~SEARCH ,f~SOCtATES 3. SECTION PHEPARATI0N OF TAPES

~SEARCH ,f~SOCtATES 3. SECTION PHEPARATI0N  OF  TAPES

('HE EllA ] 103 tT'l PE :!300C 1)

SECTION

3.

PHEPARATI0N OF TAPES

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TABLE OF

CON1~NTS

VOLUME ]

SECTION 1

GENERAL

DE5CRJPTION

1. Genera 1

2, Glossary of Abbreviations and Terms

3.

Purpose and Hasie

Principles

4. Repertoire of Instru.ctions

3.

Sequenced

Instructions tJ 0 • • • • • • • II'

Transmissi ve Instructions

.., • • () &i' c. Q-Controlled Instructions

R~place lnstructions~

.

"

.. e ..

Split

Instructions f.

Two-Way Conditional Jump Instructions g"

One-·Way Condi tional

,Jurnp

Ins t ruet j ons

11" One-Way Unconditional .Jamp

Inst.ruct,ions i.

Magnetjc

Tapp

Storagp Instructions j.

Stop Instructions e d k. ExternolEquipment Instructions c

J~

General Theory of Ope rat jon

3.

Genf~ral

.,,"

0 b. Principal Multipurpose Registers c. Inpu~

Section" "

~

c

e () "

Storage Section "

"

"

..

.

.

.

..,

.

.

"

" "

" . 0 0

1-9

1·-9

1 -10

1-10

1 ~,·1 0

1-10

1-

11

1 ... 11

1-.1 1

1-1~

1-12

1-1

1.

-1

1-3

I-b

1-6 l-H l·-B

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME 1

SECTION 1 (continued)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION e. ,Arithmetic Section f..

0 u t pu t

~e(; t ion •

Uu

Control Section

h"

A P pe n d i x

A " " •

~

<> ..

«'

1 •

)

.;...

Gf' nera 1,

..

..

..

"

.

.

SECTION

4

OPERATION

Tutrd ng On tht·

Equipment

8.

Main Power

Oi sconnec t h.

Main Power

Supply

0

Magnetic Core Pow\~r ~jppjy

::~.. d.

Wa rm-l"p

J

" .. .. '"

Preparation of MT Units a..

Tape

Threading

Procedure b ..

Procedure for Automatic Operation

f'

".

Procedure for Initially Positioning Tape

4. Preparation of input and Output Devices

<'1"

P lotoE:'lf?ctric Tape Reader b"

High-Speed Punch

Q

C e

Output Typewriter d. Optional Input and Output Devices

..

"

RliP"i~#',,1n,!,,'on

Ilu.s .. d

t"'jlijGIMHRUUi

K1uuCH

:11sS0CllHS

D'V"",", r.~~

1-16

1 -l7

1 -20

:,;" 1

..........

"I

'

..

/

1 I

. TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME

1

SEC!IO~ 2 (continued)

OPERATION

Paragr..££!!

5. Computation. a.

Genera

1 . b. Normal Mode

of

Operation

Title c.

Test Mode of

Operation d.

Restoration of

Operation After Stops

6. Turning Off the Equipment . a.

Magnetic Tape Units. b. External

Units c.

Power Supply d.

~:aill

Power Disconnect .

SECTION :)

PHEPAI{AT ION OF TAPES

1. General . . .

.

)

J:;....

Principles of Punched Tape Preparation a.

Jape

~omenclaturc b.

Form of Encoded lnformation . c.

Sample Punched Tape.

~~gn0tic

Tape Preparation

:i.

General. h.

0.olllenc tatun::

,

ItH j<.

-"~

:It~I'''~( ~t

UCK

.,f

It:;

H,/:Io\ it s

3-1

::\-1 j-::i

2-10

2-10

2-10

2-13

2-l7

2-17

2-17

2-17

~-17

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME 1

~fCTION

3 (continued)

PREPARATION OF T~PES

Paragraph c. Tape Inspection .. c,

0 do Preparation Procedure ..

Title

~ 0 0 ~ ~ 0 0 . 0 •

3-b

1 "

?

" ' 0

Gene ;['a 1 ..

.

.. to

.

.. ..

APPENDIX A

CONTENT OF REGISTERS

..

"

..

Definition of symbols

• II

.

..

..

" •

C) • •

3 e

THblE~s ..

..

..

.,

..

"

..

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0..

GENERAL DESCHIPTION

ERA

1103

SEll'ION

1

SECTION 1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. Gf:NERAL.

The ERA

1103 equipment is a general-purpose digital computer for applications requiring large storage capacity, high operating speed, and great proqramming ver~;a ti Ii ty •

Its interna

1 memory cons i sts of 16, 3f,~ regi sters of magnetic drwn storage,

1024 registers of magnetic core storage. and the A and

Q re~~isters. Each register is

Suppl~entary storage individually of 262.14.-,1 words is addressed provided and directly by four accesslble. magnetlc tappunits.

Information is transmitted to and from the tapes in blocks of a fixed number of words each.

The computer performs

44 different input-output, arithmetic, and logical operations. It is fully automatic in that the sequence of operations is determined by a program of internally stored instructions capable of self modification. To attain high computing speed, the computer operates in the parallel mode, i.e. all digits of a number are operated upon simultaneously. Internal arithmetic operations are in the binary system. The basic word size is

36 binary digits, or "bits". A word roay be an instruction,

8 number, or an arbitrarily coded quantity.

The basic systems used for input and output in the ERA 110:") computer employ a Ferranti photoelectric tape reader. a typewriter, and a high speed punch, respectively.

However, communication with a variety of optional external equipment. is possible by use of an e-bit register (IO.A) and a 36-bit register

(lOB)

In connection with appropriate external equipment instructions. These registers, together wi th the basic output registers, TWR and HPR, are arranged to penni t s imul taneous use of several externa 1 output or input-output uni t5, and to allow e'ornputation to proceed whi

Ie such terminal equipment is

.operating. fhe basic computer weighs approximately 33,600 pounds, and occupies a space, including working space, of 26 by

60 feet.

The power service required is 220 vac,

~i phase; the power factor is 0.9 inductjve with a power consumption of 42 kw.

The equipment c~nt8ins approximately 4700 vacuum tubes, 6000 crystal diodes, and

150 relays and consists of six large air-cooled cabinets containing electronic circ\lits, punc.h, two a photoelectric tape reader, an electric typewriter, a high-speed tape motor generator sets, and an air conditioning cabinet.

2. GU>SSARY OF

ABBRE.~lATIONS

AND TERMS USED IN THIS SECTION

A

(A)

The 72-bit Accumulator (A71' A70' ••• AO>

The

72-hlt word in A.

The left h~nd

(most significant) 36 bits of A.

The 36-bit word in ~.

1-1

-

~~::

!",,'

X

;:1.,.

GENERAL

DESCRIPTION

J\IK

AR

ARAC

ASC

Bit

BK

CI

Core

CHC css eTC

D(Q)

D(u)

D(v)

Fl

F;.!

HPC

HPH

I/O

ERA IIO:J

Sr~CTI0N

1

The right-hand (lease significant) 36 bits of A

The 36-bit.word in AR

The

Angular

Index

Counter

(Arrow) Transmit, such as AR~

A ten-stage Address Register, used to store a Magnetic Core address during a reading or writing operation.

The Arithmetic Register Access Control

The

Arithmetic Sequence Control

Binary digi t

I110ck counter

The

Current Instruction

A small toroid of Ferrite capable of storing a binary digit

(bit) equal to "1" or "0", depending upon the direction of remnant magnetization of the toroid.

The Clock Rate Control

The Clock Source Selector

The

Command Timing Circuits

A 72-bi t word whose right-hand 36 hi ts are the contents of

(J and whose left-hand 36 bits are all alike and equal to the leftmost bit, of the contents of

Q.

A 72-bJt word whose right-hand 36 bits are the contents of u and whose left-hand :36 bits are a11 alike and eq.ual to the leftmost bit of the contents of u.

A

72-bit word whose right-hand

36 bits are the contents of v and whose left-hand 36 bits are all ali~e and equal to the left.-most bit of the contents of v.

A

Fixed Address 00000 (or 40001 depending on a switch setting)

A Fixed Address

(~l

The High-Speed Punch Control

The High-Speed Punch Register

Inhibit/Disturb. a term used to describe circuits which control the selective \V'riting of information in cores. l-~

lOA roo

IR

. ...-i

-ttaJ x

!l.

Hp~n.lnq#OI"'.

IIand

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GENEHAL

DESCRIPTION

ERA 1103

SECT lO~

1

NI

Operand

Q

The Next Instruction

A word on which an operation is performed.

Operation Code That six-bit part of an instruction. represented by i35,i 34 ... i

30, designating the operation to be performed.

PAl( The Program Address Counter peR

PDC

,(Parentheses)

Denotes

"the' content of"

The Program .Control Registers,

MeR,

UAK,

VAle

The Pulse DIstributor Control

(Prime) Denotes "the complement of" such as Q~, XU, etc.

The

:36-bit Q-Register

(Q35, Q34, •.. , QO)

(Q)

RSC

S( u)

SAR sec scr

SCT

SKC

TWR

u

( u)

OAK

V

(v)

VAl(

WI(

The 36-bit word in Q

The Repeat Sequence Control

;\ 72-bi t word whose right-hand whose left-band

~36 bi ts are

36 bi ts are all zeros. the contents of u and

The Storage Address Register

The Storage Class Control

Supervisory Control Panel

The Storage Class Translator

Tbe Shift COWlter Control

The Typewriter Register

The ~irst execution address (129,

1'28

. · · , i )

The content of u

The O-Address Counter, a part of PCR

The second execution address

(114, 113 •... , iO)

The content of v

The V-Address

Counter, a part of

PeR

The Word Counter

1-4

GENERAL

DESCRIPTION

EBA 1103

SECTION 1 w x

The v-address portion of a Repeat instruction

The X-Register

(X~{5,

X34. . .. ,

Xo)

The address of the current ,instruction. y

3. PURPOSE AND BASIC

PRINCIPLES.

The ERA 1103 equipment is used to perform a wide variety of large-scale calculations. It solves, at an extremely high rate of speed, any problem which can be preserltted to it as a series of instructions which order the performance of arithmetic: and logical operations upon stored operands.

The system is also adaptable to many special purpose applications, including simulation and control

.in'real time.

The series of instructions and operands. called a program, is initially entered .into the storage systems in a coded fo'rm which the computer interprets.

A system of two-address logic is employed; an instruction word consists of a

6-bit operation code and. two IS-bit execution addresses. The operation code specifies which of the 44 possible operations is to be performed. The functions' of the execution addresses are different for the various types of instruction~ but. to be in general. they specify registers in the memory from which operands are obtained or in which results are to be stored.

During the performance of a program •. instructions are removed, one at a time, from storage in the order in which they are required. Each instruction orders a specified operation to be performed upo,n the operands stored at the execution addresses. The intermediate and final results of the computations are either stored or presented to th~ output equipment. The final instruction of the program either stops the computer or initiates the perfor~ance of a new program. '

The computer emp.loys a "1

~ sit comiJlement system of nolation

ill

which the leftmost bit of a number is the sign 'bit of that number and the binary point is considered to be to the right of the lowest order bit. Thus, if the left.-most bit

01 a number is "0", the number is said to· be ti0sitive; l i l t is a

"Itt t the number is said to be negative.

In the

"19 s " cpmplement system, a negative number can be obtained by complementing all the bIts (including the ~ign bit) of the corresponuing.positive number. In the single length, or 36-bit, registers, integers from 1-2 35. up

(7~ to 235_1 may be represented: in the daub Ie length Ace umulHtor stages) integers from 1-271 up to 271_1 may be represented.

In" 1 ' s n C ompleruent notation, each of these integers has a unique representation with t.he exception of zero; zero bas both a negatIve and positive notation; however, due to the nature of the arithmetic operations in the ERA 110l, a negative zero can not be generated.

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OIVISION

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

ERA 1103

SECTION 1

Integers may occur in not lyinQ in the above range as well as fractional quan.tities that certain problems can also' be handled by sui tably scaling such quantities so that the resulting quantity can be represented by machine numbers.

This scaling can ei th'er be accomplished using the Scale

Factor instruction or by using suitable "floating point" routines.

4. REPERTOIRE OF INSTROCTIONS.

The complete list of instructions which the computer performs is presented below. The instructions are arranged in 11 groups. according to their basic characteristics. In each listing a code representing the instruction is enclosed in parentheSE!S after the name of the instr",ction~

The operation code portion is designated by a two-number combination and the execution addresses by the letters u and v. In some cases u is replaced by the conditioning factors,j and n, as in the

Repeat instruction; and v is replaced either by the repeat termination address w.

01' in shifting oper..ations b'f the factor k.

Table

1-1 shows the entire repertoire of instructions arranqed by their octal code number. Unit's digits of the! operation code are arranged horizontally, eight's digits vertically. In Table 1-1 the operation code portion of each instruction is also represented by letters suggesting the name and function of th~ instruction.

(J •

SEQt1E:~ED INSTROCTIONS.

(1) MULTIPLY

(7luv): Form in

l\

the 72-bit product of (u) and (v), leaving in

Q

the multiplier (u). leaving

(2) MtLTIPLY ADD

(72uv): Add to (A) the 72 .. bit product of

(u) and (v), in

Q

the multiplier (u).

(3) DIVIDE (73uv): Divide the 72-bit number (A) by (u). putting the quotient in by

Q.

and leaving ift

A a non-negative remainder R. Then replace (v)

<Q).,

The quotient and remainder are defined by:

(A) i :::

(u) ·

(Q)

+ (, where

OS; R

<

(u>l.

Here

(A) i denotes the

Ini ti a1 contents

0 f A.

(4) SCALE FACTOR (74uv): Replace (A) with D(u)'. Then left circular shift (A) by 36 places; Then eonti'nue to shift (A) until A34

'1

A3S' Then replace the right-hand 15 bits of (v) with the number of l~ft circular shifts, k. which would be necessary to return

(A) t.o 'its origiftal pOSition. If (A) is all ones or zeros;, k

=

37.

If u is the address of t'he

Accumulator,

(A) is left unchanged in the first step, instead of being

'replaced by D(An).

(5) REPEAT

(75jnw): This instruction calls for the next instruction, which will bEt called

NIttv. to be executed n times, its ftu" and "v" addresses being modi fiEld or not according to the value of j.

Normally n executions are

Uk'lde and the program is a fixed

pontinued

by the execution of the instruction stored at

Me address

Fl-

The steps carried out are:

(a) Replace the right-hand 15 bits of (Fl) with the address w.

(I(b)

Exeoute

Nluv, the next instruetion in the program n times.

*

See Repeat Sequence Control, Page 14, this Section.

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~SU.CH

OI',W,ION

GENERAL lESCRI Pfl<Ji

ERA 1103

TABLE 1-1. REPERTOIRE OF

INSTlOCTI()fI5. ERA

1103

CeJdPUrER

. S&;TI~ 1

~-T------o

1

1 - - ' _ - - - - - - - - 1 - -.. _ .. - _ - - - 1 '

2 3

4

+--_ _ _

7

5 6

+-_ _ _ o

-------- -------I-o·--,,_·-----i-------l-I---··-

----+------+-------+-------

TPuv

TMuv

TNuv

IP--

TUuV'

TVuv

EFv

1

I---

--m-_-~-;_---___1r__---_+----+-----4------I---,---I-------'--

.)

'-

RAuv

RSuv

1 - f-._-_

--.~-.-.---.-.-----

,..-.--.------

SPu1<

SAilk

SNuk

SSuk

ATuv

STuv

CCuv

I

-r-~--~

RJUVf

()

4 IJuv TJuv EJuv

QJuv

MJjv SJuv ZJuv l

!

!

~~--------~.-------~--------~.-------.+_--------r_------+---------~----~--;

QTuv

QAuv

QSuv

LAuk

LQuk

MSjv

~

FS

I

5

I

t--.+------+------+------~-.--+------~----+--------!-.--.---~

I

PRv

PDj v ftMj nv

WMjnv

AMjr.

BMjn

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1 .. 7

GENERAL DESCHIPTlOO

SECTI(~

1

(c) If j

::: 0, do not change u and v.

If j

;:;; l, add

one

to v after each execution.

T f j

:::

~ add one to u after each execution.

If j

::: 3. add one to u and v after each execution.

~·(d)

On completing n executions, take (F

1

)

as

the next instruction.

1~(e)

If the repeated instruction is a jump of stop instruction, the occurrence

0]( a jump or atop terminates the repetition. In addition, if Nluv is a Threshold ~Jwnp or an Equality Jump, and the jump .to address v occurs,

(Q) is replaced by the quanti ty j, (n-r). where r is the number of executions that have taken place. h.

'ffiANSMISSIVE INSTRUCTIONS.

(1)

TRANSMIT POSITIVE

(11 uv) : Replace

(v) with (u).

(2) 'rnANSMIT NEGATIVE

(l3uv):

Replace

(v) wi th tHe complement of (u). of (u).

( 3) ntANSMIT MAGNITUDE (12uv) : Replace (v) with the absolute magnitude

(4) TRAN~dIT U-ADDRESS (l5uv): Replace the 15 bits of

(v), designated by vi

5 throu9h

V2q.

with the.corresponding

21 b ts of (v) undisturbed. bits of (u), leav.ing the remaining

(5) TItANSMIT V-ADDRESS (16uv): designated b~'

Replace the right-hand

15 bits of

(v)

Vo through v14' w.ith the corresponding bits of (u), leaving the remaining 21 bits of

(v)

undisturbed. ,

(6) ADD

AND

TRANSMIT (35uv):

Add

D(,,) to (A). Then replace (v) with

(7) SUBTRACT AND TRANSMIT (36uv): Subtract

D(u) from (A). Then re-

'place (v) with (AR). c.

Q-CONTROu...ED INSmUCTIONS

(1) Q-CONI'Rou..ED TRANSMIT (51uv): replace (v) by (An).

Form

1n A the number L(Q) (u). Then

(2)

Q-CONI~OLLEDADD

(S2uv): Add to (A) the number L(Q)(u).

Then replace (v) by

(~).

(3) Q-CONTROLLED SUBSTITUTE (53uv): Form in A the quantity L(Q)(u) plus L(Q)

I(V).

Then replace (v) with (An). The effect is to replace selected hi ts of (v) wi th the correspond1 ng bits of (u) int-Ihose places corresponding to lIs in

Q.

• See Repeat Sequence Control, Page 19, this Section.

~ "

"' ....

--~ ....

--

.---~-,

-----

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()M"IO,.

GENERAL

DESCRJ.PTI~

ERA 1103

SECTIU'l 1 d. REPLACE INSTRUCTIONS.

(1) HEPLACE ADD (21uv): Form in A the sum of D(u) and D(v}. Then replace (u) with (AR).

(2) HEPLACE SUBTRACT (23uv): Form in A the difference D(u) minus o(v).

Then replace (u) with (AR).

(3) CONTROU.ED COWLEMENT (27uv): Replace (AR) with (u) leaving (AL) undisturbed. Then complement those bits of (AR) that correspond to ones in (v).

Then replace (u) with (An).

.

(4) LEFT SHIFf IN A (54uk): Replace (A) with D(u). Then left circular shift (A) by t places. Then replace (u) with (~). If u is the address of the

Accumulator. the first step is omitted, so that the initial content of A is shifted. shift

(5) LEFT SHIFT IN

Q

(55uk): Replace

(Q) with (u). Then left circular

<Q> by k places. Then replace (u) with

(Q).

e.

SPLIT

INsrRUCTIO~.

(1) SPLIT POSITIVE ENTRY (31uk): Form s{u) in A. Then left circular shift (A) by k places.

(2) SPLIT NEGATIVE.

E~NTRY

Then left circular shift (A)

(33uk):

Form in A the

by

k places. complement of S(u) .. by k

(3). places.

SPLIT

ADO (32uk): Add

S(u) to (A). Then left circular shi ft

un

(4) SPLIT SUBTRACT (34uk): Subtract S(u) from (A). Then left circular shift (A) by k places. f.

TWO-WAY CONDITIONAL JUMP INSTRUCTIONS.

(v)

HS

(1) SIGN

~ro.,

(46uv): If A7l ::;: 1. take (u) as NI. If

NI.

A71 = 0, take

(2) ZERO JUW (47uv): If (A) is hot zero, take (u) as NI. If (A) is zero, take (~,) as NI. as NI.

(3) Q-JUMP (44uv): If

035 :::

1, take (u)na NI. If Q35 :;: 0, take (v)

Then. in either case, left circular shift

<Q)

by one place. g.

ONE-WAY C<JIDI110NAL .JUMP I NSI'RtcTIONS.

(1) IN>EX .JUMP

(4Iuv):

Form in A the dl fference D(u) minus 1. Then if

A71

== 1,

(~ontinue the present sequence of instructions; if

A71 :::;;; O. replace

(u) with (~) and take (v) as NI.

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GENEHI\L DEs(.:RIPTION ERA 1103 SECTION

1

(2) THRESHOLD .JUMP (42uv): If D(u) is greater than

(A). take (v) as

NI; if not, continue the present sequence. In either case, leave (A) in its ini tial sta teo

(3) EQUALITY JOW (43uv): If

S(u) equals

(A),

take (v) as NI; if not, continue the present

sequence. In

either case leave

(A)

in its initial state. h. ONE-WAY ur£OODITlOOAL JUlIP IrtiTRUCTIONS.

(I) MANUAILY SELECTIVE JUMP (45jv): If the number j is zero, take (v) as

Nt.

If j is 1, 2 or 3, and the correspondingly numbered MJ selecting switch is set to "j wnp". take (v) as NI; if this swi teh is not set to

"j wnp"', conti nue the present sequence.

(2) RETURN JID.F (37uv): obtained.

R

1 eplace the

Then

take

(v) as NI.

Let y represent the address from which CI right-hand 15 hi t8 of (u) wi til the quanti ty y plus 1. wa s

(3) INTERPRET (14--):

Let

Y represent the address from which CI was obtained.

R'''place the right-hand

15 bits of (F

I

Then take

(F2) as NI.

) with the quantity Y plus 1. i.

MAGNJE:TIC TAPE STORi\GE INSI'RUCTIONS. j

(1) AJ.JVAN;E MAGNETIC TAPE (66j n-): Move the magnetic tape of MT uni t in the fot'1rard'direction by n blocks. (Note: One block consists of

3~~ words.)

(2) BACK MAGNETIC TAPE (67jn-): Move the magnetic tape of MT unit j in the backward direction by n blocks.

(3) READ MA~'ETIC TAPE (64jnv): Read n bloek$ from MT un! t j (runninq forward) to :32 n consecuti ve eddresses in Me starting wi th v.

(4) WRITE MAGNETIC TAPE (65Jnv): From 32 n consecutive

Me, starting with v, write n blocks on MT unit j (running addresses in forward). j .

STOP INSTRUCTIONS.

(l) MAMJAU,Y SELa;TlVE STOP (56jv): If j

=

0, stop computer opera tion' and provide suitable indication.

If

J ::

I, 2. or 3 and the correspondingly numbered MS l~electing

,witch is set to "stop", stop computer operation and provide suitoblt~ indication. Whether or not a stop occurs.

(\1) is NI.

(2) FINr\L STOP (57--): Stop cornputer indication. operation and provide sui table k. EXTEHNAL m)UIPMENI' INSTROCT10NS.

(1) EXTERNAL rur-cTION <17-v)

1

As designated by (v)

select

0 unit of external equipment and cause it to perform a function.

(v)

(2) EXTERNAL READ (76jv): If j wi th (lOA): if

=

0, replace

J ::;:

I, replace (v) wi th

(lOB). the right-hand n hi ts of

...

~ gN~*~E~;"~C ~~U~;~",{sSlCIAH$

OIViSION

J

10

GENEIL\L DESCRI PTI ON

ERA 1103 SECTION 1

(3) EXTERNAL WRITE (77jv): If j

8 bits of (v); if j

=

0, replace (lOA) with the right-hand

=

It replace

(IOO) with

(v). Cause the previously selected unit to respond to the information in lOA or lOB.

(4) PRINT (61-v): Replace (TWR) with the right-hand 6 bits of (v).

Cause the typm~rlter to perform the operation specified by the 6-bit code.

(5) PUr-LH (63jv): Replace (HPR) with the right.band 6 bits of (v). j

Cause the punch to respond to

(HPR). If j :::

0: omit seventh level hole; if

=

1, include seventh level hole.

5. GENERAL THEORY OF <Pfltr\TlOO. a. GENERAL. - The computer is divided into five basic $~tions as follows:

(1) INPUT. - Effects insertion of data Into the

Storage

Section.

(2) STORAGE. - Stores information within the computer.

(3) ARITHMETIC. - Per

forms-

digital manipulations to accomplish arithmetic and logical operations.

(4) OUTPlJI'. -

Deli vers the resul ts of a computa tion to external dovices.

(5) CONI1UL. Interprets the pr'oqram and di reets its execution.

The general features of each of the above systems and the manner in which each system functions with the otbers in tbeaolution

oia

program is discussed in the following subparagraphs. . h. PRIr-cIPAL MULTIPtEPOSE REGISTERS. The X Q-Register, and the Accumulator lectively each pe.rform several different functions. These registers colare generally referred to

81 the

"arithmetic registers"; however, each has addi tional functions not associated wi th aTi thmetie functions •. Brief descriptions of the register. and their functions are given in the following su.bparagraphs.

(1) X-REGISTER. - The

X-Register,

X, is a 36-bit flip-flop register which can be complemented. It has two fUllctions:

(8)

As an

"exchange register",

X

handles

nearly all internal transmissions of words between various sections of the computer.

(b) As an

"arithmetic register", X holds the addend. subtrahend. multiplicand. and divisor in the corresponding arithmetic operations.

(2) Q-REGISTER. - The Q-Reg18te~Qt is a 36-bit flip-flop register with shifting properties. It bas three functions:

(a) As a

"storage register",

Q

provide. storage for

8 single 36bit word. It is individually addrelsed; its address is 1---- (only the first octal digit is of significance).

I

-J

1

&MCIItEUIIi

~'UICII

OIVIS'Or.

~,.

,....,.4 t-··

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

ERA 1103

SECIION 1

(b) As an "assembly register", Q is capable of receiving several hits at a time and by shifting can ultimately assemble

8

36-bit word. In conj unetion wi th

Magnetic Tape

Storage,

Q assembles a word, two bi t5 at a time during

8 reading operation. and disassembles a word, two bits at a time during a writing operation.

(c) As an "Arithmetic register", Q holds the multiplier, quotient, and logical multiplier in the corresponding arithmetic operations.

(3) ACClJMLLATOH. - The

Accumulator,

At is a

72-bit flip-flop register with shifting properties. This register is subtractive in nature. cally divided into two halves termed miSSIve link

An

A is logi-

(A-rigllt)and AL (A-left). The transto

X is from

AR only, although the algebraic sign is carried by AL-

A has two fu.nctions:

(a) As a "storage register",

A provides storage for a single 36. bit word (in AR). It is individually addressed; its address is' 2----(only the first octal digit is of significance).

(b)

As an

"arithmetic register",

A holds the sum, difference. product, and dividend (and remainder) in the corresponding arithmetic operations.

In addition, products may be accumulated up to 72 bits through

8 combination of multiplication and addition. . c.

INPUT SECTION

(1) PUNCHED PAPER TAPE. - The program of inst.ructions and operands is pr(~sented to the computer via standard seven level perforated paper tape. The

"1" digits are represented by holes in the tape, the "0" digjts by the absence of holes. Six of the tape levels store data; the seventh stores loading codes which direct the insertion of the data into storage. Since a ~inrrle frame of holes arross the tape stores six d~ta bits, each word is stored in 5~ x-bit segments in

SIX consecutive frames on the tape.

(2) THE TAPE READER. - A photoelectric tape reader is used to transform the data on the perforated paper tape into corresponding patterns of pulses which are then sent to the computer. The output of the reader, for any one fram~t consists of six bits of data and mayor may not contain a seventh-level hole.

i\

feed pulse, generated each time a frame is 'read, transfers the contents of that

.fram!~ t.o the computer for eventual assembly into a word and separation of the seventh-level (providing it is present) from the data. After three seventh-level holes have been read the computer generates a three bit loading code. The sparing of the seventh-level holes (in frame counts) determines the code.

(3) OPTIONAL INPCT. - Through the use of the input-output registers, lOA and lOB, a great variety of optional input mechanisms cperatinq basically under their own control may transmi t data to the compu.ter.

These registers comrnunieate directly with the X-Register, and are involved in in.put operations only as direeted by a control program. d,

STORAGE SECTION. - The principal function of the Storage Section, or computer memory, is to provide the Arithmetic and Control Sections with the operands and instructions required during the execution of a program. A secondary function of the section is to provide temporary storage for the intermediate and final results of the comput~tions.

1-1:':

~7

. .>

.

-

22

A

liSIMURI'" 1'..EUUCM /TSSDCIAli S

D'V'~'

,>.

GENE HAL DESCRIPTION

SECfrON 1

The Storage Section is composed of four classes of uniquely addressed storage lo~ations (Magnetic

DruID

Storage, Magnetic Core Storage, the Acc\Il1\llator, and the

~)-Register) and the Magnetic Tape Storage used

Systelll.

Individual addresses are to identify the storage positions of the four storage classes MD,

Me,

A, and

(l.

1\

total of 17.410 15-bi t addresses is assigned to these classes, as follows:

MC o

A

MD

Mil

MlJ

{Group

4)

(Group

5)

(Group

6)

MD (Group

7)

Addresses in Octal Notatioq

00000-01777

1 - -

:2' ... __ ...

40000-47777

50000-57777

60000- () 7777

70000-77777

,\ddresses

02.000-07777 and 30000-;37777 are not used and result in

8 fault if included in a program. Words are stored on magnetic tape in blocks of 32 words each. The words in the blocksare not individually addressed, but the blocks are located by their relative positions on the tape as specified by a "block

<:ount t f

:!6~~t144

The magnetic tape words. system (four magnetic tape units) can store up to

/\ storage rt~ferencf' to MDt Me, A or Q is made on the basis of the IS-hi t stora~Je address held in the

Storage Address Register, SAH at the time of the t rpference. The address held in

SAR is interpreted by the

Storage

Class Translator and

Storaue

Class

Control.

The proper one of the four addressed classes is then selected and the necessary signals are sent to the proper locating ... circuit. The proper locating circuit then locates the specific storage position called for by

(SAH). . Reference is made to the four magnetic tape uni ts by prO~JraJ8lned nwnb~r instructions which select the proper tape

Wlit, and specify,the of, blocks to he involved in the ~rr operation.

(1) STORAGE ADDRESS REGISTER" - The Storage Address Register (SAR) holds the I5-bit storage address during Any storage reference other than 8 referance to the

Magneti c

Tape Storage

System.

~AR recei yes addresses from

P.l\K,

U.'K. and VJ\K and communicates with

Sto~age

ClaSS

Control,

MD,

MC. the

X-Register ano

PAK.

(2) SIYJRAGE

CL,\SS CONTROL. translator

The

Storage Class Control

(SeC) anrl its

<scr)

determinE' the class of storage referenced

by

translating the higher-order three bits of the address in S4R. Thus it

Me.

A. or Q is being referenced. may determine that MD,

(3)

MAGNETIC

DRUM

SroR.AGE

SYSTEM. - The

Magnetic

Drum Storage

System is a mediwn access speed storage medium consisting of a magnetic drum,.8 loc::iting circuit, and reading and writing circuits.

The system stores, in parallel. 16,384 words in four groups of 4096 words each. The maximum access time is approxjmately 34 milliseconds, the time taken in one drum revolution.

The drwn addresst~S are 40000 throuqh 77777. i-13

GENF~HAL

DESCRIPTION ERA 1103

SECTION

(a)

MAGNETIC

DRUM

-

The magnetic drum is a preclslon aluminum o cylinder 17 inches in diameter and 12 inchel long. Its surface'is coated with a magnetizable iron oxide. A housihg in which the magnetic heads are mounted covers the surface of the drum The magnetic heads

~hich read and write on o the drum v

S sklrface have thei r gaps about 0 .. 002 inch from the surface and provide non-contact recording of the digital data. At one end of the drum a soft steel band containing the milled Timing Track

and

Mark Track is affixed. The timing notches are spaced 80 to the linear inch and the mark notch (one only) corresponds to one of the timing notches. The mark notch denotes the electrical beginning of the Timing Tracko The data heads are arranged in a spiral fashion to permit an axial spacing of 16 to the inch.

{b) LOCATING CIRCUIT o

-

The MD Locating Circuit is composed of the Group Detector and

Group~elector. the Angular Index Counter (AIK), the

Angu~r

Coincidence Detector, and the Location Control unito It is the function of these circuits to identify the referenced group (one of four)and then to select the proper angular address (one of 4096)

0

An intercha"l1geable Address

Interlace Chassis (4-, 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-interlace patterns may be chosen) is interposed between the Angular Coincidence Detector and the lower-order 12 stages of SAR for the purpose of selecting proper time intervals between consecutive MD storage referenc~s (to accommodate inter-reference sequences) rather than having to wait a full drum revolution between references.

(c) ACCESS CONTROLe - The MD Access Control (MDAC) provides 125 kc

TIMING

PULSES to the Location Control and determines whether a reading or writing operation is ordered; it reacts accordingly on receipt of a COINCIDENCE

PULSE from the Angular Coincidence Detector and sends a RESUME signal to the

Control Section at the complption of the storagereference~

(4) MAGNETIC CORE STORAGE SYSTEM

-

The Magnetic Core Stbrage System o is a non-volatile rapid-acc~ss storage m~dium consisting of 36 magnetic core matrices, an address selection system, a 36-bit input register, and an access controle The system stores ]024 36-bit words in parallel and has an access time of 10 microseconds.

(a) MAGNETIC CORE MATRICES" - Each matrix consists of 1024 cores wired in a 3~~ by 32 array so that the wires all lie in the same plane.. The cores are held in position by the wires which are terminated on a square printed-circuit frame. Each core is a small toroi~ of material exhibiting a nearly rectangular hysteresis loop_ Five wires pass through each core: a horizontal X wire, a vertical Y wire, a diagonal S wire, ~ horizontal

It wire. and a \rertical

12 wire. Each core thus wired, forms a bi-stable device which

CBn store a

"Itt or a nO" depending on the direction of magnetization"

(b) ADDRESS SELECTION

-

The circuits used in address selection o consists of the address Register, the Read/Write Pulse Generators, and the

Read/Write Enable Generators These cireuits select a particular pair of X c and Y wires so that reading or writing is executed at a particular coordinate location.

1-]4

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

ERr\ 1103

SECfION 1

(c)

INPlIT HEGISfER. -

The 36-stage Magnetic Core Input Register acts both as an input register and restoration register. During

8 writing' ope ra t i on a 3,6-b it word from the

X-Reg is ter is t ransmi t ted to the Input

Register from which the word is entered into the Magnetic Core Storage at the address specified by

SAR. Dwring a reading operation, the word being transferred from a

MCS address to the X-Register is held temporarily in the Input

Hegister so that the information at the reference address can be rewritten.

(d) ACCESS CONI'ROL. - The Magnetic Core Access Control receives

INITIATE READ Me or

INITIATE WRITE Me signals from the

Control Section of the computer.

Upton receipt of such a signal, the Access CGntrol generates

8 sequence of operations to effect the incoming connand. These sequences control the reading, writing and restoration operations within the Magnetic Core

Storage System.

(5)

HEGISfER

STORAGE. -

In many programs it is conven i en t to use the

Q-Register and the

Accumulator as one-word storage media.

SAR through sec and the Arithmetic Registers Access Control (AIMC) can select

A or

Q

8S 8 storage register if the u-address or v-address of an instruction so dictates. Q has the address in

1--and A the address 2---. The right-hand four·octal digits each case are immaterial since only the left-hand octal digit designates the respective register.

(6)

MAGNETIC TAPE STOR,~GE

SYSfEM. - The

Magnetic Tape Storage Systan does not have each word individually addressed as in the foregoing discussions on

MD,

Me,

Q, and

J'.

Rather, the words are stored in blocks of 32, and one or more of four program instructions must be used to read or write a block (note that at least 32 words must be read or written during a Magnetic Tape Storage reference). The addressing procedure involves

8

"block count" to arrive at the proper block followed by a reading or writing sequence in which the information in one or more blocks may be transferred. The system consists of four magnetic tape units, a locating Circuit, and a sequence control.

(a)

MAGNETIC

TAPE

UNITS. -

The storage medium in this system is magnetic tape.

The tape is divided into six tracks: two carry timing marks which generate LINE PULSES, two carry one bit and the last two carry a second bit. Each mark is carried twice in non-adjacent tracks so that a flaw in the tape does not obliterate data. Because of the redundant nature of bit storage,

Ie lines of tape (a line is an area at right angles to the length of the tape) are necessary to accommodate one 36-bit word. Since each block contains

32 words,

576 lines are needed in each block. The lines are spaced

100 to the inch and between blocks there is a short blank space containing no data or timing marks.

The tape transport units hold about 1200 feet of tape and a complete scan takes approximately five minutes. Each tape holds 2048 blocks of words or

65,536 words. The four waits, then, store 262,144 words. The tapes are driven at 45.5 inches per second being held on counter-revolving reels which share the same axis,

The tapes can be stopped from full speed within the interblock space ..

(b) LOCATING CIRCUIT. - Each tape unit has an associated locating circuit consisting of a Line Counter (LK) , a Word Counter (WK), a Block Count.er

(BK) , and asociated control stages. LK and WK are additive counters, and BK is a subtractive counter. LK counts LINE PULSES

8S the tape moves, and, when

Rtl-"unq#IIn...

~

E~r.ucu

RiliG

~SU'CK

D,,1.',IO ..

1-15

,-

.....

r--

GENERAL

DESCJtIPTI~

ERA 1103 SECTI~

1 it

reaches a

decimal

count of 18,

aa eDd-carry

81gnal

advances WK by one. An

end carry

.ilJllal from

WK, after reachlllg a count of 32 (decimal). subtracts one ftom

BK. Whctn the count in

DK reaches zero, a signal

Is issued which stops the tape and ind:icates this action to the

Control

Sectloft. Therefore, to locate a specifIc blo(~k, a "block count" is entered in BK nch that, when reduced to zero by the movemc!nt of the tape, the desirf)d block i

I loen ted and a reading or wri ting operation can be initiated. Similarly. dtring a reading or writing operation. the !lumber of referenced blocks are specified sad the tape i l stopped when the block count

ts

exhausted.

(c)

SEQUENCE CONTROL. -

The

Magnetio Tape

Sequence

Control

(MISe) syu·cbronizes the reading and writing operations of the selected MT unit with tha t of the

(~omputer.

During the reading sequence ITSC directs the reading from each line (t~'o bits) into

Q

aDd then shifts at which tiDHt the word is assembled in

Q twiC8.

Thi.

is executed 10 times

Q

and a traulfer from Q to

Me is effected.

During writirlU operation, JIl'SC controls a similar .equenee which transfers the word from IC to

Q

and di,8.lembles the word by writiBg from

Q

and shifting Q two-bi ts at

6. time. The wrl tiDg and shi fting i . executed

18 times thus placing the word in

.rr storage. Note that MTSC is not involved 111 tape positioning instructions.

(66J n-), BacJ.:

(d) INSTRUCTIONS. - Four program instructions relate to the operation of the Magnetic Tape Storage System: the •• are:

Adva.ee

Magnetic Tape

Magnetic Tape (67j n-), Read Magnetic Tape (64j av). and

Wri t6

Magnetic Tape (65jnv). The first two are uled to position the tape starting from a known posi ti on. The

The "n" desig'na

"..1" selects one

of

the four uRi t..

(~!T,

1MT, 2AIT, or 3MT) . tes the number of blocks which the tape is to be advanced or backed. The second two In.truetionl are Illed for reading and wri ting. The

"J"

again designates the tape unit. The "n" designate. the number of blocks to be road which from or wr! t ten into. The "v" designa tea the starting address in

or from: which

the iaformatioa

is to be transf.rred.

Me to e.

ARITHI£TIC

SEX:TI~.

The

Ari tbmetic Section performs the ari thmetic ope~ation. of addition,

subtraction.

multiplicatioD, aDd division as well as some strictly logical operations such as shifting, logical addition (bit-by-bit add! tiou), and logical mul tlplicatioD (hi t-by-bi t multiplieation). The seetfon contains the X-Register,

Q-Regilter,

Accumulator, the Shift Counter and its control, and tbe Arithmetic Sequence Control. trahend,

(1) X":'REGISTER. - As an arithmetic register, X holds the addend, submultiplicand. and divisor in the correspoading arithmetic operations.

In additiOD, during a logical multiplication, X may be considered as holding the mUltiplier; the aetual bit-by-bit maltiplicatioD is

carried

out by a trans-

"mission from

Q. Q'--;..X'.

(2) Q-REGISTER. - As an arithmetic regi.ter,

Q

holds the wltipller and quotieat in the corresponding arithmetic operationa, During a logical multiplication, millioJl

Q'~

Q

may be cGDsidered as

The shiftift{J propeTty boldin9 of Q the multiplicand during the transis utilized in both maltiplica tion

and di vi

sion.

(3) ACCtlMIJlATOO. -

AI aa arithmetic r8(Jister, A hold. the sum. differ.Dce, aad :product in the operatioR, A eorn8poJldlng arithmetic operations.

In the division

In1tially holds the dividend, aJld

at the cOqlletioll of the division

BknJ.nq#IIn..

~

·i'"~~I;E;;'.' ~U~~tI

!1fsSOCIATu

OIYISION

1-16

GENERAL

DESCH:IPT

ION

ERA 1103

SECTION 1 operation

A holds the non-negative remainder

R.

The shifting property of

A is utilized in Dlultiplication. division, and in the scale factor operation. The

Acctlnulator is basically subtractive; an operand in being transferred from X to

A

is automatically complemented. and subtracted. During a transfer from

X

to

A

the modulus is converted from

236..1 to

272-1 except i.n

"split" operations.

(4) SHIFT COUNTER. -

The Shift Counter, SK, used to keep track of the number of shifts in arithmetic operations. Physically, SK is the seven order stages lowerof

SAR

(since SAR is not used as an address register during an arithmetic sequence, SAR is free to perform this second function). Associated wi th SK is the Shift Counter Control, SKe, which governs its sequence.

(5) ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE o)NTROL. The Ari thmetic Sequence Control,

ASC, controls the operations of the Arithmetic Section upon command from the

Control Section.

I\SC

generates sequences of subcommands, each subsequence being dependent on the command received from the Control Section. At the end of the subsequence, control is returned to the Control SectioD. f.

Olrrpl~ SECTION. -

The basic output devices of the

ERA 1103

Computer are an electric typewriter and a high-speed tape punch. In addition, optional output equipment may be employed using the input-output registers lOA and lOB.

The two basic devices are connected to the computer by the basic Output System in such a manner that a 6-bi t character held in

X may be recorded ei ther by the • typewriter (when a PRINr inst.ruction is called for) or by the hIgh-speed punch

(when a PUNCH instruction occurs). Under program control, optional output devices may be connected to the computer and receive data via the input-output registers lOA and lOB.

(1)

TYPEWRITER. - The Typewri ter Register

(TWR) recei ves from

X and temporari ly stores each

6-bi t character during its recording. The Typewri ter

Control (TWC) receives the order to PRINT from the Control System, translates the 6-bit chllracter held in

TWR, and activates the proper one of

50 different typewriter operations. from

(2)

HIGH SPEFJ) PUNCH. - The High Speed Punch Register

(HPH) receives

X

and temporarily stores each 6-bit character during its recording in the pUllcn mode. It also stores the factol" "j" which controls the punching of

8 seventh-level hole. The High

Spe2d

Punch Control (OPC) receives the order to punch and directs the transfer of the character onto

8 single line of tape.

"j"

=

It HPC

;lso directs the punching of a seventh-level hole.

If

(~{) OPTION;\L OUfPUT. -

By the use of a programmed sequence of instructions, output data from the computer caD be sent to

8 variety of suitable output devices via lOA and lOB. g. CONrHOL

SECTION. -

The Control Section exerts the directing influence over the acti.vities of the computer py controlling the timing of the various operations of the computer. The Control Section receives the instructions which the computer is to carry out; interprets them, and directs their execution upon the operands specified. The computer must be manually started, but can stop automatically or be manually stopped. Besides being automatically controlled by a" program of instructions, it can be manually controlled from the Supervisory

Control Panel which contains all the necessary ~ontrols and indicators for manually operating (and maintaining) the equipment. n.~lnlnqlu.rL

#land

&NGINHRUtG

~SU'CK

O''1'',IOr<

1-17

GF~ERAL

DESCRIPTION

ERA 1103

SECTION 1

(1) M~STER CLOCK. - All the activities which take place within the computer, except for certain ones in the magnetic tape and output sections, are synchronized by

8 central timing system, called the Master Clock. During NORMAL computer operation, the clock generates

500 kc

CLOCK PULSES based on TIMING

PULSES from the iiagnetic Drwn Storage 5ystESD and, after exerting certain controlling influences over them, supplies them to circuits throughout the computer.

During TEST operations,

8

500 kc oscillator Ilay be used instead of the drum

8S the basic source of timing pUlses.

The principal circuits of the master clock system, and the functions they serve, are as follows:

(a) TEST OSCIlLATOR. - Generates

8 continuous series of timing pulses at a rate of 500 kc.

(b) CLOCK SOURCE SELECTOR (C55). - Selects either the MD system or the TEST OSCILLATOR, depending upon manual selections made by the operator, as the source of timing pulses for the clock.

(c) QU)CK

RATE

CONTROL (CRC). - Controls the rate at which pulses leave the clock. During test operations, CRC permits the operator to select any of six different pulS'e rates. During NORMAL operation, it automatically selects the 500 kc pulses from the MD Syst€!ll.

(d) PULSE

DI5~RIBUTOR'CONTROL

(POe). - Starts and stops the flow of CLOCK pulses from eRC to the Main Pulse Distributor in response to signals received from other sections of the computer.

(2)

MAIN PULSE

DISTRIBUTOR. - The Main Pulse Distributor, MPD, receives

CLOCK pulses from POC and distributes them. in successive cycles of from four to eight pulses, to the Command Timing Circuits. The distributor supplies each of the pulses cyclicly on its eight output lines. In an eight pulse cycle, .811 the output lines are used and the pulses are designated, in the order of their generation, MPO through

MP7.

The selection of a particular cycle is made on the basis of the operation code held in the Main Control Register, MCR. Each code selects the cycle which will permit its performante in the least possible time.

(3)

PROGMM

ADDHESS

COUNIER. -

The

Program

Address

Counter,

PAK, is a

I5-stage additive counter which is used to generate successive addresses at which the instructions of the computer's program can be found. During computation, the address in PAK is referred to each time an instruction word is to be obtained from the computer manory; PAK can thus be thought of as guiding the eomputer through the instructions of the program being rWl. The starting address of a compu.tation may be manually inserted into PAK before the STAIn' button is pushed; if this is done t computation will begin by picking up the instruction stored at that address. If PAK is not manually preset, it will automatically be

St~t to either MD address 40000 or MC address 00000 depending on other starting selections that are wade. Once computation is started, PAK then generates consecutive addresses at which succeeding instructions in the program can be found.

If a jump instruction appears in the program and its execu.tion calls for a jump to be made the following events occur:

(1) the jllDp address (i.e., an address

1 to which the Control Section

Mllst now refer in extracting the next instruction) is inserted into PAK; (2) the Control Section picks u.p the next instruction from the j wnp address specified by PAK and advances PAK by one; and (3) thereafter,

1-1U

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

ERA 1103

SECTION 1

PAK generates consecuti ve addresses, starting from the Jump address, Wlti

1 another jump occurs or until a stop instruction appears.

(4) PROGRAM CONTROL REGISTERS. - The Program Control Registers, PCR, receive each instruction and temporarily store it during its execution. The registers consist of the lain Control Register, MCR, the U-Address Counter,

UAK, and the V-Address Counter, VAK. Each instruction sent to PCR consists of

8 b-Lit operation code, which is stored in

MCR; a

I5-bit u-address portion, which is stored in

UAK; and a 15-bi t v-address portion, which is stored in VAK.

Each instruction is obtained from some

36-bit storage locatio.n as specified by

PAK"

(5) MAIN CONTROL TRANSLATOR. - The Main Control Translator. MCT, is composed of a principal and an auxiliary translator. Its principal translator receives a b-bit operation code from

MCR and produces a single prime operation code enable on one of its 44 output lines. Its auxiliary translator receives enables from the principal translator, from MCR, and from various other circuits in the computer, and produces composite or conditional enables. Output enables from both translators in

MCT are utilized throughout the Control Section, but mainly in the Command Timing Circuits,

MPD. In erc, and the Main Pulse Distributor, erc, the MCT enables are used in the selection of the sequence of commands which are needed to execu.te the instruction currently in MeR.

In MPD,

the MCT enables are used in the selection of the MAIN PtL5E, MP, cycle required for the operation.

(6)

COMMAND

TIMING

CIRCUITS. - The Command Timing Circuits, CTC, combine each operation enable, from the Main Control Translator, with the corresponding MP cycle, from MPD, to produce a discrete sequence of commands which executes the specified operation. erc receives two or more of the pulses MPO through MP5, and MP6 and MF7, along with each operation enable. It distributes pulses MPO through MP5

8S comD'llnds which execute the operation. It reads the succeeding instruction from storage into X on MP6, then transfers the instruction from X into PCR on MP7.

(7) REPEAT SEQUENCE CONTROL. - When a Repeat Instruction (75jnw) is executed, a repeat sequence is set up in the Repeat Sequence Control, RSC. The controlling functions of this repeat sequence depend on the values of "nn and

"j" in the Repeat Instruction and the nature of the instruction following the

Repeat. In general, the RSC sequence (1) notifies Control that a repeat operation is in progress; (2) causes additional commands to be generated on MP5 during the execution of the repeated instruction <these commands determine whether another execution of the instruction should be carried out and therefore, the usual MP 6 omitted, or they determine that the repeat operation should be terminated); and (3) initiates the Repeat Termination routines. (RSC may be rendered inoperative by certain jwnp and stop instructions.) The nature of the repeat operation and the specific functioning of RSC is outlined in the following paragraph.

During the execution of the Repeat Instruction, the right-hand I5-bits of

(Fl) are replaced by "w"; the instruction to be repeated is transmitted to PCR

(and its operation code held there until the repeat operation is terminated); the factor "jn" is stored in PAK; PAK is then complemented, and

8 repeat sequence is initiated in RSC. The RSC sequence then tests to see if the un" of the

1-19 gMIiIIUIUJU;

-.-

--

-,---"""-

~SUICH

OtVI510N

GENERAL DESCRIPTION ERA 1103

SECTlON 1

Repeat lnstruction is zero or not.

If n :;: 0, the

RSC sequence is immediately terminated, and no execution of the instruction in peR is carried out; rather

Control is directed to go to Fl for the NI. If n

~

0, the RSC sequence advances MPD to 7, SAR is cleared, MPD advances and the instruction in PCR is executed. Whether it is then repeated or not depends on the value of n and the nature of the instruction itself. If the execution of an instruction does not create a condition which can teI~inate the repeat sequence (as a jump or stop).

HSC advances PAK and tests the new value of "n". If n ;:. 0, RSC advances the execution addresses of the instruction as specified by the initial value of

'~" in the 75 jnw instruction:

If j ::: 0,

RSC does not advance the

"u" or "v" address

If j ;;;;;

1, RSC advances the

"v" address by one

If

1

,J

:::

2,

RSC advances the "u" address by one

If j :;:

3,

RSC advances both the ttv" and "u" addresses by one.

RSC also sets MPD to 7 (omits MP 6, thereby retaining the instruction to be repeated in peR). On MP 7, SAR is cleared; MPD then advances, and another execution of the instruction is carried out. This procedure continues until "n" executions

ha:ve

been made, or until some condition arises in the execution of the instruction which terminates the repeat sequence. The manner in which the repeat sequences of the various instructions are terminated is shown on the table on Page 6-98, APPENDIX B.

6.

APPENDIX A.

Each instruction in the Computer's repertoire is also listed in APPENDIX A,

(x)NrENT OF REG ISI'EHS , at the end of this volume. This appendix explains the effect, that the execution of each instruction has on the content of the A and

Q Registers and the MD and

Me

Storage Locations, for various types of storage class selections that may be chosen as each instruction's execution addresses. b"r6GIMHRIMG

~SU'CH

D'VI'iI(,N

1-20

OPERATION ERA 1103 SECTION 2

SEcrION 2

OiJERATION

1.

GENERAL.

The total operation of the

ERA 110:3

Computer System is not performed by one person but by a group operating a s a team. Generally, three types of persons are involved; these are: operators, maintenaDce personnel, and programmers.

The maintenance personnel are responsible for turning on the power, perfonning the routine maintenance tests, isolating and correcting machine malfunctions, and shutting down the equipment. The operator is responsible for operating the system (after appli.cation of power) from the Supervisory Control Panel, preparing the external equipment for operation, and changing tapes in the Magnetic

Tape Storage System. The operator's control of the system via the Supervisory

Control Panel is usually in the NORMAL mode.

The programmer may operate the system from the Supervisory Control Panel in the course of "debuggingtl a program.

In doing so, it will be necessary to use the

TESr mode as well as the NORMAL mode. The following paragraphs cover the total operation in the normal order starting with the system completely shut down. All referenced plates are in

Volume 6.

2.

TURNING

ON THE

EQUIPMENT. a.

MAIN POWER DISCONNECT. - Check to see that the DRUM DRIVE MOTOH switch

(Plate

5-19) :and the

BLOWER

DRIVE

MOTOR switch (Plate

5-24) are set to the

ON position. Then set the

MAIN

POWER DISCONNECT switch (Plate tion. The drum and blower motors will start.

2-1) to the

ON posih.

MAIN IPOWER SUPPLY. - The following step-by-step procedure applies power to all sectio11S except the Magnetic Core Storage System. The controls referred to are mount~j on the MAIN POWER CONTROL PANEL (Platp 2-2).

STEP

.L.

Turn the SEQUENCE LIMITING switch to the OPERATE position.

STEP

:~. Press the NORMAL ON-OFF button. The power application cycle timer starts r\lnning immediately and the TIMER ON indicator lights. The remaining POWER SEQlmNCE indicators (INIT. SEQ.,

LOW HEATER, FULL HEATER, BIAS, and POSe VOLTAGES) are successively illuminated as shown in the following table.

Indicator

TIMER ON

IN!T. SEQ.

LOW HEATER-

~

0 sec.

24 sec.

34 sec.

FUll. HEATER

BIAS

~1S. VOLTAGES

'")

'min. ,

2 min.,

3<1

~H sec. sec.

3 min., 14 sec.

~'he HEATER

HOur{S meter starts running at this time.

Rpl'n1nq1nn,-

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OP ffi

AT I ON

ERf'\ 1103

SECTIOl\

:2

At the end of the power application cycle, the

TIMER ON indicator is extinguished but the other indicators remain illuminated. During the cycle the VG4TAGE FAULT indicators (-80, -25, -15, and +S) should be disregarded.

STEP 3. Press the CLEAR POWER SUPPLY FAULT button if any voltage fault indicators remain on after the

POS. VOLTAGES

indicator is illuminated.

Failure to extinguish indicates an actual malfunction.

STEP 4.

Check the~220

VAG

on all three phases

and

the 110 VAG by turning the A-C VOLTAGE switch to each position. ~H~E

At

PHASE B, and

.PHASE C should read 220

VAC, and

110 A-C should read

110

VftC.

STEP 5. Check the d-c voltages at each position of the D-C VOLTAGE switch.

'fhe meter must read !5 percent of the indicated voltage.

In the event the power application cycle timer is at the

POSe

VOLTAGES end of the cycle

(dUll! to a previous emergency stop or

8 manual sbut-down via the

SEQUEr-l:E

LIMITIl'l;

Iwi t,ch). -i t is necessary ef ther to go through an automatic shut .. down cycle and theJ~ a turn-on cycle or to go through

8 manual turn-on using the SE-

QUEN:E

LIMITIl~ switch. c.

~~AGNETIC

CORE POWER SlPR..Y. - 111& proeedure for turning on the

Me Power

Supply for no:nnal operati on is described below. The eontrols used in this procedure are mounted on the

Me power panel (see Plate 2-3).

STEP 1. '":Lurn the sequence limi ting fill tch to OPERATE.

STEP 2. Press the

NOHl'M~

ON-OFF

button.

The timer will start running and the TIMFll ON indicator will glow. The remaining power sequence indicators on the

Me

power control panel will then illwninate in a definite timed sequence which is shown in the chart listed below.

Tl1e times shawn are the approximate elapsed times after the l\'ORMAL

ON-OFF button is pressed. Disregard any voltage fault indications

\lnti 1 the operate indicator glowa·.

Indicator

TIMER ON 0

.IiJIw. sec

lNIT. SF.Q.

LOW HEATER

FULL HEATER

BIAS

POS.

V<X.TAGE

OPERATE

24

34 sec sec

2

2 mi n 34 sec min

54 sec

3 min 14 sec

3 mi n

34 sec

STEP 3. Turn the A.C. VOLTAGES switch to each of its positions. At each switch position the A.C. VOLTAGES meter should indicate the voltages labelled at the switch positi"on.

STEP 4. Turn the D.C. VOLTAGES switch to each of its positions. At each swi tch pOli. ti on the D.C. VOLTAGES meter should read between :5 per cent of the voltage labelled at the gwltch position.

...

~

-- -

------$.~t;(~~~.;;-~SUIC1f

,.fsSOCIATU

OIYISION

2-2

OPImATION

EllA 1103

SECTION 2 d. MANUAL OPERATION

Of

POWER SUPPLIES. -

Under certain condi tion5 it is desirable to turn on the Main

Power

Supply or

Me

Power

Supply manually, i.

8., to step through

th.e power

sequence

manually not using

tbe

timer.

The

procedure is as follows.

STEP

1.

-TLlrn the sequence

I iml ting swi tch to OFF.

STEP 2. Press

the

NORMAL ON-OFF button.

The timeT

will

start running and the TIMER ON indicator

will glow.

After 24 seconds the

INIT. SEQ.

indicator

will glow.

Althougb the timer is running, it

will

not start the power sequence with the sequence limiting switch in the

OFF

position.

STEP 3. Turn the sequence limiting switch to the right through it, marked positions and allow the sequence limiting switch to of its

rest

at each

positions

the prescribed

amount of

time. Minimum times

are

listed.

At

Posi\ion

LOW HEATER

FUI.L BEATER

BIAS

POS. VOLTAGE

Allow

10 sec

2 min

20 sec

20

sec

OPERATE 20 see

STEP 4.

Perform

Steps 3 and 4 of Paragraph c above.

e. WARM-lP TIME.

-'After completing the

turn on

procedure outlined above. allow the equipment to warm up at least 30

minutes

before oomputation it initiated.

3.

PREPARATION OF MT UNITS. a.

TAPE lHREADING PROCEDURE. A

Magnetlc

Tape

Unit is shown in

Plate

2-4.

The numerical call-outs· in thia photograph identify the various components and control.

referred

to in the

following

step-by-step procedure.

STEP 1. Set the STANDBY (1) and reMER (2) switches to their ·'down" pOSitions.

Turn the SELOCTOO switch (3) to either one of the S (Stop) pOlitions.

STEP 2. F:emove the two empty tape reels

(4).' The outer tape reel is removed by depresslnq the outer spring loaded finger (5) and pulling t.he reel' out. Remove the inner tape reel by depressing both inner

Hnd outer spring

loaded

fingers and pulling the reel

out.

STEP 3. Both inner and outer tape reels are identica.1 and hence are interc:hangeable. Position one of the

reels

so that the opening in reel flange is visible from the front. The

its reel·s

threading

pin

(6) is then also visible.

Loop a prepared tape (see Paragraph 2,

Section 3, Volume I)

around

the reel by turning the

reel

clockwise.

Be sure that the magnetIc (dull) side of the tape is outermost.

Also make certain that tbe tape is securely fastened to the reel before sta.rting to completely fill the reel. When this reel, which

:Ls to be used as the inner reel, is hanging free from its left

side. filled,

the tape should be

~'L~

- -

--~~I;(~~III" ,<f~u.~;IfsSOCtAT[$ OI'lI~I()N

2-3

OPERATION

ERA 1103

SECTION 2

STEP 4.

Depress both inner and outer spring loaded fingers. and mount the filled in.ner reel onto the hub (7) so that the reel's front face

(the one showing the threading pin) is visible. When the inner r~el is in position oV'er the inner portion of. the hub, move the reel counter-clockwise until it locks over the hub.

Releasing the. inner spring loaded finger completes the locking action of the hub to the inner reel.

STEP 5.

Mount the empty outer reel on the huh in the same manner, i. e., so that its threading pin is visible from the front .

STEP 6. .Attach the tape to the empty outer reel by securing the free end

>of

'~as the tape to the outer reel's threading pin in the same manner as done in loading the inner reel, magnetic side out. Be sure that the tape

is

not twisted while

being

looped from one reel to the other o'

STEP 7.

Turn the outer reel counter-clockwise and wind the tape around it

!I,lnti 1 the tape is securely fastened to the reel.

STEP B.

Having thus firmly at tac'hed the tape to each reel. mately three, feet of the tape from the inner reel.

:should then form a loop which hangs downward from the inner reel and downward from the right side of dull side out.

pullout

approxi-

The loose tape the left side of the outer reel,

STEP

9.

Thread the tape coming off the outer reel on fixed idlers (8)" (') ), and (10). Slide the carrier (II) and arm (12) to the left as fa!' as they will go. Slip the tape between carrier idlers

(13) and

(15) and fixed idler (14). Then loop the tape over the caps tan (16) •• that the tape's magnetic .ide (dull) 1s uppennost. Thread the tape under the magnetic head (17) and over fixed idler

(18).

STEP 10. Move the carrier (II) slowly to the extreme right until carrier

.;ldlers (19) and

(20) extend beyond fixed idlers (

21), (22), and

/:' C23)

Be sure to keep the tape on the idlers which were th,readed

\1n Step

9.

Thread the tape down between idlers

(19 ,

(20,),

(~l>,

(2,). and (23). Place the tape over the wiper pad (24) and under the lead-in fixed idler

(25). <SeveTal f'llded layers of clean lens tissue should be clamped on the

wiper.

pad.>

STEP 11. Move the carrier to the center of the track by turning the outer reel co~nter-clockwise while applying a slight clockwise force to the inner reel. This removes all tape slack in the tape handling mechanism.

STEP 12. Carefully examine all points of contact between the tape and idlers

1.0 be sure the tape 1s properly seated in its correct position and does not rub on any of the idler rims. b. PROCEDURE roo

AUT<I1ATIC OPERATION. - After a magnetic ta~e unt t is threaded. the following step-by-step procedure using the MT Unit s manual controls is carried out.. The tape 1s run through the unit several times using its manual control. to

insure

the unit's proper operation in.ita automatic mode under

~"Rand.

---- --.-----"$ .. ~I~(~;.~c

;aSEl.CN "fsSDCllTES

DIVISION

2-4

OPERATION ERA 1103

SECTION 2 computer control. (In the following procedure "callout" numbers in parentheses are placed after each of the IT unit controls mentioned. These controls can be located on Plate 2-4.)

STEP 1. Set the POWER switch (2) to its "up" position. The POWER ON indicator (26) will glow. Allow the unit to warm up for one minute.

STEP 2.

Position the carrier

(11) to the center of its track as described in

STEP 11 of the threading procedure, subparagraph

3a(1) •

STEP 3.

Holding the tape reels firmly, set the

STANDBY switch

(1) to its

"up" position.

STEP 4. Slowly release pressure on the reels and allow them to reach their equilibriwn positions, thus absorbing any slack in the tape.

STEP 5.

Turn the

SELECTOR switch

(3) to

F

(Forward). Allow the tape to almost empty from the inner reel onto the outer reel and then turn t"he SELECTOR swi tch

(3) to ei ther

S

(Stop) posi tion.

WARNING

STOP

THE

TAPE'S

MOVEMENr BEFORE ALL OF IT

HAS

EMPTIED ONTO THE Ol1l'ER REEL.

OTHERWISE

THE TAPE

W TORN· FROM THE INNER REEL.

STEP 6. Tutl1 the

SELF.CfOR swi tch (3) to R

(Reverse). Allow the tape to almost empty from the outer reel onto the inner reel and then turn the SFLEL~OR switch (3) to either S (Stop) position.

WARNING

STOP THE TAPE'S MOVEMENT

BEFORE

ALL

OF

IT HAS

EMPTIED ONTO THE INNER

REEL.

OTHERWISE THE

TAPE

BE

TORN

FROM THE DurER REEL.

STEP 7. Repeat Steps 5 and 6, leaving the tape so that a portion of its leader is under the reading heads. (The length of the leader varies but it is always at least

10 feet long. t

STEP b. Allow the magnetic" tape wlit to warm up for

30 minutes before automatic operation is initiated.

STEP 9. For automatic control of a magnetic tape unit by the compu~er, turn the SELECTOR swi tch (3) to A (Automat i c) •. c. PROCEDURE FOR INITIAU,.Y POSITIONING TAPE. - Before Computation which involves using the Magnetic Tape Storage System is initiated, the magnetic tape in each unit that is to-be used must be properly position~d with respect to the unit's head assembly; i.e., the starting point on the tape in each unit must he located beneath the unit's head assembly. A properly prepared tape has the following spacings and arrangement of blocks:

(a) Leader - blank space, at least 10 feet long.

(b) First Error Block - a space in which seo

LINE PULSES are inserted.

HIP"unqlDn

#lund

.

£'.nil~(~lnUi ~~£-A~;~"!fs$OCIAHS

U""'d(IN

2-5

OPEHATION

ERA 1103 SECTiON

'J

(c) Forward Starting Position - a long blank space between the Error

Block and the first Datu Block.

(d)

Storage AreCl t s ubdi vided as follOt'l5:

1st

Data

Block

IN'fERBLOCK SPACE

2nd

Data

alock

1 NTERBLOCK SPACE

3rd Data Diock

INTERBl .. OCK SPACE

204Uth Data

Block

Each Data Block contains 576 LINE pulse.s and can store 32 36-bit words, and each INTERBLOCK SPACE is a blank space about 3/4" long.

(e) Reverse

Sta~ting

Position - a long blank space between the last

Data

Block and the

Second Error Block.

(f)

Second Error Block - a space in which 580 LINE pu.lses are stored.

(g) Txailer - blank sp8ce~ at least

10 feet lang.

The portion objective of the following procedure is to position a tape so that a of 1 ts Forward Starting

Post tion

16 under an MT Unl t

's head assembly.

Controls on both the

Supe~visory

Control Panel. SePt and the MT Unit whose t-ape is being positioned are employed. All SCP controls, lights and indicators are shown on

P1atc~

5-2 unless othentise specified. Wherever possible the group in which a partieular control on the SCP can be found is also mentioned. MT Unit controls are each identified by call-out numbers in parenthesis,

and

are shown

,on Plate 2-4.

ACTION

STEP 1. I f the NORMAL lights on the

SePt

Plate 5-3,are illuminated, push t.he RELEASE NORMAL .but ton

EFFr:CT

NOR~AL lights go out:

.L\DVANCE, BACK

&.

STOP buttons on SCP can then be used to manually operate MT Uni t.

No action is required if

TEST has been selected or

OPERATION MODE Group if no selec tion has been made.

...

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~~-~~~~-,(sSOClll

ES

OlVISION

OPERATION

ERA 1103

SECTION 2

ACTltti

STEP 2. On the MT Unit whose tape is being positioned, make sure that the

SrANDBY (1) switch is in the "up" pDsition and the

SELECTOR (3) switch is set to A (Automatic).

STEP 3.

OIr! the SCP. set the correct Mr

UJrli t

<0,

1,

2, 3) STOP

DISCONNECT switch to the "up" position.

STEP

4. Ora the

SCP, press the ADVANCE button corresponding to the MT

Unit (0. 1, 2, 3) being positioned. whose tape is

After the ADVANCE button is

,pressed. carefully watch the Mf

Un! t t s LINE, WORD

&

BLOCK COUNTER indicators on the SCP.

EFFECT

MT Unit properly set manual control for from SCPo

Any missing or extra LINE pulses read from the MT Unit~s tape will not stop the tape but will indicate the i.e., the error;

IT

Unit's (upper)

MISSED LP indicator on the

SCP will light if an error occurs but tape drjve will not stop.

Top row of BLOCK COUNTER indicat.ors all light- and

the

MI'

Unitts tape 1s advanced (i.e., tape moves off the inner reel, passes. under the head assembly. and winds on the outer reel).

No activity in these indicators

(other than that mentioned

,above for the

BLOCK COUNTER indicators) will be noted until the tape leader has passed under the Unit's head assembly and the Error Block begins to move under the heads:

To determine that the Error

Block is being read, note the following: a. LINE & WORD roUNTER indicators - top and bottom' indicators quickly flash; h.

Right-most

COUNI'ER pair of

BLOCK indicators- top light goes off, bottom light comes on; c. MISSED LP indicators - top indicator (of pair corresponding to

MIUoit) comes on, bottom indicator goes off. This change occurs almost simultaneously with b.

"OnlY if the III

Un1t'$ BLOCK COUNTER

Origi~allY contbined all z,eros;

If zero is stored, the count is merely re~uce an by

, one.

HttYninqlon..

7Iond

8'

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01 "'SlOP<

'2-7

..

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I (\

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ACTION EFFECT d . The n • no fur t h

(~r c han 9 e i n the nctivity of these in-

(1 i (' a tor

S •

As suon as possible

3ftcr the nctivity of the indic~tnrs cP8ses, pre

8 s the

STU P \. (). 1.

2, :

~) but ton corresponding to the Mf Unit

\'ihose tape is tH~inC) positj)ned.

Tape movement wi

11 stop, and n portion of thf' hlank space he-tween the

Error

Hlock and the first Data

Bloek will tH~ hf'neath the head assernhJ"y. fhe tape is now in its forward sl.r:irtinq posit ion.

STEP 5.

On the SCPo return the STOP DIS-

CONNECT swi tc h (s pt inSTEP :~) to its

"d

0 wn" r)o sit ion.

Any missing or f~xtrH

LINE PULSE rpad from the

Tane will

~tor the t

H

~)f~ a n ci c a u s

~

;

1

B F' /\ fH:L

This is shown on thp. SCP hy thp

1 iqhting of the R Ff\OLT j ndicatnr in the

AlB F4rJ1.T (;ROlJP Rnd the lighting of the MISSING LP indict-ltor.

STEP 6.

On the SCP press the white button

;j

S soc i

(j t ed wit h the LINE, WO RD . [,

BLOCK COUNTEl~ indicators that have

Veen used.

Counters all set to Zero

STEP 7. On the tl)1l sep. press the white butl)f~neath the MISSED LP indicator that was used to detect

Error Block

Top MISSED LP indic:l1.or nops out, bo t tom i nd i cat

0 r rome s

0 i1 • • and the error condition is rerno ved fro m t h

(l

~in' [Tn it; s (' i f-cuitry. the computer control. The above procedurf' can also be used to position thp tape~s

Reverse Starting Position under the head asseml)ly if the t:lfJPIlS tra.i ler rHther than its Ip.Hder is initirj) ly positioned under t.he hend

3ssembly :lnd th(~

HACK rhe t.IT

Unit is now complet.ely ready for use in the forward direction under instead of

ADVANCE button is pressed in STEP

IL

41.

PREPARATION

OF

INPlJI'

AND OlJfPUT DEVICES

H. loading

PHOTOELECTRIC TAPE

READER. - The step-by-step procedure for proper!) the Ferranti

Photoelectric Tape

Reader is listed below.

'Refer to p La t e 2-;),

Co nd Pi qu re

2 - ] . )

~TEP

I. Load the tape reel holder with a properly prepared. prewound tape in the following manner: a. Snap open the hinged member of the reel ho lder. b. Place the reel such that of ta~e over the spindle on the reel holder the tape levels, rending away from you, are in the order 7-o-1-2-feed holes-:)-,-l-~ and the tape feeds from the ton of t.he reel. c. Snap closed the hinged member of the reel holder.

RtenUn.qIo.N-

R.nd

(~:""'I~(~:JII.~ ~[~~-~IC~-hsSOCIATES

!)!VISION

ColI

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.... en

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0

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..

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2 '

PI" "'"

. i lfll

"Yj

.....

....

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~i

~

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""

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I

.....

:xs

('l)

Cl' c..

('D t1

'"rj

a>

t-C

....

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('D

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PX 71071

_

LAMP CONTACT ARM

I

I

________ -- ----------I

-------+------

[

!

'TAPE RELEASE LEVER

/

TAPE GUIDE PLATE

TAPE

MA~KING

PLATE

, TAPE GUIDE PIN

ADJUSTING LEVER

(SHOWN IN POSITION FOR

SEVEN-LEVEL TAPE)

• o

2

1-

OPERATION

ERA 1103

SECTION 2

STEP 2. Thread th"e tape through the tape feed mechanism as follows:

NOTE

THE TAPE GOlDE

THE EXTREME

PIN

ADJUSTING LEVER SHOULD BE IN

RIGlff-HAND POSITI~

WITH THE

LOCATING

PIN

ENGAGED IN THE HOLE BENEATH THE TAPE MASKING

PLATE. THIS POSITIONS THE TAPE GUIDE PINS FOR A

SEVEN-LEVEL TAPE.

8.

Turn the tape release lever counter-clockwise to raise the tape guide plate. b. Allowing approximately 12 inches of leader, thread the tape between the tape masking plate and the tape guide plate and between the tape guide pins, then through the friction drive mechanism.

If

the tape has been inserted right-side-up. a pair of lines parallel to the direction of tape travel engraved on ei ther side of the feed holes in the masking plate will align with the sides of the feed holes on the tape. c. Hold the tape in its proper position and rotate the tape release lever fully clockwise to lower the tape guide plate into its normal position. d. Feed the tape through the reader by hand to bring the first tape frame into reading position. An engraved line on the masking plate marks the reading position.

The Tape Reader is now ready for operation from the Supervisory Control Panel. b. HIGH SPEED PUNCH. - The threading of the punched tape is illustrated in Plates 5-28 and 5-29. The motor is turned on by setting the toggle switch to the "up" position (Plate 5-28). These two items prepare the punch for operat ion. c.

OUTPUT

TYPEWRITER. -

Preparation of the typewriter for operation consists of inserting paper and setting the OFF-ON switch to the ON position

(Plate 5-31). d.

O?fIONAL

INPlIT

AND OUfPUT DEVICES. -

The preparation for operation of these devices is covered in the individual instruction manuals supplied with the devices.

_ " L . 1 I o n d

~--·"---·---"-$N~I;[~;;I~~~~~-;~-t1sS0CIATES

OlVISION

OPERATION ERA 1103

SEcrION

2

5. roMP,UTATION

3.

GENEI~.

- The system is usually operated in the NORMAL mode; however, maintenance personnel and occasionally prograDlDers use the TES!' mode exclusively. The NORIIAL mode of operation is presented in full, but the TEST mode, being far more complicated, is given only In a general way; a more complete coverage is gi ven in

Volume

3, ~INTENANCE. b. NORMAL MODE OF

OPERATION.

(1)

BASIC SELECTIONS. - A group of basic selections are made on the

Supervisory Control Panel (Plate 5-3) prior to actual operation; these are:

(8)

NORMAL. - This selection automatically selects the DRUM as

8 clock source and

HIGH SPEED

8S a clock rate.

(b) Onp of the "start" selections, i.e., MD SI'ART, or MI START.

These are discussed in subparagraph b. (4) below.

(c) One tions according or more, or none, of the manually selective jump selecto the instructions accompanying the program.

Cd) One or more, or none, of the manually selective stop selections according to the instructions accompanying the program.

(e)

The contents of the

Program Address

Counter, PAK, mayor may not be 81 terf~d according to condi ti ons exi sting in the program.

(f)

START. - This selection is made after all basic selections have been made and any other selections or procedures involved have been carried out.

<:~)

A,BNORMAL mNDITIONS

AND FAULTS. - The computer cannot be put into operation in the

NORMAL mode if an ABOORMAL CONDITION exists (Plate

5-5).

All disconnect switches must be in the "down" position. Furthermore, the selection of an

ABNORMAL

CONDITION after operation has been initiated will result in a fault and cause the computer to stop.

In general, if a fault condi tion arises, the computer is prevented from running, if not yet started: or stopped, if already in operation. However, one fault-producing interlock may be by-passed: this is the low tempE,rature interlock cireui t.

A key swi tch in

TEST GROUP

(Plate

5-5) termed

BY-PASS

TEMPERATlJRE INfERU)CK can be used to by-pass the interlock circuit in emerg'ency cases where it is mandatory to complete a program despite an overheating condition

<the high temperature interlock circuit still protects the equipment from damage by immediate removal of all power should the temperature condition warrant). For the correction of faults and reswnption of operation see subparagraph 5 d below.

(3) PUNCHED TAPE LOADING. - The Ferranti Reader requires a program for its operation. This program, called t~e

Ferranti Loading Routine, is normally stored at the first block of MT Unit 0 although it may be stored on the drum or on one of the other tape units.

The latter two storage locations, however, haVE' d i sad vantages. In the ca se of drum storage the routine may inadvertenly be erased and, should the routine be stored on a tape unit other

2-11

... If - - •

--+- -. - - . _ •• gNCtMURIMG

;s.SUICM

#SSOCIAHS

O,VI;;IUN

><

0..

OPERATION

ERA

1103

SECTION

:! than

JII'

Unit 0, a greater number

Control Panel before starting. of selections must be made at the Supervisory

The step-by-step procedure for loading into the computer a bioetsl coded tape containing seventh-level loading instructions <assuming that the

Ferranti

Loading Routine as given on pages 5-88, 5-89, and 5-90 of Volume 3 has been previously stored on block 1 of MT Unit 0) is as follows:

STEP 1. Position MT Unit 0 to the beginning as described in subparagraph

.3c above.

STEP~.

Place the tape in the tape reader and prepare the tape reader as described in subparagraph

48 above.

STEP

3.

Select MT START.

STEP 4. Push the START button on the Supervisory Control Panel.

The Ferranti Loading Routine will then be transferred into Rapid Access Storage starting with address 00000. After this has been done the computer will automatically take address 00000 for its next command. The tape reader will start and the tape in the reader will be loaded into the computer.

Tapes other than those coded in bioctal with seventh-level coding

DI8), be loaded into the computer by using a suitable Ferranti loading routine. (See

Figure 4-14, Volume 2 for Ferranti Reader timing wi th respect .to the computer.)

(4) O)MPUTATION. - Computation can be initiated in two different ways: an MD START or 3n MT START. Both starts have some preliminary steps in

CODlllOD.

The controls are located on the Supervisory Control Panel (Plates 5-2, 5-3, and

5-5 in Volume

6) unless otherwise indicated.

STf~P

1.

Set the FI swi tch (Plate 5-5) to 00000 posi tiOD unless the instructions accompanying the program call for a 40001 setting ..

STEP 2. Check that all ArJiORMAL

CONDITION

switches are in the "down" position and that the BY-PASS TEMPERATURE INI'ERLOCK key switch is in the "off" position.

STEP

3.

Prepare those external devices to be used by the program as described in subparagraphs 4b, 4c, and 4d above.

STEP 4. Prepare those Magnetic Tape units which will be used, as described

.in paragraph

3 above. Prepare for "automiltic" operation.

STEP 5. Press the NORMAL button. The NORMAL indicators in OPERATING GROUP nnd OPERATION MODE GROUP, the

DRUM indicator in CLOCK SOURCE GROUP, und the HIGH SPEED indicator in OPERATING RATE GROUP will illuminate.

STEP 6. Press those SELECT

JUMP buttons called for in the program's instructions. The associated SELECfIVE JUMPS indicators will illuminate.

HtP."unqIInL

IIand

8""QIII((III'"

~SU.CII

,(sSOCIATES

1.),"1510'"

2-12

OPERATION

ERA 1103

SECTION

~

STEP 7. Press those SELEcr STOP buttons called for in the progralR's instructions. The associated indicators (immediately above SELECT STOP buttons) will illuminate.

After these preliminary steps,

The the selection of MIl START following effects will be noted for each selection: or MT START can be made.

1~

START

MD STARr. indicator (START SELECTION GROUP) is illuminateQ.

READY indicator

<OPERATING GROUP) is illuminated.

PROGRAM ADDRESS COUNTER is set to octal

40000.

MAIN PULSE DISTRIBUTOR is set to 6. lwU

SIART

MT

~ART indicator (START SELECTION GROUP) is illuminated.

READY indicator

(OPERATING GROUP) is ill\.lllinated.

PROGRAM ADDRESS COUNTER is set to octal

00000.

MAIN PULSE DISTRIBUTOR is set to O.

"U'" ADDRESS COUNl'ER is set to octal 00001.

MeR (Main Control Register) is set to octal 64.

If the instru1ctions accompanying the program call

ADDRESS COUNTER for a setting of the PROGRAM other than that obtained automatically, press the "clear" (white) button and enter the binary value by pressing the "set" (black) buttons.

At this p'lint, the system is ready for operation. Press the START ·button

(OPERATING GROUP) which illwninates the OPERATIM; indicator and initiates the computation. c. TEST MODE OF OPF~ATION. In the TEST mode the number of optional selections that can be made are so numerous that only a general procedure will be given in this section. (Maintenance. Volume

3, contains a thorough treatment of the optional selections and the consequence of each.) The Magnetic Tape units and the external equipment are prepared as in the

NORMAL mode, described previous! y •

.

After making the desired optional test selections, the following step-by-step procedure is followed (specific test procedures may introduce minor deviations from the procedure below):

STEP 1. Press the TEST button. The associated TES!' indicator in OPERATION

.nODE

GROUP is illuminated.

STEP 2.

Press the DRUM button or the OSC (oscillator) button. The associated indicator is illuminated.

(Note that DRUM is not automatically selected as in the NORMAL mode.)

STEP 3.

Select the desi red clock rate in

OPERATING RATE GROUP.

(Note that

HIGH SPEED selection is not automatically made as in the

NORMAL modeJ

STI'~P

4. Select the desired

;itops manual

Jumps

<SELECTIVE STOPS GROUP).

(SELECfIVE

JUMPS GROUP) and manual

~~R..~

g

"~I~£~;!-I~;~~~UC'H-h1ssoCIAT

[$ t"'''~ION

~-13

OPERATION

ERA 1103

SECTION 2

STEP 5.

Seloct one of the

"starts":

MD START, or MT START. The MASTER

CLEAR lignal is produced at this point after which any desired flip-flop may be changed. (The X-REGISTER and the Magnetic

Tape counters are not cleared by the MASTER CLEAR lignal).

STEP 6.

Press the START button. I f

HIGH SPEED, AUTOMATIC STEP CLOCK, or jll,UIDtiJ\TIC STEP OPERATION was

.elected in

STEP

3, the operation

s tarts immediately. If MANUAL 5rEP CLOCK, MANUAL STEP

DIsrRIQUl'OR,

or MANUAL STEP OPERATION was selected in STEP 3, the START

selection merely lights the OPERATIM;

Indicatori

each step of the operation must be initiated by pressing the STEP button (OPERATING GROUP).

While in the TEST mode. the accidental or intentional pressing of any "set" button (except those associated with the PROGRAM ADDRESS C.DUNTER) will

alter

the

state

of the nssociated flip-flop.

, d. RESTORATION OF OPERATION AFTEll STOPS. - The, computer ceases operation at the occurrenCE~ of a programmed

Manu.ally

Selec t i ve Stop, a FORCE STOP, an emergency stop, or a

fault

condition. The stops

by

classes are discussed in subparagraphs (1) through (4) below, together with the steps necessary to

resume

operation.

(1) PHOGRNrI\1ED. ST<FS.

(a) MANUALLY SELECTIVE STOP - The Manually

Selective

Stop instruction,

56jv, stops the computer operation if the programmed j

(0, 1, 2, or 3)

agrees

with the selection made on the Superviaory Control Panel (no button selection is provided for j :::.:

0; the computer will always stop in this case). Whether or not a stop occurs at the execution of

.this

instruction, the next instruction

will be taken from

the

v-address. When a

stop occurs the

OPERATIl'l;

indicator is extinquishe,d and the appropriate

SELECTIVE STOP indicator

(red) is illuminated.

To relume opej~ation, press the START but ton. Dllring the stop. any stop or jump

selections may be changed.

be

(b) FINAL STOP. - The Final Stop instruction, 57--, indicates the end of those the program and all selections are dropped except

NOOMAL or TEST and serections automatically made by the

NO~AL selection. Also the SELEI::T

STOP

indicatoJt"s

and SEUI::TIVE Jt1tiP indicators, if illuminated, will remain. To

resume operat:lon. a new program must be

initiated,

or the

previous proqrant can a1 tered and re-run.

(2) F(ECE STOP. - AD unscheduled stop of the computer can be effected

by pressing

the

FO~E

STOP button. The

OPERATIM;

indicator is extinguished and the FORCE SIOP indicator is illuminated. After the

condition

which prompted the stop has been corrected, operation is resumed by pressing the START button.

(3) a~ERGEr«;y

STOPS.

Ca)

MANUAL EMERGEN:Y STOP. - In eases of extreme emergency, such as

a fire, presslng

either DtERGEf'CY STOP button

(one

1s located on the Main Power

Supply Panel and one on

the Magnetic

Core

Power

Supply

Panel) removes

all f

~'L~

-------$~~I~l;

.... C

tfsstCllTES

DIVISION

2-14

OPERATION ERA 1103

SECTION 2 voltages from the equipment except that to the power application cycle timer circuits of the two power supplies. Since all power is removed, a program in process is halted and cannot be immediately resumed. To resume operation after correction of the fault, it is necessary to return both cycle timers (Main Power and Magnetic Core) to their starting positions by pressing the respective NORMAL

ON-OFF buttons. Then each NORMAL ON-oFF button must be pressed again to apply power. After the proper warm-up interval, the operating selections on the

Supervisory Control' Panel can be re-made and the operation resumed. It should be noted that such a stop could destroy information or could render some circuits

.in~perative; it may be well to perfol1ll routine maintenance to insure proper operation and then reload the program and data into the system.

(b) AUTOMATIC EMERGENCY SiOPS. - The high temperature thermostats, cabinet door interlocks and sail switches in the cooling cabinet are in the same circuit as the EMERGENCY STOP buttons. Tht!refore, a temperature condition in excess of

120

0

F at any point, improper bypassing of door interlocks, or failure of the air blower causes the same condition as pressing an EMERGENCY STOP button.

For resumption of operation see subparagraph (a) immediately above.

The cabinet door interlocks are bypassed in the following manner. Press the interlock by-pass button mounted on the frame adjacent to the door handle.

While pressing the interlock by-pass button, open the door and pullout the interlock plunger located near the upper corner of the door opening. This plunger switch is in a neutral position after opening the door which would open the interlock circuit if the by-pass switch were not held in. After pulling out the plunger, the interlock by-pass switch can be released. To close the door, press (and hold in) the interlock by-pass button on the frame, close the door fully, and release the interlock by-pass button.

(4)

FAULT

COMJITIONS

(a)

A FAULT. -

An A Fault results in

8 stop which manifests itself much like a manually Selective Stop or a Force Stop in that the OPERATING indicator is extinguished and the A FALLT indicator is illuminated rather than a

S~crIVE

STOP or FORCE STOP indicator. In addi tion, the READY indicator is extinguished. The specific fault is indicated by the illumination of one of the fOllowing r indicators (FAULT ll()ICATORS GROUP, Plate 5-5):

UlVIDE

sec

(Storage Class Control)

PRINl'

TEMP.

Wi\TER

(Low Temperature - lOOoF)

OVERFLOW (only possible on Multiply Add instruction, 72uv)

ABNORMAL CONDITION - Group X (only if operating in NORMAL mode)

The A Fault does not drop other operating selections so that after correcting the fault, operation can be reswned.

Generally, a DIVIDE, sec,

PRHfl' , or OVERFU>W indication is derived from a program error. First check the appropriate instructions or operands, and, if these are correct, an actual Jl8chine Bl8lfunction is the cause and must be

:.!-15

--

...

_

..........

,--,

-----_._-"

-

.. g'Ui;.HRI .. '

J3SUICM,,(sSOCIATES

OIVI~"'N

()PERATION EHi\ 110~) SECTION ~; isolated and correctnd.

t\

TEMP. indication is the result of a high

Hir temperature at some point. The hiUh air temperature is indicated by the i llundnation of one of the amber indicators mounted above the cabinet doors. Corrective measures should be applied immediately unless the uruency for problem results

U i eta tes tha t the

BY-PASS

TErwIPERATURE II\{fERLOCK key swi tch should be turned and thus the problem can be continued despite the over-iemperature condition.

A

WATER indication necessi tates correcting a water pressure fault (over- or underpressure condition) before the program can be reswned. An ABNOHMAL CONDITION indication usually occurs at the outset of a I"l>RMAL mode

0: operation unless a Test Disconnect switch has been accidently or intentionally set to the "up" position after operation has been initiated. Movement

"down" position of the switch to its will correct the conditioll. In the correction of

some

j\

Faults it is necessary to remake basic tielections; in this event, it is mandatory to record the contents of all thp. principal registers, counters, and the MAIN PULSE

DISTRIBUTOR if the operation is to bfl resumed from the point of the fault. Then, after correction of the fault, the contents of the registers, counters, and

MPD must be ins(:~rted manually before resuminq operat.ion.

After correction of the A Fault, press the CLEAR A FAULT iJutton which in turn illuminates the READY indicator. Finelly, press the START button; ttl\.,

OPERATING indicator is illwninated and the operation is resumed.

(b) B FAULT. - A A Fault results in a stop which manifests itself much like a Final

Stop in that most selections are dropped.

Only the NOHMAL or

TEST selec.tions and those selections automatically made by the r-uR1.ML selection remain in effect.

In addition, the B FJ\ULT indicator and one of

the

indicators in

FAULT INDICATOR GROUP listed below are illuminated.

Mer

(Main Cont rol Translator)

VOLTAGE

It>

(Input-Output)

MISSING FP (Missing Feed Pulse)

MISS

INC;

[J>

(Mi s sing

Line Pul se)

J n addi tion to the above, an external equipment fault may be indicated, which case thte fault indicators shown on Plate 5-4 will he illuminated ..

8 re: in

These

EA~RNAL (in combination with one of the

IOAI READ rOB I READ

IOA2 READ

IOB:d READ following)

Generally" an

Mer

or 10 indication is due to a program error in which case the program in storage or the input tape should be checked for accuracy. If no errors are thus discovered, a machine malfwlction is indicated and must be eorrected.

A MISSING FP, MISSING LP. or a VOLTAGE indication necessitates corrective maintenance. The MISSING LP may be due to a magnetic tape breakage when operating in

the

NORMi\L mode; such

8 condition is accompanied by an excessive hum

:2-16

... ,..

-f.'iIi·~'IIHu!"Ui ~Sfl'CH

#SSOCIAl [S

OiV",ION

OPERATION

ERA 1103

SEC1ION 2 c.~sed by the high rotational speed of the tape reels. In the csse of magnetic tape breakage the STANDBY and POWER switches of the IT unit involved should be ianediately set to the "down" (off) position to avoid overheating the tape drive motors, If a tape break occurs under conditions that do not stop the equipment, the FORCE STOP button should be pressed and then the STANDBY and

POWER switches set to the "down" position. In ei ther case

8 new tape must be inserted and the problem re-Tun from the beginning.

An EXTERNAL fault together with one of the four READ faults indicates that the external equipment is not ready to transmit information to the computer,

Such a condition can result froll ei.ther a program timing consideration or an actual malfunction of the external equipment. In either case corrective action must be taken.

Since many operating selections are dropped at the occurrence of

8

B

Fault, the computation must be started anew. If the contents of any addresses have been altered by the instructions during execution of that part of a program which was completed before the fault, it would be well to re-load the computer before initiating computation.

6 •. TURNING OFF THE EQUIPMENr. a. MAGNETIC TAPE UNITS. - Tile Magnetic Tape Units should be shut down before removing power from the computer. Proceed as follows:

STEP 1. Turn the selector switch to one of the S (Stop) positions.

STEP 2. Set the SfANDBY switch to the tfdown" position.

STEP 3. Set the POWER switch to the "down" position. The POWER indicator is extinguished. b. EXTERNAL UNITS. - It is recommended that external devices be turned off before removing power from the system. c. POWER SOPPLY. - Both the Main Power Supply and the Magnetic Core Supply are turned off in the following manner. Press the NORMAL ON-OFF Duttou. The power application cycle timer goes through its automatic shutdown sequence, After apprOXimately two minutes all POWER SEQUENCE indicators will be extinguished.

The HEATER HOURS meter stops when the LOW FILAMENT indicator is extinguished.

. d. MAIN POWER DISCONNECT. - Set the MAIN POWER DISCONNECT s.wi tch to the OFF position. This completes the system shutdown.

RII!'.Ift~ ~nd

,

.....

.

-

-.~..

--

~

-f'HfiIMURUIS

~SUICM ri'ssot'''HS

OIV'~.\O""

2-17

PREPARATION

OF TAPES

ERA 1103 SECTION 3

SEGrION 3

PHEPARATION OF

TAPES

1. GENERAL

This section describes

(1) the basic principles of entering encoded information on paper tapes used for transfer of input data into the computer via a photoelectric tape reader, and

(2) methods of writing a timing track on a magnetic tape for use as the storage mediwn in the Magnetic Tape Storage SysteRl.

2.

PRINCIPLES

OF PUNCHED TAPE PREPARATION

Punched paper tape is a prime input medium for the ERA 1103 Computer System.

Standard teletype seven-level tape or equivalent is used.

In each tape frame a six-bit portion of a 3b-bit word is punched in six tape levels in bioctal code, and one bit of the loading instruction is punched in the seventh level. The follOWing subparagraphs explain the general principles of the tape coding rather than presenting an operating procedure for the Tape Preparation EqUipment. The detailed procedure for preparing input tapes using the ERA Tape Preparation

Equipment is given in the separate "Tape Preparation Equipment" volume of this series.

8. tapes:

TAPE NOMENCLATURE. -

The following terms are applied to punched paper

(1)

LEVEL. - A of the tape. In a tape level is a row of positions parallel to the length tape moving from left to right the rows are identified, from top to bottom, as follows: 7-6-1-2-sprocket hole-3-4-5. Since the sprocket hole position is not considered a level, the levels are correspondingly numbered

7-6-1-2-3-4-5. with the sprocket hole intervening between levels 2 and 3.

(2) FRAME. - A tape frame is a single column of seven levels and a sprocket hole perpendicular to the length of the tape. The frame pOSition is defined by the sprocket hole.

(3) WORD. - A tape word is a group of six consecutive frames containing an orderly arrangement of 36 bi ts in levels

6-1-2-3-4-5 and a seventh level pattern embracing the same six frames and the last frame of the previous word.

(4) IDENTITY OF BITS. - A binary "1" is represented as

8 and

8 binary "0" is represented by the absence of

8 punched hole. punched hole, into h. FORM OF ENCODED INFORMATION. - The information encoded on the tape falls several categories: program instructions, operands, and loading instructions. These are explained in the following subparagraphs.

(1) PROGRAM INSTRUCTIONS .. - A program instruction is a 36-bit word composed of three parts: a 6-bit operation code, a 15 bit u-address (this may be replaced by the operators j and n). and a 15-bit v-address (tnis may be replaced

.,.- .. __ "_. _____ -_,.

• --. N."

<Ii

cfM~"IHRII'6IZ3sURCH

,{SSOCIAHS

DIV""ClN

...... r-

0)

1"-1 tx c..

PHEPARATION

OF TAPES

ERA 1103

SECTION 3 by the operator k or the repeat termination address w). An instruction usually is represente'd in octal notation wherein 12 octal digits represent the ~~6 hi ts.

As an eXamplE! of an instruction consider the following:

71 00123 01004

This octal notation would appear in binary as follows:

Operation code u-address r.:,--/l~ v-address r:----,-----A - -

-----~

t:'----------I'- -- ---

""=-:\

111,001,000,000,001,010,011,000,001,000,000,100

The program instruction is contained in six fremes in levels 6-1-~~3-4-5 and is positioned as follows: the first frame contains the two-digit (six-bit) operation code. The second. third, and first half of the fourth frame (levels

6-1-2) contain the u-address. The second

5) and the fifth and sixth fraMes half of the fourth frame (levels 3-4contain the v-address. The various levels wi thin a fraDle hold the following octal and binary values: ') lere1s the higher order octal digit and the binary coefficients

2~,

2 t

6-1-2 hold and 20 respectively; levels 3-4-5 hold the lower order octal digit and the binary coefficients

2~,

21, and 20 respectively. t,he

(2) OPERANDS .. - An operand is

8

36-bit combination usually used to express

8 numerical 'Value with its algebraic sign. As

SUChA the left most bit

(235) is the sign bit, and the remaining 35 bits (234 , 23J , ••• 20) comprise nwnber. The operand word is contained in six frames in levels 6-1-2-3-4-5 and is positIoned as follows: the bits are arranged in descending powers of

2 with 235 in the level 6 of the first frame and ending with 20 in level 5 of the sixth frclme.

(3) LOADING INSfRUcrIONS. -

There are four loading instructions; these are: Assemble Data, Enter Data, Insert Address, and Check Address. These four instructions are encoded in the seventh level. The code occupies seven frames; six of the frames correspond with the current word and one frame is the last frame of the previous word. The six frames of the current word are identified by the letters A-B-C-D-E-F with A being the first frame and F being the sixth.

The F frame

(tf the previous word is termed F' when considered as part of the code concerning the current word. Of the seven letters embracing the code only

F, C,

Of and F' are used in the loading instruction code. The following table shows the possible combinations of these four frames together with the octal instruction code produced and the resulting loading i~struction. f..r.!!!.!~

COEIb iDa t i

09

None, F, or

Ft

F alld F'

C, C and F, or

C and

F'

F, C, and Ft

D

F,

D, and F'

QC~81

CQde

00

01

02

03

04

05

~2aglng Igstructio~

Assemble Data

Enter Data

Assemble

Data

Insert Address

Assemble Data

Check Address

During the assembly of a 36-blt word, six bits at a tille, the loading instruction frames I:lre continuously Dloni tored to evaluate the code contained. In actual tape reading, each of the first five frames read produce an Assemble Data

PHEPAHATION

OF TAPES

E.v~ 1103 SEGfION 3 instruction; however, the sixth fraPle produces one of the other instructious.

Should an Enter Data instruction be recognized, the ussembled word is stored.

If an

Insert

Address instructioll is recognized, the v-address portion of the assembled word is inserted

8S the first loading address and the following word

(containing aft

Enter Data instruction) is stored at that address.

If

8

Check

Address instruction is recognized, the current address is compared with the v-address portion of the assembled word. If the addresses agree, the loading continues

(if an

ERA

Tape Reader is employed, the next word must contain an Insert Address instruction because the checking procedure destroys the current address in PAK). If the addresses do not agree, the loading operation is stopped.

Check Address words are placed periodically in long input tapes to make sure the loading is correctly done. c.

SAMPLE PUNCHED TAPE. -

Figure :3-1 shows a sample of tape containing words with all types of data and loading instructions. The sample tape begins with a blank leader (note that just before the first word an

Ft seventh-level hole is punehed), followed by an Insert Address word, a program instruction and two operand words (each wIth an Enter Data instruction), a Check Address word, and a blank trailer. Note that the check address word contains the wddress of the word that would normally occupy this positioll, not the address of the preceding operand word. The leader and trRiler should each be at least 12 inches long.

;3. M.AGNET Ie TAPE PHEPARAT ION a. GENERAL. - One-half inch ma;Jnetic plastic recording tape is the basic storage medium of the Magnetic Tape Storage System. Minnesota Mining No, l09A will gi ve satisfactory performance. The tape must be wound, magnetic (or dull) surface out, on reels which are supplied with the equipment: Approximately

1200 feet of tape can be stored on a single reel. The Wf System requires four such tapes for full scale operation,

Ollt:: for each of the four magnetic tape units. b. NOMENCLATllflli. -

The following terms are used

in

the tape preparation procedure given in subparagraph d below.

(1) CELL. - A cell .is a rectaI19ular urea (approximately 0.05 x 0.01 inches) of the magnetic surf~ce of the tape. The cell provides storage for either a binary dig! t

(bi t) or a timing signal.

The ent! re area of the cell is mSI]netized to saturation in one of its two possible polarities to represent "0" bit~

To to store either u "I" bit or a timiD] signal in the cell, the cell is maynetlzed saturation in the opposite polarity.

(2)

CHA~NEL.

- ,\ channel is a column of cells parallel to the lenatn of the tape. The tape is divided into six channels. each approxima~ely O.OD inches wide.

The channels are numhered consecutively 1-2-3-4-5-6. When the tape is threaded on a maunet.ic tape unit, the channel nearest the front plate of the outer reel is channel 6; the channel nearest the back plate of the outer

'reel is channell.

(3)

LINE. - A line is a row of cells

(one in each channel) which is approximately perpendicular to the length of the tape. The line density

.is luO per inch. Each line contains six cells. which provide duplicate storage for two bits of a word and a timing signal called a LINE pulse. The low~r-order bit

' ' ' c of _

&N"KUR'NG

~SU'CM

01\1,,,.')'"

PX 71071

("~~-

r--

- - -

F

' '--r5--

D

/'

--\

,../

(

I

I

\-

\

CHECK

ADDRESS

-- DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT

- - - - - - . - . - - ---)ill-

ENTER ENTER

DATA

~--

__ ./' _ _ _

~-,"'l r~--···---

.. -

ENTER

DATA

"A. _ _ _ _ _ .,

DATA

'-F-------,l,----~---.---··0

---'~7\

INSERT

ADDRESS

{,--F----·~-------~~\

,

; 0

;

! C)

"

C;

"-

'--I

\,

.......

I

0 0

I

!

!

I

()

"

........

--

) j

I

\

'\ ..

--'

0

---

,

--

Ii, )

I

"-'

!

I

(I

--~

.{

I

C i

t'

o

START ING ADDRESS

01200

LEADER

LEVEL

LEVEL

7

6

2

SPROCKET

HOLE

3

0

T

-

.~-

- -

IU-ADDRESS

,--j

, i

\

I i

( )

,

'.'

"-

(j

0 C

I

!

1

I

V-ADDRESS 4

5

F

E D C

B i

J

~-y

WORD

CODE

PREPARATION

OF TAPES

EHA 1103

SEGfIOl\ 3 occupies channels 2 and 5; the higher-order bit occupies channels 3 and

6. The

UNE pulse occ:upies channels 1 and 4.

(4) \~RD. - A word is

8 group of eighteen consecutive lines. The word thus consists of 36 binary bits and 18 consecutive LINE pulses each recorded twice.

(5)

DATA

BLOCK - A

Data Block is a group of

32

consecutive words.

The

words follow each other so that within a Data Block no blank portion of tape separates adjucent words. Data Blocks thus contain 516 consecutive lines,

(6) INTERBLOCK SPACE. - An

interbloek space is

a

section of blank tape which separates adjacent blocks of words. The interblock space is equivalent to

72 lines.

(7) :rAPE ERRORS .... A tape is erroneous if more or less than

576 pulses are present in either of the LINE pulse channels of any Data Block. When the equipment is :Ln operation, the cooting of the 576th LINE pulse conditions an error detection circuit that searches for additional LINE pulses for a distance equivalent to 12 lines.

If

an interblock space is present after the 576th LINE pulse, no fault is detected. If less than 576 LINE pulses are read from a block, the error detectioD circuit is not conditioned until additional

LINE pulses are read from the succeeding block. When the 576th LINE pulse is read the error detection cirl~uit is conditioned, and the next LINE pulse will cause a MISSING

LP FAULT. A MISSING LP FAlLT is also produced if more than 576 LINE pulse sig-

nals

are read frOll the same

block. In

this case, the reading of an extra LINE pulse during what should be the interblock period causes the error detection ci.rcuit,ry to :register the fault condition.

The tape itself may produce a

MISS~

LP FAULT even though the LINE pulses have been properly writteD on chauaels

1 and 4; i.e •• tape defects may hinder the reading of LINE pulses or produce spurious sigllals which are read as LINE pulses.

(8) lERROR

BLOCK. - An Error Block is olle which contains 580 LINE PULSES.

One Error Block is written on each end of a prep8red·t~pe.

The Error

BlOCk on each end of tlne tape is separated from the

Dat8 Blocks by a relatively long space <about :35 feet} which contains

DO

LINE pulses. The Error Blocks cause the tape driv~ to be stopped when either end of the tape is approached. That is, when a referelllce is maae inadvertently to the MT'

SystOOl to advance or bock a particular tape to the point where one of the tape's Error Blocks pass under the magnetic :neads. the Error Detection circuits generate the signal STOP MT

UNIT

J

(where

J equals 0, 1, 2, or 3) which stops the rotation of the tape reels. tape

(9) LEADER AND TRAILER. - The first and list ten to fifteen feet of a is blank to provIde a leader and trailer. The leader and trailer are used to fasten the tape to the reels of each magnetic tape unit. Either the leader or trailer ca:n also provide the extra tape required for threading the tapehandling mechanism once the tape is securely attached to the tape reels.

(10) CONTENTS OF TAPE. - A properly prepared tape contains the following arrangement o:f blank spaces and areas on which LINE pulses aTe stored:

<a) Blaak Space of about 20 feet (Leader)

,NtV",,,.inqIDn'...

I~d tfH~i~[~Ri~t ~s-;u~~-,1sS0CIATES t)l\l'·"."~

3-~

l eo

... -1

! -

PREPARATION

OF TAPES

ERA 1103

SECTION··3

(b) Bloek of 580 LINE pulses

(~irst

Error Block)

(c)

Blank Space of about 35 feet (Forward Starting Position)

(d) 2048 blocks each storing exactly 576

LINE

pulses, and separated from each other by interblock spaces equivalent to 72 lines o

(e) Blank Space of about

35 feet

(Reverse

Starting Position)

(f) Block of 580 LINE pulses (Second Error Block)

(g) Blank Space of about 20 feet (Trailer) c.

TAPE

INSPECTION. - Only inspected tapes should be used. The method of inspecting magnetic tape is described in detail in Volume III, Section

5,

Paragraph 5. d. PREPARATION PROCEDURE. - To prepare a blank reel of magnetic tape for use in the MT System, it is necessary to duplicate on Channels

I and 4 on the blank tape the sequence of LINE pulses stored on Channels 1 and

40f a master tape supplied with the equipment~ The following magnetic tape preparation procedure thus causes the LINE PULSES read from consecutive lines on the master tape to be written into corresponding lines and channels on a blank tape. This regeneration may be accomplished in either of two ways: a tape in MT Unit 1,

2, or 3

2 may be prepared from a master tape in MT Unit 0, or a tape in MT Unit 0. or

3 may bE~ prepared from a master tape in MT Unit l~

To prepare the tapes using either MT Unit 0 or MT Unit 1 for the master tape, it is necessary to alter the contents of jacks J70141 through J70144 and jacks J70151 through

J70154 as shown in Table 3-1 below. The second column of the table, headed

NORMAL CHASSIS, lists the chassis normally plugged into the jacks. The third column, headE!d PREP.

1

CHASSIS, lists the units plugged into the jacks to prepare tapes if the master reel is placed in MT Unit 0

0

The fourth column, headed PREP.

2

C~ASSISt lists the units plugged into the jacks to prepare tapes if the mast~r reel is placed in

MT

Unit

1.

In both cases, a special tape preparati~n (~ha8sis, the 72300 unit, is used.

As an eXllmple of how tapes are prepared, a procedure

Is given below which describes lh.~ method of preparing a tape 1n MT Un! t 3 from a master tape in

MT Unit O. All referenced Plates are in Volume 6.

STEP

1 .... At

Supervisory Control Panel, if the

NORMAL lIght in START

SELECTION GROUP is lit, press the START SELECTION GROUP RELEASE button (See Plate 5-3).

STEP

2 ....

Remove

DC power from the Magnetic Tape Cabinet by setting the

SEQUENCE LIMITING switch on the Main Power Control Panel (rear of 80000 Cabinet) to the BIAS position (See Plate 2-2) •

STEP 3 ....

Insert chassis into jacks

J70141 through

J70144 and

J70151 through

J70154. as shown in the

PREP. I

CHASSIS column of

Table

3-1 below.

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-

~

.

, " " -

Rand

-"-"

-

,

$.HlfNURING .l3stAlCH #SSOCllTES

O'VI'"U'"

3-6

PREPARATION

Of' lAPES

ERA 1103

SECTION 3

~tep

4 -

Restore power to the Magnetic Tape Cabinet by resetting the

SEQUENCE

LIMITING switch to the OPERATE position.

Step

5, -

Load the master tape onto

MT

Unit

0 and the blank tape onto

MT Unit

3, and run the tapes throughLhe units several times.

This procedure is given in Paragraph 3 of Section 2 in this volume,

Step 6, - Position the tape in MT Unit

3 so that about 20 feet (aLout

1/4 inch thickness) of tape is on the outer take-up reel.

Step

7, -

On the

MT

Unit

0 panel,. set the SFLECTOR switch to "Au,

(Automatic). and set the

STANDBY switch to the "up" position

( see

PIa t e 2 -4) .

WARNING

WHEN ~ETTING 11~E

STANDBY

SWITCH

TO THE

"UP" POSITION, HOLD

THE TAPE REELS

AND

RELEASE THEM SLOWLY SO THAT THE TAPE

SLACK IS TAKEN UP SLOWLY.

Step

8. - At the Supervisory Control Panel, set the STOP

DISCONNECT o switch to the "up" position (see Plate 5-2).

Step

9. -

Press the ADVANCE

0 but ton and observe the

OU<, OWK. and

OUK counter indicators. When these indicators count, press the STOP 0 button.

Step 10.Clear the

MISSED LP

0 flip-flop. Press the bACK 0 button and observe the OSK, OWK, and OlY counter indicators; stop counting when the dead space between the error and data blocks is reached. After about

10 seconds, the counter indicators flash and MISSED

LP 0 indicates

ItI".

At this time, press the STOP

0 button. This leaves the

MT

Unit in the proper starting position for tape preparation, i.e. with a portion of the tape leader under the head assembly in MT

Unit O.

NOTL

THE NEXT THREE STEPS

MUST

BE EXECUTED

Q!llCKLY. FOR III IS

RCASON.

THESE STEPS

~HOULD

TO IlA

BE MEMORIZED.

IT

IS ADVISABLE n·:

AN ASSISTANT AT THE SUPERVISOR):

CONTROL

PANE.L.

Step 11.- At the Magnetic Tape Cabinet, set the MT Unit 3 SELECTOR switch to "F" (Forward), then the MT Unit 0 SELECTOR switch to "

F "

(see

Plate

2-4).

Step 12:. -

At the Supervisory Control Panel, observe the OBK, O.~, and

OU( indicators. After they flash, the first error block has

~~Rand g~~t~[;;;~~-~;;~.~~-IfsSOCI1T[S O'VI~I(>~

- 4 t'-

,-,,":

,....; r-· s:

ERA 1103

SECTION 3

PREPARATION

OF TAPES passed. During the lO-second dead space, clear the MISSED

LP 0 fl ip-flop and the OBK, OWK, and OLK counters,

Step 13.About five minutes later, when the second dead space is reached, the counters will cease and no further indicator activity will be observed. About 10 seconds later, the counter indicators will flash and the MISSED LP 0 flip-flop will indicate

"1".

At this timt, immediately stop the tapes by setting the SELECTOR switches on the

MT

Unit 0 and

MT

Unit 3 panels both to the "S" (Stop) position.

To check the prepared tape, set I.he

MT

Unit

3

SELECTOR s~itch to

"'At!

(Automatic) and position the newly prepared tape so that its reverse starting position is under the 'lead assembly in

MT

Unit

3, as described in Section 2,

Paragraph 3. Clear 3WK and 3LK, set 3f:1KII to "1", and press the REVERSE 3 button. If the tape has been incorrectly prepared an error will be detected and the MISSED LP

3

"1" indicator will glow. If there is no error, the tape will stop because of first error block. Position the tape to the forward starting position and repeat the test using the above procedure but pressing the

ADVANCE

3 rather than the

RE~ERSE

3 button.

Tapes are pr~pared from a master reel in MT

Unit

1 exactly as for

MT

Unit

0 except that the chassis are inserted as shown in the column headed PREP. 2

ClfASSIS Table 3-1, and th~ master reel is placed in MT Unit 1. After the first error block has been passed and before the first word block is reached, the

1

MT counters and the 1 MT ERROR flip-flop are cleared and

1

BKll is set to "l".

TABLE 3-1

----'--'--'---"--------"r

CABINET

JACK

NORMAL

CHASSIS

PREP.

1

CHAS~IS

J70141

J70142

J70143

J70144

J70151

J70152

J70153

J70134

72200

72200

7~200

72200

71500

71500

I

71500

71500

I

I j

.--------~-.-,.~---

..

---

..

-.---

72300

Blank

Blank

Blank

71500

72200

72200

72200

PREP. 2

CHASSIS

---

Blank

72300

Blank

Blank

72200

71500

72200

72200

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DIVISION

3-8

.....

t-

(~)

.. -i r-

;0< c...

ERA 1103

APPEMlIX A

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

APPENDIX A cortfENr OF REG ISTERS

1. GENERAL.

This appendix, Content of Registers, shows, in tabular form and at the completion of the execution of each .instruction, the contents of memory locations, the O-Register, and the Accwnulator. The instruction tables are listed in thE! numerical order of their octal operation codes. The left colwnn,

~!ORAGE CLASS SELECTION, lists the class of storage chosen for the u-address and v-address. The remainder of the table lists the final contents o~ the memory locatjons, A, and

Q for all cases of storage class selections. Those instructions which do not result in changes contain no tables but, instead, have notes cQv€ring these exceptions. A series of dashes in any taole position indicates that the memory location or register is not involved in the execution of the instruction. An sec table entry indicates that an sec

Fault occurs caus ing the c:omputer to stop.

,)

'-.

DEF IN IT ION OF SYMBOLS.

A The· 72-bi t

Accumulator

AR

AL

The

right-hand 36 bits of A

The left-hand 36 bits of A

Q

JAB

The 36-bi t

Q-Register

Magnetic Drum Storage (16,384 36-bit words)

Me

Magnetic Core Storaye (1024 36-bit words)

MT Magnetic Tape Storage (262,144 36-bit words) u v

.2k

( )

The first execution address (i29, i

2B ••••• i15)

The second execution address (i1 4• i1:1' •• o f

10)

Left circular shift k places

.(Parentheses) Denotes "the content of"

The "initial content of"

(

) i

(

( )

)f

.

The "final content of"

(Prime) The "complement of the content ofu

A-I

._

..

_._._,

..... __

.........

,

$NGINEUUIG

~SU.CH

LHY",!.'"

CONTENT OF

REGISTfRS

I ( . ) I

ERA 1103

The absblute value of the expression j n

D(

S(

A one digit octal number (u14. u13· u12)

A four digit octal number (u 11 , u

IO '

...

,

u

O

)

A double extension of the contents of the parentheses

A single €xtension of the contents o.f the parentheses

L(Q)(u) The bit-by-bit product of

(u) and {Q}

L(Q)~(v)

The bit-by-bit product of (v) and the complement of

(Q)

@

Denotes a bi t-by-bi t sum wi thout carries.

APPENDIX A

R~H.and

t~~I;E~;I~~ ~;;A~CH ~SOCtATES

DIVISION

A-2

CO:vTEl'i'T OF

HEGISTERS

Instruction: o

TRANSMIT POSITIVE

(TPuv)

Function: Heplace

(v) with

(u) .

--

I

Ope rat ion

C~J:~

!

Storage

Class

Selection u v lie or

Me

. MD or

MD A

Q

IlC or

MD

A

A

Q

Q

Ie or

MD •

A

Q

I

I

- - - -

•.

u

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after' Operation is Executed.

.. MC) f or (MD)f

(A)

f v

No Change

No

Chi;lnge

No Change

-

- -

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

- -

(u)

-

-

-

-

--

...

(A

R

)

...

...

-

...

-

(Q)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(Q) f

- -

-

O(u)

-

- -

No Change

-

-

-

-

-

(u)

- -

i

I

-

- -

O(AR)j

-

-

-

No Change

(A

R

)

.

-

- -

No Change

..

-

D(Q)

- - -

No Change

No Change j

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A-3

CONTENT OF

. ItEG IS TERS

ERA 1103

APPf~ND J

X.

A

~----------.--~------~--------~----------------,---------.------------

Instruction:

TRANSMIT MAGNITUDE (TMuv)

I

Operation Code:

12

~----------.------------------------~~------------~--------------------

Function:

Replace (v) with the absolute magnitude of (u).

...... f-

0)

...... t-

:.:<

Storage

Class

Selection u v

Me

or

Me

MD or

MD A

A

Q

Me

or

MD

A

Q

Me

or

~1D

Q

A

Q

--

u

Content of Revisters and Storage Positions a ftf> rOpe ra t ion is

Executed.

\Ie>

f

or

(MlJ)f

(A) f

(Q) f

V t----

No Change

I

(u)

I

-

-

-

-

-

-

--

No

Change

No

Change

-

- -

-

-

-

- -

-

-

-

-

\

-

-

-

- -

I

(AR)

I

- -

- -

-

I

(Q)

I

D f

(u)

I

-

-

No Change

D f

(AR) i

I

No Change

-

-

-

I

(u)

I

-

-

-

-

-

-

I

(AR)

I

No Change

-

- -

-

.. -

-

-

-

- -

-

-

-

..

D

I

(Q)

I

-

-

-

No Change

J

<Q) i

I

----

Ilp~Hand.

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A-4

COf'lTF;'-JI

OF

HbGISTr.RS

EHA llD3

. APP.E.NDLX. A

Ins t ru c t ion:

TRANSMIT NEGAT lVE (TNuv)

Function:

Replace

( v) with the complement of (u).

I

Operation

Code: 1J

I

Storage

Class

Selection u

MC

0.(

MD

A

Q

Q

Me vf

MD

A

Q

Ie

or

MIl

A

Q v

Me

or

MD

A

Content of

Registers and Storage Positions a fter Ope ra t ion is

Executed.

(Me)f or

(MD) f

~"-

..

"

..

~ u v

(A) f

(Q) f

No Change

No Change

No Change

-

-

-

---

-

-

-

(u)

9

-

..

-

- -

(AR) v

- - -

- - -

-

-

-

D(u) ,

- - -

No Change

D(AR)io

No

Change

-

- -

I

-

...

-

(u)

II

- -

-

-

-

-

(A )

\I

R

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

<Q)

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

D(Q)'

...

' ,

No Change

>

No Cbange

<Q) i

·,t

APPEl'l)IX A CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

ERA 1103

I

In~;;';: ~NTEI~ ~P-~)~~=~:=~-===] ~~~:!_o~~c~eX-=J.~-~

I

I

Function: Let Y represent the address from which CI was obtained . .

Replace tho right-band 15 bits of

(Fl) with the quantity

Y

+

1. Then

take (F2> as the next instruction.

Fl and F2 are

Me

addresses 00000 and 00001 respectively.

The right-ha,nd 30 bits of (Y) are unaffected by this operdtion.

The contents of

A and

Q are

left

unchanged.

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BUild

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~SOCIAHS rHIII%)"

COl\"TENT OF

REGISTERS

ERA 1103

r - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - - - " " -

Instructfon:

TRANSMIT U-AODRESS(TUuv)

Function:

APPENDIX A

~------'"."-----"---

Operation Code: 15

Replace the 15 bits of (v) designated v

I5 through v2Q with the corresponding bits of (u), The remaining 21 bits of (v) are not to be disturbed.

........ t ......

JJ

.-i r-

>< r'l ..

-------""-'-"-"---""'---'.--""

S to rage

Class

Selection

Content of Registers and Storage Positions

-(Mt f or (MD) after 0 eration is Executed. f - - - . , - - - - - - - - - - " " -- -

(tJ) f u v u v

I----+---~--.-------+----------I~------+------"--,---

.. ,

Me

vr

MD

Me

or

MD

A

No Change

(V

O

_

14

)i

(u15-29)

(v30-3S)j

Q sec

FAULT r---+----~~-----'-----T----------------·~----"--------~------------,__I

Me

or

(VO-14)i

No Change

A MD

(A1 5 -29)

A

(V30-J5)1

Q sec

FAULT

1-----4-----.~------------~--------------~------------~-------------,----

Me or

MD

(VO_l~j) i

(Q]

5-29)

No Change

Q

A

Q

} sec

FAULT

-----------------------,-'"-----,--".,-----,-,."'",

-

, j

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N

CONTf.;.;'U UF

REGISTERS eRA 11

();:j

APPENDIX A

Function:

Replace the right-hand 15 bits of (v), vo through vl~, with the corresponding bits of (u). The remaining 21 bits of (v) are are not be disturbed.

..... reo t-

X

0..

Q

Storage

Class

Selection

Content

. of

Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is

Executed. u v

(MC)r

-u or

OlD) f

A

MD

Me or

Me

MD or

A

Q

---"'-1--'

Me

}

No Change

-

U

1"

MD

-

-

A

}

Q

.

-

Me or

MD

-

-

v

(uO-l,l)

(v15-3S)i.

sec

FAULT

(AO-14)

sec

FAULT

'(QO-14 )

(v15-J5) i

(A) f

-

- l-~o

Chan'ge

T----

•.

-

- - -

(Q) f

-

-

No

Ch;

)n~~e

A

}

Q

sec

FAULT

J

-

__ i-.

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gH~I~E~RII~G ~SEARC"

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\lIVI:.,"'"

CONTENT OF

Rl:.GISTERS

ERA 1103

APPENDIX A

.---'-----------------~---.------,------instruction: EXTERNAL F1JNCJ~ION (EF-v)

Operation

---_._---_.-

Code: 17

Function:

Select a un! t of external equipment and perfol1l1 the function designated by

(v).

(No Change in Content of Registers)

._------_.-._-----

Hplni.nq#DD-

Rand

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;3SURCH hsSOCIATES

OIVlcl<'N

CO~TLNT

OF

HEGISTLRS

EllA 110j APPENDIX l\

~I_rl_s_t_r_uc~tl_·o_n_:.~_R_E_P_~~CE~A_U_D~{_~~u_V_)

__

~~~~~~~~~~I~o_p_e_ration Cod~:

Function:

Form in

A the sum of

O(u) and D(v). Then replace (u)

I

:21 I

. -

MC vr

MD

Storage

Class

Selectton

Content of

Pegisters and Storaye Positions

is Executed

1-.------

(Me>r or

(MD) f

---

.. after Operation

(A)

f

(Q) f

U u v

,

MC v or

MD

(A R) f

No

Change o

(u) j

+D

(v)

-

-

-

- -

- -

A

(A R) f

-

-

-

2D(u)

-

-

Q

(AR) f

-

-

-

D(u)iiD(Q)

No

Change

Me

or

MD

-

-

-

No

Change

D(AR)j+D(v)

-

-

-

A

A

-

- -

-

-

-

2D(A R

)i

-

-

Q

- -

Me or

MD

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

No

Change

D (AR)

-j

+D

(Q)

-

D(Q) i+ D(v)

No Change

..

_._

...

-

(A R) f

Q

A

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

_._-------

--

-

-

-

-

-

_ _ I...--.

2D(Q)

2D(Q)i

(Ap) f

(A R) f

--_1..--._----_ .. _ -

#ZP.nJnq'on:.

Hand

?NIiINHRIHG

~SURCH#SsotIAHS

OiVI'"i;)N

ERA 1103

APPENDIX It.

COl\'TENT OF

REGISTERS

I--------------·----~~----------~------~~------~~----~-------------

Instruction:

REPLACE SUBTRACT (RSuv)

I

Operation Code:

~J

Form in A the difference

D(u) minus D(v)', Then replace

Function:

......

~ r-

-<

Storage

Class

Selection u

MC or

MD

A

Q

A

Q

MC or

.10

A

Q

v

-"

MC or

MD

A

Q

MC or

Mfj u

Content of

Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is Executed.

-

(Me) f or

(MD) f

(A).r v

(Q) f

(AR) f

.No Change o(u) i

-Dl v)

- -

-

0

(AR) f

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

D{u)

1

-D(Q)

-

-

-

No

Change

- -

-

No Change

D(AR) i -D

(v)

-

-

-

_.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

-

.

0

O(A

R

) i -D(Q)

-

-

-

No Change

-

-

-

No Change

D

('0) i -D( v)

(A R) f

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

0

0

0

.\ .. ' i

.. gNGINHRlllfG

~SEARCH,1'SSQC1AHS

(lIV'SIUN

x

0...

APPENDIX A

CONTENT OF

PEGISTERS

ERA 110J

I'nstruction:

Function:

CONTROLLED COP4PLEMENT

(CCuv)

I

Operation

Replace

(AR) with (u) 1 eav ing

(AL) undisturbed.

Code:

27

,,~

Then complement those bIts of

(An) that correspond to ones in (v) Then replace. (u) wi th

(A

R)

S t.orage

Class

Selection

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation" is

Ex"ecuted

(Me) f or

(MO) f u v u v

(Q) f

~--~------r.----------~------------~----------~----------~--------~

Me ur

Me

MD

No Change No Change

VL

MD

A

No

Change

Zero

Q No Change

No

Change

- fwlC or

MO

No Change No Change

A

A

No Change

Zero

Q

No Change

No Change

~--~----~-----------~----------~----------~----------~-----------

Me or No Change No Change

MD

Q

A

No

Change

Zero

Zero

Q

No

Change

Zero

.- .•..

~

... c: --.. - -

$'NGINHRING

~SEARCH

#SSOCIATES

DIVI',I"N

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

ERA

1103

APPENDIX A

Ins t ruc t ion:

SPLIT

POS ITIVE ENTRY

(SPulc)

Function:

Form S(u) in A.

I

Operation Code: 31

Then left circular shift (A) by k places.

Storage

Class

Selection for u

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is Executed.

(lIC) f or (MIl) f

(A) f

Me or

MD

A

Q

No Ch'snge

S(AR)i 2k

S

(Q)

2k

No Change r-------------------------------------------------~--~------------.~

Instruction: SPLIT ADD (SAuk)

I

Operation Code: 32

Function:

Add S(u) to

A~

Then left circular shift (A) by k places

~ t-

'

...

..,

..

'

.. -I t -

~

Storage

Class

Selection for u

Me or

MD

A

Q

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is Executed.

(Me> f or (MD) f

(A) f

<Q) f

No Change

- -

-

- -

-

[<A>

i

+

S

(u>] .

2k

[(A) i

+-

S(A~) ~

.

2k

[<A)

i

+

S(Q)] .

2k

-

-

-

-

....

No

Change

------

R~,..;nlI'on-

HluuL

EN~I~E~;I"G ~SURCfl ~SOCI1J£S r"",et.

APPENDIX A

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

ERA 1103

Instruction: SPLlT NEGATIVE ENTRY (SNuk)

I

Operation Code:

331

I-F-u-n-c-t-io-n-:----F-O-rm-i-n-A-.. -t-n-e-c-O-m-p-l-e-m-e-n-t-o-f-S-(-u-)-.-T-h-e-n..--Jl-e-r-t-c-l-' r-c-u-l-a-r-sh-l-' f-,t'-l

(A) by k places.

"

Storage

Class

Selection rOT u

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is

Executed.

t-------------oyo-----------...-------------'-'-

oaC)r or

(MD) f

Me or

MD

A

No Change

5 (AR) i t .

S

(Q)'

·2 k

No

Change

Instruction: SPLIT SUBTRACT (SSuk)

I

Operation Code: 34

~--------.-------

Function:

-

Subtract

S(u) from A. Then left ci rcular shift

(A)

by k places. t--------,....---------------------------------"'--.-----

Storage

Class

Sele~tion for

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is Executed. r-------------.---------,-----__.._-----,-,---"'--,---,--

Q4C) f or 010) f u

~--------_4.-------------------~---------------~---------------'"-

Me or

No Change

MD

A [(Ali

-S

(A R)

J .

2k - - -

I

I

Q

[(A) i -5

(Q) ]

·2k No Change

I

J

A-14

$NGINEERING

~SEARCH

#SSOCIAH S

()lv.<",)N

CONILNf OF

REGISTERS

ERA 1103

APPENDIX

A

Instruction:: ADD AND TRANSMIT (ATuv)

Function:

I

Operation

Code:

35

Add D(u) to (A). Then replace (v) with (AR)

....... t -

C)

...-1 t-

;~

:!..

Storage

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is Executed.

Class

Selection' t - - - , - - - - - f - - - - - -

·(Me) f or

(MD) f

.--.---r----

-------1

u v u v

--I--------~I--------+----------I-----

Me

... ---.. ---",..

I or

Me

MD

No Change

(A)i+D(u) or

MD

A ~o

Lhange

(A) i+D(u)

Q No Change

(A) i

+D(u)

(AR) f t---~----~----------------r_----------_r------------~-----------~

Me

A v ...

MD

.

A

(A) i

+D(AR) i

Q

(A) i +D(AR) i

(AR)

'---~--_i--.--.-

..

----.--___II__-----_+_-------__+--~-.-.

' o r

f

Q

Me

, uf

10

A

Q

(A)

i +

D(Q)

(A)

i

+

U(Q)

(A) i

+D(Q) i

No

Change

No Change

J

(AR) f

A-IS

CONTENT OF

R~GISTERS

ERA 1103

APPENDIX

It

Instruction: SUBTRACT AND TRANSMIT (STuv)

Function:

I

Opera t ion Code:

~.~~~

Subtract D{U) from

(A).

Then replace (v) with (A R).

..

...

....

-

?NGINHRING

~SURCH ~sot'.HS lJIVI',ION

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

ERA 1103

APPENDIX A

Instruction: RETURN

~JMP

(RJuv)

Function:

Operation Code: 37

Let y represent the address from which

CI was obtained.

Replace the right-hand 15 bits of (u) with quantity y plus 1. Then take (v) as NI.

(If both u and v reter to

Me or MD there is no

~hange in content of A and

Q.

If u is

Q

or A, an sec

FAULT occurs. Also see page A-23.)

."_ ... --.....

·-t~ ~ I~[ ~ ;;t;~-~;~RC;,.fs soc

I A

OI~ISION

A-I7

...-4 t -

~.;,)

-! l -

;.<

~

ERA .1103

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

Instruction: INDEX JUMP (IJuv)

Function:

I

Operation Code: 41

Form in A the difference D(u) minus 1. If A71 is then I, continue with the prese~t sequence of instructions; if A71 is 0, replace (u) with (AR) and take

(v)

as the next instruction.

Storage

Class

Selection

Me or

MD

A u

Q v

Me or

MD

A t~

Q*

Me or

MD

A*

Q*

Q*

Me or

MD

A*

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is

Executed. u

.

(Me)!

--

or

(MO) f

I v

FOR A71

_.

1

I

(A) f

I

(Q) f '

-"'-

No

Change

No Change

D(u) -1

-

...

-

No Change

No Change

-

-

-

-

-

-

D(u)-l

D

(u)

-1

-

-

-

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

No Change

-

.....

-

- -

-

No Change

(Al . -1

1

(A) i -1

(A) i-1

\ o

(Q)-1

-

-

-

No Change

-

-

-

....

-

-

No Change

--

No Change

..

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

-

-

-

O(Q) -1

D(Q) -1

No Change

No Change

,-,---

I{I see page A...23

••• • 'It -_. - - - - - . - --- - - - gHGINEERIHG .l3SEARcH

#SSOCIAHS

O'VI~"

'I'<

CONTENT OF

HEGISTERS

INDEX JUMP

(IJuv) continued f~RA

1103

APPENDIX

A

~

Storage

Class

Se leet i on u v i

Me

I vI'

MD

A

(,)

",,-

Me or

MD

-.

A*

A*

Q*

Me

Of

MD

A*

Q*

Me or

MD

Q* u

-

(Me) f

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is

Executed. or

(MD) f

(A) f v

FOR A71

~ . . ,»

0

(Q) f

- -

(u)i-

1

(U)i-

1

(u) i-1

No Change

-

- -

-

-

O(U)i-

1

D(u) .-

1

1

D(u)i-

1

-

-

-

- - -

No Change

-

-

-

No Change

-

-

-

-

-

-

- - -

-

-

-

- -

No Change

(A) i-

.

1

(A) .-

1

1

(A) .-

1

1

O(Q) .-

I

1

J

-

-

-

-

-

No Change

(Q) i

-1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

D(Q)i- 1 o

<Q) i - I

(Q) i-I

<Q) i-I

• see page

A.;2

3

A-19

.

'"

..

:z;:

.

-

-

C

(;, IfGIIHUIICG

I' £SURCH

,d hssocu.rrs

"1/-", ....

t-4 t-

:0

........

1-

Q)NTENT OF'

REGISfERS

ERA 1103

APP~DIX

A

Instruction:

Function:

THRESHOLD JU ... (TJllv)

1_ operati~~£=:!:-l

Subtract

(II) from (A). If A71 is then 1, take

(v) as the next

I instruction; if A7l is 0, continue with the present sequence of

I instructions. Then, in either case, restore (A) to its initial state.

(No change in Content of Registers or Storage Positions except for those special cases outlined on pages A-23 and A-35j

Instruction:

Function:

-------------------------------_._--,-._----_.-

EQUALITY JU ... (EJ-;)

joperatlon

Cod~-=

43l

::::r:::t:::t:::: (::.

(A:fl:A:o:Sz:::~

:::::n::k:i::> t:: :::senJ sequence of instructions. In either case restore (A) to Its

I initial state,

I

I

(No Change in. Content of Registers or Storage Positions except for those special cases outlined on pages A-23 and

A-35)

A-20

CONrEi\IT OF

REGISTERS

ERA 1103

APPENDIX A

Instruction: Q-JUMP (QJuv)

Funttion:

I

Operation

Code:

~i~l

If Q35 is

1, take (u) as the next instruction; if 035 is 0, take (v) as the next instruction. Then, in either case, left circular shift

<Q) by

1 place.

,...;1 t-

...

-~

,..-1 t-

-,.,c c ....

Storage

Class

Selection u v

Me

or

Ie

MD o f

MD

A*

Q*

A

Q

MC or

MD

A*

Q*

Me or

MD

A*

Q*

u

Cont~nt of Registers and Storag~ POhitlon after Operation is Executed.

(MC) f or (MD)r

(A) f v

(Q) r

No Change

No

Change

No

Change

-

-

- -

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

*" see page

A-23

No Change

-

-

-

-

-

-

No Change

- -

-

-

No Change

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

No Change

-

-

-

No Change

No Change

No

Change

- -

No Change

-

- -

(Q) i ·2

(Q) i

·2

(Q) i

·2

"--

(Q) i

2

(Q) i 2

(Q) i

2

- -

(Q) i

2

(Q) i

(Q) i

r)

'-

')

'-

HiI'~Unql.on

Rand

gN~I~[~flIIHi

;6SURCH !fsSOCIAHS"vl,<l'N

ERA 110J

CONTENT OF

H£GISTERS

I

Ins t ru c t ion:

FunctIon:

MANUAu..y SELECTIVE

~lUMP

(MJj v)

AI"'pE;Nprx A

'If-

Operation Code: 45

If the number j

(given by u13 u12) is

0, take (v) as the next instructlon. If j is

I, 2 or

3 and the correspondingly numbered manual jump-selecting switch is set to "jump", take

(v) as the next instruction; otherwise if this switch is not set to

"j ump" t con t i nue wi th the present sequence of instruction.

(No Change in Content of Registers or Storage Positions and see page

A-Z'l.)

Instruction: SIGN JUMP (SJuv)

Function:

I

Operation Code: 46

If A71 is 1, take (u) as the next instruction; if

A71 is 0, take (v) as the next instruction

(No

Change in Content of

Registers or

~torage

Positions and see page

A-2l)

Instruction:

ZERO JUMP (ZJuv)

I

Operation Code: ,11

I f (A)

.i!

JlQ1 zero, take (u) as the next instruction; if (A)

II

Function: zero, take (v) as the next instruction. In either case leave

(A) in its initial state.

(No Changes in Content of Registers or Storage Positions and see page ~23,.)

. Npl6unqllRl_ #l'nnd

cf~~I~E~;~NG 13S[~RCH tYsSOCIATES

OlYI'.fO·,

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

ERA 1103 APPENDIX A

Notes Concerning the Jump Instructions

1. If v ref'ers to

A, an

SCC FAULT occurs.

2. If v ref'ers to Q. no fault occurs, and Control obtains the NI from

(Q).

If the

(0) is a legal instruction it will be executed in the normal manner. Unless

(Q) is a jump instruction, however, the following will occur: (1) PAl( wi

11 be advanced and the

(Q) wi

11 be, taken as NI;

(2) Control will be directed to

Q

again after executing the

(Q),

PAK will be advanced, and

<Q)

executed again. This process will continue until a FORCE stop is made. PAK advances from 10000 to 11777 and then starts over from 10000, each time, of course, referencing

Q as the address of

NI.

3. The above remarks also apply tou for the two way Jump instruction,

QJ, SJ, and Z.J.

RtP.nUn.¥lun._

IZand.

t""kCIHHIWtG

~S[llRCH

#SSOCIATES

[lI¥'!;;,LlN

A-23

ERA

1]

03 ... APPENCi IX A

CONTtNT OF

HEGISTERS

Instluctions: Q-CONTROU.ED TRANSMlT (QTuv)

I

Operation Code: 51

Form in A th( Humber LCQ){u). Then replace (v) by (Ap).

Function:

,...-1 t",:

-'-

,...

..

I -

X

0..

Storage

Class

Selection u v

MC or

MD

MC or

MD

A

Q

A

Q

Me or

MD

Q

Me or

MD

A

A

Q

Set u

Content of Registt::fs and Storage Positions after

Operation is

Executed.

-

(MC)

f or

(MD) f

Storaye Class Selection

(A) f v

(V) f

No Change

(AR) f

L(Q) (u) No Change

--

No

Change

No

Change

-

-

-

-

-

- - -

- -

-

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'-AR)'f

-

- -

-

-

-

(Q)

-

-

-

-

-

-

L(Q) (u).

L(Q)(u)

L(Q)

(AR) i

L(Q)

(AR) i

L(Q)

(AR) i seQ) seQ)

S(Q)

No Change

(AR) f

--

No Change

No Change

(AR)I

No Change

No

Change

No Change

R,

76

17,1n11'OIiL

Rand

tf'HGINHRING ,;gSURCH #SSOCIAHS

(",,,,,ION

CONTENT OF

HEGJSTERS

ERA 1103 APPENDIX

i\

Instruction: Q-CONTROLLED ADD(QAuv)

I

Operation Code: 52

I---------------------------------·------------------~------------------~

Function:

Add to

(A)

the number L(Q) (u). TheD replace (v) by (AR).

Storage

Class

Selection u v

-

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is

Executed.

-

Ole) f or

(MO) f

See Storage Class Selection u v

(A)

f (Q) f

MC of

MD

No Change

(A R) f

(A)

i

+

L(Q)(u)

.

-~-"

...

~

No Change

MC or

MD A

Q

Me v!.

MD

No Change

No Change

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(AR)r

-

. fA) i + L(Q)(u)

(A) .

+L(Q)(u)

1

(A) i +

L(Q) (AR)i

No Change

(AR) f

No

Change

A

A

Q

Me

or

MD

-

-

-

_.

-

-

-

-

- -

-

- -

-

(AR) f

-

(A)

i + L(Q)

(A) i +5 <Q)

(A

R) 1

-

(A)

i

+ L(Q)(AR)i

No Change

(A R) f

No

Change

--

Q

A

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(A) i

+S (Q)

(A)

i

+ 5

<Q)

No Change

(A R) f

'-

R"'IIUnqWIL

Hand

g"~I~E~ ~lt~G ~SURCH

tfs

SOCIAT t

S

()I"~~I')N

r-I tu..:

~ t---

><

0...

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

APP[NIHX A

~struction:

Q-CONTROLUD SUBSTITUTE (QSuv)

Func t lon:

--j

0pt~rat ion

Code: 53

I

Form in A the quanti ty

L{Q) (u) +L(Q)

?

(v); then replace (-V)---------j

I with

AR_

(The effect of this is to replace the digIts of (v) with the digits of (u) where there are 19s in

Q .)

~

I

Storage

I

Class

Selection

Content

-_

...

-

(MC)r or

(MD) f v u v

~----+--+----

.. u

Me

Me

VL

\)1

MD

Mil

A

No Cha nge

No

Cha nge

.-

;

L -

I

A

Q

Me

\.

...

MD

No Cha nge

-

A

-

-

V

Me

V.L"

MD

-

Q

A

Q

-

-

-

(An)f

-

-

-

-

-

-

--'-~~-.-'--'-

(AR) f

- - - i

(A)

f

L(Q) (u)+L(Q)V(v)

~.~-"-.--,.,

(Q) f

I i

--.-.-------

,-

-"

..

--

..

----.~

I

1

No Chanq.

L(Q) (u)

No

Chang e

L(Q)(u)+5(Q)1I

(AR) f

--

~.--.---.-

..

- .

L(Q)(AR)i+L(Q)~(v)

No

Cha n~1

-

-

-

-

-

-

- - - - - -

L(Q) (AR) i

L(Q)(AR)i +5

-

<Q)

......

--t:

..

(AR) f

S(Q)+L(Q)g(v)

-

-

-

- -

5(Q)

236 _1

No Chang

(AR) f

No

Chang

No

Chang e

236 _1

-----.----

Hp"dnifPo1a-

Il'nnd..

~~I~E~RIM~~S[ARC~ hssOctATES

I.; ,',11'"

A-26

~ONTLNT

OF

REG rSTI:..RS

ERA 110.)

APPENDIX

J\

.'C

Instruction: LEFT SHIFT IN A (LAuk)

Function: Replace (A) with D(u); then left circular

Operation Code: shif~

(A) by k j.\ places; then replace (u) with CAR)'

Storage

Class

Selection for u

Me

1,..' r

MU

A

Q

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is Executed.

(Me), or

(MD) f

(A) f

(AR) f

- - -

....

-

-

D( u) i

2k

(A) i

2k

I)(Q) i

2k

(Q) f

-

-

-

-

- -

(A R) f

--

Instruction: LEFT SHIFT

Function:

IN

Q

(LQuk)

Operation Code:

..

--,,,)!

Replace

(Q) with

(u) ; then left ci rcula r shift (0) by k places;

I then replace

(u) wi th

(Q) .

Storage

Class

Selection for u

. -

Me or

MD

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is

Executed.

(Me).t

- -

..

or (MD)r

(u) i

2k

.

-

(A)

-

I

-

(Q) f

(u) .

1

2k

.-

....

-

A

Q

-

-

-

'"

-

-

D(Q) f

-

-

-

(AR) i

.2k

(Q) i

~.

2k

............

?NGIHEEIIIHS

~SfARCt!tfSSOCIATES

O'"IW';N

CO:"JTL\lT OF

REC ISTI'.RS

ERA 110J

APPENDIX A

Instruction:

MANUAU.Y SELECTIVE,

STOP

(MSjv)

Fune. t

1.on:

I

Operation Code:

~)6

If the number j

(given by ull' u13' u12) is 0, stop t.he comput.er operation anu provide suitable indication.

If j is 1. 2, or ..

1 and the correspondingly numbered manual stop selecting switch is set to "stop", stop the computer operation and provide stdtable indication. Whether or not a stop occurs, take (v) as the next instruction.

(No Change in Content of Registers or Storage Positions.)"

Ins t ruc t ion: FINAL

STOP (FS -- )

F'unrtion:

I

Operation Code: 57

Stop computer operation and provide suitable indication.

(No Change in

Content of

Registers or Storage

Positions.)

H",,,unqlon"_

Rand

cfN~I~l~RtHG i6SE~~C"

,fSSOCIAHS ill"'"

<,

( I ,

rl ...;

CO~~TI'.NT OF

Rr,G lS'fFRS

EPA; }03

APPENDIX A

Instruct.jon:

Function:

PRINT

(PR-v) lOpe ra t j on Code: (}l

Replace (TWR) with the right-hand 6 bits of

(v).

Cause the e1pctric typewriter to print the character to

~hich this code corresponds.

(No Change in Content of Registers or Storage Positions.)

----------------------------------------------------~--------------------I

Ins true t jon: PUNCH

(PUj v)

Operation

Code: 63

Function: Replace (HPR) with the right-hand 6 bits of (v). Cause the punch to respond to (HPR). If j

=

0, omit seventh level hole: if j :::

1, include sev€nth level hole.

(~o Change in Content of

Registers or Storage Positions.)

Ilpl'n;~qlL7lL.

HI.I.IUL

g"GI~[~Rli~G

KrSURCH hsSOCIAl [S

'-"VI~.I()N

ERA 1103

APPENDIX A

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS true t1 o~~ -~-i~D~\1Ar~E:fTC~:~~:.:---(~~nv-~ ____ .. __ . _____

J __

~e r~ t ion C o~~ ~_

..

_~41 tape

J

(running fo~ard) to 32 n Function: Read n blocks from magnetic consecutive addresses in

Me~ starting with v.

L _____ _

(No Change in Final Content of Registers. Me Storage Locations modified as explained in

Function.

Q

Re91s~er used during data transmissions.)

...

-

...

--

-

..

" "

"'-'-"-'-"--" ----.--.-

......

---

..

-.-

...

-'''-'-'' ..

__

...................

_._---

_

..

_---,----_._--_

...

--_.

__

._._----

..

-

..

-

....

-

..

_

_._--_

.....

,

Instruction: WRITE MAGNETIC TAPE (WMjnv)

Operation Code: 65

1 -.. - - · - ... ... - . - - - - - - - - - - - . - -.... -----.-....... - ... - .. - . - . . . ........... - .. _ _ . - - .. -. - ..

Function:

Write on magnetic tape

J

(running forward) n blocks from 32 n consecutive addresses in

Me.

starting with v.

(No Change in Final Content of

Registers or

Me

Storage Positions.

Q

Register used during data transmissions.)

Instruction:: ADVAN:;E MAGNETIC TAPE (AMJn-)

Function:

'-,---1

Operation Code:

06

1

----j

Move magnetic tape j in the forward direction by n blocks.

{No Change in Content of Registers or Storage Positions.)

...... f-

"-

I

Instruction:

BACi(--"i;GNETIC TAPE---(B~j"n-)-'r -------.-.--... ---......... --._ .. -... --.. ----. __ .. --_ .. _ ... ---.-. ------." .... ----------.

Op~ra"~i'~~--C~de:

67"]

-----------.. , .... -

--"--'1

I

Function: Move

magnetic

tape

j

in

the

reverse direction by n

blocks.

I

L - -

(No Change in

Content of

Registers or Storage

Posi tions.)

- - - - - - - - -- --'-'" - . -.. - - - - - - . -.-. -- -- - ---.,,- .. __ ... __ . ___ .. _ .. _ ... _ _ _ _ _ .. ____ ....... _ .. _ .. _ ... _ .. _._ ... __ ...1

I

A-30

CONTENT OF

REGISTERS

ERA 1103

....

APPENDIX A

Ins t ru c t ion:

Function:

..,

MULTIPLY

(MPuv)

Form in A the 72-bit product

of

(u) and

I

Operation Codp!

71

(v) , lea ving in

Q the multiplier

(u) .

I

Storage

Class

Selection u v u

Me

Me or

No

Change or

MO

MD

A

No Change

Content of Registers and Storage Positions aft e r 0 ne ra t ion is

Executed_

-

..

(lIC>f or

(MD) f

(A) f

(Q) f v

No Change

(u)-(v)

(u)

( u)

Q

Me or

,-

MD

No Change

-

-

...

- -

-

-

-

No Change

0

(u) .

1

2

(AR)i"{v)

(u)

(A R) i

A

A

Q

-

-

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

--

0

(AR) i

2

(A R)

i

(AR) i

Me or

'MD

-

-

-

No Change (Q) .

( v)

No Change

.•

_-

---

-".,>--- ,'"

Q

A

Q

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

-

0

<Q) 2

No

Change

No

Change

HJP..n6;~t

IInnd

gN~'~E ~

\lING KrSURCH hsSOCIA

T(

S

DIVi,1 "., .

CONTENT OF

PEGISTEHS

ERA 1103 APPENDIX A

Instruction:

Function:

MULTIPLY ADD

(MAuv)

Add to (A) the

72 ... b it product r

Operation

Code:

....

,)

1,-

-of

(u) and (v) , lea ving in

Q the multiplier

(u) . f - - - -

Storage

Class

Selection u ' v

I

!

Me

Uf

Me

MD or

I

MD

I

A

1

A

Q i

Me or

MMD

A

Q

I

A

Q

Q

Me or

MD

Content

of

Registers and Storage

Positjons after Operation is

Executed. u

(MC>r

--.or

(Mu) f v

(A) f

(Q) f

--

_._-

No

Changf~

No

Change

(A) i

+

(u)

( v) (u)

No Change

No

-

Chanue

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- - -

-

- -

- -

-

No Change

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

No Change

-

-

-

- -

-

(A) i

+

(u) •

(At) i

(A) i+

(u)2

(A) i-+

(AR)i'(v)

(A) . +

1

(A R) i .

(A

L

) i

(A) i

+

(A.R)

i

2

(A) i +

(Q) .

( v)

(A) i

+(Q) -(AL) i

(A)i+(Q)2

(u)

(u)

(AR) i

(A R

> i

CAR) i

No Change

-1

I

I

I

I

No Ch;nHJt::

No Changf:'

HP,.lIinqLo ..... llu.nd

CMGIHU

~I"G

KrSEARC"I ,r;SDCIAHS

[,1.,;1''''.

....... t,:,

"

:f' ......

-f f-

" .. <

."

CON'll..NT

OF flFGISTERS

ERA 1103

APPENDJX A

Instruction: DIVIDE (DVuv)

Function: lope ra t ion Code: 73

Divide the 72-bit number in (A) by (u). putting the quotient in

Q and leaving in A a non-negative remainder, R. Then replace

(v) by

(Q).

The quotient and remainder are defined by:

(A)· :::

(u).

1

<Q)

+-

R where

O~R I

(u) I .

Storage

Class

Seiection u v

Me

I.Jr

Me

MlJ or

MlJ A

A

Q

V lIe or

MD

A

Q

MC ur

MD

A

Q

I

-

-

- -

- -

u

I

--

Content of Reg is ters and Storage Positions after Operation is

Executed.

(Me) f or

(MD) f

(A) f

(Q) . f v

No

ChanHe

No Change

No Change

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-,

-

-

[(A) i

-R]

I

(u)

- -

-

-

-

-

[<A) i

-RJI

(A R) i

-

-

-

-

-

-

[(A) i

-RJI

(Q) i

-

.-

-

-

-

-

R

D(Q)f

R

-

R

D(Q)1'

R

R

O\Q)f

R

[(A) i

GA) i

-RJI

(u)

-RJI

(u)

~A) i. -R

JI

(u)

[(A) i

-RJ / (A R) i

[(A) j

-RJ / (AR) i

[(A) i -RJ / fAR) i

L<A) i

[<A)

i

-RJ

I

<Q) i

-pJ /

<Q) i

[(A)i-~/(Q)i

._-

1IP16.inql.llllt.

l£'6nd

8'"~I~E~RI"C ~suRcHtf)sor;IAHS

1,,'WII,N

f'--

:»<"

0.

APPENDIX 1\

EftA

1103

Instruction:

SCALE FACTOR <SFuv)

Function:

IOperat-ion

,COde: __

~~

Replace (A) with

D(u) Wlless u is

A. Then left c,ircular shift

(A) 36 places and continue shifting until A35

~

A34. Replare the right-hand 15 bits, of (v) with the number of left shifts, k, necessary to return the final contents of A or (A)r to the nal position.

The range of k if u is A is 0

~ k

MC, MD,

s

71;

Origi-j' if u is . or

Q, k may be 0 or 37

~ k:S 71.

Effectively, the inii

I

I

I

L181 contents of A or

(A)it which may be D(u) or 0(0) after the

II above replacement, is positioned in AR (with the sign bit represented by

A35 and the most significant bit

(A)f

=

(A)i . 2 s • by A34) so that ,

If 0

$ k

$

36, the Scale Factor,

S

=

-k;

I

I

I if 37:5 k

$

11,

S

=

72 - k. ' Note that for 0

< k ~

36, this pOSitioning scales (A) i ndown"; for 37

< k

:5

71,

(A) i is scaled

II

"up". If

k

=

0, (A)J. was properly positioned before any shifting operations; if k

=

3/,

(Ali is all ones or zero.

1

! - - - - - T - ' - - - ' - - - - ' - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Storage

Content of Registers and Storage Positions after Operation is Executed.

~Se_l~.....,!....._:-~_~n___+-_-~·-----~C,_r)--f~-O-'-r---(-;~=)=f=~~~~~~~~=~.....-------(~~-f---'-'---T

(Q)-f u v u

VO-14

Me

01'

MD

A

!

......

Me or

MD

Me

or

MD

:}

,

No Change No Change

M

~}

:D~'---4-·-·

----1'- --k sec

FAULT hQUpl~-o-c-h-a-n-g-e~~-k--~-(A-)-i-.-2-n---k-,-3-7-:s-k-'S-'-7-1-~-~­

(A)·

1

·2-k

SCC FAULT

1'-k--

T

--D-(Q-)--. -2-

O~ k s

36

------+----:--

Change

1

Q

AQ}

~, see

FAULT

__1___j

,

R~Ift;n9"~"'~

11'l.nd

C

NGINfERtHG I"3SURCH dsSOCI~

I

~

So

"

A-~\4

CONTENT OF

REGISTEHS

ERA 1103 APPENDiX "A ing to the value of j. Afterward, continue the program b) the

~xecution of the instruction at Fl whose v-address is replaced by w.

(No chanQe in r~gisters or storage positions except the v-address of FI which is rf;plaeed by w.)

Notes: 1. If the repeated instruction is a Thr€-shold Jump

(42Jv) or an tquality Jump

(43uv) and

8 jump occurs, the quantit)

.J

(n -- rl f rom P A h. i s s e n t t () the Q R i s t e r t h usa

1 t e r i n U its contents.

2. If the n of the Repeat instruction is a zero, the Normal

Repeat

Termination is executed immediately and the next instruction taken from Fl.

[ -

71Plftmq#On..

"R.an4.

g~~I~[~~I~G ~S~l~C-~)(sSOCflT£S

DIVISION

ERA 1j03

APPENDIX A

CONTEN'r of

REGISTERS

Instrllctiun: EXTERNAL HEAD

(ERj")

-----_.-

---_._._,------------_

....

_.,._---,-,----_

.•..

----,---,---_

....

,_._---_._---,_._,

...

_--------'

•.

_.

__

._,---_

_-_.

__ .,--"

...

_-,

..

_.

__

._.,

Function: If j ;

0, replace the right-hand 8 bits of (v) with (lOA)

~ if j ::: I, rf~place (v) with (lOB).

If thec€xternal unit util-

! izes step-by-step operation,

Hdvance one step. l

(No chanqe in registers except as indicated by function above.>

-----------_.

--"

-

--

...

----

....

~.

_._

..

--_

..

_-_.

-, ,-_

..

_-----_

....

_----,--_. .-----_

..

-._.

'------"

"-'~'-------'-

"

... ---

~--.

-----

....

---,

-~--~

._"",-,-,

---.---.. --------'--.-'-.. -.----.,.------.-,-., ------.--..... ----'=r.-----...

-"---'-_··,·····,··--··1

"_._~

. _ _ _

~

Instruction: LXTERNAL WHITE (EWjv) u._~~_"".~,

.... _ _ _" _ _ _

Operation Code: 77

__

,_,~_~.~

____

.~

___ _

I

Function: I f j '"

0, replace (IOA) wi th the right-hand 8 .bits of (v); .

I if j ;:-.; 1 t replace

(lOB) wi th (v). Cause the previous] Y sf'!ected unit to respond to the information in lOA or lOB.

(No chang~ in contents of registers.)

__

._--,--

HP~Rand

$~~I;E~RIH~~~~;~;ffis8cIAns

OIVISION

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