Remote Processing Coorporation RPC-320 User`s manual

RPC-2350 USER'S MANUAL
NOTICE TO USER
Copyr ight 2001 - Re mote P rocessing Cor poration. All
rights reserved. However, any part of this document
may be reproduc ed with Remote Proce ssing cited as the
source.
The infor mation co ntained in this m anual is believe d to
be correct. However, Remote Pr ocessing assumes no
responsibility for any of the circuits described herein,
conveys no license under any patent or other right, and
make no repre sentations that the circuits are free from
patent infringement. Rem ote Processing makes no
representation or warr anty that such applications will be
suitable for the use specified without further testing or
modification. The user must decide fitness for a
particular use.
The con tents of this ma nual and the sp ecifications her ein
may change without notice.
TRADEMARKS
CAM BASIC™ and PC Sm artLINK™ are trademar ks of
Octagon Systems Corpor ation.
Remote Pr ocessing Corporation' s general policy does not
recomm end the use of its products in life support or
applications where the failure or malfunction of a board
may threaten life or injury. Install redundant or backup
safety systems as appropriate to the application.
Microsoft® BASIC is a trademark of M icrosoft
Corpor ation.
Microsoft® Windows®, Windows 95® , and Windows
98® are trademar ks of Microsoft Corpor ation.
FCC AND EMI NOTICE
Windows Ter minal is registered with Microsoft
Corpor ation.
The RPC-2350 and RPC-2350G is intended as an OEM
product in an industrial environment. It was not tested
for E MI r adiation. When op erated o utside a suitable
enclosure, the board and any cables com ing from the
board w ill radiate har mful signals th at interfer e with
consumer and industrial radio frequencies. It is your
responsibility properly to shield the RPC-2350/ 2350G
and cables coming from it to prevent such interference.
Hyper Ter m is copyr ight by Hilgr aeve Inc. and is
developed for Microsoft Cor poration.
Procomm is copyright by Datastorm Technologies, part
of Symantec Corpor ation
Remote Pr ocessing Corporation
7975 E. Har vard Ave.
Denver, Co 80231
Ph. : (303) 690 1588
Fax: (303) 690 1875
www. rp3.c om
info@rp3.com
P/N
1761
Revision: 1.4
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OVER VI E W
MANUAL ORGANIZATION .
MANUAL CONVENTIONS . .
Symbols and Term inology
DEM ONSTR ATION DISK . .
TECHNICA L SUPPORT . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
CHAPTER 1
. . . . . . . . 1
. . . . . . . . 1
. . . . . . . . 2
. . . . . . . . 2
. . . . . . . . 2
SETUP AND OPERATION
CHAPTER 2
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
COMMUNICATION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . 2
Windows mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
FIRST TIME OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
UPLOADING AND DOWNLOADING
P R OG R AM S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Uploading - Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Uploading - SmartLink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Downloading - Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Downloading program s - SmartLink . . . . . . 4
Other communications software . . . . . . . . . 4
DE VE L OPI N G P RO G RA M S IN WIN D O W S . . . 5
EDITING PROGRAMS AND HINTS . . . . . . . . 5
Writing with line numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Writing without line numbers . . . . . . . . . . 6
PROGRAMMING TIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Finding v ariables, keywor ds, a nd labels . . . . 7
Faster, shorter IF-THEN's . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Use par enthesis (or brack ets) . . . . . . . . . . 7
WHERE TO G O FROM H ERE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
SAVING AND LINKIN G PRO GRAM S
CHAPTER 3
SAVING A PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
AUTORUNNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
PREVENTING AUTORUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
L O A DI N G P R OG R AM S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
INSTAL LING 128K O R 512K FLA SH . . . . . . . 3
L I NK IN G P RO G RA M S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Program size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Multi-tasking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
DAT A statem ents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Linking within the program . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Declare variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Program Re-entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
SAVING PROGRAMS VS SAVING DATA . . . 4
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
ii
SERIAL PORT S
CHAPTER
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COM1 SERIAL PORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COM2 SERIAL PORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comm unication flow control . . . . . . . . . . .
X O N /X O FF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS-422 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS-485 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS-422/485 Termination network . . . . . . . .
Two- and four- wir e RS-485 . . . . . . . . . . .
RS-485 Transm itter turn-off . . . . . . . . . . .
Two-wire R S-485 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network r esponse time considerations . . . . .
Multi-drop Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACCESSING SERIAL BUFFERS . . . . . . . . . .
DISABLING PROGRAM BREAK . . . . . . . . . .
SPI PORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPI Port connector type inform ation . . . . . .
SERIAL PORT FILE NU MBERS . . . . . . . . . .
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SERIAL CABLE PIN OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
6
7
DATA MEMORY
CHAPTER
BATTERY BACKUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternate battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STORING VARIABLES IN RAM . . . . . . . . . .
CAM BASIC memory m ap . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flash Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving and In itializing Ar rays and data . . . .
Mapp ing your sto red data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considera tions for saving to Flash . . . . . . .
Using L OAD to transfer data . . . . . . . . . . .
INSTALLING 512K RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CORRUPTED VARIABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE INTERFACE . . . . .
E X A M PL E P RO G RA M S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
4
5
5
5
6
7
7
DIGITA L LINE S
CHAPTER
DIGITAL I/O PORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pull up resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High curr ent output at J3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High current output at P2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interfacing to an opto-module rack . . . . . . .
Configuring digital I/O lines . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital I/O progra mming . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connector pin out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connector pin out - J3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIGITAL I/O WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
RPC-2350 USER'S MANUAL
CHAPTER 7
. . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . . . .9
INTER RUPT S
CHA PTER
INTER RUPT HAN DLIN G BY CA MBASIC . .
HARDWARE INTERRUPTS . . . . . . . . . . . .
SOFTWARE INTERRUPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
. 1
. 1
. 2
.2
ANALOG I/O
CHAPTER 8
C ONNE C T IN G A N A L OG I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Initializing Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Differential Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Examples using CON FIG AIN . . . . . . . . . 2
ACQUIRING ANALOG DATA . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Data logging on a timer tick . . . . . . . . . . . 3
MEASURING HIGHER VOLTAGES . . . . . . . . 3
CONVERTING ANALOG MEASUREMENTS TO
REAL WORLD UNITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
oise Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
CALIBRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
ANALOG OUTPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
IC Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Program ming voltage output . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Output Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
mA. OUTPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
IC Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Current loop power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
POWER SUPPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
MULTI-MOD E COUNT ER
CHA PTER
COUNTER INPUTS AND OUTPUTS . . . . . .
Interrupt selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HIGH VOLTAGE INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program E xamples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAM BASIC resolution lim it . . . . . . . . . .
MEASURING PULSE WIDTH . . . . . . . . . . .
J10 Pin out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
. 3
. 3
. 4
. 4
. 4
. 5
. 5
. 6
.6
CALE NDAR /CLO CK
S E TT I NG D A TE A N D T I M E
YEAR 2000 AND BEYOND
CLOCK INTERRUPTS . . . .
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
KEYPAD PORT
PROGRAMMING THE KEYPAD
Program Explanation . . . . . .
Keypad Comm ands . . . . . . .
KEYP AD P ORT P IN OU T - J5 . .
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
CHAPTER 9
. . . . . . . . 1
. . . . . . . . 2
. . . . . . . . 2
. . . . . . . . 2
. . . . . . . .2
DISPLA Y POR TS CHA PTER 10
LCD CHA RAC TER P ORT J6 . . . .
Configuring J6 for a display . .
USING TWO DISPLAYS . . . . . .
DISPLAY CONNECTOR PIN OUT
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
CHA PTER 15
DISPLAY INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Display sno w or sp arkle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
CONNECTING A DISPLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
LCD D isplay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
EL Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Verify operation - both display types . . . . . . 2
DISPLAY LAYERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CONTRAST ADJUSTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Mechanical Contrast Adjustment . . . . . . . . 3
Software Contrast C ontrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
PRINTING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Positioning text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Printing normal and reverse characters . . . . . 4
The s emi-c olon (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Scrolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
CHANGING AND LOADING FONTS . . . . . . . 5
CLEAR, FILL, AND XOR AREAS . . . . . . . . . 5
LOAD AND SAVE SCREENS . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Calcula ting graph ic mem ory r equirem ents . . 6
Making and saving custom graphics . . . . . . 6
ADDITIONAL SCREEN CONTROLS . . . . . . . 7
Changing cursor size or form . . . . . . . . . . 7
Sc re e n fla shing and sc ree n ON /O FF . . . . . . 7
Screen overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
D ispla y pow er O N /O FF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Display mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
PRINT AND DISPLAY TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . 9
EL DISPLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
CABLE PIN OUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1
1
1
2
2
SOUND/TIMER OUTPUT
CHA PTER 11
CONNECTING TO A SPEAKER . . . . . . . . . . 1
WATCHD OG TIMER
CHA PTER 12
PROGRAM EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
POWER & EXPANSION PORT
POWER INPUT . . . . . . .
POWER OUTPUT . . . . . .
Heat sinking . . . . . . .
EXPANSION PORT P1 . . .
CHA PTER
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
16
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 2
RESOU RCES
CHA PTER
RESOURCE LISTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part distributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VF displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LCD ’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stepper Motor C ontrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPTO m odules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isolated RS-485 and communications . . . .
Temperature sensors and transmitters . . . .
17
. 1
. 1
. 1
.1
. 1
. 1
. 2
. 2
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
ELECTRICAL . . . . . . . . . .
MECHANICAL . . . . . . . . . .
MEMORY AND I/O MAP . . .
JUMPER DESCRIPTIONS . .
CONNECTOR DESCRIPTION
BOARD OUTLINE . . . . . . .
18
. 1
. 2
. 2
. 3
. 4
. 5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
CHA PTER
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
iv
CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW
is supporte d by Basic com mands. A com plete
description of CAMBA SIC comm ands is in the
CAMBASIC Programming Guide.
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
OVERVIEW CHA PTER 1
Ž Brief description of the RPC-2350 and RPC-2350G
Ž How this manual is organized
Ž How to get technical support
Ž Application disk
Program development can take place on your PC, using
your word processor, or on the RPC-2350. Programs
from your P C can be downloaded using PC SmartLink
or other serial communication program.
DESCRIPTION
Customization
We can customize the RPC -2350 for your production
needs. Some exam ples include latching connectors,
installing a specific combination of memory, soldering
IC’s directly to the board (where practical), and
remov ing components for cost reductions. You must
purchase at least 25 boards and allow for extra lead time.
We can provide you with a firm quote ahead of time.
The RP C-2350 is an embe dded contr oller with a built in
Basic language. The RP C-2350G also includes a
graphics display interface. Other features include:
‚ Built in CAMBASIC pr ogramm ing language
autoruns at power up. On card Flash EPROM
program mer save s program s.
‚ Eight single e nded or 4 differen tial analog inputs
MANUAL ORGANIZATION
convert voltage inputs to a digital value using a 12 bit (4096 count) A/D converter. Two 12-bit analog
or 4-20 mA. outputs also available.
This m anual pro vides all the infor mation r equired to
install, configure, and use the features on the RPC -2350.
The manual is organized by function. T he first section
deals with getting the board operational. Other sections
address on boar d I/O and capabilities.
‚ Keypad port for an operator interface.
The 16
position keypad is automatically scanned and is read
using the KEYPAD command.
This manual makes refer ences to the RPC-2350. The
RPC -2350 and RP C-2350G are very similar. Unless
otherwise noted, ever ything that applies to the RPC-2350
also applies to the RPC-2350G.
‚ Two RS-232 serial ports are pr ogramm able for baud
rate, par ity, length, and stop bits. Both inputs and
outputs have a 256-byte buffer.
‚ A watchdog timer resets the card if the program
This manual assumes you are fam iliar with some type of
BASIC progr amming software. The syntax used by
CAM BASIC is similar to Microsoft' s GW or
QuickBASIC. If you are not experienced with BASIC
software, you may want to refer to books and training
programs available through your local software store.
The CAMBA SIC Programming Manual has information
and examples for all command s.
"crashes. ” T he timer is enabled and disabled by
software.
‚ 48 general purpose digital I/O lines, 8 of which are
high curr ent outputs. These lines can connec t to
another opto rack.
‚ 128K of battery backed RAM is standard. A 512K
RAM optionally available.
NOTE:
‚ Built in EPROM pr ogramm er save program s for
autorun on power up or r eset.
The RP C-2350 uses a Z 8S180 C PU o perating d ouble
clocked at 18 MH Z. Double c locked oper ation mak es it
twice as fast as its equivalent 64180 CPU. The board
operates stand alone or on an RS-485 network. Its 5.0"
x 8.0" size makes it easy to mount in a NEMA box.
The RPC -2350 uses a Zilog Z8S180
processor. Additional information can be
obtained from Zilog at www .zilog. com or
your local representative.
MANUAL CONVENTIONS
The RPC-2350 and RPC-2350G are very similar.
Unless otherw ise noted, r eferences to the RP C-2350 also
apply to the RPC-2350G. The primary differences
between the two boards are power input and graphics
display capability.
CAM BASIC progr amm ing language is standard . T his
language is similar to Microsoft GW Basic. All hardware
1-1
OVERVIEW
CHAPTER 1
The hexadecimal notation used in this manual and by
CAM BASIC is the ampersand charac ter (&) before the
number. A &8C stands for 8C hexadecimal
Information appearing on your screen is shown in a
different type.
Example:
DEMONSTRATION DISK
CAM BASIC (tm) V1.4
© 1985-94 Octagon Systems Corporation
© 1999 Remote Processing Corporation
All rights reserved - free 32434
A disk with many sa mple pr ogram s is included w ith this
manual. T his manual references progr ams on the disk.
You may use the code on these disks in your own
CAM BASIC progr am. These program s are for
demonstration purposes only and there is a good
probability you will modify them to suit your needs (i.e.,
safety checks).
Symbols and Term inology
NOTE: Text under this heading is helpful information.
It is intended to act as a reminder of some
interaction with another part of the manual or
device that may not be obviou s.
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
If you have a question about the RPC-2350 or
CAM BASIC used on it and ca nnot find it in this ma nual,
call us and ask fo r technica l support.
WARNING:
Information under this heading warns you of
situations that might cause catastrophic or
irreversible damage.
Wn[-]
When you call, please have your R PC-2350 and
CAM BASIC manuals ready. Sometimes knowing what
the RPC-2350 is used for is helpful, so please be ready
to describe its application and the problem.
Denotes jump er block pins.
< xxx> Paired angle brackets are used to indicate a
specific key o n your ke yboard . F or exam ple
< esc> means the escape key.
Phone: 303-690-1588
FAX: 303-690-1875
E-mail: info@r p3.com
BASIC uses decimal convention for designating
addresses and data. There are times, however, when
hexadecimal notation is more convenient to use.
1-2
CHAPTER 2
SETUP AND OPERATION
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
SETUP AND O PERATION CHA PTER 2
Ž Running the RPC-2350 for the first time
Ž How to run und er D OS and W indows env ironm ents
Ž Uploading and downloading programs
Ž Handy pr ogram ming techniques
Ž Developing in Windows
Ž Troubleshooting if it does not work right away
INTRODUCTION
The RPC -2350 and RPC-2350G are very similar. The
major difference is the RPC -2350G has graphics control
software and hardwar e. The m emory m aps between the
two boar ds are diff erent.
This manua l will refer to the RP C-2350. Unless
otherwise expressed, the same information applies to the
RPC-2350G.
The RP C-2350 is ready to p rogr am w hen you con nect it
to a terminal or PC and apply power. This chapter
describes what is needed to get a sign on message and
begin programm ing.
2-1
SETUP AND OPERATION
CHAPTER 2
EQUIPMENT
Requirements for uploading and downloading programs
are discussed. A " Where to go from here" section
directs you to the chapters to read to use the various
capabilities of the RPC-2350 F inally, a troubleshooting
section helps on the most com mon pro blems.
You will need the following equipment to begin using the
RPC-2350:
RPC-2350 embedded controller
A PC with a serial port and communications
program
VTC -9 serial ca ble
+ 5, 300 m A. pow er supply or
7 to 30V applied to “7-30V” terminal on P2.
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS
The RPC-2350 is designed to handle a wide temperature
range and operating conditions. These characteristics
requir e using CM OS com ponents. CM OS ar e static
sensitive. T o avoid damaging these c omponents,
observe the following precautions before handling the
RPC-2350.
1.
2.
Do not connect any a ccessory com ponents, suc h as a
display or keypad, to the board until you are sure the
board w orks in you r envir onmen t.
Ground yourself before handling the RPC -2350
or plugging in cables. Static electricity can
easily arc through cables and to the card.
Simply touching a metal part on your PC can
greatly reduce static.
The CAMBA SIC Programming Manual is strongly
recommended. It can be downloaded free at our web
site (www. rp3.c om). Refer to Chapter 4 Se rial Ports
for wiring information to make your own cable.
COMMUNICATION PROGRAM
Do not insert or remove components when
power is applied. While the ca rd is a + 5 volt
only system, other voltages are generated on
the card.
A terminal progr am is used to talk with the RPC-2350
2-2
CHAPTER 2
SETUP AND OPERATION
download time.
board. All programm ing and initial communication
between the RPC-2350 and outside wor ld is done
through RS-232.
DOS mode
Start your serial communication program (PC
Smar tLink, Proc omm , or other). Set the CO M por t to
the one you will be using.
The terminal progr am you use depends upon the
operating environment. The vast majority of
environments are PC ’s operating either DOS or
Microsoft Windows. If you are using another operating
environm ent, then just r ead “ All terminal pr ogram s”
below and set up your terminal program accordingly.
Windows mode
You may use either Windows 3.1 Terminal or Windows
95 Hyper Term commu nication progra ms. For a fast
setup, use on e of the following files:
All terminal programs
Set communication parameter s to
Baud rate:
Data length:
Parity:
Stop bits
CAMBASIC.TRM
CAMBASIC.HT
19200
8
none
1
Windows terminal
Hyper terminal
Make sure you set the COM port number under
“P roperties. ”
See “ Develo ping prog ram s in Window s” late r in this
section for more information on wr iting and editing
program s.
The RP C-2350 does not send a CTS signal on its
communication port. If your terminal or comm unications
software requires this or other signals (DCD , D SR), you
may have to tie them to the appropriate levels. You can
probably ignore these lines in software. Windows
Term inal and Hyper Ter minal, P C Smar tLink, or
Procomm does not need them.
FIRST TIME OPERATION
Make sure your terminal is set up as described above.
Become familiar with the locations of the connectors
before getting started. See Figure 2-1.
Set “handshake” control to “none” or O FF as
appropriate.
RPC -2350 jum pers hav e been set at the factory to
operate the system immediately. For first time
operation, do not install any connectors or parts unless
specified belo w. Jumper s should be kep t in default
positions.
Default communication method between the RP C-2350
and PC is RS-232 ASC II. This includes file upload and
download. O ther protocols such as XMOD EM ar e not
used.
A terminal program should be able to recognize a
‘prom pt’ chara cter. A prom pt chara cter is used to
control a transfer when sending a file (as is done during
a program download). W hen the RPC-2350 sends a ‘> ’
prompt character , it is saying “OK to send the next
line.” Standard Windows Hyper Term does not allow
this. Windows Te rminal, Procom m and PC SmartLink
do.
1.
The RPC-2350 requires + 5 ±0.25 VDC at 300 mA.
The RPC-2350G can use + 5V or 6.5 to 30 VDC at
150 to 320 m A. (Cur rent dr aw depe nds upon supp ly
voltage. Mor e voltage = less current).
Make sure pow er is off. Connec t the power supply
to the appropriately marked terminals on the RPC2350 or RPC-2350G.
If your terminal program does not allow for prompt
charac ters dur ing text trans fers, next best is to put a
delay between sending lines (as is done in HyperTerm
and Terminal). How much depends upon what you are
sending. If you are downloading a small progr am (<
1000 lines), then 1/10 second is plenty of time. If you
are downloading data files, then you may need more
time, depending upon the complexity. The major
penalty when downloading with delays is increased
+ 5V is connected to P2, “+ 5V”. Make sure
jumper W8 is not installed.
7 to 30 VDC is connected to P2, “7-30V” (RPC2350G only). M ake sure jumper W 8 is installed.
2-3
SETUP AND OPERATION
CHAPTER 2
Figure 2-2 Pow er connector detail
Ground is connected to “GND”
“+ 5V” can be pow er input or output. When W 8 is
installed on the RPC-2350G, it is power output. When
W8 is not installed, it is power input. See Chapter 16 for
more inform ation.
Figure 2-3 Pow er and jumper location detail
“SWP WR” is a high current switch to ground. See
Chapter 6, High current output at P2 for more
information.
2.
Connect one end of the VTC -9 connector to the 10
pin COM 1 (programm ing) port on the RPC-2350.
Refer to Figure 2-1 for conne ctor location.
3.
Start your terminal progr am (if not running
already).
4.
Turn on your pow er supply. On pow er up a
copyright message is printed.
CAMBASIC (tm) V1.4
(c)1985-94 Octagon Systems Corporation
(c)1999 Remote Processing Corporation
All rights reserved - free 32434
Connect the VTC-9 serial cable to the PC' s COM1
or C OM 2 port .
If a nonsense message appears, your terminal or PC
may not be set to the appropriate communication
parameters. If the system still does not respond,
refer to "T ROU BLESH OOT ING" later in this
chapter.
4.
The system is now in the " imme diate mod e" and is
ready for you to start program ming. T ype the
following program (in upper or lower case:
10
20
30
40
FOR X = 0 TO 2
PRINT " Hello ";
NEXT
PRINT
Now type RUN
The system will display:
Hello Hello Hello
2-4
CHAPTER 2
SETUP AND OPERATION
Depending upon the program (Terminal or HyperTerm)
you will see progr ess on your scr een in different way s.
UPLOADING AND DOWNLOADING
PROGRAMS
You may need to change the amount of delay between
lines. This is set under “P roperties”, ”A SCII Setup”.
1/10 second is usually ade quate for all progr am sizes.
You can set it to 10 milli-seco nds if your progr am is
small (unde r 500 lines) . A s the progr am gets lar ger, this
time should increase . A result of a sh ort delay tim e is
missing or gar bled progra m lines.
Downloading program s means transferring them fr om
your computer to RA M on the RPC -2350. Uploading
means transferring pr ograms from RAM back to your
computer . T his section explains how to do both of these
procedures using PC SmartLink and both Windows
terminal programs. Gener alized instructions for other
terminal programs are given at the end of this chapter.
Downloading programs - SmartLink
To practice downloading a program , type
Uploading - Windows
In the previous section, you wrote a test program. To
upload that progr am to a PC and save it to disk, first
type “list” but do not hit the < Enter> key.
NEW<return>
Perform the following when using PC SmartL ink:
Select “Tr ansfer” then “ Capture to disk”. Enter the
name you w ant to save it as.
After that window closes, hit the enter key. The
program will be listed and captured by the terminal
program. To stop capture, select “Transfer” then
“Capture to disk” again. Then select stop transfer.
Your progr am is now saved.
Uploading - SmartLink
In the previous section, you wrote a test program. To
upload that program to a PC and save it to disk:
1.
Pre ss the < F1> key. A windo w with the main
menu will appear.
2.
Press the letter U (upper or lower case). Your
program will begin to transfer from RAM to the
PC. When m enu appears.
3.
4.
1.
Press the < F1> key to view the main menu.
2.
Smar tLink has a b uffer w hich is used to tem porar ily
store the progr am. If you followed these
instructions without exiting SmartLink, the
previously uploaded program is in the buffer and
may be dow nloaded. Howeve r, lets assume you just
started SmartLink. Press the L key to get the
program from the disk.
3.
Enter the filename to get the file.
4.
Press D to download the program.
5.
Press the < F2> key to return to the program. You
can list the program by typing:
list
To save a program to disk, type the letter S. You
are prompted for a file name. Enter the file name
you want the program saved under.
or
/
Press < F2> to return to the immediate mode.
Other communications software
The following is general information when using another
terminal emulation program (Procomm , etc. ).
NOTE: Some ve rsions of P C Sm artLin k have pull
down menus or will operate differently. Refer
to the SmartLink manual for the version you
are using.
When uploading or downloading files, select ASCII text
format. Other forma ts are not used.
Downloading - Windows
Select “Tr ansfer” then “ Send Text file”. Select the
program . D ownloading begins.
CAM BASIC does not know when you are typing in a
progr am or if something else (laptop or mainfr ame) is
sending it char acters. The uploa d and dow nload file
does not conta in any special c ontrol cod es, it is sim ply
ASCII cha racters.
For test purposes, select one of the programs on the
RPC-2350 dem o disk.
2-5
SETUP AND OPERATION
CHAPTER 2
The following setup files are on the 2350 applications
disk. Use these to quickly set up yo ur ter minal.
Uploading programs is simply a process of receiving an
ASCII file. Y ou or your progr am simply needs to send
"LIST" to receive the entire program.
CAMBASIC.TRM
CAMBASIC.HT
Downloading a program requires transmitting an ASCII
file. CAMBASIC is an incremental line compiler. As
you type in (or download) a line, CAMBASIC com piles
that line. The tim e to comp ile a line depend s upon its
complexity and how many line of code have been
entered.
Windows terminal
Hyper terminal
You may have to change the CO M port to match your
system. T hese set up files put the terminal in the
following configuration:
Baud:
Parity:
Data:
Stop:
Flow:
Line delay:
CAM BASIC must finish compiling a line before starting
the next one. When a line is compiled, a "> " character
is sent by the card. This should be your terminal
program s pacing character when downloading a
program.
19200
none
8 bits
1 bit
None
0.01 sec
Do NOT use FIFO buffers in HyperTerm.
If your communications program cannot look for a
pacing prompt, set it to delay transmission after each line
is sent. A 100 ms delay is usually adequate, but your
CAM BASIC progr am may be long and complex and
requir e mor e time. A resu lt of a short de lay time is
missing or gar bled progra m lines.
Editing, downloading, and pasting are easy using
Notepa d or W ordpad . T hese pro gram s allow you to e dit
a program, save it, then download it using HyperTerm.
Download code using text transfers.
To change a portion of code, you can m ake the change
then copy the new line. In HyperTerm , select Edit, then
Paste to Host and the new line will be sent. Terminal
does not have this feature. If you are writing code
without line num bers, be sure to p ut the line num ber in
first. In all cases, you will have to hit < Enter > to
finish the line.
COM 1 on the RPC-2350 does not recognize the CT S or
RTS lines. The CTS line is pulled high on the RPC2350. The effect of not recognizing these lines is your
PC or terminal cannot hold off the RPC-2350' s
transmission. C onverse, the RP C-2350 cannot hold off
the host from sending it data.
D E V EL O P IN G P RO G R A M S I N W IN D O W S
When you save a program , be sure to save it as a text
file. Wordpad tends to be a little more annoying than
Notepa d because it alw ays asks you w hat kind of file to
save it as. Notepad does not. These program s may
append a .txt extension to the file name. This is OK.
Programs can be completely written and downloaded
using programs norm ally available in Microsoft
Windows. The two program s you need are a terminal
program (HyperTer m or Ter minal) and an editing
progr am (N otepad, Wor dpad, Wor d, e tc.). Both
program s can be open at the same time, ma king editing
and changing just that much easier. Just switch between
the two programs (using < Alt> -< Tab> or clicking
the task bar).
When using the line edit feature in CAMBASIC you may
see some extra characters and num bers on the display.
Try to ignore them as best you can.
EDITING PROGRAMS AND HINTS
Versions of Word will not let the terminal program open
the file you are wor king on. Y ou actually have to close
the file in Wo rd befor e you can do wnload it.
Files uploaded or downloaded are simply ASCII DOS
text files. No special characters or control codes are
used. You m ay create and edit programs using your
favorite word processor or editor. Just be sure to save
files in DO S text form at.
There are tw o ways you can write CA MBASIC
progr ams: With or without line num bers. Even this is
not hard and fast as you can write using a mixture.
2-6
CHAPTER 2
SETUP AND OPERATION
You can wr ite a program in lower case cha racters.
CAM BASIC translates them to upper case.
from 1500 to 2500. The program mer m ust determine
the number of lines required for each section.
Some program mers put "N EW" as the first line in the
file. During debugging, it is common to insert
"temporary" lines. Adding NEW ensures that these lines
are gon e. D ownloadin g time is incr eased wh en the old
progr am is still pre sent.
When replacing a program or section, downloading time
is increased. Blocks of line numbers cannot be
renumber ed by CAM BASIC when other par ts of the
program are installed. However , if a particular section
is the only program downloaded, then line renumbering
in that range is possible. Refer to the CAM BASIC
RENU M comm and.
Instead of uploading and downloading programs, you can
save them to the on car d Flash E PRO M. This is useful if
you are using a terminal to write programs. Make sure
the 'A utorun' jumper is installed (See Chapter 3
SAVING PROGRAMS). To prevent automatic program
execution on power up, inser t the STOP statement at the
beginning of the program (such as line 1). When you
power up the RP C-2350 , the progr am is tra nsferr ed into
RAM and executed. Delete the progr am line with the
STOP statement to norm ally start progr ams.
CAM BASIC automatically formats a line for minimum
code space and increased readability. For example, you
could download the following line of code:
10 fora=0to5
When you listed this line, it would appear as:
10 FOR A = 0 TO 5
Writing with line numbers
You can manually enter line nu mber s. T he prob lem is
when you have to add another line. It is quite common
for program s to grow and run out of line numbers. You
can execute the RE RUM comma nd to renum ber lines.
Spaces are initially displayed but not stored. The
following line:
10 for a
=
0
to
5
would be compressed and displayed as in the second
example above. Spaces ar e removed.
A technique used to further program documentation and
reduce code space is the use of comments in a
downloaded file. For example, you could have the
following in a file written on your editor:
Writing without line numbers
Many progr amming languages such as C and versions of
BASIC and do not use line numbers. CA MBASIC uses
line numbers simply because you can edit them through a
serial ter minal.
'Check VAT temperature
'Read the output from the RTD and
' calculate the temperature
2200 a = ain(0) :'Get temp
You can write and edit CAM BASIC progr ams without
using line num bers. This ma kes for m uch mor e reada ble
code.
The first 3 comments downloaded to the RPC -2350
are ignored. Similarly, the empty lines between
comm ents are a lso ignored . L ine 2200, with its
comment, is a part of the program and could be listed.
The m ajor pena lty by wr iting a progr am this w ay is
increased download time.
The demo program NOLINES.BAS is such a program.
(Other program demos may also not use line numbers. )
The key is to use the AUTO com mand. This command
automatic ally assigns a num ber to eac h progr am line as it
is entered.
NOTE: Some ve rsions of P C Sm artLin k may op tionally
strip comments before downloading. Check
your manual to see if this option is available.
There are a few things you have to keep in mind.
1. Put the N EW statement at the start of the
program file. This removes old code.
If you like to write programs in separate modules, you
can download them separately. M odules are assigned
blocks of line numbers. Start up code might be from 1
to 999. Interrupt handling (keypad, serial ports) might
be from lines 1000 to 1499. Display output might be
2. You must use the remark statement (') in lines
that do not have any code. This is because AUTO
2-7
SETUP AND OPERATION
CHAPTER 2
stops giving line numbers when two < CR> 's are
received.
GOT O or GOS UB.
3. U se labels after GO TO and G OSUB statem ents.
Do not assign line numbers (except as noted in 4
below) since they will change.
Use parenth esis (or brackets)
When IF-T HEN statements do not execute properly (and
formulas too), break it up using parens. For exam ple:
IF A - B*C AND D = C*B - D/8 OR 15 THEN ...
4. O N GO TO and O N GO SUB cannot use labels.
The tr ick here is to assign a line num ber w ay high in
the program count. Then, at these lines, use GOTO
.. label. NOLIN ES.BAS shows how this is done.
The question the compiler asks is "What are you doing
here?" True, there is an order of precedence, but often
times the assumptions made by the programm er vs
compiler order will differ. Use parens as shown below.
Use the AUTO statement to segment your program.
AUT O can num ber star ting at any location . T his is
useful to place ON G OTO and ON G OSUB locations.
IF A-(B*(C AND D))=C*B-((D/8)OR15) THEN
Generally, you can go 7 levels of parens without
reachin g the com pilers lim it.
AUTO is terminated when two sequential < CR> ’s are
received.
PROGRAMMING TIPS
Manuals can be full of information. Som etimes it’s
overwhelming. This section presents a few tips our
customers ha ve given us over the past 15 ye ars.
Finding variables, keywor ds, and labels
The F IND statem ent will search for program labels,
variable names, or even comm and keyw ords. Look in
the CAMBA SIC Programming Manual for more
information.
Fa st e r, shor t er IF-THE N 's
IF-THEN statements are based on zero and non-zero
flags. Consider the following program fragment
a= 5
if a then ..there
executes quicker than
a= 5
if a < > 0 then goto ..there
Notice 2 eleme nts are missing F irst is the inequality test
< > . Next is GOTO . The progr am line is an implied
GOTO.
Another var iation is
a= 5
if a goto ..there
The THEN is implied but you must supply the keyword
2-8
CHAPTER 2
SETUP AND OPERATION
TROUBLESHOOTING
WHERE TO GO FROM HERE
If you w ant to do th is
Go to
chapter
Save a program
3
Autorun a program
3
Know m ore abo ut serial por ts
4
Use the SPI port
4
Using RAM to save variables
5
Storing variables in F lash
5
Configure digital I/O lines
6
Read switch status
6
Use high c urre nt outputs
6
Connect an external opto rack
6
Using calendar/clock
7
Reading vo ltages (Ana log input)
8
Analog output
8
Using a keypad
9
Character display port
10
Sound or timer output
11
Using inter rupts
13
Using high speed counter
14
Graphics display
15
Power input and output
16
Expansion port
16
You pr obably tur ned to this section b ecause you could
not get the sign on message. The following are
troubleshooting hints:
1.
Check the power on the RP C-2350 . A good place is
C13+ and -. If it is below 4.65 volts, the RPC2350 will be r eset. Powe r is 5 ±0. 25 volts. If it
dips intermittently to 4.65 volts (due to switching
noise or ripple), the card w ill reset for about 100
ms. If the noise is frequent enough, the car d will be
in permanent reset. Check U14, pin 6. If it is low
(about 0 volts), then it is in reset. This line shou ld
be high (about + 5 volts).
If you are using a 6-15V supply, make sure it does
not dip below 6V even intermittently. Use a scope
to make sure it does not. A voltmeter m ay not be
good enough.
The same can be said for the 5V supply. Make sure
it does not dip below 4.8V using an oscilloscope.
2.
Check the COM1 port. COM 1 is also known as
console port J1. Rem ove the connector from
COM 1. R efer to the outline dra wing ear lier in this
chapter. Connect an oscilloscope (preferred) or a
voltmeter to pin 3 (Txd ) and gro und. Pin 3 should
be -6 volts or more negative. (Pin 1 is designated
by the ^ sym bol on the conn ector. Pin 3 is next to
it, nearer the key opening.) If you have -6 volts or
more, press the reset switch. If you have a scope
attached, you should see a burst of activity. If you
have a volt m eter, you should see a change in
voltage. Using a Fluke 8060A set to measure AC,
you should see a mom entary rea ding above 2 volts.
Pre ss reset sev eral tim es to make sure it captu res it.
3.
Install the cable and make sure the voltages and
output activity are still there. Output is from pin 3
on the VT C-9. Check to make su re som ething is
not shorting the output.
4.
Check the serial pa ram eters on y our P C or termin al.
They should be set to:
Also, r efer to the table of contents for a listing of major
functions.
19200 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop
If all of this fails, call technical support listed at the front
of the book.
2-9
CHAPTER 3
SAVING AND LINKING PROGRAMS
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
and can be modified. The y can be saved to EPROM for
execution later.
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
The RPC -2350 is set to autorun on power up or reset by
installing a jumper (W 11). W hen autorun is on, the
progr am in E PRO M is loade d into RAM and begins to
execute immediately.
Saving progr ams to Flash
Retrieving pr ogram s from F lash
Load and run two programs
Autorun on reset or power up
Installing 128K or 512K F lash
The EP ROM is write-protected w ith a software lock, so
accidental writes on pow er-on or -off are almost
impossible. You cannot disable the lock except when
executing the SAVE comm and.
DESCRIPTION
SAVING AND LINKING PROGRA MS CHAPTE R 3
Two to 8 programs can be stored in socket U3. U3
normally has a 29C010A Flash type EPROM, which
stores 2 progr ams. Its capacity is 128K bytes.
U3 sock et can acce pt a 29C0 40A type E PRO M. This
type has 512K byte capacity and can store up to 8
program s.
You can store two to eight programs up to a maxim um
size of about 33 K bytes each . A genera l rule to
determine progr am storage requirem ents is one line
requires 40 bytes. 32K bytes would store over 800 lines
of code. Your application could be significantly more or
less, depending upon the number of commands / line,
comments, and print statements. Another indication of
program size is to use the file length as saved on a PC
disk.
Figure 3-1 Flash location and jumpers
The 29C 010A (12 8K) Flas h can stor e 2 progr ams w hile
the 29C040A (512K) stores up to 8 pr ogram s.
SAVING A PROGRAM
Despite the fact you have 128K or 512K RAM installed,
the maxim um pr ogram size CA MBA SIC can run is
about 33K (leaving room for variable storage).
Programs can be chained, however. When programs are
chained, variables from one prog ram can be used in
another.
To save a program , set jumper W 11. You m ay set the
jumper even if the power is on. Remember to discharge
any static electricity before installing or removing the
jumper. For this example, assume you wanted to save
the following program:
10
20
30
40
Data can be saved to and retrieved from this device
using the SAVE and LOA D comm ands. The m aximum
amount of data that can be accessed is limited by the size
of your program less the Flash size.
FOR N = 0 TO 2
PRINT "Hello ";
NEXT
PRINT
If this progr am is not alr eady in, type it in now (o r, if
you prefer, use your own progr am).
The Flash EPROM is non-volatile (retaining data even
when power is disconnected), having an unlimited
numbe r of re ad cycles an d a limited nu mber of write
cycles (about 1, 000 to 10,0 00). U sing 1,000 c ycles as a
limit, you can w rite to F lash once a da y for abo ut 3
years before “wearing out” the device.
You can save your program to any one of two locations:
0 or 1. Prog ram s saved to location 0 will autom atically
run at power up. Syntaxes to save a program are:
SAVE
SAVE program
A pro gram is not run fr om E PRO M. It is transfer red to
RAM and run from there . Pr ograms in RAM are run
3-1
SAVING AND LINKING PROGRAMS
CHAPTER 3
any static electricity before installing or removing the
jumper.
Where ‘program’ is 0 or 1 for 128K Flash or 0 to 7 for
512K Flash installed.
“SA VE” and “ SAVE 0" ar e the same . Both sa ve to
program location 0.
Another way to prevent autorun is to rem ove the
signature bytes from Flash. This is done by writing
&FF ’s into Flash address 0 and 1, segment 8. Use the
following steps to do this.
Type in the following command for this example:
SAVE
dpoke &8000,&ffff
save 8,0,0,0,&8000,2
CAM BASIC will compile the program , progr am the
EPR OM, and verify its contents.
This will overwrite the first 128 to 256 bytes of code and
prevent autorun.
Compile...Write...Verify
LOADING PROGRAMS
The time it takes to do all of this depends upon the
length and co mplexity of the progr am. Gener ally, it w ill
be from 1 to 20 second s. T he read y prom pt (> ) will
appear when the p rogr am has b een succes sfully saved to
the EPROM . If the program does not write to the
EPROM, an error message will appear:
Ther e are tim es when y ou may w ish to tempor arily
modify or otherwise test out a change to a program.
Since the program is loaded into RAM, modifications
can be made without affecting the program in EPROM.
If you find out tha t modification s are not de sirable or did
not work, you can restore the original program to RAM
using the LOAD com mand.
Fail @ xxxx
Saving a pr ogram overw rites the pr evious one. Ther e is
no way to recover it since both occupy the same space.
This version of CAM BASIC can link and run 2
program s with a 128K or 8 with 512K flash. Because of
this linking ability, you should do some things during
development to limit problems. Before loading a new
progr am, enter the fo llowing com mand fir st:
AUTORUNNING
The pr ogram stored using SAVE or SAV E 0 will
autorun. To autorun a program:
new
1.
2.
Make sure there is a program in EP ROM (from
above) stored by using SAVE or SA VE 0.
If you are loading one pr ogram through F lash, saving it,
stopping, then loading an other pr ogram and runn ing it,
you may notice som e oddities, like incorr ect varia ble
values or syntax er rors to lines not in your code. This
oddity is probably due to the program size difference. If
you do not type in NEW to start with, LOA Ding w ill
clobber what is in m emor y and nothing w ill be right.
Make sure the autorun jumpe r W11 is installed.
If you push the reset button, the program should run. If
there are any err ors, the pr ogram will stop (assuming
you have not trapped them with ON E RROR) and
display the error message.
If you are using multitasking routines, such as ON BIT
or ON TIC K, then it is best to reset the board and then
load the pr ogram during de velopme nt.
PREVENTING AUTORUN
When troubleshooting or maintaining a program , it' s not
always co nvenient for an autoexec ute file to run. This is
especially tr ue if the pro gram has been co nfigured to
ignore the < ESC> key. To pr event autorun, re move
jumper W11.
The othe r (and be st) way to take care of th is problem is
to reset the board, then load the program.
Use LOAD 0 to retrieve programs saved using SAVE 0
or SAVE and use LOAD n to retrieve programs saved
using SAVE n. ‘n’ is 0 or 1 for 128K Flash and 0 to 7
for 512K.
Later, if you wish to SAVE or LOAD a program,
reinstall this jumper. You may do so even if the power
is on and a program is running. Remember to discharge
3-2
CHAPTER 3
SAVING AND LINKING PROGRAMS
When developing program s and testing for linking, make
sure you save any changes to Flash before running. Any
changes in program length, especially the first (autorun)
one, c an have adver se, str ange, or disastrous r esults.
When you have saved the changes, pr ess the reset button
to simulate an autorun. NEVER start with program 1
(LOAD 1) then have it load program 0.
SAVING DATA TO FLASH EPROM
Additional data, such as strings and constants, can be
saved to U3 using a variation of the SAVE comm and.
Exactly how much m emory you have depends upon how
many and how large of program(s) you have.
Flash sector size must be considered when saving. The
sector size determines the minimum write ar ea. Thus, if
you were to save just 1 byte, 128 (29C010A type) or 256
(29C04 0A) bytes w ill be written . A ll unwritten data is
saved as FFH.
There are other do’s and don’ts, precautions and
limitations to linking. They are discussed below.
Program size
The first (autorun) program run MUST be larger than
the second, linked program. This is because variables
and data are stored above the program . If the second
progr am w as longer , it w ould wipe the m out. To simp ly
increase pr ogram size, add co mmen ts.
Font are stored starting at address &A C00, segment 9.
This is above program area 1. If space is tight, consider
using a 512K Flash.
Chapter 5 treats saving data to RAM and Flash more
extensively.
Multi-tasking
All multitasking (ON BIT, ON COM $, CO UNT, etc.)
and interrupts are disabled and multi-tasking data cleared
(hash table is zeroed out) when a program is linked.
You must re-enable them in your code. The reason for
this is the operating system stores the address (not line
number ) to execute. When you chan ge progr ams,
addresses change.
INSTALLING 128K OR 512K FLASH
Socket U3 can hold a 128K or 512K Flash EPROM.
Perform the following steps to install a a new Flash:
1)
2)
3)
Remove power from board and r emove existing
EPRO M from U3.
Orient the new Flash so pin 1 is near the edge
of the board. Install the IC.
Set jumper W2 according to memory size:
W2[4-5]
128K (29C010A, 29C010)
W2[5-6]
512K (29C040A)
You can save some selected data by writing it to a
variable. For example, the current count can be saved
just before you LOAD 1 RUN. You will need to reenable the count when you enter the program.
DATA statements
Use RESTOR E to reset the DATA statement pointer
every time you enter a program (if you are using DATA
statements).
LINKING PROGRAMS
One CAMBASIC program can load and run another.
For example , the autorun p rogr am can , at so me point,
run the program in Flash area 1, which can then call the
original one. Using this technique, you can have
program sizes of nearly 70K bytes using a 128K Flash or
245K using a 512K Flash..
Linking within the program
To link to ano ther pr ogram , ex ecute
LOAD n RUN
on its own line. Do not put any other code after it. Do
not make it as part of a c onditional statem ent, as in
This linking is inten ded to be called occasionally
(although we have run programs that have linked
millions of tim es). For example , the second pr ogram is
a set up and ca libration r outine. This will fr ee up ma in
program RAM for variables.
IF A = N THEN LOAD 1 RUN
If you link within a subroutine, DO. .U NTIL, or
FOR..NEXT, execute EXIT CLEAR before LOAD.
Linking in CAMBASIC is not threaded code. It does
replace one program with another while keeping
variables.
.
.
2250
3-3
GOSUB 7000
SAVING AND LINKING PROGRAMS
.
.
7000
.
.
7100
7110
CHAPTER 3
SAVING PROGRAMS VS SAVING DATA
IF A = 0 THEN 7100
A program number and F lash segment are related by the
following formula:
EXIT CLEAR
LOAD 1 RUN
Flash segment = program number + 8
The above example shows how to link to another
program within a subroutine. If you do not use EXIT
CLEAR, you will eventually end up with an <Out of
memory> error.
If you intend to save data to Flash, m ake sure you do not
write to a program area. P rograms are always saved
starting at address 0 and continue until end of program.
You can save data above a program.
Declare variables
All variables, dimensioned arrays, and string variables
should be declared in the first program. These variables
are accessible to both pr ogram s.
The important thing here is to remem ber that saving
program s to Flash and saving data to Flash are related.
Program Re-entry
There is a good chance you will have declared a
dimensioned array or made room for strings in the
autorun progr am. If you do a C LEA R again, all
variables will be cleared.
The following is a list of CAM BASIC commands used
for saving and loading pr ogram s.
COMMANDS
Command
What you m ust do when you enter a progra m is to test
for a re-entry flag at the start. If it is 0, then the
progr am know s to go and do va riable initializa tion. If it
is not 0, then it skips around it. For example:
10
20
30
40
IF FLAG <> 0 THEN 100
CLEAR 500
:’Clear space
DIM WEIGHT(100)
DIM B$(20)
.
. More initialization code
.
100 FLAG = 1:’Signal initialized
110 ON ERR GOTO 10000
120 CONFIG COM$ 2,0,8,0,1
130 ON COM$ 2 GOSUB 2000
LOAD
Transfers program from U3 to RAM
for editing or running.
LOAD n
Transfers pr ogram of specified area of
U 3 to RA M .
LOAD data
Multi-part syntax command that
moves data from F lash to RAM or
RAM to RAM. Refer to Chapter 5 or
the CAMBASIC manual for more
information.
SAVE
Saves a program fr om RAM to U3 for
Autorun
SAVE n
SAVE data
The code will not skip around the multitasking
statements when it is first Autorun. This is because, by
default, all Basic variables are reset to 0. When you link
progr ams, variables rem ain intact.
3-4
Function
Save a program fr om RAM to a
program area of Flash.
Multi-part syntax command that saves
data from RAM to Flash. Refer to
Chapter 5 or the CAMBASIC manual
for more inform ation
CHAPTER 4
SERIAL PORTS
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
SERIAL PORTS CHAPTE R 4
Ž Overview of RPC-2350 serial capabilities
Ž Using RS-422/485
Ž Networking with RS-485
Ž Preven ting program stops (breaks)
Ž SPI port information
DESCRIPTION
The RPC -2350 has two serial ports that can be used for
interfacing to a printer , ter minal, or other ser ial devices.
A SPI p ort is also pr ovided. This chap ter descr ibes their
characteristics and how to use them. F requent
references are m ade to commands listed in the
CAMBA SIC Programming Manual . P lease ref er to this
manual for mor e information.
Figure 4-1 Serial por t connector location
statement, it will accept ASCII character values from 0
to 127. When used with the INKEY$ and COM$
functions, it returns ASCII values from 0 to 255.
No control lines (like CTS or RT S) are available on
COM 1. A pull up resistor is on the CTS output should a
communication program or device require a positive
indication the port is alive.
Serial por ts are num bered C OM 1 and CO M2. COM 1 is
used for program development. It is RS-232 only.
During run time, it can be used for other functions such
as writing to a printer or serial display. COM 2 is a
general purpose serial port. Its outputs can be RS-232,
RS-422, or RS-485 level compatible.
COM2 SERIAL PORT
COM 2 is an RS-232, RS-422, or RS-485 por t. It also
uses a VTC-9F serial cable to connect to PC’s and other
serial devices. CO M2 is identical to COM1 except that
it has 2 hardware handshaking lines, CT S and RTS.
Both ports sup port XO N/ XOF F pr otocol to contr ol data
transmission. Each por t has a 256 character interrupt
driven inp ut and output bu ffer. This allow s charac ters to
be sent out (using PRINT) without slowing down
program execution. Howeve r, if the PRINT buffer fills,
program execution is suspended until the buffer em pties.
Both ports have a 256 character input buffer. When
more than 256 characters have been received, extra ones
are ignored.
NOTE: The CT S output line is low on power up or
reset. This is to prevent the RS-485 transmitter
from turning on and adversely affecting network
communication. RS-232 communication may
be affected by holding off the sender from
sending data. You must enable the CT S output
as described below under “ Comm unication flow
control” .
The baud rate, parity, data length, stop bits, and com
port type are changed using the CONFIG BAUD
command.
Jumper W 4 determines if COM 2 receive is RS-232 or
RS-422/485.
COM1 SERIAL PORT
COM 1 is J1 and is called the Console port on the card.
This port uses a VTC-9F serial cable to connect to a PC
and other external serial devices. The cable is wired
one-to-one, with pin 1 on the 10 pin connector lining up
to pin 1 on the D B-9. T he connec tor plugs dir ectly into
a 9 pin serial port connector on a PC.
W4[1-2]
W4[2-3]
RS-422/485
RS-232
Use CO NFIG BAUD to tell the system the type and
characteristics of this port. Default is RS-232, 19, 200
baud, 8 data, 1 stop bit. .
This port is normally used for program ming. D uring
run tim e it may be u sed as a gene ral pur pose seria l port.
When used for programming or with the INPUT
4-1
SERIAL PORTS
CHAPTER 4
character (ASCII value 13H or < Ctrl-S> ) to the RPC2350 will stop transmission until an XON (A SCII value
11H or < Ctrl-Q> ) is received. This does not over-ride
the RTS input line when RTS is low.
Comm unication flow control
There are tw o methods to control transmission:
Hardware and software. Both are discussed below.
When RTS line in goes low, the RPC-2350 is held off
from transm itting out CO M2. The status of this port is
read by the BIT statement. T he example below returns
the status of the RTS line:
RS-232
The most comm on communication interface is RS-232.
Quite simply, RS-232 defines only ‘0' and ‘1' voltage
levels and transient speeds. It does not define baud rate,
start and stop bit length, parity or the pr otocol. RS-232
is available at J1(COM1) and J4 (COM 2).
100 B = BIT(130,5)
If B = 1, transm ission is held off.
Usually, when people speak of RS-232, they mean
something that is compatible with a PC. H owever, you
must make sure the baud rate, parity, and stop bits are
proper for your device. These ar e set in the CONFIG
BAUD com mand.
You should check this line before executing a PRINT #2
statement. If transmission is held off, the print buffer
can becom e full. PRIN T #2 com mand w ill ‘hang’ until
the buffer accepts all characters in the program line.
This may give the appearance of the program locking up
or running very slowly. This could also result in a
“de adly emb race” situation wher e the rec eiving device is
expecting some other condition before it will receive
character s.
RS-232 is used in point-to-point communication. That
is, one device talks to one other device. Schemes have
been devised to network RS-232.
The maximum baud rate RS-232 supports depends upon
the distance and cable characteristics. As a rule of
thumb, 9600 baud w ill work r eliably to 50 feet.
The CT S line may be set high or low to control
comm unication fr om a dev ice when using RS-232 . T his
line is also used in RS-422/485 comm unication at P3 or
J3 to contro l transm itter output.
RS-422
RS-422 is used for long distance (1000 meter s)
comm unication. It is similar to R S-232 in that it is
point-to-point and the communication “ protocol” is the
same.
When u sing RS-232 comm unications, you may have to
initialize the CT S output to high to allow the sender to
transmit. The examples below show how this is done.
Line 400 sets CTS low and 500 sets it high.
The RS-485 port is used for RS-422 comm unication.
The transmitter is always on. If, for some reason, you
want to shut the transmitter off, execute
400 BIT 128,4,1
500 BIT 128,4,0
A low condition is supposed to hold off a device. Some
devices do not recognize CTS output so this may be a
mute poin t.
BIT 128,4,0
in your co de. To turn the transm itter back o n, e xecute
CTS is used for RS-422/485 communications to turn
on/off the transm itter. Use C ONF IG BAU D to not only
set the baud rate but also the type of communication
protocol. C AMBASIC takes care of the CTS line for
RS-422 and RS-485.
BIT 128,4,1
in your code.
RS-485
RS-485 is a popular networking system. T echnically,
RS-485 only defines electrical specifications, not
protocols. (See M ulti-drop Network below. ) In RS485, the transm itter is turne d on only long e nough to
send a message, then it turns off. Thus, RS-485 allows
multiple units to be put on a single set of wires.
The CO NFIG BAUD statement sets both serial ports for
baud rate and type (RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485) for
COM 2.
XON/XOFF
The so-called XON/XOFF protocol is a software scheme
to e n ab le a nd d isab le trans m itting . S en d in g an X O FF
4-2
CHAPTER 4
SERIAL PORTS
RS-485 mode in the CON FIG BAU D 2 comm and.
RS-485 operates in one of two modes: 2 wir e and 4
wire. ( An extr a wire is actually neede d as signal
reference. ) There are pr o’s and con’s to 2-wire vs 4wire systems and they are not discussed here.
During two wire mode and W6[1-2] is set, the receiver
is turned of f when the transm itter is turne d on. This
keeps the RPC-2350 from receiving what was just sent
out.
Mechanically, to make a 2-wire system, simply connect
T+ to R+ and T- to R- on P3.
NOTE: Do not ope rate RS -485 at 150 ba ud. Autom atic
turn off is not adequate. Contact RP C for sugg estions.
When you connect the RPC -2350 to another device, the
T+ ,T-, R+ and R- signal lines may be reversed. That
is, yo u may ne ed to connec t T+ to T- and so on. This
is due to naming convention confusion when RS-485 was
first introduced.
RS-422/485 OPERATING INFORMATION
RS-422/485 Termination network
When the RPC -2350 is the last physical unit on a
network (RS-485), or it is the only unit (RS-422), the
receiver must be terminated to prevent ringing. Insert
jumpers in W5[1-2][3-4] to install the network
terminator. See figure 4-2 below.
Figur e 4-3 Jum per W 4 & W 6 detail
Two-wire RS-485
Mechanically, to make a 2- wire system, simply connect
T+ to R+ and T- to R -. M ake sure CON FIG BAUD is
set up for RS-485 m ode. Se t jumper W 6[1-2]. T his
prevents data transmitted from getting received.
Network response time considerations
When the last chara cter is sent ou t, an internal tim er is
activated. When the timer is done, the RS-485
transmitter is turned off. The tim er shuts off the
transmitter a bout 1/4 to ½ char acter time after the last
charac ter is sent out. The differ ence is due to sto p bit
and parity requirements and to allow for line settling.
Figure 4-2
Only one slave device on a RS-485 network should have
a terminator installed. The host transmitter shou ld also
have a 100 ohm resistor in series with a 0.1 m fd
capacitor across its T+ and T- terminals. The
term inator on the RPC -2350 include s pull up and pull
down resistors to prevent lines from floating and
generating er roneous char acters.
Normally, this is not a problem. However, if a very
high speed sys tem is contr olling the netw ork, it is
possible two transmitters can be on simultaneously,
garbling data. Any responding systems on the network
should wait at least ½ character time before sending a
message packet. W hen using other 2350' s on a network,
this will not be a pr oblem at 1 9200 baud a nd proba bly
will not be one at lower r ates.
Two- and four- wire R S-485
The RS-485 port on the RPC -2350 is set up for 2- or 4wire mode through jumper W6. This jumper either
always en ables rec eive (W6 [2-3]) or enables it only
when the transmitter is off(W6[1-2]).
W6[1-2]
W6[2-3]
Multi-drop Network
You can use the RPC-2350 in a m ulti-drop network by
using CO M2' s RS-422/ 485 port. You can c onnect up to
at least 32 units (including other RPC-2350's) over a
4,000 foot range.
Receive off while transmitting (2-wire)
Receive always on (4-wire mode)
RS-485 Transmitter turn-off
The RS-485 transmitter is automatically turned on and
off by CAM BASIC operating system. You must specify
The host transmits data packets to all of the devices, or
nodes, in the network. A data packet includes an
4-3
SERIAL PORTS
CHAPTER 4
40 UNIT$ = ">05"
.
.
.
address, com mand, data, and a checksum. See figure 44. The packe t is received by all devices, and ignored by
all except the one addressed.
1000 PACKET$ = COM$(2)
1010 A = INSTR(0,PACKET$,UNIT$)
1020 IF A = 0 THEN RETURN
.
.
Line 20 sets up ON CO M$ to interrupt on a < CR> and
branch to line 1000. Line 40 sets up this card' s address.
Figure 4-4 Data packet
Line 1010 checks to see if the rece ived mess age = this
card's address. If not, the subroutine ends. When there
is a match, further processing is performed.
The relationship described below between nodes and the
host is a maste r-slave. The host dir ects all
co mm u ni ca ti on . N o des " d o n o t s peak u n less sp o ke n to".
Peer to peer com munication, while possible with the
RPC-2350, is not discussed here.
An application program, 485TST. BAS, filters out
control codes (such as < LF> and < CR> ) at the start
of the message. Since CO NFIG COM $ set up a
communication interrupt on a < CR> , your sending
de vice c an a ls o s end a < LF> .
Ther e are m any com municatio n protoco ls. F or this
example, a protocol might look som ething like this:
> 22M B1
485TST .BA S also checks for com municatio n err ors. Its
main pur pose is to detect co mmu nication er rors but it
also acts as a good foundation for a comm unication
program.
The pr otocol starts w ith the < cr> charac ter. This
character synchronizes all units and alerts them that the
next few characters coming down are address and data.
In this case, "> 22" is the units address. "M " is the
comm and and " B1" is the ch ecksum . T he comm and is
terminated with a < cr> character.
485NE T. BAS is a simple networ king progra m. To test
it out, jumper W4[2-3] temporarily. After the program
is running, connect your terminal to J4. Instructions are
printed when the program is first run.
Response depends upon the nature of the command.
S u pp o se th e co m m an d M means " return a d ig ital I/O
port status". T he RPC-2350 could rea d the port and
respond with AA2< cr> . The first A is an
acknowledge, that is no error s were detected in the
message. The data, A2, can be broken do wn as follows:
Bit/line
Status
ACCESSING SERIAL BUFFERS
You can access C OM1 and COM 2 buffers in three w ays:
1.
76543210
1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 = A2
INP UT sta tement. This re moves a ll charac ters in
the buffer up to the term inator cha racter and puts
them into a variable.
When using the INPUT statement, program
execution is susp ended until a < cr> (Enter key) is
received. W hether this is a problem depends on
your particular application.
Lines 1, 5 and 7 are high while the others are low.
The following program fragment uses ON C OM$ in a
network environment. ON C OM$ gener ates an interrupt
when a < CR> is received. The interr upt program uses
INSTR function to determine if the data packet was
addressed to this card.
INPU T strips bit 7 on the COM1 por t. This means
ASCII character s from 0 to 127 are received. The
INPU T statement can return a maxim um string
length of about 150 chara cters.
10 CONFIG BAUD 2,7,4,0,2
20 CONFIG COM$ 2,13,0,0,1
30 ON COM$ 2 GOSUB 1000
2.
4-4
INKEY$(n) function. Characters ar e removed one
at a time. A null string is returned when the buffer
CHAPTER 4
SERIAL PORTS
use as a basis to read and w rite to other SP I devices.
is empty.
In this mode, you have access to the full 256 bytes.
If you don' t read the b uffer an d the buffer fills, all
subsequent characters are discarded. INKEY$(n)
may be used anywhere in the program.
3.
Comm and form at is:
a = SPI(channel,out_length,data, delay,in_length)
Where:
channel = 0 to 2, the SPI channel number.
COM$(n) retrieves all characters in the buffer,
including < cr> ' s and other control co des. This
function is commonly used with ON COM$
multitasking statement. You can retrieve 128 of the
256 bytes in the serial buffer at one time.
out_length = 0 to 16, data outpu t length in bits.
When z ero, no data is shifted ou t. data can be any
value but must be included.
DISABLING PROGRAM BREAK
data = 0 to 65,535, command/data to send to SPI
device.
Program execution can be interrupted by pressing the
< Esc> key. To disable this recognition so the program
does not terminate, put the following command in your
program:
delay = time to wait before retrieving information
from SPI port. T ime in micro-seconds is calculated
as follows: time = delay * 1.1 + 4. If 0 , the re is
no delay. Use 0 if there is no data to retrieve (i.e.
sending to D/A).
1000 CONFIG BREAK port,1
Where port is 1 (J1) or 2 (J4 or P3).
in_length = 0 to 16, data input length in bits. W ill
return a number from 0 to 65535.
SPI PORT
The table below sho ws the location of SPI device selects.
A device is selected when a line goes low.
A software SPI port is provided at J11. SPI (Serial
Peripheral Interface) is used to communicate with a
number of IC’s. These include D /A’s, A/D ’s, U ART’s,
and other devices. J11 provides two chip selec ts.
SPI port number
The optional touch screen interface uses SPI port 1.
The SPI function is used to read and write data.
Unfor tunately, SPI has a v ariety of da ta form ats. D ata
to send and receive from a device can be anywher e from
8 to 24 bits. The clock polarity an d data phase c an idle
high or low when data is latched.
CAM BASIC SPI func tion suppor ts the following f orm at:
Clock idle polarity: low
Clock-data phase: low
This format supports the Maxim MAX186/188 and BurrBrown ADS7843 IC’s. The program SPIDEMO1.BAS
uses t he MAX18 6/1 8 8 to retu rn the res ult o f an A/D
calculation. Functionally, it is the same as the AIN
command.
If your form at needs are differ ent, ther e is a
CAM BASIC program (SPIDE MO2. BAS) that you can
4-5
Location
0
Analog input (U10)
1
J11-4
2
J11-5
SERIAL PORTS
CHAPTER 4
COM1 is J1, the console port. COM2 is J4, the primary
port.
The table below is the pin out for SPI port J11.
Pin No.
Description
1
Clock output to device
2
Serial data to external device
3
Serial data from external device
4
SPI 1 select (active low). Used for touch
screen select.
COMMANDS
The following is a list of CAM BASIC commands used
for serial I/O. Some variations are not listed here. Refer
to the CAMBA SIC Programming Manual for more
information.
Command
Function
5
SPI 2 select (active low)
C L E AR C O M $
Clears serial input buffer
6
+ 5V supply
COM$
Returns string from buffer
7
Ground
CONFIG BREAK
Prevents < ESC> from
stopping the program
CONFIG BAUD
Sets serial port parameters
C O N F IG C O M $
Configures port for ON
COM $(n) interrupt
INKEY$
Returns a character fr om the
serial buffer
INPUT
Receives string or number
from port
LIST
Outputs program listing
O N C OM $
Calls subroutine on serial input
PRINT
Outputs data in various fo rma ts
SPI
Serial I/O for exter nal IC’s
TAB
Tabs to predetermined positions
SPI Port connector type information
The SPI port connector header is a Molex-Waldom type.
Its part number is 22-23-2071. This is a 0.1" center,
0.025 post connector.
The m ating connec tor (ter minal hou sing) part n umber is
22-01-3077. Cr imp terminal part number s are 08-500114 (tin plate) or 08-55-0102 (go ld). A low cost
crimping tool is 63811-1000. Parts and tools are
available from Digi-Key (800 344 4539 or
www.digikey.com)
Other housings and terminals are available (such as high
pressure). Refer to a Molex data book for more
information. A MP M T connectors (such as 87499-1)
can also be used. They fit, but ar e not polarized.
SERIAL PORT FILE NUMBERS
CAM BASIC refer ences the ser ial I/O ports by file
numbers. The following table lists the corresponding
file numbe r to ser ial I/O port and h ow they ar e used with
the various ports.
Description
COM1
COM2
File
1
2
Examples
PRINT "Hello"
PRINT #1," Hello"
INPUT A$
A$ = INKEY$(1)
PRINT #2," Hello"
INPUT #2,A$
A$ = INKEY$(2)
4-6
CHAPTER 4
SERIAL PORTS
SERIAL CABLE PIN OUT
The following is the pin out between the IDC connector
for the RPC-2350 and the D B-9 connector to the PC or
term inal.
IDC pin #
DB-9
pin #
Description
1
nc
2
nc
Direction
from 2350
3
2
Tra nsmit
Out
4
7
RTS
In
5
3
Receive
In
6
8
CTS
Out
7
nc
8
nc
9
5
Ground
10
na
+ 5V
Out
Note that CTS and RT S are not available on J1.
The VTC -9 serial cable is a simple one-to-one
connection b etween a 10-pin ID C conn ector an d 9-pin
IDC DSU B.
4-7
CHAPTER 5
DATA MEMORY
The problem with calculating battery life are variables
beyond our reasonable control. First, memory
manufacturers specify a ‘typical’ current of 1 to 2 microamps and a maximum of 100 (high temperature
operation). Other factors affecting battery life include
operating temperature, clock chip, and time the RPC2350 has power applied to it. You can expect the battery
to last between 3 to 5 years for operation at 25°C. At
50°C, life is about half as much. This is due to battery
deterioration and CMOS leakage increases at higher
tempera tures.
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Battery backup description
Where and how to store va riables
Saving and retr ieving data from F lash
Installing 512K RAM
Discussion about cor rupted da ta
DESCRIPTION
DATA ME MORY
CHAP TER 5
The RP C-2350 is usually installed w ith 128K of RA M in
socket U 2. A n optional 512K can be installed. RAM is
battery backed on bo th models.
Hum idity also affects ba ttery life. Very high humid ity
(in conjunction with a dirty environment) increases
leakage. Low hu midity dr ys out the batter y seal,
allowing contaminates to enter.
This chapter discusses saving and retrieving variables
from RAM and Fla sh EP ROM and runn ing assem bly
language progr ams.
The point of this explanation is to give you the factors
affecting battery life. Under the best of conditions, life
is 7 years. Unde r worse conditions, it could be as low
as 3 months. You can add a larger battery as described
below.
If program and data are battery backed, the UNNEW
command may be used to try to restore the program.
Variables used by the Basic program are clear ed,
howeve r. Cer tain variab les are pr eserve d and data
POKEd into RA M is saved.
Existing battery voltage is measured across W14.
Alternate battery
A larg er 3. 0V batter y can be installed by connectin g it to
W14. Be sure to remove the existing battery. Note the
polarity marked on the board.
STORING VARIABLES IN RAM
The term "var iables" in this context includes numb ers,
strings, arr ays, recipes, and formulas as applied to your
application.
CAMBASIC provides 26 “protected” variables, A%Z%, that are not erased on power up. These are
accessed like other BAS IC variables.
Figure 5-1 M emory location
BATTERY BACKUP
The Flash EP ROM may be used to store variables or
constants, such as text strings, to help reduce the size of
the main program.
Battery life is about 3 years (27,000 hours). See
additional information a few paragraphs below.
Battery B1 is used to back up the RAM and real time
clock
CAM BASIC m emory map
The following diagram is a memory map for the RPC2350.
The installed battery is rated for 190 mA-hours. RAM
(any size) typically requires 1-2 micro-am ps in standby.
The clock r equires typically 3 micro-amps. Assuming 7
micro-Amps of current draw, you could expect 3 years
life from the battery (assuming the board was off the
whole time.)
5-1
DATA MEMORY
CHAPTER 5
PEEK statement to retrieve the variable:
50 B = PEEK(12,1)
You can store and retrieve arrays, strings, and variables
in this way. There ar e many variations of PEE K and
POKE statements. Refer to the CAMBA SIC
Programming Manual for additional information and
examp les. A list of comm ands appea rs at the end of this
chapter.
Flash Memory
Programs are stored in Flash EPROM. Programs are
transferred from Flash to RAM at run time or LOAD.
Data may also be stored in Flash. Below shows the
Flash memor y map.
Figure 5-2 2350 system memory map
Program s and CAM BASIC variables reside in segment
0, between addr ess 00000H and 0FF FFH . Your
variable s (as defined a bove) ar e stored fr om 1000 0H to
1FFF FH (w ith 128K RAM), which is called segment 1,
address 0000H to FF FF H. When 5 12K RA M is
installed, the useful range is from 10000H to 7FFFFH.
A seg m en t h a s a n ad d ress ran g e from 0 00 0 to F F FFH
(or & 0000 to &F FF F using C AM BASIC notation) (in
decimal terms, this is 0 to 65535).
NOTE: Do not use the CAM BASIC SOU ND statement
when the boar d has 512K of RAM or Flash
memory. Sound output is multiplexed with an
address line.
Program and basic variables (A, B(15), C $, etc. ) always
reside in segment 0 and are cleared on reset. A special
set of variables, A% - Z%, reside is segment 0 and are
not cleared on reset. These are floating point numbers
and can be used like any other variable in Basic.
Figure 5-3 Flash memory map
A 128K or 512K F lash type EP ROM may be in stalled in
U3. Jumper W2 configures U3 for Flash size.
Variables you peek and poke to should reside in segment
1 with 128K RAM installed or segments 1-7 with 512K.
PEEK and PO KE commands store and retrieve values
from memor y. For example:
Data may be stored above the progr am in Flash using the
SAVE comm and. The SA VE co mma nd transfe rs data
from RAM to Flash. Fonts for the RPC-2350G are
stored in Flash abo ve progr am 1 starting at F lash address
&1AC 00 (this is segment 9, address &AC 00 when using
SAVE). This will not interfere with your program but
will affect any data storage plans you may have.
20 POKE 12,A,1
puts the value of A into segment 1, address 12. U se the
5-2
CHAPTER 5
DATA MEMORY
How simple do you want to keep the program
How secure does the data have to be (where to store
data - Flash or RAM)
How often is information updated
A CAM BASIC progr am number and Flash segment
when using SAVE are related by the following formula:
SAVE segment = program + 8
Keep track of where you are writing to. Most programs
will only use program area 0. Addresses above &9000
are alw ays available in any prog ram area. How ever, if
you have many program s, you will have to keep track of
where you are saving data to make sure a program does
not get clobbered.
Every application has a different set of priorities. Some
program s are large, but only a few variables are stored.
Others, some data is critical and some are not. Start off
by determining what your storage requirements are (that
is, floating point numbers, integers, strings, screen
graphics.. .).
LOAD is used to transfer data from Flash to RAM. An
example of data include arrays used in CAMBASIC.
This is explained further below.
64K to 448K bytes of RAM are available, depending on
how U2 is popu lated. E ach data element type r equires a
differen t number of bytes. Use the follo wing table to
determine yo ur storage r equireme nts:
Saving and Initializing Arrays and data
Sometimes it is convenient to save an array of
information to battery backed RAM and/or F lash for
retrieval later . T his is a handy way of storing “ recipes”
or tables of information for each job, customer , or
process.
Type
Arrays are initialized and filled by the basic program.
Then, they are saved to either RAM or Flash EPROM.
The num ber and size of arr ays that can be saved is
limited only by available memory. The saved arrays can
be retrieved at any time.
How arrays are saved and retrieved depends upon what
kind of memory you ar e saving to and loading from. If
arra ys are sav ed to Flash , use SAVE . U se LOA D to
both save to and retrieve from RAM.
Bytes of
storage
BASIC Commands
Byte
1
POKE & PEEK
Word
2
DPOKE & DPEEK
Float
4
FPOKE & FPEEK
String
1+ maximum
string length
POKE$ & P EEK$
Grap hic
32 - 9600
bytes
DISPLAY LOAD
Program
Size
1-32K
SYS(0)
An exam ple of saving ar rays to R AM is shown in
ARRAY 1.BAS pr ogram, on the application disk. Saving
arrays to Flash is shown in ARRA Y2.BA S.
FL ASH .BA S shows str ings, bytes, and wor d saves to
Flash. ARRAY3.BAS is similar to ARRAY1.BAS
except it uses LOAD to transfer arrays. This makes
transfers faster.
The mathematics for keeping track of addresses can get
quite messy. It all depends upon your data structure. If
you are trying em ulate a struc ture in C or vector s in
JAVA, you will have some math to access the right data.
Mapping your stored data
A frequent question is “Wher e do I store my data?” and
“How much do I have?” You have two places to store
data: RAM or Flash. How much you have depe nds upon
several factor s:
Suppose you are logging a process and need to store the
following types of information periodically:
The demonstration program LOGGE R.BAS logs at over
2000 points using the structure below.
Name
Date
Time
Temperature
Tick time
Level
Expected program size
How much RAM and/or Flash memor y is free
Will you need a second program?
Amount of data to store
Type of data to store
Type
String
String
Float
Float
word
Bytes
9
9
4
4
2
First a dd up the total num ber of by tes needed. For this
5-3
DATA MEMORY
CHAPTER 5
program size. As a practical fact, no m ore than about
34K of program can r un at one time. This leaves about
30K in the fir st Flash seg ment and at least this amo unt in
the 2nd. Use the SA VE co mma nd to transf er data to
Flash.
structure it is 28.
Next, assign variable names to the offsets in memory
data begins.
Name
DSET
TSET
TPSET
PSET
LSET
Pointing to
Date string
Time string
Temperature
Tick time
Level
Value
0
9
18
22
26
You can start saving at address &8400 and not interfere
with the first program. If you SAVE to segment 9 and
are using graphics on the RPC-2350G, larger fonts are
stored starting at address &AC00. P ut a limit check at
this addres s. W hen a 512K F lash is installed, segmen ts
2-7 are available, if there are no other programs in them.
This is simply done by making a variable equal to a
number. F or example,
The SYS(0) function returns your progr am size. Y ou
can use this figure to determine where you can start
saving in Flash. Be sure to round up to the next page
boundary (last two bytes of the address) to &00 when
determ ining your data start of a ddress. This is to
account for the Flash block size.
PSET = 22
NOTE: The word “ SET” does not have any
significance other than naming the variable.
You w ill need a pointer to track the n umber of data sets
(structur es) saved. You will also have to chec k this
pointer to make sure you are not exceeding the
maximum amount of memory. Use one of the protected
variables (A%-Z% ) as the pointer. This way, if power
disappears, the pointer is still in tact. Protected
variables can also be used to keep track of the segment
used to store data in.
All cases limit maximum address to &F FFF in any one
segmen t. Be sur e to read “ Conside rations for saving to
Flash” below for more inform ation.
Since each situation is unique, call Remote Pr ocessing
technical support at 303 690 1588 to discuss your
problem further.
Considerations f or saving to Flash
The RPC-2350G uses &5A00 bytes in the Flash EPROM
to store gr aphics fonts. The fonts a re stor ed starting in
segmen t 9, ad dress & AC0 0. T his is high enough in
mem ory so no CAM BASIC progr am w ill interfer e with
it. Only if you use medium and large size fonts on the
RPC-2350G will you have to consider this as an upper
memor y limit for storing data. Consider installing a
512K byte flash and saving to segments 2-7.
A sample C AMBA SIC line to store data is:
FPOKE A%*28TPSET,value,B%
This example uses A% as the pointer and B% to track
the segment number. ‘TPSET ’ and B% could just as
easily be constants.
This structure will save 2340 elements in 64K of RAM.
Therefore, you should test A% for a limit of 2340 once
each loop.
Flash EPR OM is wr itten to in blocks, or sectors of 128
(29C010A installed) or 256 (29C040A installed) bytes
each. T his means if you want to save just 1 byte, 128 or
256 bytes are used. You m ust pay attention to sector
size for two reasons. F irst, a sector is the minimum
number of bytes written. If a program r equires only 35
bytes to be saved, a full sector is written. If you had the
following in your code:
A 512K RAM can store up to 7 segments. Therefore,
B% is checked fo r a value o f 8 or m ore at the e nd of this
loop.
If your data requirements are more than available RAM,
you can stor e some in F lash. You will ha ve to first w rite
the data to RAM first, then save to flash.
1000 SAVE 1,5,1,&1000,35
.
.
.
2000 SAVE 1,42,1,&1025,35
Flash is also used to save critical information. However,
Flash will “ wear out” after 1, 000 to 10,0 00 writes.
You will probably have to make an initial guess at your
5-4
CHAPTER 5
DATA MEMORY
severa l things happen. Data save d at line 1000 is
overwritten by the data in line 2000, even though
different write addresses were specified. This brings us
to the second r eason sector size is impor tant.
You are now ready to power up the board. You can
now PEE K and POKE data into segments 1-7.
CAM BASIC forces the requeste d Flash a ddress do wn to
an even sec tor addr ess. In both cases a bove, data is
written to the Flash starting at address 0, not at 5 or 42.
When y our app lication must r ely on the acc uracy o f data
after power up, corrupted variables become a possibility.
CORRUPTED VARIABLES
The nature of RAM is it is easily written to. Any
POK E' d data is susceptib le to corr uption. This is
especially true when the board is powered down. U26
monitor s the supply voltag e and turn s off wr iting when it
is below about 4.65 volts. How ever, when POKE ing
long data, such as strings and floating point numbers, or
writing to Flash, a pow er down could interrupt a saving
process. T he result is information is corrupted. A
scenario is explained below.
The eas iest way to m ake an eve n sector a ddress is to
“A ND ” the Flash ad dress w ith &F F80 (as is done in
ARRAY 2.BAS pr ogram exam ple) when using a 128K
flash or &FF00 with a 512K.
Another consideration is the number of times Flash can
be wr itten to. A tmel specifie s anywhe re fr om 1000 to
10, 000 or m ore w rites. Com pared to R AM , this is qu ite
limiting. Flash sho uld be used to stor e default cons tants
or data that changes only occasionally.
A program is running and saving data. During this time
a reset occur s. A reset can occur due to power loss,
someone pushing the reset button, or a watchdog timer
time out. The data is c orru pted becaus e the com plete
value was not saved.
Writing takes about 90 ms/1000 bytes. During SAVE
time, interrupts (ON COM$, ON KEYPAD, ON BIT,
etc.. ) are rec ognized but not serviced. If these
comm ands mu st be servic ed quicker , w rite data in
smaller blocks.
Since it is impossible to predict or delay a reset, a work
around is to duplicate or triplicate values. That is, you
would have to save the same information in two or three
different places. Usually you only need to save the
pointers to data structur es.
Using LOAD to transfer data
The LOA D comm and can be used to transfer data from
Flash to RAM or RAM to RAM. Use SAVE to transfer
from RA M to Flash.
When y ou are w riting ar rays of da ta (such as show n in
LOG GER .BA S), th e sequence your pr ogram should
follow is this: Write data to RAM. Update the pointer.
This pointer could be in dup licate or tr iplicate. This
way, you only loose one set of data.
LOAD transfers up to 64K blocks of memory at a time.
Use it to transfer an entire data structure containing
recipes, formulas, constants, etc.
The sample progr am ARR AY3. BAS shows how to move
data from extended mem ory RAM into CAMBASIC and
back.
When you are saving only one set of data, the following
applies.
INSTALLING 512K RAM
For purpose s of discussion, data varia bles are c alled sets
because it can consist of a mixture of variables, strings
and arra ys.
A 512K R AM (part num ber 103 9) can be installe d in
U2. The addition al RAM allows you to in crease data
storage, not program size.
On power up, your program would compare values from
one set to the other one or two. If the two (or three)
agreed, then there was no corruption and the program
can reliably use the values. In practice, you would read
information from set 1, but would save data to all two or
three.
Follow these steps to install RAM.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Turn off power to the board.
Remove existing IC from U 2.
Install the 512K R AM . M ake sure pin 1 is
oriented towards the board edge. Pin 1 will be
marked with a dot or notch on top.
Move jumper W2[1-2] to [2-3].
The use of duplicate or triplicate sets depends upon what
the system must or can do if data is corrupted. W hen
using a duplicate set, a corrupted set indicates that
5-5
DATA MEMORY
CHAPTER 5
memory has been allocated before running these SYS
comm ands. F ailure to do so may r esult in address
returned that are not really free for assem bly language
program s.
default values (from the program) should be used, since
it is uncertain if the first or second set is corrupted.
Both data sets would then be re-initialized.
A triplica te set is used to r ecover the last set or ind icate
that the data in the first set is valid. The pr ocedure and
logic is as follows.
There are sever al ways to put a program in mem ory,
depending upon your application.
Data is written to each element in a set in a specific and
consistent order (data to an entire set does not have to be
written to, just that element). For example, a calibration
constant is saved (POK E' d) in three different place s.
Assume that the constant was assigned address 0, 100,
and 200 in segment 1. The data is PO KEd to addr ess 0
first, then 100, then 200.
Upon reset, the calibration value is checked. If the value
at address 0 agrees with address 100 and 200, then no
corruption occurred. When address 0 and 100 agree but
not 200, then this indicates tha t a reset occ urre d while
updating the third set. The first data set can be trusted.
The third data set simply needs to be updated.
When the first two sets do not agree, then you know that
the first data is corrupted. If the second and third set
agree, then, depe nding upon the system r equireme nts,
the first set could be "corrected" using the old data. The
user or other device could be alerted that a calibration
(or other ) must be pe rfor med aga in. W hen all thre e sets
disagree, then you must take action appropriate to the
situation.
Another technique to ch eck for v alid mem ory is
checksum s. Sim ply write a progr am to add the values in
RAM and compare it against a number is a good check.
However, you cannot tell which data element was
corrupted.
1.
Use D ATA statements a nd PO KE the co de into
segment 0 RAM.
2.
Write a program to download code. Some
applications are connected to a larger system which
"initializes" its systems. Using INKEY $ or COM $,
code is received and then poked into memory using
POKE$.
3.
Read the code from the EPROM (U3) (using INP)
and transfer it to RAM (using PO KE).
4.
Some space is available in the CAMBASIC ROM.
Space fr om abou t 6B00H to 6F FF H is availab le in
version 1.4 of the 2350G boar d. The star ting
address will proba bly change in the future w ith
different CAMBASIC versions. You may burn
your assembly language program in U1 and CALL
in from BASIC.
5.
Space is available in the Flash EPROM. In theory
you can run directly from Flash. This involves
running in sectored areas unique to the Z180.
However , this is probably more effort. Use the
Flash to stor e the prog ram and then tr ansfer it to
RAM segment 0.
In all cases, it is best to load code into RAM from a
"secure" source, such as F lash EPROM . Even though
RAM is battery ba cked, over tim e there is the possibility
it could be corrupted.
Instances of data corr uption are rar e. T hey do increase
as the boar d power is cycled or reset.
Below is an exa mple of loa ding and r unning an asse mbly
language program.
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE INTERFACE
100
110
120
130
900
910
Assembly language programs (including compiled C)
must start from segment 0. Use the CAMBASIC CALL
statement to execute an assembly language program.
A specific area of RAM should be reserved for the
program . This is to prevent strings and variables from
corrupting that area of RAM . U se the SYS(1) and
SYS(2) statements to do this. SYS(1) retur ns the lowest
memory location while SYS(2) returns the upper
location. Run the pr ogram first to ma ke sure v ariable
FOR N = &FB00 TO &FB0C
READ A
POKE N,A
NEXT
DATA &DB, 2, &47, &E6, &FE, &D3
DATA 2, &78, &F6, 1, &D3, 2, &C9
2000 CALL &FB00
Lines 100 to 130 load the program into RAM. DATA
statements may be entered manually.
5-6
CHAPTER 5
DATA MEMORY
COMMANDS
Line 2000 calls the pro gram listed below . It toggles J2
line 13.
IN
LD
AND
OUT
LD
OR
OUT
RET
The following is a list of CAM BASIC commands used
w it h R A M .
A,(2)
B,A
0FEH
(2),A
A,B
1
(2),A
Command
EXAMPLE PROGRAMS
The follow ing is a list of CA MBA SIC pr ogram s used to
save and load data to and from RAM and Flash.
Name
Function
ARRAY1.BAS
Move s floating point ar ray data
a r ou nd RA M .
ARRAY2.BAS
Reads and writes array data to and
from R AM a nd Flash
Function
CALL
Calls an assembly language routine
CLEAR
Clears and allocates string space
PEEK
Return s a byte
DPEEK
Returns a 16 bit value
PEEK$
Returns a string
FPEEK
Returns a floating point number
POKE
Stores a by te
DPOKE
Stores a 16 bit value
POKE$
Stores a string
FPOKE
Stores a floating point number
FLASH.BAS
Writes to and reads data from
Flash
LOAD
Move data from Flash to RAM or
RAM to RAM
LOGGER.BAS
Data logs to RAM, prints out
results.
SAVE
Save data to Flash from RAM
5-7
CHAPTER 6
DIGITAL LINES
On power-up or software reset ( or CAMBASIC CALL
0), all digital ports ar e reset to inputs.
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Overview of the digital lines
How to program
Using high current port
Interfacing to opto racks
DIGITAL I/O PORT
Digital I/O lines on the RPC-2350 are supplied by an
82C55 chip. The chip's lines primarily go to connectors
J2 and J3. Lines to J3 also go to J5 and J6. This part
assumes you will be using all lines at J3 for digital I/O.
DESCRIPTION
DIGITAL LINES CHAPT ER 6
Digital I/ O lines ar e used to inter face with op to-module
racks, switches, low current LED's, and other TTL
devices. The RP C-2350 has 48 of these lines available
through J2 and J3.
The lines on J2 and J3 ar e divided into 3 eig ht bit
groups. P orts A and B can be configured as all inputs or
outputs. Port C can be programm ed as one group of 8
inputs or outputs or as two groups of four lines (upper
and lower C). T he four lines in upper and lower C can
each be progr amme d as all inputs or outputs.
Configuration is done in CAMBA SIC using CON FIG
PIO comm and.
J3 is shared with other connectors and functions. Eight
lines are hig h curr ent outputs, capable of sink ing 75 to
200 ma. Another 8 lines on J3 are shared by the keypad
connector, J5. Still another 8 lines are used by the LCD
charac ter por t J6. A table at the end o f this chapter lists
line use at J3.
When a line is configured as an output, it can sink a
maximum of 2. 5 mA. at 0.4V and can sourc e over 2.5
mA.at 2.4V. Outputs sink 15 mA.at 1.0V.
Eight, 16, or 24 position opto racks are connected to J2
or J3. These opto rac ks accept G4 ser ies opto modules.
G4 series opto modules are used to sense the presence of
AC or D C voltages or switch them. Maximum
switching curr ent is 3 ampere s.
J2 and J3 are accessed using CAMBASIC LINE, OPTO,
INP, and OUT statements. LINE r eads or writes to a
port base d on the conne ctor num ber. LINE is genera lly
used with the STB-26 boa rd. OPT O rea ds or w rites to
an opto m odule based o n its position in an M PS opto
rack. INP a nd OU T acces s a byte of data a t a port.
Refer to the tables at the end of this chapter for pin outs,
OPT O, and LINE referen ces.
The base I/O addr ess for J2 is 0 and J3 is 64 when using
INP, OUT, and CON FIG PIO statements. CO NFIG
PIO statement is used to configure the 8255 lines for
inputs and outputs. Upon reset, watchdog time out, or a
CAM BASIC C ALL 0, lines ar e configured for inputs.
J2 and J3 ar e accessed using LIN E or O PTO statements
according to the table below.
Figure 6-1 Digital I/O connectors
WARNING:
Apply power to the RPC -2350 before applying a
voltage to the digital I/O lines to prevent current
from flowing in and damaging devices. If you
cannot apply power to the RPC-2350 first, contact
technical support for suggestions appropriate to your
application.
Connector
designation
LINE #
terminal
OPTO rack
position
J2
1-25
0-23
J3
101 - 125
100 - 123
LINE #' s access the corresponding pin number on J2 or
J3. L INE # 2 or 102 are not va lid. T his is a + 5 volt
supply.
A high voltage (±15 volts) input is available at J10-10.
This input is intended for the counter. However, it can
be used as a digital input. Connect jumper block W9-2
to a digital input at J2 or J3.
6-1
DIGITAL LINES
CHAPTER 6
include those that overlap even for a few milliseconds.
J3, port A is shared with the LCD character display port
J6. If you are using J6, then these 8 lines at J3 are not
available.
Incandesc ent lamps h ave a " cold" c urre nt of 11 times its
operating current. Lamps requiring more than 50 mA.
should not be used.
J3, port B is connected to a high current sink through
U20. See High current output later in this chapter. Two
lines are connected to the keypad port. They are active
only when scanning a 24 position keypad.
Protection diodes m ust be used with inductive loads.
Refer to figure 6-2.
J3 port C is shared with the keypad port J5. If you are
using a keypa d through J5, the se 8 lines are not available
at J3.
Pull up resistors
Digital I/ O lines at J2 an d J3 are p ulled up to + 5 volts
through a 10K resistor pack.
These pull ups makes interfacing to switches and "open
collector" TTL devices easy . See "Inter facing to
Switches and other devices" below.
High cu rrent ou tput at J3
Eight lines at J3 can be used as high cur rent driver s.
These outputs switch loads to ground. Outputs are
controlled by Port B on the 82C55. Its address is 65.
Figure 6-2 Inductive load protection
Do not pa rallel outputs f or higher drive. This could
result in damage since outputs do not share current
equally.
Logic outputs from this port are inverted. That is, when
a 1 is writte n to the high cur rent por t, the o utput is
switched on and goes low.
High current output at P2
The P2 term inal marked “ SWPW R” is a 2 Am p, 50V
FET switch to ground. ON resistance is about 1 ohm.
It is intended to switch back light power for the LCD
graphics display. However , it can be used for any other
purpose.
The output driver chip, U 20, can be replaced w ith a DIP
shunt jumper so it is like the other lines at J3.
NOTE: Outputs at the high current lines are not
compa tible with TT L logic leve ls and should
not be used to drive other logic devices.
The switch is contr olled by software as follow s:
Each of the high current outputs can sink 100 mA.at
50V.
OUT &E7,1
OUT &E7,0
Two lines from the high curr ent port (Port B, 0 and 1)
are used wh en the keypad is scanning 24 keys. These
lines (at J3-8 and -10) may not be used for control
purposes.
:’Turns on switch
:’Turns off switch
The switch is turned OFF when only on a hardware reset
or wa tchdog time out.
Use the circuit in Figure 6-2 when switching inductive
loads.
WARNING:
External supplies using the high cu rrent outputs m ust
be tied to J3, pin 26 and NOT the power connector.
Failure to do so can produce a ground loop and
cause erratic operation.
Interfacing to an opto-module rack
J2 and J3 I/O lines interface to an MPS-8, 16, or 24
position opto m odule rac k. L ines not going to an opto
module connect to a screw terminal on the MPS-XX
series boards. This feature allows you to connect
s w itche s or othe r TTL type de vic e s to the digit al I/ O
The thermal time constant of U20 is very short, so the
numbe r of outputs th at are on a t any one tim e should
6-2
CHAPTER 6
DIGITAL LINES
lines. The MPS-XX series boards accept OPTO-22 G4
series or Grayhill G5 modules. See Chapter 18,
RESOURCES , for a list of suppliers.
shunt jumper. This keeps logic com patible with ports B
and C. If opto channels 8-15 are used as inputs, then
U20 must be replaced by a DIP shunt jumper.
Use the O PTO comm and to acces s and contr ol opto
modules. The LIN E comm and is used to access
individual lines on the STB-26 or MPS-X X rack.
Configuring digital I/O lines
Lines are configured during progr am execution using the
CONF IG PIO command. On power up or reset, all lines
are inputs.
A CM A-26 connects J2 and J3 on the RPC-2350 to the
MPS-XX board. Cable length should be less than 2 feet
for the 8 position rack and 18 inches for the 16 and 24
positions. Excessive cable lengths cause a high voltage
drop an d conseque ntly unreliab le opera tion. Be su re to
supply + 5V and ground to the appropriately marked
terminals.
When a line is configured as an output, it can sink a
maximum of 2. 5 mA. at 0.4V and can sour ce a minimum
of 2.5 mA .at 2. 4V. W hen driving opto modules, the
outputs sink 15 mA.at 1.0V.
You must configure the 8255 ports for outputs before
using them. Use the following table to determine the
corr esponding op to channel for a particula r 82C 55 port:
Opto
channe ls
82C55
port
Connector
Digital I/ O prog ramm ing exam ple
The follow ing exam ple read s a switch at po rt A, bit 3
(J2-25), reads an opto module at channel 1 and writes an
opto module at channel 5. A LE D is controlled at J2-10
(port B, bit 0).
Addr.
M 0 -M 3
Lower C
J2
2
M 4 -M 7
Upper C
J2
2
M8-M 15
A
J2
0
M16-M 23
B
J2
1
M100-M 103
Lower C
J3
66
M104-M 107
Upper C
J3
66
M108-M 115
A
J3
64
M116-M 123
B
J3
65
200 D = BIT(0,3) :'Get status port A
210 F = OPTO(101) :'Read opto module,
ch. 1
220 OPTO 103,ON
:'write module 3
230 BIT 1,0,0
:'turn on J2-10
240 BIT 1,0,1
:'turn off J2-10
250 A = LINE(103) :'Reads pin 3 at J2
260 LINE 4,1
:’Set line # 4 to 1
"Opto channel" is the position as marked on the MP S-xx
board. The channel number is preceded by a ' M'
character on the MPS board. W hen connecting J3 to an
opto rack, add 100 to the number on the rack. J3 has a
high current output on port A (channels M8-M 15).
Replace U20 with a shunt jumper to operate norm ally.
Figure 6-3 IDC pin out viewed from top
To turn on an opto module, an output line must be low.
A mod ule is turned off by wr iting a ' 1' to a channel.
The logic a t J3 port A , w ith the high cur rent outpu ts
installed is just the reverse. A ' 1' at a line causes the
module to turn ON.
High cur rent outpu ts at J3 port A are option ally
configurable as TTL I/ O by replacing U20 with a DIP
6-3
DIGITAL LINES
CHAPTER 6
Conne ctor pin ou t - J3
Conne ctor pin ou t - J2
J2
Pin #
82C55
Port/bit
Description
Opto
Channel
J3
Pin #
82C55
Port/Bit
Alternate function
Opto
Channel
19
A/0
8
19
A/0
LCD port J6
8
21
A/1
9
21
A/1
LCD port J6
9
23
A/2
10
23
A/2
LCD port J6
10
25
A/3
11
25
A/3
LCD port J6
11
24
A/4
12
24
A/4
LCD port J6
12
22
A/5
13
22
A/5
LCD port J6
13
20
A/6
14
20
A/6
LCD port J6
14
18
A/7
15
18
A/7
LCD port J6
15
10
B/0
16
10
B/0
High curr. /Keypad
16
8
B/1
17
8
B/1
High curr. /keypad
17
4
B/2
18
4
B/2
High curr ent
18
6
B/3
19
6
B/3
High curr ent
19
1
B/4
20
1
B/4
High curr ent
20
3
B/5
21
3
B/5
High curr ent
21
5
B/6
22
5
B/6
High curr ent
22
7
B/7
23
7
B/7
High curr ent
23
13
C/0
Lower C
0
13
C/0
Shared w/J5 keypad
0
16
C/1
Lower C
1
16
C/1
Shared w/J5 keypad
1
15
C/2
Lower C
2
15
C/2
Shared w/J5 keypad
2
17
C/3
Lower C
3
17
C/3
Shared w/J5 keypad
3
14
C/4
Upper C
4
14
C/4
Shared w/J5 keypad
4
11
C/5
Upper C
5
11
C/5
Shared w/J5 keypad
5
12
C/6
Upper C
6
12
C/6
Shared w/J5 keypad
6
9
C/7
Upper C
7
9
C/7
Shared w/J5 keypad
7
26
Ground
Ground
26
Ground
Ground
2
+ 5V
+ 5V
2
+ 5V
6-4
CHAPTER 6
DIGITAL LINES
COMMANDS
The following table lists CAMBASIC commands used
for digital I/O.
Command
Function
BIT
Function returns status of bit at an
I/O add ress
BIT
Comm and sets a bit at an I/O add ress
CON FIG
PIO
Configures J3 I/O port
INP
Returns a byte fr om an I/ O address
LINE
Returns status of an opto line
OPTO
Sets an opto module output
OUT
Writes a byte to an I/ O address
PUL SE
Reads or writes a pulse at a por t.
See also ON BIT, ON C OUNT , ON INP, and related
statements.
DIGITAL I/O WORKSHEET
Use the following tables to help you plan how digital
lines will be used and refe renced in your de sign. It will
also help you spot potential conflicts with multiple use
lines (such as keypad port on J3).
Copy these pages if necessary.
The follow ing are the addresse s for eac h of the 8 bit
digital ports.
Connector J2. Addresses 0-2.
Port A = 0
Por t B = 1
Port C = 2
Connector J3. Addresses &40-&42.
Port A = &40
Port B = &41
Port C = &42
6-5
DIGITAL LINES
J2
Pin #
82C55
Port/ bit
Opto
Channel
19
A/O
Exam ple
19
A/ 0
8
21
A/ 1
9
23
A/ 2
10
25
A/ 3
11
24
A/ 4
12
22
A/ 5
13
20
A/ 6
14
18
A/ 7
15
10
B/0
16
8
B/1
17
4
B/2
18
6
B/3
19
1
B/4
20
3
B/5
21
5
B/6
22
7
B/7
23
13
C/0
0
16
C/1
1
15
C/2
2
17
C/3
3
14
C/4
4
11
C/5
5
12
C/6
6
9
C/7
7
26
Ground
2
+ 5V
CHAPTER 6
Description/ use
Start switch
Associated CAMBASIC variable,
function, or task number
ON BIT 0,0,0 GOSUB ..START
6-6
CHAPTER 6
DIGITAL LINES
J3
Pin #
82C55
Port/ Bit
Other use for line
Opto
Channel
4
B/2
Exam ple
Exam ple
19
A/ 0
LCD port J6
8
21
A/ 1
LCD port J6
9
23
A/ 2
LCD port J6
10
25
A/ 3
LCD port J6
11
24
A/ 4
LCD port J6
12
22
A/ 5
LCD port J6
13
20
A/ 6
LCD port J6
14
18
A/ 7
LCD port J6
15
10
B/0
High curr./ Keypad
16
8
B/1
High curr./ keypad
17
4
B/2
High current
18
6
B/3
High current
19
1
B/4
High current
20
3
B/5
High current
21
5
B/6
High current
22
7
B/7
High current
23
13
C/0
Shared w/J5 keypad
0
16
C/1
Shared w/J5 keypad
1
15
C/2
Shared w/J5 keypad
2
17
C/3
Shared w/J5 keypad
3
14
C/4
Shared w/J5 keypad
4
11
C/5
Shared w/J5 keypad
5
12
C/6
Shared w/J5 keypad
6
9
C/7
Shared w/J5 keypad
7
26
Ground
Ground
2
+ 5V
What line is used for
Solenoid 1 on/off
6-7
Associated CAMBASIC variable,
function, or task number
SOL1 = status, BIT &41,2,SOL1
CALENDAR/CLOCK
CHAPTER 7
The clock will roll over on December 31, 1999 at
23:59: 59 to January 1, 2000 with no problem s.
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
Ž Initializing and using the RTC
Ž Y2K and Y2.4K issues
Ž Using clock interr upts
CAM BASIC operating system does not use or need any
real time clock values for its operation. A clock is not
needed in order for CAMBASIC to operate.
DESCRIPTION
The cloc k compe nsates for leap year in 2000. Should
you expec t this produc t to work into the 22nd ce ntury, it
will add a leap day in the year 2100 also. This, of
course, is not supposed to happen until the year 2400. If
you think your program will be working in the year
2100, you will have to compensate for this by resetting
the date when read as Februa ry 29, 2100 to M arch 1,
2100.
CALEND AR/CLOC K
CHAPTER 7
The RPC -2350 has a battery backed Calendar/clock.
When used in conjunction with the DATE$ and TIME$
commands, the current date and time can be set and
read. It is accurate to 1 minute/month at 25°C and is not
adjustable.
The clock data sheet is in the applications disk. See
RTC 72 4 12 . PDF.
CLOCK INTERRUPTS
SETTING DATE AND TIME
The RT C m ay be pr ogram med to ge nerate inte rrup ts at 1
second, 1 minute, or 1 hour intervals. L onger interrupt
intervals are convenient especially when ON TICK
interrupts are running.
The clock must be turned on before it is used. This need
be done only once. To turn on the clock, type:
CONFIG CLOCK 1
An interrupt is generated when the real time clock
counters increment the unit of time selected for the
interrupt interval. M ost of the time, the first interrupt
will be shorter than the interval period selected. For
example, suppose you w ant to interrupt every minute. If
the real time clock' s seconds wer e at 45 , the fir st
interrupt will occur in 15 seconds. Interrupts will then
occur e very m inute. Oper ation is similar for hour ly
interrupts.
The date and time can be set while running a program or
in the immediate mode. Date and time are treated as
strings and not numbers. T o set the date and time:
date$="04-19-99"
time$="13:56:00"
To retrieve date and time as part of a program:
The cloc k is progr amm ed to interr upt at specific
intervals in so ftware . Se e CL OCK 1.BA S for exa mple
program.
2000 DA$ = DATE$(0)
2010 TI$ = TIME$(0)
You can also print the d ate and time in the imm ediate
mode:
Jumper W 10 to enable interrup ts.
pr time$(0)
13:56:03
YEAR 2000 AND BEYOND
The clock on the RPC-2350G is year 2000 compliant
under the following condition:
Date is always returned as the last two digits of the
year. The first two digits, “19" or “20" must be
progr amm ed into your system. As of the tim e this
manual was wr itten, this required a quick check on
the year . If it w as not “ 99", then you assum ed it
was some tim e in the 20' s.
7-8
CHAPTER 7
CALENDAR/CLOCK
COMMANDS
The following is a list of CAMBASIC com mands for the
calendar/clock.
Command
Figure 7-1 RT C interrupt jumper W10
Use the following table to set clock inter rupt periods.
“Value” is written to I/O port &14E.
Interrupt interval
Value
1 second
6
1 minute
10
1 hour
14
Write these values to address &14E to set the interrupt
period.
OUT &14E,10 :’Set interrupt period to
1 minute
Write a 0 to addr ess &14D to clear an y interr upts
before executing ON ITR 0 and while in the interrupt
subroutine.
OUT &14D,0
:’Clear interrupt
7-9
Function
CONFIG CLOCK
Turns clock on or off
DATE$
Sets date
DAT E$(0)
Return s date
TIME$
Sets time
TIME $(0)
Returns time
ON ITR 0
Responds to interrupt
CHAPTER 8
ANALOG I/O
protected to ±12V. Readings on other channels are
affected when one channel is over range.
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Brief description of analog input capabilities
Acquir ing analog da ta
High voltage interfacing
Conve rting analo g reading s to real w orld units
Calibration
Analog output discussion
4-20 mA output
Analog po wer su pply
Conve rsion tim e is under 500 micr o-seconds/ channel.
AIN function is used to return a voltage while AOT
writes an output voltage.
This chapter begins with basic hook-up information, then
proceeds to initialization, data reading, and calibration.
Analog output option is discussed near the end.
DESCRIPTION
Analog output 1 (AOT 1) may optionally provide
software contrast control for the LCD graphics display.
When it is used for this purpose, 4-20 Ma output or
other voltage output may not be used.
ANALOG I/O
CH APTER 8
The RPC-2350 has eight single ended or four differential
analog input channels than can be interfaced to external
analog devices. These channels can be used to measure
voltages from tr ansducers, 4-20 mA. current loops,
thermistors, etc. The conver ter reads a voltage and
retur ns a 12 bit (4096 count) num ber in und er a m illisecond. Inputs are progr ammable for 0 to + 5 or ±2.5
volt, single ended or differential mode.
CONNECTING ANALOG I/O
Analog I/O interface via J7. The STB-20 terminal board
may be used to br ing signals to terminal blocks.
The following table defines the signal pin out from
analog I/O port J7.
Additionally, 2 analog outpu t channels w ith 12 bit
accuracy are optionally available. Output voltage is 05V, 0-10V , or ±5V. Outputs can drive optional 4-20
mA. current loops.
J7 Pin #
Figure 8-1 Analog connectors and jumpers
Filter capacitors may be added to pads designated as
W13. T his can reduce noise on analog inputs. Values
are app lication depend ent. 0.01 mfd is a goo d value to
start fro m. Higher values ma y be used in ex trem ely
noisy envir onmen ts or wh en time be tween sam ples is
long (> 100 ms).
Input impedance is 100K ohm to ground. Inputs are
8-1
Signal
1
CH0 input
2-16
Ground (e ven pins)
3
CH1 input
5
CH2 input
7
CH3 input
9
CH4 input
11
CH5 input
13
CH6 input
15
CH7 input
17
DAC 0 output
18
+ 12V
19
DAC 1 output (also gr aphics contr ast)
20
-12V
ANALOG I/O
CHAPTER 8
Differential Mode
When d ifferential m ode is specified , inpu ts are actu ally
pseudo-differential. What this means is that a ground
reference is needed. For example, you cannot place a
battery be tween ch annel 0 and 1 and get an ac curate
reading. T he (-) input must be referenced to ground.
An example of where pseudo-differential works is an
output from a bridge network.
Initializing Inputs
The RP C-2350 can ha ve up to eight single-ended inputs,
four differential, or a m ixture of single ended and
differential inputs. On a reset, inputs are configured for
0-5V, single ended.
Initialization is performed using the CON FIG AIN
comm and. T he syntax is:
A pseudo-differential input subtracts the DC component
from an input. T he IC maker recomm ends the (-) input
remain stable within 1 count with respect to ground for
best results. Connecting a 0. 1 uF capacitor from the (-)
input to grou nd wor ks well.
CONFIG AIN channel, input, range
Where:
channel is from 0 to 7 for single-ended or
differential. Differential inputs require 2 lines and
are spec ially paired as shown b elow. The cha nnels
you specify in a "mixed" application depends upon
what lines ar e used for single ended a nd differe ntial.
When operating in differential mode, r elative + and voltages must be connected to specific inputs. When
inputs are reversed, a conversion returns a 0. When the
relative voltage changes, perform a conversion on the
alternate channel. CO NFIG AIN must be perfor med on
both channels to be valid.
Differential inputs operate in a special way. Use the
following two tables for differ ential inputs.
Pairs of channels c an be differ ential while oth ers single
ended. Thus, if channel 0 and 1 are differ ential inputs,
channels 2-7 may be single ended.
When channe l = odd
Ch #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Examples u sing CON FIG AIN
Polar ity
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
channel
1
1
3
3
5
5
7
7
J7 pin #
1
3
5
7
11
13
15
9
+
Below are sample syntaxes for the CON FIG AIN
command:
1. Single ended mode, 0-5V input
CONFIG AIN chan,1,1
When channe l = even
Ch #
0
1
2
3
4
Polar ity
+
-
+
-
+
channel
0
0
2
2
4
J7 pin #
1
3
5
7
5
6
7
-
+
-
4
6
6
11
13
15
The input voltage is from 0 to 5 volts. The result from
the AIN function is 0 for 0.000V and 4095 for
+ 4.9988V. chan may range from 0 to 7, if no other
channels are used for differential inputs.
2. D ifferential mode, 0 to + 5V input
9
CONFIG AIN chan,0,1
For example , if yo u wanted o ne differ ential input,
channel 0 w ould use J7 pin nu mber s 1 and 3. Single
ended inputs 2-7 are available.
chan can be 0, 2, 4, or 6. The input may range from 0
to + 5V. H owever, if the (-) input is more positive than
the (+ ) input, the result w ill always be ze ro. The r esult
from the AIN function is 0 for a difference of 0.000V
and 4095 for a difference of 4.9988V.
input specifies single ended or differential. 0 =
differential, 1 = single ended.
3. Single ended, ±2.5V input
range is voltage input. 0 = ±2.5V and 1 = 0 to
+ 5V.
CONFIG AIN chan,1,0
8-2
CHAPTER 8
ANALOG I/O
70 INC I
80 IF I = 100 THEN ON TICK 10 GOSUB
90 RETURN
The input range is -2.5V to + 2.5V. The result from an
AIN function is 0 for -2.500V , 2048 for 0. 000V, and
4095 for + 2.4998V.
Line 80 shuts off interr upts after 100 sam ples.
4. D ifferential, ±2.5V input
CONFIG AIN chan,0,0
MEASURING HIGHER VOLTAGES
The input r anges fr om -2. 5V to + 2.5 V. The r esult is
the difference of the two voltages. AIN will return 0
for a difference of -2.500V , 2048 for a difference of
0.000V, and 4095 for a difference of 2.498V.
Input voltages higher than 5V are measured by placing a
resistor in series with the input. Use the following
formula to determine the required series resistance:
Rs = Vi * 20,000 - 100, 000
Rs = Vi * 40,000 - 100, 000
ACQUIRING ANALOG DATA
Once the analog input is initialize d, the AIN fu nction is
used to acquire data. The syntax is:
0-5V range
0-2.5V r ange
Rs is the re sistor value in ohms in ser ies with the inpu t.
Vi is the maximum input voltage. If the result of your
calculation is 0 or negative, a series resistor is not
necessary.
S = AIN(ch)
Where: ch = channel number, 0-7
NOTE: When an input voltage exceeds its voltage
range, other channels values are affected.
This command reads the voltage and returns a number
from 0 to 4095 to the variable S. The number returned
corresponds to the voltage input and the type the channel
was configured for.
The 100K ohm re sistor is R15. This is a 2% part. Y ou
may w ant to add a tr im res istor in ser ies with a fixed to
obtain higher accuracy.
To convert the returned num bers to a voltage, use the
following form ulas:
5V
±2.5
Unipolar:
Bipolar:
Since input impedance is higher , noise incr eases. A
capacitor at the appropriate channel at W13 will reduce
noise.
A = 0.0 0122 * AI N(chan nel)
A = 0.00244 * AIN (channel) - 5
CONVERTING ANALOG
MEASUREMENTS TO REAL WORLD
UNITS
The A IN func tion requir es about 500 m icro-Sec onds to
conver t a channel of d ata. Additional tim e is needed to
store the data. Saving data to a single dimension array
takes 500 m icro-sec onds longer than saving to a sim ple
variable.
Inputs are converted to engineering units of measurement
by performing scaling calculations in the program. The
AIN function returns values from 0 to 4095. To change
these numbers into something more m eaningful, use the
following formula:
Data logging on a timer tick
Some application require that data be taken at fixed
intervals. The O N TIC K construct can be used to take
data in intervals from 0.01 to 655. 35 seconds. The
program below takes 100 samples on 2 channels every
10 seconds.
10
20
30
40
50
60
var = K * AIN(n)
n is the analog
constant. K is
in the range of
var result is in
volts, etc.)
DIM F(100,2)
ON TICK 10 GOSUB 50
..this is a dummy loop
GOTO 30
F(I,0) = AIN(0)
F(I,1) = AIN(1)
channel to read. K is the scaling
obtained by dividing the highest number
units by the maximum AIN count (4095).
real wor ld units (PSI, p ounds, inch es,
Example 1: To mea sure the res ults of an A /D
conversion in volts and the voltage range is 0 to 5V,
8-3
ANALOG I/O
CHAPTER 8
samples, in theory, cancels out any effects of noise. A
problem with this is noise tends to group together.
Taking 7 readings at one time might show no change
from the norm . Another 7 readings might be all high.
If possible, try to spread out readings over a period of
time (several seconds if possible).
divided 5 by 4095 to obtain K.
K = 5/4095
K = .001221
Your program could look something like:
1000 C = .001221 * AIN(N)
Jumper b lock W13 is used to install filter capacitor s.
Generally, the higher the source impedance, the lower
the capacitor you will need. A 0.1 µF capacitor filters
noise nicely when impedance is 100K. While installing
capacitors filters noise, it also reduces the frequency
response. How m uch depends upon your source
impedance and capacitor values.
Example 2: Y ou want to measure a 0 to 200 PSI
pressure transducer w ith a 0 to + 5V output. Divide 200
by 4095 to obtain the constant K.
K = 200 / 4095
K = .0488
Noise is, by definition, random . If you wer e to plot out
the deviations from a norm, it would roughly resemble a
bell shaped curve. Exper iments on the RPC-2350 have
sho wn tha t ov er 99% of th e r ead ing s ar e w ithi n th e ±3
count rea ding. Noise r eadings w ere m ade with all inp uts
shorted to ground and with no cable connected to J7.
The result is in PSI w hen used as follows:
1000 B = .0488*AIN(0)
Noise Notes
An input channel can appear to be noisy (change
reading s at rando m) if unuse d inputs are allowed to floa t.
To m inimize noise (and incr ease accur acy), connect all
unused inputs to ground.
CALIBRATION
The A/D converter is calibrated using an external
voltmeter. For 12 bit accuracy, you must use a
voltmeter with an accuracy of 0.02% or better.
A high impedance input is sensitive to voltage pickup.
Noise is minimized by running wires away from AC
power lines.
To calibrate the RPC-2350:
NOTE: Avoid running the cable over inductor L1.
This can increase noise when using 7-30V
input. .
1.
Connect the digital voltmeter ground to U10,
pin 14. (Alternate ground pins are J7-2, 4, 6, 8,
10, 12 or 14).
A low impe dance voltage sourc e helps to reduce noise
pick up. Shielded cable can help reduce noise from high
impedance sources. Make sure the shield is not used for
power ground. Using the shield for power ground
defeats its purpose. Try connecting the shield to ground
at only one poin t, not a t both ends. You m ay need to
run a separate ground wire.
2.
Connect the digital voltmeter '+ ' lead to U9,
pin 6.
3.
Adjust trim pot R19 for 5.000VDC.
You may increase the reference voltage to a higher
value, up to 5.12V. This will allow you to detect if an
input device is at or above its 5V output range.
Wire pairs can also be twisted. 5-6 twists/foot provides
a reasonable amount of noise cancellation.
Noise is defined in this section as any random change
from a known input. The amount of noise you can
exp ect und er nor ma l op er atin g ci rc um sta nce s is ±3
counts for any input ra nge. U nder ideal conditions,
noise contr ibutes less than a c ount.
One way to compensate for noise is to take a number of
samples and average the results. Taking 7 or more
8-4
CHAPTER 8
ANALOG I/O
Figure 8-2 Calibr ation
Figure 8-3 Analog output IC’s, jumper, and connector
Analog output IC’s are Analog Devices AD7248 type.
This part may be ordered under Remote Processing Part
number 1454.
ANALOG OUTPUT
Two o ptional analog o utput channe ls are indep endently
configured for three voltage ranges. These ranges are
jumpered in hardwar e. Refer to the following table for
jumper settings. See Figu re 8-4 for W12 de tail.
Range
(Volts)
J7-17
(AOT 0)
Follow these steps to install analog output IC ’s.
1.
2.
J7-19
(AOT 1)
0 to + 5
W12[2-4]
W12[1-3]
0 to + 10
W12[8-10]
W12[7-9]
-5 to + 5
W12[6-8]
W12[5-7]
3.
4.
Turn off power to the board.
Orien t board as shown ab ove. Orient IC so pin
1 (notch on IC) is towards the top of the board.
Install IC into appropriate socket. U11 for
channel 0, U12 for channel 1.
Set jumper W12 for desired output voltage.
You are now r eady to power up the board.
Programming voltage output
The AOT command is used to send data to an analog
output. T he syntax is:
Chann el 0 output is J7, pin 17 and cha nnel 1 is J7, pin
19.
Analog output 1 may optionally be used for software
contrast adjustment for the LCD graphics display. When
it is used for this purpose, analog output 1 may not be
used for o ther pur poses, including 4-20 M a output.
IC Installation
The figure below shows wher e D/A IC’s are installed.
Figure 8-4 Jumper W12 detail
AOT channel, value
Where:
channel specifies the an alog channe l to write da ta to
8-5
ANALOG I/O
CHAPTER 8
The following table lists J12 pin number, DAC , and
curr ent output.
and can be either 0 or 1. channel 0 is on pin 17 and
1 is on pin 19.
value is the value to output from 0 to 4095.
Output
No.
Use the following table to convert from a desired voltage
to a value.
Range
Form ula
J12 pin
DAC driver
Current
IC
0
2
U11 (AOT 0)
U30
1
10
U12 (AOT 1)
U31
The follow ing table is J12 pin ou t.
0 to 5V
value= V * 819
0 to 10V
value= V * 409.5
Pin No.
-5 to + 5V
value= V * 409.5 + 2047.5
1
. + 12V, 40 m A. supply from RPC-2350
2
Curr ent loop 0 output
3,5, 6,9
Ground
4
Curr ent loop 0 voltage power input
6
7-30V input from P2
8
Curr ent loop 1 voltage power input
10
Curr ent loop 1 output
The result of the formula produces a number which can
be used in place of value.
Output Current
D/ A output im pedance is 0. 5 ohms. Short cir cuit
curr ent is 40 mA . T he analog po wer su pply limits this
current to something a little less. Practical maximum
output current from a D/A is 10 mA.
Noise
Analog outputs generate noise in the 100KHz +
freque ncy ran ge. Many devices ar e not affected by this
noise. How ever, if noise is a problem, put a capacitor
(1 µF or so) on the output. Pads are provided at C23
and C24 near J7. C23 filters output 0 and C24 filters
output 1.
Function
Jumper W12 for 0-10V ou tput for eac h channel yo u will
use as current output. See table in Analog Output above
for jumper instructions.
IC Installation
Current output IC’s are installed in U30 and U31. See
Figure 8-5 for location. The notch in the IC designates
the top. Pin 1 is the upper left of the chip. Orient the
board as shown in Figure 8-5 and install the chips in U30
for chan nel 0 and/ or U 31 for ch annel 1, keeping pin 1 to
the upper left.
4-20 mA. OUTPUT
Two 4-20 mA. outputs are optionally available.
Interface is at J12. Curr ent outputs are driven by the
voltage DAC' s. Configur e each DAC used for 0-10V
output to driv e the curr ent output.
Analog output 1 may be optionally used for software
contrast c ontrol on the LCD graphics display. When it
is used for this purpose, 4-20 mA output may not be
used for th is channel.
When you use a DAC to drive a current output, it cannot
be used for voltage output.
Curr ent output is proportional to the DAC voltage
driving it. To progr am a curre nt, you progr am a voltage
using the AOT comma nd. T hus, 0 V output supplies 4
mA. output while 10V output supplies 20 mA.
8-6
CHAPTER 8
ANALOG I/O
COMMANDS
The following is a list of CAMBASIC com mands for
analog input an d output.
Command
Figure 8-5 Cur rent loop IC’s & connector
Function
CON FIG AIN
Configures analog input for
voltage range and mode.
AIN
Returns result of reading for
a channel
AOT
Sends value to D/A converter
Use the table below to allocate input channels for your
application.
Current loop power
The cur rent outpu t IC' s requir e at least 12V DC to
operate . T he interna l + 12V supp ly may be used. It is
available at J12 -1. C onnect J12-1 to J12-4 and/ or -8 to
use the internal supply.
Analog
input
channel
J7 Pin
#
When runs are long using small gauge wire you may
need to use an externa l + 18V to + 30V D C supply to
power the curr ent loop. If this supply is also use d to
power the board, you can optionally connect current loop
input power pins CLP 0 and/or C LP1 (J12-4 and J12-8)
to J12-6. This pin also goes to P2-4.
ANALOG POWER SUPPLY
x
n
1
0
3
1
5
2
7
3
9
4
The RPC -2350 generates its own power for RS-232,
LCD display, and analog I/O. Unregulated ± voltages
are available at J7, pins 18 (+ 12V) and 20 (-12V).
11
5
13
6
+ 12V outpu t can supply ab out 45 mA . of c urre nt total.
Subtrac t 20 mA . for each 4-20 m A. output.
15
7
-12V output can supply about 15 m A. The D/ A’s use
some current (1 mA.)
8-7
Description/ use
0-5V, pressure
CHAPTER 9
KEYPAD PORT
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
PROGRAMMING THE KEYPAD
Ž Operating information
Ž Multiple us e note
Sixteen and 24 position keypads use all of port C at U19.
The 24 position keypad use and additional 2 lines from
port B. Por t B drives the high current sink, U20. If you
are using the high cur rent dr iver, or have replace d it
with a DIP shunt jumper, lines at J3-8 and J3-10 are not
usable with a 24 position keypad only.
DESCRIPTION
KEYPAD PORT C HAPTER 9
16 position keypads are plugged into keypad port J5.
Keys ar e arr anged in a 4 x 4 to 6 x 4 matr ix form at. A
key is rec ognized w hen a ro w and a co lumn con nect.
Up to 24 keys can be scanned.
U19 (keypad port IC) m ust be configured using the
CON FIG PIO c omm and. Some po rts are optional,
depending upon what you want to connect to it. Use the
table below to help determine what a port should be
(input or output) when using a keypad.
CAMBASIC scans and debounces the keypad every
debounce time. Debounce time is fixed at 40 ms. A key
is debounced when it is down for two scans (80 ms).
Keypad presses may be returned either as a num ber from
1 to 16 (1-24 in 24 position scan mode)or as an ASCII
charac ter. The A SCII cha racter retur ned cor respond s to
those on Remote Processing's KP-1 keypad. Char acter
assignments are changed using the SYS(8) function.
Port
Configuration
A
LCD char acter driver
G e ne ral purpose TTL I/O
Output
Output or input
B
High current sink
When using 24 keypad
Use 16 position keypad or
ge ne ral purpose TTL I/O
Output
Output
Output or input
LC
Keypad row (inputs)
Input
UC
Keypad column
Output
Keypads from Rem ote Processing simply plug into J5.
Keypad ca ble length should be limited to 5 fe et.
If the keypad port is not used, it may be used as a
genera l purpose digital I/O port.
Function
Check the table above to determine what you will be
using. The Configuration column describes what that
port should be set to.
The ON K EYPA D$ multitasking statement initializes the
operating system to use the keypad. It tells the system
what size of keypad to scan and what line to execute on a
key press. W hen this command is executed, the
scanning process beg ins.
INPU T KEYP AD$ allow you to input data from the
keypad and echo the data to an LCD chara cter or
graphics display. Input can be a string or floating point
number. Refer to INPU T KEYP AD$ com mand in the
CAMBASIC manual. Use 8 for echo port. Only smaller
characters can be echoed back to the display.
Figure 9-1 J5 keypad connector location
When 24 keys are scanned, U19 port B bits 0 and 1 are
used for scanning. These lines also go to the high
current buffer U 20, and on to J3, pins 8 and 10. If you
are using the high current port also, do not use these two
lines.
The KEYPA D$(n) function returns either the keypad
character (as an ASCII value) or its position. When
getting a character, keep in mind the difference between
an ASCII value vs real. An ASCII ‘1' is not the same as
the number 1 used for calculations.
9-1
KEYPAD PORT
CHAPTER 9
The table b elow lists J5' s pin out, 82C55 p ort and bit,
and its intended function.
The following example sets up CAM BASIC to scan a 16
position keypa d. P orts A a nd B are set fo r outputs
(presumably to drive the LCD display and high current
port) The results are echo' ed to the display.
Pin
10 CONFIG PIO 1,0,0,1,0,64
20 'Optionally change keypad char 'B'
30 ' to the letter 'M'
40 POKE SYS(8)+7,77
60 ON KEYPAD$ 16 GOSUB 500
70 PRINT " Enter a number";
100 'loop for this example
110 GOTO 100
500
510
520
530
540
560
A$ = KEYPAD$(0)
IF A$ = "C" THEN ..clear_beep
IF A$ = CHR$(13) THEN ..enter
PRINT A$;
B$ = B$+A$
RETURN
600
610
630
650
660
..clear_beep
B$=""
DELAY .4
PRINT CHR$(12); “
RETURN
” CAR$(12);
82C55
Port/bit @ U19
Function
1
C /0
Row 1
2
C /6
Column 3
3
C /5
Column 2
4
C /1
Row 2
5
C /2
Row 3
6
C /4
Column 1
7
C /7
Column 4
8
C /3
Row 4
9
B/0
Column 5
10
B/1
Column 6
Ground is not used.
700 ..enter
710 FL = 1
730 RETURN
COMMANDS
The following is a list of CAMBASIC com mands for the
keypad.
Program Explanation
Lines 10-80 set up the parameters for the keypad.
Lines 500 to 730 process the key press. If a "C " or " #"
is pressed, it is an exception and is handled that way.
Otherwise, the character is displayed and stored.
Command
Lines 700 to 730 process the "enter" key. The enter
flag, FL , is set to a 1 to indicate to another part of the
program that B$ has complete data.
The KEYPA D$(0) function returns a single character
string that has been assigned to a particular key.
Char acters ar e assigned usin g the SYS(8 ) statemen t.
Keypad Commands
There are several keypad commands. See the table at
the end of this chapter.
KEYPAD PORT PIN OUT - J5
The keypad port uses port C from an 82C55. Lower
port C is configured as an input. Upper port C are
outputs.
9-2
Function
CON FIG PIO
Configures digital I/O port
INPUT KEYPAD$
Input data from a keypad
KEYPA D$(n)
Returns last key from keypad
port.
ON KE YPAD $ 16
ON KE YPAD $ 24
Causes a program branch
when a key is pressed
SYS(8)
Returns keypad string address
to modify char acters.
CHAPTER 10
DISPLAY PORT
Simply plug these displays into J6. A contrast
adjustmen t pot, R 13, controls the viewing an gle. This
pot is adjusted after J6 is properly configured.
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
Ž Differences between RP C-2350 and RPC -2350G
Ž Programm ing for a display
Ž Multiple use note
Any number of other LCD displays may be used. See
the table at the en d of this sub-section for cable pin out.
DESCRIPTION
Configuring J6 for a display
Two lines of CAM BASIC code must be executed in the
proper o rder befo re J6 is ready for displays.
DISPLA Y POR TS CHA PTER 10
A display, in conjunction with a keypad, can give an
operator feedback on operation status and some level of
control over the p rocess.
First, you must configure the digital I/O port using the
CONF IG PIO command. Port A must be configured as
an output. If you are using a keypad, then set port C as
shown in the example below. Port B is usually set to an
output to drive the high current sinks. Refer to Chapter
6, D IG ITAL I/O, for m ore information on port B and
general program ming information.
There are tw o display ports on the RPC-2350G: J6 is for
LCD char acter displays and J9 or J13 are for graphics
displays. The RPC -2350 has only J6, used for LC D and
VF character displays. This chapter discusses J6. See
Chapte r 15 for graphics display por t.
The L CD charac ter and gr aphic por ts operate
independently of each other. The LCD character port
uses port A fr om an 82C 55 PIO chip. These lines at J6
are shared with some on J3 also. The graphics port has
its own driver and mem ory.
Put the following line of code in your program:
CONFIG PIO 1,0,x,x,x,64
‘X’ parameter is 0 or 1 as needed in your application.
Refer to the CAMBA SIC Programming Manual for more
information about CONFIG PIO. The address for the
display PIO chip is 64.
CAM BASIC comm ands are provided to position and
write characters to each display. A dditional commands
are provided to draw lines, turn pixels on and off, and
print large characters on the graphics display.
Next, deter mine the type of display you will be using.
Refer to the CAMBA SIC Programming Manual for a list
of types under CONFIG DISPLAY.
The following example configures J6 for a LC D 4 x 20
display:
CONFIG DISPLAY 64,4,1
The cursor w as selected as blinking.
There are tw o LCD character display demonstration
program s that show how to position and write to the
dis play:
Figure 10-1 LCD character connector and contrast adjust
LCD440.BAS
LCD420.BAS
LCD CHARACTER PORT J6
Writes to LCD 4 x 40
Writes to LCD 4 x 20
USING TWO DISPLAYS
You can use Liquid Crystal Displays (LC D) or vacuum
fluorescent displays at J6. Display sizes range from 1
line by 8 character s to 4 lines by 40 character s.
The RPC-2350G is not intended to use both character
and graphics displays simultaneously. There is no
provision for switching the software between two
displays.
The pin ou t at J6 is designed to plu g directly into Remo te
Processing L CD 4 x 4 0 and LC D 4 x 20 displays.
10-1
DISPLAY PORTS
CHAPTER 10
It is possible to write a LCD character driver in Basic.
This routine will be slow and take up some space.
J6 Pin
82C55
Port/Line
DISPLAY CONNECTOR PIN OUT
The displa y port uses an 82C5 5 for data and contr ol.
The table below lists a pin number and its intended
function. A display may not use all lines even though
they are available.
1
+ 5V supply*
2
Ground*
3
A /4
4
J6 Pin
82C55
Port/Line
Function WR T display
(LCD d isplays)
1
+ 5V supply
2
Ground
3
A/ 4
4
~RS
Contrast Voltage
5
A/ 6
E1
6
A/ 5
R /~W
7
No connect
8
No connect
9
No connect
10
A/ 7
E2
11
A/ 1
DB5
12
A/ 0
DB4
13
A/ 3
DB7
14
A/ 2
DB6
15-20
Function WR T display
(VF displays)
D4
No connect
5
A /6
D6
6
A /5
D5
7
No connect
8
No connect
9
No connect
10
A /7
Strobe
11
A /1
D1
12
A /0
D0
13
A /3
D3
14
A /2
D2
15-20
No connect
VF c haracte r display co nnector table. Displays op erate
in 8 bit mode. Bring bit 7 on display to ground.
Display bit 7 is not used.
*NOTE:
Due to hig h display cur rent dem and, it is
recomm ended that separate + 5 and ground
lines be brought to the display.
No connect
COMMANDS
The following is a list of commands used to control the
displays.
The ~ character designates a logical NOT.
LCD char acter displays operate in 4 bit mode. D isplay
lines DB0-DB3 are not connected.
Command
10-2
Function
CONFIG DISPLAY
Tells system type of
display and initialize s it.
DISPLAY
Cor e comm and to wr ite
to display for printing
and positioning.
CON FIG PIO
Initializes digital port
CHAPTER 11
SOUND/TIMER OUTPUT
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
Ž Uses and limitations of sound/timer output
Ž Connecting to a speaker
DESCRIPTION
SOUN D/T IMER OUTP UT
CH APTE R 11
Sound may be used to drive a speaker or generate square
wave pulses.
Sound timer an d output line is used for other pur poses.
Do NO T use SOUN D when using any of the following:
RS-485 communication
512K RAM memor y(installed)
512K Flash memory
Figure 11-1 Sound/pulse output connector
CONNECTING TO A SPEAKER
RS-485 uses the same timer as sound. C PU addr ess line
A18 is used to address RAM and F lash or provide the
pulse output for SOUND.
Refer to figure 11-2 below for circuit connections to a
speaker. T he series resistor determines the volume. the
Capacitor sets the lower frequency limit. Generally,
values from 100 uF to 470 uF ar e adequate. The
speaker may be any value but those with 50 ohms or
greater produc e higher d b output.
SOUN D Syntax is:
SOUND frequency
frequency is from about 15 Hz to over 20,000 Hz.
Output is ava ilable only dur ing run tim e. It is sh ut off in
the immediate mode (i.e. Entering code.)
Frequency accuracy is dependent upon the CPU crystal
of 18.432 MHZ . The factor that determines frequency
accuracy and resolution is the basic timer frequency of
921.6 kHz. The timer is a 16 bit, meaning that there are
65,536 possible frequencies within the 921.6 KHz
window. What this means is that while you might
request a frequency, say 10,000 Hz, you will get
something else. This is especially true at higher
frequencies.
Figure 10-2 Speaker interface
Sound output is available from J10-3. This output can
go to a speaker or the counter at J10.
11-1
CHAPTER 12
WATCHDOG TIMER
Watchdog time is determined by jumper W 1. U se the
following tab le to set a timeo ut.
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
Ž Uses for a watchdog timer
Ž Cautions using watchdog
W1 Pins
Typical
timeout
Range
DESCRIPTION
WAT CHD OG TIM ER
CH APTE R 12
A watchdog timer is used to reset the RPC -2350 if the
program or C PU "cr ashes". When enabled, the program
must write to I/O addr ess &E8 to avoid a reset. T he
timeout is adjustable for 150 ms, 600 ms, or 1.2
seconds.
[1-2]
1.2 sec.
500 mS to 2 Sec.
no jumper
600 ms
250 mS to 1000 mS
2-3
150 ms
62.5 to 250 mS
WARNING:
Once the watchdog timer is enabled, it can only be
disabled by a BIT &E4, 0,0 in the program . If the
watchdog timer is running and the program stops for
any reason (program error or < Esc> key hit), the
card will reset. Y ou can recover the progr am by
typing UN N EW .
The watchdog should be disabled when using INPUT
statements. Also, loops which do not end quickly or are
of indeterminate du ration should be avoided unless a
timer reset pulse is included. An example of an
indeterminate loop is one that waits for a port condition
to change.
PROGRAM EXAMPLES
The watchdog is enabled by writing a 1 to address &E4,
bit 0 and disabled by writing a 0 to the same location.
Th e t im e r is r eset by any access (read o r w rite) to I/O
address &E8.
The following program fragments enable the watchdog
timer, reset it while the program is running, and then
disables it.
The A IN com mand, in conjunction w ith the SPI po rt,
access this address. Thus, executing either an AIN or
SPI function also resets the watchdog timer, if enabled.
100 OUT &E4,1 :'Turn on watchdog
.
.
.
5000 OUT &E8,0 :'Reset timer
7000 A = AIN(N) :’Reset timer
.
.
.
10000 OUT &E4,0 :'Turn off watchdog
The watchdog timer is part of a voltage monitor and
reset chip U14.
Figure 11-1 Watchdog timer jumper
12-1
CHAPTER 13
INTERRUPTS
There is an order of pr iority:
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
INT 0
INT 1
ON BIT 0 to
ON BIT 7
ON KEYPAD
ON T ICK 0 to
ON TIC K 2
ON C OM$ 1
ON C OM$ 0
ON C OUN T 0 to
ON COUNT 7
ON INP 0 to
ON INP 7
Ž Discusses types of inter rupts
Ž Interr upt prior ity
DESCRIPTION
INTER RUPT S
CHAP TER 13
Interrupts on the RPC-2350 can be broken down into two
general groups: Hardware and software. Hardware
interr upts are IN T 0 and IN T 1. Softwar e interr upts
include ON CO M$, ON TIC K, ON KEYPA D, and
others that require software to execute.
Technically, timer and com munications are also
hardware interr upts. These are suppor ted through
software, and are consider ed software inter rupts.
If two interrupts happen simultaneously, they will be
checked and started in this order. U nless you use the
LOC K command, the next interrupt will not be
processed for 8 commands. This means you can have an
interrupt processing routine interrupt another, which can
interrupt another. Since these are all subroutines, the
numbe r you ca n have active at one time is lim ited only
by the amount of available RAM.
The NM I hardware interr upt is brought out to the
expansion connector. It is not supported by
CAM BASIC. It is accessible by assembly language.
INTERRUPT HANDLING BY CAMBASIC
Interrupt generating and handling is a bit complex.
First, the gener al rule is exp lained then the e xceptions to
the rules are given.
Interrupt service routines should be written as short as
possible. Only those lines necessary to stop or start
something should be processed. Heavy duty analysis and
process ing should be do ne in a non-tim e critical loop , if
at all possible.
When INT 0 and INT 1 lines go low, a CPU hardware
interrupt is generated. Softwar e responds by setting a
flag. When the current CAM BASIC line is finished
executing, the line num ber spec ified in ON INT is
executed as a subroutine. Latency depends upon the
complexity of the current CAM BASIC line being
processed and when the interrupt occurr ed while the line
was processed. Typical latency is about 1 mS.
Software interrupts such as ON BIT, ON KEY PAD , and
ON INP require software processing. These routines
scan I/O lines every system tick time (0.005 seconds).
If a condition is met (keypad press, line changes status) a
flag is set. Now, here is w here thing s get a bit
complicated.
The above interrupt tasks are checked every 8 program
line statements (typically 0.005 seconds). T his means
that respon se to a line chang e could take a n additional 5
milli-seconds from the time the event took place.
Hardw are interrupts are the exception. T he operating
system is forced to process these interrupts on the next
statemen t.
Figure 13-1 J10 and INT 1 location
HARDWARE INTERRUPTS
Hardware interrupts supported by CAMBASIC are INT
0 and INT 1. The r eal time clock uses INT 0, jumpered
via W10. (See Chapter 7). The counter/quadrature
encoder uses INT 1 (See Chapter 14). INT 1 also goes
to J10-2 for external interrupts. Be sure to rem ove any
What happens when interrupts occur simultaneously?
13-1
INTERRUPTS
CHAPTER 13
SOFTWARE INTERRUPTS
jumper s from W7 if using e xternal inte rrup ts. IN T1 is
tied to a 10K ohm pull up resistor.
Software inter rupts are all other “O N” types. T hese
interrupts look for an interrupt condition in software.
The ON BIT, ON INP, ON KEYPAD$, ON COUNT,
and ON TICK r outines either scan or count first then
determine if an interrupt should be declared. A ll of the
above routines oper ate on a 5 mS interv al. T hat is,
every 5 m S lines are scanned, counters checked , and so
on.
The O N IT R n GO SUB line/label tasking statem ent is
used to initialize interrupts 0 and 1.
INT 0 and INT 1 are level sensitive. As long as the line
is low, an interrupt is generated. This can be a blessing
and curse, depending upon the application. Make sure
you turn off or reset your external hardw are interrupt
source before executing a RET URN IT R n.
Commands that look at digital I/O lines, such as ON
BIT, requir e a stable input co ndition for a t least 5 ms in
order to be recognized.
Hardware service routines require a RETUR N ITR n at
the end of the subroutine. This will re-enable the
particular interrupt. If, for some reason you do not want
the interrupt again, you can just RETURN. Some
applications may actually require a delayed RETURN
ITR. This is true if you are monitoring a slow moving
pulse at the counter. When an interrupt is generated, the
low signal output may not go away by the time the
interrupt is finished. You can simply set a flag to let the
main routine know later to re-enable the interrupt when
the condition is gone. See CNTR2. BAS for an example.
All of the subroutines use a simple RETURN to continue
execution from where it was interrupted from.
See the examples in the CAMBASIC manual for more
information on using these tasking statements.
COMMANDS
The follow ing comm ands are used for in terru pts in
CAMBASIC.
Later you can exe cute RE TUR N ITR n to re-en able it.
The C LOC K1. BAS rou tine shows ho w interr upt 0 is
used.
Command
INT1 is available at J10-2. It is active low, level
sensitive, and is used in conjunction with the counter
carr y or bor row o utput or an externa l signal applied to
J10.
NOTE: Interr upts are fr equently tur ned off wh ile
CAM BASIC runs certain time critical code.
Times when interr upts are turned off include
graphic display writing (when sparkle is on),
brief periods when servicing comm unication
interrupts, and wr iting to Flash. Norm ally a
pulse 10 micro-Seconds wide can cause an
interrupt. Howeve r, if you are saving to flash
or to the graphics screen, the pulse should be
100 micro-Seconds to ensure capture.
NOTE: Interrupt 0 and 1 are level sensitive. As long
as the line is low, another interrupt will be
called as soon as RETURN ITR is executed.
Make sure you clear the sour ce of the interrupt
before executing RETURN ITR.
13-2
Function
ON BIT
Interrupt on line change
O N C OM $
Interr upt on seria l data
ON COUNT
Interrupt when count
reached
ON INP
Interrupt on bit m ask
ON ITR
Hardw are interrupt
ON KEYPAD$
Interrupt on key press
ON TICK
Per iodic interr upts
RETURN ITR
Return from hardware
interr upt.
CHAPTER 14
MULTI-MODE COUNTER
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
COUNTER INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
Ž
The counter chip has four inputs and two o utputs.
Reference is made to the LS7166 counter reg isters.
These registers are in Appendix A at the end of this
manua l.
Brief description of the counter
High voltage input and level sensing adjustment
Use in program
Measu ring pulse w idth
Measure frequency
Two of the inputs, designated as A and B, are counter
inputs. The ICR (input control register) controls the
function of these inputs. Encoders, switches, and other
such device s are con nected to these inputs. These inpu ts
are very high speed. If you are going to use a
mechanical sw itch, it is best to debounce it first or use
the high voltage input described below.
DESCRIPTION
MUL TI-MO DE C OUN TER
CH APTE R 14
The RPC-2350 has a programm able high speed counter
or quad ratur e encoder . T he 24-bit coun ters ar e capable
of up/dow n, binar y, divide-by-n , and qu adrature inpu ts.
Count frequency is DC to 20 MHZ. The type of counter
is an LSI C omputer Systems L S7166. Its data sheet is in
Appendix A and on disk as LS7166.PDF
The ‘A’ input (J10-9 or J10-10 through buffer) operates
as up and dow n count input an d a quadr ature inpu t.
COUNT(8) is used to read the counter. The OUT
command is used to write and progr am the chip.
The ‘B’ inpu t (J10-8) can a ct as a down count input,
direction c ontrol for input A, or a quad ratur e input.
An interrupt, using ON ITR 1, may be detected on a
carry or borrow.
Another input is LCTR (J10-6). It can load the counter
or output latch. The ICR register controls the function
of this line. If using it to control the output latch, you
must read each register individually and not transfer the
counter to the output latch as is done by COUN T(8).
See CNT R5.BAS.
A high voltag e input, such as a signa l from a proxim ity
sensor, may be connec ted to one of the inputs.
Signals connect via J10. All input lines are pulled high
through 10K input resistors. A quadrature encoder may
be connected directly to J10.
The ABGT input (J10-4) enables/disables A/B inputs or
resets the counter. The IC R regsiter controls the
function of this line. Nor mally, it does not have to be
accessed.
A count is incremented when the signal at the ‘A’ input
goes from low to high.
The two outputs, C Y and BW are counter ca rry and
borrow signals. They are use to generate an interrupt
(INT1) when the counter goes either through 0 or a
preset. These outputs are controlled by the OCCR
register. Status is read at the OSR register.
Interrupt selection
Jumper W 7 can be used to interrupt the CPU on a
counter carry, borr ow, or external interrupt. Jumper
W7[1-2] to interrupt on a carry (counter overflows). Set
jumper W7[2-3] to interrupt on a borrow (counter
underflow). Leave W7 open if using an external
interrupt. INT1 goe s to J10-2 for externa l interrupts.
See Fig ure 14-2 for W 7 jumper pin out.
Figure 14-1 Counter and jumper location
14-3
MULTI-MODE COUNTER
CHAPTER 14
Specifically, CAMBASIC writes a 2 to the MCR
(Master Control Register), reads the 3 counter bytes
from the OL (Output latch), and converts it to the proper
internal BA SIC for mat.
The LS7166 has several count related registers. The PR
(Pre set register ) is a kind of holding register . A bit in
the MCR (Master control register) transfer s the
inform ation to the C NTR (counter ). T he PR is u sed to
pre-load the counter . T his pre-loa d value can b e put into
the main counter by setting a bit in the MCR or bringing
the LCTR (J10-6) line low momentarily.
Figure 14-2 W7 and W9 jumper detail
HIGH VOLTAGE INPUT
Connector J10, pin 10 can accept a ±15V signal. As
shipped from the factory, it detects a high input level
(output goes low) at about + 3 volts and a low input
(output goes hig h) at about + 2 volts. This level is
program mable by changing R28.
The CN TR is read by first setting another bit in the
MCR to transfer CNT R to OL (Output latch).
CAM BASIC C OUN T(8) function does this.
The counter is capable of generating an interrupt every
time CNT R equal PR, or when CN TR passes through 0
while counting up or down.
Lowe r the value of R28 to incr ease the “ high” level.
For exam ple, changing R28 to 23K raises the high input
level thresh old to about 4. 2 volts and the low level to
about 3.2 volts. T he thresholds are approximate and
change fr om lot to lot.
NOTE: Pulses from the LS7166 C Y and BW pins m ust
be long enough for the RPC2350 to recognize
an interrupt. C ounting speed is limited to about
100 KHz when interrupts are desired. Even
these can be missed as CAM BASIC shuts off
interr upts at points in the pr ogram , esp ecially
when writing to the graphics screen or F lash.
The outpu t of the buffer connects to a c ounter inp ut via
jumper W9. When W9 is jumper ed it will goto the
counter’s “A ” input and to J10-9.
The buff er inver ts the input signal. A count incr ements
when a sign al goes “ high to “ low” on this input.
WARNING:
Do not use the CY or BW pulses to generate an
interrupt in quadrature mode. The pulses are far too
short and are easily missed by hardware. Contact
Remote P rocessing for solutions.
This line is usef ul for con necting pr oximity sw itches to
the counter. It may be used to filter switch contact
closures by tying a capacitor from its input to ground. A
10K pull-up r esistor is con nected to the inp ut.
Program Examples
This code, in CN TR1. BAS, r esets the counter and
enables the inp uts. If d esired, connect J2-1 9 to J10-9 to
see the count increment. The count is printed once a
second. If desired, you can bring J10-9 to another
device.
PROGRAMMING
The LS7166 is capable of several operating modes, all of
which cannot be discussed. See Appendix A for this
chips operating modes. W hat are shown are exam ple of
how to program this chip and some common operating
modes. .
10 pr "Counter test / demo program"
20 pr "Uses J2-19 to generate pulses."
30 pr "Connect to J10-9 (counter
input)"
40 print "Count continues until there
is an error. (about 16 million)
50 pr "Current count is printed every
second."
100 config pio 0,0,1,1,1,0
:'make
port A output
110 out &f1,32 :'reset counter to 0
120 out &f1,72 :'Enable counter A/B
The counter chip must be initialized before using the
COU NT function. You need to write to the ICR (Input
control register), O CCR (Output control register), and
possibly QR (Quadrature register) in order to set up the
counter. E xamples are given below for different
operating mo des.
The COU NT function returns the current counter value.
14-4
CHAPTER 14
MULTI-MODE COUNTER
inputs to count
130 on tick 0,1 gosub 1000
140 c = 1
:'initialize loop counter
200 bit 0,0,0
210 bit 0,0,1 :'rising edge increments
count
220 a=count(8)
230 if a <> c then print "Count error"
: end
240 inc c
250 goto 200
1000 print count(8)
:'show current
count
1010 return
CNT R3.BAS interfaces to a quadratur e encoder in x1
mode. The counter is pre-loaded to 100.
NOTE: See CAMBASIC resolution limit below.
CAM BASIC resolution lim it
CAM BASIC stores num bers to 7 dig its + exponent.
The counter outputs numbers to 8 digits. This means
that when the counter counts down from 0 to 1677215,
CAM BASIC will store it as 1 .67 721E+ 7. T he last digit
is dropped.
You can compensate for this easily by introducing an
offset. Preload the counter to some number, say
100,000. This becomes the zero point. W hen the count
is below this number, the counter is in “negative”
territory. See CNTR4.BAS
The following example returns a frequency. Input signal
is at J2-9 (A inpu t)
10 OUT &F1,32 :’RESET COUNTER
20 OUT &F1,72 :’ENABLE INPUTS
30 ON TICK 0,1 GOSUB 1000
40 GOTO 40
1000
1010
LAST
1020
1030
1040
Program CNT R5.BAS r eads the counter in Basic (not
using CO UN T(8) and prints the va lue in hex for mat.
This routine can be useful when an external device
triggers the LCT R line (J10-6) to transfer the count to a
latch. The count at that time can be read.
:’HANG OUT HERE
A = COUNT(8)
:’GET COUNT
C = A-B
:’FIGURE CHANGE FROM
TIME
PRINT “Frequency = “;a
B = A
RETURN
MEASURING PULSE WIDTH
You can measure pulse widths with 217 nano-Second
precision. W idths can be as long as 3.64 Seconds using
the counter input at J10.
The first frequency read w ill be off, due to initialization.
Accuracy is increased by stretching reading to every 10
seconds. Other factors affecting accuracy include serial
communications and other interrupt processing.
There are lim itations to measuring pulse widths. Below
lists the major ones.
The pulse repetition r ate must be slower than the time it
takes CAM BASIC to respond to it. As a guide, the
pulse repetition rate should be less than 100 Hz.
Meas uring a 50 micro -second signa l every se cond is
easy. Measu ring a 500 micro -second signa l every m illisecond is difficult, if not impossible.
The counter will not miss counts. Due to interrupt
latency, some co unts will be lar ger than o thers. It is
several counts off at about 8 kHz. If you average the
counts it will be accurate.
Another problem w ith this routine is periodically, a large
negative number is returned. This is because the counter
has rolled o ver. This is cor rected b y periodic ally
resetting the CNTR.
Only logic low pulses ar e measur ed. If a high pu lse
width is desired, invert the input signal. See figure
below.
Program C NTR2. BAS sets up the LS7166 to cause an
interrupt when a preset number of counts is reached.
W7[2-3] is jumpered to interrupt on a borrow. To
reload the count, bring the LDCTR line (J10-6) low.
When the count is 0 again, another in terru pt is
generated. Y ou can also count up provided you bring
counter line ‘B’ (J10-8) low while coun ter line ‘A ’ is
high.
14-5
MULTI-MODE COUNTER
CHAPTER 14
J10 Pin out
The following is the pin out for J10.
J10
pin
Signal levels are all TTL logic (0 to 5V).
The following signals at J10 ar e used to measur e pulse
widths:
J10 pin
Description
Function
1
Ground
2
4.608 M HZ clock output
3
Sound output
4
Gate input
5
+ 5V
6
Load counter
4
Counter gate. Measures when low.
7
INT 1 input
7
4.608 M HZ clock output. Tie to J10-9
8
B counter input
9
Clock input. Tie to J10-7
9
A counter input
10
High voltage input
The L S7166 IC R registe r is pro gram med so inp ut A
(J10-9) is up cou nt input and G ATE input (J10-9) ac ts to
enable inputs A/B when low.
COMMANDS
If desired, LO AD input (J10-6) can be used to reset the
counter . If this is de sired, make su re the O L reg ister is
program med for 0.
The following commands ar e used with the multi-mode
counter.
Command
See the demonstration program CNTR6.BAS for a
working example.
Basic operation is a follows:
Set the counter to 0
Read the counter and wait until it stops changing
after it star ts
Read the counter
Multiply result by 2.170139E-7
The result is the actual time.
14-6
Function
COU NT(8)
Reads multi-mode counter
ON ITR 1
Interrupt tasking
INP
I/O port read
OUT
Write to I/O port
CHAPTER 15
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
printable ASCII characters are available. This set
displays a maximum of 15 rows x 32 characters wide.
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
GRAP HIC D ISPLAY PORT
CHAP TER 15
Ž General display information
Ž Connect a display
Ž Display modes
Ž Printing text
Ž Make and load fonts
Ž Making, saving and loading screens
Ž Drawing points and lines
Ž ancillary screen control
Ž Load and save graphic screens
Ž Touch screen positioning
Ž Cable and wiring diagrams
Ž Command summary
Ž Application programs
The lar gest size is 32 x 48 p ixels (0. 5" heig ht). A ll
ASCII cha racters ar e available. T his set displays a
maximum of 6 rows x 10 characters wide.
Medium and large char acters are tr eated as graphics.
They can be displayed in normal or rever se (light
border, black character ) mode. Fonts are stor ed in Flash
EPROM . You may change fonts as desired. See
"Changing and loading fonts" later.
Small character cursor position starts in the screen’s
upper left corner. Row, Column coordinates start at 0,0
and end at 45,29.
DISPLAY INFORMATION
The contro ller is progra mmed for two planes. The first
plane is sma ll charac ters only. The seco nd plane is
larger character s and graphics. Each plane can be
independently turned on or off or flashed.
The RPC -2350 initializes the display controller for the
following type on power up:
Optrex DMF50174 320 x 240 pixel LCD
Planar EL320.240.36 320 x 240 pixel EL
Display sn ow or spa rkle
Snow, or sparkle, were defined in the PC world as
extrane ous flashes of ligh t on the scre en. Sparkle
appeared during updates on PC’s. A similar
phenomenon can manifest itself on the RPC-2350G.
Instead of flashes of light, there are black or grey bars
randomly running around an LCD screen. These are
most noticeable in reverse character display mode.
Flashes of light are even more noticeable on EL
displays.
The LC D plugs into J9. The EL display plugs into J13.
Sparkle is reduced by writing to controller memory
during the “up date” time. Unfor tunately this tends to
slow display updates considerably. Sparkle affects the
RPC-2350G only when drawing medium and large size
charac ters. It is especially notice able whe n printing in
reverse.
Update time can be critical. Typical times for pr inting 5
large ch aracter s is about 0. 1 second w ith sparkle
suppression. Without sparkle, the same characters are
printed in about 0.020 seconds. Medium size characters
take 2 times longer to print with sparkle suppression than
without.
Figure 15-1 LC D and EL connector location
There are 3 character sizes available. Default character
set is 5 x 7 pixels. This set displays 30 rows of 40
characters / line. Most American ASCII characters are
displayed. The ‘\’ char acter is the yen symbol. ASC II
values 126 and 127 ar e displayed as 6 and 7
respectively.
Default C AM BASIC mode is m inimum sparkle. Sparkle
suppression can be temporarily turned off. This is done
by writing a 1 to the spar kle flag (using SYS(14) ). Use
the following progr am exam ples.
Mediu m size is 10 x 16 pixels (0. 175" h eight). All
POKE SYS(15),1,0
15-1
:'Fast- w/ sparkle
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
POKE SYS(15),0,0
CHAPTER 15
Initially connect th e Back light inver ter gr ound lead to
“G ND” on P2 or your pow er supply.
:'Slow- no sparkle
Ther e is an unfor tunate par adox beca use of this. Sparkle
is most noticea ble when d isplays are updated fr equently
(5 times/second). The problem is when you want them
updated without sparkle, it takes more time.
NOTE:
Orient the display so the back light cable (2 wire) and
lamp are on the right side, when viewing the display
from the front.
When y ou power up the boar d, the graphics controller is
initialized to display a blinking cursor in the upper left
corner. You should see a white light coming from the
back light lamp on the right side.
Sparkle suppression (default CAMBASIC
mode) c an be a pr oblem w hen wr iting lots
of text and when performing multitasking.
Writing text for 1/10 second means dur ing
this time, all other interrupts are put on
hold for that time (interrupt latency). You
may have to sacrifice screen clarity for
speed.
The bac k light requir es some w arm up time (ab out a
minute) in order for the display to be read able. A djust
contrast po t R30 for optimal view ing contra st.
EL Display
The E L display co nnects to J13. Connec tion is one to
one using a 2 mm ribbon cable.
Sparkle may not be objectionable in your application. It
is most noticeable on EL displays and when updating a
LCD screen w ith reverse (white block with black
lettering) character s.
External + 12V power must be applied to P2 terminal
marked “ ELPW R”. This is necessary for display
power. You can connect this same + 12V power to the
“7-30V” terminal to power the board, if desired.
Sparkle suppression is not completely eliminated when
enabled. You w ill still see random bars flickering
around the screen.
When y ou power up the boar d, the graphics controller is
initialized to display a blinking cursor in the upper left
corner
CONNECTING A DISPLAY
Operating a display is as simple as plugging the display
cable into the appropriate connector. See F igure 15-1
above for connector locations. The R PC-2350G
automatically initializes the controller on power up. A
blinking cursor is displayed in the upper left corner of
the screen.
Verify operation - both display types
Chances are if you have the blinking cursor, the display
is going to wor k. A quick way to verify op eration is to
type the following line in the immediate mode.
DISPLAY “Hello world”
Make sure the board w orks as described in Chapter 2,
Setup and Operation, befor e connecting any display.
The message should be displayed on the top line. The
cursor should be blinking on the next line down.
LCD Display
The L CD display plugs into J9 . Back light inverter is
connected separately to the + 5V and GND terminals on
P2.
You can execute any of the display commands in the
imme diate mod e as well w hile runnin g. F or exam ple, if
you want to draw a lighted box, execute:
Th e B ac k li gh t i nv erter m ay b e po w ered O N o r OFF
under software control by connecting its ground to P2
terminal marked “ SWPW R” (P 2-1). This is a high
current switch to ground. By default, it is off. To turn
on, execute the BA SIC statem ent:
DISPLAY F(100,100),(120,120)
A list of gra phics pro gram s is shown at the end of this
chapter. D ownload them to see how they display and
are program med.
OUT &E7,1
DISPLAY LAYERS
To tur n the inver ter off, execute
There are two display layers: graphics and character.
Each lay er is ‘OR ’ed’ with the o ther, meaning that a
OUT &E7,0
15-2
CHAPTER 15
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
lighted pixel (or block) on one layer ca n obliterate
another.
This CAM BASIC can display 3 character sizes. T he 2
larger sizes are considered a graphic.
Each layer can be turned on, off, or flashed.
CONTRAST ADJUSTMENT
Figure 15-2 Jumper W3 detail
There are two contrast adjustment methods for LC
displays. Both use the BIAS pot R30.
After the board is powered up, execute the following
CAM BASIC statement:
Jumper W3 determines if contrast is set only by BIAS
pot R30 or can be also modified in software. Software
control is handy if the display is subjected to wide
tempera ture variations.
AOT 1,2048
This sets the D/ A output to 0V. This code should also
be placed in the initialization section of your program.
Softwar e control u ses analog ou tput channel 1. If this
channel is used for contrast adjustment, then analog
output voltage a nd 4-20 m A. curr ent are no t available
for this cha nnel.
The D/ A has 12 bit resolution. This translates to 4096
possible voltages from -5 to + 5V, or about 2.4 mV /step.
This re solution is far to o fine to be notice d. N oticeable
changes in contrast start in steps of 200 counts. Using
the AOT comma nd, you can step up or dow n to increase
or decre ase screen br ightness.
Mechanical Contrast Adjustment
Contr ast set by R30 is fa ctory def ault. W 3[2-3] sets this
condition. See figure 15-2 below for jum per deta il.
Adjust R30 BIAS pot for optimal viewing.
The following examples show a relative screen change
for different voltage va lues.
Software Contrast Control
Contrast can be controlled by software using analog
output channel 1.
AOT 1,3000
AOT 1,2000
Decre ase brightness
Increase br ightness
At some point an increase in brightness swamps out the
contrast.
The con trast should a djusted ma nually at first. Simply
power up the display and run one of the display
program s. Adjust R30 contrast for optimal display.
Then turn off the power and set the jumpers shown
below. (Contr ast voltage at displa y connector J9-5 is
about -18 volts.)
PRINTING TEXT
The GRA PDE MO. BAS program shows the different
ways of printing all text characters and graphics. Run
this program to see how it work s.
Set the following jumper s:
NOTE: Medium and large characters use Flash EPROM
in U3 to store fonts. Make sur e W11 is installed.
W3[1-2]
W12[5-7]
There are 3 text sizes: Sm all ( 2.88 mm or 0.11" tall),
medium ( 5.76 mm or 0.22" tall) and large (17.28 mm
or 0.68" tall) (sizes are based on 0.36 mm dot pitch).
Standard is small. This font is built into the graphics
controller.
Jumper W 3 is set for software control. See F igure 15-2
below for jumper detail. Jumper W12 is set for + /-5V
output from the D/A.
All fonts are fixed space, not proportional. Sm allest font
is 8 x 8 pixels. Medium font is 10 wide by 16 tall. The
15-3
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
CHAPTER 15
starts pr inting the char acter on the 3rd pixe l to the right,
and 4th pixel down from the top (coordinates start at
0,0).
largest fon t is 32 pixels wide by 48 tall.
Small charac ters are pr inted on its own plane. Thus,
small text can be turned off if desired. The larger sizes
are considered graphics and are printed on the graphics
plane.
The largest character is positioned based on pixel and
small character resolution. T he X position starts on the
column based on the small character set. Its range is 034. The Y position sets the top of the chara cter. Its
range is 0 to 192. Thus, you have 19 2 vertical p oints
and 35 horizontal points to position a large character.
Printing small characters is much like printing to a
terminal. U nless there is a semi-colon (;) at the end of a
PRIN T or D ISPL AY state ment, the curso r advan ces to
the beginning of the next line simulating a
< CR> < LF> sequence.
Medium and large char acters are d rawn as gr aphics.
This m eans they app ear on the graphics layer. The fonts
for these characters are stored in F lash EPROM , U 3. If
this EPROM is missing or W11 is removed, the larger
characters will display garbage. Fonts can be modified
as desired . Se e "C hanging and loading fonts" later in this
chapter.
Text is printed using a number of CAM BASIC
commands. Some of them are listed below.
PRIN T #10, ”T ext”
PR I NT # 10 , U S IN G “# #. # # ## ”;A
DISP LAY “T ext”
DISP LAY (Row, Colum n); ” Text”
DISP LAY L (Row , C olumn); ”T ext” ;
DISP LAY M (Ro w, Colum n);” Text” ;
DI SPL AY M, R(R o w , Colum n );" T ext" ;
Printing normal and reverse characters
Medium and large characters may be printed in normal
(white on bla ck backgr ound) and r everse (black on w hite
background). This is done by specifying the "R"
parameter in the DISP LAY com mand.
PRINT #10 can write formatted number s and text in the
same way as PRINT. PRINT uses small text. Larger
characters must use DISP LAY. PRINT USING is not
available for large r chara cters.
DISPLAY M,R(0,0)"REVERSE";
DISPLAY M(0,16)"NORMAL";
The semi-colon (;)
You may (or may not) notice a semi-colon (;) after
some, but not all DISPL AY and P RINT #10 statements.
A (;) suppresses a < CR> < LF> sequence to the
display (and serial ports). A comm a (,) wor ks in a
similar fashion except a number of spaces are printed
while it tabs to the next location..
Medium and large char acters are form ed in CAM BASIC
and are treated as graphics . P rinting these charac ters is
much the same as sm all ones. The m ajor differ ence is
CAM BASIC does not re -position text on the next line if
you run out of room on the current line.
Positioning text
Small character text is positioned using the DISPLAY
command. Text begins in the upper left corner at (0,0).
The lower r ight corner is (29,39). Text is autoincremented to the next position. When small text is at
the end of the line, it is positioned at the next line. An
entire screen of small text will scroll up one line when
the b ot to m li ne is printed fo llow ed b y a < L F >
character.
The displa y driver was design ed so whe n printing sm all
characters, the screen acted like a terminal display.
Thus, a < CR> < LF> sequence simply moved the
cursor down one line.
Medium and large char acters do not operate this way. A
< CR> or < LF> are simply tr eated as spaces. Unless
you include a ";" at the end of a DISPLAY M or
DISPLAY L type line, you will effectively print two
mor e blocks of ch aracter s. T his is especially notic eable
in the reverse display mode.
Medium sized character s are positioned based on
graphical X and Y pixel position. When printing a
string, character s automatically advance to the right by
10 pixels.
Scrolling
Small text automatically scrolls up 1 line when it reaches
the bottom of the screen. Thus, the display acts like a
term inal.
The X, Y coordinates in the DISPLA Y comm and for
medium character s specify the upper right corner of the
character block. Thus, a D ISPLAY M(2, 3) command
15-4
CHAPTER 15
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
Scroll up time may be an important factor. It takes
about 65 mS to move all 1160 characters of the text up
one line.
CHANGING AND LOADING FONTS
Mediu m and lar ge size char acter fon ts are stor ed in
Flash EPR OM U 3. You can change or customize the
fonts using the supplied programs and a Windows bitmap
graphics program (such as PC Paint Brush).
If U3 is missing, damaged or W11 is removed, garbage
characters will be displayed.
Figure 15-2
The demo progr am CIRC LE. BAS draws a circle using
point set (DISPLAY P (x,y)).
You can change and load fonts using the programs
supplied in the demo disk. They are under the FONT
director y. Su pplied are all of the . BMP files used to
create each character. They are name d as Lxxx.BM P or
Mxxx.BM P. A n ‘L’ prefix specifies a large character
and an ‘M’ prefix is for medium . The num ber following
this letter is the ASCII value. Thus, M65. BMP is a
medium sized letter ‘A’
Minimal range checking is performed. If a point does
not show up or is in the wrong place, chances are either
the X or Y param eter is wrong.
CLEAR, FILL, AND XOR AREAS
Modification instructions are in a READM E file in the
directory. Read this if you want to modify the
character s..
You can clear (erase), fill, or XOR (toggle) a
rectangular area using one of the display com mands.
DISPLA Y F(x1, y1),(x2, y2)
DISPLA Y F, C(x1, y1),(x2, y2)
DISPLA Y F, X(x1,y1), (x2,y2)
Characters sizes are fixed at 10 x 16 for medium and 32
x 48 for large.
Fills an area
Clears an area
Toggles an area
DRAWING POINTS AND LINES
This com mand is use ful when yo u want to sele ctively
clear or fill an area (graphics, for example) without
clearing the entire screen. F illing an area is useful for
displaying a bar gra ph. It is faster than drawing lines.
There are two basic commands used for drawing lines
and points:
DISPLAY LINE
DISPLAY P
XOR is useful when you want to highlight an area. The
data is reversed in whatever area is selected.
Both commands have a counter part to clear lines and
points:
The fill com mand tak es time to exe cute, especially in
large areas. This is important if you are running
multitasking (ON COM , ON BIT, etc. ).
CLEAR DISPLAY LINE
CLEAR DISPLAY P
Display fill ope rates faste st when X is on an 8 bit
boundary. For exam ple, filling an area bounded by
(0,y), (96,y) is 20% faster than (1,y), (97,y), even though
the area is the same. XOR requires an extra 20% more
time to exec ute. Turn ing off spar kle (see ear lier in this
chapter) reduces write time by about ½.
Drawing range is from 0,0 to 329,239. Coordinates are
shown in the figure below.
Executio n time dep ends upon the size of the ar ea to fill.
Larger areas obviously take m ore time than sm all ones.
15-5
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
CHAPTER 15
DISPLA Y SAVE works only when seg is to RAM. To
save a screen to flash, you must use SAVE.
LOAD AND SAVE SCREENS
Two com mands load and save screen gr aphics.
You will have to calculate the address, especially if you
have more than one screen.
DISPLAY LOAD (x1, y1),( x2, y2), seg, address
DISPLAY SAVE (x1, y1),( x2, y2), seg, address
Calculating graphic memory requirem ents
The fir st syntax, DISP LAY LOA D, transfer s graphic
information from RA M or F lash to the screen. The
second syntax, DISP LAY SA VE, transfers graphic from
the display to RAM only.
Use (x1, y1),( x2, y2) parameters in DISP LAY L OAD and
SAVE to calculate the number of bytes needed.
bytes = ((X2 - X1) / 8) * (Y2-Y1)
address r a ng e is & 0 to & F F F F .
The equation above assume X2 > X1 and Y2 > Y1.
Round UP the result of (X2-X1)/8 if it is a fraction. See
the following example.
Use D ISPL AY L OAD to bring up p re-gen erated g raphic
icons (such as buttons), prompts, com pany logos, or
process symbols. When us ed in conjunc tion with
DISPLA Y SAVE , it can be used to recall a graph
Suppose you want to save screen d ata from (0,1 20) to
(203,239).
DISPLA Y LOA D does not save any small text info.
bytes = ((203 - 0) / 8) * (239 - 120)
bytes = 25.375 * 119
(Round UP 25. 375 to 26)
bytes = 26 * 119
bytes = 3094
Param eters (x1, y1),( x2, y2) specify the rectangular area
on the display where the graphic will be placed.
To save multiple screens, assign each screen a number
(assuming they are all the same size). When saving,
multiply the screen number by the number of
bytes/screen. This becomes the address.
Making and saving custom graphics
A program in the applications disk, BMP-GPH.EXE,
translates a .BMP file into a hex file readable by the
RPC-2350.
BMP-GP H converts a black and white, single layer (no
transparent background color) BM P file generated by
any number of PC graphics program s. Width and height
attributes of the BMP graphic are in pixels. Limits are
320 pixels for width and 24 0 pixels for height.
Figure 15-3
Graphic coordinates correspond to those used to draw
lines, pixels, and fill areas.
The seg param eter spec ifies what m emor y segme nt to
save or load.
Memory type & size
Some BM P graphics a re provide d for your use . T hese
are in the GRAP HICS director y of the application disk.
Range of seg parameter
128K RAM
1
512K RAM
1-7
128K Flash
8 -9
Graphics are transfer red to the RPC-2350 using the
HEXLOAD.BAS program, located in the FONT
directory. Every download saves the graphic to the
same location in RAM (segment 1, starting address 0).
You must move the graphic to a predeter mined location
either in Flash or RAM.
512K Flash
8-15
Use the table at the end of this section to help map your
15-6
CHAPTER 15
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
to &FF FF. If you use one font, but not the other, you
can write in the unused area.
graphics.
When saving to Flash, you m ust round UP the amount
stored to the next Flash sector size. A 128K flash sector
size is 128. A 512K flash sector size is 256. If you are
unsure w hat you will use in the future , use the 256 byte
sector size.
ADDITIONAL SCREEN CONTROLS
The display is capable of other display modes. Some are
listed here, others are in the SED1335 technical manual
(File:M 133XF. PDF ). This is a complicated chip, and
capable of many operating modes. We do not support
progr amm ing this chip exce pt as explained in this
manua l.
The following example shows how to determine the
number of bytes to store to a sector into Flash.
Assume you have calculated your graphic memory
requirement. For this example, we will use 3094 (from
the previous example). D ivide this number by 256
Changing cursor size or form
Default cursor type is a block type. This can be changed
to an underline or smaller size.
3094 / 256 = 12.085
Execute the following code to change the cursor width,
height, and form.
Rounding up 12.085 gives us 13. T his is the number of
sectors needed for saving to flash.
OUT
OUT
OUT
The num ber of by tes is determ ined by m ultiplying this
number by sector size.
&F9,&5D
&F8,width
&F8,height OR form
width is in the range of 0 to 6. 0 gives a 1 pixel width.
13 * 256 = 3328
form determ ines if it is an under line or bloc k. L ogically
OR &80 to height for a block cursor.
This graphic will use 3328 bytes of flash memory. If
you are saving multiple graphics of the same size, you
can use this number as an offset for each graphic, or
picture, in the SAVE command.
height is in the range of 0 to 6. 0 gives a 1 pixel he ight.
SAVE s,3328 * PIC,1,0,3328
Screen flashing and screen ON/OFF
CAM BASIC sets the cursor flash rate at 1/second. It
can flash faster, but it is not as visible on the LCD
display. You can also flash the character and graphics
screens.
For the above example, s is the segment number (8 or 9
or 8 to 15, depending on mem ory size), PIC is the
picture number.
Since each segment = 65.536, you can hold 19 pictures
in 1 segme nt.
DISPLAY ON and DISPLAY OFF control the entire
display or graphics and character screens individually.
Since cursor and screen flashing are controlled by the
same byte, you will have to control them as described
below if you want to flash scr eens.
Wher e you save graph ics depends upon sever al factors,
one of them being how you intend to use graphics. The
second factor is the size of the gr aphics.
The par ameter by te is made up of sever al components.
Refer to the SED1335 P DF file, section 3.3.1, for
detailed information. The following are parameter
information you may need to know. The section number
and name are given first, followed by an explanation.
You will have to make a mem ory map of what you want
to save to RAM and FLASH. Start by determining what
you want to save. If you want to data log, set aside
some mem ory for that. If you need to store a second
progr am, allow for that. D on’t forge t that graph ic fonts
are stored in segment 9, address &AC00. If you are
using the supplied fonts, you should not save data there.
3.3.1.1 D
This is bit 0 of the c omm and. Writing a &58 to
address &F9 tur ns off the display.
Medium sized fonts are stored in segm ent 9 from ad dress
&AC 00 - &B7FF. Large fonts are stored from &B800
The following make up the parameter byte following the
15-7
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
CHAPTER 15
DISPLAY ON
command. The comm and byte value is &59.
3.3 . 1. 2 FC
FC1 and FC 0 set the character cursor flash rate.
NOTE: Display ON/OFF does not control its power.
See DISPLAY POWER ON/OFF below.
3.3 . 1. 3 FP
Set the attributes of each screen. FP0 and FP1 are
the character screen. FP2 and FP 3 are the graphics
layer, or screen. F P4 and FP 5 are not used.
Setting a flash rate at 16 Hz does a poor job of a
half tone effect. A flash rate of 2 Hz does get
attention.
You can turn on or off graphics and character displays
by ente ring the appropriate lette r afte r O N or OFF.
DISPLAY OFF G
turns off the graphics screen.
NOTE: The cursor w ill continue to blink even if you
turn off the display. Execute a CONFIG
DISPLAY 0,8,0 before writing to the display
to turn off the cursor . Y ou can m anually
control the cursor and screens. See “ Screen
flashing and screen ON/OF F” above.
Com mand ex ample be low sets the tex t layer to flash at a
2 Hz rate.
OUT &F9,&59
OUT &F8,10
This command turns on both the character and graphics
layer.
Display power ON/OFF
The display can enter a power off mode ( the controller
manual calls it “Sleep In”). This mode shuts off the
controller signals. Bias power to the display is supposed
to be removed. However, it is not on the RPC-2350.
Bias power cannot be r emove d since is supplies p ower to
RS-232, analog input and outputs. Ther efore, do not
enter a display power OFF mode.
OUT &F9,&59
OUT &F8,&17
This is equivalent to executing a DISPLAY ON
command. Since text and graphics are or’ed (by
default), you will see both.
Some power can be saved by turning off the LCD back
light. The ground lead must be connected to P2 terminal
marked “ SWPW R:. On/off control is perform ed by
executing the following command:
These commands turn off the blinking cursor.
OUT &F9,&59
OUT &F8,&14
OUT &E7,1
Screen overlay
This command selects how screen are displayed. There
are two screens available. Layer 1 is character and layer
2 is graphics.
To tur n the inver ter off, execute
Pixels on each layer can be OR’ed, XOR’ed, AND ’ed,
and Priority-OR’ed. See Figure 44 in the SED1335
technical m anual for mor e inform ation. By default, all
text and graphics are OR’ed.
Display mapping
The following information is for program mers who
understa nd how the SED 1335 chip w orks and want to
put it into modes not supported by CAMBASIC.
Turn screens ON and OFF
The entire display, graphics, or small character screen
display is turn ed off (blanke d) by execu ting certain
comm ands. This is useful w hen you w ant to alterna te
graphics and sm all character scr een displays.
The following is the memory map sent to SCROLL
register in the SED1335. .
OUT &E7,0
Layer 1 (character)
Layer 2 (graphics)
Layer 3 (graphics)
DISPLAY OFF
blanks the display. It is turned on by executing
15-8
SAD
SAD
SAD
SAD
1
2
3
4
&0000
&2000
&6000
&A 000
CHAPTER 15
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
PRINT AND DISPLAY TIMES
Times shown are what it took to execute the entire
DISPLA Y comm and.
Execution times for a command (not character) shown
below.
Reverse medium and large characters does not add a
significant amount of time.
Comm and
Time (in
milli-Sec)
Condition
DISPLAY
A$;C HR$(13);
1.255
A$ is 20 characters
long
DISPLA Y (x,y)
A$;
1.2
A$ is 20 characters
long
DISPLAY A$
62
Timed when cur sor
was at bottom of
screen . T his is
scroll up time.
DISPLAY
F(x1, y1),(x2, y2)
80
EL DISPLAY
An EL display from Planar (Model EL320. 240.36) may
be connected to the RPC-2350G. + 5V and + 12V power
must be available. + 12V is connected to P2, “ELPWR”
pin. + 5V is taken from the board.
+ 12V m ay also be use d to supply the bo ard. Simply
connect “ ELP WR” on P2 to “ 7-30V” on P2. Install
jumper W8.
To use your own + 5V supply, connect it to the “+ 5V”
pin on P2. M ake sure jumper W 8 is removed. Do not
connect “EL PWR” to any other pin on P2.
Area to clear or fill
is 96 x 96, on even
boundar y, sp arkle
off.
DI SPL AY F,
X(x1,y1), (x2,y2)
100
XOR ar ea is 96 x
96, sparkle off.
DISPLAY M
(x,y) A$;
40
A$ is 10 characters
long, no spark le
mode.
DISPLAY M
(x,y) A$;
16
A$ is 10 characters
long, allow spar kle
DISPLAY L
(x,y) A$;
80
A$ is 5 number
long, no spark le
mode
DISPLAY L
(x,y) A$;
10
A$ is 5 numbers
long, allow spar kle
DISPLA Y P(x, y)
0.425
Same x, y point
DISPLAY LINE
(0,0), (10,10)
8
14 points in line
The EL display has very fast pixel on/off time.
Conseq uently, sparkle is m ore notice able even w hen it is
off (default). Sparkle is m ore notice able whe n an are a is
illuminated.
Programming the EL display is the same as LCD.
EL display connects to J13. Connection is one to one
using a 2 mm ribbon cable. Cable is available from
Samtec (www. samtec.com or 812 944 6733), part
number TC SD-10-D-12. 00-01-F
Times wer e calculated in CAMBASIC by dividing
executing time by the number of loops. General
program was in the form of:
10
20
30
40
50
CLEAR TICK(0)
FOR N = 0 TO 999
DISPLAY test
NEXT
PRINT TICK(0)/1000
15-9
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
CHAPTER 15
CABLE PIN OUTS
J13 Pin #
The following tables are cable pin outs for LCD and EL
displays. J9 is the 20 pin display connector on the
board.
J9 Pin #
Description
Description
EL pin #
1
Display + 12V
1
2
Display + 12V
2
LCD pin #
3
Sef test (no conn ect)
3
1
FLM
1
4
Reserved
4
2
LP
2
5
+ 5V power
5
3
CP
3
6
Ground
6
4
WF
4
7
FLM/VS
7
5
Contrast adjust
5
8
Ground
8
6
+ 5V
6
9
LP/HS
9
7
Ground
7
10
Ground
10
8
Minus bias ( . -22V)
8
11
CP/VCLK
11
9
XD0
9
12
Ground
12
10
XD1
10
13
XD0
13
11
XD2
11
14
Ground
14
12
XD3
12
15
XD1
15
13
Display on/~off
13
16
Ground
16
14
no connection
14
17
XD2
17
15-20
no connection
18
Ground
18
19
XD3
19
20
Ground
20
15-10
CHAPTER 15
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
COMMANDS
The following commands are used with the graphics
display:
Command
Description
CLEAR DISPLAY
Clear graphics and
character displays.
CLEAR DISPLAY C
Clear character screen
only.
CLEAR DISPLAY G
Clear graphics screen
only.
CLEAR DISPLAY
LINE
Clear small text line at
current cursor row.
CLEAR DISPLAY
LINE (x1, y1),(x2, y2)
Clear graphics line from
(x1,y1) to (x2,y2)
CLEAR DISPLAY
P(x,y)
Clear graphics point
CONFIG DISPLAY
Configure display and
cursor type
DISP LAY “tex t”
Print a nd optionally
format text and nu mbers.
DISP LAY (row, col)
Position cursor for wr iting
small charac ters.
Graphics memory map table.
Description
Sample
Size
3100
Start
address
1:0
End
address
1:&c0D00
15-11
GRAPHIC DISPLAY PORT
Command
CHAPTER 15
Description
DISPLAY
F(x1, y1),(x2, y2)
Fill area bounded by
(x1,y1) to (x2,y2)
DISPLAY
F, C(x1, y1),(x2, y2)
Clear area bounded by
(x1,y1) to (x2,y2)
DISPLAY
F, X(x1,y1), (x2,y2)
XOR ar ea bounded by
(x1,y1) to (x2,y2)
DISPLAY ON [type]
Turn character, graphic,
or both screens on
DISPLAY OFF [type]
Turn character, graphic,
or both screens off
DISPLA Y P(x, y)
Turns a graphic point on
or off
DISPLAY LINE
Draw s or erases a
graphic line.
DISPLA Y M (x, y)text
Print medium characters
DISPLA Y M, R(x,y)text
Print medium characters
in reverse video
DISPLA Y L (x, y)text
Print large character s.
DISPLA Y L, R(x,y)text
Print lar ge char acters in
reverse video
15-12
CHAPTER 16
POWER & EXPANSION PORT
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
POW ER & E XPAN SION PO RT
Ž Power input options
Ž Power output options
Ž Expansion port description
Ž Expansion port pin out
CH APTE R 16
POWER INPUT
There are differ ent power I/O options for the RPC-2350
and RPC-2350G. Read this carefully to determine which
one applies to your board.
The RPC -2350 and RPC-2350G have different input
power options. T he RPC-2350 oper ates from + 5,
±0.25VDC only.
The RPC-2350G operates from either + 5, ±0.25VDC
or + 6.5 to + 30V DC. To operate from 6.5 to 30V,
make sure jumper W8 is installed. This connects + 5V
regulated output to the board.
If you intend on using + 5V power out, be sure to read
"Heat sinking" below for related information.
+ 5V input current, for budgetary purposes, is about 250
Ma. The RPC-2350 uses slightly less power.
Both models generate voltages for RS-232 and analog
outputs are generated on card. The RPC -2350G
generates a regulated negative bias voltage for the LCD
display.
Power is applied at P2. See Figure 16-1 for location.
Figure 16-1 Pow er, Expansion, and jumper locations
16-1
POWER AND EXPANSION PORT
CHAPTER 16
Norm ally U23 is very warm to touch (40°C). As current
deman d increa ses and/ or supply v oltage decr eases, its
tempera ture increase s.
U23 uses a heat sink for a TO-220 IC. Suggested heat
sink by Aav id is: 5772 02B00000. This par t is available
from DigiKey (800 344 4539).
EXPANSION PORT P1
The expansion port brings out address, data, and control
lines for an external board. This external board can
consist of counters, timers, digital I/O, and analog I/O.
6 address and 8 data, read, write, select, and other
power and control lines are provided.
Figure 16-2 Pow er connector detail
POWER OUTPUT
Expansio n port I/ O addr ess range is &100 - & 13F. This
equals 64 addresses.
Ther e are sev eral pow er outputs a vailable fr om both
RPC-2350 and RPC-2350G. ±12V power is available at
the analog connector J7. Cur rent is limited to about 40
Ma. See Chapter 8, “AN ALOG POW ER SUP PLY” for
more inform ation.
Timing is simple, based on Z80 I/O signals. Access
times for external devices should be 200 nS. or faster.
Data is read on the rising edge of IRD. See timing
diagram below.
The RPC -2350G can supply regulated + 5V power at P2,
with 6. 5 to 30V at the input. Appr oximately 750 Ma . is
available for external devices. See "H eat sinking" below
if you intend to draw any significant (> 200 mA.)
current from the board.
This extra cur rent can supply E L displays, opto racks,
LED displays and back lighting, o r other device s.
Heat sinking
A heat sink under U23 is normally not necessary. You
should use a heat sink when all 4 conditions below are
met:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Figure 16-2 I/O timing
You are supplying 6 to 30VDC to power the
board.
Current from the board (to power external
devices such as opto racks) approaches 750
mA.
The ambient temperatur e will be more than 60°
C.
Supply voltage is usually less than 9 volts.
A ll logic le vels a re TTL. H igh spe ed C M O S I C; s
should be used when inter facing to this bus.
Conne ction betwe en P1 an d your bo ard is via a sim ple
26 pin ribbon cable. Limit cable length to 3 inches.
WARNING:
U23 ca n get VERY HOT, ex ce ed ing 10 0°C (ho tte r
than boiling water) and still operate normally. DO
NOT TOUC H U23!
16-2
CHAPTER 16
POWER & EXPANSION PORT
Expansion port connector pin out is listed below.
P1 pin #
Description
1
Data 0
2
Expansion port address select
3
Data 1
4
6.5 to 30V pow er (P2 “ 7-30V” pin)
5
Data 2
6
NMI
7
Data 3
8
+ 5V power
9
Data 4
10
Reset (active low)
11
Data 5
12
Ground
13
Data 6
14
Ground
15
Data 7
16
Address 4
17
Address 0
18
+ 5V power
19
Address 1
20
Address 5
21
Address 2
22
Push button reset (low)
23
Address 3
24
nc
25
I/O read (active low)
26
I/O write (active low)
16-3
CHAPTER 17
RESOURCES
Ž List sour ces of acce ssory com ponents
VF displays
IEE displays, C alifornia. Ph: 818 787 0311
www. ieeinc.com
The RP C-2350 can be used in a number of applications.
We provide comm on accessories. H owever, your
application probably requires something we do not stock.
Makes vacuum florescent and LCD displays. Some
products available from Allied Electronics. Century
series ar e driven th rough a serial por t.
Below is a listing of so me com ponents you m ay use with
the RPC-2350. This is not an extensive listing by any
means. Pr eference is given to companies that you can
order pa rts from distributors.
Alternative LCD’s
IEE displays, C alifornia.
www. ieeinc.com
CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
RESOU RCES
CHA PTER 17
Ph: 818 787 0311
Makes large size (0. 75") and extended temperature range
(to -20°C) displays. Some available from Allied
Electronics.
NOTE: The following list is provided as a service.
REMOTE PROCESSING MAKES NO
WARRANTY AS TO FITNESS FOR A
PARTIC ULAR U SE. W e have not even
touched most of these products, so we don’t
know if it will work w ith ours.
Apollo Displays in New York supplies a wide range of
Optrex displays. PH : 516 654 1143
www. apollodisplays.com
PWM motor drivers
Solutions Cube d in Ca liforn ia mak es the M otor M ind B.
It features a serial interface to adjust DC motor speed
and direction. Cur rent draw is 2A continuous, 30V
maximum.
Ph: 530 891 8045
Fax: 530 891 1643
www. solutions-cubed.com
We w ill work w ith you for w hat we dee m a r easonable
amoun t of time to get a p articular produc t to work with
our boar d. W e have a limited know ledge of these
produc ts so we can ’t prom ise you good su pport.
RESOURCE LISTING
The following list was compiled in May, 1999.
Companies phone numbers (such as area codes) may
have changed, pr oducts discontinued, or the company
stopped operations since this time.
Stepper Motor Control and Driver
There a re a num ber of mo tor controller suppliers.
Below are ones available through distribution.
Part distributors
The following distributors are mentioned as potential
suppliers of parts listed below. Web addresses and
phone numbers are believed accurate as of October,
2004.
Modern T echnology provides one through Digi-key.
Digi-key part number MTSD-V1-ND
Gallial makes an extensive line of motor contr ollers.
Contact factory at 650 967 1700
Didi-key:
www. digikey.com
800-344-4539
CyberP ack Co. Makes stepper motor driver. 630 493
0954 www. cyberpakco. com
Haydon Switch & Instrum ent Inc. Stepper motor s and
drivers. 203 756 7441 www. hsi-inc.com
Allied Electronics:
www.alliedelec.com/
800-433-5700
OPTO m odules
The MPS-XX series boards accept OPTO-22 G4 series
or Grayhill G5 modules. Please keep in mind our boards
are designed to plug straight into the RPC-2350 board
with a sim ple ribbon cable. Both Opto-22 a nd Gr ayhill
supply boards to plug their modules into but they will not
easily work w ith ours.
17-1
RESOURCES
CHAPTER 17
Opto-22 G4 modules are available from Allied
Electronics.
Grayhill G5 modules are available from D igi-key.
Isolated RS-485 and communications
B&B Electronics in Illinois. Ph: 815 433 5100
Makes seve ral comm unication and isolation products.
RS-232 to RS-485 converters
B&B Electronics in Illinois. Ph: 815 433 5100
Makes seve ral conver ter produc ts.
Octagon Systems, C olorado Ph: 303 430 1500. The
MTB-485 takes RS-232 from your PC and outputs RS485. Ver y easy to use. Have used this product on our
boards. We suppor t the MTB-485 w ith our boards.
Temperature sensors and transmitters
Minco, Minnesota Ph: 612 571 3121
Assortm ent of RTD ’s, ther mocouples, and transmitter s.
17-2
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
ELECTRICAL
Settling time:
TEC HNIC AL INF ORM ATION CHA PTER 18
CPU
Z8S180, 18. 432 MHZ clock
ELECTRICAL
Memory
CAMBASIC, 32K ROM (U1). Mapped per below.
4-20 mA. output(option)
Channels:
2 (each requires its own D/A ),
non-isolated
Input voltage:
12V to 30V or use on c ard supp ly
( . 15V available)
Keypad input
10 lines accept a 16 to 24 position matrix keypad.
Scanning and debounce performed in CAMBASIC.
Uses 8 lines from J3. 24 position uses additional 2 lines
from J3.
Prog ram ming and data is 128K R AM (U2). Expand able
to 512K by installing part number 1039.
Program s are stored in 128K Flash type EPRO M (U3).
Expandable to 512K by installing part number 1301.
Serial ports
Two RS-232D serial ports. COM1 has TxD and RXD
only. C OM2 also has RTS and C TS lines.
Prog ram mable ba ud rates fr om 600 to 3 8.4 K, 7 or 8 data
bits, par ity even, odd , or none, 1 or 2 stop bits.
Digi ta l I/ O
The RPC-2350 has 48 digital I/O lines from 82C55 IC.
24 are from J2, which is a general purpose port. The
other 24 are from J3. J3 has 8 high curre nt outputs,
which may be jumpered for inputs. Keypad port J5 uses
8 of the 24 lines. LCD display port J6 uses another 8.
Flash EPROM
Accepts Atmel 29C010A , 29C 040A or equivalent
P E PR O M.
Size:128K (29C010A) or 512K (29C040A)
Speed:120ns or faster.
The specifications below are for all digital I/O except for
the eight high current lines at J3.
Drive curr ent
Output low voltage
Output high v olts
2 micro-seconds
2.5 mA . maximum per line,
sink or source. TTL
compatible.
0.45V m ax at 2.5 mA , 1V
max at 15 mA. for opto rack.
2.4V m inimum, sink or source
at rated cu rren t.
Watchdog timer, reset
Watch dog timer resets card for 150 ms minimum when
enabled. Push button reset included.
Input power
+ 5VDC ±5% at 375 ma.
+ 12V at 250 mA. (RPC-2350G)
All digital input lines are TTL compatible.
Current draw for 7-30V input depends upon applied
voltage. 7V supply draws more current (about 420 mA)
than 12V (about 200 ma).
High cu rrent ou tput at J3
8 of the 24 lines can drive up to 500 mA. at 50V. Refer
to CHAPTER 6, D IGITAL AND OPTO PORTS for
limitations.
Current consumption does not include any opto-modules
or other acc essories.
Analog input(A/D)
Channels:
8
Ranges:
0-5V, ±2. 5V
Resolution: 12 bits (4096 counts)
Accuracy:
±3 counts + 3 counts offset
Type:
Single ended or pseudo differential
Conversion time: 500 m icro-seconds in CAM BASIC
Output power
+ 5V at P2: 750 mA. with 7 to 30V input at “7-30V”
terminal on P2, W8 jumpered.
±12V at J7 Up to 40 mA. @ + 12, 20 mA. @ -12V
Note: Subtract any curr ent used by analog
outputs.
Analog voltage output(D/A) (option)
Channels:
2
Ranges:
0-5V, ±5V, 0-10V
Resolution: 12 bits (4096 counts)
Accuracy:
±3 counts + 3 counts offset
Cur rent outpu t: 5 mA. for accuracy
18-1
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
MEMORY AND I/O MAP
Environmental
Temperature range: -20°C to 70°C. T emperature can
go slightly higher if air flows across board.
Memor y maps are with respect to the CP U, not
CAMBASIC.
Humidity:
0% to 95% , non-condensing. For
increase d battery life , som e humidity sh ould be pr esent.
Vibration:
Memory
Description
5 g’s maximu m, 5Hz to 500 H z, eac h axis.
Address
CAM BASIC
U1
&00000 - &06FFF (RPC-2350G)
&00000 - &05F FF (R PC-2350)
Size:
5.0" x 8.0"
Maximum height: 0.6" , with ribbon cable installed, no
strain relief.
RAM, U2
&07000 - &1FFFF (RPC-2350G)
&06000 - &1F FFF (RPC-2350)
- &7FFF F all w/ 512K
Mounting holes: 4 each corner. Hole size is 0.175" dia.
See drawing at end of this chapter.
Flash U3
&80000 - &9F FFF all w/128K
&80000 - &F FFF F all w/ 512K
MECHANICAL
I /O
Description
18-2
Address
J2 Digital
&000 - &003
J3 Digital
&040 - &043
J5 Keypad
&042
Internal processor
&008 0 - &00 BF
Analog ou tput 0
&0C0 - &0CF
Analog ou tput 1
&0D0 - &0DF
Watchdog
&0E4 - &0E4
Counter
&0F0 - &0F7
Graphics display
&0F8 - &0FF
Expansion port
&100 - &13F
SPI port
&E0
&E1
&E5
&E6
&E8
SCLK
SPI in (to device)
Select 1
Select 2
SPI out (from dev.)
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
JUMPER DESCRIPTIONS
Jumper
A * after a jumper position indicates factory default and
is jumpered.
Jumper
Description
Description
W7[1-2]*
INT1 to counter carry
W7[2-3]
INT1 to counter borr ow
W8[1-2]
Regulated + 5V output to board
+ 5V layer.
W9[1-2]
High voltage interface to counter
W10[1-2]
Real time clock inter rupt outpu t to
INT0
W1[2-3]*
Watchdog timer 1. 2 Seconds
W1 open
Watchdog timer 150 mS
W1[1-2]
Watchdog timer 1. 2 seconds
W2[1-2]*
128K RAM. Flash not affected
W11[1-2]*
Enable a utorun an d graph ics fonts
W2[4-5]*
128K Flash. RAM not affected
W12[2-4]*
D/A output 0 to 0-5V
W2[2-3]
512K RAM. Flash not affected
W12[1-3]*
D/A output 1 to 0-5V
W2[5-6]
512K Flash. RAM not affected
W12[8-10]
D/A output 0 to 0-10V
W3[2-3]*
Manual contrast control for
Graphic LCD display
W12[7-9]
D/A output 1 to 0-10V
W12[6-8]
D/A output 0 to ±5V
W3[1-2]
Software contrast control for
Graphic LCD display
W12[5-7]
D/A output 1 to ±5V
W4[2-3]*
COM 2 RS-232/485 select at RS232
W4[1-2]
COM 2 RS-232/485 select at RS485
W5[1-2][3-4]*
RS-485 network terminator.
W6[1-2]*
RS-485 in 2 wire mode (Receive
off when transmitting)
W6[2-3]
RS-485 is 4 wire mode (Receive
always on)
W13 pr ovides pads for D /A input filter ca pacitors.
18-3
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
CONNECTOR DESCRIPTION
The following table provides a brief function description
for each connector and the chapter number where you
can find information.
Connector
Desg.
Function
Chapter(s)
for more
info.
P1
Expansion port
16
P2
Po w er I/O
6,16
P3
RS-422/485 port
4
J1
COM 1 RS-232
4
J2
Digital I/O
6
J3
Digital I/O (shared)
6
J4
COM 2 RS-232
4
J5
Keypad
6,9
J6
LCD char acter display
6,10
J7
A/D and D /A
8
J8
RS-422/485 port
4
J9
LCD gr aphic display
15
J10
Counter and interrupt
input, pulse outputs
11,13, 14
J11
SPI port
4
J12
4-20 mA output
8
J13
EL graphic display
15
18-4
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
BOARD OUTLINE
RPC-2350 board outline and mounting hole locations
18-5