Motorola 68HC12B32 User`s guide

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V1.0
POD Hardware Reference
Motorola 68HC12B32 POD rev. F
Ordering code
IC20080
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needs. Should any questions arise, do not hesitate to contact your local distributor or iSYSTEM directly. Our
technical support personnel will be happy to answer all your technical support questions.
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information.
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Copyright  2001 iSYSTEM, GmbH.
All rights reserved.
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 iSYSTEM, August 2001
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POD Hardware Reference
In-Circuit Emulation PODs
The following elements of interest are located on all In-Circuit emulation PODs:
•
emulation CPU - acts on behalf of target's CPU. On some PODs you must use the same CPU on the POD as
it is used on the target (see your POD reference page). In such cases, remove the CPU from the POD and
insert the CPU that you use in the target system, in its place.
•
red LED (D3) - lit when CPU is running
•
green LED (D4) - lit when Emulator is ready for emulation
•
a connector, mostly marked ST3 - contains signal lines, some of which are hardware configuration lines
(such as bank select signals), others you can use for signal generation (pattern generator outputs).
Here are some common signals found on the signal connector, commonly marked as ST3:
•
GND
Ground
•
BPE
External breakpoint input. Active high.
•
RESO/RO
Reset output. Connect to target to reset peripherals.
•
TRES/TR
Target reset input.
•
AUXn
AUX signal inputs (same as inputs on Emulator/trace)
Note: On PODs that support synchronization between two or more Emulators (currently only the HC(S)12
Family, see the Synchronization section in the Hardware User's Guide for more information) AUX0 and AUX1
are cut short with Run/Stop synchronization line, and AUX2, AUX3 with RESET synchronization line. You
should use these pins to connect to other PODs or target CPUs.
•
PAT0-2
Pattern generator output on 16-bit POD
•
OC4-6
Pattern generator output on 8-bit POD
Note: The signal connector can also have other markings, like P1, U1, etc. Please refer to the POD-specific
documentation for the signal connector name and signals present.
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For every POD the following information is given:
•
Ordering code. If there are different speed versions of a POD the ordering code is modified by appending
the speed in MHz (IC81020-16 for the 16 MHz 8031 POD)
•
information on available speed versions and required Emulator access time
•
POD size and position of PIN1 on the target adapter relative to bottom left corner.
The memory range specifies the range of addresses that a POD can address. If this specification is omitted the
default 1MB is assumed.
Note: The In-Circuit Emulator can emulate a processor or a microcontroller. Beside the CPU, additional logic is
integrated on the POD. The amount of additional logic depends on the emulated CPU and the type of emulation.
A buffer on a data bus is always used (minimal logic) and when rebuilding ports on the POD, maximum logic is
used. As soon as a POD is inserted in the target instead of the CPU, electrical and timing characteristics are
changed. Different electrical and timing characteristics of used elements on the POD and prolonged lines from
the target to the CPU on the POD contribute to different POD characteristics. Consequently, signal cross-talks
and reflections occur, capacitance changes, etc.
Beside that, pull-up and pull-down resistors are added to some signals. Pull-up/pull-down resistors are required
to define the inactive state of signals like reset and interrupt inputs, while the POD is not connected to the target.
Because of this, the POD can operate as standalone without the target.
Final Target Application Test
After the application is being more or less debugged and final application test is performed, it is recommended to
remove all breakpoints and to close all debug windows (memory, SFR, watch...) to eliminate any possible
influence of the emulator on the CPU execution. There were cases where the target application has been
behaving differently with the target CPU inserted or the POD connected. If the debugger is configured to update
some debug windows in real-time, the user may not be aware of that the CPU execution may be slightly
disturbed. However, when the monitor access type is configured to update debug windows while the CPU is
running, the CPU execution is disturbed significantly, depending on the necessary number of memory accesses
to update opened debug windows.
There are cases when internal peripheral device requires read access of the particular register during the device
configuration. The user has had SFR window opened and the necessary read access was actually performed by
the debugger and not by the application as it would be correct. Therefore, the application was working fine with
the emulator, but a standalone application didn't work correctly, as the peripheral device was not configured
properly.
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_
V1.0
POD Hardware Reference
Motorola 68HC12 B32 POD rev. F
Ordering code
IC20080
POD Speed (MHz)
8
Emulator Speed (ns)
65
Exchange CPU
YES
Before connecting the POD, make sure you have read the technical notes on Motorola 68HC12 Family in the
Hardware User's Guide.
POD Layout
Emulated CPU
68HC912 B32
68HC912 BC32
68HC12BC32
68HC12BE32
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Jumper Settings
On this POD Vcc source and level selection is performed manually through jumper settings. Jumper J2
determines the source:
Position
Vcc source
T
Target
E
Emulator
Jumper J2 settings
Jumper J1 determines the Vcc level. This setting is ignored if J2 is set to target source.
Position
Vcc level
Set
5.0 V
Removed
3.3 V
Jumper J1 settings
If the internal (Emulator) clock is used and a quartz is used in the target, sometimes the CPU will not start after a
reset. In this case the connection between CPU XTAL and the Target XTAL must be broken. The jumper J9
determines this setting.
Position
Description
Set
CPU & Target XTAL connected
Removed
CPU & Target XTAL disconnected
Jumper J9 settings
Electrical Differences and Rebuilt Ports
In general, when emulating the single chip mode, some ports have to be rebuilt on the POD because original
ports are used for emulation – typically ports used as address and data bus in extended mode. Special devices, so
called port replacement units, provided already by the CPU vendor or other standard integrated circuits are used
to rebuilt "lost" ports. Rebuilt ports are logically 100% compatible with original CPU’s ports, but electrical
characteristics may differ. If special device (port replacement unit) is available, electrical characteristics don’t
differ much and usually the user doesn’t have to pay attention. The differences may become relevant when
standard integrated circuits are used and operating close to electrical limits, e.g. when input voltage level is close
to specified maximum voltage for low input level (“0”) or specified minimum voltage for high input level (“1”).
When emulating the single chip mode, original ports A, B and E are used for the emulation and rebuilt by
standard integrated circuits on the POD therefore electrical characteristics are changed.
Using the emulator, the port registers (Port Registers and Port Data Direction Registers) belonging to the rebuilt
ports must be mapped to the target when emulating the single-chip mode.
The rebuilt ports have a 10kOhm pull-up resistor array on the socket. They can be removed if the target
application programs these ports as non-pull-up outputs.
Port
Socket
Port A
GR7
Port B
GR8
Port E
GR9
Simulated ports and pull-up resistor sockets
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Whenever operating close to electrical limits and having problems with rebuilt ports please check pull-up and
pull-down resistors. They shouldn’t be too strong, neither too weak. Check the voltage level. Try to withdraw
from voltage limits.
General HC12 Emulation Notes
Clock
When using the external clock, the HC(S)12 application doesn't start. It works fine when I use internal clock.
There are two major issues the user must pay attention to:
-
Also when using external clock, the user must specify target clock frequency (2*ECLK) in the
'Hardwara/Emulation Options/Vcc/Clock' tab, like in the case when using internal clock. It is required by the
debugger to be able to synchronize with on-chip BDM firmware which operates at CPU's system clock
frequency.
-
It is not recommended to use a crystal in the target as a clock source during the emulation. It is
recommended that the oscillator is used instead. Normally, a crystal and two capacitors are connected to the
CPU's clock inputs in the target application as stated in the CPU datasheets. A length of clock paths is
critical and must be taken into consideration when designing the target. During the emulation, the distance
between the crystal in the target and the CPU (on the POD) is furthermore increased, therefore the
impedance may change in a manner that the crystal doesn't oscillate anymore. In such case, a standalone
crystal circuit, oscillating already without the CPU must be built or oscillator used.
COP
Internal COP must be disabled when using the emulator, respectively while debugging
STOP Instruction
STOP instruction is completely supported by the emulator. After the STOP instruction is being executed, the
CPU is stopped and the debugger displays HALTED status. Note that the debug windows cannot be updated
while HALTED status is displayed. When the CPU is awaken either by interrupt or target reset, the
emulation/execution proceeds normally.
Internal CPU Flash
Note that internal FLASH is disabled during the emulation and cannot be used in any way.
Internal RAM, Internal EEPROM
If the CPU provides a capability to write to the internal RAM or EEPROM via memory window (no specific
programming sequence required), the download file can be loaded to the internal RAM or EEPROM using the
‘Target Download’ option. The debugger downloads the code to the internal memory after reset via the CPU. If
the CPU requires some registers to be configured before the CPU is able to write into the EEPROM area, the
user must configure the necessary registers respectively, using the initialization dialog. Any sequence, added in
the initialization dialog, is executed immediately after reset, before the download is performed.
Executing the program in the internal RAM or EEPROM has some limitation, depending on the emulation
system.
The run, stop and single step debug commands can be used in the internal RAM or EEPROM. Note that single
step can be performed in the disassembly window , but not in the source window. No breakpoints can be set in
the internal memory area.
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Checksum
When performing any kind of checksum in the emulated (code) area, note that all breakpoints must be removed
before, otherwise the results are distorted. Note that the emulator forces "breakpoint" instruction on the data bus
when executing the code at the address where breakpoint is set.
Slow Mode
It is not recommended to debug the application running in slow mode, due to a CPU flaw.
The Signal Connector
A signal connector is available on the POD, marked ST3.
Pin
Signal
Signal Description
1
GND
Ground
2
GND
Ground
3
BPEXT
External Breakpoint Input
4
PAT0
Pattern Generator Output
5
TRES
Target Reset Input
6
PAT1
Pattern Generator Output
7
RSO
Reset Output
8
PAT2
Pattern Generator Output
9
AUX0
AUX Signal Input
10
AUX1
AUX Signal Input
11
AUX2
AUX Signal Input
12
AUX3
AUX Signal Input
ST3 Signal Connector
Synchronization of Two or More Emulators
When multiple emulators should operate synchronously, the synchronization connector marked J4 must be used.
All the emulators that should operate synchronously must have connected together (separately) SR (SYNCRESET) pins, SS (SYNC-STOP) pins and GND (ground) pins.
Pin
Description
SS
Sync-Stop
SR
Sync-Reset
Synchronization Connector J4
For more information, please refer to the "Synchronization of Two or More Emulators" section of the Hardware
User's Guide.
Target Adapters
iSYSTEM offers various adapter solutions for this POD. Please refer to the adapter documentation for more
details.
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POD Target Layout
The POD target layout is T_QFP80.
80 78 76 74 72 70 68 66 64 62
79 77 75 73 71 69 67 65 63 61
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
59
57
55
53
51
49
47
45
43
41
60
58
56
54
52
50
48
46
44
42
21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
T_QFP80 – Top POD view
T_QFP80 - Dimensions
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