 Data Transmission Unit .

1011 Paper Tape Reader .

1014 Remote Inquiry Unit

Operations

. . . .

Loading Card Data - 1402 .

Loading Magnetic Tape Data

Loading Entry Key Data .

Off-Line Operation

18

19

19

22

22

37

37

41

49

Appendix A. Instructions

Appendix B. Instruction List

Appendix C. Powers of Two Table

Appendix D. Octal-Decimal

56

59

64

Integer Conversion Table. . . . . . . . . 65

Appendix E. Octal-Decimal

Fraction Conversion Table. . . . . . . . .

69

51

51

52

53

54

5

5

7

8

12

12

Figur e

1.

Op e rator's Consol e

Introduction

The operator's console contains a program controlled console typewriter, keys, switches, and lights for communication between operator and computer (Figure 1). Two banks of entry keys and an enter keys computer instruction make possible the entry of a full data word or instruction into the computer. This entry may be either manual or program controlled.

Information is set into the keys in octal format. The contents of main processing unit registers and counters are displayed in lights on the console. Certain control and error indications also are displayed on the console for viewing and action.

The processing unit controls and supervises the entire computer system and performs the actual arithmetic and logical operations on data. From a functional viewpoint, the processing unit consists of two sections: control and arithmetic-logical.

The control section can start or stop an input-output device, tum a signal indicator on or off, rewind a tape reel, or direct some process of calculation.

The arithmetic-logical section contains the circuitry to perform arithmetic and logical operations. The arithmetic portion calculates, shifts numbers, sets the algebraic sign of results, compares, and so on. The logical portion carries out the decision-making operations to change the sequence of instruction execution.

Instructions

and

Data

Instructions are distinguished from data by the time at jhich they are brought into the processing unit from core storage. Information that is brought into the processing unit during an instruction (I) cycle is interpreted as an instruction. Information that is brought into the processing unit during any other computer cycle is treated as data. Consequently, the computer can readily operate on' its own instructions, by bringing information into the processing unit during any cycle other than an I cycle. Also, the computer can be instructed to alter its own instructions according to conditions encountered during the handling of a procedure.

It is this ability to process instructions that provides the almost unlimited flexibility and the so-called logical ability of the stored program computer system.

Register

The register is an electronic device capable of receiving and holding information, and transferring it as directed by control circuits. Functioning may depend upon magnetic cores, transistors, or similar components.

Registers are . named according to function: an accumulator register accumulates results; a multiplierquotient register holds either multiplier or quotient; a storage register contains information received from storage or to be sent to storage; an address register holds the address of a storage location or device; and an instruction register contains the instruction code

(operation part) of an instruction being executed

(Figure 2).

Registers differ in size, capacity, and use. Some registers contain extra positions to indicate overflow conditions during an arithmetic operation. The accumulator register has 39 positions; 36 for data, two (P and Q) to remember overflow conditions, and one (C) which holds a check bit for that word. If two 36-bitbinary numbers are added, the result can be a 37 -bit answer. In Figure 3, the accumulator register holds one number; the other number - from storage - is in the storage register. When the two numbers are added, and the result is placed back into the accumulator register, the overflew is indicated by the presence of a I-bit in the first

(P) overflow position. The ac-

Figure 2. Register Nomenclature and Function

Accumulator

Contents

1000,100110111010001101010011100010101011

SQP.l 35

Storage Register

Contents lo~

10110001010001101101100010100100101

~1 u

Accumulator

Result

1001~)l1101000100011010111111110111001111

SQP. 1 35

Figure 3. Overflow Condition Resulting from Addition

Introduction 5

cumulator might then be shifted right one place and a record kept of the lost low-order hit.

With other registers, contents can be shifted right or left within the register and, in some cases, even between registers. When contents are shifted from one register to another, the two registers act as one large register. Figure 4 shows three types of shifting. With shifting involving a single register, data shifted out of the register mayor may not be lost, depending on the instruction used. With double register shifting, data shifted out of the registers are lost, and vacated positions of the registers are filled with zeros.

In other uses, a register may hold data while associated circuits analyze the data. When an instruction is placed in a register, circuits can determine the operation to be performed and locate the data to he used.

Data within specific registers can also be checked for validity.

The main registers of a system, particularly those involved in normal data

How

and core storage addressing, display their contents by small lights located on the operator's console. A light

ON indicates a I-bit for that position: a light

OFF indicates a O.:hit.

Counter

Counters are closely related to registers and usually perform the same functions. In addition, contents of a counter can be increased or decreased by some amount. The contents of a counter, as of a register, may be displayed in lights on the operator's console.

Adder

The adder receives data from two or more sources, performs addition, and sends the sum to a register.

Figure 5 shows two positions of an adder circuit with inputs from an accumulator register and a storage register. The sum is developed in the adder. A carry from any position is sent to the next higher-order position. The final sum goes to corresponding positions of the receiving register.

Before

Single Register Shifting:

(Shift right seven places)

Note: Left-hand positions are filled with zeros; data shifted out of position 35 are lost.

Single Register Shifting:

(Shift right seven places)

Note: Data are not lost when shifted out of position 35; the data are re-entered in position S.

Double Register Shifting:

(Shift right seven places)

Note: Data are shifted from position 35 of the first register into position S of the second register. DatQ shifted out of position 35 of the second register are lost. Vacated positions are filled with zeros.

Figure 4. Types of Register Shifting

6

Before

Figure 5. Adders in a Computer System

Machine Cycles

All computer operations take place in fixed intervals of time, determined by regular pulses emitted from an electronic clock at frequencies as high as millions per second. A fixed quantity of pulses determines the time of each basic machine cycle.

Within a machine cycle, the computer performs a specific machine operation. The quantity and kind of operations required to execute a single instruction depend on the instruction. Various machine operations are combined to execute each instruction.

An instruction consists of at least two parts, an operation and an operand. The operation tells the machine which fmiction ·to perform: read, write, add, subtract, and so on. The operand can be the address of data or of an instruction, or of an input-output unit or other device. The operand can also specify a control function such as shifting a quantity in a register, or backspacing and rewinding a reel of tape.

To receive, interpret, and execute instructions, the central processing unit must operate in a prescribed sequence. The sequence is determined by the specific instruction and is carried out during a fixed interval of timed pulses.

All instructions have one instruction (I) cycle. Some instructions require only an I cycle for complete execution; other instructions require both an I and an execute (E) cycle.

Instruction Cycle

The first cycle required to execute an instruction is called the instruction (I) cycle. The time of this cycle is instruction or I-time. During I-time:

1. The instruction is taken from a main storage location and brought to the processing unit.

2. The operation part is decoded in an instruction register. This tells the machine what is to be done.

3. The operand is placed in an address register. This tells the machine what it is to work with.

4. The location of the next instruction to be executed is determined.

At the beginning of a program, the instruction counter is set to the address of the first program instruction.

This instruction is brought from storage and, while it is being executed, the instruction counter automatically advances (steps) to the address of the location occupied by the next stored instruction. By the time one instruction is executed, the counter has located the next instruction in the program sequence. The stepping action of the counter is automatic: when the computer is directed to a series of instructions, it will execute these instructions one after another until instructed to do otherwise.

Assume that an instruction is given to add the contents of storage location 00002 to the contents of the accumulator register. Figure 6 shows the main registers involved and the information flow lines.

At the start of I-time, the instruction counter transfers the address of the instruction to the address register. The addressed instruction is selected from storage and placed in a storage register. From the storage register, the operation part is routed to the instruction register, and the operand to the address register.

Operation decoders then condition circuit paths to perform the instruction, while the address register locates the operand.

Execution of instructions need not necessarily proceed sequentially. Certain instructions can alter the normal stepping of the instruction counter: the instruction brought from storage can cause the next execution to be not the next sequential instruction, but, instead, one located in another position. For instance, the instruction counter can be reset back to the beginning to repeat the entire program for another incoming group of data.

This transfer ( branch) to alternative instructions also may be conditional. The computer can be directed first to examine some indicating device, and then transfer if the indicator is on, or off. An instruction can say,

"Look at the sign of the quantity in the accumulator; if this sign is minus, take the next instruction from location 5000; if plus, proceed to the next instruction in sequence." The instruction counter is set according to the contents of one of two possible storage locations: 5000, or the location of the next instruction in sequence. The logical path that is, the precise

Figure 6. Computer I Cycle Flow Lines

Introduction 7

sequence of instructions executed may be controlled either by unconditional transfers, or by a series of conditional tests applied at various points in the pro:gram. Normally the storage arrangement of the stored instructions is not altered.

Operator's

Console

The operator's console has five panels (Figure 8) containing keys, lights, and switches that provide flexible, efficient communication between the computer and the operator. The following descriptions of console features start· at the top left-hand comer of panel 1 and continue through panel 5.

Execute Cycle

I-time is usually followed by one or more computer cycles which complete the operation being perfonned.

Execution of an E cycle brings a word into the processing unit from core storage, or takes a word from the processing unit and places it in core storage. Any word brought into the processing unit during an E cycle is treated as data for the operation decoded by the previous I cycle. Figure 7 shows the data flow following the I-time illustrated by Figure 6.

The E-cycle (Figure 7) starts by removing from storage the infonnation located at the address (00002) indicated by the address register. The infonnation goes to the storage register, from which it is then moved to the adders together with the number from the accumulator. The contents of the storage register and accumulator are combined in the adders, and the sum is returned to the accumulator.

The address register may contain information other than the storage location of data. It can indicate the address of an input-output device, or a control function to be perfonned. The operation part of the instruction tells the computer how to interpret this information.

Buffer Cycle

Buffer cycles are used to transfer information between an overlap data channel (channels B through E) and an input-output device.

Use Cycle

Use cycles are used to transfer infonnation between channel A and attached input-output devices.

Panel 1

Channel Bit Density:

Five density switches are used, one for each possible data channel, to select the magnetic tape densities used for recording. Each switch has three positions: 556/200, 800/200, and 800/556. Thus, a magnetic tape unit whose

channel

bit density switch is in the 800/556 position would record at800 bits per inch if operating at high density, at 556 bits per inch if operating at low density.

Storage Clock:

With this switch in the

ON position, core storage location 00005 is incremented (added to)

60 times a second. Incrementing is stopped by placing the switch in the

OFF position or by removing power from the system.

Step Mode Selector:

This three position rotary switch controls the operation mode when the single or multiple step keys are depressed. The three positions of the selector switch are:

INSTRUCTION, CYCLE, PULSE.

INSTRUCTION is the normal operation position and provides for execution of a single instruction at a time when the single step key is used. The

CYCLE and

PULSE positions are customer engineering aids and allow execution to be slowed to observe details of a single instruction.

Address Stop:.

This five-position switch is used in conjunction with the entry (location) switches and has these positions: OFF, I-Cycle, E-Store, Channel

Store, and Any. The address at which the operator wishes to stop is first placed in the entry (location) switches. The operator then selects the type of cycle on which to stop. When a coincidence of the selected address and the cycle occurs, the computer stops. t the number located at 00002 number at location 00002

Address Register

Instruction Counter

Figure 7. Computer E Cycle Following an I Cycle

8

Panel 2

C

B Thermal:

This light is turned

ON whenever a circuit breaker, fuse, thermal, or airflow switch in the basic system or auxiliary equipment opens. Power is removed from the system if the opening switch is in the central processing unit (cPu). In auxiliary equipment, power is removed only from the unit.

Master Power Connect:

When this switch is on (lit), power is supplied to the sequencing controls and the power-on and power-off switches are active.

~

200

Channel Bit Density

~

.!!QQ ll.QQ.

0-.

~

556 •••

I.!QQ

200

@

556 200

. Off

0

On

200

•••

!!QQ

200

556 •••

200

~

200

®

556 200

©

556 200

®

556 200

®

556

.r"'-S M d I _

Inst·OPulse tep

0 e Cyc e :

J

IMaster powerj

Connect

IMas~er powerj

DlSconn

I

Norm~nPowe1

I Normal powerj

Off

Index A

I

24 25 26 1 27 28 29

I

30 31 3213334 351 121 22 23

DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD

Index B

Channel in Use

I

Channel Chk

I

Position Reg

I

J

A 8

C 0

ElF

14 15 16 171

A B C o

E

DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD

Instruction Counter

121 22 23 1 24 25 26

I

27 28 29

I

30 31 32

I

33 34

35

1

DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD

Index C

121 22 23 1 24 25 26 1 27 28 29 1 30 31 3213334351

DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD

121 22 23 1 24 25 26 1 27 28 29 1 30 31 32 1 33 34

35 1

DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD

1 2

3

Instruction Sh ift Counter

I

Tag

I

Address

I

4

5

6

I

7

8 9 110 11 112 13 14 115

16 17

I

18 19 20

I

21 22 23

I

24 25 26

I

27 28 29

I

30 31

321333435

IT]

D DDDDDDDDDODDDDDDDDDDODDODDDDDDDDDDO

Storage

[U

11 2

I

3

4

5

I

6

7 81 9 10 11 112 13 14 115 16 17118 19 20121 22 23124.25 26127 28 291 30 31 32 133 34

35 1

~

0 DDDDODDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD

0

Accumulator

DDODO'ODO'ODo'oodODO'O

00100010001000100010001000

MQ

IT]

11

2

I

3 4 5

I

6

7 8

I

9 10 11 112 13 14 115 16 17118 19 20 121 22 23 124 25 261 27 28 29130 31 32

I

33 34 351

[J

D DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD D

Mas Prog f3

Stop Stop Ready I E L B a

8 B

I

~~::Ie

I I

~:~~~:~ j

BJ

DDDO[ ODD

OJ

D

Ch

DODO

0 DC

I'~~:;::k

1

B

I

Multiple

I

Enter

\I

Step

Storage

~~'

10

Cycl~

Time

Clock Pulses

Accu Div

10

DDDO[

nOD

Par

Tally Counter

Par Trp Trp Mem Q X 9 9

Inh Inh Ctl Prot Car Car Car Oflo

DOD D

FP FP

1 2

DOD 0 0

rn

I

Contn;tnter

I

I

Clear

I

Sense Location

Emergency

Power

Off m

(0

0)

CD

CD

CD

CD

CD

(0

CD

0

CD

CV

CD

CD

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

CD

Q

0)

0

G)

CD

CD

C0

@

@

Q

@

@

@

@

(!9)

Instruction

0

CD

<0 0

0

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0

0

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0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tag Address

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

G)

Q

G)

0

0

0

0

0

CD 0

(Q)

0

0

0

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0

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0

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Figure 8. Operator's Console Panel

Introduction 9

Master Power Disconnect:

power circuits and power applied to the sequencing controls. All power components under control of the system are disconnected from the line power. The power-on switch has no effect in this condition. Pressing this switch (with the system operating) results in a sequenced power-off operation.

Normal Power On:

Pressing this switch starts a power-on sequence for the

CPU and auxiliary equipment under control of the power distribution unit.

Normal Power Of]:

Depressing the power-off switch removes all

DC voltages and air blower circuits in sequence. The -48 volts control voltage and convenience outlet power remain on.

Channel in Use (A through E):

The channel in use indicators, one for each channel, are on for each data channel that is in operation.

Channel Check (A through E):

The channel check indicators, one for each channel, are on when a byte or word redundancy has been detected.

Position Register:

These five lights reflect the contents of the indirect address trigger (F) and positions

14-17 of the instruction being executed. Positions 15-17 indicate which adapter is being used on a select instruction and the character selected on character-handling instructions.

Instruction Counter:

These lights reflect the contents of the instruction counter.

Index A, B, and

C: These lights, one for each position of each index register, reflect the contents of the index registers.

Panel 3

This switch controls

. Internal CPU Registers:

The contents of the instruction register, shift counter, tag register, address counter, storage register, accumulator register, and multiplier-quotient register are reflected by these lights.

Storage Register

C: This light reflects the contents of the 37th. bit of the word in the storage register.

MQ

Register

C: This light reflects the parity bit contents of the word being used in an input-output operation on data channel A.

Panel 4

Reset:

Pressing this key resets all registers and indicators in the logic section of the processing unit.

Core storage is not affected by the reset key, but all data channel registers and indicators are reset.

Automatic:

This switch is lit when in

AUTOMATIC position. Placing this switch in the

MANUAL position stops the processing unit after it has completed execution of the instruction being processed, unless an input-output device is in use. In this case, the com-

10 puter continues execution of instructions and remains in automatic status until all input-output devices have been disconnected. When the processing unit stops

(with this switch in manual) the computer is in manual status. The storage clock continues to run.

Single Step/Multiple Step:

When the

CPU is in manual status, these keys enable the operator to proceed with his program either one step at a time or at a slow automatic speed. If the computer executes an instruction that causes an input-output unit to be selected, the computer operates :in automatic mode until the input-output unit is disconnected. When the disconnect occurs, the computer returns to manual status.

Display Storage:

With the

CPU in manual status, pressing the display storage key displays the contents of the core storage location addressed by the entry keys of panel 5. The contents are displayed by the lights associated with the storage register. If the storage clock optional feature is installed, the storage clock switch must be turned off to maintain the displayed word in the storage register.

Load:

This key is active in automatic when the

CPU is stopped and no channels are in operation.

It is also operative as a program reset any time the automatic key is on. The following occurs when the load key is depressed.

When the automatic key is not on (manual mode):

1.

If an instruction is in process it is given a brief period of time to complete.

2. At the end of this time, an interlock reset occurs even if the present instruction has not completed.

The interlock and all other possible resets are described at the end of this section .

When the autom~tic key is on (automatic mode):

1. The instruction set up in the entry keys is executed.

2. The instruction set up in the keys should select a channel and put the channel in use. A channel command with maximum word count and an address of 00100 is loaded into the selected channel. Whep. the channel in use indicator is turned off, the computer transfers control to location

00101 and continues instruction execution from there.

Start:

Pressing the start key continues operation at high speed if the computer has stopped at a program stop, or if the

CPU has been returned to automatic after having been in manual status. The start key resets the program stop light, and operations start at the address specified by the contents of the instruction counter.

Enter Storage:

With the

CPU in manual status, pressing this key places the word in the word bank of the entry keys in core storage at the location set up in the location bank of the entry keys.

Enter Instruction:

Pressing this key executes the instruction set up in the word bank of the entry keys ..

The

CPU must be in manual status.

Cycle Timer (I,

E, L,

B,a,

f3):

The cycle timer lights reflect the current machine cycle being executed. Status of the alpha and beta triggers are also reflected for a

7106

CPU.

Master Stop:

This light is on whenever the master stop trigger is on

(cPu is logically stopped).

Program Stop:

This light is on whenever the computer executes a halt instruction.

Ready:

This light is

ON after power is applied to the computer and remains on except when the computer is in automatic status and the continuous enter-instruction switch is on or the

1-0 interlock switch is in

MANUAL.

Clock Pulses

(AD

through A5):

These lights reflect the state of the timing ring.

Accumulator Overflow:

This light is on during any fixed-point or shifting operation that gives a carry out of position 1 of the accumulator. The light is turned off by execution of a

TOV instruction or depression of the reset key.

Divide Check:

This light is turned on in fixed-point division if the dividend (accumulator contents) is greater than or equal to the divisor (storage register contents). In floating-point operation, the light is on if the magnitude of the fraction of the divid&nd is greater than or equal to twice the magnitude of the' divisor fraction. The light is tested and turned off by execution of the

DCT instruction.

I -0

Check:

The

1-0 check light may be turned on by any of the following conditions:

1.

If an

RCR instruction is decoded and the specified

2. data channel has not been selected.

If, during writing, a channel data register has not been loaded with a word from storage by the time its contents are to be sent to the output unit.

S. If, during reading, a channel data register has not transmitted its contents to storage by the time that new data are to be loaded into it from an input unit. This is not true during a tape operation when an

RCR

(following an RDs) is given too late.

The

I-a check light may be turned off by execution of an lOT instruction.

Parity Check:

This light is turned on when the parity circuits detect an error. It will be on when the

CPU stops on error during storage test operations.

Tally Counter

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

10, 20, 30):

The tally counter differentiates between the L cycles of a floating-point instruction and provides gating for their different operational steps. The counter is divided into two stages. Lights on the console' reflect which stage the

CPU is currently operating in. Positions 1 through 6 indicate the flow of single precision floating point and positions 10, 20, and SO together with positions 1 through 6 indicate the flow of double precision floating point.

1-0 Interlock Control:

When the light in this switch is on, the switch is in

MANUAL position; when the light is off the switch is in automatic position. The switch is used with the auto-manual switch as an aid in locating

I-a problems. The switch functions as follows:

1. If an

I-a unit is selected with the

I-a interlock light off, system operation reverts to automatic status even though the auto-manual switch is in

2.

MANUAL.

If the

I-a interlock light is on and the

CPU is in manual status when an

'1-0 unit is selected, the

CPU executes the select and remains in manual status.

Parity Inhibit:

This light is on whenever parity traps are inhibited as a result of a previous parity trap. The light is turned off by execution of a

TRP instruction or a machine reset.

Trap Inhibit:

This light is on when all interrupt traps are inhibited as a result of a parity or interval timer reset trap. The light is turned off with execution of the

TRT or

TRP instructions or a machine reset.

Channel Trap Control:

This light is off when channel traps are inhibited as a result of a trap or

ICT instruction or a machine reset. It is turned on by execution of an

RCT or

ENB instruction.

Memory Protect:

This light is on whenever the machine is operating in the memory protect mode.

Q

Carry:

This light reflects the condition of the

Q-carry trigger. The trigger is turned on whenever a carry out of adder Q position occurs.

X

Carry:

This light is on when the X-carry trigger is on as a result of a carry out of adder position 21.

9 Carry:

This light is on whenever a carry occurs out of adder position 9.

9 Overflow:

This light is on whenever accumulator position 9 equals 1 in an accumulator left shift or during a 9 carry in an adder to accumulator operation.

FP 1

and FP2:

The floating point

(FP)

1 and 2 lights reflect the condition of floating-point 1 and 2 triggers.

The triggers are used to store certain conditions throughout floating-point operations. The lights are customer engineering aids.

Continuous Enter Instruction:

When the light in this switch is on, indicating continuous enter instruction mode, the

CPU is forced continuously to execute the instruction set up in the entry keys in panel 5 if the

CPU is in automatic status and the start key is depressed. It is a customer engineering aid.

Clear:

With the computer in automatic status, pressingthe clear key resets all areas of core storage to

Introduction

11 .

21

Index Registers

35

Accumulator

35

35

Figure 9. Simplified Processing Unit Data Flow

5/ 1

MQ Register

35 zeros and all registers in the

CPU.

The clear key also resets all channel registers and indicators. The key is inoperative when the computer is in true manual status. then pressed, which automatically stores the desired word in the desired location in core storage. These switches. are active only when the computer is in manual status.

PanelS

Emergency Power Off:

Wh~n this pull type switch is actuated, all power on the system and all auxiliary power are immediately removed. The switch must be mechanically restored. The on-line 1401 and its attached

1-0 equipment are not affected.

Sense:

Six sense switches give· the operator manual control over the program while it is being executed at high speed. At various points in the program, executing . a sense switch test instruction causes the computer program to follow one of two courses, depending on whether the sense switch tested is depressed. The sense switches are also effective while the computer is in manual status.

Entry Switches:

There are two banks of entry switches. The first is an 8

X

5 matrix of switches that allow the operator to enter a location into core storage in octal format. The second bank is an 8

X

12 matrix of switches that enable the operator to insert a word into the computer using octal format. This word is divided into sign, instruction, tag, and address. To enter a word into core storage, the octal representation of the location in core storage to be used is first placed into the location bank switches. Next, the octal representation of the actual word to be entered is placed in the word bank switches. The enter storage key is

Processing Unit

Data

Flow

Instruction

How

charts accompany many of the instruction descriptions of this publication. To aid understanding the

How

of data and instructions through the processing unit, Figure 9 shows a simplified processing unit data·

How;

the positions of the word that are placed in an individual register or counter are shown below each component.

Input.Output Devices

The following sections describe the operation of inputoutput devices that may be attached to the system. In addition to the information about operation of keys and lights, general information about magnetic tape and basic card machine features is included.

These devices are inherently mechanical and, once started in motion, will continue to move for a predetermined time. The tape unit moves tape from record gap to record gap, file gap to file gap, record gap to file gap, file gap to record gap, or from record or file gaps to the load point. The card equipment (card reader and card punch) motion is from card to card.

Printer motion is from line to line. These motions, once started, cannot normally be stopped.

12

Magnetic Tape Units

Magnetic Tape Handling

DUST PREVENTION

Foreign particles on tape can reduce the intensity of reading and recording pulses by increasing the distance between the tape and the read-write head. Be extremely careful to protect magnetic tape from dust and dirt.

Keep the tape in a dust proof container whenever the tape is not in use on a tape unit. When a reel of tape is removed from a tape unit, immediately place it in a container. Always place sponge rubber grommets or special clips on the reels as they are stored, to prevent the free end from unwinding in the container.

When tape is removed from the container, close the container and place it where it is not exposed to dust and dirt.

Store tapes in a cabinet elevated from the floor and away from sources of paper or card dust. This should minimize the transfer of dust from the outside of the container to the reel during loading or unloading operations.

Never use the top of a tape unit as a working area.

Placing materials on top of the units exposes them to heat and dust from the blowers in the unit. It might also interfere with the cooling of the tape unit.

To label a reel of tape for identification, other than by means of the provided card holder, use a material that can he removed without leaving a residue. Adhesive stickers that can be applied and removed easily are satisfactory. Never use an eraser to alter the identification on a label.

DAMAGE PREVENTION

Information is recorded within .020 inch of the edge of the tape. Proper operation requires that the edge of the tape be free from nicks and kinks.

Handle reels near the hub whenever possible. In picking up reels, grip the reel between the center hole and the outer edge. Gripping the reel so as to compress its outer edges pinches the few turns of the tape near the outer edge of the reel. Persons handling tape

'reels inside and outside the machine room should be instructed to avoid pinching the reels or contacting the exposed edges of the tape.

Dropping a reel of tape can easily damage both the reel and the tape. Never throw or mishandle reels even while they are protected in. their containers.

CLEANING TAPE AND TAPE CONTAINERS

To clean a tape, gently wipe the tape with a clean, lintfree cloth moistened with an

IBM recommended tape transport cleaner.

Inspect containers periodically. Remove any accumulation of dust by washing with a regular household detergent.

TAPE BREAK

If a tape break occurs, divide the reel into two smaller reels. It may be necessary to make a temporary splice in order to recover information; however, splicing is not recommended as a permanent correction procedure. In making a temporary splice, be sure to use the special low-cold-flowing splicing tape.

DROPPED-TAPE INSPECTION

If a reel of tape has been dropped, the reel may be broken or bent. Bending is less likely, as a strain sufficient to bend a reel usually breaks it. The edge of the tape may be crimped, and the tape may be soiled. To test for and remedy these defects, proceed as follows:

1. Inspect the tape reel immediately. Breaking or bending of the reel can usually be found by visual inspection. In addition, check the reel for bending by mounting 'it on the hub of a tape unit ..

If the reel has been bent or broken:, it obviously should not be used again; but the tape may be serviceable.

2. Inspect the tape itself. a.

If there is no evidence of crimping or other tape damage, and the reel is undamaged, thoroughly clean the tape (exposed or unwound) and reel. The tape is then in good operating condition.

If at all possible, test to verify that the tape operates properly before using it on subsequent runs. b.

If there is no evidence of tape damage, but the reel is damaged, thoroughly clean the tape (exposed or unwound) and rewind it on another reel.

If possible, test to verify that the tape operates properly. c. If the edge of the tape is crimped, the action to be taken depends on whether the tape contains essential information.

If the tape does not contain essential information, discard the crimped footage.

If the tape contains essential information, thoroughly clean the tape and attempt to reconstruct this information through a tape-to-printer or other machine operation.

Should reconstruction fail, the records in question must be rewritten from cards or from another source.

Magnetic Tape Units 13

Manual Operation of the Tape Units

On each t ape unit, manual operations are performed by using the keys and lights appearing in Figure 10.

The tape address selector switch d e termines which on e of the tape addresses may selec t this unit. If th e switch is set to 1, the unit may be addressed by 201 in the

BCD mode or 221 in the binary mode. This switch should not be rotat e d during any tape operation.

The select light is turned on only when th e computer selects th e tape unit. The ready light is on (the tap e unit is in ready status), provided the tap e is load e d into the columns , the reel door interlock is closed and the tape unit is not in the process of finding the'load point (rewind or load op e ration) . Manual control is indicated when the ready light is off , provided the tape unit is not r ew inding or loading and th e re e l door is clos e d.

Pressing th e start key plac es the tape unit und e r control of the computer and causes the ready light to be turn e d on, provid e d th e t ape unit is in ready status.

Pr ess ing th e reset key removes th e tap e unit from computer control, turns off the ready light , and resets all controls to th eir normal positions. It also stops any tap e operation that has be en initiated, except high speed rewind, which r e verts to low speed rewind. After th e tap e is load e d into th e vacuum columns and lowspeed r ew ind is in progress, press th e reset k ey agai n to stop the low-sp eed r ew ind .

When the door is open, th e reel door interlock prevents op e ration of the reel drive motors . If the r ee l door is closed and the ready light is off , pressing the load rewind key causes a fast r e wind (if the tape is more th an 450 feet from its load pOint) at the e nd of which the tap e is loaded into the vacuum columns and s ea rch ed in a backward direction for the load point.

Pr ess in g th e unload k ey causes the tape unit to remov e the t a p e from th e vacuum columns and rais e th e h ea d cove r , regardless of th e distribution of th e tape on th e two r ee ls.

If tap e is not at the load point wh e n th e opera t or wishes to change it , the operator starts a lo ad point search by pressing the load-rewind k ey.

The

EOT indicators in th e channel and tap e unit are turn e d on when th e tap e br eaks or when the physic a l e nd of t a p e is reached during a write operation. The e nd of tape test

(ETT) may b e us e d in a program to interrogate th e status of the end -of-t ape indicator in a data channel. The status of the

EOT indicator has no effec t upon tap e operation.

Th e e nd-of-t ape indicator and light may b e turn e d off by pr ess ing the r ese t key on th e tap e unit and th en pr essi ng th e unload k ey on the tap e unit. Ex ec ution of th e

ETT instruction will turn off the

EOT indicator in th e data channel.

The c h a ng e density k ey changes th e d e nsity mode

(high or low) when d e pr esse d if th e tap e unit i s not r ea dy . The stored program instruction can accomplish the same density setting. The density mod e in which the tap e unit is op era ting is indicated by the high or th e low d ens ity li gh t.

The plastic t ape re e ls are

lO Vz

inches in diamet e r and are d eS ign ed so that th e front and back sides of th e reel a r e different (Figure 11). In normal operation , a special ring is inserted in a groove in th e back side of th e r ee l to d ep ress a pin which is then under spring tension.

If th e special ring is removed from th e reel, the pin rides freely in th e groove and a wri t ing int er-

...

Ta pe Address

S e l ec t or S w it c h

Figur e 10. mM

729

II and

IV

K eys and Li gh ts

14

Figure 11. Protect Ring lock is automatically set. Also, the file protect light is turned on to inform the program that it is impossible for the program to write on tape. However, tape may be read, backspaced, or rewound freely when the file protect light is on.

The fuse light indicates that a fuse has burned out.

Notify a customer engineer of this condition.

The tape transport mechanism of the 729u and 729IV tape units is shown in Figure 12.

Tape Unload Procedures

To unload tape, use the following procedure:

1.

Depress the reset key (tape unit) to tum off the ready light. Depressing the reset key is necessary only if the ready light is on.

2. Depress the load rewind key to rewind the tape.

3. When the load point has been reached, depress the unload key.

4. Open the reel door when the head cover is fully raised, the tape is out of the columns, and the load point is under the photoelectric cell. Do not open the door of the tape unit until the tape drive mechanism has completed the unloading sequence.

5. Bold the reel release key depressed and manually rewind the file reel by turning it in a counterclock-wise direction with the finger pressed in the finger hole of the reel.

6. When the tape has been completely rewound, loosen the hub knob and remove the reel.

If resistance is encountered in removing a reel, exert pressure from the rear of the reel with the hands as near the hub as possible. Never rock a reel by grasping it near the outer periphery in such a way as to pinch the edges of the outer turns of tape.

7. Check the removed reel to determine whether it is to be file protected and whether it has been labeled correctly. Place the reel in the container.

If the file protection ring has been removed and the file protect light fails to go on, notify the customer engineer immediately.

Left Proloy ------lL.----1r---i""

,-"" 1

'--u

Figure 12. Schematic, Tape Feed

Tape Load Procedures

Before the follOwing tape load procedure is initiated, the tape unit should be in an unload condition and tape removed from the machine.

1.

Check the reel that is to be loaded, to determine if if should have the file protection ring inserted or removed. The file protection ring must be inserted for card-to-tape operation. Mount the reel to be loaded on the left mounting hub and tighten the hub knob (Figure 8). Place an empty reel on the right mounting hub and tighten the hub knob. The hub contains a rubber rim that grips the reel tightly when the knob in the center of the hub is tightened. When mounting, push the reels firmly against the stop on the mounting hub to insure proper alignment. Always make sure that the hub knobs have been tightened during loading. However, do not use excessive force when tightening the hub knobs, for this tends to strip the threads.

2. Hold the reel release key depressed and rotate the file reel in a clockwise direction, unwinding about four feet of tape.

Magnetic Tape Units 15

3. Plac e th e tape over t h e left roller through th e read-writ e h e ad ass e mbly a nd o ve r th e ri g ht roll e r

(Fi g ur e 8 ). Plac e and hold th e e nd of the t ap e b e tw ee n th e ind ex fing e r a nd the hub of th e m a chin e r ee l.

Depr e ssin g th e r ee l r e l e a se k e y , wind th e tape on th e machin e r ee l in a clockwis e direc t ion for a t l e as t t w o turns b ey ond th e load point mark e r. Wh e n placin g tap e on th e machin e r ee l, align it c a refully to pr e v e nt dam age t o th e e dg e on th e fir s t f e w turn s. Wh e n windin g th e tap e to lo a d point , rot a t e th e machin e r ee l with the fing e r in th e r ee l fing e r hole or n e ar th e hub a nd on th e r ee l. Rotating the r ee l with th e fing e r in th e cut out ca n r e sult in nickin g or curlin g th e e d g e of th e t a p e .

.

4 . Clo se th e re e l door. M a k e sur e th a t th e door int e rlock s witch i s closed .

5 . S e t th e a ddr es s s e l e ct o r s witch to th e corr e ct a ddr ess p os ition .

6. D e pr ess th e lo a d r e wind k e y t o ( 1 ) lo a d tap e into th e vacuum columns , ( 2 ) low e r t h e h ea d ass e mbl y, and ( 3) r e wind th e tap e to th e load point.

7. D e pr ess th e st a rt k ey . Thi s pl a c e s th e tap e unit und e r a utom a ti c c ontrol a nd turn s o n th e r ea d y li g ht.

OTE:

D o not turn pow e r o ff with th e t a p e unit in a l oa d s t a tu s b eca u se th e h e ad a ss e mbl y mu s t b e up f o r r e mo va l o f t ape.

If pow e r i s turn e d off a ft e r l eav in g l oa d p o int , it will b e n e c essa r y to b eg in a n e w s t a rt pr oce du re t o r es um e o p e r a ti o n . corr e sp o ndin g to th e se tting of th e addr e ss se l ec tIOn switch o f a unit th a t i s r ea dy .

R e ad y L ig ht

ind ica t es th a t t ap e unit i s in op e r a tio n or i s r ea d y f o r op e r a tion. The r ee l door should not b e op e n e d w h e n th e rea d y li g ht i s on .

Tap e I n dicat e Li g ht

turns on wh e n th e unit det e ct s a t a p e ma rk wh en r ea din g, or an e nd-of-r ee l reflecti ve spot wh e n writin g . Th e li g h t turns off a f t e r an unlo a d op er ati o n a nd b y in s truction .

Fu se Li g ht

indic a t es th a t a prot ec ti ve devic e ha s int e rrupt ed a n ex c ess iv e flow of curr e nt; op e r a tion ca n not b e r e sum e d until th e condition has be e n corr e ct e d b y a cu s t o m e r e n g in ee r.

F i l e Prot ec tio n Li g ht

i s turn e d on if t h e file r ee l i s mount e d w ithout a fil e prot e ction rin g in it or if th e unit is not r ea d y or i s r e windin g . Writing on t a p e ca nnot oc c ur wh e n th e fil e prot e ction li g ht is on .

Lo w D e nsi ty L ig h t

turn s on wh e n d e nsity se l ec ti o n switch is m a nu a ll y s e t t o low d e n si t y. It must b e o n wh e n th e unit i s r ea din g or writin g low-d e nsity t a p e.

Hi g h D e n s ity Li g ht

i s turn e d on wh e n the d e n s it y s e l e ctio n s wit c h is m a nu a ll y s e t to hi g h d e nsity; it mu s t b e on wh e n th e unit i s r e adin g or writing hi g h-d e n s ity tap e .

R ese t K e y

r ese ts th e t a p e unit to ma nu a l control a nd stops a n y t a p e op e ration previously initiat e d ; it do e s not c h a n ge s t a tus of th e tap e i ndi ca t e li g ht.

S t mt K ey

turn s on th e r ea dy li g ht and plac es th e t ape un i t in r ea d y s t a tu s . Th e st a rt k ey is pr e ss e d onl y a ft e r t ape h as b ee n pos it i on e d w ith th e lo a drew ind k ey .

.

IBM

7330

Magnetic Tape Unit Keys and Lights

Fi g ur e 1 3 s how s k e y s and lights of th e 7330 , d e s c rib e d as follo ws . Fi g ur e 14 s how s both th e

IBM

729

II a nd th e

IBM

73 3 0 Ma g n e ti c T a p e U nit s.

A d dr e ss S e l e ct i o n S wi t c h

se t s a t a p e unit to an y on e of t e n po ss ibl e t a p e unit addr e ss e s .

S e l ec t Li g ht

turns on wh e n th e computer e xecu t e s a t a p e contr o l in s tru c tion th a t contain s th e t a p e addr e s s

Add r ess Se l ect i on Sw it ch

,fJ _ _

Dens i ty Se l ec H on Sw i tc h a e

. .

D1 1iii1i1_

F ig ur e 1 3.

I B M

733 0 O pe r at in g K eys a nd Li g h ts

1 6

F i g ur e 1 4 .

IBM

729 a nd 733 0 Ta p e U n i ts

Low-Speed Rewind Key

positions tape at the load point by causing a slow-speed (in-column) rewind until the load point marker is sensed. The low-speed rewind key is effective only if the load arm is positioned, tape is in the vacuum columns, the reel door is closed, and the ready light is off.

High-Speed Rewind Key

removes tape from the vacuum columns, raises the upper read-write head assembly, and rewinds tape at high speed. Tape must be in the columns, the reel door must be closed, and the ready light must be off for the high-speed rewind key to be effective. The tape indicate light is turned off at the end of the operation.

Density Selection Switch

places the tape unit in lowdensity mode when the toggle is moved to the left and in high-density mode when the toggle is moved to the right. The appropriate density light turns on.

Reel Release Key

is depressed to permit manually turning the reels for threading tape when the reel door is open.

Steps required to place a 7330 tape unit in ready status after a high-speed rewind are:

1. Open the reel door.

2. Press the reel release button and hold it pressed through step 5.

3. Manually rotate the take-up reel for a few times until the load point is on the reel.

4. Move the read-write head lever to a vertical position. This will lower the head.

5. Rotate each reel, as necessary, to move the tape into the vacuum columns properly.

6. Close the reel door.

7. Press the low-speed rewind and start keys.

TAPE LOADING PROCEDURE

Proper tape loading minimizes tape damage, tape contamination, and insures correct seating of the rewind arm:

1. Check for removal or insertion of file protection ring.

2. Place file reel firmly on machine mounting hub and tighten the hub knob.

3. Press reel release key and unwind about 18 inches of tape.

4. Open center cover and right column door.

5. Thread tape through tape transport as indicated on inside of center cover.

6. Close right column door.

7. Turn machine reel clockwise to move load point marker past the transport area; avoid slack in the tape.

8. Press reel release key and lower the rewind arm.

9. Remove pressure from reel release key for a few seconds.

10. After vacuum comes up, press reel release key and load tape into columns by turning the left reel clockwise and the right reel counterclockwise.

11. Seat rewind arm; close center cover and tape unit door.

12. Set the address selector switch to the correct address position.

13. Depress low-speed rewind and start keys.

7330

OPERATING PRECAUTIONS

High-Speed Rewind:

To prevent damage to tape, never press the reset key or open the tape unit door during normal high-speed rewind.

If an emergency forces a violation of this rule, take steps afterward to remove undesirable tension from the tape on the file reel. Press the reel release key and manually wind at least 200 feet of tape from the file reel to the machine reel; then close the door and resume high-speed rewind.

High-Speed Rewind Arm:

After tape is removed from the 7330, the high-speed rewind arm is in the up pOSition; leave it in the up position. An arm that is in the down position when power is turned off may cause fuses to blow when power is turned on.

Magnetic Tape Units 17

Card Devices

IBM

1622 Card Read

Punch

The mM

1622 Card Read Punch reads 250 cards per minute and punches 125 cards per minute. Cards are read 9-edge first, face down, past two reading stations: check and read. The read buffer is initially loaded with 80 columns of card data during a start or load run-in operation. Thereafter, each card feed cycle is under program control. The reader can accept and translate card codes equivalent to the 64 combinations of six bits (with optional feature).

The read and punch feed units are separate and functionally independent; . each has its individual switches, lights, checking circuits, and buffer storage.

Two stackers are provided for each feed unit: one for normal stacking, the other for error selected stacking (Figure 15).

Punch Feed

NP

1

4

18/21

1

I

NR

Packet Use

Normal Punch

4 Error Punch

8/2

1

N R

Not Used

Error Read

Norma I Read

Read Feed

Figure 15. 1622 Card Read Punch Stacker Pockets

For the punch operation, cards are fed 12-edge first, face down, past the punch and check stations;

All of the 64 combinations of six bits (with optional feature) can be translated and punched.

Card Read And Card Punch Keys and Lights

(Figure 16)

The following lights are common to both the read and punch feeds:

Stacker Light is turned on when a stacker is full.

Both feeds are stopped and removed from ready status .. Operation resumes after the stacker is emptied.

Fuse Light is turned on to indicate a blown fuse in

the 1622.

Transport Light is turned on when a card in either

feed unit does not feed properly. Both feeds are stopped and removed from ready status. Both start keys must be pressed to resume operation after the feed condition is corrected.

Thermal Light is turned on if the internal tem-

perature of the 1622 becomes excessive.

CARD READER

Reader ani Off Switch supplies power to the unit.

The computer power-on switch must be on to make this 1622 switch active.

N onprocess Runout Key is used to run out cards

after a reader check error, or after the reader stop key

PUNCH

HOPPER

POWER

READY

PUNCH

READY

FUSE

PUNCH

CHECK

CHIP

TRANS-

PORT

II

START

II

PUNCH

STATION

~

CHECK

STATION

G

PUNCH

PUNCH

NON-

SELECT

READER

CHECK

POWER

READY

READER

READY

STACKER THERMAL

KEYS AND LIGHTS i

I

I

I

I

PUNCH

ERROR

SELECT

NOT USED

READ

ERROR

SE LECT

READER

READ

NON-

SELECT

READ

STATION

CHECK

STATION

READER

!l

HOPPER

SELECT . /

STATION

,

~I---I-

G G

CARD READER AND PUNCH STACKERS

Figure 16. 1622 Operating Keys and Lights

18

has been pressed. The cards are placed in the read select stacker without a buffer storage-to-core storage transfer. The reader check light and check circuits are turned off. Cards must be removed from the hopper to make this key active.

Poteer Ready Light

is on when power in the 1622 is at an operating level.

Reader Ready Light

is turned on to indicate that the first card has been loaded into buffer storage with the start key, without a reader check error.

It remains on until: stop key is pressed, a reader check error, a transport jam, a misfeed, or an empty hopper.

Reader Check Light

is turned. on by· an unequal comparison between the read and check stations and by incorrect parity detected in buffer storage during a card read. With an unequal comparison, the reader is stopped, ready status is terminated, and the buffer storage data just read cannot be transferred to core storage on the next read operation.

Start Key

is used (1) to run in cards which are then placed under program control (data from the first card is checked and loaded in input buffer storage); (2) to set up a runout condition, which permits programmed reading of the cards remaining in the feed when the hopper becomes empty; and (3) to restore ready status after the reader has been stopped by either the stop key, an empty hopper, an error, a misfeed, or a transport jam.

Stop Key

is used to stop the read feed at the end of the card cycle in progress, and to remove the reader from ready status. Data that is entered into buffer storage during the read cycle in progress is transferred to core storage. The computer continues processing until the next read instruction causes a reader-no-feed stop.

Load Key

causes data from the first card to be read into buffer storage and to be checked. Thereafter, each card feed cycle is under program control.

CARD PUNCH

Punch On/Off Switch

supplies power to the unit.

The computer power-on switch must be on to make this 1622 switch active.

Select

N -Stop - Select Stop Switch

controls stopping of the punch when error cards are selected into the punch error select stacker. With the switch on

STOP, the punch feed stops with the error card in the select stacker.

--Nonprocess Runout Key

is pressed, after a punch check error and machine stop, to reset the error cir-

~~~~~

CHIPS

PUNCH

CHECK

PUNCH

STOP

STACKfi POttER

FUSE TRANSPORT cuits and to run out the card (B) following next behind the error card

(A).

Card B has passed the punch station and is stopped between the punch and the punch check stations. Card B may have been the subject of a punch error at approximately the same time as the punch check error on card A; if so, card B will follow card A into the select stacker and the punch check light will be turned on again. The next following two cards will be blank and will go into the nonselect pocket; these two cards should be removed before further processing.

Punch Ready Light

is turned on when the 1622 has a card in punching. position and will respond to a write instruction. The light is turned off by a punch check error, an e'mpty hopper, a full chip box, a stop key depression, a transport jam, or a misfeed.

Power Ready Light

is on when power in the 1622 is at an operating level.

Punch Check Light

is turned on by an unequal comparison between data read at the check station, and data punched on the preceding card feed cycle; or when, with the select stop switch set to stop, a 1622 parity error occurs during punching. The punch stops and ready status is terminated.

Start Key

is used to feed cards to the punch station initially or after an error and nonprocess runout; and to establish ready status after an empty hopper, a misfeed, a transport jam, or a stop key depression.

Stop Key

is used to stop the punch feed at the end of the card cycle in progress, and to remove the punch from ready status.

Check Reset Key

is used to reset error circuits and turn off the punch check light. A start key or nonprocess runout key depression must follow.

IBM 1402 Card Read Punch,

Model

2

The 1402, Model 2, reads 800 cards per minute and punches 250 cards per minute. The read and feed units are separate as with the 1622, and the same stacker pocket names are used. The 8/2 pocket, used only on the 1402, holds selected punched cards. Cards are read and punched in the same manner as with the

1622.

Card Read Punch Lights (Figure 17)

The 1402, Model 2, has four lights that refer to the machine rather than to one of the two units:

VALIDITY

~~~;

READER

CHECK

READER

STOP

~

L.&J

Figure 17.

IBM

1402 Keys and Lights (Model 2 )

Card

Devices

19

Stacker

indicates that one or more pockets are full.

Both the reader and punch units stop.

Fuse

indicates that a fuse has blown in the reader or punch unit.

Power

indicates that power is being supplied to the 1402.

Transport

indicates that a card jam has occurred in the stacker transport area. Card feeding is stopped in both feeds until the jam is cleared.

Reader Keys and Lights

READER START

Operating this key feeds three cards into the read feed, fills the reader synchronizer with the contents of the first card, and turns on the reader ready light.

When the reader has been stopped, pressing the start key turns on the reader ready light, and allows the cards to continue feeding under program control.

When the cards are removed from the read feed hopper and the end-of-file key is not operated, pressing the start key moves the remaining two or three cards to the

NR stacker pocket unprocessed (Figure

18).

READER STOP

Operating this key stops the reader at the end of the feed cycle in progress and turns off the reader ready light.

END-OF-FILE (EOF)

Operation of this key activates circuits that signal a last card condition in the central processing unit. The last card condition can be used by the stored program to initiate an end-of-file routine. The end-of-file latch is turned on following the data transfer of the last card. The

EOF key lights when it is pressed.

The end-of-file key, which can be pressed at any time, causes the card reader to operate in one of these ways:

1. With four or more cards in the read hopper, all the cards are processed and run into a stacker. Operating the stop key or processing the last card causes the end-of-file condition to be reset.

2. With three cards remaining in the feed, a card read instruction before the operation of the end-offile key causes the program to hang-up. Pressing the end-of-file key and then the start key allows the last three cards to be processed and run into a stacker.

Operating the stop key or processing the last card causes the end-of-file condition to be reset.

3.

With the one, two, or three cards to be processed in the read hopper, pressing the end-of-file key and then the start key feeds the card or cards and turns on the reader ready light after the first card passes the second read station. The card or cards are processed and run into a stacker. Operating the stop key or processing the last card causes the end-of-file condition to be reset.

READER READY

This light indicates that the reader is ready to be used by the

CPU.

VALIDITY

This light indicates than an invalid character has been detected during a feed operation. The light remains

ON until the next feed instruction is started. During the read instruction, the invalid character is transferred from synchronizer to storage.

READER STOP

This light indicates that a feed failure or card jam has occurred during a feed operation, stopping the reader and turning off the reader ready light.

20

Hopper tf

I

Blank

~

Aligner

Station

Punches

~~:~t

1

Bit 1 3=0 o

4

Bit 13=1

8/2 0

~~

1

+

Stacker

:aUUUUU=

Punch Read

Read

21

Figure 18. 1402 Card Transport Schematic

READER CHECK

This light indicates the detection of a hole count error, parity error, or synchronizer timing error during a feed operation. The light remains

ON until the next feed instruction is started. During the read instruction, the data are transferred from synchronizer to storage, and the channel A redundancy check indicator is turned on.

Punch Unit Keys and Lights

PUNCH START

Operating this key feeds two cards into the punch feed and turns on the punch ready light.

When the punch has been stopped, pressing the start key turns on the punch ready light, and allows card punching to resume under program control.

When the cards have been removed from the punch feed hopper, pressing the start key moves the three cards remaining in the punch feed to the normal punch pocket. The first card that enters the normal punch pocket is unchecked.

PUNCH STOP

Operating this key stops the punch at the end of the feed cycle in progress and turns off the punch ready light.

PUNCH READY

This light indicates that the punch is ready to be used by the

CPU.

PUNCH STOP

This light indicates that a feed failure or card jam has occurred during a punch operation, stopping the punch and turning off the punch ready light.

PUNCH CHECK

This light indicates the detection of a hole count error, parity error, or synchronizer timing error during a punch operation.

CHIPS

This light indicates that the chip receptacle is full or not in place. The punch cannot operate while the chips light is on.

NOTE:

Cards in either the punch or reader

~hich result in validity errors or a hole count check are

automatically

stacked in the

NP or

NR pocket.

Card Devices 21

Printer

IBM 1403 Printer, Models 1 and

2

The 1403, Modell or 2, is an output unit for

IBM

7040 and 7044 systems. The standard printing capacity is

100

positions, with an additional 32 positions available on the Model 2. Each position can print 48 different characters: 26 alphabetic, 10 numeric, and 12 special characters. For information pertaining to the numeric print feature, refer to "Special Features" at end of this section.

METHOD OF PRINTING

The alphabetic, numeric, .and special characters are assembled in a chain (Figure 19). As the chain travels in a horizontal plane, each character is printed when it is positioned opposite a magnet-driven hammer that presses the form against the chain.

When each character is printed, it is checked against the corresponding position in the print synchronizer to insure that printed output is accurate. Also, the machine checks to insure that the character is printed in the correct print position, that only valid characters are printed, and that over-printing does not occur.

1403 Printer Keys and Lights (Figures 20 and 21)

PRINTSTART (FRONT AND BACK)

Operating this key turns on the ready light.

PRINT STOP (FRONT AND BACK)

Operating the stop key turns off the ready light.

If the stored program attempts to execute a

WRS instruction with the printer specified, the

CPU will hang up.

CHECK RESET

This key resets a printer error indication. The printstart key is then pressed to resume operation.

PRINT READY

This light indicates that the printer is ready to print.

END-OF-FORMS

This light indicates an end-of-forms condition (the machine stops).

FORMS CHECK

This light indicates paper feed trouble in the forms tractor, or that the carriage stop has been used. This

Ribbon

132 Printing

Positions

Figure 19. Printing Mechanism, Schematic

22

Paper

Complete Chain

Composed of Five

48-ChQracter SQctions

PRINT

READY

END or

FORMS

PRINT

CHECK

.....

FORMS

CHECK

SYNC

CHECK

Fi g ur e 20. 1403 Operating K eys and Lights

Figur e 21. 140 3 Print e r K e ys ( Rear) light must be cleared by the check reset key before the print start key is e ffective.

PRINT CHECK

This light indicates a print error.

SYN C CHECK

This light comes

ON to show that the chain was not in synchronism with the printer compare counter. The timing is automatically corrected. The light is extinguished by op e rating the print start key.

1403 Carriage Control s

CARRIAGE RESTORE

Pressing this key positions the carriage at channel 1

(home position).

If the carriage feed clutch is disengaged , the form does not move.

If it is engaged, the form moves in synchronization with the control tape.

CARRIAGE STOP

Pressing this key stops carriage operation and turns

ON th e forms check light.

C ARRIAGE SPA CE

Each time this key is pressed , it causes carriage tape and the form to advance one space.

SINGLE CYCLE

This key initiates the operation of the printer for one print cycle on each pressing of the key when the endof-form light is

ON and no paper jam exists. This allows printing of the last line of a form.

1403 Manual Controls ( F i gure 22 )

FEED CLUTCH

The feed clutch controls the carriage tape drive and form f ee ding mechanism.

If it is set to neutral, automatic form feeding cannot take place. It is also used to select spacing of six or eight lines to the inch.

PAPER ADVANCE K N OB

This knob positions the form vertically . It can be used only when the feed clutch " is disengaged.

VERTI C AL PRINT ADJUSTMENT

This knob makes possib l e fine spacing adjustments of forms at the print line . Carriage tape is not affected by this knob.

LATERAL PRINT VERNIER

This knob obtains fine horizontal positioning.

PRINT DENSITY C ONTROL LEVER

As many as six forms can be printed at one time, and the print hammer unit is designed to adjust automatically for differ e nt thicknesses of forms. However , to provid e a vernier conb"ol for print impression , a print density control lever is used. When this l e ver is set at position E , print impression is lightest; at position A, print impression is darkest. Between these two settings are int e rmediate settings. Position C is considered the normal setting. The lever moves the type chain closer to or farther from the hammer unit.

The setting of this lever must be considered tog e ther with the forms thickness, to determine the normal set-

Print e r 23

Hor iz ontol

Adjustm e nt Knob

~

Figure 22. Carriage Controls ting of the print timing dial (Figure 23). A chart is provided to determine the normal setting (Figure 24).

PRINT TIMING DIAL

A movable dial is set to a fixed indicator. Numbers around the d ial provide a means of setting the print timing for a specific operation. The setting of the print density control lever must be set before the print tim ing dia l is se t . T he nom i nal setting is read from a chart.

The chart should give the correct setting of the print timing dial. However, this setting can be checked by rotating the dial s l owly in each direction from the norma l set t ing, to de t ermine the limits of good print quality.

24

PRINT UNIT RELEASE LEVER

This l ever permits access to the form trans p or t a r ea

(Figure 23) .

PRINT LINE INDI C ATOR AND RIBBON SHIELD

The l ow e r ribbon shield is also used as a print line indicator. It pivots with the ribbon mechanism. The front side of this shield is marked t o show print pos i tion l ocation (Figure 25).

When used as a print line indicator, the shield in d i cates where the lower edge of characters will print.

When the printer frame is open, the indicator pivots against the forms so that the prin t line may be set with r es p ec t to the forms.

Figure 23. Print Timing Di a l a nd Print Unit R elease Lev er

P

0 f

R N

A

B

:0 0 ;00

0 0 1 012jOI S ' 0 1 8

,

21

-t

PR I

T

TI MIN G DI A L SETTI N G

- - , fOR M THI C KNESS

,8

.

IS

25 22

I

I

S

C

N I

T T

Y

~

29 ! 26

,

2l

0 33 JO 27 n

.H JI

6

1 2

1 6

OITAIIiI D I AL SEnl G 8Y NA TCH I N G

• FORM THICKNESS ·

TO ·PRI NT DE N SITY"

Figure 24 . Print Timing Di a l Chart

HORIZONTAL ADJUSTMENT

T his d ev ic e ( Fi g ure 22) positions the printing mechanism horizonta ll y . Wh e n the lever is rais e d , th e m ec h anism unlocks , and can b e positioned horizont a lly within its 2.4-inch trav e l.

RH TRACTOR VERNIER

This knob allows Bn e adjustments in paper tension . It can be us e d for adjustments of up to one-half inch.

Ther e ar e two tractor sli d e bars , upper and lower . Th e

T raclor lock

Tractor Slide Bar ~~~~~

Pin latch

_~--.---T ~

Print line Indicator

~

... ,..

.

,

...

,

....

...

.. .

>tt -., lower Ribbon Shield

Figure 25. Print Line Indi ca tor and Ribbon Shield

Printer 25

forms b'actors are mounted on these bars. The forms tractors are movable, and to facilitate this movem e nt th e r e are notches in the tractor slide bar. Th e following procedure, for proper adjustment of these notches according to th e form b e ing used , applies to the upper tra c tor slide bar. Procedure for th e low e r slide bar is similar.

Th e l e ft tr ac tor is lock e d in place by a spring-loaded latch in one of the nin e notch es located one inch apart on the b 'ac tor slide bar. Th e third notch from th e left end is th e normal location for most applications.

Th e first notch is used for forms from 5 1/ 2 to 18% inches wide. When this notch is us e d , th e print unit's lateral mov e ment is limited to .4 inch.

The second notch is us e d for forms from

4V2

to

17% inch es in width . When this notch is used, the print unit's lat e ral movem e nt is limited to 1.4 inch.

The third notch is us e d for forms from

3V2

to 16% inches wide. When this notch or notches 4 through 9 are used , full lat e ral print unit movem en t (2.4 inches) is possibl e.

The ninth (last) notch can be used for forms from

3

1/ 2 to 10 % inches wide. Wh en this notch is used , th e first usabl e print position is 38.

The right-hand tractor is locked in place by springloaded pins snapped into anyone of 27 holes, locat e d one-half inch apart on the tractor slide bar.

The mov e m e nt of th e tractor slide bar , in which the hol es are locat e d , is conh'olled by the right-hand tractor vernier. Movement up to one-half inch can be made by the vernier knob.

Figure 26. Printer Indicator Panel

HIGH SPEED START

This light turns on when a high speed skip has been initiated.

LOW SPEED START

This light turns on when a low speed skip or line spacing h as been initiat e d.

HIGH SPEED STOP

This light turns on to indicate that high speed skipping is to be stopped .

LOW SPEED STOP

This light turns on to indicate that a low speed skip stop has been initiated. It is

ON when the carriage is not in motion.

Indicato r Panel Light s

GATE INTERLOCK

This light turns on when the print unit is not locked in position (Figur e 26).

BRUSH INTERLOCK

This light is on if the carriage tape brushes are not latched in position for operation.

SHIFT INTERLOCK

This light turns on to indicate that the manual feed clutch is not properly positioned.

THERMAL INTERLOCK

This light indicates that a temperature above the op e rating limit has been sensed in the hammer unit or chain drive unit; the light remains on until the temp e rature drops to an acceptable level. The 1403 is interlocked during this time.

26

Tape Controlled C a rr i age

The tape-controlled carriage (Figure 27) controls high speed f ee ding and spacing of continuous forms. The carriage is controlled by punched holes in a paper tape that corresponds in length to the length of one or more forms . Holes punched in the tape stop the form when it reaches any predetermined position.

Carriage skip channels 1 12 are standard. The tape circuits initiate special signals that are sent to the

CPU when channels 9-12 are sensed. Program testing of carriage channels 9 and 12 is standard.

Vertical spacing and skipping are initiated by the stored program. Horizontal spacing is 10 characters to the inch. Vertical spacing of either six or eight lines to the inch is manually selected by the operator.

Fi g u re 27. T ap e C o ntr o ll e d C a rri age

Form s s kip a t the rat e of 35 in c h es p e r s e cond if v e rti ca l s p aci n g i s se t f or s i x lin es to th e in c h. With th e dual-sp ee d ca rri age, di s t a n ces of l ess th a n e ight lin e s ar e s kipp e d a t 35 inch e s p e r s ec ond , a nd those of more than e i g ht lin e s a t 75 inch es p e r s e cond ; th e last e ight s p aces s kipp e d in a hi g h s p ee d s kip a r e s kipp e d at 3 5 in c h es p e r sec ond .

Th e ca rri age a cc omm o d a t e s c ontinuou s forms of a m ax in)um l e n g th o f 22 in c h es (a t 6 lin es p e r in c h ) or

16 V z

inch es (a t 8 lin es p er in c h ) . Th e minimum l e n g th i s 1 in c h. For e ffi c i e nt s t ac kin g of f o rm s, th e r ec om me nd e d m axi mum l e n g th i s 17 in c h es . Th e width of th e form c an v a r y from a r ec omm e nd e d minimum o f

3 Vz

in c h es to a m ax i m um of 1 8% in c h es, includin g pun c h e d mar g in s .

Form s c an b e d e sign e d to p e rmit pri n tin g in pr ac ti ca ll y a n y d es ir e d a rran ge m e nt. Skippin g t o diff e r e nt sec tion s of th e for m ca n b e c ontroll e d b y th e pro g r a m a nd b y hol es pun c h e d in th e ca rri age tap e .

CONT R OL TAPE

Th e c onh'ol tap e ( Fi g ur e 2 7) ha s 12 co lumnar po s ition s indi c at e d by ve rtic a l line s. Th e s e po s ition s a r e ca ll e d c h a nn e ls. Hol es c a n b e punch e d in e ach ch a nn e l thr o u g hout th e l e n g th of th e tap e. A m a ximum of

132 lin es c an b e u se d t o c ontrol a form , a lthough for c onv e ni e n ce , th e tap e blank s a r e sli g htly long e r . Horizo nt a l lin es a r e s p ace d s ix to th e inch for th e e ntir e l e n g th of th e tap e . Round hol e s in the ce nter of th e t a p e a r e pr e -pun c h e d for th e pin-f ee d dri ve that a dv a n ces th e t a p e in s yn c hroni s m with th e m ov e m e nt of a print e d for m thr o u g h th e c a rri age. Th e e ff ec t i s ex actl y th e s am e as thou g h th e conb ' ol hol es w e r e pun c h e d along th e ed ge of eac h form .

Pun c hin g t h e Tap e:

A small , c ompact punch (Figur e

28 ) is pro v id e d for pun c hing th e tap e. The tap e i s first mark e d in th e c hannel s in whi c h th e hol e s ar e to b e punch e d. This c a n b e don e e a s ily b y l a ying th e t a p e b es id e th e l e ft e d ge of th e form it i s to c ont ro l , with th e top lin e ( imm e diat e l y und e r th e

g lu e

portion ) eve n with th e top e d ge of th e form . A m a rk i s th e n mad e in th e fir s t chann e l , on th e lin e th a t corr e spond s to th e fir s t printing lin e of th e form .

Additional marks a re mad e in th e a ppropriat e c h a n nel s for eac h of th e oth e r s kip stop s , a nd for th e ov e r-

Row

s i g n a l r e quir e d for th e form.

Th e m a rking for on e form should b e r e p ea t e d as man y tim es as th e usabl e l e ngth of th e tap e ( 22 in c h es) allows . With th e tap e thu s controlling s evera l f o rm s in on e r e volution throu g h th e se n s in g m ec h a ni s m , th e lif e of th e t a p e i s in c r ease d . Fin a ll y , th e lin e co rr es p o ndin g to th e bottom e d ge of th e l as t f o rm s h o uld b e mark e d for c uttin g a ft e r th e tap e i s pun c h e d .

Th e tap e is ins e rt e d in the pun c h b y pla c in g th e lin e to b e pun c h e d ov e r a g uid e lin e on th e b a s e of th e pun c h a nd pl ac in g th e ce nt e r f ee d h o l es of th e t a p e o ve r th e pin s proj ec tin g fr o m th e b ase . Th e di a l is th e n turn e d until th e a rrow p o int s a t th e numb e r of th e ch a nn e l t o b e pun c h e d . Pr ess in g o n th e top o f th e pun c h , toward th e b a ck , cut s a r ec t a n g ul a r hol e at th e int e r sec ti o n of a ve rti ca l and hori zo ntal lin e in th e r eq uir e d c h a nn e l of th e t a p e. Th e tap e s h o uld n eve r b e pun c h e d i n mor e th a n o n e c h a nn e l o n th e s ame lin e . H o l es in th e sa m e c h a nn e l should n ot b e

Fi g ur e 28 . T ape Punch

P rin t er 2 7

spaced closer than 8 lines apart. After the tape is punched , it is cut and looped into a belt. The bottom end is glued to the top section, marked

glue,

with the bottom lin e coinciding with the first line. Before the tap e is glued, the glaze on th e tape should b e remov e d by a n ink e raser; if this is not done , th e tap e e nds may come apart. The center feed holes should coincide when th e two e nds of th e tape are glued together.

The last hol e punched in th e tape should b e at l eas t four lines from th e cut edge, because approximately th e last half in c h of th e tap e overlaps th e

glue

section when th e two e nds are spli ce d.

If it is n ecessa ry to punch a hole lower than four lines from th e bottom of the form , th e tap e should be placed with th e top line (immediately under the

g lue

portion ) four lin es low e r than th e top edge of th e form , b e for e markin g th e channels. To compensate for the lo ss , th e t a p e s hould th e n b e cut four lin es lower than th e bottom e d ge of th e form.

8-

LINES-PERI NCH SPACING

Th e co ntrol tap e for 8-lines-per-inch spacing is pun c h e d as it would b e for normal 6-lin esp erinch spacing. E ac h lin e on th e tap e always equa ls one lin e on th e form , regardless of whether th e latt e r b e 6 or

8 lin e s-p e r-in c h . In m eas urin g a co ntrol tap e for a d ocume nt print e d 8 lin es to th e in c h , eve r y l/S inch on th e form r ep r ese nt s one lin e on th e t ape.

CARRIAGE TAPE BRUSHES

Two se t s of r ea ding brush es (Figure 29), mount e d on th e sa m e fr ame , are us e d to s e ns e hol es in the ca rriag e c ontrol tap e. A small co ntact roll is us e d for eac h set of brush es. On e se t is ca ll e d th e

s lo w bru s h es.

Th e other se t is ca ll e d th e

stop brushes.

Seven spaces, as measured by the co ntrol tap e, separate th e brush se ts .

Th e slow brushes are positioned ah ead of th e s top bru s h es.

Th e slow brushes a r e used to control high spee d s kippin g. They r egu lat e th e s p ee d of th e last eig ht spaces of a hi g h s p ee d s kip.

All carriage tap e brushes ca n function to stop a ca rriag e skip und e r control of th e stored pro gra m.

INSEHTlNG CONTROL TAPE I N C ARHlA GE

1. Bai se th e co unt e rbalanc e d cove r of th e print e r to ga in access to th e tap e r ea ding m ec hani s m .

2. Turn th e f ee d clutch to a dis e ng age d ( n e utr a l ) position ( Figur e 22).

3. B a is e th e brush es by moving to th e l ef t th e latch lo ca t e d on th e s id e of th e brush hold e r.

4. Pl ace one e nd of th e t a p e loop , h e ld so th a t th e print e d captions can b e r e ad , over th e pin-f ee d drive wheel so that th e pins e ngag e th e center drive hol es.

28

Figure 29. Carriage Tape Bru s h es

5. Place the opposi t e en d o f th e loop around the ad justabl e carr i age con trol tape idl e r .

6. B emove e xc ess slack from the tape by loosening the lockin g knob on th e idl e r and moving the idler in its track. Tight e n the knob when the desired tension is r e ach e d. Th e tap e should b .

~ just tight enough so that it gives s lightly when the top and bottom portions of the loop are pressed tog e th e r (see Figur e 27).

If it fits too tightly , d amage o cc ur s to the pin-f ee d hol es.

7. Pr ess th e brush es down until th ey latch , and close th e print e r cover when th e t a pe is in position .

8 . Pr ess th e ca rriag e r es tor e k ey to bring the t a pe to its ho me position , and turn the f ee d clutch knob ba c k to th e engaged position. Th e ca rri age i s r ea d y to o p e r a t e.

RIBBON CHANGING

To change th e ribbon ( Figur e 30 ) on th e 1403:

1 . Turn off pow e r in th e print e r.

2.

Lift up th e print e r cover.

3. Pull b ac k and unlock the print unit r e lease lever.

Swing th e print unit out.

4 . Op e n th e top ribbon cover.

5. Unlatch th e print lin e indicator ribbon shi e ld and swing it aga inst th e form.

6 . Push th e top ribbon roll to the right (hinged side of print unit) , lift out the left end of th e ribbon roll , and remove roll from th e drive end of mechanism.

Figur e 30. Ribbon Mechanism

7. Slip the ribbon out from under the ribbon correction roll.

8. To remove the bottom roll , pr ess the ribbon roll to the right , and lower th e left end of the ribbon roll and r emove it from the driv e end of the mechanism.

When replacing the ribbon in the machine, handtighten the ribbon to remove slack from in front of th e printing m ec hanism. Ribbons are available in widths of 5 , 8, and 11 inches in addition to the standard 14 inches. The ribbon width lever (Figure 31) can adjust the ribbon feed mechanism to accommodate the various ribbon widths.

FORMS INSERTION

1. Raise the counterbalanced cover of the printer to gain access to th e print and forms area.

2. Turn th e feed clutch knob to a neutral position.

3. Unlo c k and swing back the print unit by using th e print unit r e leas e lev e r.

4. Unlock th e paper guide bars by pulling out on the raised handles (upper and lower).

5. Open th e upper and lower forms tractors (Figure

32) .

6. S e t the left forms tractors slightly to the left of th e first unit position by pulling up or down in the tractor lock (upper and l ower tractor). See Figure

25.

7. Insert form on pins and close tractor cover.

8. Pull out on right tractor pin and move tractor to d es ir e d location to lin e up th e right side of form. Th e pin should latch in one of the recesses in th e tractor slide bars. See Figur e 25.

9. Insert form on pins and close tractor covers.

10. Use the h · actor vernier knob to tighten the tension on the form. This knob is used for adjustments up to one-half inch.

11. Check th e position and line where printing will occur , by swinging the ribbon shield against the form

( it is mark e d with each print position).

If the horizontal alignment is not correct , it can be adjusted by using the horizontal adjustment knob and / or th e later a l print vernier knob for slight adjustments. Th e vertical adjustment can be made by using the pap e r advance knob and / or vertical print adjustment knob.

Figure 31. Front Cover, Open

Figure 32. Forms Tractor

Printer 29

12. Return the upper and lower paper guide bars to th e clos e d positions (Figure 33).

Som e 1403 printers have the tractor-mounted jam d e tection d e vice which, together with elimination of front " clip on " paper guid e s , eliminates the need for th e upper and lower pap e r guide bars. The forms ins e rtion procedure for a 1403 with the tractor mounted jam detection device inst e ad of the upper and low e r tap e guid e s is the same except that steps 4 and

12 ar e skipp e d.

13. R e turn th e print unit to its normal position and lock it in plac e .

14. R e stor e th e carriag e tape to th e first printing position by pressing the carriage restore button.

15. R e hlrn th e feed clutch knob to a drive position at e ith e r six or eight lines-p e r-inch , d e p e nding on the form to be print e d.

16 . Clo se th e outsid e cov e r of th e printer.

PAPER STA C KER

Th e pap e r stacker provides a manual control for optimum stacking of paper at the rear of the printer. Two controls (Figure 34) p e rmit th e op e rator to set up th e pap e r stacker for each individual guid e at th e stack e r. This lever is indexed (0-6) so that th th

The upp e r lever controls the position of the pap e r e op e e set rator ' position s can procedur e s. nm . be recorded for reference in

Form Design

Some of the customary rules for designing forms should b e reconsidered in the light of the many n e w features introduced by the

IBM

1403 Printer.

1. The print unit contains 100 print positions in a

10.0-inch width or a maximum of 132 print positions

(specia l feature) in a 13.2-inch width. Each print position can print any character.

2. Editing , high speed skipping, and other features ar e included in the syst e m .

Fi g ur e 33. Pap e r Guide Bars

3 0

B on

ment of the carriage, and instructions to forms manufacturers .

The

IBM

1403 Printer carriage is designed to fe ed marginally punched continuous forms satisfactorily und er th e conditions and specifications outlined in

Figure 36. Thes e specifications, if followed, give maximum operating e ffici e ncy when the 1403 carriage is used . They are not intended to be restrictiv e, rath e r th ey are intended to permit customers to purchase th ei r continuous forms from the manufactur e r of th eir choice.

Figure 34. Paper Stacker Controls

One of the basic tools used in designing forms is the spacing chart (Figure 35). The numbers across the top from 0 to 13 represent the tens and hundreds positions of the print-position number, and the numbers directly beneath represent the units position of the print position number. Print position 42 can be located by referring first to the 4 column and then to the digit 2 within the 4 column. Print position 9 can be located by referring to the 0 column and then to the digit 9 within that column.

A facsimile of the carriage-control tape for marking the control punching for a specific form is shown in

Figure 35. Notations have been included relative to standard form width and form depths, lateral move-

FORM DESIGN AS AFFE CTE D BY THE PRINT UNIT

In view of th e 100 or 132 print positions and th e

13.2-inch print unit, these factors should b e considered when d es igning forms to b e used on th e 1403 print er:

1. The maximum form width is 18% inch es, and th e minimum is 3

1

/ 2 inch e s (Figur e 36).

2. The maximum form length is 22 inches at sixlin es -p e r-inch spacing , or

16V2

inch es at 8 lin es p e r inch. For efficien t stacking of forms , the r ecom m e nd e d maximum forms length is 17 inch es .

3. B eca us e all print positions can print all charact e rs , form depth can be reduced , and carbon pap e r eliminated, by th e use of side-by-side printing . For exa mpl e,

so ld to

and

ship to

nam es can b e print e d on th e sam e lin e, on e on th e l e ft side of th e form and th e other on th e right .

4. Forms can b e d es ign e d for printing six or eig ht lin es to th e in c h. Single-space, eight-lines-per-inch printing is not r ecom m e nd e d when th e r egis tration between lin es is critical.

5. Forms can b e d es igned for variable line spacing within a form by us e of single-, doubl e-, or selectivespace control.

6 . It is possibl e to disp e nse with many vertical lines, because the system can be programmed to print commas, de c imals , oblique lines , dash es, and other symbols.

7. A v e rtical lin e should not b e printed between two adjacent printing positions because th e re is an overall maximum tol e rance of only .013 inch b e tween adjacent c haract e rs.

8. Th e numb e r of legible copies that can be produc e d d e p e nds on th e weight of the paper used for each form , and on th e carbon coating.

Because the sh'iking forc e of the print hammers is not adjustabl e, paper and carbon should b e test e d in conjunction witl1 the print-density control lever and the print timing dial.

9. Th e

CR

(credit symbol) prints from two print positions and the minus sign prints from one. For tllis reason the minus sign is r e comm e nded as a credit symbol instead of th e

CR symbol.

Print er 31

IBlt1

IBM 1403 SPACING CHART

FORMX24·6436-

PRINTED IN U.S.A. e -

~. e e,

F.;!-1f-t+t-I++t++-t-f-ttt++tH+-1++t+++-1r++++++-f-ttt+++l++t-+H-f+H++++l+I++++++-f+H+++-f+H+++-l--I-I--I+++++++--l--W--I-I-+--I-l-l-+-

Figure 35. Forms Spacing Chart

10. The dollar symbol does not have to be preprinted on a check form, because this symbol can be programmed to print immediately to the lett of significant digits.

,FORMS SPECIFICATIONS AND DIMENSIONS

Paper Characteristics: The paper used for continu-

ous forms must be of sufficient weight and strength to prevent the holes from tearing out during feeding or ejecting of the form. This is particularly important when single-part forms are being used.

The paper must not be so stiff as to cause improper feeding or excessive bulging, particularly at the outfold.

Paper must be as free from paper dust or lint as possible.

Weight: The number of legible copies required is a

factor in determining the weight of the paper to be used in a multiple-part set.

Best results on multiple-copy forms require a lightweight paper of

13 pounds or less, except for the last copy. Again, the number of copies, as well as the dis-

32 tance of the form away from the hammers (variable by the print density control lever), affects the determination of paper weight.

Feeding and legibility performance can best be determined by making test ;funs of sample sets of forms.

Friction: During the feeding operation, fricton on

marginally punched continuous forms should be eliminated by the following means:

1. Place the pack of forms directly beneath the front of the printer on the forms stand, in a position that eliminates any abnormal

drag on the forms.

2. Allow sufficient clearance between the hammers and the print chain, to permit the forms to be fed by the pins freely, and without interference. This can be accomplished by properly setting the print density control lever.

Perforated Lines: The perforations between forms

should be sufficiently deep to permit easy separation, but not so deep as. to tear in ordinary handling or feeding through the machine.

+

± from minimum 3 inches to l-:L

I

:~ a)'':'=

.~ g

Any over-all form width from minimum

3Yz

maximum

18)i

inches. inches to maxi- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

T

-0

::c

-0

1l 6 (;

~ ~

III

~ mum 18% inches. ll+

+

£-!

~~~o~

-:;; :.:

~ -=

E~-r~.~

1l (; .....

..c...c.

~

.0 ..i -

(;

~

E

E c,

--r---~-~-~~~~==~~~~~~==~~~~~---

+

I,

+

I'

'

'I

~

I'

);iT,

l

~i---- ~~9r-------,-------------

,

~~+-

__

+

+

+:

+

I

I

II

Min.

:Va"

+

'

I

I

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,

+ ,

+ '

~Min.

2%"

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+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

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I

I

~~~:::>r:1:::3:::2~PR::-:I::-N:::T:-:-PO::-:-S.--:-M:-A:-C:-:H-::I-:-N:-:E.,.."""'"..,..----1C'Ar-c--c~'7I

NOTE:

forms

Print unit moved full left (exeluding vernier) for form 18%

. h

II inC

1/10"

Vert-ical printed lines should be spaced in multiples of

,1/10"(plusorminus.005inch)

Centerline of First Print Position

Print unit moved full left (exeluding vernier) with forms

3Yz

to 16% inches over-all.

3Yz

to 16% inches over-all. This mini-

18% inch over-all forms are reached.

132 PRINT POS. MACHINE over-a.

,

Regardless of forms tractor position or print mum increases on forms over 16% inches over-all until the minimum shown below for

____

C I f enter ine

0

'Print Position 132

132 PRINT POS. MACHINE

~'::E~~'~'A~~_t-±-

Sheet perforation and horizontal lines should be at 90° to center line of pin feed holes.

2·1 inch~s is full pnnt unIt movement. form 18% inch over-all.

Approx.

'Y,6" 1-+---'++-....1

\

Any hole to hole form width

132 PRINT POS. MACHINE

Print unit moved full right unit movement, a minimum of

% inch must (exeluding vernier) with forms

+ be maintained from center of pin hole to 10% to 16% inches over-all. center of first and last printed character on

90°

I

I

"-... I

Total print unit movement for

I

I

I

:

+

~

1+

+ -

+

±

+

I

I

+

+

+

-T

~

~ ~-g

. _ - 0

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+

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0

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't:

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.....

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II')

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-= :

.~ ~

~ ~

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-0

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1 ~

+

,

I '

+,

I

+

I

NOTE:

To determine forms relationship for a Model

+

1 Machine.

P~nt

Position 100, add or subtract' 3:2 inches from given dimensions.

Print Position 1 is identical on both models.

-+

I

+

/1,

+

I

Print unit moved full right (exeluding vernier) for form 18% inch over-all.

1 +

I+--

2Y" M'

8

I

In· ____

II

1

1

+

,+

I

I

+

~~:+

It is recommended that no staples or other metal fastener be used any place on form which must pass between type and ham-

I,

I

+ mers.

~+

I ,

Figure 36. Form Specifications

The perforated lines at the end of the form should always be located at 90 degrees to a vertical center line through the marginal holes.

Cut and uncut 'portions should be uniformly ac-, curate in length and spacing to insure proper and efficient tearing.

Vertical' perforations at the margin for removal of the marginally punched strip can vary depending upon requirements. The distance from the edge of the form to the marginal perforations is usually

V2

inch.

Marginal Holes:

Continuous forms should have holes in both right and left margins, eter, spaced vertically

%2 inch in diam-

Vz

inch apart from center to center, the full length of the form. The holes should be located this way on all copies of all sets throughout each pack of forms.

Printer 33

It is possible, however, to use holes of any size, shape, and spacing that accomplish the equivalent feeding conditions. '

Vertical lines passing through the two vertical rows of pin holes must be parallel. It is recommended that the' edges of the form be lA inch from the vertical center lines through the holes.

A horizontal line passing through the center of any two marginal holes on the same line should be at a

90-degree angle to either vertical center line through the marginal holes.

Spacing between holes, center-to-center, must be such that the pins in the forms tractor, diameter and spaced

Vs inch in

Vz

inch apart, enter and leave the holes in the paper, freely without tearing the paper.

Width of Forms: Although forms of any width within the extremes of those shown in Figure 36 can be used, it is recommended that form widths be confined to the standard sizes shown in Figure 37.

Length of Forms Between Perforated Lines: The

1403 accommodates marginally punched continuous forms up to a maximum length of 22 inches, at 6 lines per inch. It is recommended, however, that form lengths be confined to regular lengths, such as 3, 31h,

3Vz,

3%, 4, 4

1

A,

5, 5Vz,

6, 7, 8,

8Yz,

10, 11, 12, 14, 16, and 17 inches.

Line Spacing: The forms tractor of the 1403 can be set by the operator for single-space printing,. 6 or 8

OVER-ALL WIDTH

(INCHES)

4%

5%

6!1

8

8X

9!1

10%

11

11%

12

122~2

13%

14Ya

15!1

16

16%

172%2

HOLE-TO-HOLE

(INCHES)

4~

5~

6

7!1

8

9

10Ys lOX

11~

11!1

121~2 lSYs

14%

15

15X

16~

1~-1'2 lines per inch. For 6 lines to the inch, the length of the form must be evenly divisible by

¥i inch for single spacing, by

V3

inch for double spacing, and by

Vz

inch for triple spacing. Similarly, spacing of 8 lines to the inch requires that the length of the form be evenly divisible by

Vs inch for single spacing, by lA, inch for double spacing, and by

% inch for triple spacing.

Single-space printing at 8 lines to the inch on the

1403 is not recommended when the registration between lines is critical.

Multiple Copies: Multiple-copy forms consisting of more than four parts, and forms with the first part made of paper of more than 13-pound weight, should be tested under operating conditions to determine the suitability of feeding and legibility.

If multiple-copy forms are not fastened together, the carbon paper must be kept in line with the form by an acceptable method. One such method is center carbon without pin holes, glued to the set, or fullwidth carbon paper punched with substantially larger marginal holes that are approximately centered with the corresponding holes in the form. Marginal holes in the carbon that are substantially larger than the corresponding holes in the forms make allowance for carbon shrinkage and provide the processing tolerance necessary for some of the commonly used form structures.

One-time carbon paper or carbon-backed paper can be used. The carbon paper or coating should produce the required number of legible copies without excessive smudging. This can be determined best by making test runs with sample sets of forms containing different qualities of carbon papers.

Fastening of Multiple-Copy Forms: The width, length, and number of copies of the form determine the fastening requirements for satisfactory feeding through the forms tractor. For most efficient stacking, however, it is recommended that a suitable fastening method always be used with multiple copy forms.

If the construction of the form is such that the' parts are of different widths, the necessity for, and the method of, fastening the form should be determined by the width of the parts, the depth of the form (shown in

Figure 38), and weight of paper.

Forms of fanfold construction can be used on the

1403 printer.

When card-tag or rag-content paper stock is used, a test of sample sets of forms should be made to determine the exact fastening requirements. The fastening may consist of any satisfactory method, such as stitching or gluing, that prevents the copies from shifting.

It is essential, however, that whatever fastening medium is used should not impair the feeding or printing alignment of the form.

Figure 37. Standard Size Forms

34

FORM DEPTH

{Inches)

1 to 5

5-1/5 to 11

11 to 14

14 to 17

MAXIMUM DISTANCE

BETWEEN FASTENINGS

(Inches)

5

11

7

8Y2

Figure 38. Fastening Requirements for Multiple-Copy Forms

Registration of Forms:

The assembly of multiplecopy forms should insure that the punching and printing of all copies of the form are in absolute registration with the material printed by the 1403. The following tolerances should be maintained.

1. Vertical Lines: Vertical columns of print positions are spaced 1/10 inch apart. There are 50 printing spaces in 5 inches. Vertical rules printed on a form should be spaced in multiples of 1/10 inch.

The center line of anyone character, with reference to any other character on the same line, may have a plus or minus tolerance of .0065 inch, or a maximum over-all tolerance of .013 inch. From a forms viewpoint, it is practically impossible to guarantee that the cumulative tolerance of printing plate shrinkage, paper shrinkage, and marginal hole perforations does not exceed .0065 inch. This precludes the possibility of retaining satisfactory registration if vertical rules are spaced to split between print positions.

Where vertical lines are required, such rules should split the respective print position, thereby assigning that particular position for separation of the columnar field (dollars and cents, for example). However, in view of the fact that the 1403 can print special characters such as period and comma in every print position, the use of these symbols as decimal points, etc., avoids the need for vertical lines for such separations.

Vertical printed lines should parallel a vertical center line passing through the marginal holes.

2. Horizontal Lines: Horizontal printed lines on the form should be at a 90-degree angle to the vertical center line passing through the paper-feed pin holes.

The spacing should conform to the setting of the

1403 forms tractor - 6 or 8 lines to the inch.

3. Margins:

It is recommended that no staples or other metal fasteners be used with multiple-copy forms.

If unavoidable, it is important that either the left or right margin (whichever has the staples) be set outside the print hammer area, so that staples or other metal fasteners do not pass between the chain and hammer unit.

1403 Timing Considerations

The transfer of data from the print area of core storage to the print synchronizer requires 1,l00 microseconds for 100 print positions, and 1,452 microseconds for 132 print positions. The printer is not busy at this time;

BUSY comes on at the successful completion of the transfer. It remains

ON for a minimum of 82,420 microseconds if there is not an automatic space, or a minimum of 103,820 microseconds if there is an automatic space. In case of an unsuccessful transfer, the printer may be readdressed immediately by the

CPU; however, the second data transfer will not actually start until

1,463 microseconds after the initiation of the first transfer.

Special Features

NUMERICAL PRINT FEATURE

The numerical print feature for the 1403 printer has been designed for those businesses having certain 1410 applications that require no alphabetic printing. For example, banks, insurance companies, and utilities prepare many reports with only numeric printing. With this feature, the time required to produce these reports can be reduced by as much as 50 per cent. The manufacturing, wholesaling, and retailing levels of other industries also can use this feature for the many applications in which reports are or can be numerically coded.

With this feature, the systems user can switch from the alphameric to the numeric mode, simply by changing the chain cartridge in the 1403. The numeric chain is composed of 15 character sets, with 16 characters

(digits 0 through 9 $ . ,

~

0) in each set. In the numeric mode, the 1403 can print 1,285 lines per minute more than twice as fast as in the alphameric mode.

To change from one mode to another, an operator, with no special tools, removes one chain and replaces it with the other. Before locking the new cartridge in place, it is only necessary to move the chain enough to permit the chain drive to engage. When a chain cartridge is placed in the 1403, the corresponding mode is selected automatically.

If the printer is in the numeric mode, characters other than the 16 specified for numeric printing cause a print check error.

INTERCHANGEABLE CHAIN CARTRIDGE ADAPTER

Many scientific and commercial applications require distinctive type styles for particular printing jobs. This special feature for the 1403 allows chain cartridges to be interchanged.

Printer 35

With this feature, an operator can insert an interchangeable chain cartridge with a different type font, type style, or special character arrangement.

The procedure for changing a cartridge is:

1. Turn off system power.

2. Lift up the printer cover.

3. Pull back and unlock the print unit release lever.

4. Unlatch the ribbon shield and swing it against the paper.

5. Open the ribbon cover and remove the lower ribbon spool. Slide ribbon from under the skew roll and store the lower ribbon spool on the ribbon cover.

6. Grasp the cartridge handles and raise them to a vertical position. (This unlocks the cartridge from the

T -casting. )

7. Lift straight up on the handles and raise the cartridge until it clears its locating pins. At this point it is . free from the machine. Place the cartridge on a surface that will tolerate oil and ink. (A container is provided for storing the cartridge that is not in use.)

8. Grasp the handles of the second interchangeable cartridge and, raising them to a vertical position, lift the cartridge into position over the locating pin.

(Check for foreign matter clinging to underside of cartridge. )

9. Lower the cartridge gently into position over its guide pins and release the handles. Do

not force either

handle down at this point. The 132-hammer end of

the cartridge should settle fully down to the base. The

I-hammer end will not be down in position at this time.

10. Rotate the chain in the normal printing direction (counterclockwise, as viewed from the top). The chain can be rotated by pressing your finger against a character on the chain. At the same time, apply pressure to the button (located between the print timing dial and the cartridge) on the top cover. Rotate the chain slowly until the drive key drops into the drive slot. The chain will stop and the cartridge will settle correctly into position on the I-hammer end.

11. Lower the cartridge handles to their horizontal position. Do

not force.

If force is required, the cartridge is not fully seated; repeat steps 8 to 10.

12. Replace the ribbons; latch the ribbon shield into place; close the T -casting and the top cover; apply power to the system and resume printing.

86

T

elecommunication Devices

IBM

1009

Data Transmission Unit

Indicator lights and functiona l keys and switches are locat e d on the console pane l (Figure 39) on the top portion of the 100 9 Data Transmission Unit. They are used by the termina l attendan t in operating the 10 0 9 during either a transmitting o r r eceiving opera t ion .

Indicato r Lights

POWER

This light indicates that the power was turned on by pressing the power

ON k ey . It goes off when the power i s turne d o ff .

READY

This light is on when th e r e is a lin e for data transmission established between two mM

1009 Data Transmission Units, and the two units are in synchronism .

The test-normal switch on both 1009's must be set at

NORMAL.

Also , the data k ey on both te l ephones must be opera t e d , a nd both connec t ed data processing syst ems must ha ve power

ON .

RU N

When th e 10 0 9 is in an operative status (after the 1009 star t k ey is pr esse d , and befor e the attached system starts data transmission), the run light is on. It stays on while th e 1009 i s in operation. Th e run light goes out under any of these conditions:

1.

Th e stop k ey is pr es s e d.

2. Th e pow e r

OFF k ey

is

pre sse d.

3. The e nd-of-fil e ligh t comes on .

4. Th e t e lephone light comes on.

5 . An e rror co ndition causes the alarm to sound (see

" Audible Alarm").

Fi g ur e 39. 1009 Operating K eys and Lights

11111

T e l eco mmunication Devices 37

END-OF-FILE

When either attendant presses the 1009 end-of-file key, the end-of-file light on the other 1009 is turned on, and the alarm sounds. The signal is returned immediately to the originating 1009, causing the

EOF light to come on, and the alarm to sound. Pressing the stop key on each 1009 turns these sigpals off.

TELEPHONE

If a line for data transmission is established, and either terminal attendant presses the telephone key of the

1009, the

TEL light turns on, and an alarm sounds on the other 1009 console. The signal is returned immediately to the originating 1009, causing the

TEL light to come on, and the alarm to sound. Pressing the stop key on each 1009 turns these signals off.

Other Console Lights

These are the lights in the upper section of the 1009 console. They are used primarily by the

IBM

Customer

Engineer for diagnostic purposes.

CLEAR TO SEND

This' light is under control of the communicationscompany data set.

It indicates that transmission can take place.

DATA COND (TRANSMIT)

This light indicates that the message is being transmitted.

LINE (TRANSMIT)

This. light indicates that the data set is receiving information from the 1009.

DATA AVAIL

This light indicates that a message is ready for transmission.

AWAITING REPLY

This light indicates that the transmitting 1009 is waiting for an accepted record, or a repeat-record indication from the receiving 1009. .

ODD (TRANSMIT)

This light is on during the transmission of every other message.

ACCEPTED RECORD

This light indicates that a correct message transmission acknowledgment was transmitted from the receiving

1009.

SEND EOTR

This light indicates the end of each message.

38

REPEAT RECORD

This light indicates that an incorrect message transmission acknowledgement was transmitted from the receiving 1009.

SENDING REPLY

This light indicates that the end of the message was detected and the receiving 1009 is ready to send a message transmission acknowledgement to the transmitting 1009.

DATA COND (RECEIVE)

This light indicates that the message is being received.

LINE (RECEIVE)

This light indicates that the 1009 is receiving information from the data set.

READY FOR DATA

This light indicates that the receiving 1009 is ready to receive data.

TEST PATTERN

This light indicates that the test-normal switch on the

other 1009 is set to

TEST and is sending test· signals.

ODD (RECEIVE)

This light is on during the reception of every other message.

REc'v EOTR

This light indicates the end of each message.

FULL DUPLEX

This light indicates that the 1009 is conditioned for full duplex (four-wire) communications facilities.

OUTPUT VALIDITY

This light indicates

1. that the data processing system has received an invalid character (even parity), or

2. that the data processing system has failed to receive a character from the 1009, or

3. the loss of a message between 1009's.

CHARACTER

This light indicates. that the receIvmg 1009 has received an invalid character or an invalid parity check character.

TIMING

This light indicates that the two 1009's are out of synchronism.' This condition is also indicated by the audible alarm if the 1009 is operative or in the

RUN status.

INPUT VALIDITY

This light indicates that two or three consecutive error messages have been detected.

If the third message is correct, the light is turned off; if the following message is also incorrect, the light is turned off by pressing the 1009 start key, and transmission continues.

RECORD

This light indicates that a message was lost in the transmission between 1009's.

INTERLOCK

This light indicates

1. that the 1009 is in a receive-run condition, and the attached system is operating under transmit program control, or

2. that the 1009 is in a transmit-run condition and the attached system is operating under receive program control, or

3. that the stored program has addressed the 1009 for some reason, but the 1009 is not in

RUN condition and is unable to respond. '

PROCESSOR

This light indicates

1. that the transmitting 1009 has not received the next character from the attached system within the three-second interval that follows the transmission of the preceding character, or

2. that the system has not started the transmission of the next message within the three-second interval that follows the previous message acknowledgement, or

3. that the system was not ready to accept the characteravailable from the 1009, or

4. that the system did not generate a message transmission acknowledgement within the three-second interval that follows the end-of-message indication.

DATA SET READY

This light indicates that the data key on the telephone has been operated.

Keys

POWER-ON

Pressing this key turns on the power in the 1009. Because the power goes on immediately, it is not necessary to hold the key down.

POWER-OFF

Pressing this key turns off the power in the 1009.

START

If the

IBM data processing system and the 1009 Data

Transmission Unit have been conditioned to transmit or receive, the terminal attendant presses the start key on the 1009. This causes the run light to come on.

END-OF-FILE

When all messages of a group have been transmitted, the attendant at the sending station presses the stop key and then the end-of-file key. This signals the attendant at the receiving station by turning on the end-of-file light and the audible alarm on the receiving

1009. Pressing the stop key on the receiving unit turns off both signals.

The transmitting station end-of-file light also turns on and the audible alarm sounds. Pressing the stop key at each terminal turns off both signals.

TELEPHONE

If a line for data transmission has been established and either terminal attendant wants to talk to the other, he presses the telephone key. This allows the message being transmitted to be completed. The telephone key signals the other station by turning or the telephone light and causing the alarm to sound. Pressing the stop key on the 1009 being signaled, turns off both signals.

RESET

If both the reset key and the stop key are pressed simultaneously, or if the reset key is pressed following the operation of the stop key, an immediate stop in transmission is effected.

STOP

This key is pressed to stop either the transmit or the receive function.

If it is pressed while a message is being transmitted or received, the function will ,stop when the message is complete.

If both the stop key and the reset key are pressed simultaneously, an

immediate

stop is effected.

If both keys are pressed simultaneously during the transmission of a message, that message will be sent again. Also, a stop key operation turns off

1. the end-of-file light and the associated audible alarm,

2. the telephone light and the associated audible alarm,

3. the audible alarm caused by the three successive errors in the transmission of the same record and

4. the audible alarm caused by one 1009 getti~g out of synchronism with the other.

Switches

BCD/BINARY

This switch specifies the coding of blank characters for data transmission. Both 1009 switch settings must be the same. When set to

BCD the character set is 55

Telecommunication Devices 39

characters. When set to

BINARY, the character set is 64 characters.

TEST-NORMAL

When this switch is set at

TEST, test signals are sent to the remote terminal. The 1009 that receives the test signals acknowledges it by turning on the test pattern light located in the upper portion of the console panel.

When the test-normal switch is set at

NORMAL, the

1009 can execute its normal transmit and receive functions.

TRANSMIT-RECEIVE

This switch sets the mode of operation.

If the 1009 is to work in conjunction with an

IBM data processing system as a transmitting station, this switch is set at

TRANSMIT.

If the 1009 is to work with an

IDM data processing system as a receiving station, the switch is set at

RECEIVE.

SPEED-SELECTOR

The setting of this switch, and the type of data set determine the transmission speed of the terminal. This switch must be at one of three settings to be compatible with the data set:

600 -

600 bits (75 characters) per second.

1200 -

1200 bits (150 characters) per second.

Ext -

up to 2400 bits (300 characters) per second.

At this setting, transmission speed is determined strictly by the frequency of the data set.

NOTE:

The setting of the speed-selector switches on both the transmitting and the receiving 1009's must be the same. gram, the alarm sounds. The alarm turns off when the transmit-receive switch is set to the correct setting and the i009 start key is operated.

6.

If the 1009 is in a

TRANSMIT-RUN condition and the attached system is . operating under a receive program, the alarm sounds. The alarm turns off when the transmit-receive switch is set to the correct setting, and the 1009 start key is operated.

7. If the program addresses the 1009 for any reason and the 1009 is not in a

RUN condition, the alarm sounds. The alarm turns' off when the

RUN condition is established in the 1009.

8.

If the receiving data processing system, operating under the control of a receive program, fails to take a character from the receiving 1009; the alarm sounds.

Pressing the stop key on the 1009 turns the alarm off.

9. If the transmitting 1009 has not received the next character within the three-second interval that follows the transmission of the preceding character, the alarm sounds.

10.

If the transmitting system has not started the transmission of the next message within the threesecond interval that follows the previous message acknowledgement, the alarm sounds.

11.

If the receiving system did not generate a message transmission acknowledgement within the threesecond interval that follows the end-of-message indication, the alarm sounds.

Audible Alarm

The audible alarm is a loudspeaker designed to signal the terminal attendant under these conditions:

1. When the transmitting-station attendant presses the end-of-file key, the audible alarm and the end-offile light of the receiving 1009 turn on. Pressing the stop key on' the receiving 1009 turns both signals off.

2. When one terminal attendant presses the telephone key, the audible alarm and the telephone light turn on in the 1009 being called. Pressing the stop key of the 1009 being ·called turns both signals off.

3. Errors in three successive transmissions of the same message cause the alarm to sound in the transmitting and/or receiving 1009. Pressing the 1009 stop key turns the associated alarm off.

4.

If one 1009 gets out of synchronization with the other, the alarm sounds at both terminals. Pressing the stop key on each 1009 turns the alarm off.

5.

If the 1009 is in a

RECEIVE-RUN condition and the attached system is operating under a transmit pro-

40

Operating Principles

A person trained to operate the data processing system should be able to operate the.

IDM

1009 Data Transmission Unit with a minimum of formal training.

Instructions, including error and other conditional procedures, should be made available to all operators for ready reference.

Before data is sent, the terminal attendants should complete certain housekeeping operations, such as loading the transmit and receive programs, loading the data to be sent, and readying the data processing system and the 1009. The completion of operations such as these before the scheduled time of transmission or reception of data minimizes any delays after making the connection for data transmission.

MAKING THE CONNECTION

Any terminal attendant can establish a line for data transmission by dialing the telephone number of another terminal.

If the call is routed through operators, advise them that the call is to be a data transmission call, and that the transmission should not be monitored. Monitoring will degrade the transmission. The transmitting equipment is ready to .transmit if:

1.

The transmit program has been loaded in the data processing unit.

2. The input (card or magnetic tape) equipment is ready.

3. The 1009 is in a ready condition (power on,

BI-

NARY /BCD switch set to . desired mode, test-normal switch set to

NORMAL, transmit-receive switch set to

TRANSMIT).

When the telephone rings at the terminal being called, the attendant answers the telephone and tells the caller whether or not the equipment is ready to accept data. The receiving equipment is ready to receive if:

1. The receive program has been loaded in the data processing system.

2. The output (card or magnetic tape) facilities are ready.

3. The 1009 is in a ready condition (power on,

BI-

NARY/BCD switch set to the desired mode, test-normal switch set to

NORMAL, transmit-receive switch set to

RECEIVE).

If the equipment is ready, each terminal attendant presses the data key on his telephone and cradles the telephone handset. When the ready light on the 1009 glows, each terminal attendant presses the start button on the 1009 console. When the run light glows, he presses the start button on the 1401 to begin the transmission of data. is pressed, that message will be completed before the

1009 stops.

When the 1009 stops,

1.

The attendant being called a. presses the stop key on the 1009 to turn off the

TEL light and the audible alarm, b. presses the

TALK key on the telephone, and c. picks up the telephone receiver, and answers the call.

2. The calling attendant a. presses the

TALK key on the telephone, and b. picks up the telephone receiver, and begins the conversation.

When the conversation is ended,

1. The attendant called a. presses the data key on the telephone, and b. cradles the telephone receiver so that the transmission of data can continue.

2. The calling attendant a. presses the data key on the telephone, b. cradles the telephone receiver so that the transmission of data can continue, and c. presses the start key on the 1009 to resume data transmission.

ENDING THE OPERATION

When the last record has been sent and received correctly,

1. The attendant at the transmitting terminal: a. presses the end-of-file key on the 1009 to turn on the

EOF light and the audible alarm on the receiving 1009. b. presses the stop key to turn off the

EOF light and the audible alarm on the transmitting 1009. c. presses the

TALK key on the telephone to disconnect the line for data transmission.

2. The attendant at the receiving terminal: a. presses the stop key on the 1009 to turn off the .

EOF light and audible alarm. b. presses the

TALK key on the telephone to disconnect the line for data transmission.

3. After pressing the

TALK key, both terminal attendants should listen for a dial tone to be sure the line is disconnected.

OPERATOR CALLS

If the attendant at either terminal wants to talk to the attendant at the other terminal, he presses the telephone key on the 1009. The

TEL light and audible alarm signal the attendant at the remote terminal.

If a message is being transmitted when the telephone key

IBM

10] 1

Paper Tape Reader

The signal lights and control switches for the

IBM

1011

Paper Tape Reader are shown in Figure 40. The indicator lights, located above the operating switches, keys, and lights are primarily for

IBM

Customer Engineers' use in diagnostic testing and preventive maintenance routines. The reel power switch is located on the tape reader below the reading head (Figure 42).

SWITCHES

Start: Pressing this switch turns

ON the ready light, puts the 1011 in a read condition (if the interlocks are properly conditioned), and signals the using systern. that paper-tape reading can begin.

Stop: Pressing this switch stops paper-tape reading and turns

OFF the ready light. Pressing the start switch resumes the paper-tape reading operation.

Reset: Pressing this switch resets the necessary circuits to the beginning of an operation. This switch is not effective when the ready light is

ON.

The 1011 is reset to a letters-shift mode, and remains in the letters-shift mode until a figures-shift tape character is read from the tape.

Reel/Strip Selector: This switch has two positions.

For reel and center-roll feeding, the switch must be in the right position; for strip feeding, in the left position.

Power: This switch has two positions. In the upper

( ON) position, this switch supplies power to the 1011

Telecommunication Devices 41

Figure 40 . 1011 Operating Keys and Lights

42 and turns on th e pow e r-on light. In the low e r

(OFF) position thi s switch r e moves power from the 1011 and turns off th e pow e r li g ht.

R ee l Po we r :

Pr ess ing this switch supplies power to th e t a k e -up (l e ft hand ) and supply (right-hand) reels wh e n th e buff e r anTIS are in normal op e rating position.

LIGHTS

R eady :

Wh en

ON, this light indicates that the 1011 i s e ith e r waiting for a signal from the using system to r ea d paper tap e, or is re a ding p a per tap e . This light turns on at th e b eg inning of an operation after the start switch is pr esse d , and turns off when th e stop swit c h or pow e r switch is presssed , or when on e of the following conditions causes th e r ea der to stop:

1. p a p e r-tap e break

2. p a p e r-tap e tightn ess

3 . run-out of pap e r tape

4 . 1011 not r ea dy

5. power failur e

6. photoc e ll failur e

7 . parity e rror d e t ec t e d (control pan e l not wir e d to continue r e adin g)

8. unwir e d character r e ad (c ontrol pan e l not wir e d to continue r ea ding)

P owe r-On :

When

ON, this light indicat es that ac pow e r is b e in g s uppli e d to th e 1011. Th e light turns on wh e n th e pow e r switch i s

ON and turns off when th e pow e r switch i s turn e d off.

Paper Tape

CHA D AND C HAD LESS PAPER TAP E

Th e sma ll pap e r particl es e ith e r completely pun c h e d out of pap e r tap e, or partiall y punch e d out ( 90 p e r cent of circumference punched) are call e d

chads.

Pap e r tap e with completely punched-out hol es, is call e d chad tap e . Pap e r tape with p a rtially-pun c h e d hol es i s called chadless tap e b eca us e it do es not produc e loos e c hads .

STRIP OF PAPER TAPE

A fre e length of punch e d p a p e r tap e, m e asuring not l es s than 20 inch e s nor mor e than 20 f ee t , is called a

strip .

Includ e d in th ese dim ens ions , th e strip must hav e l ea d e r and trail e r portions that are eac h at least t e n inches lon g. F ee d hol es mu s t b e punch e d in th e l ea d e r and trail e r. Cod es may also be punch e d in th e l ea d e r and trail e r ; how eve r , since c odes may b e r ea d , usually no codes other than lett e r shift or tap e f ee d are pun c h e d in th e l ea d e r and trailer.

ROLL OF PAPER TAPE

Punch e d paper tape that is wound clockwise (viewed from top with three-hol e side up) around itself , be-

ginning with the leading end, is called a roll.

A roll of chadless tape is wound so that the chads protrude toward the outside of the roll. A roll feeds from the leading e nd at the center toward the trailing end on the outsid e. Both th e l eade r and trail e r portions must be at l east ten inch es long. A leader of 48 inches is necessary , however, for complete loading; that is, for attaching the leading end to the take-up reel before starting to read. A roll with an inside diameter of 4Y2 inch es, maximum, should have an outside diameter of not more than 10Y2 inch es . A roll with an inside diame ter of 2% inch es, minimum

(IBM

961 or 962 Tape

Punch rewind) , should not exceed 300 feet in length or six inches outside diameter.

REEL OF PAPER TAPE

Pun c h e d paper tape that is wound clockwise (viewed from top with thre e -hole side up) around itself , b eg inning with th e trailing end, is called a reel. A reel of chadless tape is wound so that the chads protrude toward th e center of the reel. 'When mounted on the pap er tape r ea d e r , a reel feeds from the leading e nd on th e outside, toward th e trailing end on the inside.

Both the l ea der and trail e r portions must be at least ten inches long. A lead e r of 48 inches ' is necessary, however, for complete loading; that is, for attaching th e l ea ding e nd to th e take-up reel b efore starting to read. The l e ngth of a reel of tap e should not excee d th e capacity of th e take-up reel.

No chad may be folded back more than 90 degrees from the paper. Fanfolded or creased chadless tape is not acceptable for use with the paper tape reader.

8. Feed holes must be in line with the code holes.

Chad paper tape must have punched-out feed holes.

9. Splicing: A splice should be made only in nondata portions of paper tape because correct reading of tape cannot be assured at the point of splice. Splices must not block, or in any way restrict, the feed holes because the reader feeds and guides the tape by means of the feed holes . Specifications for a splice are: a. Total thickness of the splice must not exceed .010 inch. b. Tape overlap at the splice should be no more than one tap e code in length (.1 inch). c. Th e leading edge of the splice should be on the topside of th e tap e as it passes over the reading head. d. The splice must be at least as strong as the tape itself. e. Th e splice must be no wider than the tape itself . f. The sp lice must b e fl exib l e . g. Th e sp lice must be fre e of staples and gummy substances which could build up on the r ea ding mechanism .

PREPARING PAPER TAPE READER FOR STRIP FEEDING

1. Turn th e r eel/s trip toggl e switch to the

STRIP position.

2. Open the reading-head tape guides and place a loop of the tape leader over the reading head so that the sprocket drive e ngages the feed holes . The tape at th e bottom of th e loop mliSt pass between the two reading-head roll e rs (Figure 41) .

PAPER-TAPE SPECIFICATIONS

The

IBM

1011 Paper Tape Reader is designed to operate with either

IBM

190216 (lVt6-inch width, 5-track) or

IBM

304469 (I-inch width , 8-track) pap er tap e .

Oth e r paper tape of equ ivalent paper stock may be us ed. Specifications for acceptable t a p e:

1. Widths of tap e:

1~i6

-+-

.003

1'8

-+-

.

003

1

-+-

.003

2. Distance from 3-hole e dg e of t ape to center line of feed holes: .392

+

.003 .009 inch .

3. Verti ca l distance (across width of tape) betw ee n centers of holes: .100

-+-

.002 inch.

4. Horizontal distance (parallel with e dges of tape) between centers of holes:

.100

-+-

.001 inch for fe e d holes

.

100 ± .003 inch for code holes

5. Vertical distances (across width of tape) across holes:

.

. 072

.046

+

.

001 .002 inch for code holes

+

.

002 .001 inch for feed holes

6. Thickn ess of tap e: .004

-+-

.003 inch.

7. Chadl ess tape : All chads in chadless tape must be on the same side of the paper (as normally punched).

Figure 41. Strip Feeding

T e l eco mmunication. D evices 43

3. Remove the slack from the loop and close the reading-head tape guides.

4 . Check to be sure that the strip is not rolled, curled, or wound in a figure eight.

5. For maximum tape-reading efficiency, the tape guides and reading head shoul d be cleaned with a soft brush, once each 8-hour shift.

PREPARING PAPER TAPE READER FOR REEL FEEDING

1. Turn the reel/strip toggle switch to the

REEL position (Figure 42).

2 . Move the two buffer arms upward until they latch in position.

3. Move the center-roll idler clockwise until it latches in the vertical position.

4 . Mount the take-up reel on the left capstan.

5. Mount the supply reel on the right capstan, making sure that the three-hole side of the tape is away from the machine.

6 . Grasp the leading end of the tape at the right side of the supply reel, pull downward , and draw the end from right to left so that the tape passes below the buffer-arm roll ers and reading-head rollers but above the stationary rollers.

7 . Secure the leading end of tape to the take-up reel so that by turning the take-up reel counterclockwise, tape will be pulled from the supply reel.

8. Move the two buffer arms downward to their operating positions.

9. Press the reel-power push-button switch.

10. Open the reading-head tape guides and place a loop of tape over th e reading head so that the sprocket drive engages the feed hol es. The tape a t the bottom of the loop must pass between the two reading-head roll ers .

11. For maximum tape-reading efficiency, the tape guides and reading head should b e cleaned with a soft brush, once each 8-hour shift.

PREPARING PAPER TAPE READER FOR CENTER ROLL FEEDING

1. Turn th e reel/strip toggl e switch to th e

REEL position.

2 . Move the two buffer arms upward until they latch in position (Figure 43).

3. Move the center-roll idler clockwise until it l a tches in the vertical position.

4. Mount the take-up reel on the l ef t capstan.

Figure 42. Reel Feeding

44

Figur e 43 . Center-Roll Feeding

5. Mount the center-roll drive sleeve on the right capstan.

6. Mount the center-roll turntable on the shelf and move aside the control arms.

7. Place the roll of tape on the turntable concentric with the rollers.

8. Grasp the leading end of tape and draw it inside the ring of fixed rollers, by passing it to the left of the trip roller.

9. From the trip roller, draw the end around the tapered roller, and then to the right and upward so that the end passes above the roll of tape on the turntable.

10. Pass the end of tape through the center-roll guide and over the drive sleeve.

11. Move the center-roll idler counterclockwise until it rests upon the tape and drive sleeve.

12. Pull the leading end at the left of the drive sleeve downward, and then draw the end from right to l ef t so that the tape passes below the buffer-arm rollers but above the stationary rollers.

13 . Secure the leading end of tape to the take-up re e l so that by turning the take-up reel counterclockwise, tape will be pulled from th e roll of tape on the turntable.

14. Move the two buffer arms downward to their operating positions.

15. Press the reel-power push-button switch .

16 . Open the reading head tape guides and place a loop of tape over the reading head so that the spocket

T e l eco mmunication D evices 45

drive engages the feed holes. The tape at the bottom of the loop must pass between the two reading-head rollers.

17. For maximum tape-reading efficiency, the tape guides and reading head should be cleaned with a soft brush, once each 8-hour shift.

Control-Panel Summary

A door, located in the top section of the mM 1011 rear panel, provides access to the panel.

The hubs of the control panels (Figures 44 and 45) are arranged in 22 columns numbered from 1 to 22, and 34 rows lettered A to AK. The location of a hub can be identified by use of these co-ordinates. For example, the parity-error huh is located at A, 12. The co-ordinates for each set of hubs are listed below, after the names of the hubs.

Two types of removable, single, self-contacting control panels are available, the 5-track and the 8-track type. All hubs on the 5-track control panel are identical with those on the 8-track panel except the decode exit, tape-level exit, and tape-level decode entry hubs.

The control and special-purpose hubs are as follows:

TAPE LEVEL EXIT--A, 5-8, AND DECODE ENTRy-B, 5-8

Wiring the tape-level exit hubs to the decode-entry input hubs sets the reader for the type of tape being used. These hubs provide for redirecting the upper

(away from the 3-hole edge) four of the eight tracks of data received from the reading unit.

Wiring:

In the 8-track mode, the wiring of tapelevel exits 5, 6, 7, and 8 to decode entries CK, 5, 6, and

EOL, respectively, provides for decoding the IBM

8-track code. In the 5-track mode, the wiring of tapelevel exit 5 to decode entry 5, and tape-level exit 6 to decode entry 6 hubs, provides for decoding telegraphic 5-track code.

SP LTRS (SPACE LETTERS )-A-B, 9

The two hubs labeled SP LTRS are a switch. When 5track telegraphic tape is used and the switch is wired

ON, the

space

tape character causes a change to letter shift. The letter shift remains in effect until a

figure-

shift tape character is read from the tape.

Wiring:

These hubs are a normally-off switch. Connecting these two hubs turns the switch ON.

PT PAR (PAPER TAPE PARITY)-A-B, 10

The two hubs labeled PT PAR are a switch. When 8track mM tape is read and the switch is ON, punchings are checked for odd parity. The switch is wired

OFF when 5-track tape is used; otherwise, erroneous indications of parity errors occur.

Wiring:

These hubs are a normally-on switch. Connecting these two hubs turns the switch OFF.

46

5

TR

(FIVE TRACK)-A-B, 11

These two hubs labeled 5 TR are a switch. The wiring of these hubs determines the 1011 operation mode

(5-track or 8-track). This switch must be wired OFF when 8-track mM tape is being used.

If not wired OFF, erroneous indications of errors occur.

Wiring:

Switch ON . no wiring. Switch OFF wire from upper to lower hub.

PE (PARITY ERROR ) -A, 12

This hub emits an impulse when a parity error occurs

( even number of holes is sensed in a paper-tape character). When a parity error occurs and the hub is wired to any encode entry or data-omit entry, the parity error is signaled to the central processing unit, and paper-tape reading continues. If the parity-error hub is wired to an encode-entry hub, the corresponding character is transmitted to core storage in place of the error character.

If

PARITY ERROR is wired to a data-omit entry hub, the error character is deleted.

When a parity error occurs and the parity-error hub is not wired to either an encode entry or a data-omit entry hub, reading stops and the ready light is turned off. The central processing unit is also made aware of the error condition.

Wiring:

Wire PE hub to any encode entry or data- . omit entry hub. uc (UNWIRED CHARACTER)-A, 13

Unwired characters (punched in tape but not wired from their decode-exit hubs) cause uc (unwired character) hub to emit an impulse.

Wiring:

uc wired to an encode-entry hub provides an identifying character for entry into core storage.

When uc is wired to a data-omit entry hub, the character is deleted and does not use up a position in core storage. If the uc hub is not wired to either an encode entry, data-omit entry, or end-of-record hub, the 1011 stops reading and the ready light is turned off. Wiring uc to both data-omit and encode-entry hubs is not valid control-panel wiring.

EaR IN AND OUT (END OF RECORD IN AND oUT)-C-D, 22

Any paper-tape code can be assigned as an EaR character by control-panel wiring. Sensing an EaR character terminates the paper-tape read operation.

Wiring:

The wiring of the EaR hubs varies with the type of data processing system connected to the 1011.

Wiring of these hubs is explained in both the 1401 and 1410 sections of this manual.

"REDUCERS-E-J, 5-10

Two sets of reducers are standard equipment. Each set consists of four IN hubs and one OUT hub. Any impulses directed to the IN hubs are available at the OUT hub. For example, any combination of tape character

A

B

C

2 4

5

6 7

8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

[

TAPE LEVEL EXIT

50 60 0 0

DECODE ENTRY

LTRS PAR TR

0

ON~OFFIOFFrpETUCl

1

0

0 0

50 60 0

D

E

F

G

H

K

L

M

N

P

Q

R

S

U

V

W x

~

0

C o

0

D

E o

E

X

I 0

T

S 0 rCRF-As -

A I o

0 0 0 0 0

LF F-B T o

0 o

SP o

F-C o

U o

NC o

F-D o

F-F

V o w

0 0 0

B I IN 2

R o

E 0 0

C D IN o

~

0

D E

IN

0

ORO 0

F-G X

0 0 0

F-H Y o o

0

E S o

IN o o

F o

G o

F-J Z o

0

F-K 0 o

0

F-L

I o

0

F-M 2 o

0

F-N 3 o

0

F-S 4

0 0 0

J o

K o

L o

H o

I o

M o

F-V 5

0 0 0

F-X

6

0 0 0

F-Z 7

0 0 0

N o o o

P o

LTR 8

0 0 0

Q o

FIG 9

0 0 0

R o o

0

3 4 o

0 o

0

5 6 o

0 o

0 o

0 o

0 o

0 o

0 o

0 uo

T

~OR1

~O r - A - S - * - : -

0 0 0 0

~

T % o

0 o

>

0

C U o

0

$

= o

0

D V o

0 a o

0

E W o

0

F X o o

II

[J o

0 o o

G

~ o

H

C 0 o

I

~

0

J

E 0

N

T K

Y o

Z o

I/) o

I o o

# o

I

o o

R 0

Y L o

M

2 o

3 o

4

@ o

t

o

?

0 0 0

N 5 I

0 0 0 o

- \ o

/:, o

(

2 o

3 o

0

<

D 4 o

A

0

,--T 5

A 0 o

6

M 0

i

7

o

~

8

T 0 o

6

RIM R 9

Y 0

0 0 0

P 7 G/M

0 0 0

Q

8 SP

0 0 0

R 9

Y

0 0 0

10 o

II o

\2 o

AE

AF

AG

AH

Z

AA

AB

AC

AD

AJ

AK

~igure 44. Five-Track Control Panel

Telecommunication Devices 47

48

AC

AD

AE

AF

AG

AH

AJ

AK

AS

A

B

2 3 4 5

6 7

8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

~ TAPE lEVEL EXIT10N -

OFF_OFF~

PE - UC

50 60 70 8 0

DECODE ENTRY

50 60

~O ~O

~ ~

D

0 0 l l

C

AA o

E

F

G

H

K l

M

N p

Q

R s

T

V x v z u w o o o

Y ; - D -

H

J lOUT 2 o

0 0 0 0

T J C IN o

0 0 0 0

ECI c

CR IN o

0

O~O

0 o

TF o

S ERR B 0 IN o

0 ogo

0 w a

~

IN o 0 oSO 0

EOl

Ii

G F o

2

0 0 0

5 E

$ o

0

E 8 go o

K

Eo

0 0 0

PI3 A

0 0 0

SK PI 7

N

*

I

~

~Q

{.O

0 0 0

9 PI4 SPI

0 0 0

7

~

SP2

0 0 0

54 6

0

R o

0 0 0

M U

PII

P o

0 0 0

• CORR I 0 o

0 0 0

EC2 X V l o

0 0 0

SP

I

0,4

PI6 o

0 0 0 o

0

@

PI5 o

0

SP6 o

0

:3 PI2 o

0 r~61

3 - 4 - 5 - 6

0 0 0 0 o

0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 o

0 0 0

8 T %

> o

0 0 0

C U

$

= o

0 0 0 o

V e o

0 0 0 o o o o

EO

NH go

01

Eo

E W

P II o

0 0 0

F X o

0 0 0

G V o

Z o

91 o o

Ii

o

/ o o t, o o

< o

EJ

NO

~K

YO o o l

2 o

3

@ o

;

0 0 0

M 4

?

0 0 0

N 5

!

0 0 0 o

6 'YM

0 0 0

P 7 G/M

0 0 0

Q

8 SP o

6

Do

~

7

Ao o e

MO

+ o

4 o

5 o

2 o

3 o o o

,

0 0 0

R 9

-.r

0 0 0 flO

~O

R

II

P

Figure 45. Eight-Track Conuol Panel

decode-exit hubs wired to IN hubs 1, 2, 3, and 4 emits an impulse from the OUT hub. Reducers must be used instead of split wiring.

Wiring:

Wire anyone, two, three, or four decodeexit hubs to anyone, two, three, or four IN hubs. Wire the OUT hub to any encode-entry hub, any data-omit entry hub, or the end-of-record hub.

DATA OMIT ENTRIES-L-X, 22

The twelve data-omit entry hubs are used to prevent unwanted tape characters from entering core storage and to by-pass unwired tape characters.

Wiring:

Unwanted character wire from the decode-exit hub that represents the unwanted tape character to anyone of the data-omit entry hubs. Unwired character - wire from the uc hub to any dataomit entry hub.

DECODE EXITS-E-Y, 1; E-X, 2-4

As each tape character is read, its impulse is available at the corresponding decode-exit hub. The 5-track control panel has exit hubs for all 58 telegraphic 5-track codes (including blank). The 8-track control panel has exit hubs for all 65

IBM

8-track codes (including EOL).

The decode·exit, tape-level exit, and decode-entry hubs are the only hubs on the 5-track control panel that differ from those on the 8-track control panel. All other hubs are identical.

Wiring:

Wire decode-exit hubs to anyone of these hubs, depending on the operation involved:

1. Encode-entry hubs

2. Data-omit entry hubs

3. End-of-record IN hub

4. Reducer IN hubs

ENCODE ENTRIES-E-X, 18-20; E-P, 21

Impulsing an encode-entry hub develops the 1401-1410 binary-coded decimal character that has been designated for that particular hub. The binary-coded decimal character is then read into core storage.

Wiring:

Wiring to the encode-entry hubs is:

1. From decode-exit hubs for most data characters, or

2. from reducer OUT hubs, from unwired character

(uc) and parity-error (PE) hubs.

IBM 1014

Remote

Inquiry

Unit

The inquiry unit is comprised of an input-output

(1-0) printer, a control section located on the

1-0 printer keyboard, and an indicator light panel. The

1-0 printer is equipped with a 44-character keyboard

(26 alphabetic, 10 numeric, and 8 special characters:

& . -

$

~

,

# /

[Figure 46] ). All other special characters are printed as a number sign (

# ).

The control section contains the switch and keys needed to operate the unit:

ON-OFF

switch furnishes power to the inquiry unit.

Inquiry Request

key signals the inquiry unit adapter that an inquiry unit wants to have an inquiry request message processed. This inquiry request is examined by the adapter.

Inquiry Release

key:

1.

Signals the inquiry unit adapter that the sending of the inquiry request message is completed. The adapter acknowledges the message completion by turning OFF the inquiry unit proceed light and initiating an

1-0 printer carriage-return operation.

2. Generates a group mark that is placed in the input synchronizer position adjacent to the last character of the inquiry request message.

3. Turns on the inquiry status latch in the 1410.

CLR

1100

0 G 0 0

[2J

0 0 000 h'tUIASE

~G0000000~0[J

INQUIRY o

0 0 0 G 0 G 0

~

IT]

L..-RE......,.-QU_ES----IT nmn

~

ON

SET

0000000000

I

SPACE

I

Figure 46. 1014 Keyboard

OFF

Telecommunication Devices 49

Inquiry Cancel (Inq Can) key (during an inquiry

request operation) releases the inquiry unit, turns off the request light, and ends the inquiry request routine in the inquiry unit adapter. The adapter acknowledges the inquiry routine cancellation by turning off the inquiry unit proceed light and initiating an

1-0 printer carriage return operation. The key is used also during inquiry operations to turn off the inquiry unit check light or the exceed speed light or both.

The indicator light panel (located to the right of the

1-0 printer) contains additional lights needed by the operator:

Request: Operating the inquiry request key turns

on the white request light. Pressing the inquiry release key turns it off. Operating the inquiry cancel key can also turn off the request light.

Proceed: This green light turns on when the input

synchronizer is free and can accept the inquiry request message. The light turns off when either the release or the cancel key is operated.

Check: This red light indicates the detection of a

parity error in the inquiry unit, during an inquiry request or inquiry reply operation. Operating the cancel key on the inquiry unit turns off this light.

Exceed Speed: This red light turns on when the

maximum. inquiry request keying rate (about

12Vz characters per second) is exceeded. Operating the cancel key on the inquiry unit turns off this light.

Forms: This red light, when lit, indicates that the

inquiry unit is out of forms; however, several more lines can be printed before the forms clear the platen.

Inserting more forms turns the light off.

50

Operations

This section is concerned with the actual physical steps necessary to perform individual operations such as reading data from a card reader, punching cards, reading tape, and so forth. In figures, depressed entry keys are shown shaded. For all descriptions, power is assumed to be at an operating level, and all registers, counters, indicators, etc., to be in an initial or starting condition. Depression of a key in a column resets any other key previously depressed in that column.

Loading

Card

Data -

J

Cards to be read into the system are placed in the card read hopper 9-edge first, face down, and the card hopper weight is placed on top of the cards. The sequence of operations then is:

1. Depress the

end-of-file

key on the reader. This key insures that the last card in the hopper will be read after preceding cards have been processed.

If this key is not depressed, the

start

key will have to be de': pressed when the hopper becomes empty in order to read the last cards. Another way to accomplish reading of the last card is to place three blank cards at the end of the card deck being read.

2. The card reader

start

key is depressed. When depressed, the data recorded in the first card is read into the 1414 buffer.

3. A

read select

instruction, addressing the proper data channel and

~ard reader, is set up in the

entry keys

(Figure 47) and the console

load

key is depressed.

The select instruction (assume 1402 on Channel A and reading column binary cards) for the PRD is

-176203001230; the

RDS format is

+

076203001230.

The octal representation of the information is used.

4. With the console

automatic

key on, depression of the console

load

key automatically generates an lORD

Location

88,888

88888

88888

08888

88008

88888

88080

88888

8

Ci)Ci)

888

888

Figure 47. Read Select Card Reader Format

Operations 51

command with a maximum word count and a starting address of 00100. This command is loaded into the channel control registers.

5. The first data word from the first card is therefore placed in core location 00100, the second word into location 00101, and so on until all data from that card have been placed in core storage. Since each card is treated as a record, the channel-in-use indicator

(turned on when the read select instruction was executed) is now turned off. Computer program control is automatically transferred to the instruction in core location 00101 (read from the first card) and this instruction is executed.

To provide for continued reading of cards, the data of the first card must be appropriate instructions to re-select the card reader, reset and load a channel command with proper word count and starting address,. and all other necessary instructions needed to put all data of the cards into core storage and check the cards.

The same general procedure is used to load card data from the 1622 reader; however, the 1622 card reader

start key is depressed because no end-of-file key is

available on the 1622.

Loading Magnetic Tape Data

If data are to be loaded from magnetic tape instead of cards, the procedure is basically the same. The tape unit is first put in a ready state, with tape reel mounted, tape unit load and ready keys depressed, and the tape unit ready light on. The read select instruction octal format (assume tape unit 1 attached to data channel A, and data in

BCD format) is +076200001201

(Figure 48). Operations are:

1. The read select instruction is set up in the entry keys and the console load key is pressed.

2. As before, an lORD command with a maximum word count and a starting address of 00100 is auto-

~

S

Location

00000

88888

88888

88008

,--_ _ _ _ Address r-=----=---

Instruction - - - - - - - ,

8 0000

0000

88 888

88888

880000 00000

888888888888

888888 88800

808 80888 88

88888 88 88

888 80

Figure 48. Read Select Tape Unit 1 Format

52

matically generated and loaded into the channel control registers.

3. The first data word from tape is read into core location 00100, the second word into location 00101, and so on until the end-of-record gap is sensed on the tape unit. The end-of-record signal turns the channelin-use indicator off and transfers program control to the instruction in location 00101, which is then executed.

Loading Entry

Key

Data

The

enter storage key may be used to put 36 bits of

information into a particular storage location. Assume the bit configuration +010101010101 is to be inserted into core location 01753. Entry keys would be depressed as shown in Figure 49. With the

CPU in manual status

(automatic switch in manual position), de-

pression of the

enter storage key places the contents of

the

entry key word bank into the location specified by

the

location bank entry keys.

Sense

00 00

8

8

88888

()()8 C0

(0

8

8 o

0)

()

88888

8888

88888 o

888

8888

Ouc0J

(0

-0

~

05

(0

0

888888 1

1

88888

888000800000

8888(08888888

888088800000

888888888888

( 0 8 8 8 8 8

8 . 8

Figure 49. Enter Storage Format

Operations 53

The

enter instruction key may be used to execute an

instruction set up in the

entry keys when the

CPU is in manual status. For example, assume that a halt instruction has been executed, and a transfer to a subroutine located at 05000 is to be executed. The transfer instruction octal format is +002000005000 (Figure 50). This configuration is set up in the

entry keys and, upon de-

pression of the

enter instruction key, the transfer in-

struction is executed. To execute the subroutine, the

automatic switch must be returned to automatic and

the console

start key must be depressed.

Off-Line Operation

Both the mM

1402 Card Read Plinch and the mM

1403 Printer may be used off-line when not being used by the computer. Thus, it is possible to perform a card-to-card or a card-to-printer operation without removing either unit from the system. With a card-tocard operation in off-line mode, the 1403 printer may be used by the computer in anon-line 9peration. The panel (Figure 51) of the 1414 r/o Synchronizer, to which the 1402 and 1403 are attached, contains the necessary switches and keys to perform the operations.

Location

Sense

8

8

8

8

0)

00000

08888

08888

88880

88880

88808

8

88888

08888

800"C

800

888888

00000

88888

880080 8 888

808008808008

888888 08800

00 808088800

88888 8 8888

0) 0)

~--------~----------~

Figure 50. Instruction Entry Format

54

Synch r o ni zer Keys and Switches

Off-Line Mode:

This switch selects the type of offline operation to be p e rformed. It allows on e or two units to b e logically removed from the computer line without tying up the e ntir e synchronizer. Th e switch is set to the normal position when all units are operating on-line. To p erfo rm a c ard-to-card operation the switch is set to the

RD PCH position. For a card-toprint e r operation, the switch is set to t he

RD PRT position .

Off-Lin e:

This key removes the area se l ected by the off-line mode switch from computer control. Pressing this key also activates the 14 1 4 power control on and off keys. When in the off-line mod e, the key is lighted.

Wh e n light e d , d e pr ess ion of this k ey returns the selected area to on-line operation (the off-line mod e switch shou l d also be return e d to th e normal position ) .

Check Stop:

With on-line operation this switch is norrna ll y in t he off position. When in the on position , the synchronizer is stopped after an operation during which an error was de t ected .

Space:

This switch causes either sing l e or doubl e carriage spacing in th e printer when it operates offline.

Card-to Card Off-Line

Th e card deck to be reproduced is placed in the read f ee d , and blank cards are placed in the punch f ee d of th e 1402. The data from the first card fed through th e read f ee d goes to the read buffer. From there , the record (data) is sent to the punch buff e r, finally to be record e d in the first card through the punch feed.

Cards must be run-in to both read and

PUIJ(;!. feeds .

This run in causes t he first card (read f ee d ) to l oad into the read buffer. After run-in (both r ea d and pllneh units ready), the 1 4 1 4 sw i tches and k eys an' set as follows:

NOTES SWITC H

Off-Lin e

Off-Lin e Mod e

Ch ec k Stop

SE TTING

On

Rd-P ch

On

Off

R emoves th e r ea der an d punch from comp ut e r c ontrol.

Stops th e opera tion aftc r th e ca rd in whi c h an e rror o cc ur s.

Allows e rror s t o b e i gnof(·d .

Card-To-Printer Off-Line

The card deck to be printed is placed in th e read fe e d of the 1402 . The data from the first card r ea d goes to the read buff e r. The contents of the r ea d buff e r are transf e rred to the print buffer and th e lin e print s.

Cards are run-in to the 1 402 read feed to load th e firs t card into the read buffer. After the run-in is complet e (and the printer is ready) , th e operation i s se t up as follows:

SWITCH

Off-Lin e

Off Lin e Mod e

SETT ING

On

Rd-Prt

NOTES

Ch ec k Stop

Spac e

On

Off

Single

Doubl e

Remov es both th e r ea d e r and th e print e r from comp ut e r co ntrol.

Stop s th e op e r a tion a ft e r th e card in whi c h an e rr or occurs.

I g n ores e rror s.

Caus es a si n g l e space b e fore each print lin e.

C a u ses a doubl e space before eac h print lin e .

Figur e 51. 1414 Panel

Op erations 55

Appendix A. Instructions

Instructions for the 7040 and 7044 systems are oHered in several options to satisfy diHerent performance requirements. The basic set has been carefully selected to satisfactorily operate a low-compute requirement system application. The extended performance option enhances the computing and compiling ability by providing automatic indexing and logic, and characterhandling operations. The single-precision floating-point option significantly improves performance on large number calculations and the double-precision floatingpoint option provides higher accuracy.

Indirect addressing ability is provided for all appropriate instructions, using the same method as with

IBM

7090 and 7094' systems.

When the execution time of an instruction is variable, an instruction type number is included in the following instruction lists. To obtain the execution times in microseconds, multiply the number of cycles by the appropriate cycle time (2,.0 or 8.0 microseconds). Both an alphabetic instruction list by opt,ion and a complete alphabetic list are included. The complete alphabetic list also indicates which central processing unit, data channel, and device indicators are set by execution of the instruction. For a detailed description of how the indicators are set, refer to the individual instruction description.

7040 7044

Type

4- VDP

This instruction is executed in

2 cycles if the count is zero or one. Each additional two quotient positions or portion thereof requires

% cycle.

This instruction is executed in

2 cycles if the count is zero. It requires 3 cycles if the count is one. Each additional two quotient positions or portion thereof requires 1 cycle.

Type5- VLM

This instruction is executed in

2 cycles if the count is zero or one or if the content of y. is zero. Each additional six steps or portion thereof requires

% cycle. To determine the number of additional steps: add the number of zeros to twice the number of ones in the loworder C bits of the

MQ; then subtract one.

This instruction is executed in

2 cycles if the count is zero. It requires 3 cycles if the count is one or if the content of Y is zero. Each additional six steps or portion thereof requires 1 cycle. To determine the nUmber of additional steps: add the number of zeros to twice the number of ones in the loworder C bits of the

MQ; then subtract one.

Type

6 -

FAD and FSB

These instructions are executed in a minimum of 2% cycles and a maximum of 8% cycles.

In determining average speed, a number of representative programs were traced. The times shown are based on an analysis of several million operands. Execution times greater than 2% cycles are a result of shifting to equalize exponents before adding and to normalize the result after adding. Shifting requires % cycle for each six places or portion thereof.

These instructions are executed in a minimum of 4 cycles and a maximum of 23 cycles.

In determining average speed., a number of representative programs were traced. The times shown are based on an analysis of several million operands. Execution times greater than 4 cycles are a result of shifting to equalize exponents before adding and to normalize the result after adding. Shifting requires one cycle for each six places or portion thereof.

Instruction Types

7040 7044

Type

1 -

ALS, ARS, LGL, LGR, LLS, LRS, and RQL

These instructions are executed These instructions are executed in 1 cycle if the extent of the in 2 cycles if the extent of the shift is six places or less. Each shift is six places or less. Each additional six-place shift or additional six-place shift or portion thereof requires cycle.

% portion thereof requires 1 cycle.

Type2-DVP

This instruction is executed in

7 % cycles unless a divide check occurs, in which case it

. requires 2 cycles.

This instruction is executed in

20 cycles unless a divide check occurs, in which case it requires 3 cycles.

Type3-MPY

This instruction is executed in .

4 cycles if the

MQ contains two or fewer ones. Each additional

6 ones or portion thereof in the

MQ requires % cycle.

If the content of Y is zero, the instruction is completed in 2 cycles.

This instruction is executed in

9 cycles if the

MQ contains two or fewer ones. Each additional

6 ones or portion thereof ih the

MQ requires 1 cycle.

If the content of Y is zero, the instruction is completed in 3 cycles.

56

Type

7

-FDP

This instruction is -executed in

7 cycles unless a divide check occurs, in which case it requires 2 cycles.

This instruction is executed in

18 cycles unless a divide check occurs, in which case it requires only 3 cycles.

Type

8 - FMP and UFM

These instructions are executed in a minimum of

3 2 h

cycles and a maximum of 5 cycles.

If c

(MQ) fraction is zero, it requires only 2 cycles.

These instructions are executed in a minimum of 8 cycles and a maximum of 12 cycles.

If c(

MQ) fraction is zero, it requires only 2 cycles.

Type

9 - UF A and UFS

Execution time is the same as for type 6, except maximum is

6% cycles due to un-:normalized operation.

Execution time is the same as for type 6, except maximum is

16 cycles due to un-normalized operation.

7040

7044

Type 10-DFAD,DFSB

These instructions are executed in a minimum of 4 cycles and a maximum of 11 cycles. The longer times are a result of shifting, as explained in Type 6.

These instructions are executed in a minimum of 7 cycles and a maximum of 28 cycles. The longer times are a result of shifting, as explained in Type 6.

Type

11 -

DFMP

This instruction is executed in a maximum of 13% cycles. If c(

AC) and c(

MQ) are zero, the instruction requires 3 cycles.

This instruction is executed in a maximum of 36 cycles. If c(

AC) and c(

MQ) are zero, the instruction requires 3 cycles.

Type

12 -

DFDP

This instruction. is executed in a maximum of 18% cycles, and a minimum of 17 cycles.

If a divide check occurs, this instruction may require as few as 3 cycles.

This instruction is executed in a maximum of 50 cycles, and a minimum of 46 cycles.

If a divide check occurs, this instruction may require as few as 4 cycles.

Type

13 -

BSR, ETT-, PRD, PWR, RDS, REW,

RUN, SEN, WBT, WEF, and

WRS

These instructions are executed in the times given if the channel is not busy and the device selected is ready and not busy.

Otherwise, execution is delayed until these conditions do exist. If the channel is not busy and the on-line 1401 is selected, a programmed response is required from the

1401 before these instructions can complete execution.

These instructions are executed in the times given if the channel is not busy and the device selected is ready and not busy.

Otherwise, execution is delayed until these conditions do exist.

If the channel is not busy and the on-line 1401 is selected, a programmed response is required from the

1401 before these instructions can complete execution.

Type

14 -

BSR, REW, RUN, and WEF

These instructions complete execution in the times given, but the channel remains busy for the duration of the backspace or write end of file. The channel is busy on rewind instructions only long enough to pick relays in the tape unit.

These instructions complete execution in the times given, but the channel remains busy for the duration of the backspace or write end of file. The channel is busy on rewind instructions only long enough to pick relays in the tape unit.

Type

15-

VMA

This instruction is executed in

2 cycles if the count is zero or one. Each additional 6 steps or portion thereof requires

1/3 cycle. To determine the number of additional steps add the number of "zeros" to twice the number of "ones" in the low order C bits of the

MQ, then subtract one.

This instruction is executed in

2 cycles if the count is zero.

Three cycles are required if the count is one. Each additional 6 steps or portion thereof requires 1 cycle. To determine the number of additional steps add the number of

"zeros" to' twice the number of "ones" in the low order C bits of the

MQ, then subtract one.

Alphabetic Instruction 'List By

Option

INST OP CODE

AVERAGE CYCLES'

7040 7044

Basic Instruction Set

ACL

ADD

ALS

ANA

ARS

+0361

+0400

+0767

-0320

+0771

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

2

4

TYPE

1

1

INST

TMI

TNZ

TOV

TPL

TRA

TRP

TRT

TSL

TZE

VDP

VLM

VMA

XEC

PBT

RQI

SLW

SSP

STA

STD

STL

STO

STQ

STR

STZ

SUB

SWT

ENK

HPR

LAS

LBT

LDQ

LGL

LGR

LLS

LRS

CAL

CAS

CHS

CLA

CLS

COM

DCT

DVP

MPY

ORA

+0602 2

+0760 .. 003 1

+0621 3

+0622

-0625

+0601

-0600

-1000

3

3

2

2

2

+0600

+0402

2

2

+0760 .. 16x 1

-0120

-0100

+0140

+0120

+0020

-1165

-1164

-1627

+0100

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

+0225

+0204

-1204

+0522

5

4

1

OP CODE

AVERAGE CYCLES

7040 7044

-0500

+0340

+0760 .. 002

+0500

+0502

+0760 .. 006

+0760 .. 012 1

+0221 7%

2

2

1

2

2

1

+0760 .. 004 1

+0420 1

-0340 2

+0760 .. 001 1

+0560

-0763

-0765

+0763

+0765

2

2

2

2

2

+0200

-0501

5

2

-0760 .. 001 1

-0773 2

2

20

2

2

3

2

2

4

4

4

4

12

2

2

3

2

2

2

2

2

4

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

3

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

10

9

1

Extended Performance Set

AXT +0774 l '

CCS

LAC

LDC

LXA

LXD

MIT

MSM

MSP

PAC

PAX

PCS

PDC

PDX

-1341

+0535

-0535

+0534

-0534

-1341

-1623

-1623

+0737

+0734

-1505

-0737

-0734

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

1

1

2

3

3

1

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

TYPl

2

1

1

1

1

3

1

4

5

15

Appendix 57

INST

PLT

PXA

PXD

SAC

SXA

SXD

TIX

TMT

TNX

TSX

TXH

TXI

TXL

OP CODE

-1341

+0754

-0754

-1623

+0634

-0634

+2000

-1704

-2000

+0074

+3000

+1000

-3000

AVERAGE CYCLES

7040 7044

3

3

3

2

1

1

3

2

2

3

3

3

1

1

1

1

1 2

1+2N 2+2N

1 2

2

2

2

2

Single-Precision Floating-Point Set

FAD

FDP

FMP

FSB

+0300

+0241

+0260

+0302

3

7

4%

3

5%

18

10

5lh

UFA

UFM

UFS

-0300

-0260

-0302

2%

4%

2%

5

10

5

Double-Precision Floating-Point Set

DFAD +0301

DFDP -0241

DFMP +0261

DFSB

+0303

4%

17%

12

4%

8%

48

31

8%

TYPE

10

12

11

10

9

8

9

6

7

8

6

M

emory Protect Set

RPM -1004 2

SPM -1160 1

Direct Data Set

PSLB -0664

PSLC +0665

PSLD -0665

PSLE

+0666

2

2

2

2

2

1

3

3

3

3

INST OP CODE

A VERAGE CYCLES

7040 7044

SSLB

SSLE

-0660

SSLC

+0661

SSLD -0661

+0662

2

2

2

2

I

nputl Output Instructions

BSR

+0764 2

2

2

2

2

4

CTR -1766 1

2

2

2

2

2

ENB

ETT

ICT lOT

PRD

PWR

+0564

-0760.x2xx

2

1

-1760 014 1

+0760 005 1

-1762

-1766

2

2

RCHA +0540

ReT

RDC

RDS

+0760 014 1

+0760 x352

+0762

2

1

2

REW

RUN

+0772

-0772

2

2

2

1

SCHA +0640

SEN

-1762

TCOA

+0060

TDOA -1060

TEF

TRC

+0030

+0022

1

1

1

1

4

4

WBT

WEF

WRS

+0766

+0770

+0766

2

2

2

4

4

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

4

4

2

2

1401 Option Instructions

SLFA -1760

SLNA

-1760

1

1

2

2

TYPE

13, 14

13

13

13

13

13,14

13,14

13

13

13,14

13

58

Appendix B. Instruction List - Alphabetic Order with Formats

Symbols used with the instruction formats are:

F

C

I

S

B

M

T

Y

Indirect Addressing Flag Field

Count Field

Channel A

I/O

Device Adapter Field

Card Punch Stacker Select Character

I/O

Device Busy Status Character

I/O

Device Input/Output Buffer Select Character

Index Register Tag Field

Operand Designation Field

Instructions are listed in alphabetic order without regard to optional features. An asterisk (*) following the instruction name designates an optional instruction. Operation codes are shown in octal notation.

MNEMONIC AND NAME

ACL-Add and Carry Logical Word

I

+0361

IF _

T

I

5,1 11121314 17182021

ADD-Add

~

+0400

, I

11121314 1718 2021

ALS-Accumulator Left Shift

I

+0767

5,1

S.1

1112

ANA-And to Accumulator

I

-0320

IF

11 13.14

1718 2021

_T

I y

17 II 20 21 y

ARS-Accumulator Right Shift

I

5,1

+on

1

~

1112

I

1718 2021

AXT -Address to Index True *

S.1 1112 1718 2021

BSR~ackspace Record

I

+0764

~

I.

I

T

11 12 14 15 17 II 20 21

CAL-Clear and Add Logical Word

I

-0500

IF_

TI

S.1 11121314 1718 2021 y y y y y y

MNEMONIC AND NAME

CAS-Compare Accumulator with Storage

I

+0340

IF _

T

I

5, 1 11 121314 1718 2021 y

CCS-Compare Character with Storage*

I

-1341

IF

S.1 ra c

I

T

I

1112131415 1718 2021 y

35

I

35

I

CHS-Change Sign

1+0760

5, 1

~T~

11 12 1718 2021 2324

2

35

I

CLA-Clear and Add

I

+0500

IF_

TI

5,1 11121314 1718 2021

CLS-Clear and Subtract

I

+0502

IF~TI y

S,I 11121314 17182021 y

35

I

35

I

35

I

COM-Complement Magnitude

I

+0760

~

5,1 11 12

T

~

1718 2021 2324

35

I

CTR-Control Select

I

-1766

~11

I

T

I.

1

I

1112131415 1711 2021 y

6

35

I l5

I

35

35

35

I

DCT -Divide Check Test

I

+0760

~

5,1 1112

T

~

1718 2021 22

DFAD-Double Precision Floating Add*

I

+0301

5.1 11121314 1711 2021 y

DFDP-Double Precision Divide or Proceed*

I

-0241

5,1 y

11121314 1718 2021

DFMP-Double Precision Floating Multiply*

I

+0261

IF _ T I y

1.1 11121314 1711 2021

35

12

35

I

35

35

35

I

I

I

DFSB-Double Precision Floating Subtract*

I

+0303

S.1 y

11121314 17 II 2021

DVP-Divide or Proceed

I

+0221

S,I 111213.14 1718 2021

35 y

35

Appendix 59

I

MNEMONIC AND NAME

ENB-Enable from Y

I

+0564

IF~

S,1 11 121314

T

I y

1718 2021

ENK-Enter Keys

I

+0760

~

S,1 11 12

T

~

1718 2021 2324

ETTA-End of Tape Test, Channel A·

I

-0760

~

5,1 1112

T

~

1000

1718

2021 2223

ETTB

ETTC

ETTD

ETTE

- 0760

- 0760

- 0760

- 0760

2000

3000

4000

5000

41

35

MNEMONIC AND NAME

LDC-Load Complement of Decrement in Index*

35

I I

S, 1

-0535

~

11 12

I

1718

2021 y

LDQ-Load Mu Iti pi ier-Quotient

I

+0560

IF~

S,1 11 121314

I

1718 2021 y

35

I

LGL-Logical Left Shift

I

S,1

-0763

~

1112

I

1718 2021 y

LGR-Logical Right Shift

I

-0765

~

S,1

11 12 1718 2021

Y

35

I

35

I

35

I

35

I

FAD-Floating Point Add*

I

+0300

IF~

T

S,1 11121314

I y

1718 2021

FDP-Floating Divide or Proceed*

I

S,1

+0241

IF

~

11 121314

I

1718 2021 y

FMP-Floating Point Multiply*

I

+0260

IF~

T

5, 1 11 121314

I y

1718 2021

US-Long Left Shift

35

I I

+0763

~

S,l 11 12 1718 2021

35

I

LRS-Long Right Shift

I

+0765

~

S,1 11 12 1718 2021 y

Y

35

I

35

I

LXA-Load Index from Address*

35

I I

S,l

+0534

~

11 12

I

1718 2021 y

35

I

FSB-Floating Point Subtract*

I

+0302

IF~

T

S,1 11 121314

I y

1718 2021

HPR-Halt and Proceed

I

+0420

S,1

11 12

-

ICT -Inhibit Channel Traps

35

LXD-Load Index from Decrement*

35

I I

S. 1

-0534

~

11 12

I

1718 2021 y

MIT-Storage Minus Test*

I

-1341

S, 1

IF ra1

6

I

T

1112131415 1718 2021 y

141

35

MPY-Multiply

I

+0200

IF~

T

S, 1 11 121314

1718 2021 y

35

I

35

I

35

I lOT-Input/Output Check Test

I

+0760

~

S,1

1112

1718 2021

I

LAC-Load.Complement of Address in Index*

I

+0535

~

S,l 11 12

T

1

1718 2021 y

LAS-Logical Compare Accumulator with Storage

I

-0340

IF~

T

S,l 11 121314

I y

1718 2021

LBT-Low Bit Test

S,

I

+0760

~

1112

T

~

1718 20212223

60

MSM-Make Storage Sign Minus*

5

35

I I

-1623

S,1

IF

~

6

I

T

I y

11 12 13 14 15 1718 2021

MSP-Make Storage Sign Plus*

35

I I

-1623

5, 1

IF

~

71

T

I y

11 1213 14 15 1718

2021

35

I

35

I

ORA-Or to Accumulator

35

I I

-0501

IF~

T

5,1

11 121314 1718 2021 y

35

I

PAC-Place Complement of Index in Address* d

I

+0737

~

35

S,1

11 12

T

~

1718 2021 35

MNEMON IC AND NAME

PAX-Place Address in Index*

I

-K>734

S,I

11 12 1718 2021

PBT -P Bit Test

I

-0760-

S, 1 1112 1718 2021 2324

PCS-Place Character from Storage*

I

-1505

IF ~ c

I

T

I

S, 1 1112131415 1718 2021 y y

POC-Place Complement of Decrement in Index*

-0737

S, 1 1112 1718 2021

POX-Place Decrement in Index*

-0734

S, 1 1112 1718 2021

PLT-Storage Plus Test*

I

-1341

S,I 1112131415 1718 2021

PRO-Prepare to Read

I

-1762

~ol

I

IT

S,I

111213141517182021

PSLB-Present Sense Lines, Channel B * y y

S,I

PSLC

PSLD

PSLE

+

0665

- 0665

+

0666

11121314 1718 2021

PWR-Prepare to Write

I

-1766

~ sl

~

I

I

T

S, 1 11 12131415 1718 2021

PXA-Place Index in Address*

I

-K>754

5,1

1112 1718 2021

PXO-Place Index in Oecrement*

I

-0754

S,I 1112 1718 2021 y

RCHA-Reset and Load Channel A

I

-K>540

IF

~Ol

T

I y

S,I

11121314 161718 2021

RCHB

RCHC

RCHD

RCHE

- 0540

+

0541

- 0541

+

0542

35

35

35

35

35

35

MNEMONIC AND NAME

RCT -Restore Channel Traps

I

-K>760

~TI

S,I 1112 1718 2021

ROCA-Reset Data Channel A

I

-K>760

S,I

~TI

11 12 1718 2021

RDCB

RDCC

RDCD

RDCE

+

0760

+

0760

+

0760

+

0760

ROS-Read Select

-K>762

~ol I

T

1112131415

1718 2021

S,I

REW-Rewind

-K>772

~I

I

T

1112 1415 1718 2021

S,I

RPM-Release Protect Mode*

I

-1004

S,I 1112

35

35

35

35

RQL-Rotate Quotient Left

I

-0773

~TI

S, 1 1112 1718 2021

RUN-Rewind and Unload

I

-0772

~IITI

S,I 1112 14 15 1718 2021

SAC-Store Accumulator Character*

I

-1623

IF ~ c

I

T

I

S,I 1112131415 1718 2021

SCHA-Store Channel A

I

+0640

IF ~ol

T

S,I 11 121314 161718 2021

SCHB

SCHC

SCHD

SCHE

- 0640

+

0641

- 0641"-

+

0642

1352

2352

3352

4352

5352 y y y y y y

35

35

1

SEN-Sense Select

I

-1762

~~11

5.1 1112131415

I

T

1718 2021

SLFA-Status Line

Off,

Channel A *

I

-1760

~

S,I

11 12

T

I

1718 2021 y

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

J

115

15011

35

35

I

Appendix 61

MNEMONIC AND NAME

SLNA-Status Line On, Channel A * 115

35

MNEMONIC AND NAME

SWT -Sense Switch Test

I

+0760

~

0161 to 0166

11 12 1718 2021 2324

S. 1

35

SLW-Store Logical Word

I

+0602

S.1

11 1213 14 1718 2021

SPM-Set Protect Mode*

I -1160

S, 1

1 F _

11 121314

T

1718 2021

STO-Store Accumulator

I

+0601

5,1

11 1213 14 1718 2021

STQ-Store Multiplier.Quotient

I

-0600

IF_ TI

S,I

11121314 1718 2021

STR-Store Location and Trap

I

-1000

S,I 11 12

STZ-Store Zero

S,I

11 121314 1.718

20

21

SUB-Subtract

+0402

5,1

11121314

62

1718 2021 y y

I

-0660

S,I

SSLC

+

0661

SSLD 0661

SSLE

+

0662

11121314 1718 2021

SSP-Set Sign Plus

1+0760

S.1

~T~

1112 1718 2021 2324 y

ST A-Store Add ress

I

+0621

IFaT

S,I 11121314 1718 2021

STD-Store Decrement

I

+0622

S,I 11 121314 1718 2021

STL-Store Instruction Counter

1

-0625

S,I 11 121314 1718 .. 2021 y y

Y y y y y

3132 m

35

35

SXA-Store Index in Address*

I

+0634

~TI y

S.1 1112 1718 2021

SXD-Store Index in Decrement*

1

-0634

S,I

~

11 12

T

1

1718 2021 y

35

113

35

I

TCOA-Transfer on Channel A in Operation

I

+0060

IF_'T I

S,I 11 121314 1718 2021 y

TCOB

TCOC

TCOD

TCOE

+

0061

+

0062

+

0063

+

0064

3

35

I

TDOA--:-Transfer on Device in Operation, Channel A

I

-1060

IF ~

B

I T I

S,I 11 12131415 1718 2021 y

35

I

35

I

TEFA-Transfer on End of File, Channel A

I

+0030

1F_ T I

S,I

11 121314 1718

2021 y

TEFB -'- 0030

TEFC

+

0031

TEFD 0031

TEFE

+

0032

35

35

35

35

I

TIX-Transfer on Index*

1+21

S, 1 23

0

I T I

1718 2021

35

I

TMI-Transfer on Minus

I

-0120

1

F_ T

S,I 11 1213 14

1718 2021

35

I

TMT - Transmit*

I

-1704

~T

S,I 1112

1718 2021

TNX-Transfer on No Index* o

I

T

I

1718 2021 5,123 35

35

TNZ-Transfer on No Zero

I

-0100

5,1 11121314 1718 2021

TOV-Transfer on Overflow

+0140 .

TI

1718 2021 5,1 11121314

35

Y y y y y y

35

35

35

35

35

35

35

MNEMON IC AND NAME

TPL-Transfer on Plus

S.l

+0120

11121314 1718 2021

Y

TRA-Transfer

I

+0020

S,I 11 121314 1718 2021

Y

TRCA-Transfer on Redundancy Check, Channel A

I

+0022

S,I

TRCS

TRCC

TRCD

TRCE

- 0022

+

0024

- 0024

+

0026

11121314 1718 2021

Y

3.5

35

3.5

TRP-Transfer and Restore Parity and Traps

I

-1165

S, 1

'Y

11121314 1718 2021

TRT -Transfer and Restore Traps

I

-1164

S,l 11121314 1718 2021

Y

TSL-Transfer and Store Instruction Counter

I

-1627

S, 1

Y

11121314 1718 2021

TSX-Transfer and Set Index*

+0074

S,l

1112 1718 2021

TXH-Transfer on 'Index High* o

I

T

I

1718 2021 5, 1 23

Y

Y

TXI-Transfer with Index Incremented* o

I

T

I

1718 2021 S. 1 23

Y

TXL-Transfer on Index Low* o

I

T

I

1718 2021

S,I 23

Y

3.5

35

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

MNEMONIC AND NAME

TZE-Transfer on Zero

+0100

T

I

1718 2021

5,1

11121314

Y

UFA-Unnormalized Floating Add*

I

-0300

IF_T I

S,I 11121314 1718 2021

Y

UFM-Unnormalized Floating Multiply*

I

-0260

5,1 11121314 1718 2021

Y

UFS-Unnormalized Floating Subtract*

I

-0302

IF_ TI

S,I 11121314 1718 2021

Y

VDP-Variable Divide or Proceed

I

+0225

5,1

1112 c

I

T

I

1718 2021

VLM-Variable Length Multiply

I

+0204 bQ c

I

T

I

5,1 1112 1718 2021 y

Y

VMA-Variable Length Multiply/Accumulate

I

-1204

5,1

JLJ c

I

T

I

1112 1718 2021 y waT -Write Blank Tape

-+0766

~111

T

I

111213141.5 1718 2021 5,1

WEF-Write End of File

I

+0770

~I

T

I

5,1 1112 141.5 1718 2021

WRS-Write Select

+0766

11

~slol

I

T

I

121314 1.5

ll18 2021

5,1

XEC-Execute

I

+0522

S,I

11 121314 1718 2021 y y

Y y

35

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

35

35

35

3.5

3.5

Appendix

63

Appendix C. Powers of Two Table

2"

11-

2n

1 0

1.0

2

1

0.5

4 2 0.25,

8

3

0.125

16 4

0.062 5

32

5

0.031 25

64 6

0.015 625

128 7

0.007 812 5

256

8 0.003 906 25

512

9 0.001 953 125

1 024 10

0.000 976 562 5

2 048

11

0.000 488 281 25

4 096 12 0.000 244 140 625

8192 13

0.000 122 070 312 5

16 384 . 14

0.000 061 035 156 25

32 768 15

0.000 030 517 578 125

65 536

16

0.000 015 258 789 062 5

131 072

17 0.000 007 629 394 531 25

262 144

18

0.000 003 814 697 265 625

524 288

19

0.000 001 907 348 632 812 5

1 048 576 20

0.000 000 953 674 316 406 25

2 097 152 21

0.000 000 476 837 158 203 125

4 194 304

22

0.000 000 238 418 579 101 562 5

8 388 608 23

0.000 000 119 209 289 550 781 25

16 777 216 24

0.000 000 059 604 644 775 390 625

33 554 432 25

0.000 000 029 802 322 387 695 312 5

67 108 864 26

0.000 000 014 901 161 193 847 656 25

134 217 728 27

0.000 000 007 450 580 596 923 828 125

268 435 456 28

0.000 000 003 725 290 298 461 914 062 5

536 870 912 29

0.000 000 001 862 645 149 230 957 031 25

1 073 741 824

30 0.000 000 000 931 322 574 615 478 515 625

2 147 483 648 31

0.000 000 000 465 661 287 307 739 257 812 5

4 294 967 296 32

0.000 000 000 232 830 643 653 869 628 906 25

8 589 934 592

33

0.000 000 000 116 415 321 826 934 814 453 125

17 179 869 184

34

0.000 000 000 058 207 660 913 467 407 226 562 5

34 359 738 368 35

0.000 000 000 029 103 830 456 733 703 613 281 25

. 68 719 476 736 36

0.000 000 000 014 551 915 228 366 851 806 640 625

137 438 953 472 37

0.000 000 000 007 275 957 614 183 425 903 320 312 5

274 877 906 944 38 0.000 000 000 003 637 978 807 091 712 951 660 156 25

549 755 813 888 39

0.000 000 000 001 818 989 403 545 856 475 830 078 125

64

0000 to

0777

(Octal)

0000 to

0511

(Decimal)

Octal Decimal

10000 - 4096

20000 - 8192

30000 - 12288

40000 - 16384

50000 - 20480

60000 - 24576

70000 - 28672

1000 to

1777

(Octal>

0512 to

1023

(Decimal)

Appendix D.

Octal-Decimal Integer

Conversion Table

0 1 2 3 4

5 6

7

0000

0010

0020

0030

0040

0050

0060

0070

0000 0001

0008 0009

0016 0017

0024 0025

0032 0033

0040 0041

0048 0049

005t) 0057

0002 0003 0004 0005 0006 0007

0010 0011 0012 0013 0014 0015

0018 0019 0020 0021 0022 0023

0026 0027 0028 0029 0030 0031

0034 0035 0036 0037 0038 0039

0042 0043 0044 0045 0046 0047

0050 0051 0052 0053 0054 0055

0058 0059 0060 0061 0062 0063

0100

0110

0120

0130

0140

0150

0160

0170

0064 0065

0072 0073

0080 0081

0088 0089

0096 0097

0104 0105

0112 0113

0120 0121

0066 0067 0068 0069 0070 0071

0074 0075 0076 0077 0078 0079

0082 0083 0084 0085 0086 0087

0090 0091 0092 0093 0094 0095

0098 0099 0100 0101 0102 0103

0106 0107 0108 0109 0110 0111

0114 0115 0116 0117 0118 0119

0122 0123 0124 0125 0126 0127

0200

0210

0220

0230

0240

0250

0260

0270

0128 0129

0136 0137

0144 0145

0152 0153

0160 0161

0168 0169

0176 0177

0184 0185

0130 0131 0132 0133 0134 0135

0138 0139 0140 0141 0142 0143

0146 0147 0148 0149 0150 0151

0154 0155 0156 0157 0158 0159

0162 0163 0164 0165 0166 0167

0170 0171 0172 0173 0174 0175

0178 0179 0180 0181 0182 0183

0186 0187 0188 0189 0190 0191

0300

0310

0320

0330

0340

0350

0360

0370

0192 0193

0200 0201

0208 0209

0216 0217

0224 0225

0232 0233

0240 0241

0248 0249

0194 0195 0196 0197 0198 0199

0202 0203 0204 0205 0206 0207

0210 0211 0212 0213 0214 0215

0218 0219 0220 0221 0222 0223

0226 0227 0228 0229 0230 0231

0234 0235 0236 0237 0238 0239

0242 0243 0244 0245 0246 0247

0250 0251 0252 0253 0254 0255

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0400 0256 0257 0258 0259 0260 0261 0262 0263

0410 0264 0265 0266 0267 0268 0269 0270 0271

0420 0272 0273 0274 0275 0276 0277 0278 0279

0430 0280 0281 0282 0283 0284 0285 0286 0287

0440 0288 0289 0290 0291 0292 0293 0294 0295

0450 0296 0297 0298 0299 0300 0301 0302 0303

0460 0304 0305 0306 0307 0308 0309 0310 0311

0470 0312 0313 0314 0315 0316 0317 0318 0319

0500 0320 0321 0322 0323 0324 0325 0326 0327

0510 0328 0329 0330 0331 0332 0333 0334 0335

0520 0336 0337 0338 0339 0340 0341 0342 0343

0530 0344 0345 0346 0347 0348 0349 0350 0351

0540 0352 0353 0354 0355 0356 0357 0358 0359

0550 0360 0361 0362 0363 0364 0365 0366 0367

0560 0368 0369 0370 0371 0372 0373 0374 0375

0570 0376 0377 0378 0379 0380 0381 0382 0383

0600 0384 0385 0386 0387 0388 0389 0390 0391

0610 0392 0393 0394 0395 0396 0397 0398 0399

0620 0400 0401 0402 0403 0404 0405 0406 0407

0630 0408 0409 0410 0411 0412 0413 0414 0415

0640 0416 0417 0418 0419 0420 0421 0422 0423

0650 0424 0425 042~ 0427 0428 0429 0430 0431

0660 0432 0433 0434 0435 0436 0437 0438 0439

0670 0440 0441 0442 0443 0444 0445 0446 0447

0700 0448 0449 0450 0451 0452 0453 0454 0455

0710 0456 0457 0458 0459 M60 0461 0462 0463

0720 0464 0465 0466 0467 0468 0469 0470 0471

0730 0472 0473 0474 0475 0476 0477 0478 0479

0740 0480 048i 0482 0483 0484 0485 0486 0487

0750 0488 0489 0490 0491 0492 0493 0494 0495

0760 0496 0497 0498 0499 0500 0501 0502 0503

0770 0504 0505 0506 0507 0508 0509 0510 0511

0 1 2

3 4

5 6 7

1000

1010

1020

1030

1040

1050

1060

1070

0512 0513

0520 0521

0528 0529

0536 0537

0544 0545

0552 0553

0560 0561

0568 0569

0514 0515 0516 0517 0518 0519

0522 0523 0524 0525 0526 0527

0530 0531 0532 0533 0534 0535

0538 0539 0540 0541 0542 0543

0546 0547 0548 0549 0550 0551

0554 0555 0556 0557 0558 0559

0562 0563 0564 0565 0566 0567

0570 0571 0572 0573 0574 0575

1100

1110

1120

1130

1140

1150

1160

1170

0576 0577

0584 0585

0592 0593

0600 0601

0608 0609

0616 0617

0624 0625

0632 0633

0578 0579 0580 0581 0582 0583

0586 0587 0588 0589 0590 0591

0594 0595 0596 0597 0598 059.9

0602 0603 0604 0605 0606 0607

0610 0611 0612 0613 0614 0615

0618 0619 0620 0621 0622 0623

0626 0627 0628 0629 0630 0631

0634 0635 0636 0637 0638 0639

1200

1210

1220

1230

1240

1250

1260 l270

0640 0641

0648 0649

0656 0657

0664 0665

0672 0673

0680 0681

0688 0689

0696 0697

0642 0643 0644 0645 0646 0647

0650 0651 0652 0653 0654 0655

0658 0659 0660 0661 0662 0663

0666 0667 0668 0669 0670 0671

0674 0675 0676 0677 0678 0679

0682 0683 0684 0685 0686 0687

0690 0691 0692 0693 0694 0695

0698 0699 0700 0701 0702 0703

1300

1310

1320

1330

1340

1350

1360

1370

0704 0705

0712 0713

0720 0721

0728 0729

0736 0737

0744 0745

0752 0753

0760 0761

0706 0707 0708 0709 0710 0711

0714 0715 0716 0717 0718 0719

0722 0723 0724 0725 0726 0727

0730 0731 0732 0733 0734 0735

0738 0739 0740 0741 0742 0743

0746 0747 0748 0749 0750 0751

0754 0755 0756 0757 0758 0759

0762 0763 0764 0765 0766 0767

0

1

2 3 4 5 6 7

1400 0768 0769 0770 0771 0772 0773 0774 0775

1410 0776 0777 0778 0779 0780 0781 0782 0783

1420 0784 0785 0786 0787 0788 0789 0790 0791

1430 0792 0793 0794 0795 0796 0797 0798 0799

1440 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0805 0806 0807

1450 0808 0809 0810 0811 0812 0813 0814 0815

1460 0816 0817 0818 0819 0820 0821 0822 0823

1470 0824 0825 0826 0827 0828 0829 0830 0831

1500 0832 0833 0834 0835 0836 0837 0838 0839

1510 0840 0841 0842 0843 0844 0845 0846 0847

1520 0848 0849 0850 0851 0852 0853 0854 0855

1530 0856 0857 0858 0859 0860 0861 0862 0863

1540 0864 0865 0866 0867 0868 0869 0870 0871

1550 0872 0873 0874 0875 0876 0877 0878 0879

1560 0880 0881 0882 0883 0884 0885 0886 0887

1570 0888 0889 0890 0891 0892 0893 0894 0895

1600 0896 0897 0898 0899 0900 0901 0902 0903

1610 0904 0905 0906 0907 0908 0909 0910 0911

1620 0912 0913 0914 0915 0916 0917 0918 0919

1630 0920 0921 0922 0923 0924 0925 0926 0927

1640 0928 0929 0930 0931 0932 0933 0934 0935

1650 0936 0937 0938 0939 09:t0 0941 0942 0943

1660 0944 0945 0946 0947 0948 0949 0950 0951

1670 0952 0953 0954 0955 0956 0957 0958 0959

1700 0960 0961 0962 0963 0964 0965 0966 0967

1710 0968 0969 0970 0971 0972 0973 0974 0975

1720 0976 0977 0978 0979 0980 0981 0982 0983

1730 0984 0985 0986 0987 0988 0989 0990 0991

1740 0992 0993 0994 099.5 0996 0997 0998 0999

1750 lOGO 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007

1760 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015

1770 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023

Appendix 65

Octal-Decimal Integer Conversion Table

0

1 2 3 4

5 6 7

2000 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031

2010 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039

2020 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047

2030 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055

2040 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063

2050 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071

2060 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079

2070 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087

2100 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095

2110 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 .

2120 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111

2130 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119

2140 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127

2150 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135

2160 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143

2170 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149

1150

1151

2200 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159

2210 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167

2220 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175

2230 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183

2240 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191

2250 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199

2260 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207

2270 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215

2300 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223

2310 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231

2320 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239

2330 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247

2340 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255

2350 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263

2360 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271

2370 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279

0

1 2 3 4 5

6

7

2400 1280 1281 1282 1283

2410 1288 1289 1290 1291

2420 1296 1297 1298 1299

2430 1304 1305 1306 1307

2440 1312 1313 1314 1315

2450 1320 1321 1322 1323

2460 1328 1329 1330 1331

2470 1336 1337 1338 1339

1284 1285

1292 1293

1300 1301

1308 1309

1316 1317

1324 1325

1332 1333

1340 1341

1286

1294

1302

1310

1318

1326

1334

1342

1287

1295

1303

1311

1319

1327

1335

1343

2500 1344 1345 1346 1347

2510 1352 1353 1354 1355

2520 1360 1361 1362 1363

2530 1368 1369 1370 1371

2540 1376 1377 1378 1379

2550 1384 1385 1386 1387

2560 1392 1393 1394 1395

2570 1400 1401 1402 1403

1348 1349

1356 1357

1364 1365

1372 1373

1380 1381

1388 1389

1396 1397

1404 1405

1350

1358

1366

1374

1382

1390

1398

1406

1351

1359

1367

1375

1383

1391

1399

1407

2600 1408 1409 1410 1411

2610 1416 1417 1418 1419

2620 1424 1425 1426 1427

2630 1432 1433 1434 1435

2640 1440 1441 1442 1443

2650 1448 1449 1450 1451

2660 1456 1457 1458 1459

2670 1464 1465 1466 1467

1412 1413

1420 1421

1428 1429

1436 1437

1444 1445

1452 1453

1460 1461

1468 1469

1414

1422

1430

1438

1446

1454

1462

1470

1415

1423

1431

1439

1447

1455

1463

1471

2700 1472 1473 1474 1475

2710 1480 1481 1482 1483

2720 1488 1489 1490 1491

2730 1496 1497 1498 1499

2740 1504 1505 1506 1507

2750 1512 1513 1514 1515

2760 1520 1521 1522 1523

'2770 1528 1529 1530 1531

1476 1477

1484 1485

1492 1493

1500 1501

1508 1509

1516 1517

1524 1525

1532 1533

1478

1486

1494

1502

1510

1518

1526

1534

1479

1487

1495

1503

1511

1519

1527

.1535

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3000 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543

3010 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551

3020 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559

3030 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567

3040 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575

3050 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583

3060 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591

3070 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599

3100 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607

3'110 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615

3120 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623

3130 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631

3140 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639

3150 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647

3160 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655

3170 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663

3200 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671

3210 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679

3220 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687

3230 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695

3240 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703

3250 i704 1705 1706 17Q7 1708 1709 1710 1711

3260 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719

3270 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727

3300 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735

3310 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743

3320 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 1751

3330 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759

3340 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767

"3350 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775

3360 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783

3370 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791

0 1 2 3

4

5

6 7

3400 1792 1793 1794 1795

3410 1800 1801 1802 1803

3420 1808 1809 1810 1811

3430 1816 1817 1818 1819

3440 1824 1825 1826 1827

3450 1832 1833 1834 1835

3460 1840 1841 1842 1843

3470 1848 1849 1850 1851

1796 1797

1804 1805

1812 1813

1820 1821

1828 1829

1836 1837

1844 1845

1852 1853

1798

1806

1814

1822

1830

1838

1846

1854

1799

1807

1815

1823

1831

1839

1847

1855

3500 1856 1857 1858 1859

3510 1864 1865 1866 1867

3520 1872 1873 1874 1875

3530 1880 1881 1882 1883

3540 1888 1889 1890 1891

3550 1896 1897 1898 1899

3560 1904 1905 1906 1907

3570 1912 1913 1914 1915

1860 1861

1868 1869

1876 1877

1884 1885

1892 1893

1900 1901

1908 1909

1916 1917

H~62

1870

1878

1886

1894

1902

1910

1918

1863

1871

1879

1887

1895

1903

1911

1919

3600 1920 1921 1922 1923

3610 1928 1929 1930 1931

3620 1936 1937 1938 1939

3630 1944 1945 1946 1947

3640 1952 1953 1954 1955

3650 1960 1961 1962 1963

3660 1968 1969 1970 1971

3670 1976 1977 1978 1979

1924 1925

1932 1933

1940 1941

1948 1.949

1956 1957

1964 1965

1972 1973

1980 1981

1926

1934

1942

1950

1958

1966

J974

1982

1927

1935

1943

1951

1959

1967

1975

1983

3700 1984 1985 1986 1987

3710 1992 1993 1994 1995

3720 2000 2001 2002 2003

3730 2008 2009 2010 2011

3740 2016 2017 2018 2019

3750 2024 2025 2026 2027

3760 2032 20lJ 2034 2035

3770 2040 2041 2042 2043

1988 1989

1996 1997

.1990

1998

2004 2005

2012 2013

2020 2021

2028 2029

2036 2037

2044 2045

2006

2014

2022

2030

2038

2046

1991

1999

2007

2015

2023

2031

2039

2047

66

2000 to

1024 to

2777 1535

(Octal) (Decimal)

Octal Decimal

10000 - 4096

20000 - 8192

30000 - 12288

40000 - 16384

50000 - 20480

60000 - 24576

70000 - 28672

3000

to

3777

(Octal)

1536 to

2047

(Decimal)

4000 to

2048 to

4777 2559

(Octal) (Decimal)

Octal Decimal

10000· 4096

20000· 8192

30000· 12288

40000 • 16384

50000 • 20480

60000 - 24576

70000 - 28672

5000 to

5777

2560 to

3071

(Octal) (Decimal)

Octal·Decimal Integer

Conversion

Table

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4000

4010

4020

4030

4040

4050

4060

4070

2048 2049 2050 2051 2052 2053 2054 2055

2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062 2063

2064 2065 2066 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071

2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079

2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087

2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095

2Q96 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103

2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111

4100

4110

4120

4130

4140

4150

4160

4170

2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119

2120 2121 2122 2123 2124 2125 2126 2127

2128 2129 2130 2131 2132 2133 2134 2135

2136 2137 2138 2139 2140 2141 2142 2143

2144 2145 2146 2147 2148 2149 2150 2151

2152 2153 2154 2155 2156 2157 2158 2159

2160 2161 2162 2163 2164 2165 2166 2167

2168 2169 2170 2171 2172 2173 2174 2175

4200

4210

4220

4230

4240

4250

4260

4270

2176 2177 2178 2179 2180 2181 2182 2183

2184 2185 2186 2187 2188 2189 2190 2191

2192 2193 2194 2195 2196 2197 2198 2199

2200 2201 2202 2203 2204 2205 2206 2207

2208 2209 2210 2211 2212 2213 2214 2215

2216 2217 2218 2219 2220 2221 2222 2223

2224 2225 2226 2227 2228 2229 2230 2231

2232 2233 2234 2235 2236 2237 2238 2239

4300

4310

4320

4330

4340

4350

4360

4370

2240 2241 2242 2243 2244 2245 2246 2247

2248 2249 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255

2256 2257 2258 2259 2260 2261 2262 2263

2264 2265 2266 2267 2268 2269 2270 2271

2272 2273 2274 2275 2276 2277 2278 2279

2280 2281 2282 2283 2284 2285 2286 2287

2288 2289 2290 2291 2292 2293 2294 2295

2296 2297 2298 2299 2300 2301 2302 2303 a

1 2 3 4 5 6

'1

4400 2304 2305 2306 2307 2308 2309 2310 2311

4410 2312 2313 2314 2315 2316 2317 2318 2319

4420 2320 2321 2322 2323 2324 2325 2326 2327

4430 2328 2329 2330 2331 2332 2333 2334 2335

4440 2336 2337 2338 2339 2340 2341 2342 2343

4450 2344 2345 2346 2347 2348 2349 2350 2351

4460 2352 2353 2354 2355 2356 2357 2358 2359

4470 2360 2361 2362 2363 2364 2365 2366 2367

4500 2368 2369 2370 2371 2372 2373 2374 2375

4510 2376 2377 2378 2379 2380 2381 2382 2383

4520 2384 2385 2386 2387 2388 2389 2390 2391

4530 2392 2393 2394 2395 2396 2397 2398 2399

4540 2400 2401 2402 2403 2404 2405 2406 2407

4550 2408 2409 2410 2411 2412 2413 2414 2415

4560 2416 2417 2418 2419 2420 2421 2422 2423

4570 2424 2425 2426 2427 2428 2429 2430 2431

4600 2432 2433 2434 2435 2436 2437 2438 2439

4610 2440 2441 2442 2443 2444 2445 2446 2447

4620 2448 2449 2450 2451 2452 2453 2454 2455

4630 2456 2457 2458 2459 2460 2461 2462 2463

4640 2464 2465 2466 2467 2468 2469 2470 2471

4650 2472 2473 2474 2475 2476 2477 2478 2479

4660 2480 2481 2482 2483 2484 2485 2486 2487

4670 2488 2489 2490 2491 2492 2493 2494 2495

4700 2496 2497 2498 2499 2500 2501 2502 2503

4710 2504 2505 2506 2507 2508 2509 2510 2511

4720 2512 2513 2514 2515 2516 2517 2518 2519

4730 2520 2521 2522 2523 2524 2525 2526 2527

4740 2528 2529 2530 2531 2532 2533 2534 2535

4750 2536 2537 2538 2539 2540 2541 2542 2543

4760 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549 2550 2551

4770 2552 2553 2554 2555 2556 2557 2558 2559

0 1

2 3 4

5 6

7

5000

5010

5020

5030

5040

5050

5060

5070

2560 2561 2562 2563 2564 2565 2566 2567

2568 2569 2570 2571 2572 2573 2574 2575

2576 2577 2578 2579 2580 2581 2582 2583

2584 2585 2586 2587 2588 2589 2590 2591

2592 2593 2594 2595 2596 2597 2598 2599

2600 2601 2602 2603 2604 2605 2606 2607

2608 2609 2610 2611 2612 2613 2614 2615

2616 2617 2618 2619 2620 2621 2622 2623

5100

5110

5120

5130

5140

5150

5160

5170

2624 2625 2626 2627 2628 2629 2630 2631

2632 2633 2634 2635 2636 2637 2638 2639

2640 2641 2642 2643 2644 2645 2646 2647

2648 2649 2650 2651 2652 2653 2654 2655

2656 2657 2658 2659 2660 2661 2662 2663

2664 2665 2666 2667 2668 2669 2670 2671

2672 2673 2674 2675 2676 2677 2678 2679

2680 2681 2682 2683 2684 2685 2686 2687

5200

5210

5220

5230

5240

5250

5260

5270

2688 2689 2690 2691 2692 2693 2694 2695

2696 2697 2698 2699 2700 2701 2702 2703

2704 2705 2706 2707 2708 2709 2710 2711

2712 2713 2714 2715 2716 2717 2718 2719

2720 2721 2722 2723 2724 2725 2726 2727

2728 2729 2730 2731 2732 27.33 2734 2735

2736 2737 2738 2739 2740 2741 2742 2743

2744 2745 2746 2747 2748 2749 2750 ·2751

5300

5310

5320

5330

5340

5350

5360

5370

2'152 2753 2'154 2'155 2756 2757 2758 2759

2760 2'161 2'162 2763 2764 2765 2766 2767

2768 2769 2770 2'171 2772 2773 2774 2775

2778 2777 2778 27'19 2780 2781 2782 2783

2784 2785 2786 2787 2788 2789 2790 2791

2792 2793 2794 2795 2796 2797 2798 2799

2800 2801 2802 2803 2804 2805 2806 2807

2808 2809 2810 2811 2812 2813 2814 2815

0 1

2

3

4 5 6 7

5400 2816 2817 2818 2819 2820 2821 2822 2823

5410 2824 2825 2826 2827 2828 2829 2830 2831

5420 2832 2833 2834 2835 2836 2837 2838 2839

5430 2840 2841 2842 2843 2844 2845 2846 2847

5440 2848 2849 2850 2851 2852 2853 2854 2855

5450 2856 2857 2858 2859 2860 2861 2862 2863

5460 2864 2865 2866 2867 2868 2869 2870 2871

5470 2872 2873 2874 2875 2876 2877 2878 2879

5500 2880 2881 2882 2883 2884 2885 2886 2887

5510 2888 2889 2890 2891 2892 2893 2894 2895

5520 2896 2897 2898 2899 2900 2901 2902 2903

5530 2904 2905 2906 2907 2908 2909 2910 2911

5540 2912 2913 2914 2915 2916 2917 2918 2919

5550 2920 2921 2922 2923 2924 2925 2926 2927

5560 2928 2929 2930 2931 2932 2933 2934 2935

5570 2936 2937 2938 2939 2940 2941 2942 2943

5600 2944 2945 2946 2947 2948 2949 2950 2951

5610 2952 2953 2954 2955 2956 2957 2958 2959

5620 2960 2961 2962 2963 2964 2965 2966 2967

5630 2968 2969 2970 2971 2972 2973 2974 2975

5640 2976 2977 2978 2979 2980 2981 2982 2983

5650 2984 2985 2986 2987 2988 2989 2990 2991

5660 2992 2993 2994 2995 2996 2997 2998 2999

5670 3000 3001 3002 3003 3004 3005 3006 3007

5700 3008 3009 3010 3011 3012 3013 3014 3015

5710 3016 3017 3018 3019 3020 3021 3022 3023 .

5720 3024 3025 3026 3027 3028 3029 3030 3031

5730 3032 3033 3034 3035 3036 3037 3038 3039

5740 3040 3041 3042 3043 3044 3045 3046 304'1

5750 3048 3049 3050 3051 3052 3053 3054 3055

5'160 3056 3057 3058 3059 3060 3061 3062 3063

5'170 3064 3065 3066 3067 3068 3069 3070 3071

AplJcndix 67

Octal-Decimal

Integer Conversion

Table

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

6000 3072 3073 3074 3075 3076 3077 3078 3079

6010 3080 ·3081 3082 3083 3084 3085 3086 3087

6020 3088 3089 3090 3091 3092 3093 3094 3095

6030 3096 3097 3098 3099 3100 3101 3102 3103

6040 3104 3105 3106 3107 3108 3109 3110 3111

6050 3112 3113 3114 3115 3116 3117 3118 3119

6060 3120 3121 3122 3123 3124 3125 3126 3127

6070 3128 3129 3130 3131 3132 3133 3134 3135

6100 3136 3137 3138 3139 3140 3141 3142 3143

6110 3144 3145 3146 3147 3148 3149 3150 3151

6120 3152 3153 3154 3155 3156 3157 3158 3159

6130 3160 3161 3162 3163 3164 3165 3166 3167

6140 3168 3169 3170 3171 3172 3173 3174 3175

6150 3176 3177 3178 3179 3180 3181 3182 3183

6160 3184 3185 3186 3187 3188 3189 3190 3191

6170 3192 3193 3194 3195 3196 3197 3198 3199

6200 3200 3201 3202

3203

3204 3205 3206 3207

6210 3208 3209 3210 3211 3212 3213 3214 3215

6220 3216 3217 3218 3219 3220 3221 3222 3223

6230 3224 3225 3226 3227 3228 3229 3230 3231

6240 3232 3233 3234 3235 3236 3237 3238 3239

6250 3240 3241 3242 3243 3244 3245 3246 3247

6260 3248 3249 3250 3251 3252 3253 3254 3255

6270 3256 3257 3258 3259 3260 3261 3261 3263

6300 3264 3265 3266 3267 3268 3269 3270 3271

6310 3272 3273 3274 3275 3276 3277 3278 3279

6320 3280 3281 3282 3283 3284 3285 3286 3287

6330 3288 3289 3290 3291 3292 3293 3294 3295

6340 3296 3297 3298 3299 3300 3301 3302 3303

6350 3304 3305 3306 3307 3308 3309 3310 3311

6360 3312 3313 3314 3315 3316 3317 3318 3319

6370 3320 3321 3322 3323 3324 3325 3326 3327

0

1 2 3 4

5 6

7

6400 3328 3329 3330 3331 3332 3333 3334 3335

6410 3336 3337 3338 3339 3340 3341 3342 3343

6420 3344 3345 3346 3347 3348 3349 3350 3351

6430 3352 3353 3354 3355 3356 3357 3358 3359

6440 3360 3361 3362 3363 3364 3365 3366 3367

6450 3368 3369 3370 3371 3372 3373 3374 3375

6460 3376 3377 3378 3379 3380 3381 3382 3383

6470 3384 3385 3386 3387 3388 3389 3390 3391

6500 3392 3393 3394 3395 3396 3397 3398 3399

6510 3400 3401 3402 3403 3404 3405 3406 3407

6520 3408 3409 3410 3411 3412 3413 3414 3415

6530 3416 3417 3418 3419 3420 3421 3422 3423

6540 3424 3425 3426 3427 3428 3429 3430 3431

6550 3432 3433 3434 3435 3436 3437 3438 3439

6560 3440 3441 3442 3443 3444 3445 3446 3447

6570 3448

344~ 3450 3451 3452 3453 3454 3455

6600 3456 3457· 3458 3459 3460 3461 3462 3463

6610 3464 3465 3466 3467 3468 3469 3470 3471

6620 3472 3473 3474 3475 3476 3477 3478 3479

6630 3480 3481 3482 3483 3484 3485 3486 3487

6640 3488 3489 3490 3491 3492 3493 3494 3495

6650 3496 3497 3498 3499 3500 3501 3502 3503

6660 3504 3505 3506 3507 3508 3509 3510 3511

6670 3512 3513 3514 3515 3516 3517 3518 3519

6700 3520 3521 3522 3523 3524 3525 3526 3527

6710 3528 3529 3530 3531 3532 3533 3534 3535

6720 3536 3537 3538 3539 3540 3541 3542 3543

6730 3544 3545 3546 3547 3548 3549 3550 3551

6740 3552 3553 3554 3555 3556 3557 3558 3559

6750 3560 3561 3562 3563 3564 3565 3566 3567

6760 3568 3569 3570 3571 3572 3573 3574 3575

6770 3576 3577 3578 3579 3580 3581 3582 3583

0 1

2

3 4

5 6

7

7000 3584 3585 3586 3587 3588 3589 3590 3591

7010 3592 3593 3594 3595 3596 3597 3598 3599

7020 3600 3601 3602 3603 3604 3605 3606 3607

7030 3608 3609 3610 3611 3612 3613 3614 3615

7041> 3616 3617 3618 3619 3620 3621 3622 3623

7050 3624 3625 3626 3627 3628 3629 3630 3631

7060 3632 3633 3634 3635 3636 3637 3638 3639

7070 3640 3641 3642 3643 3644 3645 3646 3647

7100 3648 3649 3650 3651 3652 3653 3654 3655

7110 3656 3657 3658 3659 3660 3661 3662 3663

7120 3664 3665 3666 3667 3668 3669 3670 3671

7130 3672 3673 3674 3675 3676 3677 3678 3679

7140 3680 3681 3682 3683 3684 3685 3686 3687

7150 3688 3689 3690 3691 3692 3693 3694 3695

7160 3696 3697 3698 3699 3700 3701 3702 3703

7170 3704 3705 3706 3707 3708 3709 3710 3711

7200 3712 3713 3714 3715 3716 3717 3718 3719

7210 3720 3721 3722 3723 3724 3725 3726 3727

7220 3728 3729 3730 3731 3732 3733 3734 3735

7230 3736 3737 3738 3739 3740 3741 3742 3743

7240 3744 3745 3746 3747 3748 3749 3750 3751

7250 3752 3753 3754 3755 3756 3757 3758 3759

7260 3760 3761 3762 3763 3764 3765 3766 3767

7270 3768 3769 3770 3771 3772 3773 3774 3775

7300 3776 3777 3778 3779 3780 3781 3782 3783

7310 3784 37-85 3786 3787 3788 3789 3790 3791

732.0 3792 3793 3794 3795 3796 3797 3798 3799

7330 3800 3801 3802 3803 3804 3805 3806 3807

7340 3808 3809 3810 3811 3812 3813 3814 3815

735\) 3816 3817 3818 3819 3820 3821 3822 3823

7360 3824 3825 3826 3827 3828 3829 3830 3831

7370 3832 3833 3834 3835 3836 3837 3838 3839

0

1 2 3

4 5 6

7

7400 3840 3841 3842 3843 3844 3845 3846 3847

7410 3848 3849 3850 3851 3852 3853 3854 3855

7420 3856 3857 3858 3859 3860 3861 3862 3863

7430 3864 3865 3866 3867 3868 3869 3870 3871

7440 3872 3873 3874 3875 3876 3877 3878 3879

7450 3880 3881 3882 3883 3884 3885 3886 3887

7460 3888 3889 3890 3891 3892 3893 3894 3895

7470 3896 3897 3898 3899 3900 3901 3902 3903

7500 3904 3905 3906 3907 3908 3909 3910 3911

7510 3912 3913 3914 3915 3916 3917 3918 3919

7520 3920 3921 3922 3923 3924 3925 3926 3927

7530 3928 3929 3930 3931 3932 3933 3934 3935

7540 3936 3937 3938 3939 3940 3941 3942 3943

7550 3944 3945 3946 3947 3948 3949 3950 3951

7560 3952 3953 3954 3955 3956 3957 3958 3959

7570 3960 3961 3962 3963 3964 3965 3966 3967

7600 3968 3969 3970 3971 3972 3973 3974 3975

7610 3976 3977 3978 3979 3980 398r 3982 3983

7620 3984 3985 3986 3987 3988 3989 3990 3991

7630 3992 3993 3994 3995 3996 3997 3998 3999

7640 4000 4001 4002 4003 4004 4005 4006 4007

7650 4008 4009 4010 4011 4012 4013 4014 4015

7660 4016 4017 4018 4019 4020 4021 4022 4023

7670 4024 4025 4026 4027 4028 4029 4030 4031

7700 4032 4033 4034 4035 4036 4037 4038 4039

7710 4040 4041 4042 4043 4044 4045 4046 4047

7720 4048 4049 4050 4051 4052 4053 4054 4055

7730 4056 4057 4058 4059 4060 4061 4062 4063

7740 4064 4065 4066 4067 4068 4069 4070 4071

7750 4072 4073 4074 4075 4076 4077 4078 4079

7760

4080

4081 4082 4083 4084 4085 4086 4087

7770 4088 4089 40?0 4091 4092 4093 4094 4095

68

6000 to

6777

3072 to

3583

(Octal) (Decimal)

Octal Decimal

10000 - 4096

20000 - 8192

30000 - 12288

40000 - 16384

50000 - 20480

60000 - 24516

10000 - 2ff612

7000 to

358" to

7777 4095

(Octal) (Decimal)

OCTAL

.020

.021

.022

.023

.024

.025

.026

.027

.010

.011

.012

.013

.014

.015

.016

.017

.000

.001

.OCf2

.003

.004

.005

.006

.007

.060

.061

.062

.063

.064

.065

.066

.067

.050

.051

.052

.053

.054

.055

.056

.057

.070

.071

.072

.073

.074

.075

.076

.077

.030

.031

.032

.033

.034

.035

.036

.037

.040

.041

.042

.043

.044

.045

.046

.047

DEC.

.000000

.001953

.003906

.005859

.007812

.009765

.011718

.013671

.015625

.017578

.019531

.021484

.023437

.025390

.027343

.029296

.031250

.033203

.035156

.037109

.039062

.041015

.042968

.044921

.078125

.080078

.082031

.083984

.085937

.087890

.089843

.091796

.093750

.095703

.097656

.099609

.101562

.103515

.105468

.107421

.046875

.048828

.050781

.052734

.054687

.056640

.058593

.060546

.062500

.064453

.066406

.068359

.070312

.072265

.074218

.076171

.109375

.111328

.113281

.115234

.117187

.119140

.121093

.123046

OCTAL

.140

.141

.142

.143

.144

.145

.146

.147

.130

.131

.132

.133

.134

.135

.136

.137

.120

.121

.122

.123

.124

.125

.126

.127

.110

.111

.112

.113

.114

.115

.116

.117

.100

.101

.102

.103

.104

.105

.106

.107

.170

.171

.172

.173

.174

.175

.176

.177

.160

.161

.162

.163

.164

.165

.166

.167

.150

,lSI

.152

.153

.154

.155

.156

.157

DEC.

.125000

.126953

.128906

.130859

.132812

.134765

.136718

.138671

.171875

.173828

.175781

.177734

.179687

.181640

.183593

.185546

.187500

.189453

.191406

.193359

.195312

.197265

.199218

.201171

.140625

.142578

.144531

.146484

.148437

.150390

.152343

.154296

.156250

.158203

.160156

.162109

.164062

.166015

.167968

.169921

.203125

.205078

.207031

.208984

.210937

.212890

.214843

.216796

.218750

.220703

.222656

.224609

.226562

.228515

.230468

.232421

.234375

.236328

.238281

.240234

.2421.87

.244140

.246093

.248046

OCTAL

.210

.211

.212

.213

.214

.215

.216

.217

.220

.221

.222

.223

.224

.225

.226

.227

.200

.201

.202

.203

.204

.205

.206

.207

.240

.241

.242

.243

.244

.245

.246

.247

.230

.231

.232

.233

.234

.235

.236

.237

.260

.261

.262

.263

.264

.265

.266

.267

.250

.251

.252

.253

.254

.255

.256

.257

.270

.271

.272

.273

.274

.275

.276

.277

DEC.

.328125

.330078

.332031

.333984

.335937

.337890

.339843

.3.41796

.343750

.345703

.347656

.349609

.351562

.353515

.355468

.357421

.296875

.298828

.300781

.302734

.304687

.306640

.308593

.310546

.312500

.314453

.316406

.318359

.320312

.322265

.324218

.326171

.359375

.361328

.363281

.365234

.367187

.369140

.371093

.373046

.250000

.251953

.253906

.255859

.257812

.259765

.261718

.263671

.265625

.267578

.269531

.271484

.273437

.275390

.277343

.279296

.281250

.283203

.285156

.287109

.289062

.291015

•. 292968

.294921

Appendix E. Octal-Decimal Fraction Conversion Table

OCTAL DEC.

.406250

.408203

.410156

.412109

.414062

.416015

.417968

.419921

.421875

.423828

.• 426781

.427734

.429687

.431640

.433593

.435546

.437500

.439453

.441406

.443359

.445312

.447265

.449218

.451171

.375000

.376953

.378906

.380859

.382812

.384765

.386718

.388671

.390625

.392578

.394531

.396484

.398437

.400390

.402343

.404296

.453125

.455078

.457031

.458984

.460937

.462890

.464843

.466796

.468750

.470703

.472656

.474609

.476562

.478515

.480468

.482421

.484375

.486328

.488281

.490234

.492187

.494140

.496093

.498046

.310

.311

.312

.313

.314

.315

.316

.317

.320

.321

.322

.323

.324

.325

,326

.327

.300

.301

.302

.303

.304

.305

.306

.307

.340

.341

.342

.343

.344

.345

.346

.347

.330

.331

.332

.333

.334

.335

.336

.337

.370

.371

.372

.373

.374

.375

.376

.377

.360

.361

.362

.363

.364

.365

.366

.367

.350

.351

.3~2

.353

.354

.355

.35.6

.357

Appendix 69

Octal-Decimal Fraction Conversion Table

OCTAL DEC.

.000000 .000000

.000001 .000003

,000002 ,000007

,000003 ,000011

,000004 ,000015

.000005 .000019

,000006 ,000022

,000007 .000026

.000010 ,000030

,000011 ,000034

.000012 ,000038

.000013

,000041

.000014 ,000045

,000015

.000049

,000016 ,000053

.000017 .000057

.000020 ,000061

,000021 .000064

.000022 ,000068

.000023 ,000072

.000024 .000076

.000025 ,000080

.000026 .000083

.000027 ,000087

.000030 .000091

.000031 .000095

.000032 .000099

.000033 .000102

.000034 .000106

,000035 .000110

.000036 .000114

.000037 .000118

.000040 .000122

.000041 .000125

.000042 .000129

,000043 ,000133

.000044 .000137

,000045 .000141

,000046 .000144

.000047 .000148

.000050 .000152

.000051 .000156

.000052 .000160

.000053 .000.164

.000054 .000167

.000055 .000171

.000056 .000175

.000057 .000179

.000060

.000183

.000061 .000186

.000062 .000190

.000063 .000194

.000064 .000198

.000065 .~00202

.000066 .000205

.000067 .000209

.000070 .000213

.000071 .000217

.000072 .000221

.000073 .000225

.000074 .000228

.000075 .000232

.000076 .000236

.000077 .000240

OCTAL DEC.

.000100 .000244

,000101 ,000247

,000102 ,000251

.000103 ,000255

,000104 ,000259

,000105 ,000263

.000106 .000267

.000107 .000270

.000110 .000274

.000111 .000278

.000112 ,000282

.000113 ,000286

.000114 .000289

~000115

.000293

.000116 .000297

.000117 .000301

.000120 .000305

.000121 .000308

.000122 .000312

.000123 .000316

.000124 .000320

.000125 .000324

.000126 .000328

.00012.7 .000331

.000130 .000335

.000131 .000339

.000132 .000343

.000133 .000347

.000134 .000350

.000135 .000354

.000136 .000358

.000137 .000362

.000140 .000366

.000141

,000370

.000142

,000373

.000143 .000377

.000144 .000381

.000145 .000385

.000146 .000389

.000147 .000392

.000150 .000396

.000151 .000400

.000152 .000404

.000153 .000408

.000154 .000411

.000155 .000415

.000156 .000419

.000157 .000423

.000160 .000427

.000161 .000431

.000162 .000434

.000163 .000438

.000164 .000442

.000165 .000446

.000166 .000450

.000167 .000453

.000170 .000457

.000171 .000461

.000172 .000465

.000173 .000469

.000174 .000473

.000175 .000476

.000176 .000480

.000177 .000484

OCTAL DEC.

.000200

.000488

.000201 ,000492

.000202 .000495

,000203 .000499

,000204 ,000503

,000205 ,000507

.000206 .000511

.000207

,000514

.000210 .000518

,000211 ,000522

.000212 ,000526

.00021.3 .000530

.000214

,000534

.000215 .000537

.000216 .000541

.000217 ,000545

.000220 .000549

.000221

.000553

.000222 .000556

.000223 .000560

.000224 .000564

.000225 .000568

.000226 .000572

.000227 .000576

.000230 .000579

.000231 .000583

.000232 ,000587

.000233

.000591

.000234

,000595

.000235 .000598

.000236 .000602

.000237 .000606

.000240 .000610

.000241

.000614

.000242 .000617

.000243

,000621

.000244 .000625

.000245 .000629

.000246 .000633

.000247 .000637

.000250 .000640

.000251 .000644

.000252 .000648

.000253 .000652

.000254 .000656

.000255

.000659

.000256 .000663

.000257 .000667

.000260 ·.000671

.000261 .000675

.000262 .000679

.000263 .000682

.000264 .000686

.000265 .000690

.000266 .000694

.000267 .000698

.000270 .000701

.000271 .000705

.000272 .000709

.000273 .000713

.000274 .000717

.000275 .000720

.000276 .000724

.000277 ,000728

OCTA!,. DEC.

.000300 .000732

,000301 .000730

.000302 .000740

,000303 ,000743

.000304 ,000747

.000305 .000751

.000306 .000755

,000307

.000759

.000310 .000762

.000311 .000766

.000312 ,000770

.000313 .000774

.000314

.000778

.000315 .000782

.000316 .000785

.000317 .000789

.000320 .000793

.000321 .000797

.000322 .000801

.000323 .000805

.000324 .000808

.000325 .000812

.000326 .000816

.000327 .000820

.000330 .000823

.000331 .000827

,000332 .000831

.000333 .000835

,000334 .000839

.000335 .000843

,000336 ,000846

.000337 .000850

.000340 .000854

.000341

,000858

.000342 .000862

.000343 ,000865

.000344 ,000869

.000345 .000873

.000346 .000877

.000347 ,000881

.000350 .000885

,000351 .000888

.000352 .000892

.000353

,000896

.000354 .000900

.000355 .000904

,000356 ,000907

.000357 ,000911

.000360 .000915

,000361

,000919

.000362 .000923

.000363 .000926

,000364 .000930

,000365 .000934

.000366 .000938

.000367 ,000942

.000370 .000946

.000371 .000949

.000372 .000953

.000373 .000957

.0003'U .000961

.000375 .000965

.000376 .000968

.000377 .000972

70

OCTAL DEC.

• 000400 .000976

.000401 .000980

.000402 .000984

.000403 .000988

.000404 .000991

.000405 .000995

.000406 .000999

.000407 .001003

.000410 .00.1007

.000411 .001010

.000412 .001014

.000413 .001018

.000414 .001022

.000415 .001026

.000416 .001029

.000417 .001033

.000420 .001037

.000421 .001041

.000422 .001045

.000423 .001049

.000424 .001052

.000425 .001056

.000426 .001060

.000427 .001064

.000430 .001068

,000431 .001071

.000432 .001075

.000433 .001079

.000434 .001083

.000435 .001087

.000436

.001091

.000437 .001094

.000440

.001098

.000441 ,001102

.000442 .001106

.000443 .001110

.000444 .001113

.000445 .001117

.000446 .001121

.000447

.001125

.000450 .001129

.000451

. ,001132

.000452 .001136

.000453 .001140

.000454 .001144

.000455 .001148

.000456 .001152

.000457 .001155

.000460 .001159

.000461 .001163

.000462

.00116'1

.000463

.0011'11 .

.000464

.000465

,0011'14

.0011'18

,000466 .001182

,00046'1

.001186

.0004'10

.001190

,0004'71 ,001194

,000472 .00119'1

.000473 .001201

,0004'14 .001205

.0004'15

,001209

.0004'16

,001213

.0004'1'1

,001216

OCTAL DEC.

.000500 .001220

.000501 .001224

.000502 .001228

.000503

.001232.

.000504

.001235

.000505 .001239

.00M06 .001243

.000507 .001247

.000510 .001251

.000511 .001255

.000512 .001258

.000513 .001262

.000514 .001266

.000515 .001270

.000516 .001274

.000517 .001277

.000520 .001281

.000521 .001285

.000522 .001289

.000523 .001293

.000524 .001296

.000525 .001300

.000526 .001304

.000527 .001308

.000530 .001312

.000531 .001316

.000532 .001319

.000533 .001323

.000534 .001327

.000535

.001331

.000536 .001335

.000537 .001338

.000540 .001342

.000541 .001346

.000542 .001350

.000543 .001354

.000544 .001358

.000545 .001361

.000546 .001365

.000547 .001369

.000550 .001373

.000551 .001377

.000552 .001380

.000553 .001384

.000554 .001388

.000555 .001392

.000556 .001396

,000557 .001399

,000560 .001403

.000561 .001407

.000562

,001411

.000563 ,001415

.000564 .001419

.000565 ,001422

,000566 .001426

.000567

,001430

.000570 .001434

,000571 ,001438

,000572 .001441

.0005'13 .001445

,0005'14 .001449

,0005'15 .001453

.0005'16 .001457

.0005'1'1 .001461

OCTAL DEC.

.000600 .001464

.000601 .001468

.000602 .001472

.000603 .001476

.000604 .001480

.000605 .001483

.000606 .001487

.000607 .001491

.000610 .001495

.000611 .001499

.000612

.001502

.000613 .001506

.000614 ,001510

.000615 .001514

.000616 .001518

.000617 .001522

.000620 .001525

.000621 .001529

.000622 .001533

.000623 .001537

.000624 .001541

.000625 .001544

.000626 .001548

.000627 .001552

.000630 .001556

.000631 .001560

.000632 .001564

.000633 .001567

.000634 .001571

.000635 .001575

.000636 .001579

.000637

.001583

.000640 .001586

.000641 .001590

.000642 .001594

.000643 .001598

.000644 .001602

.000645 .001605

.000646 .001609

.000647 .001613

.000650 .001617

.800651 .001621

.000652 .001625

• QOO653 .001628

.000654 .001632

.000655 .001636

.000656

.001640

.000657 .001644

.000660 .001647

.000661 .001651

.000662 .001655

.000663 .001659

.000664 .001663

.000665 .001667

.000666 .001670

.000667 .001674

.000670 .0016'18

.000671 .001682

.000672 .001686

.000673 .001689

.000674

,001693

.000675 .00169'1

,000676 .001-7J)1

.000677 .001'105

Octal-Decimal

Fraction Conversion

Table

OCTAL

DEC •

.000700 .001708

.000701 .001712

.000702 .001716

.000703 .001720

.000704 .001724

.000705 .001728

.000706

.001731

.000707

.001735

.000710 .001739

.000711

.001743

.000712

.001747

.000713 .001750

.000714 .001754

.000715 .001758

.000716 .001762

.000717 .001766

.000720 .001770

.000721 .001773

.000722 .001777

.000723 .001781

.000724 .001785

.000725 .001789

.000726 .001792

.000727 .001796

.000730 .001800

.000731 .001804

.000732 .001808

.000733 .001811

.000734 .001815

.000735 .001819

.000736 .001823

.000737 .001827

.000740 .001831

.000741 .001834

.000742 .001838

.000743 .001842

.000744 .001846

.000745 .001850

.000746 .001853

.000747 .001857

.000750 .001861

.000751 .001865

.000752 .001869

.000753 .001873

.000754

.001876

.000755 .001880

.000756 .001884

.000757 .001888

.01)0760

.001892

.000761

.001895

.000762 .001899

,000763 .001903

.000764 .001907

.000'165

,001911

.000766

• 00 191'{-

.000767

.0·01918

.000770 .001922

.000771 .001926

.000772 .001930

.000773 .001934

.000'174 .00193'1

.0007'15 .001941

,0007'16 .001945

,000777

.001949

Appendix

71

A22-6741-1

International Business Machines Corporation

Data Processing Division

112 East Post Road, White Plains, N. Y. 10601

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