R&S®SITLine ETH: Encryption for Romantis UHP

SITLine-SATCOM_app-bro_en_3606-8189-92_v0100.indd 1
R&S®SITLine ETH: ­Encryption for
Romantis UHP-based satellite networks
You act. We protect.
Encryption & IT security
by Rohde & Schwarz SIT.
Secure Communications
Application Brochure | 01.00
R&S®SITLine ETH:
­Encryption for
Romantis UHP-based
satellite networks
28.03.2013 11:18:47
Contents
Romantis UHP is a platform for operating
­private networks over satellite connections. The
R&S®SITLine ETH family of products protects
­network data against espionage and ­manipulation
over the entire satellite transmission path.
­Romantis UHP and R&S®SITLine ETH devices
support a wide range of stationary and mobile
applications.
Products from Rohde & Schwarz
❙❙ R&S®SITLine ETH50
Ethernet encryptor for 25 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s
❙❙ R&S®SITLine ETH100
Ethernet encryptor for 4 × 100 Mbit/s
❙❙ R&S®SITLine ETH1G
Ethernet encryptor for 1 Gbit/s
❙❙ R&S®SITScope
Security management system
Product from Romantis
❙❙ Romantis UHP (see appendix)
Satellite networks need protection.......................... 3
The challenge................................................................. 3
Armed services rely on fast, dependable
­situation data.................................................................. 3
Protecting communications in critical infrastructures
with secure backup networks........................................ 3
Protecting oil and gas exploration data.......................... 3
Securing ­Romantis UHP with R&S®SITLine ETH
­encryptors..................................................................... 4
Satellite communications with Romantis UHP.............. 4
Protection against eavesdropping and manipulation..... 4
Encryption in hardware and protection against
physical tampering for enhanced security..................... 4
Compact design for mobile and stationary
operation........................................................................ 4
Engineered for rough environments.............................. 5
Encryption separate from the IT infrastructure............... 5
Fully automated encryptor operation............................. 5
No additional transmission costs through
encryption...................................................................... 5
Specialized operating modes for every
network topology........................................................... 5
Encrypting d
­ ifferent SatCom network
topologies..................................................................... 6
Point-to-point ................................................................. 6
Star – point-to-multipoint............................................... 6
Hybrid architectures....................................................... 7
Full mesh – multipoint-to-multipoint.............................. 7
Uncompromising data protection............................. 8
R&S®SITLine ETH devices encrypt without overhead.... 8
Proven in the field........................................................... 8
Ordering information................................................ 10
Appendix..................................................................... 11
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Satellite networks
need protection
The challenge
Most of the data transmitted over satellite links is unen­
crypted – in other words, unprotected. Satellite operators
and customers are unwilling to make the effort of deploying encryption because up to now the solutions have consumed too much costly connection bandwidth.
Satellite networks’ data connections need to be protected
because they are vulnerable on two counts: First, the data
is unvariably transmitted unencrypted; second, the data
can be received anywhere within the satellite spot beam.
Satellite-based communications are used in the following
situations:
❙❙ For temporary high-speed mobile communications
(e.g. by armed services)
❙❙ For backup networks (e.g. in critical infrastructures)
❙❙ For teams working in geographically remote locations
(e.g. in oil and gas exploration)
In these situations, the data transmitted is so v
­ aluable
that it needs protection using strong encryption. This
­encryption must not have an impact on the transmission
of communications.
Armed services rely on fast, dependable
­situation data
Precise, up-to-date information is crucial in command and
control scenarios. Situation reports with image and video
material often need to be transmitted over long distances.
Satellite links serve to connect field units to a central station (e.g. a control center or headquarters), which in many
cases are on a different continent. This data must be protected against manipulation, and must not fall into the
hands of third parties.
Protecting communications in critical infrastructures
with secure backup networks
Organizations with a large number of field offices are usually networked over leased lines. But what happens if
these lines fail? In these situations, critical infrastructures
such as government networks (e.g. connecting the foreign
ministry) or supply networks (e.g. for power transmission)
have backup networks. Depending on the distance to be
covered, satellite may often be the only available backup
communications option. It is especially important that
backup networks intended to carry critical information are
equipped with specialized encryption devices to secure
data transmissions.
Protecting oil and gas exploration data
The data gathered during exploratory drilling is highly sensitive and of great value to rival businesses. Teams on the
ground send the data back to a central office for evaluation. This data provides a basis on which organizations
decide whether to continue exploration. As a capital asset
crucial to an organization's future, this data deserves special protection.
R&S®SITLine ETH systems secure
private satellite networks.
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Securing ­Romantis
UHP with
R&S®SITLine ETH
­encryptors
Satellite communications with Romantis UHP
Although satellite communications is a competitive market with a large number of players, SatCom services are
still several times more costly than communications using
leased lines. Each byte sent into a satellite's spot beam
adds to the expense.
SatCom service providers generally offer their customers
public IP-based Internet access services. For the customers this means relinquishing control over their communications network. However, as an alternative, they can set
up their own private SatCom networks and run protocol-­
independent data services over them. Unlike public networks, the customer retains full control over the private
network. Private networks also permit bandwidth optimization and more flexible network designs with custom
topologies.
Romantis UHP is the foremost all-in-one solution for
protocol-­independent SatCom networks. The solution is
based on a universal hardware platform, with functionality
implemented entirely in software. All the supported operating modes can be enabled via software from a control
center. This makes Romantis UHP a safe investment with
exceptionally low operating costs (see appendix).
Protection against eavesdropping and
manipulation
Data on a protocol-independent SatCom network needs
to be protected against eavesdropping and manipulation.
R&S®SITLine ETH devices offer users a powerful encryption solution designed to do just that.
Encryption in hardware and protection against
physical tampering for enhanced security
R&S®SITLine ETH50 devices use certified hardwarebased random number generators for encryption. These
­encryptors are also protected comprehensively against
physical tampering, and can register any attempts at
­power off, bypass or manipulation. A manual emergency
clear function allows the devices to be reset to a neutral
state in a fraction of a second.
Compact design for mobile and stationary
operation
Just one rack unit high and half a unit wide (7.5"), the
R&S®SITLine ETH50 is exceptionally compact. Its size
makes it easy to install in mobile containers and allows it
to be mounted on a top-hat rail (DIN rail).
Romantis UHP-1000.
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Engineered for rough environments
The R&S®SITLine ETH50 has a redundant power connection that supports a voltage range from 24 V to 60 V DC.
This enables the encryptor to be supplied with sufficient
power in a data center as well as in a container.
The R&S®SITLine ETH50 is designed for harsh ambient
conditions. It is capable of operating in an extended temperature range, from –20 °C to +70 °C, and does not need
to be installed in rooms with air-conditioning. The lack of
moving parts means that the R&S®SITLine ETH50 has a
high MTBF of more than 30 years. This simplifies logistics when the device is deployed in geographically remote
locations.
Encryption separate from the IT infrastructure
R&S®SITLine ETH encryptors can integrate transparently
into Ethernet-based SatCom systems. They do not impair
communications, and they allow the IT infrastructure to
operate securely over SatCom links without any additional
effort.
No additional transmission costs through
encryption
The biggest advantage of using R&S®SITLine ETH devices
for Ethernet encryption is that they add very little protocol
information to the network traffic – typically somewhere
between 0 % and 8 %, depending on the traffic profile
and the security functions (see the measurement results
on page 9). In comparison, the overhead with IP encryption can be as high as 44 %. This consumes a lot of costly
bandwidth. Securing a SatCom link with R&S®SITLine ETH
devices instead can therefore significantly reduce operating costs.
Specialized operating modes for every
network topology
Specific encryption modes have been implemented for
each of the four SatCom network topologies – point-topoint, star, hybrid and fully meshed. Each mode utilizes
encryption mechanisms tailored exactly to the topology's
individual requirements.
Fully automated encryptor operation
In scenarios involving SatCom links, physical access to
­devices at remote locations can be costly. This is not the
case with R&S®SITLine ETH encryptors: The devices feature a central online management system, which a
­ llows
administrative tasks such as renewing device certificates
or ­updating the firmware to be handled from a central
location.
R&S®SITLine ETH50.
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Encrypting different
SatCom network
topologies
Point-to-point
The satellite modems establish a direct Ethernet connection when a network link is set up between two locations.
Then, two R&S®SITLine encryptors connected to the UHP
negotiate an individual session key, which is used to secure the satellite link. The data is transmitted in cipher
feedback mode (CFB). This is a cryptographic mode that
does not generate additional protocol information (overhead). It allows the satellite link to be encrypted without
adding bandwidth.
The data encryption is completely transparent for the user.
Any kind of protocol (IPv4 or IPv6) or service (FTP, SMTP,
etc.) can run over a secured network connection. The full
bandwidth of the satellite link is available, without any
losses.
Star – point-to-multipoint
A star topology consists of point-to-point connections
between a central location and multiple remote locations.
Network traffic at the central location needs to be assigned to a destination location so that it can be encrypted
specifically for that destination. This can be achieved by
deploying­multiple­R&S®SITLine ETH50­encryptors­or­a­
single­R&S®SITLine ETH100­multiport­encryptor.­
Point-to-point
Star – point-to-multipoint
Central location
Central location
Remote location
Remote location
Remote location
Remote location
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Alternatively, the network traffic can be encrypted according­to­virtual­local­area­networks­(VLAN).­The­advantage­of­
VLAN-based­encryption­is­that­a­central­location­with­just­
one­R&S®SITLine ETH50­can­service­up­to­64­individually­
secured­VLANs­connecting­the­locations.­The­­Romantis­
UHP­fully­supports­for­VLAN­routing.
Hybrid architectures
Hybrid architectures are star structures with additional
connections between locations. Multiple individual pointto-point connections link these locations.
Full mesh – multipoint-to-multipoint
An environment in which every location is linked to every
other location is known as a fully meshed network. In a
full mesh, multicast traffic such as video streams can be
transmitted from a central location to multiple destinations
simultaneously. There is no need for multiple transmissions: A multicast is sent to the satellite once on the uplink, and can be received by each satellite terminal in the
spot beam.
Hybrid architectures
The­group­encryption­feature­in­R&S®SITLine ETH­devices means that the data only needs to be encrypted and
transmitted once. Each destination location has the session key used by the transmitting station: The transmitting
R&S®SITLine ETH­has­distributed­the­session­key­securely­
over the network to destination locations before data
transmission­begins.­An­R&S®SITLine ETH­can­set­up­secure network connections fully automatically, without the
need for a central key server.
By contrast, if a fully meshed network is secured using
traditional point-to-point encryption, the network traffic
for each destination location has to be encrypted with the
destination's specific session key and transmitted separately. If a network consists of four locations, the quantity
of data increases threefold, because it has to be transmitted once for each destination location.
Full mesh – multipoint-to-multipoint
Central location
Remote location
Remote location
Remote location
Central location
Remote location
Remote location
Remote location
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Uncompromising
data protection
relatively low and has almost no influence on transmission performance. By contrast, if IPsec encryption is used
to secure communications, it has twice or three times the
overhead.
Proven in the field
R&S®SITLine ETH devices encrypt without
overhead
All encryption involves transmitting a certain amount of
additional protocol information along with the data. In conventional encryption solutions, this overhead significantly
reduces the available bandwidth. This is not the case with
R&S®SITLine ETH­encryptors:­They­use­cipher­feedback­
mode (CFB) encryption, which does not affect the quantity
of data. The transmission costs for encrypted and unencrypted data are the same.
A field test has confirmed the bandwidth advantage to be
gained by using R&S®SITLine ETH devices to encrypt satellite communications. The test measured actual bandwidth
using Jperf, an Iperf variant. A satellite network was set up
by Romantis UHP between three locations (A, B and C) at
a­rate­of­1.6 Mbit/s,­full­duplex­(bus­or­shared­media).­The­
throughput was then measured between locations A and
B at ten-second intervals over a period of two minutes.
The network traffic at the central location was negligible.
The R&S®SITScope central security management system
was used at location C to configure the R&S®SITLine ETH
devices.
Encryption only adds protocol information if integrity
protection is enabled in a fully meshed topology – in
other words, on multipoint-to-multipoint connections in
Galois counter mode (GCM). Even so, this overhead is still
Field test setup
A
B
1.6 Mbit/s
Romantis UHP
Romantis UHP
C
Romantis UHP
¸SITLine ETH100
¸SITLine ETH50
Jperf server
¸SITScope
security
management
system
¸SITLine ETH50
Jperf client
Internet
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Point-to-multipoint
measurement results – VLAN (star)
Configuration
Transmission network (A to B)
Jperf (client to server)
Jperf UDP
payload
R&S®SITLine
encryption
mode
Ethernet
PDU size
Ethernet rate
Computed UDP Measured UDP
bandwidth
bandwidth
Security
overhead
Security
­overhead
with IPSec 3)
150 byte
–
200 byte
505 PDU/s
(808 kbit/s)
606 kbit/s
605 kbit/s to
606 kbit/s
0 %
0 %
150 byte
encr 1)
200 byte
505 PDU/s
(808 kbit/s)
606 kbit/s
605 kbit/s to
606 kbit/ss
0 %
< 21 %
150 byte
encr + auth 2)
208 byte
487 PDU/s
(779 kbit/s)
584 kbit/s
583 kbit/s to
584 kbit/s
< 4 %
< 23 %
500 byte
–
550 byte
195 PDU/s
(858 kbit/s)
780 kbit/s
778 kbit/s to
780 kbit/s
0 %
0 %
500 byte
encr
550 byte
195 PDU/s
(858 kbit/s)
780 kbit/s
778 kbit/s to
780 kbit/s
0 %
< 9 %
500 byte
encr + auth
558 byte
192 PDU/s
(845 kbit/s)
768 kbit/s
766 kbit/s to
768 kbit/s
< 1.5 %
< 10 %
1000 byte
–
1050 byte
103 PDU/s
(865 kbit/s)
824 kbit/s
821 kbit/s to
824 kbit/s
0 %
0 %
1000 byte
encr
1050 byte
103 PDU/s
(865 kbit/s)
824 kbit/s
821 kbit/s to
824 kbit/s
0 %
< 5 %
1000 byte
encr + auth
1058 byte
103 PDU/s
(865 kbit/s)
824 kbit/s
821 kbit/s to
823 kbit/s
< 1 %
< 6 %
encr: Encrypted point-to-multipoint operation in transport mode (CFB).
encr + auth: Encrypted point-to-multipoint operation in transport mode (CFB) with 8-byte integrity protection.
3)
IPv6 on transmission network, IPv4 at locations A and B (computed).
1)
2)
Multipoint-to-multipoint measurement results – port-specific (fully meshed)
Configuration
Transmission network (A to B)
Jperf (client to server)
Jperf UDP
payload
R&S®SITLine
encryption
mode
Ethernet
PDU size
Ethernet rate
Computed UDP Measured UDP
bandwidth
bandwidth
Security
overhead
Security
­overhead
with IPSec 3)
150 byte
–
196 byte
515 PDU/s
(808 kbit/s)
618 kbit/s
617 kbit/s to
618 kbit/s
0 %
0 %
150 byte
encr 1)
206 byte
492 PDU/s
(771 kbit/s)
590 kbit/s
585 kbit/s to
590 kbit/s
< 5 %
< 21 %
150 byte
encr + auth 2)
214 byte
475 PDU/s
(745 kbit/s)
570 kbit/s
569 kbit/s to
570 kbit/s
< 8 %
< 23 %
500 byte
–
546 byte
196 PDU/s
(856 kbit/s)
784 kbit/s
782 kbit/s to
784 kbit/s
0 %
0 %
500 byte
encr
556 byte
193 PDU/s
(843 kbit/s)
772 kbit/s
770 kbit/s to
772 kbit/s
< 2 %
< 9 %
500 byte
encr + auth
564 byte
190 PDU/s
(842 kbit/s)
760 kbit/s
758 kbit/s to
760 kbit/s
< 3 %
< 10 %
1000 byte
–
1046 byte
104 PDU/s
(870 kbit/s)
832 kbit/s
830 kbit/s to
832 kbit/s
0 %
0 %
1000 byte
encr
1056 byte
103 PDU/s
(862 kbit/s)
824 kbit/s
820 kbit/s to
824 kbit/s
< 1 %
< 5 %
1000 byte
encr + auth
1064 byte
102 PDU/s
(860 kbit/s)
816 kbit/s
813 kbit/s to
817 kbit/s
< 2 %
< 6 %
encr: Encrypted multipoint-to-multipoint operation, 10-byte GCM header.
encr + auth: Encrypted multipoint-to-multipoint operation, 10-byte GCM header with 8-byte integrity protection.
3)
IPv6 on transmission network, IPv4 at locations A and B (computed).
1)
2)
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Ordering information
Designation
Type
Order No.
Ethernet Encryptor, 1 line, 25 Mbit/s
R&S®SITLine ETH50-25
5401.8830K02
Ethernet Encryptor, 1 line, 50 Mbit/s
R&S®SITLine ETH50-50
5401.8830K02
Ethernet Encryptor, 1 line, 100 Mbit/s
R&S®SITLine ETH50-100
5401.8830K02
Ethernet Encryptor, 1 line, 100 Mbit/s
R&S®SITLine ETH100-110
5401.7004K11
Ethernet Encryptor, 2 lines, 100 Mbit/s
R&S®SITLine ETH100-210
5401.7004K12
Ethernet Encryptor, 4 lines, 100 Mbit/s
R&S®SITLine ETH100-410
5401.7004K13
R&S®SITLine ETH1G-110
5401.6820K11
­R&S®SITLine ETH50, half-rack format (7.5"), 1 HU
R&S®SITLine ETH100, rack format (19"), 1 HU
R&S®SITLine ETH1G, rack format (19"), 1 HU
Ethernet Encryptor, 1 line, 1 Gbit/s
R&S®SITLine device token (one token required per device)
Device token, USB/smart card
5410.0650.04
R&S®SITScope, security management
Set consisting of software and tools on CD (server and client software,
­R&S®SITLine Admin, ­R&S®SITLine Terminal), USB tokens (3 root tokens, 2 supervisor
tokens, 2 manager tokens), USB cable (type A to B)
R&S®SITScope Set, pre-installed on server hardware
R&S®SITScope Set
5410.8400K53
R&S®SITScope Appliance
5410.8400K13
Accessories for R&S®SITLine ETH50
USB cable (type A to B), for local initialization
1502.0567.00
External power supply for R&S®SITLine ETH50, 110 V to 240 V, 50/60 Hz
5401.8846.00
Accessories for R&S®SITLine ETH100/R&S®SITLine ETH1G
Electric SFP transceiver (10/100/1000BaseT) for R&S®SITLine ETH100 and
R&S®SITLine ETH1G
Optical SFP transceiver (1000BaseSX) for R&S®SITLine ETH1G
5401.8198.00
Optical SFP transceiver (1000BaseLX) for R&S®SITLine ETH1G
5401.8181.00
4055.6412.00
Accessories for R&S®SITScope
Manager token, USB/smart card
5410.0650.02
Root token, USB/smart card
5410.0650.03
Supervisor token, USB/smart card
5410.0650.05
Manuals
User manual, R&S®SITLine ETH100/R&S®SITLine ETH1G, German
5401.8900.31
User manual, R&S®SITLine ETH50, German
5401.8875.31
User manual, R&S®SITLine ETH100/R&S®SITLine ETH1G, English
5401.8900.32
User manual, R&S®SITLine ETH50, English
5401.8875.32
User manual, R&S®SITScope, German
5410.8439.31
User manual, R&S®SITScope, English
5410.8439.32
Product brochure for R&S®SITLine ETH, see PD 5214.0724.12;
data sheet for R&S®SITLine ETH100/R&S®SITLine ETH1G, see PD 5214.0724.22;
data sheet for R&S®SITLine ETH50, see PD 5214.4607.22;
and www.rohde-schwarz.com
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Appendix
VPN
UHP
Universal hardware platform (UHP)
Romantis UHP
UHP X000 VSAT platform overview
❙❙ Operating modes: SCPC, TDM/SCPC, TDM/TDMA,
TDMA full mesh
❙❙ All network topologies: point-to-point, start, hybrid,
full mesh
❙❙ High-speed communications at up to 85 Mbit/s
per terminal
❙❙ DVB-S2 VSAT technology with bandwidth-efficient
LDPC codec on TDMA channel
❙❙ Innovative TDMA protocol with proven efficiency of 96 %
❙❙ Built-in adaptive 500-channel traffic manager,
specially designed for VSAT applications
❙❙ Low-latency VSAT system with maximum
round-trip delay of 570 ms
❙❙ VLAN support, multilevel quality of service (QoS),
codec-independent handling of realtime traffic
❙❙ Web-based network management system
❙❙ Low power consumption enables operation with various
power sources
Virtual private networks (VPN) on existing network connections always generate overlay networks with their own
routing and structures. Ideally, a VPN should make maximum use of the available connectivity and avoid incurring
additional operating costs. However, in a worst-case scenario, a VPN can cause packets to traverse more network
nodes and even satellite hops on the way to a destination
than would be the case on an unencrypted connection.
An example: A network consisting of locations A, B and
C is fully meshed, allowing each to communicate with
any of the others directly. If encryption is applied or a
VPN is run on the network and the VPN only knows two
routes – A to B and A to C – any data traffic between B
and C always has to be routed through A. VPNs should
be capable of supporting the routing mechanisms available in advanced network structures instead of establishing their own links. R&S®SITLine ETH supports all network
topologies.
VSAT
A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) service is a type of
satellite system used in mobile applications. VSAT antennas have a diameter of < 2 m for the Ka band, < 4 m for
the Ku band and < 8 m for the C band.
QoS
Key functions
❙❙ One device for all levels in the network hierarchy
❙❙ All-IP VSAT technology with no unnecessary interleaving
❙❙ Industry-leading efficiency and bandwidth utilization
❙❙ All topologies and operating modes
❙❙ Adaptive TDMA algorithm for high throughput
❙❙ Multilevel, adaptive QoS mechanism
❙❙ High throughput and routing performance
❙❙ Easy to install and operate
❙❙ User-friendly software configuration
❙❙ Industry-leading low cost of ownership
❙❙ Fast network setup
Quality of service (QoS) is a method of classifying data
streams and assigning different processing priorities to
them. Voice over IP, for instance, is realtime traffic and
­requires the very highest priority, whereas file transfers
and e-mail (both classic store-and-forward applications)
are given a lower transmission priority. At the IP level, special fields in IP headers are available for prioritizing packets
according to QoS.
Under IEEE 802.1p, Ethernet also provides QoS fields.
­Romantis UHP manages the bandwidth for different
types of transmissions based on these fields. Bandwidth is r­ eserved specifically for high-priority network
traffic. L
­ ower-priority Ethernet frames are processed
opportunistically.
The routers transmit an IP packet's QoS marker in the
­Ethernet frame, allowing the marker to be evaluated even
if an E
­ thernet link is encrypted.
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Service you can rely
rely on
on
❙JWorldwide
Worldwide
❙J Local
and personalized
flexible
and flexible
❙J Uncompromising quality
❙J Long-term dependability
❙J Customized
About Rohde & Schwarz
Rohde & Schwarz is an independent group of companies
specializing in electronics. It is a leading supplier of solutions in the fields of test and measurement, ­broadcasting,
radiomonitoring and radiolocation, as well as secure
communications. Established more than 75 years ago,
­Rohde & Schwarz has a global presence and a dedicated
service network in over 70 countries. Company headquarters are in Munich, Germany.
Environmental commitment
❙❙ Energy-efficient products
❙❙ Continuous improvement in environmental sustainability
❙❙ ISO 14001-certified environmental management system
Certified Quality System
ISO 9001
Rohde & Schwarz SIT GmbH
Am Studio 3 | D-12489 Berlin
Phone +49 30 65884-223 | Fax +49 30 65884-184
E-mail: info.sit@rohde-schwarz.com
www.sit.rohde-schwarz.com
www.rohde-schwarz.com
Regional contact
❙❙ Europe, Africa, Middle East | +49 89 4129 12345
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com
❙❙ North America | 1 888 TEST RSA (1 888 837 87 72)
customer.support@rsa.rohde-schwarz.com
❙❙ Latin America | +1 410 910 79 88
customersupport.la@rohde-schwarz.com
❙❙ Asia/Pacific | +65 65 13 04 88
customersupport.asia@rohde-schwarz.com
❙❙ China | +86 800 810 8228/+86 400 650 5896
customersupport.china@rohde-schwarz.com
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Trade names are trademarks of the owners | Printed in Germany (ch)
PD 3606.8189.92 | Version 01.00 | March 2013 | R&S®SITLine ETH
Data without tolerance limits is not binding | Subject to change
© 2013 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG | 81671 München, Germany
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