Cisco SPA2102-R3 Specifications

Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
Version 3.01
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Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
Copyright ©2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Specifications are subject to change without notice. Linksys is a registered trademark or trademark of Cisco Systems,
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CONTENTS
Preface
vii
vii
Document Audience
Linksys VoIP Products
vii
How This Document is Organized
Document Conventions
viii
Related Documentation
ix
Technical Support
CHAPTER
1
viii
ix
Provisioning Linksys VoIP Devices
1-1
Residential Deployment Provisioning Requirements
Remote Endpoint Control 1-2
Communication Encryption 1-2
1-1
Provisioning Overview 1-2
Initial Provisioning 1-3
Deploying RC Units 1-3
Redundant Provisioning Servers 1-4
Retail Provisioning 1-4
Automatic In-House Preprovisioning 1-5
Configuration Access Control 1-5
SPA Configuration Profiles 1-5
SPA Provisioning Flow
1-6
Using HTTPS 1-8
How HTTPS Works 1-8
Server Certificates 1-9
Client Certificates 1-9
Linksys Certificate Chain Structure
1-9
Provisioning Setup 1-10
License Keys 1-11
Software Tools 1-11
Server Configuration 1-11
TFTP 1-12
HTTP 1-12
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Contents
Enabling HTTPS 1-13
Syslog Server 1-15
Where to Go From Here
CHAPTER
2
1-15
Creating Provisioning Scripts
SPA Configuration File
2-1
2-1
Open Format Configuration File 2-2
Configuration File Compression 2-5
File Encryption 2-5
SPA Configuration Profile Compiler
2-6
Proprietary Plain-Text Configuration File
Source Text Syntax 2-8
Comments 2-9
Macro Expansion 2-9
Conditional Expressions 2-10
Assignment Expressions 2-11
URL Syntax 2-12
Optional Resync Arguments 2-12
key 2-13
post 2-13
alias 2-13
Combining Options 2-14
2-8
Using Provisioning Parameters 2-15
General Purpose Parameters 2-15
Enables 2-15
Triggers 2-16
Configurable Schedules 2-16
Profile Rules 2-17
Report Rule 2-19
Upgrade Rule 2-19
Data Types
CHAPTER
3
2-20
Provisioning Tutorial
Preparation
3-1
3-1
Basic Resync 3-2
TFTP Resync 3-2
Syslog 3-3
Automatic Resync
3-4
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Unique Profiles and Macro Expansion
URL Resolution 3-5
HTTP GET Resync 3-6
3-5
Secure Resync 3-7
Basic HTTPS Resync 3-7
HTTPS With Client Certificate Authentication 3-9
HTTPS Client Filtering and Dynamic Content 3-9
Profile Formats 3-10
Profile Compression 3-10
Profile Encryption 3-11
Partitioned Profiles 3-12
Parameter Name Aliases 3-12
Proprietary Profile Format 3-13
CHAPTER
4
Provisioning Field Reference
4-1
4-1
Configuration Profile Parameters
4-4
Firmware Upgrade Parameters
General Purpose Parameters
Macro Expansion Variables
Internal Error Codes
4-6
4-7
4-9
APPENDIX
A
Acronyms
APPENDIX
B
Glossary
APPENDIX
C
Example SPA Configuration Profile
INDEX
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Preface
This guide describes the provisioning of Linksys Voice over IP (VoIP) products. It contains the following
sections:
•
Document Audience, page vii
•
Linksys VoIP Products, page vii
•
How This Document is Organized, page viii
•
Document Conventions, page ix
•
Related Documentation, page ix
•
Technical Support, page ix
Document Audience
This document is written for service providers who offer services using Linksys VoIP products and
specifically for administrative staff responsible for remote provisioning and preprovisioning Linksys
devices.
Linksys VoIP Products
The following summarizes the Linksys VoIP products that can be remotely provisioned or
preprovisioned using the information provided in this document.
•
SPA9000—IP PBX with Auto-Attendant; can be used with the SPA400, which provides a SIP-PSTN
gateway
•
Linksys Analog Telephone Adapters (ATAs):
•
PAP2T—Voice adapter with two FXS ports
•
SPA1001—Small VoIP adapter
•
SPA2102—Voice adapter with router
•
SPA3102—Voice adapter with router and PSTN connectivity
•
SPA8000—Voice adapter supporting up to eight FXS connections
•
AG310—ADSL2+ gateway with VoIP and PSTN connectivity
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•
Note
•
WAG310G—Wireless-G ADSL2+ gateway with VoIP and PSTN connectivity
•
RTP300—IP router with two FXS ports
•
WRP400—Wireless-G ADSL gateway with two FXS ports
•
WRTP54G—Wireless-G IP router with two FXS ports
•
WRT54GP2—Wireless-G IP router with two FXS ports
•
WAG54GP2—Wireless-G ADSL gateway with two FXS ports
SPA900 Series IP phones:
•
SPA901—One line, small, affordable, no display
•
SPA921—One-line business phone
•
SPA922—One-line business phone with Power over Ethernet (PoE) support and an extra
Ethernet port for connecting another device to the LAN
•
SPA941—Default is two lines, upgradeable to four lines
•
SPA942—Default is two lines, upgradeable to four lines. Power over Ethernet (PoE) support
and an extra Ethernet port for connecting another device to the LAN
•
SPA962—Six lines, hi-res color display. Power over Ethernet (PoE) support and an extra
Ethernet port for connecting another device to the LAN
A Linksys VoIP device that supports the remote provisioning options described in this document is
referred to generically as a SPA.
How This Document is Organized
This document is divided into the following chapters and appendices.
Chapter
Contents
Chapter 1, “Provisioning
Linksys VoIP Devices”
This chapter introduces Linksys VoIP products.
Chapter 2, “Creating
Provisioning Scripts”
This chapter describes how to work with Linksys provisioning
scripts and configuration profiles.
Chapter 3, “Provisioning
Tutorial”
This chapter provides step-by-step procedures for using the
scripting language to create a configuration profile.
Chapter 4, “Provisioning Field
Reference”
This chapter provides a systematic reference for each parameter on
the Provisioning tab of the administration web server.
Appendix A, “Acronyms”
This appendix provides the expansion of acronyms used in this
document.
Appendix B, “Glossary”
This appendix defines the terms used in this document.
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Document Conventions
Document Conventions
The following are the typographic conventions used in this document.
Typographic Element
Meaning
Boldface
Indicates an option on a menu or a literal value to be entered in a field.
<parameter>
Angle brackets (<>) are used to identify parameters that appear on the
configuration pages of the Linksys device administration web server. The
index at the end of this document contains an alphabetical listing of each
parameter, hyperlinked to the appropriate table in Chapter 4, “Provisioning
Field Reference”
Italic
Indicates a variable that should be replaced with a literal value.
Monospaced Font
Indicates code samples or system output.
Related Documentation
The following documentation provides additional information about features and functionality of
Linksys ATAs:
•
AA Quick Guide
•
IVR Quick Guide
•
SPA Provisioning Guide
The following documentation describes how to use other Linksys Voice System products:
•
SPA9000 Administrator Guide
•
LVS CTI Integration Guide
•
LVS Integration with ITSP Hosted Voicemail Guide
•
SPA900 Series IP Phones Administrator Guide
•
SPA 2.0 ATA Administrator Guide
•
Linksys Voice over IP Product Guide: SIP CPE for Massive Scale Deployment
Technical Support
Technical support contact information for authorized Linksys Voice System partners is as follows:
•
LVS Phone Support (requires an authorized partner PIN)
888 333-0244 Hours: 4am-6pm PST, 7 days a week
•
E-mail support
voipsupport@linksys.com
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C H A P T E R
1
Provisioning Linksys VoIP Devices
This chapter describes the features and functionality available when provisioning Linksys VoIP devices
and explains the setup required. It includes the following sections:
Note
•
Residential Deployment Provisioning Requirements, page 1-1
•
Provisioning Overview, page 1-2
•
Configuration Access Control, page 1-5
•
Using HTTPS, page 1-8
•
Provisioning Setup, page 1-11
•
Where to Go From Here, page 1-15
A Linksys VoIP device is generically referred to in this document as a SPA. Unless otherwise noted, the
instructions in this document apply equally to the SPA9000, Linksys Analog Telephone Adapters
(ATAs), and SPA900 Series IP phones.
Residential Deployment Provisioning Requirements
Linksys ATAs, such as the PAP2T, are primarily intended for high-volume deployments by VoIP service
providers to residential and small business customers. In this scenario, units are likely to be widely
distributed across the Internet, connected through routers and firewalls at the customer premises.
Further, ATAs can also serve as terminal nodes in business or enterprise environments, where the units
may be operated within a self-contained LAN environment.
The ATA can be seen as a remote extension of the service provider back-end equipment. In essence, it
replaces the traditional physical analog telephone line connection from a customer premise to a central
office with a virtual connection, which relies on broadband Internet service to extend the central office
phone line termination into the customer premises.
The ATA can assume responsibility for many of the functions that were traditionally handled at the
central office. At a minimum, the ATA serves as a media conversion endpoint, offering the consumer a
telephone port analogous to a traditional phone line terminal.
Remote management and configuration is required to efficiently ensure proper operation of the ATA at
the customer premises. ATA configuration varies according to the individual customer and with the same
customer over a period of time.
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The ATA must be configured to match the account service parameters for the individual customer. Also,
configuration may need to be modified because of newly introduced service provider features,
modifications in the service provider network, or firmware upgrades in the endpoint.
This customized, ongoing configuration is supported by the following features of Linksys ATAs:
•
Reliable remote control of the endpoint,
•
Encryption of the communication controlling the endpoint,
•
Streamlined endpoint account binding.
Remote Endpoint Control
The service provider must be able to modify configuration parameters in the ATA after the unit has been
deployed to the customer premises. The service provider must also be able to upgrade the endpoint
firmware remotely, and both of these operations must be reliable.
In a residential deployment, the endpoint itself is typically connected in a local network, and accesses
the Internet through a router using network address translation (NAT). For enhanced security, the router
may attempt to block unauthorized incoming packets by implementing symmetric NAT, a packet
filtering strategy which severely restricts the packets that are allowed to enter the protected network
from the Internet.
Communication Encryption
The configuration parameters communicated to the endpoint may contain authorization codes or other
information should not be revealed to the customer. This may be required to protect the service provider
from unauthorized activity by the customer. It is also necessary to protect the customer from
unauthorized use of the account by other customers.
For this reason, the service provider may wish to encrypt the configuration profile communication
between the provisioning server and the endpoint, in addition to restricting access to the ATA
administration web server.
Provisioning Overview
Linksys VoIP products support secure remote provisioning and firmware upgrades. Configuration
profiles can be generated using common, open source tools, facilitating integration into service provider
provisioning systems. Supported transport protocols include TFTP, HTTP, and HTTPS with client
certificates. Linksys provisioning solutions are designed for high-volume residential deployment, where
each SPA typically resides in a separate LAN environment connected to the Internet with a NAT device.
Note
This Provisioning Guide is intended to supplement the product administration guides, which provide
definitions and usage guidelines for each parameter available for a specific device.
The SPA can be configured to resync its internal configuration state to a remote profile periodically and
on power up. Starting with firmware release 2.0, 256-bit symmetric key encryption of profiles is
supported. In addition, an unprovisioned SPA can receive an encrypted profile specifically targeted for
that device without requiring an explicit key. Release 2.0 supports a secure first-time provisioning
mechanism using SSL functionality.
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Note
Remote customization (RC) units are introduced with Release 5.x. RC units are customized by Linksys
so when the unit is started, it tries to contact the Linksys provisioning server to download its customized
profile.
User intervention is not required to initiate or complete a profile update or firmware upgrade. Remote
firmware upgrade is achieved via TFTP or HTTP, but not using HTTPS because the firmware does not
contain sensitive information that can be read by a customer. The SPA upgrade logic is capable of
automating multi-stage upgrades, if intermediate upgrades are required to reach a future upgrade state
from an older release. .A profile resync is only attempted when the SPA is idle, because this may trigger
a software reboot.
General purpose parameters are provided to help service providers manage the provisioning process.
Each SPA can be configured to periodically contact a normal provisioning server (NPS). Communication
wit the NPS does not require the use of a secure protocol because the updated profile is encrypted by a
shared secret key. The NPS can be a standard TFTP, HTTP or HTTPS server.
Initial Provisioning
Linksys ATAs provide convenient mechanisms for initial provisioning, based on two deployment
models:
•
Retail distribution, where the customer purchases the ATA separately from the VoIP service
•
Bulk distribution, where the service provider issues the ATA to the customer as part of the VoIP
service contract
In the first model, the customer purchases the ATA from a retail outlet, and subsequently requests VoIP
service from the service provider, for use with that adapter. The service provider must then support
secure remote configuration of the unit.
In the second model, the service provider acquires adapters in bulk quantity, and either preprovisions the
adapters in-house or purchases RC units from Linksys.
Deploying RC Units
The in-house preprovisioning step can be eliminated by using RC units. Customization of RC units
reduces the need to handle the units prior to shipping to end customers. It also discourages the use of the
SPA with a different service.
The MAC address of each RC unit is associated with a customized profile for the customer who
purchased each unit on a provisioning server maintained by Linksys. The RC unit is preprovisioned by
Linksys with the connection information for the Linksys provisioning server. When the RC unit is
started, it tries to contact the Linksys provisioning server and download its customized profile.
The status of customization for an RC unit can be determined by viewing the Customization parameter
in the Product Information section of the Info tab. An RC unit that has not been provisioned displays
Pending. An RC unit that has been provisioned displays the name of the company that owns the unit. If
the unit is not an RC unit the web page displays Not Customized.
Linksys offers RC units to service providers for volume deployments of SPA endpoints. Through
customization, the manufacturing default values of a select number of parameters can be customized to
meet the needs of individual service providers.
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The following is a sample template for an RC unit:
Restricted Access Domain "domain.com, domain1.com, domain2.com";
Primary_DNS
* "x.y.w.z";
Secondary_DNS
* "a.b.c.d";
Provision_Enable
* "Yes";
Resync_Periodic
* "30";
Resync_Error_Retry_Delay * "30";
Profile_Rule * "http://prov.domain.com/sipura/profile?id=$MA";
The Restricted Access Domain parameter is configured with the actual domain names of up to a
maximum of five domains. The Primary_DNS and Secondary_DNS parameters are configured with the
actual domain names or IP addresses of the DNS servers available to the RC unit.
Redundant Provisioning Servers
The provisioning server may be specified as an IP address or as a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
The use of a FQDN facilitates the deployment of redundant provisioning servers. When the provisioning
server is identified through a FQDN, the SPA attempts to resolve the FQDN to an IP address through
DNS. Only DNS A-records are supported for provisioning; DNS SRV address resolution is not available
for provisioning. The SPA continues to process A-records until the first server responds. If no server
associated with the A-records responds, the SPA logs an error to the syslog server.
Retail Provisioning
The SPA firmware includes an administration web server that displays SPA internal configuration and
accepts new configuration parameter values. The server also accepts a special URL command syntax for
performing remote profile resync and firmware upgrade operations.
In a retail distribution model, a customer purchases a Linksys voice endpoint device, and subsequently
subscribes to a particular service. The customer first signs on to the service and establishes a VoIP
account, possibly through an online portal. Subsequently, the customer binds the particular device to the
assigned service account.
To do so, the unprovisioned SPA is instructed to resync with a specific provisioning server through a
resync URL command. The URL command typically includes an account PIN number or alphanumeric
code to associate the device with the new account.
In the following example, a device at the DHCP-assigned IP address 192.168.1.102 is instructed to
provision itself to the SuperVoIP service:
http://192.168.1.102/admin/resync?https://prov.supervoip.com/linksys-init/1234abcd
In this example, 1234abcd is the PIN number of the new account. The remote provisioning server is
configured to associate the SPA that is performing the resync request with the new account, based on the
URL and the supplied PIN. Through this initial resync operation, the SPA is configured in a single step,
and is automatically directed to resync thereafter to a permanent URL on the server. For example:
https://prov.supervoip.com/linksys
For both initial and permanent access, the provisioning server relies on the SPA client certificate for
authentication and supplies correct configuration parameter values based on the associated service
account.
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Automatic In-House Preprovisioning
Using the administration web server and issuing a resync URL is convenient for a customer in the retail
deployment model, but it is not as convenient for preprovisioning a large number of units.
The SPA supports a more convenient mechanism for in-house preprovisioning. With the factory default
configuration, a SPA automatically tries to resync to a specific file on a TFTP server, whose IP address
is offered as one of the DHCP-provided parameters. This lets a service provider connect each new SPA
to a LAN environment configured to preprovision SPAs. Any new SPA connected to this LAN
automatically resyncs to the local TFTP server, initializing its internal state in preparation for
deployment. Among other parameters, this preprovisioning step configures the URL of the SPA
provisioning server.
Subsequently, when a new customer signs up for service, the preprovisioned SPA can be simply bar-code
scanned, to record its MAC address or serial number, before being shipped to the customer. Upon
receiving the unit, the customer connects the unit to the broadband link, possibly through a router. On
power-up the SPA already knows the server to contact for its periodic resync update.
Configuration Access Control
Besides configuration parameters that control resync and upgrade behavior, the SPA provides
mechanisms for restricting end-user access to various parameters.
The SPA firmware provides specific privileges for login to a User account and an Admin account. The
Admin account is designed to give the service provider configuration access to the SPA, while the User
account is designed to give limited and configurable control to the end user of the device.
The User account provides access to basic interactive voice response (IVR) functions and to a subset of
the administration web server parameters. The Admin account provides full access to all IVR functions
and to all administration web server parameterse.
The User and Admin accounts can be independently password protected. The configuration parameters
available to the User account are completely configurable in the SPA, on a parameter-by-parameter
basis. Optionally, user access to the SPA administration web server can be totally disabled. The
manufacturing reset control using the IVR can also be disabled, via provisioning.
The Internet domains accessed by the SPA for resync, upgrades, and SIP registration for Line 1 can be
restricted. These and other features are described in detail in administration guides for each product.
SPA Configuration Profiles
The SPA configuration profile defines the parameter values for a specific SPA device. The configuration
profile can be used in two formats:
•
Open (XML-style) format
•
Proprietary, plain-text format
The XML-style format lets you use standard tools to compile the parameters and values. To protect
confidential information contained in the configuration profile, this type of file is generally delivered
from the provisioning server to the SPA over a secure channel provided by HTTPS.
The plain-text configuration file uses a proprietary format, which can be encrypted to prevent
unauthorized use of confidential information. By convention, the profile is named with the extension
.cfg (for example, spa2102.cfg). The Linksys Profile Compiler (SPC) tool is provided for compiling the
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SPA Provisioning Flow
plain-text file containing parameter-value pairs into an encrypted CFG file. The SPC tool is available
from Linksys for the Win32 environment (spc.exe) and Linux-i386-elf environment
(spc-linux-i386-static). Availability of the SPC tool for the OpenBSD environment is available on a
case-by-case basis.
SPA Provisioning Flow
Firmware release 1.0 provides basic features in support of secure provisioning. This section describes
the high-level provisioning flow supported by release 1.0 in the context of a service provider application.
The SPA provisioning flow is illustrated in Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-1
SPA Provisioning Flow
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SPA Provisioning Flow
At a high level, the provisioning process involves four provisioning states described in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1
Provisioning States
Flow Step
Step Description
MFG-RESET
Manufacturing reset
Performing manufacturing reset on the SPA returns the device to a fully
unprovisioned state. All configurable parameters regain their manufacturing
default values.
Manufacturing reset can be performed from any state through the IVR sequence
****RESET#1#
Allowing the end user to perform manufacturing reset guarantees that the device
can always be returned to an accessible state.
SP-CUST
Service provider customization
The provisioning parameters are customized for a particular service provider
network. The Profile_Rule parameter must be configured in this step to point to
a device specific configuration profile, using a service provider specific
provisioning server.
This can be accomplished in one of three ways:
•
Auto-configuration via local DHCP server. A TFTP server name or IPv4
address is specified by DHCP on he local network. The indicated TFTP
server carries the desired Profile_Rule entry in the CFG file /spa2102.cfg
•
Enter a resync URL. An end-user opens a browser onto the SPA web server,
explicitly requesting a resync to a specific TFTP server, using this URL
syntax: http://x.x.x.x/admin/resync?prvserv/spa2102.cfg where x.x.x.x is
the IP address of the specific SPA and prvserv is the target TFTP server,
followed by a profile path.
•
Edit Profile_Rule parameter. Open the provisioning pane on the SPA web
interface, and enter the TFTP URL in the Profile_Rule parameter: for
example, prserv/spa2102.cfg.
The spa2102.cfg file modifies the Profile_Rule to contact a specific TFTP
server, and request a MAC-address specific CFG file. For example, the
following entry contacts a specific provisioning server, requesting a new
profile unique to this unit:
Profile_Rule tftp.callme.com/profile/$MA/spa2102.cfg;
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Using HTTPS
Table 1-1
Provisioning States (continued)
SEC-PRV-1
Secure Provisioning—Initial Configuration
The initial device-unique CFG file should be targeted to each SPA by compiling
the CFG file with the spc --target option. This provides an initial level of
encryption that does not require the exchange of keys.
The initial device-unique CFG file should reconfigure the profile parameters to
enable stronger encryption, by programming a 256-bit encryption key, and
pointing to a randomly generated TFTP directory. For example, the CFG file
might contain:
Profile_Rule [--key $A] tftp.callme.com/profile/$B/spa2102.cfg;
GPP_A 8e4ca259…; # 256 bit key
GPP_B Gp3sqLn…; # random CFG file path directory
SEC-PRV-2
Secure Provisioning—Full Configuration
The subsequent profile resync operations retrieve 256-bit encrypted CFG files,
which maintain the SPA in a state synchronized to the provisioning server.
All remaining SPA parameters are configured and maintained through this
strongly encrypted profile. The encryption key and random directory location can
be changed periodically for extra security.
Using HTTPS
The SPA provides a reliable and secure provisioning strategy based on HTTPS requests from the SPA to
the provisioning server, using both server and client certificates for authenticating the client to the server
and the server to the client.
To use HTTPS with Linksys SPA units, you must generate a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) and
submit it to Linksys. Linksys generates a certificate for installation on the provisioning server that is
accepted by the SPA units when they seek to establish an HTTPS connection with the provisioning
server. This procedure is described in the “Enabling HTTPS” section on page 1-13.
How HTTPS Works
Starting with firmware release 2.0.6 , the SPA implements SSL, which lets the SPA client to connect to
servers using HTTPS.
HTTPS encrypts the communication between the client and the server, protecting the message contents
from other intervening network devices. The encryption method for the body of the communication
between client and server is based on symmetric key cryptography. With symmetric key cryptography,
a single secret key is shared by the client and the server over a secure channel protected by Public/Private
key encryption.
Messages encrypted by the secret key can only be decrypted using the same key. HTTPS supports a wide
range of symmetric encryption algorithms. The SPA implements up to 256-bit symmetric encryption,
using the American Encryption Standard (AES), in addition to 128-bit RC4.
HTTPS also provides for the authentication of the server and the client engaged in a secure transaction.
This feature ensures that the provisioning server and an individual client cannot be spoofed by other
devices on the network. This is an essential capability in the context of remote endpoint provisioning.
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Using HTTPS
Server and client authentication is performed using public/private key encryption, using certificates
containing the public key. Text encrypted with a public key can be decrypted only by its corresponding
private key (and vice versa). The SPA supports the RSA algorithm for public/private key cryptography.
Certificates are authenticated in the context of a certificate chain. A certificate authority lies at the root
of the chain, with all other certificates depending on the root authority for authority.
Server Certificates
Each secure provisioning server is issued an SSL server certificate, directly signed by Linksys. The
firmware running on the SPA clients recognizes only these certificates as valid. The clients try to
authenticate the server certificate when connecting via HTTPS, and reject any server certificate not
signed by Linksys.
This mechanism protects the service provider from unauthorized access to the SPA endpoint, or any
attempt to spoof the provisioning server. This might allow the attacker to reprovision the SPA, to gain
configuration information, or to use a different VoIP service. Without the private key corresponding to
a valid server certificate, the attacker is unable to establish communication with a Linksys SPA.
Client Certificates
In addition to a direct attack on the SPA, an attacker might attempt to contact a provisioning server using
a standard web browser, or other HTTPS client, to obtain the SPA configuration profile from the
provisioning server. To prevent this kind of attack, each SPA also carries a unique client certificate, also
signed by Linksys, including identifying information about each individual endpoint. A certificate
authority root certificate capable of authenticating the device client certificate is given to each service
provider. This authentication path allows the provisioning server to reject unauthorized requests for
configuration profiles.
Linksys Certificate Chain Structure
The combination of server certificates and client certificates ensures the secure communication between
a remote SPA and its provisioning server. Figure 1-2 illustrates the relationship and placement of
certificates, public/private key pairs, and signing root authorities, among the Linksys client, the
provisioning server, and the Linksys certification authority.
The upper half of the diagram shows the Linksys Provisioning Server Root Authority, used to sign
individual provisioning server certificates. The corresponding root certificate is compiled into all
firmware releases at or above 2.0.6, allowing the SPA endpoints to authenticate authorized provisioning
servers.
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Figure 1-2
SPA Configuration and Provisioning Certificate Chain
SPA Configuration-Provisioning Certificate Chain
Sipura Technology, Inc
Provisioning Server Root Authority 1
CERT
PKEY
Compiled into
SPA Firmware
Signs Provisioning
Server Certificates
SPA
Provisioning Server
Root CA
Certificate List
Authenticates Server
in HTTPS Connection
CERT
PKEY
VoIP Service Provider
Provisioning Server Entity
SPA Firmware Load
HTTPS Server Configuration Files
SPA
PKEY
CERT
Authenticates Client
in HTTPS Connection
Signs SPA
Client Certificates
Root CA
Certificate List
Stored on Service Provider’s
Provisioning Server
PKEY
CERT
Sipura Technology, Inc
Client Certificate Root Authority 1
As indicated in the lower half of the diagram, a Linksys Client Certificate Root Authority signs each
unique certificate. The corresponding root certificate is made available to service providers for client
authentication purposes.
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Provisioning Setup
This section describes setup requirements for provisioning a SPA and includes the following topics:
•
License Keys, page 1-11
•
Software Tools, page 1-11
•
Server Configuration, page 1-11
•
TFTP, page 1-12
•
HTTP, page 1-12
•
Enabling HTTPS, page 1-13
•
Syslog Server, page 1-15
License Keys
Certain products within the SPA product family provide for premium features. Enabling these features
requires a license key. This key is unique per feature and device. To enable a premium feature in any
device, the corresponding key needs to be programmed into the <License_Keys> parameter. Once
programmed, the feature remains enabled permanently. License_Keys is a write-only parameter that
always appears empty when read. Contact Linksys for further information or to obtain license keys.
Software Tools
The following software tools are useful for provisioning Linksys ATAs :
•
Open source gzip compression utility, used when generating configuration profiles
•
Open source OpenSSL software package: for profile encryption and HTTPS operations
•
Scripting language with CGI scripting support, such as the open source Perl language tools: to test
dynamic generation of profiles and one-step remote provisioning using HTTPS
•
Ethernet packet analyzer (such as the freely downloadable Ethereal/Wireshark): to verify secure
exchanges between provisioning servers and Linksys voice devices
•
The ssldump utility: for monitoring HTTPS transactions
Server Configuration
Provisioning requires the availability of servers, which for testing purposes can be installed and run on
a local PC:
•
TFTP (UDP port 69)
•
HTTP (TCP port 80)
•
HTTPS (TCP port 443)
•
Syslog (UDP port 514)
To troubleshoot server configuration, it is helpful to install a separate client for each type of server on a
different host.
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TFTP
TFTP is convenient for managing small deployments of SPA units within an office LAN environment.
It is also useful for in-house preprovisioning of SPAs in preparation for remote deployment. However,
once deployed remotely, HTTP offers greater provisioning reliability, given NAT and router protection
mechanisms.
The SPA is able to obtain a TFTP server IP address directly from the DHCP server through DHCP option
66. If this is done, a Profile_Rule need be configured only with the profile filepath on that TFTP server.
The Profile_Rule provided with the factory default configuration is as follows:
/spa$PSN.cfg
For example, on a SPA2102, this expands to /spa2102.cfg, which means that the unit resyncs to this file
on the local TFTP server, if that is specified via DHCP option 66. Note that the specified filepath is
relative to the TFTP server virtual root directory.
HTTP
The SPA behaves like a browser requesting web pages from any remote Internet site. This provides a
reliable means of reaching the provisioning server, even when a customer router implements symmetric
NAT or other protection mechanisms. HTTP and HTTPS works more reliably than TFTP in remote
deployments, especially when the deployed units are connected behind residential firewalls or
NAT-enabled routers.
As an alternative to HTTPS, the SPA can resync to a configuration profile using HTTP. In this case, a
separate explicit profile encryption can be used to protect confidential information. The SPA supports
256-bit AES in CBC mode to pre-encrypt individual profiles. These encrypted profiles can be
downloaded by the SPA using HTTP without danger of unauthorized use of confidential information in
the configuration profile. This resync mode may be useful to reduce the computational load on the
provisioning server required when using HTTPS for every resync request.
In a small deployment within a single LAN environment, it is common to rely on a simple TFTP server
for provisioning of network devices. Linksys voice devices support TFTP for both provisioning resync
and firmware upgrade operations. TFTP is especially useful for the in-house preprovisioning of a large
number of un-provisioned devices.
Basic HTTP-based SPA provisioning relies on the HTTP GET method for retrieving configuration
profiles. Typically, this means that a configuration file is pre-generated for each deployed SPA, and these
files are stored within an HTTP server directory. When the server receives the GET request, it simply
returns the file specified in the GET request header.
Alternatively, the requested URL can invoke a CGI script (still using the GET method). In this case, the
configuration profile might be generated dynamically, perhaps by querying a customer database and
producing the profile on-the-fly.
In the case of CGI handling resync requests, the SPA also supports the HTTP POST method as a
mechanism to request the resync configuration data. The SPA can be configured to convey certain status
and identification information to the server within the body of the HTTP POST request. The server can
use this information to help generate a desired response configuration file, or store the status information
for later analysis and tracking.
As part of both GET and POST requests, the SPA automatically includes basic identifying information
in the request header, in the User-Agent field. The supplied information conveys manufacturer, product
name, current firmware version, and product serial number.
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For example, the following is the User-Agent request field from a SPA2102:
User-Agent: Linksys/SPA-2102-2.0.5 (88012BA01234)
Enabling HTTPS
For increased security managing remotely deployed units, the SPA supports HTTPS for provisioning. To
this end, each newly manufactured SPA carries a unique SLL Client Certificate (and associated private
key), in addition to a Linksys CA server root certificate. The latter allow the SPA to recognize authorized
provisioning servers, and reject non-authorized servers. On the other hand, the client certificate allows
the provisioning server to identify the individual SPA issuing the request.
In order for a service provider to manage SPA deployment using HTTPS, a server certificate needs to be
generated for each provisioning server to which the SPA resyncs using HTTPS. The server certificate
must be signed by the Linksys Server CA Root Key, whose certificate is carried by all deployed units.
To obtain a signed server certificate, the service provider must forward a certificate signing request to
Linksys, which signs and returns the server certificate for installation on the provisioning server.
The provisioning server certificate must contain in the subject Common Name (CN field) the FQDN of
the host running the server. It may optionally contain additional information following the host FQDN,
separated by a / character. The following are examples of CN entries that would be accepted as valid by
the SPA:
CN=sprov.callme.com
CN=pv.telco.net/mailto:admin@telco.net
CN=prof.voice.com/info@voice.com
In addition to verifying the certificate chain of the provisioning server certificate, the SPA tests the
server IP address against a DNS lookup of the server name specified in the server certificate.
A certificate signing request can be generated using the OpenSSL utility. The following shows an
example of the openssl command that produces a 1024-bit RSA public/private key pair and a certificate
signing request:
openssl req –new –out provserver.csr
This command generates the server private key in privkey.pem and a corresponding certificate signing
request in provserver.csr. In this example, the service provider keeps privkey.pem secret and submits
provserver.csr to Linksys for signing. Upon receiving the provserver.csr file, Linksys generates
provserver.crt, the signed server certificate.
In addition, Linksys also provides a Linksys CA Client Root Certificate to the service provider. This root
certificate certifies the authenticity of the client certificate carried by each SPA.
The unique client certificate offered by each SPA during an HTTPS session carries identifying
information embedded in its subject field. This information can be made available by the HTTPS server
to a CGI script invoked to handle secure requests. In particular, the certificate subject indicates the unit
product name (OU element), MAC address (S element), and serial number (L element). The following
is an example of these elements from a SPA2102 client certificate subject field:
OU=SPA-2102, L=88012BA01234, S=000e08abcdef
Early SPA units, manufactured before firmware 2.0.x, do not contain individual SSL client certificates.
When these units are upgraded to a firmware release in the 2.0.x tree, they become capable of connecting
to a secure server using HTTPS, but are only able to supply a generic client certificate if requested to do
so by the server. This generic certificate contains the following information in the SPA identifying fields:
OU=Linksys.com, L=Linksysgeneric, S=Linksysgeneric
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To determine if a SPA carries an individualized certificate use the $CCERT provisioning macro variable,
whose value expands to either Installed or Not Installed, according to the presence or absence of a unique
client certificate. In the case of a generic certificate, it is possible to obtain the serial number of the unit
from the HTTP request header, in the User-Agent field.
HTTPS servers can be configured to request SSL certificates from connecting clients. If enabled, the
server can verify the client certificate chain using the Linksys CA Client Root Certificate supplied by
Linksys. It can then provide the certificate information to a CGI for further processing.
The location for storing certificates may vary. For example, on a Apache installation, the file paths for
storing the provisioning server signed certificate, its associated private key, and the Linksys CA client
root certificate are likely to be as follows:
# Server Certificate:
SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/provserver.crt
# Server Private Key:
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/conf/provserver.key
# Certificate Authority (CA):
SSLCACertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/spacroot.crt
Refer to the documentation provided for an HTTPS server for specific information.
Firmware release 2.0.6 supports the following cipher suites for SSL connection to a server using
HTTPS. Future release updates may implement additional cipher suites.
Table 1-2
Cipher Suites Supported for Connecting to an HTTPS Server
Numeric Code
Cipher Suite
0x0039
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
0x0035
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
0x0033
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0x002f
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0x0005
TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
0x0004
TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5
0x0062
TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA
0x0060
TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_MD5
0x0003
TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5
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Syslog Server
If a syslog server is configured on the SPA (using the <Syslog_Server> or <Debug_Server> parameters),
the resync and upgrade operations log messages to the syslog server. A message can be generated at the
start of a remote file request (configuration profile or firmware load), and at the conclusion of the
operation (with either success or failure).
The logged messages themselves are configured in the following parameters:
For profile resync:
•
Log_Resync_Request_Msg
•
Log_Resync_Success_Msg
•
Log_Resync_Failure_Msg
For firmware upgrades:
•
Log_Upgrade_Request_Msg
•
Log_Upgrade_Success_Msg
•
Log_Upgrade_Failure_Msg
These parameters are macro expanded into the actual syslog messages.
Where to Go From Here
The following table summarizes the location of specific information in this document for completing
different provisioning tasks.
To Do This ...
Refer to ...
Learn to work with Linksys provisioning scripts
and configuration profiles.
Chapter 2, “Creating Provisioning Scripts”
Review step-by-step procedures for using the
scripting language to create a configuration
profile.
Chapter 3, “Provisioning Tutorial”
Refer to the function and usage of each parameter Chapter 4, “Provisioning Field Reference”
on the Provisioning tab of the administration web
server.
Look up the expansion for an acronyms use in this Appendix A, “Acronyms”
document.
Define a term used in this document.
Appendix B, “Glossary”
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Creating Provisioning Scripts
This chapter describes the Linksys provisioning script and includes the following sections:
•
SPA Configuration File, page 2-1
•
Open Format Configuration File, page 2-2
•
SPA Configuration Profile Compiler, page 2-6
•
Proprietary Plain-Text Configuration File, page 2-8
•
Using Provisioning Parameters, page 2-14
•
Data Types, page 2-19
SPA Configuration File
The SPA configuration profile defines the parameter values for a specific SPA device. The profile lets
you determine the value for each parameter used by the SPA and also to determine the user access to
each parameter: hidden, read-only, or read-write. Any parameters not specified by a profile are left at
the factory default values.
The SPA accepts a configuration profile in two formats:
•
Open (XML-style) format
•
Proprietary, plain-text format
The XML-style format lets you use standard tools to compile the parameters and values. To protect
confidential information contained in the configuration profile, this file is generally delivered from the
provisioning server to the SPA over a secure channel, provided by HTTPS. A complete example XML
profile can be generated using the Linksys profile compiler tool (see the “SPA Configuration Profile
Compiler” section on page 2-6), using the following command:
spc --sample-xml sample.txt
The plain-text configuration file uses a proprietary format, which can be encrypted to prevent
unauthorized use of confidential information. By convention, the profile is named with the extension
.cfg (for example, spa2102.cfg). The Linksys Profile Compiler (SPC) tool is used to compile the
plain-text file containing parameter-value pairs into an encrypted CFG file. The SPC tool is available
from Linksys for the Win32 environment (spc.exe) and Linux-i386-elf environment
(spc-linux-i386-static). Availability of the SPC tool for the OpenBSD environment is available on a
case-by-case basis.
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Open Format Configuration File
Open Format Configuration File
A configuration file in open, XML-style format can be sent from the provisioning server to the SPA
during a resync operation without compiling them into a binary object.
The SPA can accept configuration formats generated by standard tools. This eases development of
back-end provisioning server software to generate SPA configuration profiles from existing databases.
The SPA configuration profile open format consists of a text file (with XML-like syntax), optionally
compressed using the gzip deflate algorithm (RFC1951), and further optionally encrypted using 256-bit
AES symmetric key encryption.
The XML profile syntax consists of an XML-style hierarchy of elements, with element attributes and
values. Opening element tags need to be properly matched by corresponding closing element tags.
Empty element tags are allowed. Element tags are case sensitive. Comments are allowed, using standard
XML syntax. Leading and trailing white space is removed from the parameter value. New lines within
a value are converted to spaces.
The SPA recognizes elements with proper SPA parameter names, when encapsulated in the special
<flat-profile> element. In addition, the SPA also recognizes arbitrary, configurable aliases for a limited
number of parameter names. The <flat-profile> element itself can in turn be encapsulated within other
arbitrary elements.
Unrecognized element names are ignored by the SPA. Any parameters not specified by a profile are left
unchanged in the SPA. If the XML file contains multiple occurrences of the same parameter tag, the last
such occurrence overrides any earlier ones. To avoid inadvertently overriding configuration values for
a parameter, it is recommended that at most one instance of a parameter be specified in any one profile.
Element attributes are allowed. Their value must be enclosed by double quotes. All such attributes are
ignored by the SPA, except for the user-access attribute: ua.
The user-access attribute defines access to the administration web server for a specific parameter by the
User account. Access by the Admin account is unaffected by this attribute.
The ua attribute, if present, must have one of the following values:
•
na—no access
•
ro—read-only
•
rw—read/write
If the user-access attribute (ua) is not specified in an element tag, the factory default user access is
applied for the corresponding parameter.
An XML header of the form <? . . . ?> is allowed, but is ignored by the SPA.
As an example, the following profile would be accepted by the SPA. It supplies the values of three
provisioning parameters.
Basic XML Profile FormatBasic XML Profile Format
Example 2-1
Basic XML Profile Format
<flat-profile>
<Resync_On_Reset> Yes
</Resync_On_Reset>
<Resync_Periodic> 7200
</Resync_Periodic>
<Profile_Rule>
tftp://prov.telco.com:6900/Linksys/config/spa2102.cfg
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</Profile_Rule>
</flat-profile>
The profiles in Example 2-1 and Example 2-2 are functionally equivalent. Example 2-2 contains
additional information and comments, which are ignored by the SPA. Also, in Example 2-2 the
<flat-profile> element is encapsulating within the <top-level> element. Such extra encapsulation is
allowed, and the parameters within it are still recognized.
Example 2-2
XML Profile with Comments
<?xml version=’1.0’?>
<top-level>
<!-- Unrecognized element ‘generator’ is ignored by SPA -->
<generator> Telco Profile Compiler v.1.2
</generator>
<!-- Unrecognized flat-profile attribute ‘device’ is ignored by SPA -->
<flat-profile device=”Linksys”>
<!-- three parameters are specified by this profile -->
<Resync_On_Reset> Yes
</Resync_On_Reset>
<Resync_Periodic> 7200
</Resync_Periodic>
<Profile_Rule>
tftp://prov.telco.com:6900/Linksys/config/spa2102.cfg
</Profile_Rule>
</flat-profile>
</top-level>
The SPA recognizes and translates basic XML character escapes, including escapes for those shown in
Table 2-1.
Table 2-1
Special Character
XML Escape Sequence
& (ampersand)
&amp;
< (less than)
&lt;
> (greater than)
&gt;
’ (apostrophe)
&apos;
” (double quote)
&quot;
Numeric character escapes, using decimal and hexadecimal values (s.a. &#40; and &#x2e;), are also
translated.
Note
The SPA firmware does not support the full Unicode character set, but only the ASCII subset.
The profile in Example 2-3illustrates character escapes. This example defines an information hotline
dial plan, which sets the Dial_Plan[1] parameter equal to ( S0 <:18005551212> ).
Example 2-3
Dial Plan Example
<flat-profile>
<Dial_Plan_1_>
( S0 &lt;:18005551212&gt; )
</Dial_Plan_1_>
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Open Format Configuration File
</flat-profile>
The element names that are recognized by the SPA can be derived from the SPA administration web
server field names as follows:
•
Append [n] to each of the numbered parameters, where n is the line, user, or extension number (for
example Dial_Plan[1] and Dial_Plan[2]).
•
Replace spaces plus any of the following special characters with underscores:
– [ ] ( ) /
This is illustrated by Example 2-4, which also illustrates setting user access privileges, using the ua
attribute.
Example 2-4
Using Numbers and Spaces in an XML Profile
<flat-profile>
<!-- This sets the SIP TOS/DiffServ Value[1] parameter to be user not-accessible -->
<SIP_TOS_DiffServ_Value_1_
ua=”na”/>
<!-- This sets the Dial Plan[1] parameter to be user read-only -->
<Dial_Plan_1_
ua=”ro”/>
<!-- This sets Dial Plan[2] parameter to be user read-write -->
<Dial_Plan_2_
ua=”rw”/>
</flat-profile>
The SPA processes empty elements and elements with empty values differently. If an element tag is
specified within an empty element form, than the current value of the corresponding parameter is left
unchanged. On the other hand, if the element tag is used within an opening and a closing element, with
no value between them, then the corresponding parameter is set to an empty string. This is illustrated in
Example 2-5.
Example 2-5
Empty Elements vs. Empty Strings
<flat-profile>
<!-- GPP_A will be set to an empty string -->
<GPP_A>
</GPP_A>
<!-- GPP_B will remain unchanged -->
<GPP_B/>
</flat-profile>
Using the empty element form is useful when specifying a read/write parameter (ua=rw). This allows
the end user to set and maintain specific values (such as User 1 and User 2 settings), while preventing
the profile from overwriting the user-supplied values during a resync operation.
Example 2-6
Empty Elements Preserve User-Configured Values
<flat-profile>
<!-- End-user manages these parameters, values are not changed by this profile -->
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<Speed_Dial_2_2_
<Speed_Dial_3_2_
<Speed_Dial_4_2_
<Speed_Dial_5_2_
<Speed_Dial_6_2_
<Speed_Dial_7_2_
<Speed_Dial_8_2_
<Speed_Dial_9_2_
ua=”rw”/>
ua=”rw”/>
ua=”rw”/>
ua=”rw”/>
ua=”rw”/>
ua=”rw”/>
ua=”rw”/>
ua=”rw”/>
</flat-profile>
Configuration File Compression
Optionally, the XML configuration profile can be compressed to reduce the network load on the
provisioning server. The supported compression method is the gzip deflate algorithm (RFC1951). The
gzip utility and a compression library that implements the same algorithm (zlib) are readily available
from Internet sites.
To identify when compression is applied, the SPA expects the compressed file to contain a gzip
compatible header, as generated by invoking the gzip utility on the original XML file.
For example, if profile.xml is a valid profile, the file profile.xml.gz is also accepted. This example be
generated with either of the following commands:
Example 2-7
Compressing the Configuration Profile
# first invocation, replaces original file with compressed file:
gzip profile.xml
# second invocation, leaves original file in place, produces new compressed file:
cat profile.xml | gzip > profile.xml.gz
The SPA inspects the downloaded file header to determine the format of the file. The choice of file name
is not significant and any convention that is convenient for the service provider can be used.
File Encryption
An XML configuration profile can be encrypted using symmetric key encryption, whether or not it is
already compressed. The supported encryption algorithm is the American Encryption Standard (AES),
using 256-bit keys, applied in cipher block chaining mode.
Note
Compression must precede encryption for the SPA to recognize a compressed and encrypted XML
profile. First generate the XML, then compress with gzip, and finally encrypt.
The OpenSSL encryption tool, available for download from various Internet sites, can be used to
perform the encryption. Note that support for 256-bit AES encryption may require recompilation of the
tool (so as to enable the AES code). The SPA firmware has been tested against version openssl-0.9.7c.
If encrypted, the profile expects the file to have the same format as generated by the following command:
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Example 2-8
Encrypting the Configuration Profile
# example encryption key = SecretPhrase1234
openssl enc –e –aes-256-cbc –k SecretPhrase1234 –in profile.xml –out profile.cfg
# analogous invocation for a compressed xml file
openssl enc –e –aes-256-cbc –k SecretPhrase1234 –in profile.xml.gz –out profile.cfg
A lower case –k precedes the secret key, which can be any plain text phrase and is used to generate a
random 64-bit salt. Then, in combination with the secret specified with the –k argument, it derives a
random 128-bit initial vector, and the actual 256-bit encryption key.
When this form of encryption is used to encrypt a configuration profile, the SPA needs to be informed
of the secret key value to decrypt the file. This value is specified as a qualifier in the pertinent profile
URL. The syntax is as follows, using an explicit URL:
[--key “SecretPhrase1234”] http://prov.telco.com/path/profile.cfg
This is programmed using one of the Profile_Rule parameters. The key must be preprovisioned into the
unit at an earlier time. This bootstrap of the secret key can be accomplished securely using HTTPS.
Preencrypting configuration profiles offline with symmetric key encryption allows the use of HTTP for
resyncing profiles. The provisioning server only needs to use HTTPS to handle initial provisioning of
SPAs after deployment. This reduces the load on the HTTPS server in large scale deployments.
The final file name does not need to follow a specific format, but it is conventional to end the name with
the .cfg extension to indicate that it is a configuration profile.
SPA Configuration Profile Compiler
The SPA also accepts configuration profiles in binary format. The SPA configuration profile compiler is
a translation tool (spc.exe) that translates a plain-text format into the required binary format.
Appendix C, “Example SPA Configuration Profile” provides an example of a typical SPA2102
configuration text file. Other ATAs are similar. However, the SPA3102 has a number of unique
parameters.
The SPC tool expects a semicolon, ;”, to separate each parameter definition. If a parameter is not defined
in the configuration profile, the current value for that parameter is retained by the SPA.
The SPC tool is available from Linksys upon request in binary executable format in the following
versions:
•
spc.exe—Windows 32-bit PC environment
•
spc-linux-i386-static—Linux ELF environment
Versions of the SPC tool for other platforms may be available by special request.
The profile compiler can generate different types of configuration files, using different types of
encryption.
•
Generic, non-targeted CFG file, without an explicit key
•
Targeted (--target option), also encrypts the CFG file without an explicit key, but uses the MAC
address of the target SPA, and only that SPA can decode it
•
Explicit key-based encryption of the CFG file.
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SPA Configuration Profile Compiler
A generic, non-targeted CFG file is accepted as valid by any SPA that resyncs to it. The following
command generates a basic CFG file:
spc spa2102.txt spa2102.cfg
This example compiles the plain-text spa2102.txt file into the binary spa2102.cfg file understood by the
SPA2102. The --scramble option performs encryption that does not require the explicit transmission of
a key to the target SPA. It requires one randomizing argument. For example,
spc --scramble SomeSecretPhrase spa2102.txt spa2102.cfg
The resulting encrypted spa2102.cfg is accepted as valid by any SPA that resyncs to it.
The --target option also encrypts the CFG file without the need to explicitly transmit a key, but does so
in such a way that only the target SPA can decode it. Targeted CFG files provide a basic level of security.
This command uses the MAC address of the target SPA as an argument. For example,
spc --target 000e08aabbcc spa2102.txt spa2102.cfg
This command uses the MAC address 000e08aabbcc, and only the SPA with that MAC address is able
to decrypt and process the generated spa2102.cfg profile. Any other SPA attempting to resync to this file
rejects it as unreadable.
The third option performs an explicit key-based encryption of the CFG file. This option requires that the
key used to encrypt the file be preprovisioned in the target SPA, so that it can be decoded.
Two algorithms are available for this type of encryption:
•
RC4 (--rc4)
•
AES (--aes)
In addition, the key can be specified either explicitly as a hexadecimal digit sequence (--hex-key) or by
hashing a secret phrase (--ascii-key). With the --hex-key option, the key can be up to 256 bits in length.
With the --ascii-key option the generated key is 128 bits.
The following examples illustrate explicit key-based encryption.
spc
spc
spc
spc
–-rc4
–-aes
–-aes
–-aes
–-ascii-key apple4sale spa2102.txt spa2102.cfg
–-ascii-key lucky777 spa2102.txt spa2102.cfg
–-ascii-key “my secret phrase” spa2102.txt spa2102.cfg
–-hex-key 8d23fe7...a5c29 spa2102.txt spa2102.cfg
Any combination of scrambling, targeting, and explicit-key encrypting can be applied to a CFG file, as
shown by the following example:
spc –-target 000e08aaa010 –-aes –-ascii-key VerySecret a.txt a.cfg
After each compilation, SPC prints a final status message. Syntax error messages are also printed if a
compilation is not successful.
The status and error messages printed by SPC are suppressed with the --quiet command line option.
Messages can be redirected to a file with the --log file_name option. In the latter case, the SPC command
itself is also printed in the log file, preceded by a timestamp.
spc –-quiet . . .
spc –-log prov.log . . .
SPC can also be used to generate sample configuration source files (for both plain text and XML
formats), corresponding to the accompanying firmware release. The commands for producing sample
files are as follows:
# sample plain.txt to be used as source file for eventual spc compilation:
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spc –-sample-profile plain.txt
# sample config.xml to be fed directly to an SPA running 2.0.6 or above:
spc --sample-xml config.xml
Proprietary Plain-Text Configuration File
The plain-text format is an alternative to the open format and is the only format recognized by firmware
releases prior to 2.0.6.
Source Text Syntax
The syntax of the plain-text file accepted by SPC is a series of parameter-value pairs, with the value
enclosed in double quotes. Each parameter-value pair is followed by a semicolon (for example,
parameter_name “parameter_value”;). If no quoted value is specified for a parameter (or if a parameter
specification is missing entirely from the plain-text file) the value of the parameter remains unchanged
in the SPA.
The syntax also controls the User account access to the parameter in the administration web server. An
optional exclamation point or question mark, immediately following the parameter name, indicates the
parameter should be read-write or user read-only for the User account.
If neither mark is present, the parameter is made inaccessible to the user from the web server pages. Note
that this syntax has no effect on the Admin account access to the parameter. If the parameter
specification is missing entirely from the plain-text file, the User account access to the parameter
remains unchanged in the SPA.
If the plain-text file contains multiple occurrences of the same parameter-value specification, the last
occurrence overrides any earlier ones. To avoid accidentally overwriting configuration values, it is
recommended that no more than one specification for each parameter be included in one profile.
Parameter names in the plain-text file must match the corresponding names appearing in the SPA web
interface, with the following modifications:
•
Spaces between words are replaced by underscores, for example Multi_Word_Parameter
•
Parameters with a numeric identifier use a bracketed index syntax to identify the line, extension, or
user (for example, Line_Enable[1] and Line_Enable[2]).
•
Comments are delimited by a # character up to the end-of-line. Blank lines can be used for
readability.
The following illustrates the format for each parameter-value pair:
Parameter_name [ ‘?’ | ‘!’ ] [“quoted_parameter_value_string”] ‘;’
Boolean parameter values are asserted by any one of the values {Yes | yes | Enable | enable | 1}. They
are deasserted by any one of the values {No | no | Disable | disable | 0}.
The following are examples of plain-text file entries:
# These parameter names are for illustration only
Feature_Enable
Another_Parameter
Hidden_Parameter
! “Enable” ;
? “3600”
;
“abc123” ;
# user read-write, but force the value to Enable
# user read-only
# user not-accessible
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Some_Entry
!
;
# user read-write, leaves value unchanged
Multiple plain text files can be spliced together to generate the source for the final binary CFG file. This
is accomplished using the import directive at the start of a new line followed by one or more spaces and
the file name to splice into the stream of parameter-value pairs. File splicing can be nested several files
deep.
For example, the file base.txt contains the following:
Param1 “base value 1” ;
Param2 “base value 2” ;
The file spa1234.txt contains the following lines:
import base.txt
Param1 “new value overrides base” ;
Param7 “particular value 7” ;
When compiled, spa1234.txt becomes:
Param1
Param2
Param1
Param7
“base value 1” ;
“base value 2” ;
“new value overrides base” ;
“particular value 7” ;
Comments
During development and scripting, it is often convenient to temporarily disable a provisioning parameter
by entering a # character at the start of the parameter value. This effectively comments-out the remaining
text in that parameter.
For example, a Profile_Rule with the value “# http://192.168.1.200/sample.cfg” is equivalent to an
empty Profile_Rule. The # character comment-mechanism applies to the Profile_Rule*, Upgrade_Rule,
and Resync_Trigger_* parameters.
Macro Expansion
Several provisioning parameters undergo macro expansion internally prior to being evaluated. This
preevaluation step provides greater flexibility controlling the resync and upgrade activities of the SPA.
The parameter groups which undergo macro expansion before evaluation are as follows:
•
Resync_Trigger_*
•
Profile_Rule*
•
Log_Resync_*
•
Upgrade_Rule
•
Log_Upgrade_*
Under certain conditions, some general purpose parameters (GPP_*) also undergo macro expansion, as
explicitly indicated in the Optional Resync Arguments section.
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During macro expansion, expressions of the form $NAME and $(NAME) are replaced by the contents
of the named variables. See the “Macro Expansion Variables” section on page 4-7 for the complete list
of variables available for macro expansion. These include general purpose parameters, several product
identifiers, certain event timers, and provisioning state values.
For example, for a SPA with MAC address 000E08012345, the expression:
spa$(MAU)config.cfg
macro-expands into the following string:
spa000E08012345config.cfg
If a macro name is not recognized, it remains unexpanded. For example,
The name STRANGE is not recognized as a valid macro name, while MAU is recognized as a
valid macro name; so the expression:
spa$STRANGE$MAU.cfg
macro-expands into the string:
spa$STRANGE000E08012345.cfg
Macro expansion is not applied recursively. For example, $$MAU” expands into $MAU” (the $$ is
expanded), and not 000E08ABCDEF”, for a SPA with the indicated MAC address.
The special purpose parameters (GPP_SA through GPP_SD), whose contents are mapped to the macro
expressions $SA through $SD, are only macro expanded as the argument of the --key option in a resync
URL.
Also, the macro expression can qualify the expansion so that only a substring of the macro variable is
used instead of its full value, such as a portion of the MAC address.
The syntax for substring macro expansion is $(NAME:p) and $(NAME:p:q), where p and q are
non-negative integers. The resulting expansion results in the macro variable substring starting at
character offset p, and of length q (or till end-of-string if q is not specified). For example, for an SPA
with MAC address 000E08012345, the expression $(MAU:4) macro-expands into the string 08012345,
while the expression $(MAU:8:2) macro-expands into the string 23
Conditional Expressions
Conditional expressions can trigger resync events and select from alternative URLs for resync and
upgrade operations.
Conditional expressions consist of a list of comparisons, separated by the and operator. All comparisons
must be satisfied for the condition to be true.
Each comparison can relate one of three types of literals: integer values, software or hardware version
numbers, and doubled-quoted strings.
Note that version numbers take the form of three non-negative integers separated by periods (major,
minor, and build numbers), plus an optional alphanumeric string in parentheses. No intervening spaces
are allowed.
The following are examples of valid version numbers:
1.0.31(b)
1.0.33
2.0.3(G)
2.0.3(0412s)
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Quoted strings can be compared for equality or inequality. Integers and version numbers can also be
compared arithmetically. The comparison operators can be expressed as symbols or as acronyms, as
indicated in the table below. Acronyms are particularly convenient when expressing the condition in an
XML-style profile.
Table 2-2
Comparison Operators for Conditional Expressions
Operator
Alternate
Syntax
Description
Applicable to Integer
and Version Operands
Applicable to Quoted
String Operands
=
eq
equal to
Yes
Yes
!=
ne
not equal to
Yes
Yes
<
lt
less than
Yes
No
<=
le
less than or
equal to
Yes
No
>
gt
greater than
Yes
No
>=
ge
greater than or
equal to
Yes
No
For legacy support to firmware versions prior to 2.0.6, the not-equal-to operator can also be expressed
as a single ! character (in place of the two-character != string).
Conditional expressions typically involve macro-expanded variables. For example,
$REGTMR1 gt 300 and $PRVTMR gt 1200 and “$EXTIP” ne “”
$SWVER ge 2.0.6 and “$CCERT” eq “Installed”
It is important to enclose macro variables in double quotes where a string literal is expected. Do not do
so doing so where a number or version number is expected.
For legacy support of firmware versions prior to 2.0.6, a relational expression with no left-hand-side
operand assumes $SWVER as the implicit left-hand-side. For example, ! 1.0.33 is equivalent to:
$SWVER != 1.0.33.
When used in the context of the Profile_Rule* and Upgrade_Rule parameters, conditional expressions
must be enclosed within the syntax “( expr )?” as in the following upgrade rule example:
( $SWVER ne 2.0.6 )? http://ps.tell.com/sw/spa021024.bin
On the other hand, the syntax above using parentheses should not be used when configuring the
Resync_Trigger_* parameters.
Assignment Expressions
Arbitrary parameters can be pre-assigned values within the context of Profile_Rule* and Upgrade_Rule
parameter. This causes the assignment to be performed before the profile if retrieved.
The syntax for performing these assignments is a list of individual parameter assignments, enclosed
within parentheses ( assignments )!, with each assignment taking the form:
ParameterXMLName = “Value” ;
Note that the recognized parameter names correspond to the names as for XML-based profiles.
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Any parameter can be assigned a new value in this way, and macro-expansion applies. For example, the
following is a valid assignment expression:
( User_ID_1_ = “uid$B” ; GPP_C = “” ; GPP_D = “$MA” ; )!
For conciseness, the general purpose parameters GPP_A through GPP_P can also be referred to by the
single lowercase letters a through p. The example above is equivalent to the following:
( User_ID_1_ = “uid$B” ; c = “” ; d = “$MA” ; )!
White space can optionally be used for readability.
URL Syntax
Standard URL syntax is used to specify how to retrieve configuration files and firmware loads in
Profile_Rule* and Upgrade_Rule parameters, respectively. The syntax is as follows:
[ scheme:// ] [ server [:port]] filepath
Where scheme is one of the following values:
•
tftp
•
http
•
http
If scheme is omitted, tftp is assumed. The server can be a DNS-recognized host name or a numeric IP
address. The port is the destination UDP or TCP port number. The filepath must begin with the root
directory (/). In other words, it must be an absolute path.
If server is missing, then the tftp server specified through DHCP (option 66) is used instead.
If port is missing, then the standard port for the specified scheme is used instead (tftp uses UDP port 69,
http uses TCP port 80, https uses TCP port 443). A filepath must be present. It need not necessarily refer
to a static file, but can indicate dynamic content obtained through CGI.
Macro expansion applies within URLs. The following are examples of valid URLs:
/$MA.cfg
/Linksys/spa021025.bin
192.168.1.130/profiles/init.cfg
tftp://prov.call.com/cpe/Linksys$MA.cfg
http://neptune.speak.net:8080/prov/$D/$E.cfg
https://secure.me.com/profile?Linksys
Optional Resync Arguments
The URLs entered in Profile_Rule* parameters may be preceded by optional arguments, collectively
enclosed by square brackets. The recognized options are key, post, and alias.
key
The key option is used to specify an encryption key. It is required to decrypt profiles which have been
encrypted with an explicit key. The key itself is specified as a (possibly quoted) string following the term
--key.
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Some usage examples:
[--key VerySecretValue]
[--key “my secret phrase”]
[--key a37d2fb9055c1d04883a0745eb0917a4]
The bracketed optional arguments are macro expanded. In particular, note that the special purpose
parameters GPP_SA through GPP_SD are only macro expanded into their macro variables $SA through
$SD when used as arguments of the key option, as in the following examples:
[--key $SC]
[--key “$SD”]
In the case of XML-style profiles, the argument to --key must be the same as the argument to the -k
option given to openssl.
In the case of SPC compiled profiles, the argument to --key must be the same as the argument to either
the --ascii-key or the --hex-key options, as given to SPC.
post
The post option provides an alternative access method for the http and https schemes. If left unspecified,
the SPA performs an HTTP GET operation, when contacting the provisioning server. If specified, on the
other hand, the SPA performs an HTTP POST operation.
The body of the POST is generated from the contents of one of the general purpose parameters, GPP_A
through GPP_P, with macro expansion applied. The GPP_* parameter to use is indicated by a single
lowercase letter (a through p) given as argument to the term --post.
Using POST provides a convenient alternative to the GET method when arbitrary state or identifying
information needs to be supplied from the SPA to the server, as part of periodic resyncs.
For example, GPP_F could contain the following POST body template:
Product = “$PN”; MAC_Addr = “$MA”; Ser_Num = “$SN”; SW_Ver = “$SWVER”;
Then, a URL option such as the following would use the POST method to convey the information to the
server in the body of the profile request message (shown here with an accompanying URL):
[--post f ] http://ps.one.com/cpe/resyncs?
alias
The alias option provides a flexible means of recognizing alternative parameter names in XML-based
configuration profiles. This is useful in cases where part of the configuration profile is obtained from a
customer database form that uses different terminology than expected by the SPA.
For example, a customer XML profile specifies the SIP registration parameters: name, number,
auth-secret, enclosed in an XML element hierarchy as follows:
<CPE>
<SIP-Credentials>
<name>J. Smith</name>
<number>14085551234</number>
<auth-secret>732091751563sfd</auth-secret>
<SIP-Credentials>
</CPE>
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To map these three parameters directly to the SPA Display_Name_1_, User_ID_1_, and Password_1_
parameters (Line 1), enter this mapping in a general purpose parameter (for example, GPP_M):
/CPE/SIP-Credentials/name = /flat-profile/Display_Name_1_ ;
/CPE/SIP-Credentials/number = /flat-profile/User_ID_1_ ;
/CPE/SIP-Credentials/auth-secret = /flat-profile/Password_1_ ;
Then, request the customer credentials profile with the following URL option (showing an example URL
for completeness):
[--alias m ] http://acct.voipservice.net/credentials/spa$MA.xml
Upon receiving the profile, the SPA would apply the indicated translations, assigning J. Smith to
Display_Name_1_, 14085551234 to User_ID_1_, and 732091751563sfd to Password_1_.
The alias option matches only the left-hand-side of an alias as much as specified by the configured alias
map. The element itself can be nested further. In the example above, GPP_M could have contained the
following instead:
/SIP-Credentials/name = /flat-profile/Display_Name_1_ ;
/SIP-Credentials/number = /flat-profile/User_ID_1_ ;
/auth-secret = /flat-profile/Password_1_ ;
In general, it is best to specify enough enclosing elements to ensure an unambiguous translation.
The alias option is designed to recognize a limited number of critical parameters. Up to 30 parameters
can be remapped this way.
Combining Options
Multiple URL options can be combined, by enclosing them within the same set of square brackets. The
following are examples of valid URL option strings:
[--post j --alias k]
[--key “SymmetricSecret” --alias a]
[--key “$SB” --post g]
[--alias a --key abracadabra321 --post c]
Using Provisioning Parameters
This section describes the provisioning parameters broadly organized according to function. It includes
the following topics:
•
General Purpose Parameters, page 2-15
•
Enables, page 2-15
•
Triggers, page 2-16
•
Configurable Schedules, page 2-16
•
Profile Rules, page 2-17
•
Report Rule, page 2-18
•
Upgrade Rule, page 2-19
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General Purpose Parameters
The general purpose parameters GPP_* are used as free string registers when configuring the SPA to
interact with a particular provisioning server solution. The GPP_* parameters are empty by default.
They can be configured to contain diverse values, including the following:
•
Encryption keys
•
URLs
•
Multistage provisioning status information
•
Post request templates
•
Parameter name alias maps
•
Partial string values, eventually combined into complete parameter values.
The GPP_* parameters are available for macro expansion within other provisioning parameters. For this
purpose, single-letter upper-case macro names (A through P) are sufficient to identify the contents of
GPP_A through GPP_P. Also, the two-letter upper-case macro names SA through SD identify GPP_SA
through GPP_SD as a special case when used as arguments of the key URL option.
For example, if GPP_A contains the string ABC, and GPP_B contains 123, the expression $A$B macro
expands into ABC123.
Enables
All profile resync and firmware upgrade operations are controlled by the Provision_Enable and
Upgrade_Enable parameters. These parameters control resyncs and upgrades independently of each
other. These parameters also control resync and upgrade URL commands issued through the SPA
administration web server. Both of these parameters are set to yes by default.
In addition, the Resync_From_SIP parameter controls requests for resync operations via a SIP NOTIFY
event sent from the service provider proxy server to the SPA. If enabled, the proxy can request a resync
by sending a SIP NOTIFY message containing the Event: resync header to the SPA.
The SPA challenges the request with a 401 response, and expects an authenticated subsequent request
before honoring the resync request from the proxy. The Event: reboot_now and Event: restart_now
headers perform cold and warm restarts, respectively, are also challenged.
The two remaining enables are Resync_On_Reset and Resync_After_Upgrade_Attempt. These
determine if the SPA performs a resync operation after power-up software reboots and after each upgrade
attempt.
When enabling Resync_On_Reset, the SPA introduces a random delay following the boot-up sequence
before actually performing the reset. The delay is a random time up to the value specified in
Resync_Random_Delay (in seconds). In a pool of SPA units, all of which are simultaneously powered
up, this introduces a spread in the times at which each unit initiates a resync request to the provisioning
server. This feature can be useful in a large residential deployment, in the case of a regional power
failures.
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Triggers
The SPA is designed to resync with the provisioning server periodically. The resync interval is
configured in Resync_Periodic (seconds). If this value is left empty, the SPA does not resync
periodically.
The resync typically takes place when the voice lines are idle. In case a SPA voice line is active when a
resync is due, the SPA delays the resync procedure until the line becomes idle again. However, it waits
no longer than Forced_Resync_Delay (seconds). A resync may cause configuration parameter values to
change. This, in turn, causes a firmware reboot, which terminates any voice connection active at the time
of the resync.
If a resync operation fails because the SPA was unable to retrieve a profile from the server, if the
downloaded file is corrupt, or an internal error occurs, the SPA tries to resync again after a time specified
in Resync_Error_Retry_Delay (seconds). If Resync_Error_Retry_Delay is set to 0, the SPA does not try
to resync again following a failed resync attempt.
When upgrading, if an upgrade fails, a retry is performed after Upgrade_Error_Retry_Delay seconds.
Two configurable parameters are available to conditionally trigger a resync: Resync_Trigger_1 and
Resync_Trigger_2. Each of these parameters can be programmed with a conditional expression (which
undergoes macro expansion). If the condition in any of these parameters evaluates to true, a resync
operation is triggered, as though the periodic resync timer had expired.
The following example condition triggers a resync if Line 1 failed to register for more than 5 minutes
(300 seconds), and at least 10 minutes (600 seconds) have elapsed since the last resync attempt.
$REGTMR1 gt 300 and $PRVTMR ge 600
Configurable Schedules
Profile resyncs and upgrades provide for automatic retries in case of failure, in addition to periodic
configuration updates. Time intervals are specified via three parameters, which are usually specified as
a specific interval duration, in seconds. Starting with firmware version 3, these parameters allow the
application-level (macro time scale) retry schedule to be configured. These provisioning parameters are:
•
Resync_Periodic
•
Resync_Error_Retry_Delay
•
Upgrade_Error_Retry_Delay
These parameters accept a single delay value (seconds). The new extended syntax allows for a
comma-separated list of consecutive delay elements. Each delay element consists of a deterministic
delay value, optionally followed by a plus sign and an additional numeric value, which bounds a random
extra delay. The last element in the sequence is implicitly repeated forever. For example,
Resync_Periodic
Resync_Error_Retry_Delay
=
=
7200
1800,3600,7200,14400
In this example, the SPA periodically resyncs every two hours. In case of resync failure, the SPA retries
in 30 minutes, then again in 1 more hour, then after two more hours, and then after four more hours,
continuing at four-hour intervals until it successfully resyncs.
The following is another example:
Resync_Periodic
Resync_Error_Retry_Delay
=
=
3600+600
1800+300,3600+600,7200+900
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In this example, the SPA periodically resyncs every hour (plus an additional random delay of up to 10
minutes). In case of resync failure, the SPA retries in 30 minutes (plus up to five minutes more).
If it fails again, it waits an additional hour (plus up to 10 minutes). If again unsuccessful, it waits two
more hours (plus up to 15 minutes), and so also thereafter, until it successfully resyncs.
The following is another example:
Upgrade_Error_Retry_Delay
=
1800,3600,7200,14400+3600
In this example, if a remote upgrade attempt fails, the SPA retries the upgrade in 30 minutes, then again
after one more hour, then in two hours. If it still fails, it subsequently retries every four to five hours,
until it succeeds.
Profile Rules
The SPA provides multiple remote configuration profile parameters (Profile_Rule*). This means that
each resync operation can retrieve multiple files, potentially managed by different servers.
In the simplest scenario, the SPA resyncs periodically to a single profile on a central server, which
updates all pertinent internal parameters. Alternatively, the profile can be split between different files.
One file is common for all the SPAs in a deployment, while a separate file is provided that is unique for
each account. Encryption keys and certificate information could be supplied by still another profile,
stored on a separate server.
Whenever a resync operation is due, the SPA evaluates the four Profile_Rule* parameters in sequence:
1.
Profile_Rule
2.
Profile_Rule_B
3.
Profile_Rule_C
4.
Profile_Rule_D
Each evaluation may result in a profile being retrieved from a remote provisioning server, possibly
updating some number of internal parameters. If any of these evaluations fails, the resync sequence is
interrupted, and is retried again from the beginning specified by the Resync_Error_Retry_Delay
parameter (seconds). If all evaluations succeed, the SPA waits for the second specified by the
Resync_Periodic parameter, and then resync once more.
The contents of each Profile_Rule* parameter consist of a set of alternatives. The alternatives are
separated by the | character. Each alternative consists of a conditional expression, an assignment
expression, a profile URL, and any associated URL options. All these components are optional within
each alternative. The following are the valid combinations, and the order in which they must appear, if
present:
[ conditional-expr ] [ assignment-expr ] [[ options ] URL ]
Within each Profile_Rule* parameter, all of the alternatives except the last one must provide a
conditional expression. This expression is evaluated and processed as follows:
1.
Conditions are evaluated from left to right, until one is found that evaluates as true (or until one
alternative is found with no conditional expression)
2.
Any accompanying assignment expression is evaluated, if present
3.
If a URL is specified as part of that alternative, an attempt is made to download the profile located
at the specified URL, and update the internal parameters accordingly.
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If all alternatives have conditional expressions, and none evaluates to true (or if the whole profile rule
is empty), then the entire Profile_Rule* parameter is skipped, and the next profile rule parameter in the
sequence is evaluated.
The following are some examples of valid programming for a single Profile_Rule* parameter.
The following example resyncs unconditionally to the profile at the specified URL, performing an http
GET request to the remote provisioning server.
http://remote.server.com/Linksys/$MA.cfg
In the following example, the SPA resyncs to two different URLs, depending on the registration state of
Line 1. In case of lost registration, the SPA performs an HTTP POST to a CGI script, transmitting the
contents of the macro expanded GPP_A (which may provide additional information on the state of the
SPA).
($REGTMR1 eq 0)? http://p.tel.com/has-reg.cfg
| [--post a] http://p.tel.com/lost-reg?
In the following example, the SPA resyncs to the same server, but provides additional information if a
certificate is not installed in the unit (for legacy pre-2.0 units).
(“$CCERT” eq “Installed”)? https://p.tel.com/config?
| https://p.tel.com/config?Linksys$MAU
In the following example, Line 1 is disabled until GPP_A is set equal to Provisioned through the first
URL. Afterwards, it resyncs to the second URL.
(“$A” ne “Provisioned”)? (Line_Enable_1_ = “No”;)! https://p.tel.com/init-prov
| https://p.tel.com/configs
In the following example, the profile returned by the server is assumed to contain XML element tags that
need to be remapped to proper SPA parameter names by the aliases map stored in GPP_B.
[--alias b] https://p.tel.com/account/spa$MA.xml
A resync is typically considered unsuccessful if a requested profile is not received from the server. This
default behavior can be overridden by the parameter Resync_Fails_On_FNF. If Resync_Fails_On_FNF
is set to No, then the SPA accepts a file-not-found response from the server as a successful resync. The
default value for Resync_Fails_On_FNF is Yes.
Report Rule
The SPA provides a mechanism for reporting its current internal configuration to the provisioning server.
This is useful for development and debugging. The report syntax is similar to the XML profile. All
provisionable parameters are included, except for the values of passwords, keys, and the GPP_SA to
GPP_SD parameters, which are not shown.
The Report_Rule parameter is evaluated like a profile rule parameter. In other words, it accepts a URL,
optionally qualified with a bracketed expression. The URL specifies the target destination for the report
and an encryption key can be included as an option.
The URL scheme can be TFTP, HTTP, or HTTPS. When using TFTP, the operation performed is TFTP
PUT. In the case of HTTP and HTTPS, the operation performed is HTTP POST.
If an encryption key is specified, the report is encrypted using 256-bit AES in CBC mode. The encrypted
report can be decrypted with the following OpenSSL (or equivalent) command:
openssl enc –d –aes-256-cbc –k secretphrase –in rep.xml.enc –out rep.xml
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The following is an example of the corresponding Report_Rule configuration:
[ --key secretphrase ] http://prov.serv.net/spa/$MA/rep.xml.enc
Once the report rule is configured, an actual report can be generated and transmitted by sending the SPA
a SIP NOTIFY message, with the Event: report type. The SIP NOTIFY request is handled like other SIP
notifies, with the SPA requiring authentication from the requesting server before honoring the request to
issue a report. Each SIP NOTIFY report request generates one attempt to transmit the report. Retries are
not supported.
Upgrade Rule
The SPA provides one configurable remote upgrade parameter, Upgrade_Rule. This parameter accepts
a syntax similar to the profile rule parameters. URL options not supported for upgrades, but conditional
expressions and assignment expressions can be used. If conditional expressions are used, the parameter
can be populated with multiple alternatives, separated by the | character. The syntax for each alternative
is as follows:
[ conditional-expr ] [ assignment-expr ] URL
As in the case of Profile_Rule* parameters, the Upgrade_Rule parameter evaluates each alternative until
a conditional expression is satisfied or an alternative has no conditional expression. The accompanying
assignment expression is evaluated, if specified. Then, an upgrade to the specified URL is attempted.
If the Upgrade_Rule contains a URL without a conditional expression, the SPA upgrades to the firmware
image specified by the URL. Subsequently, it does not attempt to upgrade again until either the rule itself
is modified or the effective combination of scheme + server + port + filepath is changed, following
macro expansion and evaluation of the rule.
In order to attempt a firmware upgrade, the SPA disables audio at the start of the procedure, and reboots
at the end of the procedure. For this reason, an upgrade driven by the contents of Upgrade_Rule is only
automatically initiated by the SPA if any voice line is currently inactive.
For example,
http://p.tel.com/firmware/spa021025.bin
In this example, the Upgrade_Rule upgrades the firmware to the image stored at the indicated URL. The
following is another example:
(“$F” ne “beta-customer”)? http://p.tel.com/firmware/spa021025.bin
| http://p.tel.com/firmware/spa-test-0527s.bin
This example directs the unit to load one of two images, based on the contents of a general purpose
parameter, GPP_F.
The SPA can enforce a downgrade limit with respect to firmware revision number. This can be useful as
a customization option. If a valid firmware revision number is configured in the parameter
Downgrade_Rev_Limit, the SPA rejects upgrade attempts for firmware versions earlier than the
specified limit.
Data Types
The data types used with configuration profile parameters are as follows:
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•
Uns<n>—Unsigned n-bit value, where n = 8, 16, or 32. It can be specified in decimal or hex format
such as 12 or 0x18 as long as the value can fit into n bits.
•
Sig<n>—Signed n-bit value. It can be specified in decimal or hex format. Negative values must be
preceded by a “-“ sign. A + sign before positive value is optional.
•
Str<n>—A generic string with up to n non-reserved characters.
•
Float<n>—A floating point value with up to n decimal places.
•
Time<n>—Time duration in seconds, with up to n decimal places. Extra decimal places specified
are ignored.
•
PwrLevel—Power level expressed in dBm with 1 decimal place, such as –13.5 or 1.5 (dBm).
•
Bool—Boolean value of either “yes” or “no.”
•
{a,b,c,…}—A choice among a, b, c, …
•
IP—IP Address in the form of x.x.x.x, where x between 0 and 255. For example 10.1.2.100.
•
Port—TCP/UDP Port number (0-65535). It can be specified in decimal of hex format.
•
UserID—User ID as appeared in a URL; up to 63 characters.
•
FQDN—Fully Qualified Domain Name, such as “sip.Linksys.com:5060”, or “109.12.14.12:12345”.
It can contain up to 63 characters.
•
Phone—A phone number string, such as 14081234567, *69, *72, 345678, or a generic URL such as
1234@10.10.10.100:5068, or jsmith@Linksys.com. It can contain up to 39 characters.
•
ActCode—Activation code for a supplementary service, such as *69. It can contain up to 7
characters.
•
PhTmplt—A phone number template. Each template may contain one or more patterns separated by
a “,”. White space at the beginning of each pattern is ignored. “?” and “*” represent wildcard
characters. To represent literally use %xx. For example, %2a represents *. It can contain up to 39
characters. Examples: “1408*, 1510*”, “1408123????, 555?1.”.
•
RscTmplt—A template of SIP Response Status Code, such as “404, 5*”, “61?”, “407, 408, 487,
481”. It can contain up to 39 characters.
•
CadScript—A mini-script that specifies the cadence parameters of a signal. Up to 127 characters.
Syntax: S1[;S2], where:
Si=Di(oni,1/offi,1[,oni,2/offi,2[,oni,3/offi,3[,oni,4/offi,4[,oni,5/offi,5[,oni,6/offi,6]]]]]) and is known as a
section, oni,j and offi,j are the on/off duration in seconds of a segment and i = 1 or 2, and j = 1 to 6.
Di is the total duration of the section in seconds. All durations can have up to three decimal places
to provide 1 ms resolution. The wildcard character “*” stands for infinite duration. The segments
within a section are played in order and repeated until the total duration is played.
Example 1:
60(2/4)
Number of Cadence Sections = 1
Cadence Section 1: Section Length = 60 s
Number of Segments = 1
Segment 1: On=2s, Off=4s
Total Ring Length = 60s
Example 2—Distinctive ring (short,short,short,long):
60(.2/.2,.2/.2,.2/.2,1/4)
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Number of Cadence Sections = 1
Cadence Section 1: Section Length = 60s
Number of Segments = 4
Segment 1: On=0.2s, Off=0.2s
Segment 2: On=0.2s, Off=0.2s
Segment 3: On=0.2s, Off=0.2s
Segment 4: On=1.0s, Off=4.0s
Total Ring Length = 60s
•
FreqScript—A mini-script that specifics the frequency and level parameters of a tone. Up to 127
characters. Syntax: F1@L1[,F2@L2[,F3@L3[,F4@L4[,F5@L5[,F6@L6]]]]], where F1–F6 are
frequency in Hz (unsigned integers only) and L1–L6 are corresponding levels in dBm (with up to 1
decimal places). White spaces before and after the comma are allowed (but not recommended).
Example 1—Call Waiting Tone:
440@-10
Number of Frequencies = 1
Frequency 2 = 440 Hz at –10 dBm
Example 2—Dial Tone:
350@-19,440@-19
Number of Frequencies = 2
Frequency 1 = 350 Hz at –19 dBm
Frequency 2 = 440 Hz at –19 dBm
•
ToneScript—A mini-script that specifies the frequency, level and cadence parameters of a call
progress tone. May contain up to 127 characters. Syntax: FreqScript;Z1[;Z2]. The section Z1 is
similar to the S1 section in a CadScript except that each on/off segment is followed by a frequency
components parameter: Z1 = D1(oni,1/offi,1/fi,1[,oni,2/offi,2/fi,2 [,oni,3/offi,3/fi,3 [,oni,4/offi,4/fi,4
[,oni,5/offi,5/fi,5 [,oni,6/offi,6/fi,6]]]]]), where fi,j = n1[+n2]+n3[+n4[+n5[+n6]]]]] and 1 < nk < 6
indicates which of the frequency components given in the FreqScript are used in that segment; if
more than one frequency component is used in a segment, the components are summed together.
Example 1—Dial tone:
350@-19,440@-19;10(*/0/1+2)
Number of Frequencies = 2
Frequency 1 = 350 Hz at –19 dBm
Frequency 2 = 440 Hz at –19 dBm
Number of Cadence Sections = 1
Cadence Section 1: Section Length = 10 s
Number of Segments = 1
Segment 1: On=forever, with Frequencies 1 and 2
Total Tone Length = 10s
Example 2—Stutter tone:
350@-19,440@-19;2(.1/.1/1+2);10(*/0/1+2)
Number of Frequencies = 2
Frequency 1 = 350 Hz at –19 dBm
Frequency 2 = 440 Hz at –19 dBm
Number of Cadence Sections = 2
Cadence Section 1: Section Length = 2s
Number of Segments = 1
Segment 1: On=0.1s, Off=0.1s with Frequencies 1 and 2
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Cadence Section 2: Section Length = 10s
Number of Segments = 1
Segment 1: On=forever, with Frequencies 1 and 2
Total Tone Length = 12s
Example 3—SIT tone:
985@-16,1428@-16,1777@-16;20(.380/0/1,.380/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)
Number of Frequencies = 3
Frequency 1 = 985 Hz at –16 dBm
Frequency 2 = 1428 Hz at –16 dBm
Frequency 3 = 1777 Hz at –16 dBm
Number of Cadence Sections = 1
Cadence Section 1: Section Length
Number of Segments = 4
Segment 1: On=0.38s, Off=0s, with
Segment 2: On=0.38s, Off=0s, with
Segment 3: On=0.38s, Off=0s, with
Segment 4: On=0s, Off=4s, with no
= 20s
Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
frequency
1
2
3
components
Total Tone Length = 20s
•
ProvisioningRuleSyntax—Scripting syntax used to define configuration resync and firmware
upgrade rules.
•
DialPlanScript—Scripting syntax used to specify Line 1 and Line 2 dial plans.
Notes:
•
<Par Name> represents a configuration parameter name. In a profile, the corresponding tag is
formed by replacing the space with an underscore “_”, such as Par_Name.
•
An empty default value field implies an empty string < “” >.
•
The SPA continues to use the last configured values for tags that are not present in a given profile.
•
Templates are compared in the order given. The first, not the closest, match is selected. The
parameter name must match exactly.
•
If more than one definition for a parameter is given in a configuration file, the last such definition
in the file is the one that takes effect in the SPA.
•
A parameter specification with an empty parameter value forces the parameter back to its default
value. To specify an empty string instead, use the empty string “” as the parameter value.
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Provisioning Tutorial
This chapter describes the procedures for transferring configuration profiles between the SPA and the
provisioning server and includes the following sections:
•
Preparation, page 3-1
•
Basic Resync, page 3-2
•
Secure Resync, page 3-7
•
Profile Formats, page 3-10
For information about creating configuration profiles, refer to Chapter 2, “Creating Provisioning
Scripts.”
Preparation
The examples presented in this chapter require the availability of one or more servers. For the purposes
of this tutorial, these can be installed and run on a local PC. To troubleshoot server configuration, it is
helpful to install clients for each type of server on a separate server machine. That establishes proper
server operation independent of the interaction with Linksys VoIP devices.
The pertinent servers include: Syslog (UDP port 514), TFTP (UDP port 69), HTTP (TCP port 80),
HTTPS (TCP port 443). For generating configuration profiles, it is useful to install the open source gzip
compression utility. For profile encryption and HTTPS operations, you can install the open source
OpenSSL software package. In addition, to test dynamic generation of profiles and one-step remote
provisioning using HTTPS, a scripting language with CGI scripting support, such as the open source Perl
language tools, is recommended.
Finally, to verify secure exchanges between provisioning servers and Linksys voice devices, it is useful
to install an Ethernet packet sniffer (such as the freely downloadable Ethereal/Wireshark). For HTTPS
transactions, you can use the ssldump utility.
A Linksys VoIP device (SPA) can retrieve a configuration profile from a provisioning server and update
its internal configuration accordingly. SPAs accept two different profile formats, one based on an open
published syntax, and one based on an unpublished binary definition. The open configuration profile
format uses a simple XML-like syntax. The binary format is generated by converting a plain text file
using the SPA Profile Compiler (SPC).
The examples in this tutorial use configuration profiles with XML-style syntax. To use the proprietary
plain-text format, you need to convert the files using SPC before they can be used. This procedure is
described in the “Proprietary Profile Format” section on page 3-13.
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Basic Resync
This section demonstrates the basic resync functionality of Linksys VoIP devices. It includes the
following topics:
•
TFTP Resync, page 3-2
•
Syslog, page 3-3
•
Automatic Resync, page 3-4
•
Unique Profiles and Macro Expansion, page 3-5
•
URL Resolution, page 3-5
•
HTTP GET Resync, page 3-6
TFTP Resync
The SPA supports multiple network protocols for retrieving configuration profiles. The most basic
profile transfer protocol is TFTP (RFC1350). TFTP is widely used for the provisioning of network
devices within private LAN networks. Although not recommended for deployments of endpoints across
the Internet, it can be convenient for deployment within small organizations, for in-house
preprovisioning, and for development and testing.
The following configuration profile format uses the XML-style syntax:
<flat-profile>
<GPP_A> 12345678
</GPP_A>
</flat-profile>
The <flat-profile> element tag encloses all parameter elements to be recognized by the SPA. The
example above defines one parameter value, the first general purpose parameter (GPP_A), with a value
of 12345678.
Exercise
Step 1
Within a LAN environment connect a PC and an SPA to a hub, switch, or small router.
Step 2
Connect an analog phone to the Phone 1 port of the SPA.
Step 3
On the PC, install and activate a TFTP server.
Step 4
Using a text editor, create the configuration profile and save it with the name basic.txt in the virtual
root directory of the installed TFTP server.
Step 5
If possible, verify that the TFTP server is properly configured by requesting the basic.txt file using a
TFTP client other than the SPA itself.
Preferably, the TFTP client should be running on a separate host from the server.
Step 6
Using the analog phone, obtain the local IP address of the SPA (IVR menu **** 110 #).
If the SPA configuration has been modified since it was manufactured, perform manufacturing reset on
it using the IVR RESET option (**** 73738#).
Step 7
Open the PC web browser on the SPA admin/advanced configuration page.
For example, if the SPA IP address is 192.168.1.100):
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http://192.168.1.100/admin/advanced
Step 8
The Provisioning tab in the admin/advanced page contains a number of configurable parameters specific
to provisioning. Select the Provisioning tab, and inspect the values of the general purpose parameters
GPP_A through GPP_P.
These should be empty.
Step 9
To resync the test SPA to the basic.txt configuration profile, open the following URL from the PC
browser.
Assuming the PC IP address is 192.168.1.200:
http://192.168.1.100/admin/resync?tftp://192.168.1.200/basic.txt
This resync URL method is designed for development and testing. When it receives this command, the
SPA at address 192.168.1.100 requests the file basic.txt from the TFTP server at IP address
192.168.1.200. It then parses the downloaded file and updates the GPP_A parameter with the value
12345678.
Step 10
Verify that the parameter was correctly updated by refreshing the admin/advanced page on the PC web
browser and selecting the Provisioning tab on that page.
The GPP_A parameter should now contain the value 12345678.
Syslog
The SPA sends a syslog message to a syslog server when the SPA is about to resync to a provisioning
server and after the resync has either completed or failed. This server is identified in the web server
administration (admin/advanced, System tab, Syslog_Server parameter). It is instructive to configure the
syslog server IP address into the SPA and observe the messages generated during each exercise.
Exercise
Step 1
Install and activate a syslog server on the local PC.
Step 2
Program the PC IP address into the Syslog_Server parameter, and submit the change.
Click the System tab and enter the value of your local syslog server into the Syslog_Server parameter.
Step 3
Repeat the TFTP Resync operation described in the previous exercise.
The SPA generates two syslog messages during the resync. The first indicates that a request is in
progress. The second marks success or failure of the resync.
Step 4
Verify that your syslog server received messages such as the following:
SPA-2102 00:0e:08:ab:cd:ef –- Requesting resync tftp://192.168.1.200/basic.txt
SPA-2102 00:0e:08:ab:cd:ef –- Successful resync tftp://192.168.1.200/basic.txt
More detailed messages are available by programming the Debug_Server parameter (instead of the
Syslog_Server parameter) with the IP address of the syslog server, and setting the Debug_Level to a
value between 0 and 3 (3 being the most verbose).
The contents of these messages can be configured using the following parameters:
•
Log_Resync_Request_Msg
•
Log_Resync_Success_Msg
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Log_Resync_Failure_Msg.
If any of these parameters are cleared, the corresponding syslog message is not generated.
Occasionally, it may also be informative to capture an Ethernet packet trace of the interaction between
the SPA and the provisioning server. You can run the Ethernet packet analyzer (such as
Ethereal/Wireshark) on a PC connected through a hub to the same subnet as the SPA.
Automatic Resync
When a SPA is deployed remotely or as part of an internal company deployment, it may need to resync
periodically to the service provider provisioning server, to ensure that any customer profile
configuration changes made on the server are propagated to the endpoint, without requiring an explicit
resync request to the endpoint.
To cause the SPA to automatically and periodically resync to a server, a configuration profile URL is
defined using the Profile_Rule parameter, and a resync period is defined using the Resync_Periodic
parameter.
Exercise
Step 1
Using the PC web browser, open the SPA admin/advanced page, Provisioning tab.
Step 2
Define the Profile_Rule parameter.
Step 3
The following value assumes a TFTP server IP address of 192.168.1.200:
tftp://192.168.1.200/basic.txt
Step 4
In the Resync_Periodic parameter enter a small value for testing such as 30 (meaning 30 seconds).
Step 5
Click Submit all Changes.
With the new parameter settings, the SPA now resyncs to the configuration file specified by the URL
twice a minute.
Step 6
Observe the resulting messages in the SPA syslog trace.
Step 7
Ensure that the Resync_On_Reset parameter is set to yes.
Step 8
Power cycle the SPA.
The SPA also automatically resyncs to the provisioning server whenever it is power-cycled.
If the resync operation fails for any reason, such as if the server is not responding, the unit waits the
number of seconds defined in Resync_Error_Retry_Delay before attempting to resync again. If
Resync_Error_Retry_Delay is zero, the SPA does not try to resync following a failed resync attempt.
Step 9
(Optional) Verify that the value of Resync_Error_Retry_Delay is set to a small number, such as 30,
disable the TFTP server, and observe the results in the syslog trace.
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Unique Profiles and Macro Expansion
In a large deployment, each SPA needs to be configured with distinct values for specific parameters, such
as User_ID or Display_Name. This requires the service provider to generate distinct profiles, one for
each deployed SPA. Each SPA, in turn, must be configured to resync to its own profile, according to
some predetermined profile naming convention.
The SPA profile URL syntax can include identifying information specific to each SPA (such as MAC
address and serial number) via macro expansion of built-in variables. This eliminates the need to specify
these values within each SPA profile.
The SPA profile rule undergoes macro expansion internally before being applied. The macro expansion
understands a number of values including the following:
•
$MA expands to the unit MAC address, using lower case hex digits (for example, 000e08abcdef)
•
$SN expands to the unit Serial Number (for example, 88012BA01234)
Exercise
Step 1
Obtain the MAC address of the test SPA from its product label.
This is a 12-digit number, using lower case hex digits, beginning with 000308, such as 000e08aabbcc.
Step 2
Copy the basic.txt configuration file to a new file named spa_mac_address.cfg and place the new file in
the virtual root directory of the TFTP server.
Replace mac_address with the actual MAC address of the SPA.
Step 3
Open the SPA admin/advanced page, Provisioning tab.
Step 4
Enter the following value in the Profile_Rule parameter:
tftp://192.168.1.200/spa$MA.cfg
Step 5
Click Submit All Changes.
This causes an immediate reboot and resync.
When the next resync occurs, the SPA retrieves the new file by expanding the $MA macro expression
into its own MAC address.
Several other values can be macro expanded in this way, including all the general purpose parameters,
(GPP_A through GPP_P) These can be referenced as $A through $P. Macro expansion is not limited to
the URL file name, but can also be applied to any portion of the profile rule parameter.
For a complete list of variables available for macro expansion, see the “Macro Expansion Variables”
section on page 4-7.
URL Resolution
The profile URL can contain a provisioning server name instead of an explicit IP address. In this case,
the SPA performs a DNS lookup to resolve the name.
A non-standard server port can be specified in the URL, using the standard syntax :port following the
server name.
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Also, the configuration profile can be stored in a subdirectory of the server virtual root directory. Again,
this is specified using standard URL notation.
For example, the following is a valid Profile_Rule that requests the file spa2102.cfg, in the server
subdirectory /Linksys/config, for the TFTP server running on host prov.telco.com, which listens for
connection on port 6900.
tftp://prov.telco.com:6900/Linksys/config/spa2102.cfg
Again, macro expansion can be used anywhere in the URL. This can be convenient in organizing a
directory of profiles on the server for the deployed SPA devices. For example, a profile subdirectory
name might be supplied for each SPA in a dedicated general purpose parameter, with its value referred
within a common profile rule via macro expansion.
For example, GPP_B has the following definition:
Dj6Lmp23Q
The Profile_Rule has this value:
tftp://prov.telco.com/Linksys/$B/$MA.cfg
Then, when resyncing, this SPA (assuming a MAC address of 000e08012345) requests the profile at the
following URL:
tftp://prov.telco.com/Linksys/Dj6Lmp23Q/000e08012345.cfg
HTTP GET Resync
HTTP provides a more reliable resync mechanism than TFTP because it is better at establishing a TCP
connection between a SPA client behind a firewall or NAT device and a remote provisioning server on
the Internet. In addition, HTTP servers offer improved filtering and logging features compared to TFTP
servers, which helps to regulate and track connections.
On the SPA client side, using HTTP (with the GET method) simply means changing TFTP to HTTP in
the URL defined in the Profile_Rule parameter.
On the server side, the service provider must install and configure the HTTP server. The SPA does not
require any special configuration setting on the server to be able to resync using HTTP. If a standard web
browser can retrieve a profile from a particular server using HTTP, the SPA should be able to do so as
well.
Exercise
Step 1
Install an HTTP server on the local PC or other accessible host.
The open source Apache server can be downloaded from the Internet.
Step 2
Copy the basic.txt configuration profile from the earlier exercises onto the virtual root directory of the
installed server.
Step 3
Verify proper server installation (and file access of basic.txt) by accessing the profile using a standard
web browser.
Step 4
Modify the Profile_Rule of the test SPA to point to the HTTP server in place of the TFTP server, so as
to download its profile periodically.
For example, assuming the HTTP server is at 192.168.1.300, enter the following value:
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Step 5
Observe the syslog messages sent by the SPA.
The periodic resyncs should now be obtaining the profile from the HTTP server.
Also, the server should be logging each request if connection logging is enabled in the server
configuration.
Step 6
In the HTTP server logs, observe how information identifying the test SPA appears in the log of user
agents.
This should include the SPA manufacturer, product name, current firmware version, and serial number.
Secure Resync
This section demonstrates the preferred mechanisms available on the SPA for securing the provisioning
process. It includes the following topics:
•
Basic HTTPS Resync, page 3-7
•
HTTPS With Client Certificate Authentication, page 3-9
•
HTTPS Client Filtering and Dynamic Content, page 3-9
Basic HTTPS Resync
HTTPS adds SSL to HTTP for remote provisioning so that:
•
The SPA can authenticate the provisioning server
•
The provisioning server can authenticate the SPA
•
The confidentiality of information exchanged between the SPA and the provisioning server is
ensured through encryption
SSL generates and exchanges secret (symmetric) keys for each connection between the SPA and the
server, using public/private key pairs preinstalled in the SPA and the provisioning server.
On the client side, using HTTPS (with the GET method), simply requires changing the definition of the
URL in the Profile_Rule parameter from http to https. On the server side, the service provider must
install and set up the HTTPS server.
In addition, an SSL server certificate signed by Linksys must be installed on the SPA provisioning server.
The SPA devices cannot resync to a server using HTTPS, unless the server supplies a Linksys-signed
server certificate.
Exercise
Step 1
Install an HTTPS server on a host whose IP address is known to the network DNS server, through normal
hostname translation.
The open source Apache server can be configured to operate as an HTTPS server, when installed with
the open source mod_ssl package.
Step 2
Generate a server Certificate Signing Request for the server.
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Step 3
For this step, you may need to install the open source OpenSSL package or equivalent software. If using
OpenSSL, the command to generate the basic CSR file is as follows:
openssl req –new –out provserver.csr
This command generates a public/private key pair, which is saved in the privkey.pem file.
Step 4
Submit the CSR file (provserver.csr) to Linksys for signing.
A signed server certificate is returned (provserver.cert) along with a Linksys CA Client Root Certificate,
spacroot.cert.
Step 5
Store the signed server certificate, the private key pair file, and the client root certificate in the
appropriate locations on the server.
In the case of an Apache installation on Linux, these locations are typically as follows:
# Server Certificate:
SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/provserver.cert
# Server Private Key:
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/conf/pivkey.pem
# Certificate Authority:
SSLCACertificateFile /etc/httpd/conf/spacroot.cert
Step 6
Restart the server.
Step 7
Copy the basic.txt configuration profile from the earlier exercises onto the virtual root directory of the
HTTPS server.
Step 8
Verify proper server operation by downloading basic.txt from the HTTPS server, using a standard
browser from the local PC.
Step 9
Inspect the server certificate supplied by the server.
The browser probably does not recognize it as valid unless the browser has been preconfigured to accept
Linksys as a root CA. However, SPA devices expect the certificate to be signed this way.
Step 10
Modify the Profile_Rule of the test SPA to contain a reference to the HTTPS server in place of the HTTP
server, for example:
https://my.server.com/basic.txt
This example assumes the name of the HTTPS server is my.server.com.
Step 11
Click Submit All Changes.
Step 12
Observe the syslog trace sent by the SPA.
The syslog message should indicate that the resync obtained the profile from the HTTPS server.
Step 13
(Optional) Use an Ethernet protocol analyzer on the SPA subnet to verify that the packets are encrypted.
Step 14
In this exercise, client certificate verification is not yet enabled, use a browser to request the profile
stored in basic.txt.
At this point, the connection between SPA and server is encrypted. However, the transfer is not secure
because any client can connect to the server and request the file, given knowledge of the file name and
directory location. For secure resync, the server must also authenticate the client, as demonstrated in the
next exercise.
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HTTPS With Client Certificate Authentication
In the factory default configuration, the server does not request SSL client certificates from clients. After
changing the configuration to enable client authentication, the server requires a client certificate to
authenticate the SPA before accepting a connection request.
Because of this, the resync operation in this exercise cannot be independently tested using a browser
lacking the proper credentials. Nevertheless, the SSL key exchange within the HTTPS connection
between the test SPA and the server can be observed using the ssldump utility. The utility trace shows
the interaction between client and server.
Exercise
Step 1
Enable client certificate authentication on the HTTPS server.
Step 2
In Apache (v.2), set the following in the server configuration file:
SSLVerifyClient
require
Also ensure that the spacroot.cert has been stored as shown in the previous exercise.
Step 3
Restart the HTTPS server and observe the syslog trace from the SPA.
Each resync to the server now performs symmetric authentication, so that both server and client
certificates are verified before the profile is transferred.
Step 4
Using ssldump, capture a resync connection between the SPA and the HTTPS server.
If client certificate verification is properly enabled on the server, the ssldump trace shows the symmetric
exchange of certificates (first server-to-client, then client-to-server) before the encrypted packets
containing the profile.
With client authentication enabled, only a SPA with a MAC address matching a valid client certificate
can request the profile from the provisioning server. A request from an ordinary browser or other
unauthorized device is rejected by the server.
HTTPS Client Filtering and Dynamic Content
If the HTTPS server is configured to require client certificates, the information in each certificate
identifies the resyncing SPA and supplies it with the correct configuration information.
The HTTPS server makes the certificate information available to CGI scripts (or compiled CGI
programs) invoked as part of the resync request. For the purpose of illustration, this exercise uses the
open source Perl scripting language, and assumes that Apache (v.2) is used as the HTTPS server.
Exercise
Step 1
Install Perl on the host running the HTTPS server.
Step 2
Generate the following Perl reflector script:
#!/usr/bin/perl -wT
use strict;
print “Content-Type: text/plain\n\n”;
print “<flat-profile><GPP_D>”;
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print “OU=$ENV{‘SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_OU’},\n”;
print “L=$ENV{‘SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_L’},\n”;
print “S=$ENV{‘SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_S’}\n”;
print “</GPP_D></flat-profile>”;
Step 3
Save this file with the file name reflect.pl, with executable permission (chmod 755 on Linux), in the CGI
scripts directory of the HTTPS server.
Step 4
Verify accessibility of CGI scripts on the server (as in /cgi-bin/…).
Step 5
Modify the Profile_Rule on the test SPA to resync to the reflector script, as in the following example:
https://prov.server.com/cgi-bin/reflect.pl?
Step 6
Click Submit All Changes.
Step 7
Observe the SPA syslog trace to ensure a successful resync.
Step 8
Open the SPA admin/advanced page, Provisioning tab.
Step 9
Verify that the GPP_D parameter contains the information captured by the script.
This information contains the SPA product name, MAC address, and serial number if the test SPA carries
a unique certificate from the manufacturer, or else generic strings if it is a unit manufactured before
firmware release 2.0.
A similar script could be used to determine information about the resyncing SPA and then provide it with
appropriate configuration parameter values.
Profile Formats
This section demonstrates the generation of configuration profiles. To explain the functionality in this
section, TFTP from a local PC is used as the resync method, although HTTP or HTTPS can be used for
testing as well, if it is convenient. This section includes the following topics:
•
Profile Compression, page 3-10
•
Profile Encryption, page 3-11
•
Partitioned Profiles, page 3-12
•
Parameter Name Aliases, page 3-12
•
Proprietary Profile Format, page 3-13
Profile Compression
A configuration profile in XML format can become quite large if all parameters are individually
specified by the profile. To reduce the load on the provisioning server, the SPA supports compression of
the XML file, using the deflate compression format used by the gzip utility (RFC 1951).
Exercise
Step 1
Install gzip on the local PC.
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Step 2
Compress the basic.txt profile from earlier exercises, by invoking gzip from the command line:
gzip basic.txt
This generates the deflated file basic.txt.gz.
Step 3
Save the deflated file in the TFTP server virtual root directory.
Step 4
Modify the Profile_Rule on the test SPA to resync to the deflated file in place of the original XML file,
as in the following example:
tftp://192.168.1.200/basic.txt.gz
Step 5
Click Submit All Changes.
Step 6
Observe the syslog trace from the SPA.
Upon resync, the new file is downloaded by the SPA and used to update its parameters.
The file size of such a small profile is not reduced by gzip. Compression is only useful with larger
profiles.
For integration into customized back-end provisioning server solutions, the open source zlib
compression library can be used in place of the standalone gzip utility to perform the profile
compression. However, the SPA expects the file to contain a valid gzip header.
Profile Encryption
A compressed or uncompressed profile can be encrypted. This is useful when the confidentiality of the
profile information is of particular concern, such as when using TFTP or HTTP for communication
between SPA clients and the provisioning server.
The SPA supports symmetric key encryption using the 256-bit AES algorithm. This encryption can be
performed using the open source OpenSSL package.
Exercise
Step 1
Install OpenSSL on a local PC.
This may require recompilation to enable the AES code.
Step 2
Starting from the XML profile in basic.txt, generate an encrypted file with the following command:
openssl enc –aes-256-cbc –k MyOwnSecret –in basic.txt –out basic.cfg
The compressed basic.txt.gz file could be used instead because the XML profile can be both compressed
and encrypted.
Step 3
Store the encrypted file basic.cfg in the TFTP server virtual root directory.
Step 4
Modify the Profile_Rule on the test SPA to resync to the encrypted file in place of the original XML file.
The encryption key is made known to the SPA with the following URL option:
[--key MyOwnSecret ] tftp://192.168.1.200/basic.cfg
Step 5
Click Submit All Changes.
Step 6
Observe the syslog trace from the SPA.
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On resync, the new file is downloaded by the SPA and used to update its parameters.
Partitioned Profiles
The SPA download multiple separate profiles during each resync. This allows managing different kinds
of profile information on separate servers and maintaining common configuration parameter values
separate from account specific values.
Exercise
Step 1
Create a new XML profile, basic2.txt, that specifies a value for a distinct parameter from the earlier
exercises.
For instance, the file can contain the following:
<flat-profile><GPP_B>ABCD</GPP_B></flat-profile>
Step 2
Store the basic2.txt profile in the TFTP server virtual root directory.
Step 3
Leave the first profile rule as in any the earlier exercises, but configure the second profile rule
(Profile_Rule_B) to point to the new file:
tftp://192.168.1.200/basic2.txt
Step 4
Click Submit All Changes.
The SPA now resyncs to both the first and second profiles, in that order, whenever a resync operation is
due.
Step 5
Observe the SPA syslog trace to confirm the expected behavior.
Parameter Name Aliases
When generating an XML profile for the SPA, it may be convenient to assign names to certain
configuration parameters that are different from the canonical names recognized by the SPA. For
example, a customer account database may generate XML element tags for a customer telephone number
and SIP registration password with names such as SIP-number and SIP-password. These names can be
mapped to the SPA canonical names (User_ID_1_ and Password_1_ ) before being applied to SPA
Line 1.
In many instances, the back-end provisioning solution used by the service provider can perform this
mapping. However, the SPA itself can remap the parameter names internally. To do this, an alias map is
defined and stored in one of the general purpose provisioning parameters. Then, the profile rule which
invokes the resync is directed to remap the non-canonical XML elements as specified by the alias map.
Exercise
Step 1
Generate a profile named customer.XML containing the proprietary customer-account XML form
indicated in the following example:
<customer-account>
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<SIP-number> 17775551234
</SIP-number>
<SIP-password> 512835907884
</SIP-password>
</customer-account>
Step 2
Store the file in the TFTP server virtual root directory.
Step 3
Open the test SPA web interface on the admin/advanced page, Provisioning tab, and edit GPP_A to
contain the alias map indicated above (do not enter new lines through the web interface, instead simply
enter each alias consecutively).
/customer-account/SIP-number = /flat-profile/User_ID_1_ ;
/customer-account/SIP-password = /flat-profile/Password_1_ ;
Step 4
Edit the Profile_Rule to point to the new XML profile, and also specify the alias map as a URL option,
as follows:
[--alias a ] tftp://192.168.1.200/customer.xml
Step 5
Click Submit All Changes.
When the SPA resyncs, it receives the XML profile, remaps the elements, as indicated by the alias map,
and populates the User_ID_1_ and Password_1_ parameters.
Step 6
View the Line 1 tab to verify the new configuration.
Note
The SPA supports alias remapping of a limited number of parameters. It is not meant to rename
all parameters in its configuration.
Proprietary Profile Format
Firmware releases prior to 2.0.6 do not recognize the XML-based profiles described so far in this
chapter. Instead, the Linksys Profile Compiler tool (SPC) converts a text-based profile definition into a
proprietary binary format understood by earlier versions of the firmware. The tool provides its own
options for encrypting the resulting binary profile.
The text-based profile understood by SPC uses a different syntax from the XML profile presented earlier.
It consists of a list of parameter-value pairs, with the value in double quotes. Other minor syntax and
parameter naming differences also apply. The following example specifies values for two Line 1
parameters:
Exercise
Step 1
Obtain the SPC utility from Linksys.
Executables are available for the Windows Win32 environment, Linux ELF, and OpenBSD.
Step 2
Generate the text profile account.txt containing the two-line profile shown in the following example:
User_ID[1] “17775551234” ;
Password[1] “512835907884” ;
Step 3
Compile the text profile into a binary file, account.cfg, using the following command:
spc account.txt account.cfg
Step 4
Store account.cfg in the TFTP server virtual root directory.
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Step 5
Modify the test SPA profile rule to point to the new profile:
tftp://192.168.1.200/account.cfg
Step 6
Click Submit All Changes.
Upon resync, the SPA retrieves the new file, recognizes its binary format and updates the two specified
parameters.
Step 7
Observe the syslog messages sent by the SPA during resync.
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4
Provisioning Field Reference
This chapter provides a listing of the parameters provided on the administration web server Provisioning
tab, which can be used in configuration profile scripts. It includes the following sections:
•
Configuration Profile Parameters, page 4-1
•
Firmware Upgrade Parameters, page 4-5
•
General Purpose Parameters, page 4-6
•
Macro Expansion Variables, page 4-7
•
Internal Error Codes, page 4-9
The Provisioning parameters described in this chapter are recognized by the SPA beginning with
firmware release 2.0.6.
For a complete list of all the parameters available through the administration web server, and which can
be used in configuration profiles, refer to the administration guide for each product.
Configuration Profile Parameters
The following table defines the function and usage of each parameter in the Configuration Profile
Parameters section under the Provisioning tab.
Table 4-1
Configuration Profile Parameters
Parameter Name
Description and Default Value
Provision_Enable
Controls all resync actions independently of
firmware upgrade actions. Set to yes to enable
remote provisioning.
The default is Yes.
Resync_On_Reset
Triggers a resync after every reboot except for
reboots caused by parameter updates and
firmware upgrades.
The default is Yes.
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Table 4-1
Configuration Profile Parameters (continued)
Parameter Name
Description and Default Value
Resync_Random_Delay
The maximum value for a random time interval
that the device waits before making its initial
contact with the provisioning server. This delay
is effective only on the initial configuration
attempt following device power-on or reset. The
delay is a pseudo-random number between zero
and this value.
This parameter is in units of 20 seconds; the
default value of 2 represents 40 seconds. This
feature is disabled when this parameter is set to
zero.
This feature can be used to prevent an overload
of the provisioning server when a large number
of devices power-on simultaneously.
The default is 2 (40 seconds).
Resync_Periodic
The time interval between periodic resyncs with
the provisioning server. The associated resync
timer is active only after the first successful sync
with the server.
Set this parameter to zero to disable periodic
resyncing.
The default is 3600 seconds.
Resync_Error_Retry_Delay
Resync retry interval (in seconds) applied in case
of resync failure.
The device has an error retry timer that activates
if the previous attempt to sync with the
provisioning server fails. The device waits to
contact the server again until the timer counts
down to zero.
This parameter is the value that is initially loaded
into the error retry timer. If this parameter is set
to zero, the device immediately retries to sync
with the provisioning server following a failed
attempt.
The default is 3600 seconds.
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Table 4-1
Configuration Profile Parameters (continued)
Parameter Name
Description and Default Value
Forced_Resync_Delay
Maximum delay (in seconds) the SPA waits
before performing a resync.
The device does not resync while one of its phone
lines is active. Because a resync can take several
seconds, it is desirable to wait until the device
has been idle for an extended period before
resyncing. This allows a user to make calls in
succession without interruption.
The device has a timer that begins counting down
when all of its lines become idle. This parameter
is the initial value of the counter. Resync events
are delayed until this counter decrements to zero.
The default is 14,400 seconds.
Resync_From_SIP
Enables a resync to be triggered via a SIP
NOTIFY message.
The default is Yes.
Resync_After_Upgrade_Attempt
Triggers a resync after every firmware upgrade
attempt.
The default is Yes.
Resync_Trigger_1
Resync_Trigger_2
Configurable resync trigger conditions. A resync
is triggered when the logic equation in these
parameters evaluates to TRUE.
The default is (empty).
Resync_Fails_On_FNF
Determines whether a file-not-found response
from the provisioning server constitutes a
successful or a failed resync. A failed resync
activates the error resync timer.
The default is Yes.
Profile_Rule
This parameter is a profile script that evaluates to
the provisioning resync command. The command
is a TCP/IP operation and an associated URL.
The TCP/IP operation can be TFTP, HTTP, or
HTTPS.
If the command is not specified, TFTP is
assumed, and the address of the TFTP server is
obtained through DHCP option 66. In the URL,
either the IP address or the FQDN of the server
can be specified. The file name can have macros,
such as $MA, which expands to the device MAC
address.
The default is /spa$PSN.cfg.
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Table 4-1
Configuration Profile Parameters (continued)
Parameter Name
Description and Default Value
Profile_Rule_B
Defines second, third, and fourth resync
commands and associated profile URLs. These
profile scripts are executed sequentially after the
primary Profile Rule resync operation has
completed. If a resync is triggered and Profile
Rule is blank, Profile Rule B, C, and D are still
evaluated and executed.
Profile_Rule_C
Profile_Rule_D
The default is (empty).
Log_Resync_Request_Msg
This parameter contains the message that is sent
to the Syslog server at the start of a resync
attempt.
The default is $PN $MAC – Requesting resync
$SCHEME://$SERVIP:$PORT$PATH.
Log_Resync_Success_Msg
Syslog message issued upon successful
completion of a resync attempt.
The default is $PN $MAC – Successful resync
$SCHEME://$SERVIP:$PORT$PATH -- $ERR.
Log_Resync_Failure_Msg
Syslog message issued after a failed resync
attempt.
The default is $PN $MAC – Resync failed:
$ERR.
Report_Rule
The target URL to which configuration reports
are sent. This parameter has the same syntax as
the Profile_Rule parameter, and resolves to a
TCP/IP command with an associated URL.
A configuration report is generated in response to
an authenticated SIP NOTIFY message, with
Event: report. The report is an XML file
containing the name and value of all the device
parameters.
This parameter may optionally contain an
encryption key.
For example:
[ --key $K ]
tftp://ps.callhome.net/$MA/rep.xml.enc
The default is (empty).
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Firmware Upgrade Parameters
Firmware Upgrade Parameters
The following table defines the function and usage of each parameter in the Firmware Upgrade section
of the Provisioning tab.
Table 4-2
Firmware Upgrade Parameters
Parameter Name
Description and Default Value
Upgrade_Enable
Enables firmware upgrade operations
independently of resync actions.
The default is Yes.
Upgrade_Error_Retry_Delay
The upgrade retry interval (in seconds) applied in
case of upgrade failure. The device has a
firmware upgrade error timer that activates after
a failed firmware upgrade attempt. The timer is
initialized with the value in this parameter. The
next firmware upgrade attempt occurs when this
timer counts down to zero.
The default is 3600 seconds.
Downgrade_Rev_Limit
Enforces a lower limit on the acceptable version
number during a firmware upgrade or
downgrade. The device does not complete a
firmware upgrade operation unless the firmware
version is greater than or equal to this parameter.
The default is (empty).
Upgrade_Rule
This parameter is a firmware upgrade script with
the same syntax as Profile_Rule. Defines
upgrade conditions and associated firmware
URLs.
The default is (empty).
Log_Upgrade_Request_Msg
Syslog message issued at the start of a firmware
upgrade attempt.
The default is $PN $MAC -- Requesting upgrade
$SCHEME://$SERVIP:$PORT$PATH.
Log_Upgrade_Success_Msg
Syslog message issued after a firmware upgrade
attempt completes successfully.
The default is $PN $MAC -- Successful upgrade
$SCHEME://$SERVIP:$PORT$PATH -- $ERR.
Log_Upgrade_Failure_Msg
Syslog message issued after a failed firmware
upgrade attempt.
The default is $PN $MAC -- Upgrade failed:
$ERR.
License Keys
This field is empty.
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General Purpose Parameters
General Purpose Parameters
The following table defines the function and usage of each parameter in the General Purpose Parameters
section of the Provisioning tab.
Table 4-3
General Purpose Parameters
Parameter Name
Description and Default Value
GPP_SA
Special purpose provisioning parameters,
designed to hold encryption keys and passwords.
To ensure the integrity of the encryption
mechanism, these parameters must be kept
secret. Therefore these parameters are not
displayed on the device configuration web page,
and they are not included in the configuration
report sent in response to a SIP NOTIFY
command.
GPP_SB
GPP_SC
GPP_SD
The default is (empty)
GPP_A
GPP_D
General purpose provisioning parameters. These
parameter can be used as variables in
provisioning and upgrade rules. They are
referenced by prepending the variable name with
a ‘$’ character, such as $GPP_A.
GPP_E
The default is (empty)
GPP_B
GPP_C
GPP_F
GPP_G
GPP_H
GPP_I
GPP_J
GPP_K
GPP_L
GPP_M
GPP_N
GPP_O
GPP_P
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Macro Expansion Variables
Macro Expansion Variables
The following macro variables are recognized within the following provisioning parameters:
•
Profile_Rule
•
Profile_Rule_*
•
Resync_Trigger_*
•
Log_Resync_*
•
Upgrade_Rule
•
Log_Upgrade_*
•
GPP_* (under specific conditions)
Within these parameters, syntax types, such as $NAME or $(NAME), are recognized and expanded.
Macro variable substrings can be specified with the notation $(NAME:p) and $(NAME:p:q), where p
and q are non-negative integers (available in revision 2.0.11 and above). The resulting macro expansion
is the substring starting at character offset p, with length q (or else till end-of-string if q is not specified).
For example, if GPP_A contains ABCDEF, then $(A:2) expands to CDEF, and $(A:2:3) expands to CDE.
An unrecognized name is not translated, and the $NAME or $(NAME) form remains unchanged in the
parameter value after expansion. Table 4-4 summarizes the macro expansion variables.
Table 4-4
Macro Expansion Variables
Macro Name
Macro Expansion
$
The form $$ expands to a single $ character.
A through P
Replaced by the contents of the general purpose
parameters GPP_A through GPP_P.
SA through SD
Replaced by the contents of the special purpose
parameters GPP_SA through GPP_SD. These
parameters are meant to hold keys or passwords
used in provisioning.
Note that $SA through $SD are only recognized
as arguments to the optional resync URL
qualifier --key, as in the following example:
[--key $SA]
http://ps.callme.com/profiles/abcdefg.cfg
These variables are not expanded outside of this
limited context.
MA
MAC address using lower case hex digits, for
example, 000e08aabbcc.
MAU
MAC address using upper case hex digits, for
example 000E08AABBCC.
MAC
MAC address using lower case hex digits, and
colons to separate hex digit pairs, for example
00:0e:08:aa:bb:cc.
PN
Product Name, for example SPA2102.
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Table 4-4
Macro Expansion Variables (continued)
Macro Name
Macro Expansion
PSN
Product Series Number, for example 2102.
SN
Serial Number string, for example
88012BA01234.
CCERT
SSL Client Certificate status: Installed or Not
Installed.
IP
IP address of the SPA within its local subnet, for
example 192.168.1.100.
EXTIP
External IP of the SPA, as seen on the Internet,
for example 66.43.16.52.
SWVER
Software version string, for example 2.0.6(b).
HWVER
Hardware version string, for example 1.88.1.
PRVST
Provisioning State, a numeric string:
UPGST
•
-1 = explicit resync request,
•
0 = power-up resync,
•
1 = periodic resync,
•
2 = resync failed, retry attempt
Upgrade State, a numeric string:
•
1 = first upgrade attempt,
•
2 = upgrade failed, retry attempt
UPGERR
Result message (ERR) of previous upgrade
attempt, for example http_get failed.
PRVTMR
Seconds since last resync attempt.
UPGTMR
Seconds since last upgrade attempt.
REGTMR1
Seconds since Line 1 lost registration with SIP
server.
REGTMR2
Seconds since Line 2 lost registration with SIP
server.
UPGCOND
Legacy macro name, always expands to true in
firmware rev 2.0.6 and above.
SCHEME
File access scheme, one of TFTP, HTTP, or
HTTPS, as obtained after parsing resync or
upgrade URL.
METH
Deprecated alias for SCHEME, do not use.
SERV
Request target server host name, as obtained after
parsing resync or upgrade URL.
SERVIP
Request target server IP address, as obtained
after parsing resync or upgrade URL, possibly
following DNS lookup.
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Table 4-4
Macro Expansion Variables (continued)
Macro Name
Macro Expansion
PORT
Request target UDP/TCP port, as obtained after
parsing resync or upgrade URL.
PATH
Request target file path, as obtained after parsing
resync or upgrade URL.
ERR
Result message of resync or upgrade attempt.
Only useful in generating result syslog messages.
The value is preserved in the UPGERR variable
in the case of upgrade attempts.
UID1
The contents of the Line 1 User_ID configuration
parameter (Firmware 2.0.11 and above).
UID2
The contents of the Line 2 User_ID configuration
parameter (Firmware 2.0.11 and above).
ISCUST
Value=1 if unit is customized, 0 otherwise;
customization status viewable on WebUI Info
page.
Internal Error Codes
The SPA defines a number of internal error codes (X00–X99) to facilitate configuration in providing
finer control over the behavior of the unit under certain error conditions. They can be viewed in
Table 4-5.
Table 4-5
Error Code Definitions
Error Code
Description
X00
Transport layer (or ICMP) error when sending a SIP request.
X20
SIP request times out while waiting for a response.
X40
General SIP protocol error (for example, unacceptable codec in SDP in 200
and ACK messages, or times out while waiting for ACK).
X60
Dialed number invalid according to given dial plan.
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Provisioning Field Reference
Internal Error Codes
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A P P E N D I X
A
Acronyms
A/D
Analog To Digital Converter
ANC
Anonymous Call
B2BUA
Back to Back User Agent
Bool
Boolean Values. Specified as yes and no, or 1 and 0 in the profile
CA
Certificate Authority
CAS
CPE Alert Signal
CDR
Call Detail Record
CID
Caller ID
CIDCW
Call Waiting Caller ID
CNG
Comfort Noise Generation
CPC
Calling Party Control
CPE
Customer Premises Equipment
CWCID
Call Waiting Caller ID
CWT
Call Waiting Tone
D/A
Digital to Analog Converter
dB
decibel
dBm
dB with respect to 1 milliwatt
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS
Domain Name Server
DRAM
Dynamic Random Access Memory
DSL
Digital Subscriber Loop
DSP
Digital Signal Processor
DTAS
Data Terminal Alert Signal (same as CAS)
DTMF
Dual Tone Multiple Frequency
FQDN
Fully Qualified Domain Name
FSK
Frequency Shift Keying
FXS
Foreign eXchange Station
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Appendix A
GW
Gateway
ITU
International Telecommunication Union
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS
HTTP over SSL
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
IGMP
Internet Group Management Protocol
ILEC
Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier
IP
Internet Protocol
ISP
Internet Service Provider
ITSP
IP Telephony Service Provider
IVR
Interactive Voice Response
LAN
Local Area Network
LBR
Low Bit Rate
LBRC
Low Bit Rate Codec
MC
Mini-Certificate
MGCP
Media Gateway Control Protocol
MOH
Music On Hold
MOS
Mean Opinion Score (1-5, the higher the better)
ms
Millisecond
MSA
Music Source Adaptor
MWI
Message Waiting Indication
OSI
Open Switching Interval
PCB
Printed Circuit Board
PR
Polarity Reversal
PS
Provisioning Server
PSQM
Perceptual Speech Quality Measurement (1-5, the lower the better)
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network
NAT
Network Address Translation
OOB
Out-of-band
REQT
(SIP) Request Message
RESP
(SIP) Response Message
RSC
(SIP) Response Status Code, such as 404, 302, 600
RTP
Real Time Protocol
RTT
Round Trip Time
SAS
Streaming Audio Server
SDP
Session Description Protocol
Acronyms
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Appendix A
Acronyms
SDRAM
Synchronous DRAM
sec
seconds
SIP
Session Initiation Protocol
SLA
Shared line appearance
SLIC
Subscriber Line Interface Circuit
SP
Service Provider
SPA
Linksys Phone Adaptor
SSL
Secure Socket Layer
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
UA
User Agent
uC
Micro-controller
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
VM
Voicemail
VMWI
Visual Message Waiting Indication/Indicator
VQ
Voice Quality
WAN
Wide Area Network
XML
Extensible Markup Language
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Appendix A
Acronyms
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A P P E N D I X
B
Glossary
ACD (Automatic Call Distribution)—A switching system designed to allocate incoming calls to certain
positions or agents in the order received and to hold calls not ready to be handled (often with a recorded
announcement).
Area code—A 3-digit code used in North America to identify a specific geographic telephone location.
The first digit can be any number between 2 and 9. The second and third digits can be any number.
Billing increment—The division by which the call is rounded. In the field it is common to see
full-minute billing on the local invoice while 6-second rounding is the choice of most long-distance
providers that bill their customers directly.
Blocked calls—Caused by an insufficient network facility that does not have enough lines to allow calls
to reach a given destination. May also pertain to a call from an originating number that is blocked by the
receiving telephone number.
Bundled service—Offering various services as a complete package.
Call completion—The point at which a dialed number is answered.
Call termination—The point at which a call is disconnected.
CDR (Call Detail Records)—A software program attached to a VoIP/telephone system that records
information about the telephone number activity.
Carrier’s carrier—Companies that build fiber optic and microwave networks primarily selling to
resellers and carriers. Their main focus is on the wholesale and not the retail market.
Casual access—When customers choose not to use their primary carriers to process the long-distance
call being made. The customer dials the carrier 101XXXX number.
CO (Central Office)—Switching center for the local exchange carrier.
Centrex—This service is offered by the LEC to the end user. The feature-rich Centrex line offers the
same features and benefits as a PBX to a customer without the capital investment or maintenance
charges. The LEC charges a monthly fee to the customer, who must agree to sign a term agreement.
Circuits—The communication path(s) that carry calls between two points on a network.
Customer Premise Equipment—The only part of the telecommunications system that the customer
comes into direct contact with. Example of such pieces of equipment are telephones, key systems, PBXs,
voice-mail systems, and call accounting systems as well as wiring telephone jacks. The standard for this
equipment is set by the FCC, and the equipment is supplied by an interconnect company.
Dedicated access—Customers have direct access to the long-distance provider via a special circuit (T1
or private lines). The circuit is hardwired from the customer site to the POP and does not pass through
the LEC switch. The dial tone is provided from the long-distance carrier.
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Appendix B
Glossary
Dedicated Access Line (DAL)—Provided by the local exchange carrier. An access line from the
customer telephone equipment directly to the long-distance company switch or POP.
Demarcation point—This is where the LEC ownership and responsibility (wiring, equipment) ends and
the customer responsibilities begin.
Direct Inward Dialing (DID)—Allows an incoming call to bypass the attendant and ring directly to an
extension. Available on most PBX systems and a feature of Centrex service.
Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTMF)—Better known as the push button keypad. DTMF replaces dial
pulses with electronically produced tones for network signaling.
Enhanced service—Services that are provided in addition to basic long distance and accessed by way of
a touchtone phone through a series of menus.
Exchange code (NXX)—The first three digits of a phone number.
Flat-rate pricing—The customer is charged one rate (sometimes two rates, one for peak and one for
off-peak) rather than a mileage-sensitive program rate.
IXC (Interexchange Carrier)—A long-distance provider that maintains its own switching equipment.
IVR (Interactive Voice Response)—Provides a mechanism for information to be stored and retrieved
using voice and a touchtone telephone.
Local loop—The local telephone company provides the transmission facility from the customer to the
telephone company office, which is engineered to carry voice and/or data.
North American Numbering Plan (NANP)—How telephone numbers are identified in North America.
The telephone number can be identified based on their three separate components: (NPA), (NXX), and
(XXXX).
PIN (Personal Identification Code)—A customer calling/billing code for prepaid and pay-as-you-go
calling cards.
Private Branch Exchange—Advanced phone system commonly used by the medium to larger customer.
It allows the customer to perform a variety of in-house routing (inside calling). The dial tone that is heard
when the customer picks up the phone is an internal dial tone.
SS7 (Linksys device Signaling Number 7)—Technology used by large carriers to increase the reliability
and speed of transmission between switches.
Switch (switching)—Equipment that connects and routes calls and provides other interim functions such
as least cost routing, IVR, and voicemail. It performs the traffic cop function of telecommunications via
automated management decisions.
Touchtone (DTMF)—The tone recognized by a push button (touchtone) telephone.
Unified messaging— Platform that lets users send, receive, and manage all e-mail, voice, and fax
messages from any telephone, PC, or information device.
Voicemail—A system that allows storage and retrieval of voice messages through voice-mail boxes.
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A P P E N D I X
C
Example SPA Configuration Profile
What follows is a sample profile. An up-to-date profile template can be obtained from the SPC tool, with
the command line invocation spc --sample-profile sample.txt.
# ***
# *** Linksys SPA Series Configuration Parameters
# ***
# *** System Configuration
Restricted_Access_Domains
Enable_Web_Server
Web_Server_Port
Enable_Web_Admin_Access
Admin_Passwd
User_Password
"" ;
"Yes" ;
"80" ;
"Yes" ;
"" ;
! "" ;
# *** Internet Connection Type
DHCP
Static_IP
NetMask
Gateway
!
!
!
!
"Yes" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
# *** Optional Network Configuration
HostName
Domain
Primary_DNS
Secondary_DNS
DNS_Server_Order
DNS_Query_Mode
Syslog_Server
Debug_Server
Debug_Level
Primary_NTP_Server
Secondary_NTP_Server
!
!
!
!
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"Manual" ; # options: Manual/Manual,DHCP/DHCP,Manual
"Parallel" ; # options: Parallel/Sequential
"" ;
"" ;
"0" ; # options: 0/1/2/3
"" ;
"" ;
# *** Configuration Profile
Provision_Enable
Resync_On_Reset
Resync_Random_Delay
Resync_Periodic
Resync_Error_Retry_Delay
Forced_Resync_Delay
"Yes" ;
"Yes" ;
"2" ;
"3600" ;
"3600" ;
"14400" ;
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Appendix C
Resync_From_SIP
Resync_After_Upgrade_Attempt
Resync_Trigger_1
Resync_Trigger_2
Profile_Rule
Profile_Rule_B
Profile_Rule_C
Profile_Rule_D
Log_Resync_Request_Msg
$SCHEME://$SERVIP:$PORT$PATH" ;
Log_Resync_Success_Msg
$SCHEME://$SERVIP:$PORT$PATH" ;
Log_Resync_Failure_Msg
Example SPA Configuration Profile
"Yes" ;
"Yes" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"/spa$PSN.cfg" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"$PN $MAC -- Requesting resync
"$PN $MAC -- Successful resync
"$PN $MAC -- Resync failed: $ERR" ;
# *** Firmware Upgrade
Upgrade_Enable
"Yes" ;
Upgrade_Error_Retry_Delay
"3600" ;
Downgrade_Rev_Limit
"" ;
Upgrade_Rule
"" ;
Log_Upgrade_Request_Msg
"$PN $MAC -- Requesting upgrade
$SCHEME://$SERVIP:$PORT$PATH" ;
Log_Upgrade_Success_Msg
"$PN $MAC -- Successful upgrade
$SCHEME://$SERVIP:$PORT$PATH -- $ERR" ;
Log_Upgrade_Failure_Msg
"$PN $MAC -- Upgrade failed: $ERR" ;
# *** General Purpose Parameters
GPP_A
GPP_B
GPP_C
GPP_D
GPP_E
GPP_F
GPP_G
GPP_H
GPP_I
GPP_J
GPP_K
GPP_L
GPP_M
GPP_N
GPP_O
GPP_P
GPP_SA
GPP_SB
GPP_SC
GPP_SD
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
# *** SIP Parameters
Max_Forward
Max_Redirection
Max_Auth
SIP_User_Agent_Name
SIP_Server_Name
SIP_Accept_Language
DTMF_Relay_MIME_Type
Hook_Flash_MIME_Type
Remove_Last_Reg
Use_Compact_Header
"70" ;
"5" ;
"2" ;
"$VERSION" ;
"$VERSION" ;
"" ;
"application/dtmf-relay" ;
"application/hook-flash" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
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Appendix C
Example SPA Configuration Profile
# *** SIP Timer Values (sec)
SIP_T1
SIP_T2
SIP_T4
SIP_Timer_B
SIP_Timer_F
SIP_Timer_H
SIP_Timer_D
SIP_Timer_J
INVITE_Expires
ReINVITE_Expires
Reg_Min_Expires
Reg_Max_Expires
Reg_Retry_Intvl
Reg_Retry_Long_Intvl
".5" ;
"4" ;
"5" ;
"32" ;
"32" ;
"32" ;
"32" ;
"32" ;
"240" ;
"30" ;
"1" ;
"7200" ;
"30" ;
"1200" ;
# *** Response Status Code Handling
SIT1_RSC
SIT2_RSC
SIT3_RSC
SIT4_RSC
Try_Backup_RSC
Retry_Reg_RSC
""
""
""
""
""
""
;
;
;
;
;
;
# *** RTP Parameters
RTP_Port_Min
RTP_Port_Max
RTP_Packet_Size
Max_RTP_ICMP_Err
RTCP_Tx_Interval
"16384" ;
"16482" ;
"0.030" ;
"0" ;
"0" ;
# *** SDP Payload Types
NSE_Dynamic_Payload
AVT_Dynamic_Payload
G726r16_Dynamic_Payload
G726r24_Dynamic_Payload
G726r40_Dynamic_Payload
G729b_Dynamic_Payload
NSE_Codec_Name
AVT_Codec_Name
G711u_Codec_Name
G711a_Codec_Name
G726r16_Codec_Name
G726r24_Codec_Name
G726r32_Codec_Name
G726r40_Codec_Name
G729a_Codec_Name
G729b_Codec_Name
G723_Codec_Name
"100" ;
"101" ;
"98" ;
"97" ;
"96" ;
"99" ;
"NSE" ;
"telephone-event" ;
"PCMU" ;
"PCMA" ;
"G726-16" ;
"G726-24" ;
"G726-32" ;
"G726-40" ;
"G729a" ;
"G729ab" ;
"G723" ;
# *** NAT Support Parameters
Handle_VIA_received
Handle_VIA_rport
Insert_VIA_received
Insert_VIA_rport
Substitute_VIA_Addr
Send_Resp_To_Src_Port
"No"
"No"
"No"
"No"
"No"
"No"
;
;
;
;
;
;
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Appendix C
STUN_Enable
STUN_Test_Enable
STUN_Server
EXT_IP
EXT_RTP_Port_Min
NAT_Keep_Alive_Intvl
Example SPA Configuration Profile
"No" ;
"No" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"15" ;
# ***
Line_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
SAS_Enable[1]
"No" ;
MOH_Server[1]
"" ;
SAS_DLG_Refresh_Intvl[1]
"30" ;
NAT_Mapping_Enable[1]
"No" ;
SAS_Inbound_RTP_Sink[1]
"" ;
SIP_Port[1]
"5060" ;
NAT_Keep_Alive_Enable[1]
"No" ;
EXT_SIP_Port[1]
"" ;
NAT_Keep_Alive_Msg[1]
"$NOTIFY" ;
SIP_TOS/DiffServ_Value[1]
"0x68" ;
NAT_Keep_Alive_Dest[1]
"$PROXY" ;
RTP_TOS/DiffServ_Value[1]
"0xb8" ;
SIP_Debug_Option[1]
"none" ; # options: none/1-line/1-line excl. OPT/1-line
excl. NTFY/1-line excl. REG/1-line excl. OPT|NTFY|REG/full/full excl. OPT/full excl.
NTFY/full excl. REG/full excl. OPT|NTFY|REG
Network_Jitter_Level[1]
"high" ; # options: low/medium/high/very high
SIP_100REL_Enable[1]
"No" ;
Blind_Attn-Xfer_Enable[1]
"No" ;
SIP_Proxy-Require[1]
"" ;
Auth_Resync-Reboot[1]
"Yes" ;
SIP_Remote-Party-ID[1]
"No" ;
# *** Proxy and Registration
Proxy[1]
Use_Outbound_Proxy[1]
Outbound_Proxy[1]
Use_OB_Proxy_In_Dialog[1]
Register[1]
Make_Call_Without_Reg[1]
Register_Expires[1]
Ans_Call_Without_Reg[1]
Use_DNS_SRV[1]
DNS_SRV_Auto_Prefix[1]
Proxy_Fallback_Intvl[1]
"" ;
"No" ;
"" ;
"Yes" ;
"Yes" ;
"No" ;
"3600" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
"3600" ;
# *** Subscriber Information
Display_Name[1]
User_ID[1]
Password[1]
Use_Auth_ID[1]
Auth_ID[1]
Mini_Certificate[1]
SRTP_Private_Key[1]
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"No" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
# *** Supplementary Service Subscription
Call_Waiting_Serv[1]
Block_CID_Serv[1]
Block_ANC_Serv[1]
Dist_Ring_Serv[1]
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
;
;
;
;
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Appendix C
Example SPA Configuration Profile
Cfwd_All_Serv[1]
Cfwd_Busy_Serv[1]
Cfwd_No_Ans_Serv[1]
Cfwd_Sel_Serv[1]
Cfwd_Last_Serv[1]
Block_Last_Serv[1]
Accept_Last_Serv[1]
DND_Serv[1]
CID_Serv[1]
CWCID_Serv[1]
Call_Return_Serv[1]
Call_Back_Serv[1]
Three_Way_Call_Serv[1]
Three_Way_Conf_Serv[1]
Attn_Transfer_Serv[1]
Unattn_Transfer_Serv[1]
MWI_Serv[1]
VMWI_Serv[1]
Speed_Dial_Serv[1]
Secure_Call_Serv[1]
Referral_Serv[1]
Feature_Dial_Serv[1]
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
# *** Audio Configuration
Preferred_Codec[1]
"G711u" ; # options:
G711u/G711a/G726-16/G726-24/G726-32/G726-40/G729a/G723
Silence_Supp_Enable[1]
"No" ;
Use_Pref_Codec_Only[1]
"No" ;
Echo_Canc_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
G729a_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
Echo_Canc_Adapt_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
G723_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
Echo_Supp_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
G726-16_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
FAX_CED_Detect_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
G726-24_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
FAX_CNG_Detect_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
G726-32_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
FAX_Passthru_Codec[1]
"G711u" ; # options: G711u/G711a
G726-40_Enable[1]
"Yes" ;
FAX_Codec_Symmetric[1]
"Yes" ;
DTMF_Tx_Method[1]
"Auto" ; # options: InBand/AVT/INFO/Auto
FAX_Passthru_Method[1]
"NSE" ; # options: None/NSE/ReINVITE
Hook_Flash_Tx_Method[1]
"None" ; # options: None/AVT/INFO
FAX_Process_NSE[1]
"Yes" ;
Release_Unused_Codec[1]
"Yes" ;
# *** Dial Plan
Dial_Plan[1]
"(*xx|[3469]11|0|00|[2-9]xxxxxx|1xxx[2-9]xxxxxxS0|xxxxxxxxxxxx.)" ;
Enable_IP_Dialing[1]
"No" ;
# *** FXS Port Polarity Configuration
Idle_Polarity[1]
Caller_Conn_Polarity[1]
Callee_Conn_Polarity[1]
"Forward" ;
"Forward" ;
"Forward" ;
# options: Forward/Reverse
# options: Forward/Reverse
# options: Forward/Reverse
# *** Call Forward Settings
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Appendix C
Cfwd_All_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Busy_Dest[1]
Cfwd_No_Ans_Dest[1]
Cfwd_No_Ans_Delay[1]
!
!
!
!
Example SPA Configuration Profile
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"20" ;
# *** Selective Call Forward Settings
Cfwd_Sel1_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Sel1_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Sel2_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Sel2_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Sel3_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Sel3_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Sel4_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Sel4_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Sel5_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Sel5_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Sel6_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Sel6_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Sel7_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Sel7_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Sel8_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Sel8_Dest[1]
Cfwd_Last_Caller[1]
Cfwd_Last_Dest[1]
Block_Last_Caller[1]
Accept_Last_Caller[1]
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
# *** Speed Dial Settings
Speed_Dial_2[1]
Speed_Dial_3[1]
Speed_Dial_4[1]
Speed_Dial_5[1]
Speed_Dial_6[1]
Speed_Dial_7[1]
Speed_Dial_8[1]
Speed_Dial_9[1]
# *** Supplementary Service Settings
CW_Setting[1]
Block_CID_Setting[1]
Block_ANC_Setting[1]
DND_Setting[1]
CID_Setting[1]
CWCID_Setting[1]
Dist_Ring_Setting[1]
Secure_Call_Setting[1]
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
"Yes" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
"Yes" ;
"Yes" ;
"Yes" ;
"No" ;
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
# *** Distinctive Ring Settings
Ring1_Caller[1]
Ring2_Caller[1]
Ring3_Caller[1]
Ring4_Caller[1]
Ring5_Caller[1]
Ring6_Caller[1]
Ring7_Caller[1]
Ring8_Caller[1]
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
# *** Ring Settings
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Appendix C
Example SPA Configuration Profile
Default_Ring[1]
! "1" ;
Default_CWT[1]
! "1" ;
Hold_Reminder_Ring[1]
! "8" ;
Call_Back_Ring[1]
! "7" ;
Cfwd_Ring_Splash_Len[1]
! "0" ;
Cblk_Ring_Splash_Len[1]
! "0" ;
VMWI_Ring_Splash_Len[1]
! ".5" ;
VMWI_Ring_Policy[1]
"New VM
Becomes Available/New VM Arrives
Ring_On_No_New_VM[1]
"No" ;
#
#
#
#
options:
options:
options:
options:
1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/none
1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
Available" ;
# options: New VM Available/New VM
# ***
Line_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
SAS_Enable[2]
"No" ;
MOH_Server[2]
"" ;
SAS_DLG_Refresh_Intvl[2]
"30" ;
NAT_Mapping_Enable[2]
"No" ;
SAS_Inbound_RTP_Sink[2]
"" ;
SIP_Port[2]
"5061" ;
NAT_Keep_Alive_Enable[2]
"No" ;
EXT_SIP_Port[2]
"" ;
NAT_Keep_Alive_Msg[2]
"$NOTIFY" ;
SIP_TOS/DiffServ_Value[2]
"0x68" ;
NAT_Keep_Alive_Dest[2]
"$PROXY" ;
RTP_TOS/DiffServ_Value[2]
"0xb8" ;
SIP_Debug_Option[2]
"none" ; # options: none/1-line/1-line excl. OPT/1-line
excl. NTFY/1-line excl. REG/1-line excl. OPT|NTFY|REG/full/full excl. OPT/full excl.
NTFY/full excl. REG/full excl. OPT|NTFY|REG
Network_Jitter_Level[2]
"high" ; # options: low/medium/high/very high
SIP_100REL_Enable[2]
"No" ;
Blind_Attn-Xfer_Enable[2]
"No" ;
SIP_Proxy-Require[2]
"" ;
Auth_Resync-Reboot[2]
"Yes" ;
SIP_Remote-Party-ID[2]
"No" ;
# *** Proxy and Registration
Proxy[2]
Use_Outbound_Proxy[2]
Outbound_Proxy[2]
Use_OB_Proxy_In_Dialog[2]
Register[2]
Make_Call_Without_Reg[2]
Register_Expires[2]
Ans_Call_Without_Reg[2]
Use_DNS_SRV[2]
DNS_SRV_Auto_Prefix[2]
Proxy_Fallback_Intvl[2]
"" ;
"No" ;
"" ;
"Yes" ;
"Yes" ;
"No" ;
"3600" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
"3600" ;
# *** Subscriber Information
Display_Name[2]
User_ID[2]
Password[2]
Use_Auth_ID[2]
Auth_ID[2]
Mini_Certificate[2]
SRTP_Private_Key[2]
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"No" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
# *** Supplementary Service Subscription
Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
Version 3.01
C-7
Appendix C
Call_Waiting_Serv[2]
Block_CID_Serv[2]
Block_ANC_Serv[2]
Dist_Ring_Serv[2]
Cfwd_All_Serv[2]
Cfwd_Busy_Serv[2]
Cfwd_No_Ans_Serv[2]
Cfwd_Sel_Serv[2]
Cfwd_Last_Serv[2]
Block_Last_Serv[2]
Accept_Last_Serv[2]
DND_Serv[2]
CID_Serv[2]
CWCID_Serv[2]
Call_Return_Serv[2]
Call_Back_Serv[2]
Three_Way_Call_Serv[2]
Three_Way_Conf_Serv[2]
Attn_Transfer_Serv[2]
Unattn_Transfer_Serv[2]
MWI_Serv[2]
VMWI_Serv[2]
Speed_Dial_Serv[2]
Secure_Call_Serv[2]
Referral_Serv[2]
Feature_Dial_Serv[2]
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
"Yes"
Example SPA Configuration Profile
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# *** Audio Configuration
Preferred_Codec[2]
"G711u" ; # options:
G711u/G711a/G726-16/G726-24/G726-32/G726-40/G729a/G723
Silence_Supp_Enable[2]
"No" ;
Use_Pref_Codec_Only[2]
"No" ;
Echo_Canc_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
G729a_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
Echo_Canc_Adapt_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
G723_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
Echo_Supp_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
G726-16_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
FAX_CED_Detect_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
G726-24_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
FAX_CNG_Detect_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
G726-32_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
FAX_Passthru_Codec[2]
"G711u" ; # options: G711u/G711a
G726-40_Enable[2]
"Yes" ;
FAX_Codec_Symmetric[2]
"Yes" ;
DTMF_Tx_Method[2]
"Auto" ; # options: InBand/AVT/INFO/Auto
FAX_Passthru_Method[2]
"NSE" ; # options: None/NSE/ReINVITE
Hook_Flash_Tx_Method[2]
"None" ; # options: None/AVT/INFO
FAX_Process_NSE[2]
"Yes" ;
Release_Unused_Codec[2]
"Yes" ;
# *** Dial Plan
Dial_Plan[2]
"(*xx|[3469]11|0|00|[2-9]xxxxxx|1xxx[2-9]xxxxxxS0|xxxxxxxxxxxx.)" ;
Enable_IP_Dialing[2]
"No" ;
# *** FXS Port Polarity Configuration
Idle_Polarity[2]
"Forward" ;
# options: Forward/Reverse
Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
C-8
Version 3.01
Appendix C
Example SPA Configuration Profile
Caller_Conn_Polarity[2]
Callee_Conn_Polarity[2]
"Forward" ;
"Forward" ;
# options: Forward/Reverse
# options: Forward/Reverse
# *** Call Forward Settings
Cfwd_All_Dest[2]
Cfwd_Busy_Dest[2]
Cfwd_No_Ans_Dest[2]
Cfwd_No_Ans_Delay[2]
!
!
!
!
"" ;
"" ;
"" ;
"20" ;
# *** Selective Call Forward Settings
Cfwd_Sel1_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Sel1_Dest[2]
Cfwd_Sel2_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Sel2_Dest[2]
Cfwd_Sel3_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Sel3_Dest[2]
Cfwd_Sel4_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Sel4_Dest[2]
Cfwd_Sel5_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Sel5_Dest[2]
Cfwd_Sel6_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Sel6_Dest[2]
Cfwd_Sel7_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Sel7_Dest[2]
Cfwd_Sel8_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Last_Caller[2]
Cfwd_Last_Dest[2]
Block_Last_Caller[2]
Accept_Last_Caller[2]
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
;
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;
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;
;Cfwd_Sel8_Dest[2]
;
;
;
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
""
;
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;
! "" ;
# *** Speed Dial Settings
Speed_Dial_2[2]
Speed_Dial_3[2]
Speed_Dial_4[2]
Speed_Dial_5[2]
Speed_Dial_6[2]
Speed_Dial_7[2]
Speed_Dial_8[2]
Speed_Dial_9[2]
# *** Supplementary Service Settings
CW_Setting[2]
Block_CID_Setting[2]
Block_ANC_Setting[2]
DND_Setting[2]
CID_Setting[2]
CWCID_Setting[2]
Dist_Ring_Setting[2]
Secure_Call_Setting[2]
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
"Yes" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
"No" ;
"Yes" ;
"Yes" ;
"Yes" ;
"No" ;
!
!
!
!
!
!
""
""
""
""
""
""
# *** Distinctive Ring Settings
Ring1_Caller[2]
Ring2_Caller[2]
Ring3_Caller[2]
Ring4_Caller[2]
Ring5_Caller[2]
Ring6_Caller[2]
;
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Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
Version 3.01
C-9
Appendix C
Ring7_Caller[2]
Ring8_Caller[2]
Example SPA Configuration Profile
! "" ;
! "" ;
# *** Ring Settings
Default_Ring[2]
! "1" ;
Default_CWT[2]
! "1" ;
Hold_Reminder_Ring[2]
! "8" ;
Call_Back_Ring[2]
! "7" ;
Cfwd_Ring_Splash_Len[2]
! "0" ;
Cblk_Ring_Splash_Len[2]
! "0" ;
VMWI_Ring_Splash_Len[2]
! ".5" ;
VMWI_Ring_Policy[2]
"New VM
Becomes Available/New VM Arrives
Ring_On_No_New_VM[2]
"No" ;
#
#
#
#
options:
options:
options:
options:
1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/none
1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
Available" ;
# options: New VM Available/New VM
# *** Call Progress Tones
Dial_Tone
"350@-19,440@-19;10(*/0/1+2)" ;
Second_Dial_Tone
"420@-19,520@-19;10(*/0/1+2)" ;
Outside_Dial_Tone
"420@-16;10(*/0/1)" ;
Prompt_Tone
"520@-19,620@-19;10(*/0/1+2)" ;
Busy_Tone
"480@-19,620@-19;10(.5/.5/1+2)" ;
Reorder_Tone
"480@-19,620@-19;10(.25/.25/1+2)" ;
Off_Hook_Warning_Tone
"480@-10,620@0;10(.125/.125/1+2)" ;
Ring_Back_Tone
"440@-19,480@-19;*(2/4/1+2)" ;
Confirm_Tone
"600@-16;1(.25/.25/1)" ;
SIT1_Tone
"985@-16,1428@-16,1777@-16;20(.380/0/1,.380/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)" ;
SIT2_Tone
"914@-16,1371@-16,1777@-16;20(.274/0/1,.274/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)" ;
SIT3_Tone
"914@-16,1371@-16,1777@-16;20(.380/0/1,.380/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)" ;
SIT4_Tone
"985@-16,1371@-16,1777@-16;20(.380/0/1,.274/0/2,.380/0/3,0/4/0)" ;
MWI_Dial_Tone
"350@-19,440@-19;2(.1/.1/1+2);10(*/0/1+2)" ;
Cfwd_Dial_Tone
"350@-19,440@-19;2(.2/.2/1+2);10(*/0/1+2)" ;
Holding_Tone
"600@-19;*(.1/.1/1,.1/.1/1,.1/9.5/1)" ;
Conference_Tone
"350@-19;20(.1/.1/1,.1/9.7/1)" ;
Secure_Call_Indication_Tone
"397@-19,507@-19;15(0/2/0,.2/.1/1,.1/2.1/2)" ;
# *** Distinctive Ring Patterns
Ring1_Cadence
Ring2_Cadence
Ring3_Cadence
Ring4_Cadence
Ring5_Cadence
Ring6_Cadence
Ring7_Cadence
Ring8_Cadence
"60(2/4)" ;
"60(.3/.2,1/.2,.3/4)" ;
"60(.8/.4,.8/4)" ;
"60(.4/.2,.3/.2,.8/4)" ;
"60(.2/.2,.2/.2,.2/.2,1/4)" ;
"60(.2/.4,.2/.4,.2/4)" ;
"60(.4/.2,.4/.2,.4/4)" ;
"60(0.25/9.75)" ;
# *** Distinctive Call Waiting Tone Patterns
CWT1_Cadence
CWT2_Cadence
CWT3_Cadence
CWT4_Cadence
CWT5_Cadence
CWT6_Cadence
CWT7_Cadence
CWT8_Cadence
"30(.3/9.7)" ;
"30(.1/.1, .1/9.7)" ;
"30(.1/.1, .3/.1, .1/9.3)" ;
"30(.1/.1,.1/.1,.1/9.5)" ;
"30(.3/.1,.1/.1,.3/9.1)" ;
"30(.1/.1,.3/.2,.3/9.1)" ;
"30(.3/.1,.3/.1,.1/9.1)" ;
"2.3(.3/2)" ;
Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
C-10
Version 3.01
Appendix C
Example SPA Configuration Profile
# *** Distinctive Ring/CWT Pattern Names
Ring1_Name
Ring2_Name
Ring3_Name
Ring4_Name
Ring5_Name
Ring6_Name
Ring7_Name
Ring8_Name
"Bellcore-r1"
"Bellcore-r2"
"Bellcore-r3"
"Bellcore-r4"
"Bellcore-r5"
"Bellcore-r6"
"Bellcore-r7"
"Bellcore-r8"
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
# *** Ring and Call Waiting Tone Spec
Ring_Waveform
Ring_Frequency
Ring_Voltage
CWT_Frequency
"Sinusoid" ;
"25" ;
"70" ;
"440@-10" ;
# options: Sinusoid/Trapezoid
# *** Control Timer Values (sec)
Hook_Flash_Timer_Min
Hook_Flash_Timer_Max
Callee_On_Hook_Delay
Reorder_Delay
Call_Back_Expires
Call_Back_Retry_Intvl
Call_Back_Delay
VMWI_Refresh_Intvl
Interdigit_Long_Timer
Interdigit_Short_Timer
CPC_Delay
CPC_Duration
".1" ;
".9" ;
"0" ;
"5" ;
"1800" ;
"30" ;
".5" ;
"30" ;
"10" ;
"3" ;
"2" ;
"0" ;
# *** Vertical Service Activation Codes
Call_Return_Code
Blind_Transfer_Code
Call_Back_Act_Code
Call_Back_Deact_Code
Cfwd_All_Act_Code
Cfwd_All_Deact_Code
Cfwd_Busy_Act_Code
Cfwd_Busy_Deact_Code
Cfwd_No_Ans_Act_Code
Cfwd_No_Ans_Deact_Code
Cfwd_Last_Act_Code
Cfwd_Last_Deact_Code
Block_Last_Act_Code
Block_Last_Deact_Code
Accept_Last_Act_Code
Accept_Last_Deact_Code
CW_Act_Code
CW_Deact_Code
CW_Per_Call_Act_Code
CW_Per_Call_Deact_Code
Block_CID_Act_Code
Block_CID_Deact_Code
Block_CID_Per_Call_Act_Code
Block_CID_Per_Call_Deact_Code
Block_ANC_Act_Code
Block_ANC_Deact_Code
"*69"
"*98"
"*66"
"*86"
"*72"
"*73"
"*90"
"*91"
"*92"
"*93"
"*63"
"*83"
"*60"
"*80"
"*64"
"*84"
"*56"
"*57"
"*71"
"*70"
"*67"
"*68"
"*81"
"*82"
"*77"
"*87"
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Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
Version 3.01
C-11
Appendix C
DND_Act_Code
DND_Deact_Code
CID_Act_Code
CID_Deact_Code
CWCID_Act_Code
CWCID_Deact_Code
Dist_Ring_Act_Code
Dist_Ring_Deact_Code
Speed_Dial_Act_Code
Secure_All_Call_Act_Code
Secure_No_Call_Act_Code
Secure_One_Call_Act_Code
Secure_One_Call_Deact_Code
Referral_Services_Codes
Feature_Dial_Services_Codes
"*78"
"*79"
"*65"
"*85"
"*25"
"*45"
"*26"
"*46"
"*74"
"*16"
"*17"
"*18"
"*19"
"" ;
"" ;
Example SPA Configuration Profile
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;
;
# *** Outbound Call Codec Selection Codes
Prefer_G711u_Code
Force_G711u_Code
Prefer_G711a_Code
Force_G711a_Code
Prefer_G723_Code
Force_G723_Code
Prefer_G726r16_Code
Force_G726r16_Code
Prefer_G726r24_Code
Force_G726r24_Code
Prefer_G726r32_Code
Force_G726r32_Code
Prefer_G726r40_Code
Force_G726r40_Code
Prefer_G729a_Code
Force_G729a_Code
"*017110" ;
"*027110" ;
"*017111" ;
"*027111" ;
"*01723" ;
"*02723" ;
"*0172616" ;
"*0272616" ;
"*0172624" ;
"*0272624" ;
"*0172632" ;
"*0272632" ;
"*0172640" ;
"*0272640" ;
"*01729" ;
"*02729" ;
# *** Miscellaneous
Set_Local_Date_(mm/dd)
"" ;
Set_Local_Time_(HH/mm)
"" ;
Time_Zone
"GMT-07:00" ; # options:
GMT-12:00/GMT-11:00/GMT-10:00/GMT-09:00/GMT-08:00/GMT-07:00/GMT-06:00/GMT-05:00/GMT-04:00/
GMT-03:30/GMT-03:00/GMT-02:00/GMT-01:00/GMT/GMT+01:00/GMT+02:00/GMT+03:00/GMT+03:30/GMT+04
:00/GMT+05:00/GMT+05:30/GMT+05:45/GMT+06:00/GMT+06:30/GMT+07:00/GMT+08:00/GMT+09:00/GMT+09
:30/GMT+10:00/GMT+11:00/GMT+12:00/GMT+13:00
FXS_Port_Impedance
"600" ; # options:
600/900/600+2.16uF/900+2.16uF/270+750||150nF/220+820||120nF/220+820||115nF/370+620||310nF
FXS_Port_Input_Gain
"-3" ;
FXS_Port_Output_Gain
"-3" ;
DTMF_Playback_Level
"-16" ;
DTMF_Playback_Length
".1" ;
Detect_ABCD
"Yes" ;
Playback_ABCD
"Yes" ;
Caller_ID_Method
"Bellcore(N.Amer,China)" ; # options:
Bellcore(N.Amer,China)/DTMF(Finland,Sweden)/DTMF(Denmark)/ETSI DTMF/ETSI DTMF With PR/ETSI
DTMF After Ring/ETSI FSK/ETSI FSK With PR(UK)
FXS_Port_Power_Limit
"3" ; # options: 1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
Protect_IVR_FactoryReset
"No" ;
Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
C-12
Version 3.01
INDEX
CCERT macro
Symbols
certificates
$CCERT macro
$ macro
4-8
1-14
4-7
chain
1-10
server
1-9
certificate signing request
Numerics
256-bit encryption
1-2
certification authority
1-9
CGI scripting support
1-11
CGI scripts
1-12
chain, certificate
cipher suites
A
CN field
initial and permanent
access control
1-4
1-13
configuration profiles
1-5
administration web server
1-4
Analog Telephone Adapters
Apache
1-4
Configuration Profile Parameters section
1-5
Admin account
1-10
1-14
client certificate
access
1-14
1-13
5-vii
encrypted
1-12
protecting
1-9
two types
1-5
4-1
1-2
customization
A through P macro
4-7
manufacturing
1-3
attackers
protecting SPA from
1-9
D
authentication
certificates
1-9
deployment models
authorities, certificate
automatic resync
1-9
1-5
DHCP
1-3
1-5
disabling User account access
DNS lookups
1-5
1-13
Downgrade_Rev_Limit parameter
B
dynamic generation of profiles
bulk distribution model
4-5
1-11
1-3
E
C
encrypted profiles
CA root certificate
1-13
1-12
encryption
Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
Version 3.01
IN-1
Index
explict profile
need for
IP macro
1-12
ISCUST macro
1-2
ERR macro
4-9
error codes
4-9
4-9
IVR functions
Ethernet packet analyzer
explicit profile encryption
EXTIP macro
4-8
1-11
1-5
K
1-12
key pairs
4-8
location of
1-9
F
factory default configuration
firmware release 2.0
License_Keys parameter
1-2
firmware upgrades
log messages
L
1-5
license keys
1-2
1-11
License Keys parameter
1-15
Firmware Upgrade section
4-5
Linksys CA Client Root Certificate
4-4
Forced_Resync_Delay parameter
1-11
1-13
Linksys Profile Compiler
4-3
see SPC
FQDN
redundant provisioning servers
Linksys Provisioning Server Root Authority
1-4
Linux-i386-elf, SPC for
1-6
Log_Resync_Failure_Msg parameter
G
Log_Resync_Request_Msg
General Purpose Parameters section
GPP_A parameter
4-6
GPP_SA parameter
4-6
H
HTTP
1-12
HTTP GET method
HTTP POST method
HTTPS
clients
4-6
4-4
Log_Resync_Success_Msg parameter
4-4
Log_Upgrade_Failure_Msg parameter
4-5
Log_Upgrade_Request_Msg parameter
4-5
Log_Upgrade_Success_Msg parameter
4-5
MAC macro
1-12
MA macro
1-8
4-7
METH macro
4-8
4-7
4-7
MAU macro
1-11
4-7
4-8
MFG-RESET flow step
monitoring HTTPS
I
in-house preprovisioning
initial access
1-15
Log_Resync_Request_Msg parameter
macro variables
HWVER macro
4-4
M
1-12
1-13
HTTPS, monitoring
1-9
1-7
1-11
1-5
1-4
Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
IN-2
Version 3.01
Index
redundant
N
1-4
PRVST macro
NAT devices
4-8
PRVTMR macro
ATAs with
1-2
PSN macro
4-8
4-8
public/private key pairs
generating
O
open (XML-style) format
OpenBSD, SPC for
1-13
1-5
R
1-6
OpenSSL software package
OpenSSL utility
1-11
1-13
redundant provisioning servers
REGTMR1 macro
4-8
REGTMR2 macro
4-8
remote control
P
5-vii
PATH macro
1-5
resync
4-9
1-11
permanent access
1-4
plain-text format
1-5
URL command
Resync_Fails_On_FNF parameter
1-11
1-5
Profile_Rule_B parameter
Profile_Rule parameter
4-4
4-3
Resync_From_SIP parameter
4-3
Resync_On_Reset parameter
4-1
Resync_Periodic parameter
Resync_Trigger_1 parameter
1-12
retail distribution model
profile resync
syslog messages
1-15
profiles
root authorities
1-9
root certificate
1-13
RSA
1-12
1-7
provisioning flow
4-2
4-3
1-3
5-vii
4-1
S
provisioning
states
4-3
1-5
Provision_Enable parameter
1-10
4-2
1-13
RTP300
proprietary format
4-3
4-2
Resync_Random_Delay parameter
profile encryption
setup
1-4
Resync_Error_Retry_Delay parameter
preprovisioning
encrypted
1-15
Resync_After_Upgrade_Attempt parameter
4-9
premium features
explicit
1-5
syslog messages
4-8
PORT macro
4-4
1-2
automatic
Perl language tools
PN macro
1-2
Report_Rule parameter
password protection
1-4
1-2
remote provisioning
PAPT2T
1-9
SA through SD macro
SCHEME macro
1-6
provisioning servers
4-7
4-8
SEC-PRV-1 flow step
1-8
secure remote provisioning
1-2
Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
Version 3.01
IN-3
Index
server
U
authentication
1-9
1-9
UID1 macro
4-9
server certificates
UID2 macro
4-9
certificate
generating
UPGCOND macro
1-13
obtaining
UPGERR macro
1-13
server configuration, troubleshooting
SERVIP macro
SERV macro
UPGST macro
1-10
signing root authorities
5-vii
SPA2102
5-vii
SPA3102
5-vii
SPA9000
5-vii
User account
4-5
1-5
1-14
User-Agent request field
1-13
W
SPA provisioning flow
Win32 environment, SPC for
5-viii
WRTP54G
1-6
1-6
5-vii
1-5
SP-CUST flow step
SSL
4-5
4-8
User-Agent field
1-11
SPA900 Series IP phones
SPC
4-5
4-8
UPGTMR macro
1-9
4-8
SPA1001
Upgrade_Enable parameter
Upgrade_Rule parameter
4-8
software tools
4-8
Upgrade_Error_Retry_Delay parameter
4-8
setup, provisioning
SN macro
1-11
4-8
1-7
X
1-2, 1-8
ssldump utility
1-11
X00 error code
4-9
SWVER macro
4-8
X20 error code
4-9
X40 error code
4-9
X60 error code
4-9
symmetric key encryption
syslog servers
1-2
1-4, 1-15
XML-style format
1-5
T
technical support
TFTP
5-ix
1-12
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA cipher
suite 1-14
tools, software
1-11
transport protocols, supported
1-2
troubleshooting server configuration
1-11
Linksys SPA Provisioning Guide
IN-4
Version 3.01