LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers General Description Advantages The LM124 series consists of four independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For example, the LM124 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring the additional ± 15V power supplies. n Eliminates need for dual supplies n Four internally compensated op amps in a single package n Allows directly sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND n Compatible with all forms of logic n Power drain suitable for battery operation Unique Characteristics n In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground, even though operated from only a single power supply voltage n The unity gain cross frequency is temperature compensated n The input bias current is also temperature compensated Features n Internally frequency compensated for unity gain n Large DC voltage gain 100 dB n Wide bandwidth (unity gain) 1 MHz (temperature compensated) n Wide power supply range: Single supply 3V to 32V or dual supplies ± 1.5V to ± 16V n Very low supply current drain (700 µA) — essentially independent of supply voltage n Low input biasing current 45 nA (temperature compensated) n Low input offset voltage 2 mV and offset current: 5 nA n Input common-mode voltage range includes ground n Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage n Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ − 1.5V Connection Diagram Dual-In-Line Package DS009299-1 Top View Order Number LM124J, LM124AJ, LM124J/883 (Note 2), LM124AJ/883 (Note 1), LM224J, LM224AJ, LM324J, LM324M, LM324AM, LM2902M, LM324N, LM324AN, LM324MT, LM324MTX or LM2902N LM124AJRQML and LM124AJRQMLV(Note 3) See NS Package Number J14A, M14A or N14A Note 1: LM124A available per JM38510/11006 Note 2: LM124 available per JM38510/11005 © 2000 National Semiconductor Corporation DS009299 www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers March 2000 LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Connection Diagram (Continued) Note 3: See STD Mil DWG 5962R99504 for Radiation Tolerant Device DS009299-33 Order Number LM124AW/883 or LM124W/883 LM124AWRQML and LM124AWRQMLV(Note 3) See NS Package Number W14B LM124AWGRQML and LM124AWGRQMLV(Note 3) See NS Package Number WG14A www.national.com 2 LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 12) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. LM124/LM224/LM324 LM2902 LM124A/LM224A/LM324A Supply Voltage, V+ 32V Differential Input Voltage 26V 32V 26V −0.3V to +32V −0.3V to +26V 50 mA 50 mA Molded DIP 1130 mW 1130 mW Cavity DIP 1260 mW 1260 mW Small Outline Package 800 mW 800 mW Input Voltage Input Current (VIN < −0.3V) (Note 6) Power Dissipation (Note 4) Output Short-Circuit to GND (One Amplifier) (Note 5) V+ ≤ 15V and TA = 25˚C Continuous Continuous Operating Temperature Range −40˚C to +85˚C LM324/LM324A 0˚C to +70˚C LM224/LM224A −25˚C to +85˚C LM124/LM124A −55˚C to +125˚C Storage Temperature Range −65˚C to +150˚C −65˚C to +150˚C 260˚C 260˚C 260˚C 260˚C Vapor Phase (60 seconds) 215˚C 215˚C Infrared (15 seconds) 220˚C 220˚C Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 seconds) Soldering Information Dual-In-Line Package Soldering (10 seconds) Small Outline Package See AN-450 “Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability” for other methods of soldering surface mount devices. ESD Tolerance (Note 13) 250V 250V Electrical Characteristics V+ = +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated Parameter Input Offset Voltage (Note 8) TA = 25˚C Input Bias Current IIN(+) or IIN(−), VCM = 0V, (Note 9) TA = 25˚C Input Offset Current LM124A Conditions Min IIN(+) or IIN(−), VCM = 0V, LM224A Typ Max 1 Min LM324A Typ Max 2 1 20 50 2 10 Min Units Typ Max 3 2 3 mV 40 80 45 100 nA 2 15 5 30 nA V+−1.5 V TA = 25˚C Input Common-Mode V+ = 30V, (LM2902, V+ = 26V), Voltage Range (Note 10) TA = 25˚C Supply Current V+−1.5 0 V+−1.5 0 0 Over Full Temperature Range RL = ∞ On All Op Amps mA V+ = 30V (LM2902 V+ = 26V) V+ = 5V Large Signal V+ = 15V, RL≥ 2kΩ, Voltage Gain (VO = 1V to 11V), TA = 25˚C Common-Mode DC, VCM = 0V to V+ − 1.5V, Rejection Ratio TA = 25˚C 3 1.5 3 0.7 1.2 1.5 3 0.7 1.2 1.5 3 0.7 1.2 50 100 50 100 25 100 V/mV 70 85 70 85 65 85 dB www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Electrical Characteristics (Continued) V+ = +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated Parameter LM124A Conditions Power Supply V+ = 5V to 30V Rejection Ratio (LM2902, V+ = 5V to 26V), Min Typ 65 100 LM224A Max Min Typ 65 100 LM324A Max Max Units Min Typ 65 100 dB −120 dB TA = 25˚C Amplifier-to-Amplifier f = 1 kHz to 20 kHz, TA = 25˚C Coupling (Note 11) (Input Referred) Output Current Source −120 VIN+ = 1V, VIN− = 0V, −120 20 40 20 40 20 40 10 20 10 20 10 20 12 50 12 50 12 50 V+ = 15V, VO = 2V, TA = 25˚C Sink mA VIN− = 1V, VIN+ = 0V, V+ = 15V, VO = 2V, TA = 25˚C VIN− = 1V, VIN+ = 0V, µA V+ = 15V, VO = 200 mV, TA = 25˚C Short Circuit to Ground (Note 5) V+ = 15V, TA = 25˚C Input Offset Voltage (Note 8) Input Offset RS = 0Ω 40 60 40 60 4 7 20 10 200 40 60 4 7 20 10 200 mA 5 mV 7 30 µV/˚C 75 nA 10 300 pA/˚C 200 nA V+−2 V Voltage Drift Input Offset Current IIN(+) − IIN(−), VCM = 0V Input Offset RS = 0Ω 30 30 Current Drift Input Bias Current IIN(+) or IIN(−) Input Common-Mode V+ = +30V 40 Voltage Range (Note 10) (LM2902, V+ = 26V) Large Signal V+ = +15V Voltage Gain (VOSwing = 1V to 11V) 100 V+−2 0 25 40 100 V+−2 0 25 40 0 15 V/mV RL ≥ 2 kΩ Output Voltage VOH Swing Output Current V+ = 30V RL = 2 kΩ 26 (LM2902, V+ = 26V) RL = 10 kΩ 27 28 VIN+ = +1V, 10 20 VOL V+ = 5V, RL = 10 kΩ Source VO = 2V 26 5 26 27 28 10 20 20 5 V 27 28 10 20 20 5 20 VIN− = 0V, V+ = 15V mA − Sink mV VIN = +1V, 10 15 5 8 5 8 VIN+ = 0V, V+ = 15V Electrical Characteristics V+ = +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated Parameter Input Offset Voltage (Note 8) TA = 25˚C Input Bias Current IIN(+) or IIN(−), VCM = 0V, (Note 9) TA = 25˚C Input Offset Current LM124/LM224 Conditions Min IIN(+) or IIN(−), VCM = 0V, Typ Max 2 LM324 Min LM2902 Typ Max 5 2 45 150 3 30 Min Units Typ Max 7 2 7 mV 45 250 45 250 nA 5 50 5 50 nA V+−1.5 V TA = 25˚C Input Common-Mode V+ = 30V, (LM2902, V+ = 26V), Voltage Range (Note 10) TA = 25˚C Supply Current V+−1.5 0 V+−1.5 0 0 Over Full Temperature Range RL = ∞ On All Op Amps mA V+ = 30V (LM2902 V+ = 26V) V+ = 5V Large Signal V+ = 15V, RL≥ 2kΩ, Voltage Gain (VO = 1V to 11V), TA = 25˚C www.national.com 50 4 1.5 3 0.7 1.2 100 25 1.5 3 0.7 1.2 100 25 1.5 3 0.7 1.2 100 V/mV (Continued) V+ = +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated Parameter LM124/LM224 Conditions Common-Mode DC, VCM = 0V to V+ − 1.5V, Rejection Ratio TA = 25˚C Power Supply V+ = 5V to 30V Rejection Ratio (LM2902, V+ = 5V to 26V), Min Typ 70 65 Max LM324 Min Typ 85 65 100 65 LM2902 Max Max Units Min Typ 85 50 70 dB 100 50 100 dB −120 dB TA = 25˚C Amplifier-to-Amplifier f = 1 kHz to 20 kHz, TA = 25˚C Coupling (Note 11) (Input Referred) Output Current Source −120 VIN+ = 1V, VIN− = 0V, −120 20 40 20 40 20 40 10 20 10 20 10 20 12 50 12 50 12 50 V+ = 15V, VO = 2V, TA = 25˚C Sink mA VIN− = 1V, VIN+ = 0V, V+ = 15V, VO = 2V, TA = 25˚C VIN− = 1V, VIN+ = 0V, µA V+ = 15V, VO = 200 mV, TA = 25˚C Short Circuit to Ground (Note 5) V+ = 15V, TA = 25˚C Input Offset Voltage (Note 8) Input Offset RS = 0Ω 40 60 40 60 7 40 60 9 7 10 7 7 mA mV µV/˚C Voltage Drift Input Offset Current IIN(+) − IIN(−), VCM = 0V Input Offset RS = 0Ω 100 150 10 45 10 200 10 nA pA/˚C Current Drift Input Bias Current IIN(+) or IIN(−) Input Common-Mode V+ = +30V Voltage Range (Note 10) (LM2902, V+ = 26V) Large Signal V+ = +15V Voltage Gain (VOSwing = 1V to 11V) 40 300 V+−2 0 25 40 500 V+−2 0 15 40 0 500 nA V+−2 V 15 V/mV RL ≥ 2 kΩ Output Voltage VOH Swing Output Current V+ = 30V RL = 2 kΩ 26 (LM2902, V+ = 26V) RL = 10 kΩ 27 28 VIN+ = +1V, 10 20 VOL V+ = 5V, RL = 10 kΩ Source VO = 2V 26 5 22 27 28 10 20 20 5 V 23 24 10 20 20 5 100 VIN− = 0V, V+ = 15V Sink mV mA − VIN = +1V, 5 8 5 8 5 8 VIN+ = 0V, V+ = 15V Note 4: For operating at high temperatures, the LM324/LM324A/LM2902 must be derated based on a +125˚C maximum junction temperature and a thermal resistance of 88˚C/W which applies for the device soldered in a printed circuit board, operating in a still air ambient. The LM224/LM224A and LM124/LM124A can be derated based on a +150˚C maximum junction temperature. The dissipation is the total of all four amplifiers — use external resistors, where possible, to allow the amplifier to saturate of to reduce the power which is dissipated in the integrated circuit. Note 5: Short circuits from the output to V+ can cause excessive heating and eventual destruction. When considering short circuits to ground, the maximum output current is approximately 40 mA independent of the magnitude of V+. At values of supply voltage in excess of +15V, continuous short-circuits can exceed the power dissipation ratings and cause eventual destruction. Destructive dissipation can result from simultaneous shorts on all amplifiers. Note 6: This input current will only exist when the voltage at any of the input leads is driven negative. It is due to the collector-base junction of the input PNP transistors becoming forward biased and thereby acting as input diode clamps. In addition to this diode action, there is also lateral NPN parasitic transistor action on the IC chip. This transistor action can cause the output voltages of the op amps to go to the V+voltage level (or to ground for a large overdrive) for the time duration that an input is driven negative. This is not destructive and normal output states will re-establish when the input voltage, which was negative, again returns to a value greater than −0.3V (at 25˚C). Note 7: These specifications are limited to −55˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for the LM124/LM124A. With the LM224/LM224A, all temperature specifications are limited to −25˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C, the LM324/LM324A temperature specifications are limited to 0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C, and the LM2902 specifications are limited to −40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C. Note 8: VO ≅ 1.4V, RS = 0Ω with V+ from 5V to 30V; and over the full input common-mode range (0V to V+ − 1.5V) for LM2902, V+ from 5V to 26V. Note 9: The direction of the input current is out of the IC due to the PNP input stage. This current is essentially constant, independent of the state of the output so no loading change exists on the input lines. Note 10: The input common-mode voltage of either input signal voltage should not be allowed to go negative by more than 0.3V (at 25˚C). The upper end of the common-mode voltage range is V+ − 1.5V (at 25˚C), but either or both inputs can go to +32V without damage (+26V for LM2902), independent of the magnitude of V+. Note 11: Due to proximity of external components, insure that coupling is not originating via stray capacitance between these external parts. This typically can be detected as this type of capacitance increases at higher frequencies. Note 12: Refer to RETS124AX for LM124A military specifications and refer to RETS124X for LM124 military specifications. 5 www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Electrical Characteristics LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Electrical Characteristics (Continued) Note 13: Human body model, 1.5 kΩ in series with 100 pF. Schematic Diagram (Each Amplifier) DS009299-2 Typical Performance Characteristics Input Voltage Range Input Current Supply Current DS009299-34 Voltage Gain DS009299-35 Open Loop Frequency Response DS009299-36 Common Mode Rejection Ratio DS009299-37 DS009299-38 DS009299-39 www.national.com 6 Voltage Follower Pulse Response (Continued) Voltage Follower Pulse Response (Small Signal) DS009299-40 Output Characteristics Current Sourcing LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Performance Characteristics Large Signal Frequency Response DS009299-41 Output Characteristics Current Sinking DS009299-42 Current Limiting DS009299-45 DS009299-43 DS009299-44 Input Current (LM2902 only) Voltage Gain (LM2902 only) DS009299-46 DS009299-47 Application Hints The LM124 series are op amps which operate with only a single power supply voltage, have true-differential inputs, and remain in the linear mode with an input common-mode voltage of 0 VDC. These amplifiers operate over a wide range of power supply voltage with little change in performance characteristics. At 25˚C amplifier operation is possible down to a minimum supply voltage of 2.3 VDC. The pinouts of the package have been designed to simplify PC board layouts. Inverting inputs are adjacent to outputs for all of the amplifiers and the outputs have also been placed at the corners of the package (pins 1, 7, 8, and 14). Precautions should be taken to insure that the power supply for the integrated circuit never becomes reversed in polarity or that the unit is not inadvertently installed backwards in a 7 www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Application Hints non-inverting unity gain connection. Large closed loop gains or resistive isolation should be used if larger load capacitance must be driven by the amplifier. (Continued) test socket as an unlimited current surge through the resulting forward diode within the IC could cause fusing of the internal conductors and result in a destroyed unit. The bias network of the LM124 establishes a drain current which is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage over the range of from 3 VDC to 30 VDC. Large differential input voltages can be easily accommodated and, as input differential voltage protection diodes are not needed, no large input currents result from large differential input voltages. The differential input voltage may be larger than V+ without damaging the device. Protection should be provided to prevent the input voltages from going negative more than −0.3 VDC (at 25˚C). An input clamp diode with a resistor to the IC input terminal can be used. To reduce the power supply drain, the amplifiers have a class A output stage for small signal levels which converts to class B in a large signal mode. This allows the amplifiers to both source and sink large output currents. Therefore both NPN and PNP external current boost transistors can be used to extend the power capability of the basic amplifiers. The output voltage needs to raise approximately 1 diode drop above ground to bias the on-chip vertical PNP transistor for output current sinking applications. Output short circuits either to ground or to the positive power supply should be of short time duration. Units can be destroyed, not as a result of the short circuit current causing metal fusing, but rather due to the large increase in IC chip dissipation which will cause eventual failure due to excessive junction temperatures. Putting direct short-circuits on more than one amplifier at a time will increase the total IC power dissipation to destructive levels, if not properly protected with external dissipation limiting resistors in series with the output leads of the amplifiers. The larger value of output source current which is available at 25˚C provides a larger output current capability at elevated temperatures (see typical performance characteristics) than a standard IC op amp. The circuits presented in the section on typical applications emphasize operation on only a single power supply voltage. If complementary power supplies are available, all of the standard op amp circuits can be used. In general, introducing a pseudo-ground (a bias voltage reference of V+/2) will allow operation above and below this value in single power supply systems. Many application circuits are shown which take advantage of the wide input common-mode voltage range which includes ground. In most cases, input biasing is not required and input voltages which range to ground can easily be accommodated. For ac applications, where the load is capacitively coupled to the output of the amplifier, a resistor should be used, from the output of the amplifier to ground to increase the class A bias current and prevent crossover distortion. Where the load is directly coupled, as in dc applications, there is no crossover distortion. Capacitive loads which are applied directly to the output of the amplifier reduce the loop stability margin. Values of 50 pF can be accommodated using the worst-case Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) Non-Inverting DC Gain (0V Input = 0V Output) DS009299-5 *R not needed due to temperature independent IIN www.national.com 8 LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) DC Summing Amplifier (VIN’S ≥ 0 VDC and VO ≥ VDC) Power Amplifier DS009299-7 DS009299-6 Where: V0 = V1 + V2 − V3 − V4 (V1 + V2) ≥ (V3 + V4) to keep VO V0 = 0 VDC for VIN = 0 VDC AV = 10 > 0 VDC LED Driver “BI-QUAD” RC Active Bandpass Filter DS009299-8 DS009299-9 fo = 1 kHz Q = 50 AV = 100 (40 dB) 9 www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) Fixed Current Sources Lamp Driver DS009299-11 DS009299-10 Current Monitor Driving TTL DS009299-13 DS009299-12 *(Increase R1 for IL small) www.national.com 10 LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) Voltage Follower Pulse Generator DS009299-14 DS009299-15 Squarewave Oscillator Pulse Generator DS009299-16 DS009299-17 High Compliance Current Sink DS009299-18 IO = 1 amp/volt VIN (Increase RE for Io small) 11 www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) Low Drift Peak Detector DS009299-19 Comparator with Hysteresis Ground Referencing a Differential Input Signal DS009299-20 DS009299-21 VO = VR www.national.com 12 LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) Voltage Controlled Oscillator Circuit DS009299-22 *Wide control voltage range: 0 VDC ≤ VC ≤ 2 (V+ −1.5 VDC) Photo Voltaic-Cell Amplifier DS009299-23 AC Coupled Inverting Amplifier DS009299-24 13 www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) AC Coupled Non-Inverting Amplifier DS009299-25 DC Coupled Low-Pass RC Active Filter DS009299-26 fO = 1 kHz Q=1 AV = 2 www.national.com 14 LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) High Input Z, DC Differential Amplifier DS009299-27 High Input Z Adjustable-Gain DC Instrumentation Amplifier DS009299-28 15 www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) Using Symmetrical Amplifiers to Reduce Input Current (General Concept) Bridge Current Amplifier DS009299-30 DS009299-29 Bandpass Active Filter DS009299-31 fO = 1 kHz Q = 25 www.national.com 16 LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted Ceramic Dual-In-Line Package (J) Order Number LM124J, LM124AJ, LM124AJ/883, LM124J/883, LM224J, LM224AJ or LM324J NS Package Number J14A S.O. Package (M) Order Number LM324M, LM324AM or LM2902M NS Package Number M14A 17 www.national.com LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N) Order Number LM324N, LM324AN or LM2902N NS Package Number N14A Ceramic Flatpak Package Order Number LM124AW/883 or LM124W/883 NS Package Number W14B www.national.com 18 LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) 14-Pin TSSOP Order NumberLM324MT or LM324MTX NS Package Number MTC14 LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Tel: 1-800-272-9959 Fax: 1-800-737-7018 Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. 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