SignaMax 065-7940C-WS User`s manual

Signamax™ 065-7840C-WS 24-Port 10/100/1000BaseT/TX WebSmart Switch
Signamax™ Connectivity Systems
Model 065-7940C-WS
24-Port 10/100/100BaseT/TX
Layer 2 WebSmart Switch
With 4 SFP Dual Media Ports
User’s Manual
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Publication date: June, 2011
Revision 1.0
Signamax™ 065-7840C-WS 24-Port 10/100/1000BaseT/TX WebSmart Switch
065-7940C-WS
24-Port Gigabit WebSmart Switch
with 4 SFP (Mini-GBIC) slots
User Manual
V1.0
(June 2011)
© 2011 Signamax, Inc. All rights reserved. All brand and product names are trademarks or
registered trademarks of their respective companies.
Publication date: June, 2011
Revision 1.0
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Signamax™ 065-7840C-WS 24-Port 10/100/1000BaseT/TX WebSmart Switch
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Unless the explicit written permission of Signamax, Inc., this
document in whole or in part shall not be replicated or modified or amended or transmitted, in any from, or by any means manual, electric,
electronic, electromagnetic, mechanical, optical or otherwise for any purpose.
DURATION OF HARDWARE WARRANTY
HARDWARE: In accordance with the provisions described under, Signamax, Inc. (hereinafter called “Manufacturer”) warrants its hardware
products (hereinafter referred to as “Product”) specified herein to be for a period of five (5) years from the date of shipment.
Should a Product fail to perform during the effective warranty period as described above, Manufacturer shall replace the defective Product
or part, or delivering a functionally equivalent Product or part in receipt of customer’s request, provided that the customer complies with the
return material authorization (RMA) procedures and returns all defective Product prior to installation of the replacements to Manufacturer.
All defective Products must be returned to Manufacturer with issuance of a Return Material Authorization number (RMA number) assigned to
the reseller from whom the end customer originally purchased the Product. The reseller is responsible for ensuring the shipments are
insured, with the transportation charges prepaid and the RMA number clearly marked on the outside of the package. Manufacturer will not
accept collect shipments or those returned without an RMA number.
Manufacturer shall not be responsible for any software, firmware, information or memory data contained in, stored on or integrated with any
Product returned to Manufacturer pursuant to any warranty.
EXCLUSIONS. The warranty as mentioned above does not apply to the following conditions, in Manufacturer’s judgment, it contains (1)
customer does not comply with the manual instructions offered by Manufacturer in installation, operation, repair or maintenance, (2) Product
fails due to damage from unusual external or electrical stress, shipment, storage, accident, abuse or misuse, (3) Product is used in an extra
hazardous environment or activities, (4) any serial number on the Product has been removed or defaced, (5) this warranty will be of no
effect if the repair is via anyone other than Manufacturer or the approved agents, or (6) In the event of any failures or delays by either party
hereto in the performance of all or any part of this agreement due to acts of God, war, riot, insurrection, national emergency, strike, embargo,
storm, earthquake, or other natural forces, or by the acts of anyone not a party to this agreement, or by the inability to secure materials or
transportation, then the party so affected shall be executed from any further performance for a period of time after the occurrence as may
reasonably be necessary to remedy the effects of that occurrence, but in no event more than sixty (60) days. If any of the stated events
should occur, Party A shall promptly notify Party B in writing as soon as commercially practicable, but in no event more than twenty (20)
business days and provide documentation evidencing such occurrence. In no event shall the maximum liability of Manufacturer under this
warranty exceed the purchase price of the Product covered by this warranty.
DISCLAIMER. EXCEPT AS SPECIFICALLY PROVIDED ABOVE AS REQUIRED “AS IS” AND THE WARRANTIES AND REMEDIES
STATED ABOVE ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHERS, ORAL OR WRITTEN, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. ANY AND ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT OR THIRD PARTY RIGHTS ARE EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED.
MANUFACTURER SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
NOTICE: Please carefully read this Software License Agreement (hereinafter referred to as this “Agreement”) before copying or using the
accompanying software or installing the hardware unit with pre-enabled software or firmware (each of which is referred to as “Software” in
this Agreement). BY COPYING OR USING THE SOFTWARE, YOU ACCEPT ALL OF THE PROVISIONS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS
AGREEMENT. THE PROVISIONS EXPRESSED IN THIS AGREEMENT ARE THE ONLY PROVISION UNDER WHICH MANUFACTURER
WILL PERMIT YOU TO USE THE SOFTWARE. If you do not accept these provisions and conditions, please immediately return the unused
software, manual and the related product. Written approval is NOT a prerequisite to the validity or enforceability of this Agreement and no
solicitation of any such written approval by or on behalf of Manufacturer shall be deemed as an inference to the contrary.
LICENSE GRANT. The end user (hereinafter referred to as “Licensee”) of the Software is granted a personal, non-sublicensable,
nonexclusive, nontransferable license by Signamax, Inc. (“Manufacturer”): (1) To use the Manufacturer’s software (“Software”) in object
code form solely on a single central processing unit owned or leased by Licensee or otherwise embedded in the equipment offered by
Manufacturer. (2) To copy the Software only for backup purposes in support of authorized use of the Software. (3) To use and copy the
documentation related to the Software solely in support of authorized use of the Software by Licensee. The License applies to the Software
only except other Manufacturer’s software or hardware products. Without the prior written consent of Manufacturer, Licensee has no right to
receive any source code or design documentation with respect to the Software.
RESTRICTIONS ON USE; RESERVATION OF RIGHTS. The Software and related documentation are protected under copyright laws.
Manufacturer and/or its licensors retain all title and ownership in both the Software and its related documentation, including any revisions
made by Manufacturer. The copyright notice must be reproduced and included with any copy of any portion of the Software or related
documentation. Except as expressly authorized above, Licensee shall not copy or transfer the Software or related documentation, in whole
or in part. Licensee also shall not modify, translate, decompile, disassemble, use for any competitive analysis, reverse compile or reverse
assemble all or any portion of the Software, related documentation or any copy. The Software and related documentation embody
Manufacturer’s confidential and proprietary intellectual property. Licensee is not allowed to disclose the Software, or any information about
the operation, design, performance or implementation of the Software and related documentation that is confidential to Manufacturer to any
third party. Software and related documentation may be delivered to you subject to export authorization required by governments of Taiwan
and other countries. You agree that you will not export or re-export any Software or related documentation without the proper export licenses
required by the governments of affected countries.
LIMITED SOFTWARE WARRANTY. Manufacturer warrants that any media on which the Software is recorded will be free from defects in
materials under normal use for a period of five (5) years from date of shipment. If a defect in any such media should occur during the
effective warranty period, the media may be returned to Manufacturer, then Manufacturer will replace the media. Manufacturer shall not be
responsible for the replacement of media if the failure of the media results from accident, abuse or misapplication of the media.
EXCLUSIONS. The warranty as mentioned above does not apply to the Software, which (1) customer does not comply with the manual
instructions offered by Manufacturer in installation, operation, or maintenance, (2) Product fails due to damage from unusual external or
electrical stress, shipment, storage, accident, abuse or misuse, (3) Product is used in an extra hazardous environment or activities, (4) any
serial number on the Product has been removed or defaced, or (5) this warranty will be of no effect if the repair is via anyone other than
Manufacturer or the authorized agents. The maximum liability of Manufacturer under this warranty is confined to the purchase price of the
Product covered by this warranty.
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DISCLAIMER. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED ABOVE, THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS” AND MANMANUFACTURER AND ITS
LICENSORS MAKE NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REPSECT TO THE SOFTWARE AND DOCUMENTAITON.
MANUFACTURER AND ITS LICENSORS DISCLAIM ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, INCLUSIVE OF WITHOUT LIMITATION, IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OR MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. FURTHER,
MANUFACTURER DOES NOT WARRANT, GUARANTEE, OR MAKE ANY REPRESENTATIONS REGARDING THE USE, OR THE
RESULTS OF THE USE, OF THE SOFTWARE OR RELATED WRITTEN DOCUMENTAITON IN TERMS OF CORRECTNESS, ACCURACY,
RELIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE.
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. IN NO EVENT SHALL MANUFACTURER OR ITS AUTHORIZED RESELLER BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE
OR ANY THIRD PARTY FOR (A) ANY MATTER BEYOND ITS REASONABLE CONTROL OR (B) ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL,
INDIRECT OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS LICENSE OR USE OF THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED BY
MANUFACTURER, EVEN IF MANUFACTURER HAS BEEN NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES IN ADVANCE. IN
NO EVENT SHALL THE LIABILITY OF MANUFACTURER IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THIS AGREEMENT EXCEED
THE PRICE PAID TO MANUFACTURER FOR THE LICENSE.
TERM AND TERMINATION. The License is effective until terminated; however, all of the restrictions in regard to Manufacturer’s copyright in
the Software and related documentation will cease being effective at the date of expiration; Notwithstanding the termination or expiration of
the term of this agreement, it is acknowledged and agreed that those obligations relating to use and disclosure of Manufacturer’s
confidential information shall survive. Licensee may terminate this License at any time by destroying the software together with all copies
thereof. This License will be immediately terminated if Licensee fails to comply with any term and condition of the Agreement. Upon any
termination of this License for any reason, Licensee shall discontinue to use the Software and shall destroy or return all copies of the
Software and the related documentation.
GENERAL. This License shall be governed by and construed pursuant to the laws of Taiwan. If any portion hereof is held to be invalid or
unenforceable, the remaining provisions of this License shall remain in full force and effect. Neither the License nor this Agreement is
assignable or transferable by Licensee without Manufacturer’s prior written consent; any attempt to do so shall be void. This License
constitutes the entire License between the parties with respect to the use of the Software.
LICENSEE ACKNOWLEDGES THAT LICENSEE HAS READ THIS AGREEMENT, UNDERSTANDS IT, AND AGREES TO BE BOUND BY
ITS TERMS AND CONDITIONS. LICENSEE FURTHER AGREES THAT THIS AGREEMENT IS THE ENTIRE AND EXCLUSIVE
AGREEMENT BETWEEN MANUFACTURER AND LICENSEE.
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Table of Contents
CAUTION ......................................................................................................................... VIII
ELECTRONIC EMISSION NOTICES ..................................................................................... VIII
WARNING: ......................................................................................................................... IX
1.
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 2
1-1. OVERVIEW OF THE 065-7940C-WS 24-PORT GBE WEBSMART SWITCH ..................... 2
1-2. CHECKLIST .................................................................................................................. 3
1-3. FEATURES .................................................................................................................... 3
1-4. VIEW OF 24-PORT GBE WEBSMART SWITCH .............................................................. 5
1-4-1. User Interfaces on the Front Panel (Button, LEDs and Plugs) .......................... 5
1-4-2. User Interfaces on the Rear Panel...................................................................... 6
1-5. VIEW OF THE OPTIONAL MODULES ............................................................................. 7
2.
INSTALLATION......................................................................................................... 8
2-1. STARTING THE 065-7940C-WS SWITCH UP ................................................................ 8
2-1-1. Hardware and Cable Installation ....................................................................... 8
2-1-2. Cabling Requirements ...................................................................................... 10
2-1-3. Configuring the Management Agent of the Signamax 065-7940C-WS 24-Port
GbE WebSmart Switch ................................................................................................ 14
2-1-4. IP Address Assignment ..................................................................................... 15
2-2. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................. 20
3.
BASIC CONCEPT AND MANAGEMENT............................................................ 22
3-1. WHAT’S ETHERNET?.................................................................................................. 22
3-2. MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL (MAC) ............................................................................. 25
3-3. FLOW CONTROL ........................................................................................................ 30
3-4. HOW DOES A SWITCH WORK?..................................................................................... 33
3-5. VIRTUAL LAN........................................................................................................... 37
3-6. LINK AGGREGATION .................................................................................................. 43
4. OPERATION OF WEB-BASED MANAGEMENT .................................................. 45
4-1. WEB MANAGEMENT HOME OVERVIEW ..................................................................... 46
4-2. CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................................ 48
4-2-1. System Configuration ....................................................................................... 49
4-2-2. Port Configuration ........................................................................................... 52
4-2-3. VLAN Mode Configuration............................................................................... 54
4-2-4. VLAN Group Configuration.............................................................................. 58
4-2-5. Aggregation ...................................................................................................... 61
4-2-6. LACP ................................................................................................................ 62
4-2-7. RSTP................................................................................................................. 64
4-2-8. 802.1X .............................................................................................................. 66
4-2-9. IGMP Snooping ................................................................................................ 73
4-2-10. Mirror Configuration...................................................................................... 74
4-2-11. QoS (Quality of Service) Configuration.......................................................... 75
4-2-12. Filter............................................................................................................... 78
4-2-13. Rate Limit ....................................................................................................... 80
4-2-14. Storm Control ................................................................................................. 82
4-2-15. SNMP ............................................................................................................. 83
4-3. MONITORING ............................................................................................................. 85
4-3-1. Detailed Statistics ............................................................................................. 86
4-3-2. LACP Status...................................................................................................... 89
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4-3-3. RSTP Status ...................................................................................................... 90
4-3-4. IGMP Status ..................................................................................................... 91
4-3-5. Ping Status........................................................................................................ 93
4-4. MAINTENANCE .......................................................................................................... 95
4-4-1. Warm Restart .................................................................................................... 96
4-4-2. Factory Default ................................................................................................ 97
4-4-3. Software Upgrade............................................................................................. 98
4-4-4. Configuration File Transfer.............................................................................. 99
4-4-5. Logout..............................................................................................................100
5. MAINTENANCE..........................................................................................................101
5-1. RESOLVING NO LINK CONDITION .............................................................................101
5-2. Q&A ........................................................................................................................101
APPENDIX A TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.........................................................102
NOTE: ANY SPECIFICATION IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 104
APPENDIX B MIB SPECIFICATIONS .........................................................................105
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Revision History
Release
Date
Revision
1.00
06/23/2011
A1
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Caution
Circuit devices are sensitive to static electricity, which can damage their
delicate electronics. Dry weather conditions or walking across a carpeted floor may
cause you to acquire a static electrical charge.
To protect your device, always:
•
Touch the metal chassis of your computer to ground the static electrical charge
before you pick up the circuit device.
•
•
Pick up the device by holding it on the left and right edges only.
If you need using outdoor device connect to this device with cable then you
need to addition an arrester on the cable between outdoor device and this
device.
Fig. Addition an arrester between outdoor device and this switch
•
The switch supports the SFP Vendor includes: Manufacturer, Agilent, Avago and
Finisar
Electronic Emission Notices
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a
class A computing device pursuant to Subpart J of part 15 of FCC Rules, which are
designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when operated
in a commercial environment.
European Community (CE) Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the protection
requirements of European Emission Standard EN55022/EN61000-3 and the
Generic European Immunity Standard EN55024.
EMC:
EN55022(2003)/CISPR-2( 2002)
IEC61000-4-2 (2001)
IEC61000-4-3( 2002)
IEC61000-4-4(2001)
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class A
4K V CD, 8KV, AD
3V/m
1KV – (power line), 0.5KV – (signal line)
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Signamax™ 065-7840C-WS 24-Port 10/100/1000BaseT/TX WebSmart Switch
Warning:
•
Self-demolition on Product is strictly prohibited. Damage caused by selfdemolition will be charged repair fees.
• Do not place product outdoors or in a sandstorm.
• Before installation, please make sure the input power supply and product
specifications are compatible to each other.
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About this user’s manual
This user’s manual provides instructions on how to install your Signamax 0657940C-WS WebSmart Switch.
This guide also covers management options and detailed explanation about
hardware and software functions.
Overview of this user’s manual
Chapter 1 “Introduction” describes the features of the WebSmart Switch
Chapter 2 “Installation”
Chapter 3 “Operating Concept and Management”
Chapter 4 “Operation of Web-based Management”
Chapter 5 “Maintenance”
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Signamax™ 065-7840C-WS 24-Port 10/100/1000BaseT/TX WebSmart Switch
1. Introduction
1-1. Overview of the 065-7940C-WS 24-Port GbE WebSmart
Switch
The 24-port Gigabit WebSmart Switch is a standard switch that meets all
IEEE 802.3/u/x/z Gigabit, Fast Ethernet specifications. The switch has 20
10/100/1000 Mbps TP ports and 4 Gigabit TP/SFP transceiver slots. It supports
http and SNMP interface for switch management. The network administrator can
logon the switch to monitor, configure and control each port’s activity. In addition,
the switch implements the QoS (Quality of Service), VLAN, and Trunking. It is
suitable for office application.
Others the switch increase support the Power saving for reduce the power
consumption with "ActiPHY Power Management" and "PerfectReach Power
Management" two technique. It could efficient saving the switch power with auto
detect the client idle and cable length to provide different power.
In this switch, Port 21, 22, 23, 24 includes two types of media --- TP and SFP
Fiber (LC, BiDi-SC…); this port supports 10/100/1000 Mbps TP or 1000 Mbps SFP
Fiber with auto-detected function. 1000 Mbps SFP Fiber transceiver is used for
high-speed connection expansion.
⎯
⎯
⎯
⎯
⎯
1000 Mbps
1000 Mbps
1000 Mbps
1000 Mbps
1000 Mbps
1000 Mbps
LC, Multimode, SFP Fiber transceiver
LC, 10km, SFP Fiber transceiver
LC, 30km, SFP Fiber transceiver
LC, 50km, SFP Fiber transceiver
BiDi-SC, 20km, 1550nm SFP Fiber WDM transceiver
BiDi-SC, 20km, 1310nm SFP Fiber WDM transceiver
10/100/1000 Mbps TP is a standard Ethernet port that meets all IEEE
802.3/u/x/z Gigabit, Fast Ethernet specifications. 1000 Mbps SFP Fiber transceiver
is a Gigabit Ethernet port that fully complies with all IEEE 802.3z and 1000Base
SX/LX standards.
1000 Mbps Single Fiber WDM (BiDi) transceiver is designed with an optic
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology that transports bi-directional
full duplex signal over a single fiber simultaneously.
• Key Features in the Device
QoS:
The 065-7940C-WS offers powerful QoS functions. These functions support
802.1p VLAN tag priority and DSCP on Layer 3 of the network framework.
VLAN:
Supports Port-based VLAN, IEEE802.1Q Tag VLAN.
Supports 24 active VLANs and VLAN ID 1~4094.
Port Trunking:
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Signamax™ 065-7840C-WS 24-Port 10/100/1000BaseT/TX WebSmart Switch
Allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a Link
Aggregation Group by the static setting.
Power Saving:
The Power saving using the "ActiPHY Power Management" and
"PerfectReach Power Management" two techniques to detect the client idle
and cable length automatically and provides the different power. It could
efficient to save the switch power and reduce the power consumption.
1-2. Checklist
Before you start installing the switch, verify that the package contains the
following:
⎯
⎯
⎯
⎯
A Signamax 065-7940C-WS 24-Port GbE WebSmart Switch
Mounting Accessory (for 19” Rack Shelf)
This User's Manual in CD-ROM
AC Power Cord
Please notify your sales representative immediately if any of the aforementioned
items is missing or damaged.
1-3. Features
The Signamax 065-7940C-WS 24-Port GbE WebSmart Switch, a standalone
off-the-shelf switch, provides the comprehensive features listed below for users to
perform system network administration and efficiently and securely serve your
network.
• Hardware
• 20 10/100/1000 Mbps Auto-negotiation Gigabit Ethernet TP ports
• 4 10/100/1000 Mbps TP or 1000 Mbps SFP Fiber dual media auto sense
• 400KB on-chip frame buffer
• Jumbo frame support
• Programmable classifier for QoS (Layer 2 / Layer 3)
• 8K MAC address and support VLAN ID (1~4094)
• Per-port shaping, policing, and Broadcast Storm Control
• Power Saving with "ActiPHY Power Management" and "PerfectReach Power
Management" techniques.
• IEEE802.1Q-in-Q nested VLAN support
• Full-duplex flow control (IEEE802.3x) and half-duplex backpressure
• Extensive front-panel diagnostic LEDs; System: Power, TP Port1-24: LINK/ACT,
10/100/1000 Mbps , SFP Port 21, 22, 23,24: SFP(LINK/ACT)
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• Management
• Supports concise port status information and easy port configuration.
• Supports per port traffic monitoring counters.
• Supports a snapshot of the system Information when you login.
• Supports port mirror function.
• Supports the static trunk function.
• Supports 802.1Q VLAN.
• Supports user management and limits one user to login.
• Maximal packet length can be up to 9600 bytes for jumbo frame application.
• Supports Broadcasting Suppression to avoid network suspension or crashes.
• Supports sending of a trap event while monitored events are happening.
• Supports default configuration which can be restored to overwrite the current
configuration on which the switch is working via Web UI and Reset button of the
switch.
• Supports on-line plug / unplug of SFP modules.
• Supports Quality of Service (QoS) for real time applications based on the
information taken from Layer 2 to Layer 3.
• Built-in web-based management instead of using a CLI interface, providing a
more convenient GUI for the user.
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1-4. View of 24-Port GbE WebSmart Switch
Fig. 1-1 Full View of 24-PORT GBE WEBSMART SWITCH
1-4-1. User Interfaces on the Front Panel (Button, LEDs and Plugs)
There are 24 TP Gigabit Ethernet ports and 4 SFP fiber ports for optional
removable modules on the front panel of the switch. LED display area, locating on
the left side of the panel, contains a Power LED, which indicates the power status
and 24 ports working status of the switch.
TP Port Status Indication LEDs
Gigabit Ethernet Port
SFP Fiber Port
RESET Button:
RESET button is used to
restore the system default
setting.
Power Indication LED
Fiber Port Status Indication LEDs
Fig. 1-2 Front View of the 065-7940C-WS
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• LED Indicators
LED
POWER
Color
System LED
Green
Function
Lit when +3.3V power is coming up
10/100/1000Ethernet TP Port 1 to 24 LED
Lit when connection with remote device is good
LINK/ACT
Green
Blinks when any traffic is present
Lit Green when TP link on 1000 Mbps speed
10/100/1000
Green/ Lit Amber when TP link on 100 Mbps speed
Mbps
Amber Off when 10 Mbps or no link occur
Blinks when any traffic is present
1000SX/LX Gigabit Fiber Port 21, 22, 23, 24 LED
Lit when SFP connection with remote device is
SFP(LINK/ACT) Green good
Blinks when any traffic is present
Table1-1
1-4-2. User Interfaces on the Rear Panel
AC Line 100-240V 50/60 Hz
Fig. 1-3 Rear View of the 065-7940C-WS
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1-5. View of the Optional Modules
In the switch, Port 21~24 include two types of media --- TP and SFP Fiber
(LC, BiDi-SC…); they support 10/100/1000 Mbps TP or 1000 Mbps SFP Fiber with
auto-detected function. 1000 Mbps SFP Fiber transceiver is used for high-speed
connection expansion; some optional SFP types provided for the switch are listed
below:
Part Number
Description
065-79SXMG
1000BaseSX SFP Module - MM/LC, 220m Span on
62.5µm Fiber / 550m Span on 50µm Fiber
065-79SXEDMG
1000BaseSX SFP Module 1310 nm - MM/LC, 2 km
065-79LXMG
1000BaseLX SFP Module 1310 nm - SM/LC, 10 km
065-79LXEDMG
1000BaseLX SFP Module 1310 nm - SM/LC, 40 km
065-79XDMG
1000BaseXD SFP Module 1550 nm - SM/LC,40 km
065-79ZXMG
1000BaseZX SFP Module 1550 nm - SM/LC, 80 km
065-79EZXMG
1000BaseEZX SFP Module 1550 nm - SM/LC, 110 km
Please Note: Additional SFP models are available upon request.
Fig. 1-4 Front View of 1000Base SX/LX LC, SFP Fiber Transceiver
Fig. 1-5 Front View of 1000Base LX BiDi SC SFP Fiber Transceiver
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2. Installation
2-1. Starting the 065-7940C-WS Switch Up
This section will give users a quick start for:
- Hardware and Cable Installation
- Management Station Installation
- Software booting and configuration
2-1-1. Hardware and Cable Installation
At the beginning, please do first:
⇒ Wear a grounding device to avoid the damage from electrostatic discharge
⇒ Be sure that power switch is OFF before you insert the power cord to power
source
• Installing Optional SFP Fiber Transceivers to the 24-Port GbE WebSmart
Switch
Note: If you have no modules, please skip this section.
Fig. 2-1 Installation of Optional SFP Fiber Transceiver
• Connecting the SFP Module to the Chassis:
The optional SFP modules are hot swappable, so you can plug or unplug it
before or after powering on.
1. Verify that the SFP module is the right model and conforms to the chassis
2. Slide the module along the slot. Also be sure that the module is properly
seated against the slot socket/connector
3. Install the media cable for network connection
4. Repeat the above steps, as needed, for each module to be installed into
slot(s)
5. Have the power ON after the above procedures are done
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Signamax™ 065-7840C-WS 24-Port 10/100/1000BaseT/TX WebSmart Switch
•
TP Port and Cable Installation
⇒ In the switch, TP port supports MDI/MDI-X auto-crossover, so both types of
cable, straight-through (Cable pin-outs for RJ-45 jack 1, 2, 3, 6 to 1, 2, 3, 6 in
10/100M TP; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 in Gigabit TP) and
crossed-over (Cable pin-outs for RJ-45 jack 1, 2, 3, 6 to 3, 6, 1, 2) can be used.
It means you do not have to tell from them, just plug it.
⇒ Use Cat. 5 grade RJ-45 TP cable to connect to a TP port of the switch and the
other end is connected to a network-aware device such as a workstation or a
server.
⇒ Repeat the above steps, as needed, for each RJ-45 port to be connected to a
Gigabit 10/100/1000 TP device.
Now, you can start having the switch in operation.
• Power On
The switch supports 100-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz power supply. The power
supply will automatically convert the local AC power source to DC power. It does not
matter whether any connection plugged into the switch or not when power on, even
modules as well. After the power is on, all LED indicators will light up and then all off
except the power LED, which remains illuminated. This represents a reset of the
system.
• Firmware Loading
After resetting, the bootloader will load the firmware into the memory. It will
take about 30 seconds, after that, the switch will flash all the LED once and
automatically performs self-test and is in ready state.
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2-1-2. Cabling Requirements
To help ensure a successful installation and keep the network performance high,
please make certain the cabling requirements are met or exceeded. Cables with worse
specifications will cause the LAN to work poorly.
2-1-2-1. Cabling Requirements for TP Ports
⇒ For Fast Ethernet TP network connection
⎯ The grade of the cable must be Cat. 5 or better with a maximum length of
100 meters.
⇒ Gigabit Ethernet TP network connection
⎯ The grade of the cable must be Cat. 5e or better with a maximum length of
100 meters.
2-1-2-2. Cabling Requirements for 1000BaseSX/LX SFP Module
It is more complex and comprehensive contrast to TP cabling in the fiber
media. Basically, there are two categories of fiber, multi mode (MM) and single
mode (SM). The later is categorized into several classes by the distance it supports.
They are SX, LX, LHX, XD, and ZX. From the viewpoint of connector type, the
primary models used are LC and BiDi SC.
The following table lists some of the types of SFP fiber modules that we
support; those not listed here are available upon request.
Part Number
Description
065-79SXMG
1000BaseSX SFP Module - MM/LC, 220m Span on
62.5µm Fiber / 550m Span on 50µm Fiber
065-79SXEDMG
1000BaseSX SFP Module 1310 nm - MM/LC, 2 km
065-79LXMG
1000BaseLX SFP Module 1310 nm - SM/LC, 10 km
065-79LXEDMG
1000BaseLX SFP Module 1310 nm - SM/LC, 40 km
065-79XDMG
1000BaseXD SFP Module 1550 nm - SM/LC,40 km
065-79ZXMG
1000BaseZX SFP Module 1550 nm - SM/LC, 80 km
065-79EZXMG
1000BaseEZX SFP Module 1550 nm - SM/LC, 110 km
Table2-1
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2-1-2-3. Switch Cascading in Topology
• Takes the Delay Time into Account
Theoretically, the switch partitions the collision domain for each port in switch
cascading that you may up-link the switches unlimitedly. In practice, the network
extension (cascading levels & overall diameter) must follow the constraint of the
IEEE 802.3/802.3u/802.3z and other 802.1 series protocol specifications, in which
the limitations are the timing requirement from physical signals defined by 802.3
series specification of Media Access Control (MAC) and PHY, and timer from some
OSI layer 2 protocols such as 802.1d, 802.1q, LACP and so on.
The fiber, TP cables and devices’ bit-time delay (round trip) are as follows:
1000Base X TP, Fiber
100Base TX TP
Round trip Delay: 4096
100Base FX Fiber
Round trip Delay: 512
Cat. 5 TP Wire:
11.12/m
Cat. 5 TP Wire:
1.12/m
Fiber Cable
:
10.10/m
TP to fiber Converter: 56
Bit Time unit
: 1ns (1sec./1000 Mega bit)
Fiber Cable:
1.0/m
Bit Time unit: 0.01μs (1sec./100 Mega bit)
Table 2-2
Sum up all elements’ bit-time delay and the overall bit-time delay of
wires/devices must be within Round Trip Delay (bit times) in a half-duplex network
segment (collision domain). For full-duplex operation, this will not be applied. You
may use the TP-Fiber module to extend the TP node distance over fiber optic and
provide the long haul connection.
• Typical Network Topology in Deployment
A hierarchical network with minimum levels of switch may reduce the timing
delay between server and client station. Basically, with this approach, it will
minimize the number of switches in any one path; will lower the possibility of
network loop and will improve network efficiency. If more than two switches are
connected in the same network, select one switch as Level 1 switch and connect all
other switches to it at Level 2. Server/Host is recommended to connect to the Level
1 switch. This is general if no VLAN or other special requirements are applied.
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Case1: All switch ports are in the same local area network. Every port can access
each other (See Fig. 2-2).
Fig. 2-2 No VLAN Configuration Diagram
If VLAN is enabled and configured, each node in the network that can
communicate each other directly is bounded in the same VLAN area.
Here VLAN area is defined by what VLAN you are using. The switch
supports both port-based VLAN and tag-based VLAN. They are different in practical
deployment, especially in physical location. The following diagram shows how it
works and what the difference they are.
Case2a: Port-based VLAN (See Fig.2-3).
Fig. 2-3 Port-based VLAN Diagram
1. The same VLAN members could not be in different switches.
2. Every VLAN members could not access VLAN members each other.
3. The switch manager has to assign different names for each VLAN groups
at one switch.
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Case 2b: Port-based VLAN (See Fig.2-4).
Fig. 2-4 Port-based VLAN Diagram
1. VLAN1 members could not access VLAN2, VLAN3 and VLAN4 members.
2. VLAN2 members could not access VLAN1 and VLAN3 members, but they could
access VLAN4 members.
3. VLAN3 members could not access VLAN1, VLAN2 and VLAN4.
4. VLAN4 members could not access VLAN1 and VLAN3 members, but they could
access VLAN2 members.
Case3a: The same VLAN members can be at different switches with the same VID
(See Fig. 2-5).
Fig. 2-5 Attribute-based VLAN Diagram
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2-1-3. Configuring the Management Agent of the Signamax 065-7940C-WS
24-Port GbE WebSmart Switch
By means of the web, the user is allowed to start up the switch management
function. Users can use any one of them to monitor and configure the switch. You
can reach them through the following procedures:
2-1-3-1. Configuring the Management Agent of the 065-7940C-WS Switch
through the Ethernet Port
There are two ways to configure and monitor the switch through the switch’s
Ethernet port. They are Web browser and SNMP manager. The user interface for
the SNMP manager is Management software dependent and does not cover here.
This discussion introduces the Web browser management interface. Web-based UI
for the switch is a highly friendly way to manage the switch.
065-7940C-WS Switch
Default IP Setting:
IP = 192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway = 192.168.1.254
Assign a reasonable IP address,
For example:
IP = 192.168.1.100
Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway = 192.168.1.254
Ethernet LAN
Fig. 2-6
• Managing the 065-7940C-WS Switch through the Ethernet Port
Before you communicate with the switch, you have to first finish the
configuration of the IP address or know the assigned IP address of the switch. Then,
follow the procedures listed below.
1. Set up a physical path between the switch to be configured and a
PC by a qualified UTP Cat. 5 cable with RJ-45 connector.
Note: If the PC directly connects to the switch, you have to setup the
same subnet mask between them. But, the subnet mask may be
different for the PC in the remote site. Please refer to Fig. 2-6 about
the 065-7940C-WS Switch’s default IP address information.
2. Run the web browser and follow the menu. Please refer to Chapter
4.
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Fig. 2-7: The Login Screen for the Web browser User Interface (UI)
2-1-4. IP Address Assignment
For IP address configuration, there are three parameters needed to be
defined and entered. They are IP address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway and DNS.
IP address:
The address of the network device in the network is used for internetworking
communication. Its address structure looks is shown in the Fig. 2-8. It is “classful”
because it is split into predefined address classes or categories.
Each class has its own network range between the network identifier and
host identifier in the 32 bits address. Each IP address is comprised of two parts:
network identifier (address) and host identifier (address). The former indicates the
network where the addressed host resides, and the latter indicates the individual
host in the network which the address of host refers to. And the host identifier must
be unique in the same LAN. Here the nomenclature of the IP address we used is
version 4, known as IPv4.
32 bits
Network identifier
Host identifier
Fig. 2-8 IP address structure
With the classful addressing, it divides IP address into three classes, class A,
class B and class C. The rest of IP addresses are for multicast and broadcast. The
bit length of the network prefix is the same as that of the subnet mask and is
denoted as IP address/X, for example, 192.168.1.0/24. Each class has its address
range described below.
Class A:
Address is less than 126.255.255.255. There are a total of 126 networks can
be defined because the address 0.0.0.0 is reserved for default route and
127.0.0.0/8 is reserved for the loopback function.
Bit #
0 1
78
31
0
Network address
Host address
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Class B:
IP address range between 128.0.0.0 and 191.255.255.255. Each class B
network has a 16-bit network prefix followed 16-bit host address. There are 16,384
(2^14)/16 networks able to be defined with a maximum of 65534 (2^16 –2) hosts
per network.
Bit #
01 2
15 16
31
10
Network address
Host address
Class C:
IP address range between 192.0.0.0 and 223.255.255.255. Each class C
network has a 24-bit network prefix followed 8-bit host address. There are
2,097,152 (2^21)/24 networks able to be defined with a maximum of 254 (2^8 –2)
hosts per network.
Bit # 0 1 2 3
23 24
31
110
Network address
Host address
Class D and E:
Class D is a class with first 4 MSB (Most significance bit) set to 1-1-1-0 and
is used for IP Multicast. See also RFC 1112. Class E is a class with first 4 MSB set
to 1-1-1-1 and is used for IP broadcast.
According to IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), there are three
specific IP address blocks reserved and able to be used for extending internal
network. We call it Private IP address and list below:
Class A
Class B
Class C
10.0.0.0 --- 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 --- 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 --- 192.168.255.255
Please refer to RFC 1597 and RFC 1466 for more information.
Subnet mask:
The Subnet Mask means the sub-division of a class-based network or a
CIDR block. The subnet is used to determine how to split an IP address to the
network prefix and the host address on a bitwise basis. It is designed to utilize IP
addresses more efficiently and make it easier to manage an IP network.
For a class B network, 128.1.2.3, it may have a subnet mask 255.255.0.0 in
default, in which the first two bytes are all 1s. This means more than 60 thousand
nodes in flat IP addresses will be on the same network. It’s too large to manage
practically. Now if we divide it into a smaller network by extending the network prefix
from 16 bits to, say 24 bits, which uses its third byte to subdivide this class B
network into subnets. Now it has a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, in which each bit
of the first three bytes is 1. It’s now clear that the first two bytes is used to identify
the class B network, the third byte is used to identify the subnet within this class B
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network, and, of course, the last byte is the host number.
Not all IP address is available in the sub-netted network. Two special
addresses are reserved. They are the addresses with all zero’s and all one’s host
number. For example, an IP address 128.1.2.128, what IP address reserved will be
looked like? All 0s mean the network itself, and all 1s mean IP broadcast.
128.1.2.128/25
Network
Subnet
10000000.00000001.00000010.1 0000000
25 bits
All 0s = 128.1.2.128
All 1s= 128.1.2.255
1 0000000
1 1111111
In this diagram, you can see the subnet mask that is 25-bits long,
255.255.255.128, contains 126 members in the sub-netted network. Another is that
the length of the network prefix equals the number of the bits with 1s in that subnet
mask. Knowing this, you can easily count the number of IP addresses matched. The
following table shows the result:
Prefix Length No. of IP matched No. of Addressable IP
/32
1
-
/31
2
-
/30
4
2
/29
8
6
/28
16
14
/27
32
30
/26
64
62
/25
128
126
/24
256
254
/23
512
510
/22
1024
1022
/21
2048
2046
/20
4096
4094
/19
8192
8190
/18
16384
16382
/17
32768
32766
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/16
65536
65534
Table 2-3
According to the scheme above, a subnet mask 255.255.255.0 will partition a
network with the class C. It means there will have a maximum of 254 effective
nodes existed in this sub-netted network and is considered a physical network in an
autonomous network. So it owns a network IP address which may look like
168.1.2.0.
With the subnet mask, a bigger network can be cut into small pieces of
network. If we want to have more than two independent networks in a worknet, a
partition to the network must be performed. In this case, subnet mask must be
applied.
For different network applications, the subnet mask may look like
255.255.255.240. This means it is a small network accommodating a maximum of
15 nodes in the network.
Default gateway:
For the routed packet, if the destination is not in the routing table, all the
traffic is put into the device with the designated IP address, known as the default
router. Basically, it is a routing policy.
For assigning an IP address to the switch, you just have to check what the IP
address of the network will be connected with the switch. Use the same network
address and append your host address to it.
Fig. 2-9
First, IP Address: as shown in the Fig. 2-9, enter “192.168.1.1”, for instance.
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For sure, an IP address such as 192.168.1.x must be set on your PC.
Second, Subnet Mask: as shown in the Fig. 2-9, enter “255.255.255.0”. Any
subnet mask such as 255.255.255.x is allowable in this case.
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2-2. Typical Applications
The 24-Port GbE WebSmart Switch implements 24 Gigabit Ethernet TP ports
with auto MDIX and four slots for the removable module supporting comprehensive
fiber types of connection, including LC and BiDi-LC SFP modules. For more details
on the specification of the switch, please refer to Appendix A.
⎯
⎯
⎯
The switch is suitable for the following applications.
Central Site/Remote site application is used in carrier or ISP (See Fig. 2-10)
Peer-to-peer application is used in two remote offices (See Fig. 2-11)
Office network(See Fig. 2-12)
Central Site
065-7940C-WS
065-7940C-WS
065-7940C-WS
065-7940C-WS
Fig. 2-10 Network Connection between Remote Site and Central Site
Fig. 2-10 is a system-wide basic reference connection diagram. This diagram
demonstrates how the switch connects with other network devices and hosts.
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Fig. 2-11 Peer-to-peer Network Connection
Fig. 2-12 Office Network Connection
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3. Basic Concept and
Management
This chapter will tell you the basic concept of features to manage this switch
and how they work.
3-1. What’s Ethernet?
Ethernet originated and was implemented at Xerox in Palo Alto, CA in 1973
and was successfully commercialized by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), Intel
and Xerox (DIX) in 1980. In 1992, Grand Junction Networks unveiled a new high
speed Ethernet with the same characteristic of the original Ethernet but operated at
100 Mbps , called Fast Ethernet now. This means Fast Ethernet inherits the same
frame format, CSMA/CD, software interface. In 1998, Gigabit Ethernet was rolled
out and provided 1000 Mbps . Now 10G/s Ethernet is under approving. Although
these Ethernet have different speed, they still use the same basic functions. So they
are compatible in software and can connect each other almost without limitation.
The transmission media may be the only problem.
Fig. 3-1 IEEE 802.3 reference model vs. OSI reference mode
In Fig. 3-1, we can see that Ethernet is located at the Data Link Layer and
Physical Layer and comprises three portions, including logical link control (LLC),
media access control (MAC), and the Physical Layer. The first two comprise the
Data Link layer, which performs the function of splitting data into frames for
transmitting, receiving acknowledge frame, error checking and re-transmitting when
not received correctly, as well as providing an error-free channel upward to the
Network Layer.
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IEEE 802.2 LLC
Data
Link
Layer
IEEE802.3 CSMA/CD MAC
IEEE 802.3 PLS
CS
Physical
Layer
MII
ANSI X3T9.5 PMD
IEEE 802.3
MAU
Fiber
Coaxial/STP/UTP
This above diagram shows the Ethernet architecture, LLC sub-layer and
MAC sub-layer, which are responded to the Data Link layer, and transceivers, which
are responded to the Physical layer in the OSI model. In this section, we are mainly
describing the MAC sub-layer.
Logical Link Control (LLC)
The Data Link Layer is composed of both the sub-layers of MAC and MACclient. Here MAC client may be logical link control or bridge relay entity.
Logical link control supports the interface between the Ethernet MAC and
upper layers in the protocol stack, usually the Network Layer, which has nothing to
do with the nature of the LAN. So it can operate over other different LAN
technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI, and so on. Likewise, for the interface to the
MAC layer, LLC defines the services with the interface independent of the medium
access technology and with some of the nature of the medium itself.
Table 3-1 LLC Format
The table 3-1 is the format of LLC PDU. It comprises four fields, DSAP, SSAP,
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Control and Information. The DSAP address field identifies the one or more service
access points, in which the I/G bit indicates it is individual or group address. If all bit
of DSAP is 1s, it’s a global address. The SSAP address field identifies the specific
services indicated by C/R bit (command or response). The DSAP and SSAP pair
with some reserved values indicates some well-known services listed in the table
below.
0xAAAA
0xE0E0
0xF0F0
0xFEFE
0xFFFF
0x4242
0x0606
0x9898
SNAP
Novell IPX
NetBIOS
IOS network layer PDU
Novell IPX 802.3 RAW packet
STP BPDU
IP
ARP
Table 3-2
LLC type 1 connectionless service, LLC type 2 connection-oriented service
and LLC type 3 acknowledge connectionless service are three types of LLC frame
for all classes of service. In Fig 3-2, it shows the format of Service Access Point
(SAP). Please refer to IEEE802.2 for more details.
Fig. 3-2 SAP Format
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3-2. Media Access Control (MAC)
MAC Addressing
Because a LAN is composed of many nodes, for the data exchanged among
these nodes, each node must have its own unique address to identify who should
send the data or should receive the data. In OSI model, each layer provides its own
mean to identify the unique address in some form, for example, IP address in
network layer.
The MAC belongs to the Data Link Layer (Layer 2); the address is defined to
be a 48-bit long and locally unique address. Since this type of address is applied
only to the Ethernet LAN media access control (MAC), they are referred to as MAC
addresses.
The first three bytes are Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) code
assigned by IEEE. The last three bytes are the serial number assigned by the
vendor of the network device. All these six bytes are stored in a non-volatile
memory in the device. Their format is as the following table and normally written in
the form as aa-bb-cc-dd-ee-ff, a 12 hexadecimal digits separated by hyphens, in
which the aa-bb-cc is the OUI code and the dd-ee-ff is the serial number assigned
by Manufacturer.
Bit 47
1st byte
2nd byte
OUI code
3rd byte
4th byte
5th byte
Serial number
bit 0
6th byte
Table 3-3 Ethernet MAC address
The first bit of the first byte in the Destination address (DA) determines the
address to be a Unicast (0) or Multicast frame (1), known as I/G bit indicating
individual (0) or group (1). So the 48-bit address space is divided into two portions,
Unicast and Multicast. The second bit is for global-unique (0) or locally-unique
address. The former is assigned by the device Manufacturer, and the later is usually
assigned by the administrator. In practice, global-unique addresses are always
applied.
A unicast address is identified with a single network interface. With this
nature of MAC address, a frame transmitted can exactly be received by the target
an interface the destination MAC points to.
A multicast address is identified with a group of network devices or network
interfaces. In Ethernet, a many-to-many connectivity in the LANs is provided. It
provides a mean to send a frame to many network devices at a time. When all bit of
DA is 1s, it is a broadcast, which means all network device except the sender itself
can receive the frame and response.
Ethernet Frame Format
There are two major forms of Ethernet frames, type encapsulation and length
encapsulation, both of which are categorized as four frame formats 802.3/802.2
SNAP, 802.3/802.2, Ethernet II and Netware 802.3 RAW. We will introduce the
basic Ethernet frame format defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard required for all
MAC implementations. It contains seven fields explained below.
PRE
SFD
DA
SA
Type/Length
25
Data
Pad bit if any
FCS
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7
7
6
6
2
46-1500
4
Fig. 3-3 Ethernet frame structure
-
Preamble (PRE) —The PRE is 7-byte long with alternating pattern of ones
and zeros used to tell the receiving node that a frame is coming, and to
synchronize the physical receiver with the incoming bit stream. The
preamble pattern is:
10101010 10101010 10101010 10101010 10101010 10101010 10101010
-
Start-of-frame delimiter (SFD) — The SFD is one-byte long with
alternating pattern of ones and zeros, ending with two consecutive 1-bits. It
immediately follows the preamble and uses the last two consecutive 1s bit to
indicate that the next bit is the start of the data packet and the left-most bit in
the left-most byte of the destination address. The SFD pattern is 10101011.
-
Destination address (DA) — The DA field is used to identify which
network device(s) should receive the packet. It is a unique address. Please
see the section of MAC addressing.
-
Source addresses (SA) — The SA field indicates the source node. The SA
is always an individual address and the left-most bit in the SA field is always
0.
-
Length/Type — This field indicates either the number of the data bytes
contained in the data field of the frame, or the Ethernet type of data. If the
value of first two bytes is less than or equal to 1500 in decimal, the number
of bytes in the data field is equal to the Length/Type value, i.e. this field acts
as Length indicator at this moment. When this field acts as Length, the
frame has optional fields for 802.3/802.2 SNAP encapsulation, 802.3/802.2
encapsulation and Netware 802.3 RAW encapsulation. Each of them has
different fields following the Length field.
If the Length/Type value is greater than 1500, it means the Length/Type
acts as Type. Different type value means the frames with different protocols
running over Ethernet being sent or received.
-
For example,
0x0800
0x0806
0x0835
0x8137
0x86DD
-
-
IP datagram
ARP
RARP
IPX datagram
IPv6
Data — Less than or equal to 1500 bytes and greater or equal to 46 bytes.
If data is less than 46 bytes, the MAC will automatically extend the padding
bits and have the payload be equal to 46 bytes. The length of data field
must equal the value of the Length field when the Length/Type acts as
Length.
Frame check sequence (FCS) — This field contains a 32-bit cyclic
redundancy check (CRC) value, and is a check sum computed with DA, SA,
through the end of the data field with the following polynomial:
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-
It is created by the sending MAC and recalculated by the receiving MAC to
check if the packet is damaged or not.
How does a MAC work?
The MAC sub-layer has two primary jobs to do:
1. Receiving and transmitting data. When receiving data, it parses frame to
detect error; when transmitting data, it performs frame assembly.
2. Performing Media access control. It prepares the initiation jobs for a
frame transmission and makes recovery from transmission failure.
Frame transmission
As Ethernet adopted Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect
(CSMA/CD), it detects if there is any carrier signal from another network device
running over the physical medium when a frame is ready for transmission. This is
referred to as sensing carrier, also “Listen”. If there is signal on the medium, the
MAC defers the traffic to avoid a transmission collision and waits for a random
period of time, called backoff time, then sends the traffic again.
After the frame is assembled, when transmitting the frame, the preamble
(PRE) bytes are inserted and sent first, then the next, Start of frame Delimiter (SFD),
DA, SA and through the data field and FCS field in turn. The followings summarize
what a MAC does before transmitting a frame.
1.
MAC will assemble the frame. First, the preamble and Start-of-Frame
delimiter will be put in the fields of PRE and SFD, followed DA, SA, tag
ID if tagged VLAN is applied, Ethertype or the value of the data length,
and payload data field, and finally put the FCS data in order into the
responded fields.
2.
Listen if there is any traffic running over the medium. If yes, wait.
3.
If the medium is quiet, and no longer senses any carrier, the MAC
waits for a period of time, i.e. inter-frame gap time to have the MAC
ready with enough time and then start transmitting the frame.
4.
During the transmission, MAC keeps monitoring the status of the
medium. If no collision happens until the end of the frame, it transmits
successfully. If there is a collision, the MAC will send the patterned
jamming bit to guarantee the collision event propagated to all involved
network devices, and then wait for a random period of time, i.e. backoff
time. When backoff time expires, the MAC goes back to the beginning
state and attempts to transmit again. After a collision happens, MAC
increases the transmission attempts. If the count of the transmission
attempts reaches 16 times, the frame in the MAC’s queue will be
discarded.
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Ethernet MAC transmits frames in half-duplex and full-duplex ways. In halfduplex operation mode, the MAC can either transmit or receive frame at a moment,
but cannot do both jobs at the same time.
As the transmission of a MAC frame with the half-duplex operation exists
only in the same collision domain, the carrier signal needs to spend time to travel to
reach the targeted device. For two most-distant devices in the same collision
domain, when one sends the frame first, and the second sends the frame, in worstcase, just before the frame from the first device arrives. The collision happens and
will be detected by the second device immediately. Because of the medium delay,
this corrupted signal needs to spend some time to propagate back to the first device.
The maximum time to detect a collision is approximately twice the signal
propagation time between the two most-distant devices. This maximum time is
traded-off by the collision recovery time and the diameter of the LAN.
In the original 802.3 specification, Ethernet operates in half duplex only.
Under this condition, when in 10 Mbps LAN, it’s 2500 meters, in 100 Mbps LAN,
it’s approximately 200 meters and in 1000 Mbps , 200 meters. According to the
theory, it should be 20 meters. But it’s not practical, so the LAN diameter is kept by
using to increase the minimum frame size with a variable-length non-data extension
bit field which is removed at the receiving MAC. The following tables are the frame
format suitable for 10M, 100M and 1000M Ethernet, and some parameter values
that shall be applied to all of these three types of Ethernet.
Actually, the in-practice Gigabit Ethernet chips do not feature this so far.
They all have their chips supported in the full-duplex mode only, as well as all
network vendors’ devices. So this criterion should not exist at the present time and
in the future. The switch’s Gigabit module supports only full-duplex mode.
64 bytes
Fig. 3-4 Gigabit Ethernet Frame
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Parameter
value/LAN
Max. collision
domain DTE to
DTE
Max. collision
domain with
repeater
Slot time
Interframe Gap
AttemptLimit
BackoffLimit
JamSize
MaxFrameSize
MinFrameSize
BurstLimit
10Base
100 meters
100Base
1000Base
100 meters for UTP 100 meters for UTP
412 meters for fiber 316 meters for fiber
2500 meters
205 meters
200 meters
512 bit times
9.6us
16
10
32 bits
1518
64
Not applicable
512 bit times
0.96us
16
10
32 bits
1518
64
Not applicable
512 bit times
0.096us
16
10
32 bits
1518
64
65536 bits
Table 3-4 Ethernet parameters for half duplex mode
In full-duplex operation mode, both transmitting and receiving frames are
processed simultaneously. This doubles the total bandwidth. Full duplex is much
easier than half duplex because it does not involve media contention, collision,
retransmission schedule, padding bits for short frame. The rest functions follow the
specification of IEEE802.3. For example, it must meet the requirement of minimum
inter-frame gap between successive frames and frame format the same as that in
the half-duplex operation.
Because no collision will happen in full-duplex operation, for sure, there is no
mechanism to tell all the involved devices. What will it be if receiving device is busy
and a frame is coming at the same time? Can it use “backpressure” to tell the
source device? A function called flow control is introduced in the full-duplex
operation.
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3-3. Flow Control
Flow control is a mechanism to tell the source device stopping sending frame
for a specified period of time designated by target device until the PAUSE time
expires. This is accomplished by sending a PAUSE frame from target device to
source device. When the target is not busy and the PAUSE time is expired, it will
send another PAUSE frame with zero time-to-wait to source device. After the
source device receives the PAUSE frame, it will again transmit frames immediately.
PAUSE frame is identical in the form of the MAC frame with a pause-time value and
with a special destination MAC address 01-80-C2-00-00-01. As per the specification,
PAUSE operation can not be used to inhibit the transmission of MAC control frame.
Normally, in 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps Ethernet, only symmetric flow control is
supported. However, some switches (e.g. the Signamax 065-7940C-WS Switch)
support not only symmetric but asymmetric flow controls for special applications. In
Gigabit Ethernet, both symmetric flow control and asymmetric flow control are
supported. Asymmetric flow control only allows transmitting PAUSE frame in one
way from one side, the other side is not but receives-and-discards the flow control
information. Symmetric flow control allows both two ports to transmit PAUSE frames
each other simultaneously.
Inter-frame Gap time
After the end of a transmission, if a network node is ready to transmit data
out and if there is no carrier signal on the medium at that time, the device will wait
for a period of time known as an inter-frame gap time to have the medium clear and
stabilized as well as to have the jobs ready, such as adjusting buffer counter,
updating counter and so on, in the receiver site. Once the inter-frame gap time
expires after the de-assertion of carrier sense, the MAC transmits data. In
IEEE802.3 specification, this is 96-bit times or more.
Collision
Collision happens only in half-duplex operation. When two or more network
nodes transmit frames at approximately the same time, a collision always occurs
and interferes with each other. This results the carrier signal distorted and undiscriminated. MAC can afford detecting, through the physical layer, the distortion of
the carrier signal. When a collision is detected during a frame transmission, the
transmission will not stop immediately but, instead, continues transmitting until the
rest bits specified by jamSize are completely transmitted. This guarantees the
duration of collision is enough to have all involved devices able to detect the
collision. This is referred to as Jamming. After jamming pattern is sent, MAC stops
transmitting the rest data queued in the buffer and waits for a random period of time,
known as backoff time with the following formula. When backoff time expires, the
device goes back to the state of attempting to transmit frame. The backoff time is
determined by the formula below. When the times of collision is increased, the
backoff time is getting long until the collision times excess 16. If this happens, the
frame will be discarded and backoff time will also be reset.
where
k = min (n, 10)
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Frame Reception
In essence, the frame reception is the same in both half duplex and full
duplex operations, except that full-duplex operation uses two buffers to transmit and
receive the frame independently. The receiving node always “listens” if there is
traffic running over the medium when it is not receiving a frame. When a frame
destined for the target device comes, the receiver of the target device begins
receiving the bit stream, and looks for the PRE (Preamble) pattern and Start-ofFrame Delimiter (SFD) that indicates the next bit is the starting point of the MAC
frame until all bit of the frame is received.
For a received frame, the MAC will check:
1.
If it is less than one slotTime in length, i.e. short packet, and if yes, it
will be discarded by the MAC because, by definition, the valid frame
must be longer than the slotTime. If the length of the frame is less than
one slotTime, it means there may be a collision which happened
somewhere or an interface malfunctioned in the LAN. When detecting
the case, the MAC drops the packet and goes back to the ready state.
2.
If the DA of the received frame exactly matches the physical address
that the receiving MAC owns or the multicast address designated to
recognize. If not, discards it and the MAC passes the frame to its client
and goes back to the ready state.
3.
If the frame is too long. If yes, throws it away and reports frame Too
Long.
4.
If the FCS of the received frame is valid. If not, for 10M and 100M
Ethernet, the MAC discards the frame. For Gigabit Ethernet or higher
speed Ethernet, the MAC has to check one more field, i.e. the extra bit
field, to determine if the FCS is invalid, or if there are any extra bits
existing, which must meet the specification of IEEE 802.3. When both
the FCS and extra bits are valid, the received frame will be accepted,
otherwise the MAC discards the received frame and reports
frameCheckError if no extra bits appended or alignmentError if extra
bits appended.
5.
If the length/type is valid. If not, discards the packet and reports
lengthError.
6.
If all five procedures above are ok, then the MAC treats the frame as
good and de-assembles the frame.
What if VLAN tagging is applied?
VLAN tagging is a 4-byte long data immediately following the MAC source
address. When tagged VLAN is applied, the Ethernet frame structure will have a
little change shown as follows.
Only two fields, VLAN ID and Tag control information, are different in
comparison with the basic Ethernet frame. The rest fields are the same.
The first two bytes is VLAN type ID with the value of 0x8100 indicating the
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received frame is tagged VLAN and the next two bytes are Tag Control Information
(TCI) used to provide user priority and VLAN ID, which are explained respectively in
the following table.
Bits 15-13
Bit 12
Bits 11-0
User Priority 7-0, 0 is lowest priority
CFI (Canonical Format Indicator)
1: RIF field is present in the tag header
0: No RIF field is present
VID (VLAN Identifier)
0x000: Null VID. No VID is present and only user
priority is present.
0x001: Default VID
0xFFF: Reserved
Table 3-5
Note: RIF is used in Token Ring network to provide source routing and comprises
two fields, Routing Control and Route Descriptor.
When the MAC parses the received frame and finds a reserved special value
0x8100 at the location of the Length/Type field of the normal non-VLAN frame, it will
interpret the received frame as a tagged VLAN frame. If this happens in a switch,
the MAC will forward it, according to its priority and egress rule, to all the ports that
is associated with that VID. If it happens in a network interface card, the MAC will
deprive of the tag header and process it in the same way as a basic normal frame.
For a VLAN-enabled LAN, all involved devices must be equipped with VLAN
optional function.
At operating speeds above 100 Mbps, the slotTime employed at slower
speeds is inadequate to accommodate network topologies of the desired physical
extent. Carrier Extension provides a means by which the slotTime can be increased
to a sufficient value for the desired topologies, without increasing the minFrameSize
parameter, as this would have deleterious effects. Nondata bits, referred to as
extension bits, are appended to frames that are less than slotTime bits in length so
that the resulting transmission is at least one slotTime in duration. Carrier Extension
can be performed only if the underlying physical layer is capable of sending and
receiving symbols that are readily distinguished from data symbols, as is the case in
most physical layers that use a block encoding/decoding scheme.
The maximum length of the extension is equal to the quantity (slotTime minFrameSize). The MAC continues to monitor the medium for collisions while it is
transmitting extension bits, and it will treat any collision that occurs after the
threshold (slotTime) as a late collision.
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3-4. How does a switch work?
The switch is a layer 2 Ethernet Switch equipped with 24 ports which support
Gigabit Ethernet, 100M Ethernet, or 10M Ethernet. Each port on it is an
independent LAN segment and thus has 24 LAN segments and 24 collision
domains, in contrast to the traditional shared Ethernet HUB in which all ports share
the same media and use the same collision domain and thus limit the bandwidth
utilization. With switch’s separated collision domain, it can extend the LAN diameter
farther than the shared HUB does and highly improve the efficiency of the traffic
transmission.
Due to the architecture, the switch can provide full-duplex operation to
double the bandwidth per port and many other features, such as VLAN, bandwidth
aggregation and so on, not able to be supported in a shared hub.
Terminology
Separate Access Domains:
As per the description in the section headed “What’s Ethernet?”, Ethernet
utilizes CSMA/CD to arbitrate who can transmit data to the station(s) attached in the
LAN. When more than one station transmits data within the same slot time, the
signals will collide, referred to as collision. The arbitrator will arbitrate who should
gain the media. The arbitrator is a distributed mechanism in which all stations
contend to gain the media. Please refer to “What’s Ethernet?” for more details.
In Fig.3-5, assumed in half duplex, you will see some ports of the switch are
linked to a shared HUB, which connects many hosts, and some ports just are
individually linked to a single host. The hosts attached to a shared hub will be in the
same collision domain, separated by the switch, and use CSMA/CD rule. For the
host directly attached to the switch, because no other host(s) joins the traffic
contention, hence it will not be affected by CSMA/CD. These LAN segments are
separated in different access domains by the switch.
Micro-segmentation:
To have a port of the switch connected to a single host is referred to as
micro-segmentation. It has the following interesting characteristics.
-
There is no need for the access contention (e.g. Collision).
They have their own access domain. But, collision still could
happen between the host and the switch port.
-
When performing the full duplex, the collision vanishes.
-
The host owns a dedicated bandwidth of the port.
The switch port can run at different speeds, such as 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, or
1000 Mbps. A shared hub cannot afford this.
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Fig.3-5 Collision Domain
Extended Distance Limitations:
The diameter of a half-duplex LAN segment is determined by its maximum
propagation delay time. For example, in a 10M LAN, the longest distance of a LAN
segment using yellow cable is 2500 meters and 185 meters when using coaxial
cable. The switch with its per port per collision domain can extend the distance like
a bridge does. And what’s more, when operating in full-duplex mode, the distance
can reach farther than half duplex because it is not limited by the maximum
propagation delay time (512 bits time). If fiber media is applied, the distance can be
up to tens of kilometers.
Traffic Aggregation:
Traffic aggregation is the capability to aggregate the bandwidth of more than
one port and treat it as a single port in the LAN. This single port possesses the
features of a normal port but with loading balance. This is a great feature for the
port needing more bandwidth but cannot afford paying a higher cost for a high
bandwidth port.
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Fig. 3-6
How does a switch operate?
A Layer 2 switch uses some features of the Data Link layer in OSI model to
forward the packet to the destination port(s). Here we introduce some important
features of a switch and how they work.
MAC address table
When a packet is received on a port of switch, the switch first checks if the
packet good or bad and extracts the source MAC address (SA) and destination
MAC address (DA) to find 1) if SA is existed in the MAC address table, if no, puts it
in the MAC address table, if yes, 2) looks up DA and its associated port to which the
traffic is forwarded. If DA does not exist, have the packet broadcasted.
Due to the size of the MAC address being limited, the MAC address aging
function is applied. When the MAC address has resided and has not been updated
in the table for a long time, this means the traffic using that entry has not come for a
while. If this time period is more than the aging time, the entry will be marked invalid.
The vacancy is now available for other new MACs.
Both learning and forwarding are the most important functions in a switch.
Besides that, VLAN can be one of the rules to forward the packet. There are ingress
rule and egress rule applied. The ingress rule is used to filter the incoming packet
by VLAN ID and so on and to decide whether the packet is allowed to enter the
switch or not. The egress rule is used to forward the packet to the proper port.
Mac address aging
There is a field in MAC address table used to set the entry’s Age time, which
determines how long a MAC entry can reside in a switch. The age time is refreshed
when a packet with that SA. Usually, the age time is programmable.
Transmission schedule
In most layer 2 switches, the QoS feature is supported. QoS in a switch must
associate a transmission schedule to transmit the packet. This function has much to
do with the priority level to which a packet has been assigned. With the given
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priority, the scheduler will perform the proper action upon it. The scheduler has
many ways to implement, and different chips may support different schedule
algorithms. Most common schedulers are:
FCFS: First Come First Service.
Strictly Priority: All High before Low.
Weighted Round Robin: Set a weight figure to the packet with a priority
level, say 5-7, and next, set another weight to the packet with a priority
level, say 2-4 and so on. The WRR will transmit the packet with the higher
weight. So the packet of each priority level can be allocated a fixed
bandwidth.
Bandwidth rating
Bandwidth rating is the limitation set by administrator, and it can be applied
to those with SLA. Bandwidth rating can be total bandwidth, types of service of a
port with many steps. The switch supports by-port Ingress and Egress total
bandwidth rate control capacity. The bandwidth rate resolution is 0.1 Mbps (100
Kbps) and ranges from 0 to 100 Mbps.
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3-5. Virtual LAN
What is a VLAN?
It is a subset of a LAN. Before we discuss VLAN, we must understand what
LAN is. In general, a LAN is composed of different physical network segments
bridged by switches or bridges which attach to end stations in the same broadcast
domain. The traffic can reach any station on the same LAN. Beyond this domain,
the traffic cannot go without router’s help. This also implies that a LAN is limited. If
you need to communicate with the station outside the LAN, a router is needed
which always lies on the edge of the LAN.
For a layer 2 VLAN, it assumes it is a logical subset of a physical LAN
separated by specific rules such as tag, port, MAC address and so on. In other
words, they can communicate with each other between separated small physical
LANs within a LAN but can not be between any two separated logical LANs.
Fig. 3-7
In the figure above, all stations are within the same broadcast domain. For
these stations, it is obviously that the traffic is getting congested while adding more
stations on it. With the more and more users joining the LAN, broadcast traffic will
rapidly decrease the performance of the network. Finally, the network may get down.
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Fig. 3-8
Now we apply VLAN technology to configure the system shown as the figure
above. We can partition the users into the different logical networks which have their
own broadcast domain. The traffic will not disturb among these logical networks.
The users 1x (x denotes a ~ d) are members of VLAN 1. Any traffic within VLAN 1
does not flow to VLAN 2 and others. This helps us configure the network easily
according to the criteria needed, for example, financial, accounting, R&D and
whatever you think it necessary. You can also easily move a user to a different
location or join a new user somewhere in the building to VLAN. Without VLAN, it is
very hard to do. Basically, VLAN can offer at least 3 benefits: move and change
users, reduce broadcast traffic and increase performance, and improve security.
Besides, VLAN can highly reduce the traffic congestion and increase total
performance because there are no more too many users in the same broadcast
domain.
There are many types of VLAN applied. Most popular are port-based VLAN,
tag-based VLAN and protocol-based VLAN.
‚ Port-based VLAN
Some physical ports are configured as members of a VLAN. All stations
attached on these ports can communicate with each other.
‚ Tag-based VLAN
It identifies the membership by VLAN ID, no matter where the packet
comes from. It is also referred to as 802.1Q VLAN.
‚ Protocol-based VLAN
It identifies the VLAN membership by layer 3 protocol types, for example
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IPX, AppleTalk, IP, etc.
Other VLAN technologies not mentioned above are MAC-based VLAN, IPbased VLAN and so on.
Terminology
Tagged Frame:
A frame, carrying a tag field following the source MAC address, is four bytes
long and contains VLAN protocol ID and tag control information composed of user
priority, Canonical Format Indicator (CFI) and optional VLAN identifier (VID).
Normally, the maximal length of a tagged frame is 1522 bytes.
6
DA
802.1Q VLAN-tagged Ethernet frame
6
2
2
2
VLAN Protocol Tag Control Length
SA
ID
Information
/Type
VLAN Protocol ID =
User Priority
0x8100
CFI
VLAN identifier
Fig.3-9 Tag Format
VLAN Protocol ID: 8100 is reserved for VLAN-tagged frame.
User Priority: 3 bits long. User priority is defined to 7 – 0. 0 is the lowest
priority.
CFI: Canonical Format Indicator. 1 bit long. It is used to encapsulate a
token ring packet to let it travel across the Ethernet. Usually, it is
set to 0.
VLAN ID: 12 bits long. 0 means no VLAN ID is present. 1 means default VLAN,
4095 reserved.
VLAN-tagged frame:
An Ethernet frame, carrying VLAN tag field, contains VLAN identification
without the value of 0 and 4095, and priority information.
Priority-tagged frame:
An Ethernet frame, carrying VLAN tag field, contains VLAN identification with
the value of 0 and priority information.
Untagged frame:
An Ethernet frame carries no VLAN tag information.
VLAN Identifier:
Also referred to as VID. It is used to identify a member whether it belongs to
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the VLAN group with the VID. The assignable number is 1- 4094. If VID=0, the
tagged frame is a priority packet. Both the value of 0 and 4095 also cannot be
assigned in VLAN management.
Port VLAN Identifier:
VLAN identifier of a port. It also can be referred to as PVID. When an
untagged frame or a priority-tagged frame is received, the frame will be inserted the
PVID of that port in the VLAN tag field. The frame with VID assigned by a port is
called PVID. Each port can only be assigned a PVID. The default value for PVID is
1, the same as VID.
Ingress filtering:
The process to check a received packet and compare its VID to the VLAN
membership of the ingress port. The ingress filtering can be set by per port. When
receiving a packet, VLAN bridge examines if the VID in the frame’s header presents.
If the VID of the received packet presents, the VID of the packet is used. And
VLAN bridge will check its MAC address table to see if the destination ports are
members of the same VLAN. If both are members of the tagged VLAN, then the
packet will be forwarded.
If the packet is an untagged or a null tag packet, the ingress port’s PVID is
applied to the packet. VLAN bridge will then look up the MAC address table and
determine to which ports the packet should be forwarded. Next, it will check to see if
the destination ports belong to the same VLAN with that PVID. If the destination
ports are members of the VLAN used by ingress port, the packet will be forwarded.
Note: VID can not be 0 or 4095.
Ingress Rule:
Each packet received by a VLAN-aware bridge will be classified to a VLAN.
The classification rule is described as follows.
1. If the VID of the packet is null VID (VID=0) or this packet is an untagged packet:
a. If there are still some other ways (e.g. protocol, MAC address, application,
IP-subnet, etc.) to classify the incoming packets beside port-based
classification in implement and these approaches can offer non-zero VID,
then, use the value of VID offered by other classifications for the VLAN’s
classification.
b. If there is only port-based classification in implement or other classification
approaches cannot offer non-zero VID for the incoming packets, then
assign the PVID to the incoming packets as VID for the classification of
the VLAN group.
2. If the VID is not a null VID (VID≠0), then use the value to classify the VLAN group.
Egress Rule:
An egress list is used to make the tagging and forwarding decision on an
outgoing port. It specifies the VLANs whose packets can be transmitted out and
specifies if the packet should be tagged or not. It can be configured for port’s VLAN
membership, and tagged or untagged for a transmitted packet. When a packet is
transmitted out, the VLAN bridge checks the port’s egress list. If the VLAN of the
packet is on the egress list of the port on which the packet transmits out, the packet
will be transmitted with the priority accordingly. If enabled, an egress port will
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transmit out a tagged packet if the port is connected to a 802.1Q-compliant device.
If an egress port is connected to a non-802.1Q device or an end station, VLAN
bridge must transmit out an untagged packet, i.e. the tag has been stripped off in an
egress port. Egress rule can be set by per port.
Independent VLAN Learning (IVL):
It specifies the mode how to learn MAC address. For a specified VLAN, it will
use an independent filtering database (FID) to learn or look up the membership
information of the VLAN and decide where to go.
Shared VLAN Learning (SVL):
It specifies the mode how to learn MAC address. In this mode, some VLAN
or all VLANs use the same filtering database storing the membership information of
the VLAN to learn or look up the membership information of the VLAN. In the
Signamax 065-7940C-WS switch, you can choose a VID for sharing the filtering
database in the Shared VID field if you wish to use the existing filtering database.
For a specified VLAN, when a MAC address is learned by a switch, VLAN will use
this formation to make forwarding decision.
Filtering Database:
Referred to as FID. It can provide the information regarding where the packet
will be sent. Filtering database will supply the outgoing port according to the request
from forwarding process with VID and DA. When a packet is received, if it has a
non-zero VID, then FID will offer the associated outgoing ports information to the
packet.
In SVL, VLANs use the same Filtering Database. In IVL, VLANs use different
FIDs. Any VID can be assigned to the same FID by administrator.
How does a Tagged VLAN work?
If the ingress filtering is enabled and when a packet is received, the VLAN
bridge will first check if the VID of the packet presents.
1). If the packet has a non-zero VID, the VLAN bridge will apply this VID as the
VLAN ID of the packet in the network.
2). For a packet with null tag or no VLAN tag, if the VLAN bridge provides rules to
decide its VID, then apply this VID to the packet.
If the VLAN bridge does not support any rule for VID, then apply the PVID of
the port to the packet which came from that port. VLAN bridge checks to see if the
ingress port and the received packet are on the same VLAN. If not, drops it. If yes,
forwards it to the associated ports. Meanwhile, this VLAN must be applied to the
egress port, or the packet will be dropped.
If ingress filtering is disabled, VLAN bridge will only check the MAC address
table to see if the destination VLAN exists. If VLAN does not exist, then drop the
packet, and if both DA and VLAN do not exist, forwards the packet. If it just knows
the VLAN exists, then it floods the packet to all the ports the VLAN covers.
If we plan to deploy four VLANs in an office and use a switch to partition
them, we should check which ports belong to which VLAN first. Assuming a 24-port
switch is applied:
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Name
Marketing
Service
Sales
Administration
VID
2
3
4
1
Port Members
1,2,3,4,5
6,7,20,21,22
8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16
17,18,19,23,24
Table 3-6
Next, assigns IP address to each VLAN. Usually, we use 10.x.x.x as the
internal IP block. Because there are total four VLANs in the network, we must
assign 4 IP blocks to each of them.
Name
Marketing
Service
Sales
Administration
VID
2
3
4
1
Network Address
10.1.2.0/24
10.1.3.0/24
10.1.4.0/24
10.1.1.0/24
Table 3-7
Here we apply the subnet mask 255.255.255, and each VLAN is capable of
supporting 254 nodes.
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3-6. Link Aggregation
Basically, Link Aggregation is used to aggregate the bandwidth of more than
one port to an assigned logical link. This highly increases total bandwidth to the
targeted device. There is more than one Link Aggregation technology in many
vendors’ switch products already, which may cause the problem of interoperability.
This is the reason why now we have IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP).
Why 802.3ad (LACP)?
Network is varying. For example, if a port malfunctioned or unplugged
accidentally in a static trunk port, administrator has to reconfigure it, or the network
will get trouble. Therefore, offering a tool with automatic recovery capability is
necessary for an administrator. LACP is a protocol that allows a switch able to know
whether its partner has the capability to co-setup a trunk between them.
Usually, if administrator wishes to increase the bandwidth of a specific link,
he may:
1. Buy new network equipment with higher throughput, or
2. Aggregate the bandwidth of more than one port to a logical link.
If the item 1 is the case, the cost of that choice may be beyond your budget,
and the solution caused by the limitation of hardware performance may not be
scalable.
If the item 2 is the case, now there is not much more extra cost and the
solution can be flexible according to the demand of bandwidth, because all required
equipment is there already. Moreover, there is no worry about the interoperability
issue. By applying LACP in your network, you will not only gain the benefits shown
below to improve the performance of your network, but you also have the
investment capital usable for future new products:
1. Public standardized specification
2. No interoperability issue
3. No change to IEEE 802.3 frame format, no change in software and
management.
4. Increased bandwidth and availability
5. Load sharing and redundancy
6. Automatic configuration
7. Rapid configuration and reconfiguration
8. Deterministic behavior
9. Low risk of duplication or mis-ordering
10. Support existing IEEE 802.3 MAC Clients
11. Backwards compatibility with aggregation-unaware devices
There are also some constraints when applying LACP.
1. LACP does not support inter-switch bandwidth aggregation.
2. The ports aggregated must operate in full-duplex mode.
3. The ports in the same Link Aggregation Group must have the same
speed, for example, all with 100 Mbps or all 1000 Mbps. You cannot
aggregate a 1000 Mbps and two 100 Mbps for a 1.2Gbps trunk port.
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Terminology
Link Aggregation:
It is a method to have multiple physical links with the same media and speed
bundled to be a logical link forming a Link Aggregation Group with a group ID. From
the viewpoint of the MAC client, each Link Aggregation Group is an independent link.
There are three cases of link used in the network, which are switch to switch,
switch to station and station to station. Here station may be a host or a router.
Link Aggregation, sometimes called port trunking, has two types of link
configurations: static port trunk and dynamic port trunk.
‚ Static Port Trunk:
When physical links are changed, the administrator needs to manually
configure the switches one by one.
‚ Dynamic Port Trunk:
When physical links are changed, LACP takes over and automatically
reconfigures the trunk group. Administrator does not have to do anything
and may see the trap message of LACP changed in the Network
Management System (NMS).
Fig. 3-10 Example of Link Aggregation Application
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4. Operation of
Web-based Management
This chapter would introduce how to manage your Signamax 065-7940C-WS
WebSmart Switch and how to configure the 10/100/1000 Mbps TP Ports and
Gigabit TP/SFP Fiber dual media ports on the switch via web user interfaces. This
switch provides 20 fixed Gigabit Ethernet TP ports and 4 optional Gigabit dual
media ports. With this capability, you can easily access and monitor the status of
items like MIBs, port activity, and multicast traffic through any ports on the switch.
The default values of the 065-7940C-WS switch are listed in the table below:
IP Address
192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Default Gateway
192.168.1.254
Password
admin
Table 4-1
When the configuration of your WebSmart Switch is finished, you can browse
it by the IP address you assigned. For instance, type http://192.168.1.1 in the
address row in a browser, then the following screen (see Fig.4-1) would appear and
ask for your password input for login and access authentication. The default
password is “admin”. For first time access, please enter the default password, and
click the <Apply> button. The login process now would be completed.
The 065-7940C-WS switch supports a simplified user management function
which allows only one administrator to configure the switch at one time.
To optimize the display effect, we recommend Microsoft IE and 1024x768
display resolution.
Fig. 4-1
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4-1. Web Management Home Overview
After login, System Information would be displayed as illustrated in Fig. 4-2.
This page lists default values and shows you the basic information of the switch,
including “Switch Status”, “TP Port Status”, “Fiber Port Status”, “Aggregation”,
“VLAN”, “Mirror”, “SNMP”, and “Maximum Packet Length”. With this information, you
will know the software version, MAC address, ports available and so on. It would be
helpful while malfunction occurred. For more details, please refer to Section 4-4-1.
Fig. 4-2
• The Information Page Layout
⎯
On the top part of the information page, it shows the front panel of the switch.
Linked ports will be displayed in green color, and linked-off ones will be in black.
For the optional modules, the slots with no module will only show covered plates,
the other slots with installed modules would present modules. The images of
modules would depend on the ones you insert. Vice versa, if ports are
disconnected, they will show just in black.
⎯
On the left side, the main menu tree for web is listed in the page. According to
the function name in boldface type, all functions can be divided into three parts,
including “Configuration”, “Monitoring” and “Maintenance”. The functions of each
folder are described in its corresponding section respectively. The function
names in normal type are the sub-functions. When clicking it, the function is
performed. The following list is the main function tree for the web user interface:
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Root
Configuration
Monitoring
Maintenance
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4-2. Configuration
Configuration includes the following functions: System Configuration, Ports
Configuration, VLAN Mode Configuration, VLAN Group Configuration, Aggregation,
LACP, RSTP, 802.1X, IGMP Snooping, Mirror, QoS, Filter, Rate Limit, Storm Control
and SNMP.
Configuration
System Configuration
Ports Configuration
VLAN Mode Configuration
VLAN Group Configuration
Aggregation
LACP
RSTP
802.1X
IGMP Snooping
Mirror
QoS
Filter
Rate Limit
Storm Control
SNMP
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4-2-1. System Configuration
System configuration is one of the most important functions. Without a proper
setting, the network administrator would not be able to manage the device. The
switch supports manual IP address setting.
065-7940C-WS
Fig. 4-3
Function name:
System Configuration
Function description:
Show system description, firmware version, hardware version, MAC address,
serial number, active IP address, active subnet mask, active gateway, DHCP
server and Lease time left.
Set device name, DHCP enable, fallback IP address, fallback subnet mask,
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fallback gateway, management VLAN, password and inactivity timeout.
Parameter description:
System Description:
The simple description of this switch.
Firmware Version:
The firmware version of this switch.
Hardware Version:
The hardware version of this switch.
MAC Address:
It is the Ethernet MAC address of the management agent in this switch.
Serial Number:
The serial number is assigned by the Manufacturer.
Active IP Address:
Show the active IP address of this switch.
Active Subnet Mask:
Show the active subnet mask of this switch.
Active Gateway:
Show the active gateway of this switch.
DHCP Server:
Show the IP address of the DHCP server.
Default: 0.0.0.0
Lease Time Left:
Show the lease time left of DHCP client.
Device Name:
Set a special name for this switch. Up to 16 characters are allowed in this
parameter. Any alphanumeric character and null are acceptable.
Default: Giga Switch
DHCP Enabled:
Enable DHCP snooping, Just tick the check box ( ) to enable it.
Default: disable
Fallback IP Address:
Users can configure the IP settings and fill in new values. Then, click
<Apply> button to update.
Default: 192.168.1.1
Fallback Subnet Mask:
Subnet mask is made for the purpose of getting more network addresses.
Any IP device in a network must own its IP address, composed of
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Network address and Host address; otherwise it can’t communicate with
other devices on the network. But, unfortunately, the network classes A,
B, and C are all too large to be manageable for almost all networks;
hence, subnet masking is introduced to solve this problem. Subnet mask
uses some bits from host address and makes an IP address looked
Network address, Subnet mask number and host address. It is shown in
the following figure. This reduces the total IP number of a network able to
support, by the amount of 2 power of the bit number of subnet number
(2^(bit number of subnet number)).
32 bits
Network ID
Host ID
Network ID
Host ID
Subnet number
Subnet mask is used to set the subnet mask value, which should be the
same value as that of the other devices resided in the same network it
attaches.
For more information, please also see the Section 2-1-4 “IP Address
Assignment” in this manual.
Default: 255.255.255.0
Fallback Gateway:
Sets an IP address for a gateway to handle those packets that do not
meet the routing rules predefined in the device. If a packet does not meet
the criteria for other pre-defined path, it must be forwarded to a default
router on a default path. This means any packet with undefined IP
address in the routing table will be sent to this device unconditionally.
Default: 192.168.1.254
Management VLAN:
Shows the management VLAN number.
Password:
Sets a password for this switch. Up to 16 characters are allowed in this
parameter. Any alphanumeric character is acceptable.
Default: admin
Inactivity Timeout (secs):
Sets the auto-logout timer. The valid value is 0 ~ 60 in the unit of minute
and a decimal point is not allowed. The value 0 means auto-logout timer
is disabled.
Default: 0
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4-2-2. Port Configuration
Function name:
Port Configuration
Function description:
Port Configuration is applied for the settings of the ports on the switch. By this
function, you can set or reset the values for Mode and Flow Control. Others
you could set the power saving mode for switch power consumption.
Fig. 4-4 Port Configuration
Parameter description:
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Enable Jumbo Frames:
This function supports jumbo frames of up to 9600 bytes. Just tick the
check box ( ) to enable it.
Default: disable
Perfect Reach/Power Saving Mode:
This function supports Power Saving and Perfect Reach. Just select your
choice of Full/ Link-up/ Link-down/ Disable.
Default: disable
Link:
Shows link status of this port.
Mode:
Sets the speed and duplex of the port. If the media is 1 Gbps fiber, there
are three modes to choose: Auto Speed, 1000 Full, and Disable. If the
media is TP, the Speed/Duplex is comprised of the combination of speed
mode, 10/100/1000 Mbps, and duplex mode, full duplex and half duplex.
The following table summarized the function the media supports.
Media type
1000M TP
1000M Fiber
NWay
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
Speed
10/100/1000M
1000M
Duplex
Full for all, Half for 10/100
Full
In Auto Speed mode, there is no default value. In Forced mode, the
default value depends on your setting.
Flow Control:
Just tick the check box ( ) to enable flow control. If flow control is set to
Enable, both parties can send PAUSE frame to the transmitting device(s)
if the receiving port is too busy to handle the traffic. When it is set to
Disable, there will be no flow control in the port. It drops the packet if
there is too much traffic to handle.
Default: Disable
Flow Control status:
Displays the Flow control status.
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4-2-3. VLAN Mode Configuration
WebSmart Switch supports Port-based VLAN and Tag-based VLAN (802.1q).
Its VLAN mode supports 24 active VLANs and the available VLAN ID range is from
1~4094. VLAN configuration is used to divide a LAN into smaller ones. With proper
configuration, you can gain not only improved security and increased performance,
but also save a lot of VLAN management effort.
Function name:
VLAN Mode Setting
Function description:
The VLAN Mode Selection function includes four modes: Port-based, Tagbased, Metro mode or Disable; you can choose one of them by pulling down
the list and pressing the <Downward> arrow key. Then, click the <Apply>
button, and the settings will take affect immediately.
Fig. 4-5 Select VLAN Mode
Fig. 4-6 Metro mode
Fig. 4-6-1 Double Tag mode
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Parameter description:
VLAN Mode:
Port-based:
Port-based VLAN is defined by port. Any packet coming in or
outgoing from any one port of a port-based VLAN will be accepted.
No filtering criterion applies in port-based VLAN. The only criterion
is the physical port you connect to. For example, for a port-based
VLAN named PVLAN-1 contains port members Port 1&2&3&4. If
you are on the port 1, you can communicate with port 2&3&4. If you
are on the port 5, then you cannot talk to them. Each port-based
VLAN you built up must be assigned a group name. This switch can
support up to a maximum of 24 port-based VLAN groups.
Tag-based:
Tag-based VLAN identifies its member by VID. This is quite
different from port-based VLAN. If there are any more rules in
ingress filtering list or egress filtering list, the packet will be
screened with more filtering criteria to determine if it can be
forwarded. The switch supports supplement of 802.1q. For more
details, please see the section VLAN in Chapter 3.
Each tag-based VLAN you built up must be assigned a VLAN name
and VLAN ID. Valid VLAN ID is 1-4094. User can create a total of
up to 24 Tag VLAN groups.
Double-tag:
Double-tag mode belongs to the tag-based mode; however, it would
treat all frames as the untagged ones, which means that a tag with
PVID will be added into all packets. Then, these packets will be
forwarded as Tag-based VLAN. So, the incoming packets with tag
will become the double-tag ones
Metro Mode:
The Metro Mode is a quick configuration VLAN environment
method based on Port-based VLAN. It will create 21, 22, 23 or 24
Port-based VLAN groups.
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Function name:
VLAN Port Configuration (Tag based VLAN mode)
Function description:
In VLAN Tag Rule Setting, user can input VID number to each port. The range
of VID number is from 1 to 4094. User also can choose ingress filtering rules
to each port. There are two ingress filtering rules which can be applied to the
switch. The Ingress Filtering Rule 1 is “forward only packets with VID matching
this port’s configured VID”. The Ingress Filtering Rule 2 is “drop untagged
frame”. You can also select the Role of each port as Access, Trunk, or Hybrid.
Fig. 4-5-1 tag- VLAN Mode
Fig. 4-5-2 Per port configuration
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Parameter description:
Port 1-24:
Port number.
Ingress Filtering Enabled:
Discard other VLAN group packets, only forward this port’s joined
VLAN group packets.
Packet Type:
All:
Forward all tagged and untagged packets.
Tagged Only:
Forward tagged packets only and discard untagged packets.
Tag Out Enabled:
It means the outgoing packets in this port must carry VLAN tag
header.
Role:
This is an egress rule of the port. Here you can choose Access,
Trunk or Hybrid. Trunk means the outgoing packets must carry
VLAN tag header. Access means the outgoing packets carry no
VLAN tag header. If packets have double VLAN tags, one will be
dropped and the other will still be left. As to Hybrid, it is similar to
Trunk, and both of them will tag-out. When the port is set to Hybrid,
its packets will be untagged out if the VID of the outgoing packets
with tag is the same as the one in the field of Untag VID of this port.
Untag VID:
Valid range is 1~4094. It works only when Role is set to Hybrid.
Pvid:
This PVID range will be 1-4094. Before you set a number x as
PVID, you have to create a Tag-based VLAN with VID x. For
example, if port x receives an untagged packet, the switch will apply
the PVID (assume as VID y) of port x to tag this packet; the packet
then will be forwarded as the tagged packet with VID.
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4-2-4. VLAN Group Configuration
Function name:
VLAN Group Configuration
Function description:
This function shows the information of VLAN Groups, and allows
administrators to maintain them by modifying and deleting each VLAN group.
User also can add a new VLAN group by inputting a new VLAN name and
VLAN ID.
If you are in a port-based VLAN, it will just show the ID、Member of the
existing port-based VLAN group. If you are in a tag-based VLAN, it will show
the ID、VID、Member of the existing tag-based VLAN group. The switch can
store the configuration of port-based VLAN and tag-based VLAN separately.
When you choose a VLAN mode, the switch will bring you the responded
VLAN configuration which keeps the default data. You can easily create and
delete a VLAN group by pressing the <Add> and <Delete> function buttons,
or click the Group ID directly to edit it.
Fig. 4-7 Port-Based VLAN Configuration
Parameter description:
ID (Group ID):
When you want to edit a VLAN group, you must select the Group ID field.
Then, you will enter Tag Base VLAN Group Setting or Port Base VLAN
Group Setting page, which depends upon your VLAN mode selection.
VID:
VLAN identifier. Each tag-based VLAN group has a unique VID. It
appears only in tag-based mode.
Member:
In the modify function, this is used to enable or disable if a port is a
member of the new added VLAN, “Enable” means it is a member of the
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VLAN. Just tick the check box ( ) beside the port x to enable it.
Add Group:
Creates a new port-based VLAN or tag-based VLAN, which depends
upon the VLAN mode you choose in the VLAN mode function.
Fig. 4-8 Add or Remove VLAN Member
Delete Group:
Just tick the check box ( ) beside the ID, then press the <Delete>
button to delete the group.
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Fig. 4-9 Port-Based VLAN Configuration
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4-2-5. Aggregation
The Aggregation (Port Trunking) Configuration is used to configure the
settings of Link Aggregation. You can bundle ports by same speed, MAC, and full
duplex to be a single logical port, thus the logical port can aggregate the bandwidth
of these ports. This means you can apply your current Ethernet equipment to build
the bandwidth aggregation. For example, if three Fast Ethernet ports are
aggregated into a logical port, then this logical port’s bandwidth would be three
times as high as a single Fast Ethernet port’s bandwidth.
Function name:
Aggregation Configuration
Function description:
Display the current setup of Aggregation Trunking. With this function, user is
allowed to add a new trunking group or modify the members of an existing
trunking group.
Fig. 4-10 Aggregation/Trunking Configuration
Parameter description:
Normal:
Sets up the ports that do not join any aggregation trunking group.
Group 1~8:
Group the ports you choose together. Up to 12 ports can be selected for
each group.
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4-2-6. LACP
Smart Web Switch supports the link aggregation IEEE 802.3ad standard. The
standard describes Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), which dynamically
creates and manages trunk groups.
When you enable LACP link aggregation on a port, the port can automatically
negotiate with the ports at the remote end of a link to establish trunk groups. LACP
also allows port redundancy; that is, if an operational port fails, then one of the
“standby” ports becomes operational without user intervention.
Function name:
LACP Port Configuration
Function description:
Enables or disables LACP protocol; the user is allowed to set the aggregation
key value.
Fig. 4-11 LACP Port Configuration
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Parameter description:
Protocol Enabled:
Just tick the check box (
<Apply> button to apply.
) to enable LACP protocol, then press the
Key Value:
It’s key for an aggregation. This must be an integer value between 1 and
255 or auto selected by the switch.
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4-2-7. RSTP
RSTP detects and resolves network loops, and provides backup links
between switches, bridges and routers. The protocol allows a switch to
communicate with other RSTP compliant switches, and to ensure only one path
existing between two stations in your network environment.
The switch allows you to create multiple STP configurations and assign ports
to a specific tree.
Function name:
RSTP System Configuration
Function description:
This screen is used to display the RSTP system configuration and set the
need of parameters.
Parameter description:
System Priority:
System priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and
designated port. The switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric
value) becomes the STP root switch. If all switches have the same
priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become the
root switch. Select a vale from the drop-down list box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this
system.
Default: 32768
Hello Time:
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU configuration
message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
Default: 2
Max Age:
This is the maximum time a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU
before attempting to reconfigure. The allowed range is 6 to 40 seconds.
Default: 20
Forward Delay:
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing
states. The general rule: 2 * (Forward Delay – 1) >= Max Age >= 2 *
(Hello Time + 1)
Default: 15
Force version:
Select RSTP or STP protocol from the drop-down list box.
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Function name:
RSTP Port Configuration
Function description:
Enable or disable RSTP protocol on the ports that are selected and set path
cost.
Parameter description:
Protocol Enabled:
Just tick the check box ( ) beside the port x to enable RSTP protocol,
then press the <Apply> button to apply.
Edge:
Just tick the check box (
) beside the port x to enable edge function.
Path Cost:
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port.
It is assigned according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the media,
the higher the cost, user can select auto or set the rage from 1 to
200000000.
Fig. 4-12 RSTP Configuration
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4-2-8. 802.1X
802.1x port-based network access control provides a method to restrict users
to access network resources via authenticating user’s information. This restricts
users from gaining access to the network resources through a 802.1x-enabled port
without authentication. If a user wishes to touch the network through a port under
802.1x control, he (she) must firstly input his (her) account name for authentication
and waits for gaining authorization before sending or receiving any packets from a
802.1x-enabled port.
Before the devices or end stations can access the network resources through
the ports under 802.1x control, the devices or end stations connected to a controlled
port send the authentication request to the authenticator, the authenticator pass the
request to the authentication server to authenticate and verify, and the server tell
the authenticator if the request get the grant of authorization for the ports.
According to IEEE802.1x, there are three components implemented. They
are Authenticator, Supplicant and Authentication server shown in Fig. 4-13.
Supplicant:
It is an entity being authenticated by an authenticator. It is used to
communicate with the Authenticator PAE (Port Access Entity) by
exchanging the authentication message when the Authenticator PAE
request to it.
Authenticator:
An entity facilitates the authentication of the supplicant entity. It controls
the state of the port, authorized or unauthorized, according to the result
of authentication message exchanged between it and a supplicant PAE.
The authenticator may request the supplicant to re-authenticate itself at a
configured time period. Once start re-authenticating the supplicant, the
controlled port keeps in the authorized state until re-authentication fails.
A port acting as an authenticator is thought to be two logical ports, a
controlled port and an uncontrolled port. A controlled port can only pass
the packets when the authenticator PAE is authorized, and otherwise, an
uncontrolled port will unconditionally pass the packets with PAE group
MAC address, which has the value of 01-80-c2-00-00-03 and will not be
forwarded by MAC bridge, at any time.
Authentication server:
A device provides authentication service, through EAP, to an
authenticator by using authentication credentials supplied by the
supplicant to determine if the supplicant is authorized to access the
network resource.
The overview of operation flow for the Fig. 4-13 is quite simple. When
Supplicant PAE issues a request to Authenticator PAE, Authenticator and
Supplicant exchanges authentication message. Then, Authenticator
passes the request to RADIUS server to verify. Finally, RADIUS server
replies if the request is granted or denied.
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While in the authentication process, the message packets, encapsulated
by Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL), are exchanged
between an authenticator PAE and a supplicant PAE. The Authenticator
exchanges the message to authentication server using EAP
encapsulation. Before successfully authenticating, the supplicant can
only touch the authenticator to perform authentication message
exchange or access the network from the uncontrolled port.
Fig. 4-13
In the Fig. 4-14, this is the typical configuration, a single supplicant, an
authenticator and an authentication server. B and C is in the internal network, D is
Authentication server running RADIUS, switch at the central location acts
Authenticator connecting to PC A and A is a PC outside the controlled port, running
Supplicant PAE. In this case, PC A wants to access the services on device B and C,
first, it must exchange the authentication message with the authenticator on the port
it connected via EAPOL packet. The authenticator transfers the supplicant’s
credentials to Authentication server for verification. If success, the authentication
server will notice the authenticator the grant. PC A, then, is allowed to access B and
C via the switch. If there are two switches directly connected together instead of
single one, for the link connecting two switches, it may have to act two port roles at
the end of the link: authenticator and supplicant, because the traffic is bi-directional.
D
Fig. 4-14
The Fig. 4-15 shows the procedure of 802.1x authentication. There are steps
for the login based on 802.1x port access control management. The protocol used
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in the right side is EAPOL and the left side is EAP.
1.
At the initial stage, the supplicant A is unauthenticated and a port
on switch acting as an authenticator is in unauthorized state. So the
access is blocked in this stage.
2.
Initiating a session. Either authenticator or supplicant can initiate
the message exchange. If supplicant initiates the process, it sends
EAPOL-start packet to the authenticator PAE and authenticator will
immediately respond EAP-Request/Identity packet.
3.
The authenticator always periodically sends EAP-Request/Identity
to the supplicant for requesting the identity it wants to be
authenticated.
4.
If the authenticator doesn’t send EAP-Request/Identity, the
supplicant will initiate EAPOL-Start the process by sending to the
authenticator.
5.
And next, the Supplicant replies an EAP-Response/Identity to the
authenticator. The authenticator will embed the user ID into RadiusAccess-Request command and send it to the authentication server
for confirming its identity.
6.
After receiving the Radius-Access-Request, the authentication
server sends Radius-Access-Challenge to the supplicant for asking
for inputting user password via the authenticator PAE.
7.
The supplicant will convert user password into the credential
information, perhaps, in MD5 format and replies an EAP-Response
with this credential information as well as the specified
authentication algorithm (MD5 or OTP) to Authentication server via
the authenticator PAE. As per the value of the type field in message
PDU, the authentication server knows which algorithm should be
applied to authenticate the credential information, EAP-MD5
(Message Digest 5) or EAP-OTP (One Time Password) or other
else algorithm.
8.
If user ID and password is correct, the authentication server will
send a Radius-Access-Accept to the authenticator. If not correct,
the authentication server will send a Radius-Access-Reject.
9.
When the authenticator PAE receives a Radius-Access-Accept, it
will send an EAP-Success to the supplicant. At this time, the
supplicant is authorized and the port connected to the supplicant
and under 802.1x control is in the authorized state. The supplicant
and other devices connected to this port can access the network. If
the authenticator receives a Radius-Access-Reject, it will send an
EAP-Failure to the supplicant. This means the supplicant is failed to
authenticate. The port it connected is in the unauthorized state, the
supplicant and the devices connected to this port won’t be allowed
to access the network.
10.
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supplicant
issue
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EAP-Logoff
message
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Authentication server, the port you are using is set to be
unauthorized.
Fig. 4-15
The 802.1X “Enabled” is the type of authentication supported in the switch. In
this mode, for the devices connected to this port, once a supplicant is authorized,
the devices connected to this port can access the network resource through this
port.
802.1x Port-based Network Access Control function supported by the switch
is little bit complex, for it just support basic “Enabled” mode, which can distinguish
the device’s MAC address and its VID. The following table is the summary of the
combination of the authentication status and the port status versus the status of port
mode, set in 802.1x Port mode, port control state, set in 802.1x port setting. Here
Entry Authorized means MAC entry is authorized.
Port Mode
Disable
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Port Control
Don’t Care
Auto
Auto
ForceUnauthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authentication
Port Status
Don’t Care
Port Uncontrolled
Successful
Port Authorized
Failure
Port Unauthorized
Don’t Care
Port Unauthorized
Don’t Care
Port Authorized
Function name:
802.1X Configuration
Function description:
This function is used to configure the global parameters for RADIUS
authentication in 802.1x port security application.
Parameter description:
Mode:
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Enables or disables 802.1X function.
RADIUS IP:
RADIUS server IP address for authentication.
Default: 0.0.0.0
RADIUS UDP Port:
The port number to communicate with RADIUS server for the
authentication service. The valid value ranges 1-65535.
Default port number is 1812.
RADIUS Secret:
The secret key between authentication server and authenticator. It is a
string with the length 1 – 15 characters. The character string may contain
upper case, lower case and 0-9. It is character sense. It is not allowed to
put a blank between any two characters.
Default: None
Admin State:
This is used to set the operation mode of authorization. There are three
type of operation mode supported, Force Unauthorized, Force
Authorized, Auto.
y Force Unauthorized:
The controlled port is forced to hold in the unauthorized state.
y Force Authorized:
The controlled port is forced to hold in the authorized state.
y Auto:
The controlled port is set to be in authorized state or unauthorized
state depends on the result of the authentication exchange between
the authentication server and the supplicant.
Default: Force Authorized
Port State:
Shows the port status of authorization.
Re-authenticate:
Specify if subscriber has to periodically re-enter his or her username and
password to stay connected to the port.
Re-authenticate All:
Re-authenticate for all ports in at once.
Force Reinitialize:
Force the subscriber has to reinitialize connected to the port.
Force Reinitialize All:
Force Reinitialize for all ports in at once.
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Fig. 4-16 802.1X Configuration
Statistics:
Choose the port on which you want to show 802.1X statistics; the screen
includes Authenticator counters, backend Authenticator counters, dot1x
MIB counters and Other statistics.
Pressing the <Refresh> button will refresh the screen and allow you to
see the newer counters.
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Fig. 4-17 802.1X Statistics
Function name:
802.1x Parameters
Function description:
This function allows the user to enable or disable the Reauthentication
function and specify how often a client has to re-enter his or her username and
password to stay connected to the port.
Parameter description:
Reauthentication Enabled:
Choose whether regular authentication will take place in this port.
Default: disable
Reauthentication Period (1-65535 s):
A non-zero number of seconds between the periodic re-authentication of
the supplicant.
Default: 3600
EAP timeout ((1-255 s):
A timeout condition in the exchange between the authenticator and the
supplicant. The valid range: 1 –255 seconds.
Default: 30 seconds
Fig. 4-18 802.1X Parameters
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4-2-9. IGMP Snooping
Function name:
IGMP Snooping Configuration
Function description:
IGMP Snooping lets administrators configure a switch to constrain multicast
traffic by listening to Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). After finishing
the settings, please press the <Apply> button to start up the function.
Parameter description:
IGMP Enabled:
Just tick the check box (
) to enable this function.
Default: disable
Router Ports:
Just tick the check box ( ) beside the port x to enable router ports, then
press the <Apply> button to start up.
Default: none
Unregistered IGMP Flooding enabled:
Just tick the check box (
) to enable this function.
Default: enable
VLAN ID:
At the IGMP Enable mode being selected, it will list the VLAN ID number.
IGMP Snooping Enabled:
After IGMP Enabled function starts up, the user can tick the check box (
enable this function.
) to
Default: enable
IGMP Querying Enabled:
After IGMP Enabled function starts up, the user can tick the check box (
enable this function.
) to
Default: enable
Fig. 4-19 IGMP Configuration
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4-2-10. Mirror Configuration
Function name:
Mirror Configuration
Function description:
Mirror Configuration is provided to monitor the traffic in the network. This
switch supports one-port mirror multi-ports. For example, we assume that Port
A and Port B are Source Ports, and Port C is Mirror Port respectively, thus, the
traffic passing through Port A and Port B will be copied to Port C for monitoring
purposes.
Parameter description:
Source Port:
Sets up the port to be monitored. Just tick the check box (
and valid port is Port 1~24.
Mirror Port:
Use the drop-down menu to select a mirror port.
Fig. 4-20 Mirror ports configuration
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) beside the port x
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4-2-11. QoS (Quality of Service) Configuration
The switch offers powerful QoS functionality. This function supports VLANtagged priority that can make precedence of 8 priorities, and DSCP (Differentiated
Services Code Point) on Layer 3 of the network framework.
Fig. 4-21 QoS Configuration
Function name:
QoS Configuration
Function description:
While setting the QoS function, please select the QoS Mode in drop-down
menu first. Then you can use the 802.1p Priority and DSCP Priority functions.
In this function, you can enable/disable QoS Mode and set Priority Control,
such as: 802.1p and DSCP. The switch only supports Strict Priority. High
priority queue is always passed first.
Function name:
802.1p QoS Mode
Function description:
This function will affect the priority of VLAN tag. Based on priority of VLAN tag,
it can arrange 0~7 priorities, priorities can map to 4 queues of the switch (low,
normal, medium, high) and possess different bandwidth distribution according
to your weight setting.
Parameter description:
Prioritize Traffic
Five Prioritize Traffic values are provided: Custom, All Low Priority, All
Normal Priority, All Medium Priority, and All High Priority.
The QoS setting would apply to all ports on the switch if one of the
following values is selected: All Low Priority, All Normal Priority, All
Medium Priority, or All High Priority.
Port Number
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When Custom is selected for Prioritize Traffic, you may assign specific
Port Number for 802.1p Configuration.
802.1p Configuration:
Each Priority can select any of the Queues. In Default, Priority 0 is
mapping to Queue normal, Priority 1 is mapping to Queue low, Priority 2
is mapping to Queue low, Priority 3 is mapping to Queue normal, Priority
4 is mapping to Queue medium, Priority 5 is mapping to Queue medium,
Priority 6 is mapping to Queue high, and Priority 0 is mapping to Queue
high.
Fig. 4-22 802.1p Setting
Function name:
DSCP QoS Mode
Function description:
In the late 1990s, the IETF redefined the meaning of the 8-bit SERVICE TYPE
field to accommodate a set of differentiated services (DS). Under the
differentiated services interpretation, the first six bits comprise a codepoint,
which is sometimes abbreviated DSCP, and the last two bits are left unused.
DSCP can form total 64 (0~63) kinds of Traffic Class based on the
arrangement of 6-bit field in DSCP of the IP packet. In the switch, user is
allowed to set up these 64 kinds of Class that belong to any of queue (low,
normal, medium, high).
Parameter description:
Prioritize Traffic
Five Prioritize Traffic values are provided: Custom, All Low Priority, All
Normal Priority, All Medium Priority, and All High Priority.
The QoS setting would apply to all ports on the switch if one of the
following values is selected: All Low Priority, All Normal Priority, All
Medium Priority, or All High Priority.
Port Number
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When Custom is selected for Prioritize Traffic, you may assign specific
Port Number for DSCP Configuration.
DSCP Configuration:
64 kinds of priority traffic as mentioned above, user can set up any of
Queue (low, normal, medium, high). In default, Priority 0~63 are mapping
to Queue high.
Fig. 4-23 DSCP Setting
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4-2-12. Filter
Function name:
Filter Configuration
Function description:
This function lets administrators easily set management source IP addresses
to the ports on the switch. After completing the settings, please press <Apply>
button to make this function take effect.
Fig. 4-24 Filter Configuration
Parameter description:
Source IP Filter:
Mode:
There are three types of mode in this drop-down menu. Default is
disabled.
Disabled:
Allow all IP Address login to this switch and manage it.
Static:
Just allow the IP Address which has been set by the administrator
to login to this switch and manage it.
DHCP:
Allow the IP Address get from DHCP server can login to this switch
and manage it.
Note: If you choose this mode only an DHCP client could be package
forwarding on the port.
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IP Address:
Setting up the IP Address, it can be one IP Address or a LAN.
IP Mask:
Setting up the IP Subnet Mask related with the IP Address.
DHCP Server Allowed:
Just tick the check box ( ) under the port x to allow the DHCP Server
on this port and valid port is Port 1~24.
Default: enable
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4-2-13. Rate Limit
Function name:
Ingress and Egress Bandwidth Setting
Function description:
Ingress and Egress Bandwidth Setting function are used to set up the limit of
Ingress or Egress bandwidth for each port.
----------------Continue--------------
Fig. 4-25 Rate Limit Configuration
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Parameter description:
Ingress:
Set up the limit of Ingress bandwidth (Range: 128Kb, 512Kb, 1M, 10M
and 32M) for the port you choose. Incoming traffic will be discarded if
the rate exceeds the value you set up in Data Rate field. Pause frames
are also generated if flow control is enabled. The format of the packet
limits to unicast, broadcast and multicast. Valid value of Port 1~24
ranges is from Rate1 to 29.
Default: No Limit
Egress:
Set up the limit of Egress bandwidth (Range: 128Kb, 512Kb, 1M, 10M
and 32M) for the port you choose. Outgoing traffic will be discarded if the
rate exceeds the value you set up in Data Rate field. Pause frames are
also generated if flow control is enabled. The format of the packet limits
to unicast, broadcast and multicast. Valid value of Port 1~24 ranges is
from Rate1 to 29.
Default: No Limit
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4-2-14. Storm Control
Function name:
Storm Control
Function description:
Storm Control is used to block unnecessary multicast and broadcast
frames that reduce switch’s performance. When the function is enabled
and Storm Control rate settings are detected as exceeded, the
unnecessary frames would be dropped.
Fig.4-26 Storm Control Configuration
Parameter description:
ICMP Rate:
To enable the ICMP Storm capability. The user can use the drop-down
menu to select the number of frames. Default is No Limit. The setting
range is 1k~1024k per second.
Learn Frames Rate:
To enable the Learn Frames Storm capability. The user can use the dropdown menu to select number of frames. Default is No Limit. The setting
range is 1k~1024k per second.
Broadcast Rate:
To enable the Broadcast Storm capability. The user can use the dropdown menu to select number of frames. Default is No Limit. The setting
range is 1k~1024k per second.
Multicast Rate:
To enable the Multicast Storm capability. The user can use the dropdown menu to select number of frames. Default is No Limit. The setting
range is 1k~1024k per second.
Flooded unicast Rate:
To enable the Flooded unicast Storm capability. The user can use the
drop-down menu to select number of frames. Default is No Limit. The
setting range is 1k~1024k per second.
NOTE:
After completing the function’s setting, press the <Apply> button to have
this function take effect.
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4-2-15. SNMP
Any Network Management System (NMS) running the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) can manage the Managed devices equipped with an
SNMP agent, provided that the Management Information Base (MIB) is installed
correctly on the managed devices. It is a protocol used to govern the transfer of
information between SNMP manager and agent and traverses the Object Identity
(OID) of the management Information Base (MIB), described in the form of SMI
syntax. SNMP agent is running on the switch to response the request issued by
SNMP manager.
Basically, it is passive except when issuing the trap information. The 0657940C-WS supports a switch to turn on or off the SNMP agent. If you set the field
SNMP to “Enable”, the SNMP agent will be started up. If the field SNMP is set to
“Disable”, the SNMP agent will be de-activated, and the related Community Name,
Trap Host IP Address, Trap and all MIB counters will be ignored.
Function name:
SNMP Configuration
Function description:
This function is used to configure SNMP settings, community name, trap host
and public traps as well as the throttle of SNMP. A SNMP manager must pass the
authentication by identifying both community names, and then it can access the MIB
information of the target device. So, both parties must have the same community
name. Once completing the setting, click <Apply> button, the setting takes effect.
Fig. 4-27 SNMP Configuration
Parameters description:
SNMP enable:
The term SNMP enable here is used for the activation or de-activation of
SNMP. Default is “Disable”.
Get/Set/Trap Community:
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Community name is used as password for authenticating if the
requesting network management unit belongs to the same community
group. If they both don’t have the same community name, they don’t
belong to the same group. Hence, the requesting network management
unit can not access the device with different community name via SNMP
protocol; If they both have the same community name, they can talk each
other.
Community name is user-definable with a maximum length of 15
characters and is case sensitive. There is not allowed to put any blank in
the community name string. Any printable character is allowable.
The community name for each function works independently. Each
function has its own community name. Say, the community name for
Read only works for Read function and can’t be applied to other function
such as Write and Trap.
Default SNMP function: Disable
Default community name for Get: public
Default community name for Set: private
Default community name for Trap: public
System Event:
The System Event trap enabled here is used for the “Cold Boot” or
“Warm Boot” of system Event. Default is “Disable”.
TP and Fiber Port Event:
The TP and Fiber Port Event trap enabled here is used for the “Link Up”
or “Link Down” of system Event. Default is “Disable”.
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4-3. Monitoring
There are six functions contained in the monitoring function.
Monitoring
Detailed Statistics
LACP Status
RSTP Status
IGMP Status
Ping
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4-3-1. Detailed Statistics
Function name:
Detailed Statistics
Function description:
Displays the detailed counting number of each port’s traffic. In Fig. 4-26, the
window can show all counter information for each port at one time.
Fig. 4-29 Detailed Statistics for each port
Parameter description:
Rx Packets:
The counting number of the packets received.
RX Octets:
Total received bytes.
Rx High Priority Packets:
Number of Rx packets classified as high priority.
Rx Low Priority Packets:
Number of Rx packets classified as low priority.
Rx Broadcast:
Shows the counting number of the received broadcast packets.
Rx Multicast:
Shows the counting number of the received multicast packets.
Rx Broad- and Multicast:
Shows the counting number of the received broadcast with multicast
packets.
Rx Error Packets:
Shows the counting number of the received error packets.
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Tx Packets:
The counting number of the packets transmitted.
Tx Octets:
Total transmitted bytes.
Tx High Priority Packets:
Number of Tx packets classified as high priority.
Tx Low Priority Packets:
Number of Tx packets classified as low priority.
Tx Broadcast:
Shows the counting number of the transmitted broadcast packets.
Tx Multicast:
Shows the counting number of the transmitted multicast packets.
Tx Broad- and Multicast:
Shows the counting number of the transmitted broadcast with multicast
packets.
Tx Error Packets:
Shows the counting number of the received error packets.
Rx 64 Bytes:
Number of 64-byte frames in good and bad packets received.
Rx 65-127 Bytes:
Number of 65 ~ 126-byte frames in good and bad packets received.
Rx 128-255 Bytes:
Number of 127 ~ 255-byte frames in good and bad packets received.
Rx 256-511 Bytes:
Number of 256 ~ 511-byte frames in good and bad packets received.
Rx 512-1023 Bytes:
Number of 512 ~ 1023-byte frames in good and bad packets received.
Rx 1024-Bytes:
Number of 1024-max_length-byte frames in good and bad packets
received.
Tx 64 Bytes:
Number of 64-byte frames in good and bad packets transmitted.
Tx 65-127 Bytes:
Number of 65 ~ 126-byte frames in good and bad packets transmitted.
Tx 128-255 Bytes:
Number of 127 ~ 255-byte frames in good and bad packets transmitted.
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Tx 256-511 Bytes:
Number of 256 ~ 511-byte frames in good and bad packets transmitted.
Tx 512-1023 Bytes:
Number of 512 ~ 1023-byte frames in good and bad packets transmitted.
Tx 1024-Bytes:
Number of 1024-max_length-byte frames in good and bad packets
transmitted.
Rx CRC/Alignment:
Number of Alignment errors and CRC error packets received.
Rx Undersize:
Number of short frames (<64 Bytes) with valid CRC.
Rx Oversize:
Number of long frames (according to max_length register) with valid
CRC.
Rx Fragments:
Number of short frames (< 64 bytes) with invalid CRC.
Rx Jabber:
Number of long frames (according to max_length register) with invalid
CRC.
Rx Drops:
Frames dropped due to the lack of receiving buffer.
Tx Collisions:
Number of collisions transmitting frames experienced.
Tx Drops:
Number of frames dropped due to excessive collision, late collision, or
frame aging.
Tx Overflow:
Number of frames dropped due to the lack of transmitting buffer.
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4-3-2. LACP Status
Function name:
LACP Status
Function description:
Displays LACP status. Fig. 4-30 illustrates that the LACP Status window can
show LACP information and status for all ports at the same time.
Fig. 4-30 LACP Status
Parameter description:
LACP Aggregation Overview:
Shows the group/port status. Default will set to a red sign for port link
down; the user can check the legend table below for all references.
LACP Port Status:
Group/Port:
Shows the port number.
Normal : as Legend.
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4-3-3. RSTP Status
Function name:
RSTP Status
Function description:
Displays RSTP status. Fig. 4-28 illustrates that the RSTP window can present
VLAN bridge information and the status of all ports.
Fig. 4-31 RSTP Status
Parameter description:
RSTP VLAN Bridge Overview:
VLAN Id:
Shows the VLAN Id.
Bridge Id:
Shows this switch’s current bridge priority setting and bridge ID
which stands for the MAC address of this switch.
Hello Time:
Shows the current hello time of the root bridge. Hello time is a time
interval specified by root bridge, used to request all other bridges
periodically sending hello message every “hello time” seconds to
the bridge attached to its designated port.
Max Age:
Shows the root bridge’s current max age time.
Fwd Delay:
Shows the root bridge’s forward delay time.
Topology:
Shows the root bridge’s spanning tree topology.
Root Id:
Shows the root bridge ID of this network segment. If this switch is a
root bridge, then “This switch is Root” will show this switch’s bridge
ID.
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4-3-4. IGMP Status
Function name:
IGMP Status
Function description:
Displays the IGMP status. In Fig. 4-29, the window shows the VLAN ID for
each multicast group.
Fig. 4-32 IGMP Status
Parameter description:
VLAN Id:
Shows the VLAN Id for each multicast group.
Querier:
Shows the group membership queries status.
Queries transmitted:
A count of the group membership queries transmitted.
Queries received:
A count of the group membership queries received.
V1 Reports:
When a host receives a group membership query, it identifies the groups
associated with the query and determines to which groups it belongs.
The host then sets a timer, with a value less than the Max Response
Time field in the query, for each group to which it belongs. It calculates
the number of times the IGMPV1 report was issued.
V2 Reports:
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When a host receives a group membership query, it identifies the groups
associated with the query and determines to which groups it belongs.
The host then sets a timer, with a value less than the Max Response
Time field in the query, for each group to which it belongs. It calculates
the number of times a IGMPV2 report was issued.
V3 Reports:
When a host receives a group membership query, it identifies the groups
associated with the query and determines to which groups it belongs.
The host then sets a timer, with a value less than the Max Response
Time field in the query, for each group to which it belongs. It calculates
the number of times a IGMPV3 report was issued.
V2 Leaves:
When a host leaves a group, it sends a leave group membership
message to multicast routers on the network. This function shows the
number of leave messages issued.
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4-3-5. Ping Status
Function name:
Ping Status
Function description:
To set up a target IP address for the ping function and display ping status. In
Fig. 4-30, the window shows the ping information.
Fig. 4-33 Ping
Parameter description:
Ping Parameters:
Target IP address:
Set up a Target IP address to ping.
Count:
Use the drop-down menu to set the number of echo requests
to send. There are four choices: 1, 5, 10, and 20.
Default: 1
Time Out (in secs):
Use drop-down menu to set number of echo requests time out
in second. There are four choices: 1, 5, 10, and 20.
Default: 1
NOTE: For all these functions, the user should press the <Apply>
button to start up after the user sets up the parameters.
Ping Results:
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Target IP address:
Shows the active target IP address.
Status:
Shows the result of the ping status.
Received replies:
Shows the received replies number of times.
Request timeouts:
Shows the timeout of the request.
Average Response times (In ms):
Shows the average response time in milliseconds.
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4-4. Maintenance
There are five functions contained in the maintenance function.
Maintenance
Warm Restart
Factory Default
Software Upgrade
Configuration File Transfer
Logout
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4-4-1. Warm Restart
The 065-7940C-WS WebSmart Switch offers many approaches to reboot
your switch, such as: power up, hardware reset and software reset. You can press
the RESET button in the front panel of your switch to reset the device and to
retrieve default settings. After upgrading software, you have to reboot the device to
have the new configuration take effect. The function being discussed here is
software reset.
Function name:
Warm Restart
Function description:
Reboots the switch. Reboot has the same effect as depressing the RESET
button on the front panel of the switch. Press the <Yes> button to confirm the
warm restart function; it will take about thirty (30) seconds to complete the
system boot.
Fig. 4-34 Warm Restart
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4-4-2. Factory Default
Function name:
Factory Default
Function description:
Factory Default provides the function of retrieving default settings and
replacing the current configuration. Except for the IP address setting, all
settings will be restored to the factory default values when the “Factory
Default” function is performed. If you want to restore all configurations
including the IP address setting to the factory default, please press the
“RESET” button on the front panel.
Note for “RESET” button:
You must press the “RESET” button for over 3 seconds to restore the factory
default settings.
Fig. 4-35
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4-4-3. Software Upgrade
Function name:
Software Upgrade
Function description:
You can click the Browse button to retrieve the file you want to upgrade the
065-7940C-WS switch in your system.
Fig. 4-36 Software Upgrade
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4-4-4. Configuration File Transfer
Function name:
Configuration File Transfer
Function description:
You can backup your switch’s configuration file into your computer folder in
case an accident happens. In addition, uploading the backup configuration file
into a new or a crashed switch can save much time and avoid mistakes.
Fig. 4-37 Configuration Upload/Download
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4-4-5. Logout
In addition to the auto logout function discussed in the system configuration
section, the switch also allows administrators to logout manually via the Logout
function.
Function name:
Logout
Function description:
The switch allows you to logout of the system to prevent other users from
accessing the system without permission. If you do not logout and exit the
browser, the switch will automatically have you logged out. Besides this
manual logout and implicit logout, you can set up the parameter of the Auto
Logout Timer in the system configuration function to explicitly toggle ON/OFF
this logout function.
Fig. 4-38
Parameter description:
Auto/Manual Logout:
If no action is taken and no key is depressed as well in any function screen in a
greater time than the interval in minutes you set up in the Auto Logout Timer, the
switch will log you out automatically. Alternatively, press the <Logout> button in the
Logout function to exit the system manually.
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5. Maintenance
5-1. Resolving No Link Condition
The possible causes for a no link LED status are as follows:
The attached device is not powered on.
The cable may not be the correct type or is faulty.
The installed building premise cable is faulty.
The port may be faulty.
5-2. Q&A
1. Computer A can connect to Computer B, but cannot connect to Computer C
through the 065-7940C-WS WebSmart Switch.
The network device of Computer C may have failed to work. Please check
the link/act status of Computer C on the LED indicator. Try another network
device on this connection.
The network configuration of Computer C may be set to something wrong.
Please verify the network configuration on Computer C.
2. The uplink connection function fails to work.
The connection ports on another must be connection ports. Please check if
connection ports are used on that 065-7940C-WS WebSmart Switch.
Please check the uplink setup of the 065-7940C-WS WebSmart Switch to
verify that the uplink function is enabled.
3. The console interface cannot appear on the console port connection.
The 065-7940C-WS switch has no console port, so you cannot use a
console interface to connect with the switch.
4. How to configure the 065-7940C-WS WebSmart Switch.
User can use the IE browser program in the Windows series of computers to
control the WebSmart functions in the 065-7940C-WS switch. First, choose
any port in the 065-7940C-WS switch. Then, use IE and type the default IP
address, 192.168.1.1, to connect to the switch with a RJ45 network cable.
The login screen will appear at once.
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Appendix A
Technical Specifications
Features
•
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20 (10/100/1000 Mbps) Gigabit Ethernet (TP) switching ports are compliant with
IEEE802.3, 802.3u, 802.3z and 802.3ab.
4 Gigabit TP/SFP fiber are dual media ports with auto detected function.
Non-blocking store-and-forward shared-memory Web-Smart switched.
Supports auto-negotiation for configuring speed, duplex mode.
Supports 802.3x flow control for full-duplex ports.
Supports collision-based and carrier-based backpressure for half-duplex ports.
Any ports can be in disable mode, force mode or auto-polling mode.
Supports Head of Line (HOL) blocking prevention.
Supports broadcast storm filtering.
Web-based management provides the ability to completely manage the switch
from any web browser.
Supports Port-based VLAN and Tag-based (IEEE802.1Q) VLAN.
Auto-aging with programmable inter-age time.
Supports 802.1p Class of Service with 2-level priority queuing.
Supports port trunking with flexible load distribution and failover
function.
Supports port sniffer function
Programmable maximum Ethernet frame length of range from 1518 to 9600
bytes jumbo frame.
Efficient self-learning and address recognition mechanism enables forwarding
rate at wire speed.
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Hardware Specifications
Standard Compliance: IEEE802.3/802.3ab / 802.3z / 802.3u / 802.3x
Network Interface:
Configuration
10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit TP
Mode
Connector
1000Base SX Gigabit Fiber
NWay
TP (RJ-45)
1000 FDX *SFP
1000Base LX Gigabit Fiber
1000 FDX
*SFP
1000Base LX Single Fiber WDM (BiDi) 1000 FDX
*SFP
Port
1 - 24
21,22,23,24
(Option)
21,22,23,24
(Option)
21,22,23,24
(Option)
*Port 21, 22, 23, and 24 are TP/SFP fiber dual media ports with auto detection function.
*Optional SFP module supports LC or BiDi SC transceiver.
Transmission Mode: 10/100 Mbps: supports full or half duplex
1000 Mbps: supports full duplex only
Transmission Speed: 10/100/1000 Mbps for TP
1000 Mbps for Fiber
Full Forwarding/Filtering Packet Rate: PPS (packets per second)
Forwarding Rate
1,488,000 PPS
148,800 PPS
14,880 PPS
Speed
1000 Mbps
100 Mbps
10 Mbps
MAC Address and Self-learning: 8K MAC addresses
Buffer Memory: Embedded 400 KB frame buffer
Flow Control: IEEE 802.3x compliant for full duplex
Backpressure flow control for half duplex
Cable and Maximum Length:
Cat. 5 UTP cable, up to 100m
TP
Up to 220/275/500/550m,
1000Base SX
which depends on multimode Fiber type
Singlemode Fiber, 10/40/80/110 Km
1000Base LX
(SFP model dependent)
Singlemode Single Fiber, 20 Km or
1000Base LX WDM (BiDi)
greater (SFP model dependent)
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Diagnostic LED:
System LED: Power
Per Port LED:
10/100/1000M TP Port 1 to 24: LINK/ACT, 10/100/1000 Mbps
1000M SFP Fiber Port 21,22,23,24: SFP (LINK/ACT)
Power Requirement:
AC Line Voltage: 100∼240 V
Frequency: 50∼60 Hz
Power Consumption: 20 Watts
Management Software Specifications
Quality of Service (QoS)
Auto-negotiation support on 10/100Base TX
ports; web browser can set transmission speed
(10/100 Mbps) and operation mode (Full/Half
duplex) on each port, enable/disable any port,
set VLAN group, set Trunk Connection.
Port-Base / 802.1Q-Tagged, up to 24 active
VLANs allowed in one switch.
Port trunk connections allowed
Supports by-port Egress/Ingress rate control
Referred as Class of Service (CoS) by the
IEEE 802.1P standard; two queues per port
Network Management
Web browser support based on HTTP Server
System Configuration
VLAN Function
Trunk Function
Bandwidth Control
Note: Any specification is subject to change without notice.
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Appendix B
MIB Specifications
A brief description of the MIB II Enterprise MIB is listed below. For technical support
or the latest version of the MIB download, please visit our web site at:
http://www.signamax.com.
PRIVATE-GESM-SW24L-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN
IMPORTS
mib-2, DisplayString,ifIndex
enterprises,Counter, TimeTicks, Gauge,IpAddress
OBJECT-TYPE
TRAP-TYPE
privatetech
switch
FROM RFC1213-MIB
FROM RFC1155-SMI
FROM RFC-1212
FROM RFC-1215;
OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { enterprises 5205 }
OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { privatetech 2 }
gesmsw24LProductId
OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { switch 7 }
gesmsw24LProduces
OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= gesmsw24LProductId 1 }
gesmsw24LIllegalLogin TRAP-TYPE
ENTERPRISE gesmsw24LProductId
DESCRIPTION
"Send this trap when the illegal user try to login the Web management UI. "
::= 1
gesmsw24LRxErrorThreshold TRAP-TYPE
ENTERPRISE gesmsw24LProductId
VARIABLES { ifIndex }
DESCRIPTION
"Send this trap when the number of the Rx bad packet over the Rx Error
Threshold. The OID value means the port number. "
::= 2
gesmsw24LTxErrorThreshold TRAP-TYPE
ENTERPRISE gesmsw24LProductId
VARIABLES { ifIndex }
DESCRIPTION
"Send this trap when the number of the Tx bad packet over the Tx Error
Threshold.
The OID value means the port number. "
::= 3
END
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