9 - 36
ENGINE
NS/GS
2.5L VM DIESEL
INDEX
page
GENERAL INFORMATION
ENGINE IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERAL SPECIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
LUBRICATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
ENGINE DIAGNOSIS—MECHANICAL . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE DIAGNOSIS—PERFORMANCE . . . . . .
HYDRAULIC TAPPETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SERVICE PROCEDURES
CHANGING ENGINE OIL AND FILTER . . . . . . .
CHECKING OIL LEVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT END PLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FITTING PISTON RING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIMING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VALVE AND SEAT REFACING . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
CAMSHAFT BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CAMSHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT SPROCKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT—REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CYLINDER HEAD COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CYLINDER HEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CYLINDER LINER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE MOUNT—FRONT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE MOUNT—REAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE MOUNT—RIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HYDRAULIC TAPPETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HYDRAULIC TENSIONER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INJECTION PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MOUNT—LEFT SIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL FILTER ADAPTER AND OIL COOLER . . . . .
37
36
37
0
38
39
40
40
43
43
41
42
60
59
60
58
71
47
49
70
46
44
45
44
53
59
54
45
64
GENERAL INFORMATION
GENERAL SPECIFICATION
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425CLIEE (36B)
Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5L (2499 cc)
Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.00 mm
Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94.00 mm
Compression Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.95:1
Vacuum at Idle . . . . . . . . . . 600 mm/Hg (23.6 In/Hg)
Thermostat Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80°C62°C
Generator Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . Bosch 50/120 Amp
Cooling System Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Liter
page
OIL PAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL PUMP PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE . . . .
OIL PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PISTONS AND CONNECTING ROD . . . . . .
REAR CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL . . . . . . . . .
ROCKER ARMS AND PUSH RODS . . . . . . .
TIMING CHAIN COVER OIL SEAL . . . . . . . .
TIMING CHAIN COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIMING CHAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VACUUM PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VALVE SPRINGS—
CYLINDER HEAD NOT REMOVED . . . . . .
VALVES AND VALVE SPRINGS—HEAD OFF
VIBRATION DAMPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
HYDRAULIC TAPPETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING . . . . . . . . . .
CRANKSHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CYLINDER HEAD COVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CYLINDER HEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CYLINDER LINER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HYDRAULIC TAPPETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL PAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OIL PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD . . . . . . . .
ROCKER ARMS AND PUSH RODS . . . . . . .
TIMING CHAIN COVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VALVES AND VALVE SPRINGS . . . . . . . . . .
SPECIFICATIONS
2.5L VM DIESEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPECIAL TOOLS
2.5L VM DIESEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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63
64
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68
71
48
54
55
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64
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76
76
72
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75
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74
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. . . 80
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425CLIEE (36B)
Power Steering Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.75 Liter
Engine Oil Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8 Liters With
Oil Filter Change
Timing System . Pushrod Operated Overhead valves,
With Chain-Driven Camshaft.
Air Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dry Filter
Fuel Feed . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Pump Incorporated
in Injection Pump.
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indirect Fuel Injection
(Precombustion Chamber)
Combustion Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Stroke
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Cooled
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 37
GENERAL INFORMATION (Continued)
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425CLIEE (36B)
Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotary Pump
Electronically Controlled.
Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Lubrication by
Rotary Pump, Full-Flow Filtration.
Engine Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clockwise Viewed
From Front Cover.
ENGINE IDENTIFICATION
The engine model code (3-digit number/letter code)
and serial number are stamped on the forward facing
side of the engine block (Fig. 1).
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Fig. 1 Engine Code Location
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The pressurized system (Fig. 2) uses a rotary pump
(3) located in the front of the engine block, driven by
a gear which meshes directly with the crankshaft
gear. All the oil sent to every lubricated part is filtered. The pump sends the oil through a pressure
relief valve (2) to the filter (7) and through galleries
in the crankcase to the crankshaft bearings (8), camshaft bearings (11) and turbocharger (10). The piston
pins, connecting rod small ends and insides of the
pistons are lubricated and cooled by oil sprayed out
from jets (9) in the crankshaft mounting blocks. The
lubricating oil is sent to the rockers (12) through an
external pipe (Fig. 3). A valve in the filter cartridge
enables the oil to be circulated even when the cartridge is clogged.
Sump inlet (1). Pressure relief valve (2). Oil pump
(3). Oil cooler (6). Filter cartridge (7). Crankshaft
bearings (8). Jet valve (9). Turbocharger bearings
(10). Camshaft bearings (11). Rockers (12).
Fig. 3 Lubrication Lines
Fig. 2 Lubrication System
9 - 38
ENGINE
NS/GS
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
ENGINE DIAGNOSIS—PERFORMANCE
CONDITION
ENGINE WILL NOT CRANK OR
CRANKS SLOWLY
POSSIBLE CAUSES
1. Starting motor operating, but not cranking
the engine.
2. Crankshaft rotation restricted.
3. Starting circuit connections loose or
corroded.
4. Neutral safety or starter relay inoperative.
5. Battery charge low.
6. No voltage to starter solenoid.
7. Solenoid or starter motor inoperative.
ENGINE CRANKS, BUT WILL
NOT START, NO SMOKE
1. No fuel in supply tank.
2. Electrical fuel shutdown solenoid not
operating.
3. Fuel injection system defective: Cranking
speed sensor. Loose connection between
ECU and harness. No power supply to the
ECU. Loose connection between injection
pump and harness.
4. Air intake or exhaust plugged.
5. Fuel filter plugged.
6. Excessive fuel inlet restriction.
7. Injection pump not getting fuel or fuel is
aerated.
8. One or more injectors worn or not
operating properly.
9. Camshaft out of time.
ENGINE HARD TO START, OR
WILL NOT START, SMOKE FROM
EXHAUST
1. Incorrect starting procedure.
2. Cranking speed to slow.
3. Cylinder head heater plugs defective.
4. Insufficient intake air
5. Air in fuel system or the fuel supply is
inadequate.
6. Contaminated fuel.
7. Fuel screen plugged.
8. One or more injectors worn or not
operating properly.
9. Injector pump out of time.
10. Engine compression low.
11. Fuel injection system defective.
CORRECTION
1. Remove the starter motor. Check for broken
flywheel teeth or a broken starter motor spring.
2. Rotate the engine to check for rotational
resistance.
3. Clean and tighten connections.
4. Check starter relay supply voltage and
proper operation of neutral safety switch (if
equipped). Replace defective parts.
5. Check Battery voltage. Replace battery if a
charge cannot be held.
6. Check voltage to solenoid. If necessary,
replace the solenoid.
7. Replace starter motor.
1. Fill fuel supply.
2. Check for loose wires and verify that the
fuel shutdown solenoid is functioning. Check
for fault codes in the ECU.
3. Check for fault codes at ECU. Refer to
Group 14, Fuel System for repairs procedures.
4. Remove the obstruction.
5. Drain fuel/water separator and replace fuel
filter.
6. Check for restriction. Correct cause.
7. Check fuel flow/bleed fuel system.
8. Check/replace bad or improperly operating
injectors.
9. Check/correct timing chain sprocket
alignment.
1. The fuel shutoff solenoid control must be in
the run position. Ensure the proper procedure
is being used.
2. Check the battery, starter motor and look for
loose or corroded wiring connections.
3. Verify system is working. Verify connection
between heater plug relay and ECU.
Repair/replace inoperative parts.
4. Inspect or replace air filter and check for
obstruction in air supply.
5. Check the fuel flow through the filter and
bleed system. Locate and eliminate the air
source.
6. Verify by operating the engine with clean
fuel from a temporary tank. Check for the
presence of gasoline. Drain and flush fuel
supply tank. Replace fuel/water separator filter.
7. Check fuel screen.
8. Check/replace improperly operating
injectors.
9. Check pump timing. Refer to Group 14,
Fuel System for procedure.
10. Check compression to identify the
problem.
11. Vacuum modulator defective causing EGR
to open in cold condition. Check for fault
codes in the ECU.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 39
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION
LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE
LOW
POSSIBLE CAUSES
1. Low oil level.
2. Oil viscosity thin, diluted, or wrong
specification.
3. Improperly operating pressure switch/gauge
4. Relief valve stuck open.
5. Plugged oil filter.
6. Oil cooler was replaced, shipping plugs left
in cooler.
7. Worn oil pump.
8. Suction tube loose or seal leaking.
9. Worn bearing or wrong bearing installed.
10. Oil jets under piston loose or bad fit.
LUBRICATING OIL LOSS
1. External oil leaks.
2. Crankcase being overfilled.
3. Incorrect oil specification or viscosity.
4. Oil cooler leak.
5. High blow-by forcing oil out the breather.
LUBRICATING OIL LOSS (CONT.)
6. Turbocharger leaking oil into the air intake.
7. Piston rings not sealing (oil being
consumed by the engine).
COMPRESSION KNOCKS
1. Air in fuel system.
2. Poor quality fuel or water/gasoline
contaminated fuel.
3. Engine Overloaded.
4. Improperly operating injectors.
5. Fuel injection system defective.
EXCESSIVE ENGINE NOISES
1. Drive belt squeal, insufficient tension or
abnormally high loading.
2. Intake air and exhaust leak.
3. Excessive valve lash.
4. Turbocharger noise.
5. Power function knock.
6. Fuel injection system defective.
HYDRAULIC TAPPETS
Before disassembling any part of the engine to correct tappet noise, check the oil pressure. If vehicle
has no oil pressure gauge, install a reliable gauge at
CORRECTION
1a. Check and fill with clean engine oil.
1b. Check for severe external oil leaks that
could reduce the pressure.
2. Verify the correct oil is being used. Check
for oil dilution.
3. Verify the pressure switch is functioning
correctly. If not, replace switch/gauge.
4. Check/replace valve.
5. Change oil filter. Oil filter change interval
may need to be revised.
6. Check/removed shipping plugs.
7. Check/replace oil pump.
8. Check and replace seal.
9. Inspect and replace connecting rod or main
bearings. check and replace piston cooling oil
jet.
10. Check oil jets position.
1. Visually inspect for oil leaks. Repair as
required.
2. Verify that the correct dipstick is being used.
3a. Make sure the correct oil is being used.
3b. Look for reduced viscosity from dilution
with fuel.
3c. Review/reduce the oil change intervals.
4. Check and replace the oil cooler.
5. Check the breather tube area for signs of oil
loss.
6. Inspect air duct for evidence of oil transfer.
7. Perform blow-by check. Repair as required.
1. Bleed the fuel system (refer to Group 14,
Fuel System).
2. Verify by operating from a temporary tank
with good fuel. Clean and flush the fuel supply
tank. Replace fuel/water separator.
3. Verify the engine load rating is not being
exceeded.
4. Check and replace injectors.
5a. Instrumented injection. 5b. Timing solenoid
of the fuel pump. 5c. Pre and post heat time
of the glow plugs. Check the fault codes in the
ECU.
1. Inspect the drive belts. Make sure water
pump pulley, generator and power steering all
turn freely.
2. Refer to excessive exhaust smoke. (Engine
Diagnosis and Testing)
3. Make sure the rocker arms are not bent.
Defective hydraulic lash adjuster.
4. Check turbocharger impeller and turbine
wheel for housing contact.
5. Check and replace rod and main bearings.
6a. Instrumented injection. 6b. Timing solenoid
of the fuel pump. 6c. Pre and post heat time
of the glow plugs. Check the fault codes in the
ECU.
the pressure sending unit. The pressure should be
between 3.5 bars to 5.0 bars at 4000 RPM.
Check the oil level after the engine reaches normal
operating temperature. Allow 5 minutes to stabilize
9 - 40
ENGINE
NS/GS
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
oil level, check dipstick. The oil level in the pan
should never be above the FULL mark or below the
ADD OIL mark on dipstick. Either of these 2 conditions could be responsible for noisy tappets.
OIL LEVEL HIGH
If oil level is above the FULL mark, it is possible
for the connecting rods to dip into the oil. With the
engine running, this condition could create foam in
the oil pan. Foam in oil pan would be fed to the
hydraulic tappets by the oil pump causing them to
lose length and allow valves to seat noisily.
OIL LEVEL LOW
Low oil level may allow oil pump to take in air.
When air is fed to the tappets, they lose length which
allows valves to seat noisily. Any leaks on intake side
of oil pump through which air can be drawn will create the same tappet action. Check the lubrication
system from the intake strainer to the pump cover,
including the relief valve retainer cap. When tappet
noise is due to aeration, it may be intermittent or
constant, and usually more than 1 tappet will be
noisy. When oil level and leaks have been corrected,
operate the engine at fast idle. Run engine for a sufficient time to allow all of the air inside the tappets
to be bled out.
(4) The valve train generates a noise very much
like a light tappet noise during normal operation.
Care must be taken to ensure that tappets are making the noise. In general, if more than one tappet
seems to be noisy, its probably not the tappets.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
CHECKING OIL LEVEL
To assure proper engine lubrication, the engine oil
must be maintained at the correct level. Check the
oil level at regular intervals, such as every fuel stop.
The best time to check the oil level is about 5 minutes after a fully warmed-up engine is shut off, or
before starting the vehicle after it has sat overnight.
Checking the oil while the vehicle is on level
ground, will improve the accuracy of the oil level
readings (Fig. 4).
TAPPET NOISE DIAGNOSIS
(1) To determine source of tappet noise, operate
engine at idle with cylinder head covers removed.
(2) Feel each valve spring or rocker arm to detect
noisy tappet. The noisy tappet will cause the affected
spring and/or rocker arm to vibrate or feel rough in
operation.
NOTE: Worn valve guides or cocked springs are
sometimes mistaken for noisy tappets. If such is
the case, noise may be dampened by applying side
thrust on the valve spring. If noise is not appreciably reduced, it can be assumed the noise is in the
tappet. Inspect the rocker arm push rod sockets
and push rod ends for wear.
(3) Valve tappet noise ranges from light noise to a
heavy click. A light noise is usually caused by excessive leak down around the unit plunger or by the
plunger partially sticking in the tappet body cylinder.
The tappet should be replaced. A heavy click is
caused by a tappet check valve not seating or by foreign particles becoming wedged between the plunger
and the tappet body. This will cause the plunger to
stick in the down position. This heavy click will be
accompanied by excessive clearance between the
valve stem and rocker arm as valve closes. In either
case, tappet assembly should be removed for inspection and cleaning.
Fig. 4 Checking Engine Oil
CHANGING ENGINE OIL AND FILTER
Change engine oil and filter at mileage and time
intervals described in the Maintenance Schedule.
ENGINE OIL CHANGE
WARNING: NEW OR USED ENGINE OIL CAN BE
IRRITATING TO THE SKIN. AVOID PROLONGED OR
REPEATED SKIN CONTACT WITH ENGINE OIL.
CONTAMINANTS IN USED ENGINE OIL, CAUSED BY
INTERNAL COMBUSTION, CAN BE HAZARDOUS TO
YOUR HEALTH. THOROUGHLY WASH EXPOSED
SKIN WITH SOAP AND WATER. DO NOT WASH
SKIN WITH GASOLINE, DIESEL FUEL, THINNER, OR
SOLVENTS, HEALTH PROBLEMS CAN RESULT. DO
NOT POLLUTE, DISPOSE OF USED ENGINE OIL
PROPERLY. CONTACT YOUR DEALER OR GOVERNMENT AGENCY FOR LOCATION OF COLLECTION
CENTER IN YOUR AREA.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 41
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Run engine until achieving normal operating temperature.
(1) Position the vehicle on a level surface and turn
engine off.
(2) Remove oil fill cap.
(3) Hoist vehicle. Refer to Hoisting and Jacking
Recommendations.
(4) Place a suitable drain pan under crankcase
drain.
(5) Remove drain plug from crankcase and allow
oil to drain into pan (Fig. 5). Inspect drain plug
threads for stretching or other damage. Replace
drain plug if damaged.
ENGINE OIL FILTER CHANGE
(1) Position a drain pan under the oil filter.
(2) Using a suitable oil filter wrench loosen filter.
(3) Rotate the oil filter counterclockwise to remove
it from the oil filter base (Fig. 6).
Fig. 6 Oil Filter
Fig. 5 Oil Drain Plug
(6) Install drain plug in crankcase.
(7) Lower vehicle and fill crankcase with specified
type and amount of engine oil.
(8) Install oil fill cap.
(9) Start engine and inspect for leaks.
(10) Stop engine and inspect oil level.
ENGINE OIL
ENGINE OIL QUALITY
Use only oils conforming to API (American Petroleum Institute) quality SG, SG/CD, or CCMC G4.
Use only Diesel engine oil meeting standard
MIL-2104C or API service classification SG/CD or
CCMM PD1 .
OIL VISCOSITY
Grade 15W-40 is recommended for temperatures
between +35°C to –10°C (95°F to 14°F). Low viscosity
oils must have the proper API quality or the CCMC
G5 designation. Low viscosity oils are preferred when
minimum temperatures consistently fall below –12°C
(10°F).
(4) When filter separates from base, tip gasket end
upward to minimize oil spill. Remove filter from vehicle.
(5) With a cloth, wipe clean the gasket sealing surface of oil and grime.
OIL FILTER INSTALLATION
(1) Lightly lubricate oil filter gasket with engine
oil.
(2) Thread filter onto the base. When gasket
makes contact with sealing surface, hand tighten filter one full turn, do not over tighten.
(3) Add oil, verify crankcase oil level and start
engine. Inspect filter area for oil leaks.
TIMING PROCEDURE
CAUTION: It could take up to 70 crankshaft revolutions to align sprocket timing marks with the dark
chain links. If the chain is removed (Fig. 7) before
the sprocket marks are in their proper locations you
must first loosen the rocker arm supports before
rotating crankshaft or camshaft sprockets. This will
prevent the valves from hitting the pistons.
Installing timing chain (Fig. 8). Starting at the
crankshaft align the dark link on the chain to the
timing mark on the crankshaft sprocket. Next align
9 - 42
ENGINE
NS/GS
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
VALVE AND SEAT REFACING
VALVE REFACING
(1) Use a valve refacing machine to reface the
intake and exhaust valves to the specified angle.
(2) After refacing, a margin of at least 4.52-4.49
mm (.178-.177 inch) must remain (Fig. 9). If the margin is less than 4.49 mm (.177 inch), the valve must
be replaced.
VALVE SEAT REFACING
(1) Install a pilot of the correct size in the valve
guide bore. Reface the valve seat to the specified
angle with a good dressing stone. Remove only
enough metal to provide a smooth finish.
(2) Use tapered stones to obtain the specified seat
width when required.
Fig. 7 Alignment Timing Sprockets
the second dark link on the chain with the timing
mark on the camshaft sprocket. Third Align the final
dark link on the chain to the timing mark on the
injection pump sprocket. Last install the chain
around the vacuum pump. For injection pump timing
refer to Group 14, Fuel for the proper procedure.
VALVE STAND DOWN
Valve stand down is to maintain the adequate compression ratio.
(1) Invert cylinder head.
(2) Fit each valve to its respective valve guide.
(3) Using a straight edge and feeler gauge (Fig.
10), check valve head stand down: Inlet valve head
stand down .80 to 1.2 mm (.031 to .047 in.) and
exhaust valve stand down .79 to 1.19 mm (.031 to
.047 in).
(4) If valve head stand down is not in accordance
with above, discard original valves, check stand down
with new valves and recut valve seat inserts to
obtain correct stand down.
VALVE GUIDE HEIGHT
(1) Valve Guides height requirement.
(2) Measurement A (Fig. 11): 13.50 - 14.00 mm.
Fig. 8 Timing Procedure
VALVE STEM-TO-GUIDE CLEARANCE
MEASUREMENT
(1) Measure and record internal diameter of valve
guides. Valve guide internal diameter is 8.0 to 8.015
mm (.3149 to .3155 in.).
(2) Measure valve stems and record diameters.
Intake valve stem diameter 7.94 to 7.96 mm (.3125 to
.3133 in). Exhaust valve stem diameter 7.92 to 7.94
mm (.3118 to .31215 in).
(3) Subtract diameter of valve stem from internal
diameter of its respective valve guide to obtain valve
stem clearance in valve guide. Clearance of inlet
valve stem in valve guide is .040 to .075 mm (.0015
to .0029 in). Clearance of exhaust valve stem in valve
guide is .060 to .095 mm (.0023 to .0037 in).
(4) If valve stem clearance in valve guide exceeds
tolerances, new valve guides must be installed.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 43
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Fig. 10 Checking Valve Stand Down
Fig. 11 Valve Guide Height
FITTING PISTON RING
(1) Wipe cylinder bore clean. Insert ring and push
down with piston to ensure it is square in bore. The
ring gap measurement must be made with the ring
positioning at least 12 mm (0.50 in.) from bottom of
cylinder bore (Fig. 12). Check gap with feeler gauge.
Top compression ring gap .25 to .50mm (.0098 to
.0196 in.). Second compression ring gap .25 to .35mm
(.0098 to .0137 in.). Oil control ring gap .25 to .58mm
(.0098 to .0228 in.).
(2) If ring gaps exceed dimension given, new rings
or cylinder liners must be fitted. Keep piston rings in
piston sets.
(3) Check piston ring to groove clearance (Fig. 13).
Top compression ring gap .08 to .130mm (.0031 to
.0051 in.). Second compression ring gap .070 to
.102mm (.0027 to .0040 in.). Oil control ring gap .040
to .072mm (.0015 to .0028 in.).
CRANKSHAFT END PLAY
(1) Attach dial indicator to engine block (Fig. 14).
(2) Move crankshaft toward front of engine and
zero indicator.
(3) Move crankshaft toward the rear of engine and
record measurement.
Fig. 9 Valve Specification
9 - 44
ENGINE
NS/GS
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Fig. 12 Ring Gap Measurement
Fig. 14 Measuring Crankshaft End Play
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
ENGINE MOUNT—FRONT
(1) Disconnect battery.
(2) Remove lower air dam at front fascia.
(3) Remove the bolts holding tow bracket and front
mount to the lower crossmember.
(4) Remove thru bolt in engine mount (Fig. 15).
Remove mount.
(5) Reverse removal procedure for installation.
(6) Torque engine mount thru bolt to 65 N·m (48
ft. lbs.)
(7) Torque crossmember bolts for tow bracket and
engine mount to 54 N·m (40 ft. lbs.)
Fig. 13 Piston Ring Side Clearance
(4) Subtract specified crankshaft end float from
figure obtained. Crankshaft end float 0.08 to
0.21mm.
(5) Select thrust washer which will give correct
end float.
(6) Refer to crankshaft main bearing Installation if
not in specification.
NOTE: If engine is disassembled refer to Crankshaft Main Bearing Removal and Installation for this
procedure.
Fig. 15 Front Engine Mount and Tow Bracket
ENGINE MOUNT—RIGHT
(1) Remove the right engine mount top support
bracket bolt (Fig. 16).
(2) Remove the load on the engine motor mounts
by carefully supporting the engine and transmission
assembly with a floor jack.
(3) Remove the engine mount to frame bolts.
(4) Remove the thru bolt from the mount assembly.
Remove insulator
(5) If replaceing or removing right engine mount
bracket the torque on the mounting bolts is 40 N·m
(30 ft. lbs.)
(6) Reverse removal procedure for installation.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 45
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(7) Torque engine mount top bolt (Vertical) to 101
N·m (75 ft. lbs.)
(8) Torque engine mount thru bolt (Horizontal) to
145 N·m (107 ft. lbs.)
(9) Torque engine mount to frame bolts to 68 N·m
(50 ft. lbs.)
(5) Disconnect both shifter cables at transmission.
Remove the retainers holding the cables to the
mount (Fig. 19).
(6) Remove the mount assembly.
(7) Reverse removal procedure for installation.
(8) Install mount assembly. Torque bolts at engine
Fig. 16 Right Engine Mount—VM Diesel
MOUNT—LEFT SIDE
(1) Raise vehicle on hoist and remove left front
wheel.
(2) Remove inner splash shield.
(3) Support the transmission with a transmission
jack.
(4) Remove the insulator thru bolt from the mount
(Fig. 17).
(5) Remove the transmission mount bolts and
remove mount. It may be necessary to lower transmission slightly to remove mount.
(6) Reverse removal procedure for installation.
(7) Install mount. Torque transmission mount bolts
to 54 N·m (40 ft. lbs.).
(8) Align mount into frame bracket with transmission jack, install thru bolt. Torque thru bolt to 71
N·m (53 ft. lbs.).
ENGINE MOUNT—REAR
(1) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(2) Support the engine and transmission assembly
with a transmission jack so it will not rotate.
(3) Remove the thru bolt from the insulator at
crossmember connection (Fig. 18).
(4) Remove the bolts holding the mount to the
engine and transmission.
Fig. 17 Left Side Mount—VM Diesel
and transmission to 101 N·m (75 ft. lbs.).
(9) Align insulator at crossmember and install
thru bolt. Torque to 68 N·m (50 ft. lbs.).
9 - 46
ENGINE
NS/GS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(6) Disconnect oil pressure switch connector (Fig.
20).
(7) Disconnect Wiring harness bracket at transaxle
shift tower.
(8) Disconnect transaxle wiring at speed sensor,
crank sensor, and backup light switch.
(9) Remove both transmission shift cables at transmission.
(10) Remove negative battery cable at cylinder
block (Fig. 20).
(11) Remove oil separator.
(12) Remove connectors at coolant temperature
sensor and A/C compressor.
(13) Disconnect fuel injection pump wiring connectors (Fig. 20).
(14) Disconnect glow plug connectors.
(15) Disconnect electrical connector at number 1
fuel injector.
(16) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(17) Remove right side splash shield (Fig. 21).
Fig. 18 Rear Engine Mount—VM Diesel
Fig. 20 Component Locations
Fig. 19 Shift Cables at Rear Mount
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery.
(2) Remove the air cleaner assembly and inlet
hose.
(3) Remove both hoses at intercooler and engine.
(4) Disconnect EGR vacuum hose.
(5) Disconnect brake booster vacuum hose.
WARNING: THE COOLANT IN A RECENTLY OPERATED ENGINE IS HOT AND PRESSURIZED. USE
CARE TO PREVENT SCALDING BY HOT COOLANT.
CAREFULLY RELEASE THE PRESSURE BEFORE
REMOVING THE RADIATOR DRAIN COCK AND CAP.
(18) Drain the cooling system (refer to Group 7,
Cooling).
(19) Lower vehicle.
(20) Remove Coolant pressure bottle and disconnect low coolant level sensor.
(21) Disconnect both heater hoses.
(22) Remove the lower radiator hose.
(23) Remove the upper radiator hose.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 47
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(43) Mount both special tool, engine support brackets VM-1026 to cylinder block (Fig. 22).
(44) Using engine dolly and cradle assembly with
4 adjustable posts align posts with holes in the
engine support brackets.
Fig. 21 Right Side Splash Shield
(24) Remove fuel line at injector pump and cap.
(25) Remove power steering reservoir and reposition.
(26) Remove upper radiator crossmember.
(27) Disconnect cooling fan module connector.
(28) Remove radiator support bolts. It is necessary to loosen the receiver/dryer to gain access
to the radiator bolts.
(29) Remove radiator and fans as an assembly.
(30) Remove accessory drive belt generator/power
steering. Refer to Group 7, for procedure.
(31) Remove both power steering lines at pump,
and cap both lines.
NOTE: It is not necessary to discharge A/C system
for engine removal.
(32) Remove A/C compressor. Secure compressor
away from engine for clearance during engine
removal.
(33) Remove Generator and adjusting bracket.
NOTE: Do not remove the mounting base from the
generator. It is aligned at the factory and cannot be
realigned in the field.
(34) Hoist vehicle.
(35) Remove exhaust pipe at turbo outlet.
(36) Remove connections at starter.
(37) Remove power steering high pressure line
bracket at rear of oil pan.
(38) Remove both driveshafts from transaxle. Refer
to Group 2, Suspension and Driveshafts.
(39) Disconnect clutch cable at transaxle.
(40) Remove reinforcement plate on lower crossmember.
(41) Remove front and rear engine mounts. Refer
to procedure outlined in this section.
(42) Drain engine oil and remove oil filter if necessary.
Fig. 22 Engine Removal
(45) Lower vehicle so weight of only the engine
and transmission is on the dolly and cradle assembly.
(46) Remove left side splash shield to gain access
to thru bolt for left side mount.
(47) Remove right engine mount and left side
mount. Refer to procedure outlined in this section.
(48) Raise vehicle slowly. It may be necessary to
move the engine/transmission assembly on the dolly
to allow for removal around body.
(49) Reverse removal procedure for installation.
CYLINDER HEAD COVER
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery cables.
(2) Remove generator bracket.
(3) Remove breather hose.
(4) Remove coolant pressure tank.
(5) Remove cylinder head cover.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install cylinder head cover, torque nuts to 23.5
N·m (208 in. lbs.).
(2) Install coolant pressure tank.
(3) Install breather hose.
(4) Install generator bracket, tighten bolts to 7
N·m (4 ft. lbs.).
9 - 48
ENGINE
NS/GS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(5) Connect battery cable.
ROCKER ARMS AND PUSH RODS
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery cables.
(2) Remove generator bracket.
(3) Remove breather hose.
(4) Remove coolant pressure tank.
(5) Remove cylinder head cover.
(6) Remove rocker retaining nuts (Fig. 23).
Fig. 23 Rocker Arm Retaining Nut
(7) Remove rocker assembly. Place them on a
bench in the same order as removed.
(8) Remove the push rods and place them on a
bench in the same order as removed.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install the push rods in the same order as
removed.
(2) Install rocker arm assemblies in the same
order as removed. Tighten the rocker arm nuts to
29.4 N·m (264 in. lbs.) torque.
(3) Install cylinder head cover, torque nuts to 14.7
N·m (132 in. lbs.).
(4) Install coolant pressure tank.
(5) Install breather hose.
(6) Install generator bracket, tighten bolts to 7
N·m (4 ft. lbs.).
(7) Connect the service valves to the A/C compressor ports, if equipped with air conditioning.
(8) Connect battery cable.
VALVE SPRINGS—CYLINDER HEAD NOT
REMOVED
This procedure can be done with the engine cylinder head installed on the block.
REMOVAL
Each valve spring is held in place by a retainer
and a set of conical valve locks. The locks can be
removed only by compressing the valve spring.
(1) Remove the engine cylinder head cover, refer to
cylinder head cover removal in this section.
(2) Remove rocker arms assemblies for access to
each valve spring to be removed.
(3) Remove push rods. Retain the push rods, and
rocker arms assemblies in the same order and position as removed.
(4) Inspect the springs and retainer for cracks and
possible signs of weakening.
(5) Install an air hose adaptor in the fuel injector
hole.
(6) Connect an air hose to the adapter and apply
air pressure slowly. Maintain at least 621 kPa (90
psi) of air pressure in the cylinder to hold the valves
against their seats.
(7) Tap the retainer or tip with a rawhide hammer
to loosen the lock from the retainer. Use Valve Spring
Compressor Tool to compress the spring and remove
the locks.
(8) Remove valve spring and retainer.
Inspect the valve stems, especially the grooves. An
Arkansas smooth stone should be used to remove
nicks and high spots.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install valve spring and retainer.
(2) Compress the valve spring with Valve Spring
Compressor Tool and insert the valve locks. Release
the spring tension and remove the tool. Tap the
spring from side-to-side to ensure that the spring is
seated properly on the engine cylinder head.
(3) Disconnect the air hose. Remove the adaptor
from the fuel injector hole and install the fuel injector.
(4) Repeat the procedures for each remaining valve
spring to be removed.
(5) Install the push rods. Ensure the bottom end of
each rod is centered in the plunger cap seat of the
hydraulic valve tappet.
(6) Install the rocker arm assemblies, at their original location.
(7) Tighten the rocker arm assembly nut to 106
N·m (78 ft. lbs.) torque.
(8) Install the engine cylinder head cover, refer to
cylinder head cover installation in this section.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 49
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CYLINDER HEAD
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery cable.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER
BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR
DRAIN COCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRESSURIZED BECAUSE SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE
COOLANT CAN OCCUR.
(2) Drain the cooling system. Refer to Group 7,
Cooling.
(3) Remove wiper module. Refer to Group 8K,
Windshield Wiper Unit Removal for procedure.
(4) Remove coolant pressure bottle.
(5) Remove intercooler hose at intake manifold
(Fig. 24).
(6) Remove intercooler hose at turbocharger intercooler tube.
Fig. 25 Turbocharger
Fig. 24 Intercooler Assembly
(7) Remove the upper radiator hose.
(8) Remove water manifold.
(9) Disconnect the heater hoses and coolant pressure bottle hoses.
(10) Disconnect EGR tube from EGR valve (Fig.
26).
(11) Remove exhaust pipe from turbocharger elbow
and.
(12) Disconnect oil feed line from turbo (Fig. 25).
(13) Disconnect oil drain line from turbo.
(14) Remove Intake manifold. Refer to Group 11,
Exhaust System and Intake Manifold.
Fig. 26 EGR Valve and Tube
(15) Remove lift eye and brake vacuum tube at
rear of exhaust manifold.
(16) Remove the support strut from block to turbocharger exhaust elbow.
(17) Remove Exhaust manifold. Refer to Group 11,
Exhaust System and Intake Manifold.
(18) Remove oil line at pressure switch.
(19) Remove oil feed line for rocker arm assemblies
(Fig. 27).
9 - 50
ENGINE
NS/GS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 27 Rocker Arm Oil Feed Lines
(20) Remove Crankcase breather hose from valve
cover
(21) Remove the engine cylinder head cover.
(22) Remove the injector sensor wire at the connector, and glow plug Connectors.
Fig. 29 Fuel Injector
(25) Remove rocker retaining nuts (Fig. 30).
NOTE: The attachment point for the injector sensor
wire at the injector is not a connector. The connector is located in the wire 4 to 6 inches away from
the injector.
(23) Remove injector fuel lines from injectors to
pump.
(24) Remove fuel injectors with tool VM-1012A
(Fig. 28) and (Fig. 29) Refer to Group 14, Fuel System.
Fig. 30 Rocker Arm Retaining Nut
Fig. 28 Fuel Injector Tool VM-1012A
(26) Remove rocker assemblies. Place them on a
bench in the same order as removed.
(27) Remove the push rods and place them on a
bench in the same order as removed.
(28) Mark cylinder heads to ensure installation in
there original position.
(29) Remove the engine cylinder head bolts with
special tool VM-1018 and VM-1019.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 51
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(30) Remove the engine cylinder heads and gasket.
NOTE: A single steel head gasket is used for 4 cylinder heads (Fig. 33).
(31) Stuff clean lint free shop towels into the cylinder bores.
CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
NOTE: If cylinder wall liners have not been
removed; the same thickness head gasket removed,
may be used.
Fig. 32 Piston Protrusion Chart
CAUTION: Piston protrusion must be measured, to
determine cylinder head gasket thickness, if one or
more cylinder wall liners have been replaced.
Cylinder head gaskets are available in three thickness. The different thicknesses are marked with
identification holes (one, two or none) (Fig. 33). The
gasket is to be installed DRY. DO NOT use a gasket sealing compound on the gasket.
(1) Use special tool VM-1010 with dial indicator
special tool VM- 1013 (Fig. 31).
Fig. 31 Measuring Piston Protrusion
(2) Bring the piston of cylinder no. 1 exactly to top
dead center.
(3) Zero the dial indicator on the cylinder block
mating surface.
(4) Setup the dial indicator on the piston crown
(above the center of the piston pin) 5mm (1/8 in.)
from the edge of the piston and note the measurement (Fig. 32).
(5) Repeat the procedure with the rest of the cylinders.
(6) Establish the thickness of the gasket for all
four cylinder heads on the basis of the greatest piston protrusion (Fig. 33).
Fig. 33 Head Gasket Identification
INSTALLATION CYLINDER HEAD
(1) Remove the shop towels from the cylinder
bores. Coat the bores with clean engine oil.
(2) Install
cylinder
head
alignment
studs
(VM-1009).
(3) After determining the correct head gasket
thickness, clean the block and head mating surfaces,
place the engine cylinder head gasket over the dowels.
(4) Place the engine cylinder head over the dowels.
CAUTION: Engine cylinder head bolts can be
reused up to three times.
9 - 52
ENGINE
NS/GS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(5) Tighten the engine cylinder head bolts in
sequence according to the following procedure (Fig.
34):
a. The threads and underside heads of the bolts
should be lubricated. Use the cylinder head alignment studs tool number VM-1009. Position the heads
on the block and secure with the ten large center
bolts and spacers (clamps), finger tight only.
b. Ensure that the various clamps are installed
correctly and the head gasket remain in their proper
position, completely covered. Then, lubricate and
install the eight small bolts, also finger tight.
(6) Loosen assembly oil feed line for rocker arm
assemblies
(7) Install the intake and exhaust manifolds with
new gaskets, partially tightening the nuts to a maximum of 5 N·m (44 in. lbs.). This will align the heads
(refer to Group 11, Exhaust System and Intake Manifold for the proper procedures). Install lift eye and
brake vacuum tube at this time.
(8) Then, tighten the 12mm bolts with special tool
VM-1019 in the following manner:
(11) Side bolts (M1-M2): Tighten M1 bolts to 30
N·m, then rotate them 85° (65). Tighten M2 bolts to
30 N·m, then rotate them 85° (65).
(12) 2nd Phase: After 20 minutes of engine operation at operating temperature, allow engine to cool
down completely. Then retorque the head bolts as follows:
(13) Central bolts A-L: Starting from bolt A,
slacken and retorque it immediately to 30 N·m + 65°.
Rotate the bolt an additional 65°. Then proceed in
the same way, bolt by bolt, following alphabetical
order, as indicated.
(14) Side bolts M1-M2: Without slackening ,
torque bolts M1 then bolts M2 to 90 N·m (66 ft. lbs.).
(15) Tighten intake nuts to 30 N·m (22 ft. lbs.) and
exhaust manifolds nuts to 30 N·m (22 ft. lbs.) specified torque after completing Phase 2.
(16) If the engine cylinder head is to be replaced
and the original valves used, measure the valve stem
diameter. Only standard size valves can be used with
a service replacement engine cylinder head unless
the replacement head valve stem guide bores are
Fig. 34 Engine Cylinder Head Bolt Tightening Sequence
(9) 1st Phase: Tightening Head Bolts (Fig. 34).
Central bolts (A-L): Tighten all bolts, starting with
bolt A then B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-L, to 30 N·m. Repeat
the operation with the same torque. Following the
same sequence rotate each bolt through an angle of
70° using angle torque tool. Then rotate the bolts an
additional 70° following tightening sequence.
(10) Then, tighten the 14mm bolts with special
tool VM-1018 in the following manner:
reamed to accommodate oversize valve stems.
Remove all carbon buildup and reface the valves.
(17) Tighten oil feed lines for rocker arm assemblies and oil pressure switch to 13 N·m (112 in. lbs.).
(18) Install push rods and rocker arm assemblies,
tighten nut to 29.4 N·m (264 in. lbs.).
(19) Install fuel injectors use tool VM-1012 (refer
to Group 14, Fuel System).
(20) Install valve cover, tighten nuts to 14.7 N·m
(132 in. lbs.).
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 53
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(21) Connect crankcase breather hose.
(22) Connect the injector sensor wire connector,
and the glow plug connectors.
(23) Install oil feed line, tighten banjo bolts to 12.7
N·m (108 in. lbs), and oil drain line to turbo.
(24) Install water manifold tighten bolts to 12 N·m
(106 in. lbs.).
(25) Install exhaust pipe to turbo elbow, tighten
bolts to 28 N·m (250 in. lbs.).
(26) Install the support strut from block to turbocharger exhaust elbow.
(27) Install EGR tube to EGR valve, tighten bolts
to 26 N·m (19 ft. lbs.).
(28) Install intercooler hoses at intake manifold.
(29) Install coolant pressure bottle and hoses.
(30) Install wiper module. Refer to Group 8K,
Windshield Wiper Unit Installation for procedure.
(31) Install intercooler hose at turbocharger tube.
(32) Install fuel injector lines from the pump to
injectors, tighten nuts to 17.6 N·m (156. lbs.).
(33) Connect the upper radiator hose.
(34) Connect negative cable to battery.
(35) Fill the cooling system. Check for leaks.
(2) Install lower, washer and spring.
(3) Install upper spring collar, and compress valve
spring with spring compressor tool. Install split cone
retainers.
HYDRAULIC TAPPETS
REMOVAL
(1) Remove coolant pressure bottle.
(2) Remove cylinder head cover. Refer to cylinder
head cover removal in this section.
(3) Remove rocker assembly and push rods. Identify push rods to ensure installation in original location (Fig. 35).
WARNING: USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN THE
ENGINE IS OPERATING. DO NOT STAND IN DIRECT
LINE WITH THE FAN. DO NOT PUT HANDS NEAR
THE PULLEYS, BELTS OR FAN. DO NOT WEAR
LOOSE CLOTHING.
(36) Operate the engine with the radiator cap off.
Inspect for leaks and continue operating the engine
until the thermostat opens. Add coolant, if required.
VALVES AND VALVE SPRINGS—HEAD OFF
This procedure is done with the engine cylinder
head removed from the block.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the engine cylinder head from the cylinder block. Refer to cylinder head removal in this
section.
(2) Use Valve Spring Compressor Tool and compress each valve spring.
(3) Remove the valve locks, retainers, and springs.
(4) Use an Arkansas smooth stone or a jewelers
file to remove any burrs on the top of the valve stem,
especially around the groove for the locks.
(5) Remove the valves, and place them in a rack in
the same order as removed.
INSTALLATION
(1) Fit each valve to its respective valve guide.
NOTE: If valves and valve seats have been refaced
refer to Service Procedures in this section. Follow
The Valve Stand Down procedure.
Fig. 35 Tappet and Rocker Arm Assembly
(4) Remove cylinder head, intake manifold, and
exhaust manifold. Refer to cylinder head removal in
this section.
(5) Remove yoke retainer and aligning yokes (Fig.
36).
(6) Slide Hydraulic Tappet Remover/Installer Tool
through opening in block and seat tool firmly in the
head of tappet.
(7) Pull tappet out of bore with a twisting motion.
If all tappets are to be removed, identify tappets to
ensure installation in original location.
(8) If the tappet or bore in cylinder block is scored,
scuffed, or shows signs of sticking, ream the bore to
next oversize. Replace with oversize tappet.
9 - 54
ENGINE
NS/GS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(6) Remove engine starter. Refer to Group, 8B for
procedure
(7) Install flywheel locking tool VM.1014 to prevent engine rotation.
NOTE: Crankshaft
thread.
damper
nut
is
left
handed
(8) Remove vibration damper nut.
(9) Remove vibration damper. No special tool is
needed for removal.
CAUTION: If thread sealant is used it is important
to remove all the old thread sealant from the
threads on the crankshaft.
Fig. 36 Tappet and Yoke
CAUTION: The plunger and tappet bodies are not
interchangeable. The plunger and valve must
always be fitted to the original body. It is advisable
to work on one tappet at a time to avoid mixing of
parts. Mixed parts are not compatible. DO NOT disassemble a tappet on a dirty work bench.
INSTALLATION
(1) Lubricate tappets.
(2) Install tappets and yoke retainers in their original positions. Ensure that the oil feed hole in the
side of the tappet body faces up (away from the
crankshaft).
(3) Install cylinder head, intake manifold, and
exhaust manifold. Refer to cylinder head installation
in this section.
(4) Install push rods in original positions.
(5) Install rocker arms in original positions.
(6) Install cylinder head cover. Refer to cylinder
valve cover installation in this section.
(7) Start and operate engine. Warm up to normal
operating temperature.
CAUTION: To prevent damage to valve mechanism,
engine must not be run above fast idle until all
hydraulic tappets have filled with oil and have
become quiet.
VIBRATION DAMPER
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery cable.
(2) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(3) Remove right side lower splash shield.
(4) Remove generator, power steering belt. Refer to
Group 7, Cooling.
(5) Remove water pump belt. Refer to Group 7,
Cooling.
INSTALLATION
NOTE: Before installing damper be sure the O-ring
inside the center of the damper is in its grove.
(1) Install vibration damper.
CAUTION: Correct torque on the vibration damper
nut is important or engine damage can occur.
(2) Install vibration damper nut and tighten to 441
N·m (325 ft. lbs.).
(3) Remove flywheel locking tool, and install
engine starter.
(4) Install both accessary drive belts. Refer to
Group 7, Cooling.
(5) Install right splash shield.
(6) Lower vehicle.
(7) Connect the battery cable.
TIMING CHAIN COVER OIL SEAL
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery cable.
(2) Remove vibration damper. Refer to vibration
damper removal in this section.
(3) Pry out seal (Fig. 37).
INSTALLATION
Remove the oil seal ring. The seating diameter
must be 68.000 - 68.030 mm.
(1) Install new seal using special tool VM-1015.
(2) Install vibration damper. Refer to vibration
damper installation in this section.
(3) Connect the battery cable.
INJECTION PUMP
For removal and installation of injection pump
refer to Group 14, Fuel.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 55
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 37 Front Cover Seal
TIMING CHAIN COVER
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery cable.
(2) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(3) Remove right splash shield.
(4) Remove accessary drive belts. Refer to Group 7,
Cooling.
(5) Remove vibration damper nut.
NOTE: Crankshaft
thread.
damper
nut
is
left
handed
(6) Remove vibration damper.
(7) Remove power steering/air conditioning pulley
nut. Remove pulley.
CAUTION: Remove old loctite from threads on
pump.
Fig. 38 Front Cover Sealer Location
(3) Install Power steering/air conditioning pulley,
tighten to 170 N·m (125 ft. lbs.).
CAUTION: Correct torque on the power steering/air
conditioning pulley nut is important or engine damage can occur.
(4) Connect water drain pipe hose at the timing
cover.
NOTE: Before installing damper be sure O-ring on
inside center of damper is in place.
(5) Install vibration damper.
(8) Remove pump shaft support bracket assembly.
(9) Disconnect the water drain pipe hose at the
timing cover.
CAUTION: Correct torque on the vibration damper
nut is important or engine damage can occur.
CAUTION: When separating the timing chain cover
from the block take care not to damage the mating
surface of the timing chain cover or block. Also
take care not to damage the timing chain or components located inside the timing chain cover near the
edge.
(6) Tighten vibration damper nut to 441 N·m (325
ft. lbs.).
(7) Install accessary drive belts. Refer to Group 7,
cooling for procedure.
(8) Install splash shield.
(9) Lower vehicle.
(10) Connect battery cable.
(10) Remove timing chain cover.
TIMING CHAIN
INSTALLATION
(1) Apply a continuous 3 mm bead of Silicone
Sealer to timing cover, install within 10 minutes,
tighten Torx bolts to 11 N·m (96 in. lbs) (Fig. 38).
(2) Install pump shaft support bracket assembly,
tighten nuts to 24.5 N·m (216 in. lbs.).
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect battery.
(2) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(3) Remove right splash shield (Fig. 39).
(4) Remove both accessory drive belts. Refer to
Group 7, Cooling.
9 - 56
ENGINE
NS/GS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 39 Splash Shield
(5) Remove crankshaft vibration damper. Refer to
removal procedure outlined in this section.
(6) Remove power steering/air conditioning pulley
nut. Remove pulley.
Fig. 41 Oil Pump Drive Gear
CAUTION: Remove old thread sealant from threads
on pump.
(7) Remove pump shaft support bracket assembly
(Fig. 40).
Fig. 40 Pump Shaft Support Bracket
(8) Remove timing chain cover. Refer to removal
procedure outlined in this section.
(9) Remove oil pump drive gear attached to crankshaft (Fig. 41).
(10) Rotate crankshaft to align timing marks on
injection pump sprocket, camshaft sprocket, and
crankshaft sprocket with three dark plated links on
timing chain (Fig. 42).
CAUTION: It could take up to 70 crankshaft revolutions to align sprocket timing marks with the dark
chain links. If the chain is removed (Fig. 43) before
Fig. 42 Timing Marks
the sprocket marks are in their proper locations you
must first loosen the rocker arm supports before
rotating crankshaft or camshaft sprockets. This will
prevent the valves from hitting the pistons.
(11)
(12)
(13)
46).
(14)
Remove lower chain guide (Fig. 44).
Remove hydraulic tensioner blade (Fig. 45).
Remove hydraulic tensioner oil feed line (Fig.
Remove hydraulic tensioner.
ENGINE
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9 - 57
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(15) Remove timing chain.
Fig. 45 Tensioner Blade
Fig. 43 Alignment Timing Sprockets
Fig. 46 Hydraulic Tensioner and Oil Feed Line
Fig. 44 Lower Chain Guide
INSTALLATION
(1) Install timing chain. Starting at the crankshaft
align the dark link on the chain to the timing mark
on the crankshaft sprocket. Next align the second
dark link on the chain with the timing mark on the
camshaft sprocket. Third Align the final dark link on
the chain to the timing mark on the injection pump
sprocket. Last install the chain around the vacuum
pump (Fig. 47).
(2) Install hydraulic tensioner.
(3) Install hydraulic tensioner oil feed line tighten
to 16.7 N·m (145 in. lbs.).
(4) Install hydraulic tensioner blade. Tighten Bolt
to 28 N·m (260 in. lbs.)
(5) Install lower chain guide.
(6) Install oil pump drive gear on crankshaft.
9 - 58
ENGINE
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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(5) Remove timing chain. Refer to procedure in
this section.
(6) Remove vacuum pump.
(7) Install crankshaft sprocket remover VM.1000A
and remove sprocket (Fig. 48).
Fig. 47 Timing Chain Procedure
(7) Install timing chain cover. Refer to installation
procedure outlined in this section.
(8) Install pump shaft support bracket assembly.
Tighten nuts to 24.5 N·m (216 in. lbs.).
(9) Install power steering/air conditioning pulley.
Tighten nut to 170 N·m (125 ft. lbs.).
CAUTION: Correct torque on the power steering/air
conditioning pulley nut is important or engine damage can occur.
Fig. 48 Crankshaft Sprocket—Removal
INSTALLATION
(1) Install crankshaft sprocket alignment
VM.1030 into hole in crankshaft (Fig. 49).
(10) Install crankshaft vibration damper. Torque to
441 N·m (325 ft. lbs.)
CAUTION: Correct torque on the crankshaft vibration damper nut is important or engine damage can
occur.
(11)
Group
(12)
(13)
(14)
Install both accessory drive belts. Refer to
7, Cooling.
Install splash shield.
Lower vehicle.
Connect battery.
CRANKSHAFT SPROCKET
REMOVAL
(1) Remove vibration damper. Refer to procedure
in this section.
(2) Remove timing chain cover. Refer to procedures
in this section.
(3) Remove oil pump drive gear on crankshaft.
(4) Remove oil pump.
Fig. 49 Crankshaft Sprocket—Installation
(2) Heat new crankshaft sprocket.
pin
ENGINE
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9 - 59
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) Align notch in sprocket with alignment pin in
crankshaft.
(4) Using crankshaft sprocket installer VM.1029
press on the new sprocket.
(5) Remove alignment pin.
(6) Install vacuum pump.
CAUTION: The vacuum pump must be centered in
the block and tighten with two bolts. Ensure that
the pump spins freely. If vacuum pump drags or
does not spin freely loosen bolts and perform procedures again.
(7) Install timing chain.
(8) Install oil pump.
(9) Install oil pump drive gear on crankshaft.
(10) Install timing chain cover.
(11) Install vibration damper.
CAUTION: Correct torque on the crankshaft vibration damper nut is important or engine damage can
occur.
(6) Remove vibration damper. Refer to vibration
damper removal in this section.
(7) Remove power steering pulley.
(8) Remove pump shaft support bracket.
(9) Remove timing chain cover. Refer to timing
chain cover removal in this section.
(10) Remove timing chain. Refer to removal procedure in this section.
(11) Install camshaft sprocket holding tool
VM.1031 to lock the camshaft sprocket in place.
(12) Remove camshaft sprocket bolt and remove
sprocket (Fig. 50).
(13) Remove locating plate, and reinstall sprocket
and bolt finger tight.
(14) Remove camshaft.
INSTALLATION
(1) Coat the camshaft journals with clean engine
oil and carefully install the camshaft.
(2) Install camshaft locating plate alignment tool
on block then install locating plate (Fig. 51).
HYDRAULIC TENSIONER
Refer to Timing Chain Removal and Installation in
this section.
CAMSHAFT
REMOVAL
(1) To service camshaft (Fig. 50) the engine must
be removed from vehicle.
Fig. 51 Locating Plate Alignment
Fig. 50 Camshaft Assembly
(2) Remove valve cover. Refer to valve cover
removal in this section.
(3) Remove rocker arms and push rods. Identify
push rods to ensure installation in there original
location.
(4) Remove cylinder head. Refer to cylinder head
removal in this section.
(5) Remove hydraulic tappets. Refer to tappet
removal in this section.
(3) Tighten locating bolt to 11 N·m ( 96 in. lbs.)
torque. Be sure to align the timing marks as shown
in timing chain installation procedure.
(4) Install camshaft sprocket center bolt and
tighten to 19.6 N·m + 60° (170 in. lbs. + 60°). Remove
sprocket holding tool.
(5) Install hydraulic tappets and retaining yokes.
(6) Install cylinder heads.
(7) Push rods, and rocker arm assemblies. In there
original location.
(8) Install valve cover.
(9) Install Timing case cover.
9 - 60
ENGINE
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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(10) Install Vibration damper.
(11) Reinstall Engine.
CAMSHAFT BEARINGS
This procedure requires that the engine is removed
from the vehicle.
(16) Remove oil pump drive gear.
(17) Remove timing chain. Refer to procedure in
this section.
(18) Install special tool VM-1004 onto crankshaft
over gear (Fig. 52).
REMOVAL
(1) With engine completely disassembled, drive out
rear cam bearing core hole plug.
(2) Install proper size adapters and horseshoe
washers (part of Camshaft Bearing Remover/Installer
Tool) at back of each bearing shell. Drive out bearing
shells (Fig. 50).
INSTALLATION
(1) Install new camshaft bearings with Camshaft
Bearing Remover/Installer Tool by sliding the new
camshaft bearing shell over proper adapter.
(2) Position rear bearing in the tool. Install horseshoe lock and by reversing removal procedure, carefully drive bearing shell into place.
(3) Install remaining bearings in the same manner. Bearings must be carefully aligned to bring oil
holes into full register with oil passages from the
main bearing. If the camshaft bearing shell oil holes
are not in exact alignment, remove and install them
correctly. Install a new core hole plug at the rear of
camshaft. Be sure this plug does not leak.
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect battery cable.
(2) Remove engine from vehicle, refer to engine
removal in this section.
(3) Install engine to engine stand.
(4) Remove accessary drive system.
(5) Remove cylinder head cover, refer to cylinder
head cover removal in this section.
(6) Remove rocker arm and push rods, refer to
rocker arm and push rod section in this section.
(7) Remove intake, exhaust manifold and turbocharger, refer to Group 11, Exhaust System and
Intake Manifold.
(8) Remove water manifold.
(9) Remove oil feed lines to rocker arms.
(10) Remove cylinder heads.
(11) Remove oil pan and oil pick-up.
(12) Remove piston and connecting rods from
crankshaft journals.
(13) Remove pistons and connecting rods from
block.
(14) Remove vibration damper. Refer to procedure
in this section.
(15) Remove front cover. Refer to procedure in this
section.
Fig. 52 Crankshaft Special Tool VM.1004
(19) Remove main bearing oil feed and carrier
locators from block.
(20) Remove flywheel and adaptor plate from
engine block.
(21) Remove thrust bearings from rear main bearing carrier (Fig. 53).
(22) Slide crankshaft and bearing carriers rearward to rear of block. If you encounter difficulty in
removing the complete assembly as previously
described, slide the assembly rearward sufficiently to
gain access to the main bearing carrier bolts. Mark
the carriers for assembly and remove the bolts, two
for each carrier (Fig. 54).
(23) Separate the two halves of each carrier,
remove from the crankshaft and temporarily re-assemble the carriers (Fig. 55). Withdraw the crankshaft through the rear of the crankcase.
INSTALLATION
NOTE: Assemble engine according to sequence
described, thus saving time and preventing damages to engine components. Clean parts with a suitable solvent and dry them with compressed air
before assembly. Use new gaskets where applicable
and torque wrenches for correct tightening of components.
ENGINE
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9 - 61
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 53 Crankshaft and Bearings
Fig. 54 Carrier Bolts
(1) Thoroughly clean crankcase and oil passages,
and blow dry with compressed air.
(2) Install new main bearing shells in each of the
carrier halves. Assemble the carriers to the crankshaft journals, ensuring that the carriers are
installed in their original locations. Secure each carrier with the two bolts tightening evenly to 42 N·m
(31 ft. lbs.) (Fig. 55).
(3) Slide special tool (VM-1002) over the crankshaft gear and, insert the crankshaft and carrier
assembly into the crankcase in the same manner
used for removal.
(4) Align the holes in the lower carriers, with the
center of the crankcase webs (Fig. 56).
Fig. 55 Crankshaft and Carrier Bearing Assembly
(5) Secure each carrier assembly to the crankcase
with the main bearing oil feed and carrier locators
and tighten them to 54 N·m (40 ft. lbs).
(6) Install rear main bearing carrier onto crankshaft ensuring arrow on bearing carrier aligns with
vertical web in center of crankcase.
(7) Install rear oil seal.
(8) Install new O-rings in adaptor plate.
9 - 62
ENGINE
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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CAUTION: Use NEW flywheel bolt for the following
procedure.
(22) Install new O-ring on flywheel. Install flywheel. The 6 flywheel bolts must be tightened as follows:
a. Torque the 6 flywheel bolts to 60 N·m (44 ft.
lbs.).
b. Loosen 2 of the 6 bolts, 180° apart. Torque the 2
bolts to 20 N·m (180 in. lbs.). Then using a torque
angle gauge rotate the 2 bolts 65° additional.
c. Loosen the next 2 bolts, 180° apart and follow
the same procedure.
d. Loosen the last 2 bolts, 180° apart and follow
the same procedure.
(23) Install Transmission. Refer to procedure in
Group 21, Transmission.
Fig. 56 Main Bearing Carrier Alignment
(9) Install adaptor plate and tighten bolts to 47
N·m (35 ft. lbs.).
(10) Install bolts to main bearing carrier and
tighten to 26.5 N·m (20 ft. lbs.).
(11) Position flywheel and O-ring on crankshaft
and align bolt holes.
NOTE: For purposes of checking crankshaft end
play used flywheel bolts may be used. Final assembly requires new flywheel bolts.
(12) Install 2 flywheel bolts, 180° apart, and
tighten bolts to 20 N·m plus 60° (15 ft. lbs.) plus 60°.
(13) Attach dial indicator to engine block.
(14) Move crankshaft toward front of engine and
zero indicator.
(15) Move crankshaft toward the rear of engine
and record measurement.
(16) Subtract specified crankshaft end play from
figure obtained. Crankshaft end play 0.08 to 0.21 mm
(0.0032 to 0.0083 in.).
(17) Select thrust washers which will give correct
end play.
(18) Remove tools and flywheel.
(19) Lubricate thrust washer halves and fit them
into the rear main bearing carrier.
(20) To verify correct end play, install 2 flywheel
bolts 180° apart, and tighten bolts to 20 N·m plus 60°
(15 ft. lbs. plus 60°).
(21) Measure crankshaft end play with a dial
gauge. Crankshaft end play should not exceed 0.080.21 mm (0.0032 to 0.0083 in.) (Fig. 57). If end clearance exceeds these values install oversize thrust
washer.
Fig. 57 Measuring Crankshaft End Play
(24) Install pistons and connecting rod assemblies,
refer to piston and connecting rods in this section.
(25) Install oil pick up tube and tighten bolts to 25
N·m (18 ft. lbs.).
(26) Install oil pan, refer to oil pan installation in
this section.
(27) Install timing chain. Refer to procedure in
this section.
(28) Install vacuum pump. Tighten retaining
screws to 20 N·m (15 ft. lbs.).
ENGINE
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9 - 63
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CAUTION: The vacuum pump must be centered in
the block and tighten with two bolts. Ensure that
the pump spins freely. If vacuum pump drags or
does not spin freely loosen bolts and perform procedures again.
(29) Before installing oil pump check pump bore
depth in block (A) and pump body height (B) (Fig.
58). Difference between A and B should be
0.020-0.082 mm (.0007 to 0032 in.).
OIL PAN
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect battery cable.
(2) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(3) Drain oil.
(4) Remove oil pan bolts (Fig. 59).
(5) Remove oil pan.
Fig. 59 Oil Pan
Fig. 58 Oil Pump Bore Depth
(30) Install oil pump and tighten retaining screws
to 27 N·m (20 ft. lbs.). Check for normal backlash
between pump and crankshaft gears.
(31) Install oil pump drive Gear.
(32) Install front cover. Refer to procedure in this
section.
(33) Install vibration damper. Refer to procedure
in this section.
(34) Install cylinder heads. Refer to procedure in
this section.
(35) Install rocker arms and push rods. Refer to
procedure in this section.
(36) Install cylinder head cover. Refer to procedure
in this section.
(37) Install accessary drive system.
(38) Install engine in vehicle. Refer to procedure in
this section.
(39) Fill engine with the correct amount of fluids
specified.
(40) Connect battery cable.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install oil pan. Apply a continuous 3 mm bead
of Silicone Sealer to oil pan, install within 10 minutes.
(2) Install oil pan bolts and torque bolts to 11 N·m
(8 ft. lbs.).
(3) Install oil drain plug tighten to 79 N·m (58 ft.
lbs).
(4) Lower vehicle.
(5) Fill engine with proper amount of oil.
(6) Connect battery cable.
OIL PUMP
REMOVAL
(1) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(2) Remove right splash shield.
(3) Remove both accessory drive belts. Refer to
Group 7, Cooling.
(4) Remove pump shaft support bracket assembly.
(5) Remove vibration damper. Refer to Vibration
Damper Removal in this section.
NOTE: Crankshaft
thread.
damper
nut
is
left
handed
(6) Remove front cover. Refer to Timing Chain
Cover Removal in this section.
(7) Remove oil pump drive gear at crankshaft (Fig.
60).
(8) Remove oil pump.
9 - 64
ENGINE
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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 60 Oil Pump Drive Gear
Fig. 61 Oil Pressure Relief Valve
INSTALLATION
(1) Install new O-ring and lubricate with clean
engine oil.
(2) Install oil pump and tighten retaining screws
to 27.5 N·m (240 in. lbs.).
(3) Install oil pump drive gear on crankshaft.
(4) Install front cover. Refer to Timing Chain
Cover Installation in this section.
(5) Install pump shaft support bracket assembly.
INSTALLATION
(1) Thoroughly clean all components and relief
valve pocket in cylinder block.
(2) Fit plunger, spring and cap into block.
(3) Compress spring and install retaining clip.
Ensure clip is completely seated in groove.
CAUTION: Correct torque on the vibration damper
nut is important or engine damage can occur.
(6) Install vibration damper. Torque nut to 441
N·m (325 ft. lbs.)
(7) Install both accessory drive belts. Refer to
Group 7, Cooling.
(8) Install right splash shield.
OIL PUMP PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
REMOVAL
(1) Remove oil pan.
(2) Remove clip retaining relief valve.
(3) Remove relief valve cap, spring, and plunger
(Fig. 61).
(4) Check relief valve spring length. Relief valve
spring free length is 57.5mm (2.263 in.). If spring
length is less or spring is distorted it must be
replaced.
(5) Check plunger for scoring, replace if necessary.
OIL FILTER ADAPTER AND OIL COOLER
REMOVAL
(1) Remove oil filter.
(2) Remove oil cooler adapter bolt.
(3) Remove oil cooler (Fig. 62).
INSTALLATION
(1) Install oil cooler with new gasket, tighten oil
cooler adapter bolt to 60 N·m (44 ft. lbs.).
(2) Install oil filter adapter to oil cooler and
tighten to 49 N·m (36. lbs.).
(3) Install oil filter and tighten to 9.8 N·m (85 in.
lbs.) and add oil.
VACUUM PUMP
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery cable.
(2) Raise vehicle on hoist.
(3) Remove right splash shield (Fig. 63).
(4) Remove accessary drive belts. Refer to Group 7,
Cooling.
(5) Remove vibration damper nut.
NOTE: Crankshaft
thread.
damper
nut
is
left
handed
ENGINE
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9 - 65
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 64 Pump Shaft Support Bracket
Fig. 62 Oil Cooler
Fig. 63 Splash Shield
Fig. 65 Oil Pump Drive Gear
(6) Remove vibration damper.
(7) Remove power steering/air conditioning pulley
nut. Remove pulley.
(10) Remove oil pump drive gear on crankshaft
(Fig. 65).
(11) Remove lower chain guide (Fig. 68).
(12) Rotate crankshaft to align timing marks on
injection pump sprocket, camshaft sprocket, and
crankshaft sprocket with three dark plated links on
timing chain (Fig. 66).
CAUTION: Remove old thread sealant from threads
on pump.
(8) Remove pump shaft support bracket assembly
(Fig. 64).
CAUTION: When separating the timing chain cover
from the block take care not to damage the mating
surface of the timing chain cover.
(9) Remove timing chain cover.
CAUTION: It could take up to 70 crankshaft revolutions to align sprocket timing marks with the dark
chain links. If the chain is removed (Fig. 67) before
the sprocket marks are in their proper locations you
must first loosen the rocker arm supports before
rotating crankshaft or camshaft sprockets. This will
prevent the valves from hitting the pistons.
9 - 66
ENGINE
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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 66 Timing Marks
(13)
(14)
70).
(15)
(16)
(17)
Fig. 68 Lower Chain Guide
Remove hydraulic tensioner blade (Fig. 69).
Remove hydraulic tensioner oil feed line (Fig.
Remove hydraulic tensioner.
Remove timing chain.
Remove vacuum pump (Fig. 71).
Fig. 69 Hydraulic Tensioner Blade
CAUTION: The vacuum pump must be centered in
the block and tighten with two bolts. Ensure that
the pump spins freely. If vacuum pump drags or
does not spin freely loosen bolts and perform procedures again.
Fig. 67 Alignment Timing Sprockets
INSTALLATION
(1) Install vacuum pump with new O-ring (Fig.
72).
(2) Install timing chain. Starting at the crankshaft
align the dark link on timing chain to the timing
mark on the crankshaft sprocket. Next align the second dark link on the chain with the timing mark on
ENGINE
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9 - 67
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 70 Hydraulic Tensioner and Oil Feed Line
Fig. 72 Vacuum Pump Assembly
Fig. 71 Vacuum Pump—Removal
Fig. 73 Timing Chain Procedure
the camshaft sprocket. Third align the final dark link
on the chain to the timing mark on the injection
pump sprocket. Last install the chain around the
vacuum pump (Fig. 73).
(3) Install hydraulic tensioner.
(4) Install hydraulic tensioner oil feed line.
(5) Install hydraulic tensioner blade. Torque bolt to
28 N·m (260 in. lbs.).
(6) Install lower chain guide.
(7) Install oil pump drive gear on crankshaft.
(8) Install timing chain cover. Refer to installation
procedure outlined in this section.
(9) Install pump shaft support bracket assembly.
Tighten nuts to 24.5 N·m (216 in. lbs.).
CAUTION: Correct torque on the power steering/air
conditioning pulley nut is important or engine damage can occur.
9 - 68
ENGINE
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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(10) Install power steering/air conditioning pulley.
Tighten nut to 170 N·m (125 ft. lbs.).
CAUTION: Correct torque on the crankshaft vibration damper nut is important or engine damage can
occur.
NOTE: Be careful not to nick crankshaft journals.
(8) After removal, install bearing cap on the mating rod.
(11) Install crankshaft vibration damper. Torque to
441 N·m (325 ft. lbs.)
(12) Install both accessory drive belts. Refer to
Group 7, Cooling.
(13) Install splash shield.
(14) Lower vehicle.
(15) Connect battery.
PISTONS AND CONNECTING ROD
REMOVAL
(1) Disconnect the battery cable.
(2) Remove cylinder heads, refer to cylinder head
removal in this section.
(3) Raise vehicle on host.
(4) Remove oil pan, refer to oil pan removal in this
section.
(5) Remove top carbon ridge of cylinder bores with
a reliable ridge reamer before removing pistons from
cylinder block. Be sure to keep tops of pistons
covered during this operation . Mark piston with
matching cylinder number.
(6) Pistons and connecting rods must be removed
from top of cylinder block. Rotate crankshaft so that
each connecting rod is centered in cylinder bore.
(7) Remove connecting rod cap. Push each piston
and rod assembly out of cylinder bore.
CAUTION: During piston and rod removal. DO NOT
rotate piston and connecting rod or damage to the
oil jets extending out into the cylinder bore will
occur (Fig. 74).
Fig. 75 Piston Assembly
PISTON PIN—REMOVAL
(1) Secure connecting rod in a soft jawed vice.
(2) Remove 2 clips securing piston pin (Fig. 75).
(3) Push piston pin out of piston and connecting
rod.
PISTON RING—REMOVAL
(1) Identification (ID) mark on face of upper and
intermediate piston rings must point toward piston
crown.
(2) Using a suitable ring expander, remove upper
and intermediate piston rings (Fig. 76).
(3) Remove the upper oil ring side rail, lower oil
ring side rail and then oil ring expander from piston.
(4) Carefully clean carbon from piston crowns,
skirts and ring grooves ensuring the 4 oil holes in
the oil control ring groove are clear.
Fig. 74 Oil Jets
FITTING PISTON RINGS
(1) Wipe cylinder bore clean. Insert ring and push
down with piston to ensure it is square in bore. The
ring gap measurement must be made with the ring
positioning at least 12 mm (0.50 in.) from bottom of
ENGINE
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9 - 69
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Fig. 76 Piston Rings—Removing and Installing
cylinder bore. Check gap with feeler gauge (Fig. 77).
Top compression ring gap .25 to .50 mm (.0098 to
.0196 in.). Second compression ring gap .25 to .35
mm (.0098 to .0137 in.). Oil control ring gap .25 to
.58 mm (.0098 to .0228 in.).
Fig. 78 Piston Ring Side Clearance
Fig. 77 Ring Gap Measurement
Fig. 79 Piston Ring Identification
(2) If ring gaps exceed dimension given, new rings
or cylinder liners must be fitted. Keep piston rings in
piston sets.
(3) Check piston ring to groove clearance (Fig. 78).
Top compression ring gap .08 to .130 mm (.0031 to
.0051 in.). Second compression ring gap .070 to .102
mm (.0027 to .0040 in.). Oil control ring gap .040 to
.072 mm (.0015 to .0028 in.).
Ring gaps must be positioned, before inserting piston
into the liners, as follows (Fig. 80).
(3) Top ring gap must be positioned at 30 degrees
to the right of the combustion chamber recess (looking at the piston crown from above).
(4) Second piston ring gap should be positioned on
the opposite side of the combustion chamber recess.
(5) Oil control ring gap to be located 30 degrees to
the left of combustion chamber recess.
(6) When assembling pistons check that components are installed in the same position as before disassembly, determined by the numbers stamped on
the crown of individual pistons. Engine cylinders are
numbered starting from gear train end of the engine.
Face chamber recess side of piston towards
camshaft . Therefore, the numbers stamped on con
PISTON RINGS—INSTALLATION
(1) Install rings on the pistons using a suitable
ring expander (Fig. 76).
(2) Top compression ring is tapered and chromium
plated. The second ring is of the scraper type and
must be installed with scraping edge facing bottom of
the piston. The third is an oil control ring (Fig. 79).
9 - 70
ENGINE
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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
rod big end should also face in the same direction. To
insert piston into cylinder, use a ring compressor as
shown in (Fig. 81).
PISTON PIN—INSTALLATION
(1) Secure connecting rod in soft jawed vice.
(2) Lubricate piston pin and piston with clean oil.
(3) Position piston on connecting rod.
CAUTION: Ensure combustion recess in piston
crown and the bearing cap numbers on the connecting rod are on the same side.
(4) Install piston pin.
(5) Install clips in piston to retain piston pin.
(6) Remove connecting rod from vice.
PISTON—INSTALLATION
(1) Before installing pistons, and connecting rod
assemblies into the bore, be sure that compression
ring gaps are staggered so that neither is in line with
oil ring rail gap (Fig. 80).
(2) Before installing the ring compressor, make
sure the oil ring expander ends are butted and the
rail gaps located as shown in (Fig. 80).
(3) Immerse the piston head and rings in clean
engine oil, slide the ring compressor, over the piston
and tighten with the special wrench (Fig. 81).
Ensure position of rings does not change during this operation .
(4) Face chamber recess side of piston towards
camshaft.
(5) Install connecting rod bolt protectors on rod
bolts.
(6) Rotate crankshaft so that the connecting rod
journal is on the center of the cylinder bore. Insert
rod and piston into cylinder bore and guide rod over
the crankshaft journal.
CAUTION: During piston and rod installation. DO
NOT rotate piston and connecting rod or damage to
the oil jets extending out into the cylinder bore will
occur (Fig. 74).
(7) Tap the piston down in cylinder bore, using a
hammer handle. At the same time, guide connecting
rod into position on connecting rod journal.
(8) Install rod caps. Install nuts on cleaned and
oiled rod bolts and tighten nuts to 29.5 N·m (22 ft.
lb.) plus 60°.
CYLINDER LINER
Fig. 80 Piston Ring Gap Location
Fig. 81 Installing Piston
REMOVAL
(1) Remove cylinder heads (refer to cylinder head
removal in this section).
(2) Remove Oil pan (refer to oil pan removal in
this section).
(3) Remove pistons (refer to piston removal in this
section).
(4) Use tool VM-1001 to remove liners (Fig. 82).
(5) Remove shims from cylinder liner or cylinder
block recess. Keep shims with each cylinder liner.
INSTALLATION
(1) Carefully clean residual sealer from liner and
crankcase, and degrease the crankcase where it
comes into contact with the liners. Referring to (Fig.
83), install the liners in the crankcase as shown (A),
rotating them back and forth by 45° in order to guarantee correct positioning.
(2) Measure the liner recess relative to block deck
with a dial indicator mounted on a special tool
VM-1010 A. All the measurements must be taken
on camshaft side . Zero dial gauge on block deck.
(3) Move dial gauge to cylinder liner record reading on dial gauge.
(4) Remove liner and special tool.
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 71
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CRANKSHAFT—REMOVAL
Refer to CRANKSHAFT
REMOVAL in this section.
MAIN
BEARING
REAR CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL
REMOVAL
(1) Remove transmission. Refer to Group 21,
Transmission for removal procedure.
(2) Remove flywheel.
NOTE: Inspect O-ring in flywheel (Fig. 85).
(3) Remove rear crankshaft oil seal from retainer
(Fig. 86).
CAUTION: When removing seal from retainer take
care not to damage retainer.
INSTALLATION
(1) Install crankshaft oil seal.
CAUTION: Use NEW flywheel bolt for the following
procedure.
Fig. 82 Cylinder Liner—Removal
(5) Then select the correct shim thickness to give
proper protrusion (0.01 - 0.06 mm).
(6) Fit the shim and the O-rings onto the liner.
(7) Lubricate the lower liner location in the block.
Apply LOCTITE 275 to the corner of the liner seat.
Apply LOCTITE 275 uniformly to the upper part of
the liner at area.
(8) Fit the liners in the crankcase making sure
that the shim is positioned correctly in the seat. Lock
the liners in position using special tool (VM-1016)
and bolts (Fig. 84). Clean the residual LOCTITE on
the upper surface of the block deck.
(9) Recheck the liner protrusion. It should be 0.01
- 0.06 mm.
NOTE: A period of six hours must elapse between
the liners being installed and engine start-up. If
engine assembly is not continued after liner installation, the liners need to be clamped for twelve
hours minimum.
(10) Refer to Cylinder Head Removal and Installation procedure in this section. To measure piston protrusion for installation of proper head gasket
thickness.
(2) Install new O-ring on flywheel. Install flywheel. The 6 flywheel bolts must be tightened as follows:
a. Torque the 6 flywheel bolts to 60 N·m (44 ft.
lbs.).
b. Loosen 2 of the 6 bolts, 180° apart. Torque the 2
bolts to 20 N·m (180 in. lbs.). Then using a torque
angle gauge rotate the 2 bolts 65° additional.
c. Loosen the next 2 bolts, 180° apart and follow
the same procedure.
d. Loosen the last 2 bolts, 180° apart and follow
the same procedure.
(3) Install Transmission. Refer to procedure in
Group 21, Transmission.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
HYDRAULIC TAPPETS
DISASSEMBLE AND ASSEMBLE
(1) Pry out plunger retainer spring clip.
(2) Clean varnish deposits from inside of tappet
body above plunger cap.
(3) Invert tappet body and remove plunger cap,
plunger, check valve, check valve spring, check valve
retainer and plunger spring. Check valve could be
flat or ball.
Assemble tappets in reverse order.
9 - 72
ENGINE
NS/GS
Fig. 83 Cylinder Liner—Installation
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
CYLINDER HEAD COVERS
Remove any original sealer from the cover sealing
surface of the engine cylinder head.
Remove all residue from the sealing surface using
a clean, dry cloth.
ROCKER ARMS AND PUSH RODS
CLEANING
Clean all the components (Fig. 87) with cleaning
solvent.
Use compressed air to blow out the oil passages in
the rocker arms and push rods.
INSPECTION
Inspect the pivot surface area of each rocker arm.
Replace any that are scuffed, pitted, cracked or
excessively worn.
Inspect the valve stem tip contact surface of each
rocker arm and replace any rocker arm that is deeply
pitted.
Inspect each push rod end for excessive wear and
replace as required. If any push rod is excessively
worn because of lack of oil, replace it and inspect the
corresponding hydraulic tappet for excessive wear.
Inspect the push rods for straightness by rolling
them on a flat surface or by shining a light between
the push rod and the flat surface.
A wear pattern along the length of the push rod is
not normal. Inspect the engine cylinder head for
obstruction if this condition exists.
CYLINDER HEAD
CLEANING
Thoroughly clean the engine cylinder head and cylinder block mating surfaces. Clean the intake and
exhaust manifold and engine cylinder head mating
surfaces. Remove all gasket material and carbon.
ENGINE
NS/GS
CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued)
Fig. 86 Crankshaft Seal
Fig. 84 Liner Clamp Location
Fig. 85 Flywheel
Check to ensure that no coolant or foreign material
has fallen into the tappet bore area.
Remove the carbon deposits from the combustion
chambers and top of the pistons.
Fig. 87 Rocker Arm Components
9 - 73
9 - 74
ENGINE
NS/GS
CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued)
INSPECTION
Use a straightedge and feeler gauge to check the
flatness of the engine cylinder head and block mating
surfaces (Fig. 88).
Minimum cylinder head thickness 89.95mm (3.541
in.)
stem clearance in valve guide. Clearance of inlet
valve stem in valve guide is .040 to .075 mm (.0015
to .0029 in). Clearance of exhaust valve stem in valve
guide is .060 to .095 mm (.0023 to .0037 in).
(4) If valve stem clearance in valve guide exceeds
tolerances, new valve guides must be installed.
CAUTION: If only one cylinder head is found to be
distorted and requires machining, it will also be
necessary to machine the remaining cylinders
heads and end plates by a corresponding amount
to maintain correct cylinder alignment.
TIMING CHAIN COVER
Be sure mating surfaces of chain case cover and
cylinder block are clean and free from burrs.
VALVES AND VALVE SPRINGS
VALVE CLEANING
Clean all carbon deposits from the combustion
chambers, valve ports, valve stems, valve stem
guides and heads.
Clean all grime and gasket material from the
engine cylinder head machined gasket surfaces.
Fig. 88 Checking Cylinder Head Flatness
VALVE GUIDE HEIGHT
(1) Valve Guides height requirement.
(2) Measurement A (Fig. 89): 13.50 - 14.00 mm.
INSPECTION
Inspect for cracks in the combustion chambers and
valve ports.
Inspect for cracks on the exhaust seat.
Inspect for cracks in the gasket surface at each
coolant passage.
Inspect valves for burned, cracked or warped
heads.
Inspect for scuffed or bent valve stems.
Replace valves displaying any damage.
Check valve spring height. (Fig. 90).
Fig. 89 Valve Guide Height
VALVE STEM-TO-GUIDE CLEARANCE
MEASUREMENT
(1) Measure and record internal diameter of valve
guides. Valve guide internal diameter is 8.0 to 8.015
mm (.3149 to .3155 in.).
(2) Measure valve stems and record diameters.
Intake valve stem diameter 7.94 to 7.96 mm (.3125 to
.3133 in). Exhaust valve stem diameter 7.92 to 7.94
mm (.3118 to .31215 in).
(3) Subtract diameter of valve stem from internal
diameter of its respective valve guide to obtain valve
Fig. 90 Valve Spring Chart
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 75
CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued)
HYDRAULIC TAPPETS
(1) Clean all tappet parts in a solvent that will
remove all varnish and carbon.
(2) Replace tappets that are unfit for further service with new assemblies.
(3) If plunger shows signs of scoring or wear,
install a new tappet assembly. If valve is pitted, or
valve seat on end of plunger is prevented from seating, install a new tappet assembly.
OIL PUMP
CLEANING
Wash all parts in a suitable solvent and inspect
carefully for damage or wear (Fig. 92).
Fig. 92 Oil Pump Inner and Outer Rotors
INSPECTION
(1) Before installing oil pump check pump bore
depth in block (A) and pump body height (B) (Fig.
91). Difference between A and B should be
0.020-0.082 mm.
(2) Check clearance between rotors (Fig. 93).
Fig. 93 Checking Rotor Clearance
Fig. 91 Oil Pump Bore Depth
(3) The piston diameter should be measured
approximately 15 mm (.590 in.) up from the base.
(4) Skirt wear should not exceed 0.1 mm (.00039
in.).
(5) The clearance between the cylinder liner and
piston should not exceed 0.25 mm (.0009 in.).
(6) Make sure the weight of the pistons does not
differ by more than 5 g.
PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
PISTONS
(1) Piston Diameter: Size Group A: 91.93-91.94mm
(3.6191-3.6196 in.) Size Group B: 91.94-91.95mm
(3.6196-3.6200 in.). Maximum wear limit .05mm
(.0019 in.).
(2) Check piston pin bores in piston for roundness.
Make 3 checks at 120° intervals. Maximum out of
roundness .05mm (.0019in.).
CONNECTING ROD
(1) Assemble bearing shells and bearing caps to
their respective connecting rods ensuring that the
serrations on the cap and reference marks are
aligned.
(2) Tighten bearing cap bolts to 29 N·m (21 ft. lbs.)
plus 60°.
(3) Check and record internal diameter of crank
end of connecting rod.
9 - 76
ENGINE
NS/GS
CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued)
Note: When changing connecting rods, all four
must have the same weight and be stamped with the
same number. Replacement connecting rods will
only be supplied in sets of four.
(4) Connecting rods are supplied in sets of four
since they all must be of the same weight category.
Max allowable weight difference is 18 gr. NOTE: On
one side of the big end of the con-rod there is a twodigit number which refers to the weight category. On
the other side of the big end there is a four digit
number on both the rod and the cap. These numbers
must both face the camshaft as well as the recess on
the piston crown (Fig. 94). Lightly heat the piston in
oven. Insert piston pin in position and secure it with
provided snap rings. The Four digit numbers
marked on con rod big end and rod cap must
be on the same side as the camshaft (Fig. 94) .
After having coated threads with Molyguard, tighten
con rod bolts to 29 N·m (21 ft. lbs.) plus 60°.
Fig. 95 Piston, Connecting Rod and Pin
BEARING-TO-JOURNAL CLEARANCE
Compare internal diameters of connecting rod with
crankshaft journal diameter. Maximum clearance
between connecting rod and crankshaft journals .022
to .076mm (.0008 to .0029 in.) (Fig. 96).
Fig. 94 Connecting Rod Identification
PISTON PIN
(1) Measure the diameter of piston pin in the center and both ends (Fig. 95).
(2) Piston pin diameter is 29.990 to 29.996mm
(1.1807 to 1.1809 in.).
CRANKSHAFT
CRANKSHAFT JOURNALS
(1) Using a micrometer, measure and record crankshaft connecting rod journals, take reading of each
journal 120° apart. Crankshaft journal diameter is
53.84 to 53.955mm (2.1196 to 2.1242 in.).
(2) Crankshaft journals worn beyond limits or
show signs of out of roundness must be reground or
replaced. Minimum reground diameter is 53.69mm
(2.1137 in.).
Fig. 96 Bearing Clearance
CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING
INSPECTION
(1) Fit main bearing carriers together and torque
to 42 N·m (31 ft. lbs.)
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 77
CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued)
(2) Check internal diameter of bearings.
(3) If internal diameter of original bearing is being
checked and figures are not within specifications,
new bearings must be used.
(4) Check crankshaft main bearing journals to
bearing clearances. Clearances of main bearings is
.03 to .088mm (.0011 to .0035 in.).
OIL PAN
Remove all gasket material from cylinder block. Be
careful not gouge pan sealing surface.
CYLINDER LINER
INSPECTION
The cylinder walls should be checked for out-ofround and taper with dail bore gauge. The cylinder
bore out-of-round is 0.100 mm (.0039 inch) maximum
and cylinder bore taper is 0.100 mm (0.0039 inch)
maximum. If the cylinder walls are badly scuffed or
scored, new liners should be installed and honed, and
new pistons and rings fitted.
Measure the cylinder bore at three levels in directions A and B (Fig. 97). Top measurement should be
10 mm (3/8 inch) down and bottom measurement
should be 10 mm ( 3/8 inch.) up from bottom of bore.
Fig. 97 Liner Inspection
SPECIFICATIONS
2.5L VM DIESEL
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATIONS
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425CLIEE (36B)
Number of Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 mm
Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 mm
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2499.5 cm3
Injection Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3-4-2
Compression Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21:1 (6 0.5)
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATIONS
Crankshaft
Front Journal Diameter
Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.985–63.000 mm
–0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.735–62.750 mm
–0.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.860–62.875 mm
Front Bearing Diameter
Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.043–63.088 mm
–0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.793–62.838 mm
–0.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.918–62.963 mm
Clearance Between Journal and Bearing:
0.043–0.103 mm
Center Journal Diameter
Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.005–63.020 mm
–0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.755–62.770 mm
–0.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.880–62.895 mm
Center Bearing Diameter
Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.050–63.093 mm
–0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.800–62.843 mm
–0.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.925–62.968 mm
Clearance Between Journal and Bearing:
0.030–0.088 mm
Rear Journal Diameter
Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.980–80.000 mm
–0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.730–79.750 mm
–0.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.855–79.875 mm
Rear Bearing Diameter
Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.045–80.070 mm
–0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.795–79.820 mm
–0.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.920–79.945 mm
Clearance Between Journal and Bearing:
0.045–0.090 mm (Wear Limit: 0.200 mm)
Connecting Rod Journal
Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.940–53.955 mm
–0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.690–53.705 mm
–0.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.815–53.830 mm
Connecting Rod Bearing
Nominal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.977–54.016 mm
–0.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.727–53.766 mm
–0.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.852–53.891 mm
Clearance Between Journal and Bearing:
0.022–0.076 mm (Wear Limit: 0.200 mm)
Crankshaft End Play
End Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.08–0.21 mm
Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thrust Washers
Thrust Washers Available . . . . . . . . 2.31–2.36 mm
Thrust Washers Available . . . . . . . . 2.41–2.46 mm
Thrust Washers Available . . . . . . . . 2.51–2.56 mm
Main Bearing Carriers
Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67.025–67.050 mm
Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.670–66.690 mm
Rear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85.985–86.005 mm
Liners
Internal Diameter . . . . . . . . . . 92.000–92.010 mm
9 - 78
ENGINE
NS/GS
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATIONS
Protrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.01–0.06 mm
Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shims
Available Shims: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.15 mm
Available Shims: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.17 mm
Available Shims: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 mm
Available Shims: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.23 mm
Available Shims: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25 mm
Cylinder Head
Minimum Thickness . . . . . . . . . . 89.95–90.05 mm
Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel
Gasket thickness: . . . . . . . 1.42 6 0.1 mm 0 Holes
Gasket thickness: . . . . . . . 1.62 6 0.1 mm 1 Holes
Gasket thickness: . . . . . . . 1.52 6 0.1 mm 2 Holes
End Plates
Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89.02–90.00 mm
Connecting Rods
Weight
(Without the crank bearing) . . . 1129–1195 grams
Small End Bearing Internal Diameter
Minimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.035 mm
Maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.050 mm
Crankshaft Bearings
Standard Internal Diameter . . 53.997–54.016 mm
Pistons
Skirt Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.935–91.945 mm
(Measured at approximately
15 mm above the bottom of the skirt)
Piston Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.055–0.075 mm
Top of Piston to Cylinder Head . . . . 0.80–0.89 mm
Piston Protrusion . . . . . 0.53–0.62 mm Fit Gasket
(1.42), 0 Holes
Piston Protrusion . . . . . 0.73–0.82 mm Fit Gasket
(1.62), 1 Holes
Piston Protrusion . . . . . 0.63–0.72 mm Fit Gasket
(1.52), 2 Holes
Piston Pins
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full Floating
Pin Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.990–29.996 mm
Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.004–0.014 mm
Piston Rings (Clearance in Groove)
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.080–0.130 mm
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.070–0.102 mm
Oil Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.040–0.072 mm
Piston Rings (Fitted Gap)
Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25–0.50 mm
Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20–0.35 mm
Oil Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25–0.58 mm
Camshaft
Journal Diameter Front . . . . . 53.460–53.480 mm
Bearing Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.06–0.13 mm
Journal Diameter Center . . . . 53.460–53.480 mm
Bearing Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.06–0.13 mm
Journal Diameter Rear . . . . . . 53.460–53.480 mm
Bearing Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.06–0.13 mm
DESCRIPTION
SPECIFICATIONS
Tappets
Outside Diameter . . . . . . . . . . 22.195–22.212 mm
Rocker Gear
Shaft Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.979–22.00 mm
Bushing internal diameter . . . 22.020–22.041 mm
Assembly Clearance . . . . . . . . . . 0.020–0.062 mm
Valves (Intake)
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26° B.T.D.C.
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58° A.B.D.C.
Valves (Exhaust)
Opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64° B.B.D.C.
Closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38° A.T.D.C.
Valve Face Angle
Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55°30’– 55°50’
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45°25’– 45°35’
Valve Head Diameter
Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40.05–40.25 mm
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.8–34.0 mm
Valve Head Stand Down
Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.08–1.34 mm
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.99–1.25 mm
Valve Stem Diameter
Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.940–7.960 mm
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.922–7.940 mm
Valve Clearance in Guide
Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.040–0.075 mm
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.060–0.093 mm
Valve Guide
Inside Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0–8.015 mm
Fitted Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5–14.0 mm
Valve Spring
Free Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44.65 mm
Fitted Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38.6 mm
Load at Fitted Length . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6 6% Kg
Load at Top of Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.5 6 4% Kg
Number of Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.33 Valve Timing
Oil Pressure
at 4000 rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0 to 4.5 bar
(Oil at 90–100°C)
Pressure Relief Valve Opens . . . . . . . . . . 6.38 bar
Pressure Relief Valve–Free Length . . . . . 57.5 mm
Oil Pump
Outer Rotor End Float . . . . . . . . . . 0.03–0.09 mm
Inner Rotor End Float . . . . . . . . . . 0.03–0.09 mm
Outer Rotor to Body
Diameter Clearance . . . . . . . . . . 0.130–0.230 mm
Rotor Body to Drive Gear Clearance
(Pump Not Fitted) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.27–3.73 mm
TORQUE
DESCRIPTION
TORQUE
Generator Mounting Bracket
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 N·m (35 ft. lbs.)
NS/GS
ENGINE
9 - 79
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
TORQUE
Camshaft Locating Plate
Bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 N·m (96 in. lbs.)
Camshaft Sprocket
Bolt . . . . . . . . . 19.6 N·m + 60° (170 in. lbs. + 60°)
Cylinder Head
Bolts . . See Cylinder Head Installation Procedure
Connecting Rod
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . 29.5 N·m +60° (22 ft. lbs. +60°)
Crankshaft Bearing Carrier
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 N·m (32 ft. lbs.)
Crankshaft damper (Pulley)
Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 N·m (325 ft. lbs.)
EGR Valve to Intake Manifold
Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 N·m (19 ft. lbs.)
EGR Tube to EGR Valve
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 N·m (19 ft. lbs.)
Engine Mount—Front
Support Bracket Engine Bolts . 68 N·m (50 ft. lbs.)
Support Bracket Transmission Bolts . . . . 101 N·m
(75 ft. lbs.)
Support Cushion Crossmember Bolts . . . . 54 N·m
(40 ft. lbs.)
Support Cushion Thru Bolt . . . 65 N·m (48 ft. lbs.)
Engine Mount—Rear
Support Bracket Transmission Bolts . . . . 101 N·m
(75 ft. lbs.)
Support Bracket to Engine Bracket . 101 N·m (75 ft.
lbs.)
Support Cushion Thru Bolt . . . 68 N·m (50 ft. lbs.)
Engine Mount—Left
Transmission Mounting Bolts . 54 N·m (40 ft. lbs.)
Support Cushion Thru Bolt . . . 71 N·m (53 ft. lbs.)
Engine Mount—Right
Mount to Frame Rail Bolts . . . 68 N·m (50 ft. lbs.)
Mount Bolt (Horizontal) . . . 145 N·m (107 ft. lbs.)
Mount Bolt (Vertical) . . . . . . . 101 N·m (75 ft. lbs.)
Right Engine Mount Bracket
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 N·m (30 ft. lbs.)
Exhaust Pipe to Turbocharger
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 N·m (250 in. lbs.)
Exhaust Manifold Outlet to Turbo
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 N·m (24 ft. lbs.)
Exhaust Elbow to Turbo
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 N·m (22 ft. lbs.)
Exhaust Manifold Mounting
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 N·m (22 ft. lbs.)
Flywheel
Bolts . . . . . See Rear Crankshaft Seal Installation
Procedure
Engine Adaptor Plate
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 N·m (35 ft. lbs.)
Front Timing Chain Cover
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 N·m (96 in. lbs.)
Fuel Filter
DESCRIPTION
TORQUE
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 N·m (250 in. lbs.)
Glow Plugs
Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 N·m (120 in. lbs.)
Idler Pulley Pump Support Bracket
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 N·m (228 in. lbs.)
Idler Pulleys (left handed threads)
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 N·m (35 ft. lbs.)
Injector Pump fuel lines
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.6 N·m (156 in. lbs.)
Injector Pump Sprocket
Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.3 N·m (63 ft. lbs.)
Injector Pump Mounting
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.5 N·m (240 in. lbs.)
Injector
Tighten to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 N·m (48 ft. lbs.)
Intake Manifold Mounting
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 N·m (264 in. lbs.)
Main Bearing Oil Delivery Union
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 N·m (40 ft. lbs.)
Oil Feed Line To Rocker Arms
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 N·m (108 in. lbs.)
Oil Feed Line to Block
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 N·m (108 in. lbs.)
Oil Feel Line to Vacuum Pump
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7 N·m (145 in. lbs.)
Oil Filter
Tighten to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 N·m (85 in. lbs.)
Oil Filter Adaptor
Fastener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 N·m (36 ft. lbs.)
Oil Filter Base
Fastener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 N·m (36 ft. lbs.)
Oil Pan Mounting
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 N·m (108 in. lbs.)
Oil Pickup Tube
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 N·m (100 in. lbs.)
Oil Pump Mounting
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.5 N·m (240 in. lbs.)
Oil Pan Drain
Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 N·m (40 ft. lbs.)
Power Steering Pressure Hose
Fastener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 N·m (240 in. lbs.)
Power Steering Pulley
Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 N·m (125 ft. lbs.)
Rear Crankshaft Bearing Carrier
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8 N·m (95 in. lbs.)
Rocker Arm Cover
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.7 N·m (132 in. lbs.)
Rocker Arm Mounting
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.4 N·m (264 in. lbs.)
Power Steering Pump Mounting
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.5 N·m (216 in. lbs.)
Turbocharger Mounting
Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 N·m (288 in. lbs.)
9 - 80
ENGINE
NS/GS
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
TORQUE
Turbocharger Oil Delivery
Bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.5 N·m (240 in. lbs.)
Turbocharger Oil Drain
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8 N·m (95 in. lbs.)
Vacuum Pump Mounting
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8 N·m (95 in. lbs.)
Water Manifold Mounting
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.8 N·m (108 in. lbs.)
Water Pump Pulley
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.5 N·m (240 in. lbs.)
SPECIAL TOOLS
2.5L VM DIESEL
Crankshaft Sprocket Remover VM.1000A
Cylinder Liner Puller VM.1001
Crankshaft Bearing Remover/Installer VM.1002
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 81
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
Crankshaft Remover/Installer Sleeve VM.1004
Torque Angle Gauge VM.1005
Cylinder Head Bolt Wrench VM.1006A
Cylinder Head Guide Studs VM.1009
Cylinder Liner Protrusion Tool VM.1010
Injector Socket Remover/Installer VM.1012A
9 - 82
ENGINE
NS/GS
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
Dial Indicator Gauge VM.1013
Cylinder Retainers VM.1016
Flywheel Locking Tool VM.1014
Cylinder Head Bolt Wrench M12 VM.1018
Timing Cover Oil Seal Installer VM.1015
Cylinder Head Bolt Wrench M14 VM.1019
ENGINE
NS/GS
9 - 83
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
Adapter Oil Filter VM.1020
Camshaft Locating Plate Alignment VM.1028
Adapter Cylinder Leakage Tester VM.1021
Crankshaft Sprocket Installer VM.1029
Support Brackets Engine Removal/Installation
VM.1026
9 - 84
ENGINE
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
Locating Pin Crankshaft Sprocket VM.1030
Camshaft Sprocket Locking Tool VM.1031
Injection Pump Sprocket Locking Tool VM.1032
NS/GS