ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
First Edition, July 2006
www.moxa.com/product
MOXA Systems Co., Ltd.
Tel: +886-2-8919-1230
Fax: +886-2-8919-1231
Web: www.moxa.com
MOXA Technical Support
Worldwide: support@moxa.com
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
The software described in this manual is furnished under a license agreement and may be used only in
accordance with the terms of that agreement.
Copyright Notice
Copyright © 2006 Moxa Systems Co., Ltd.
All rights reserved.
Reproduction without permission is prohibited.
Trademarks
MOXA is a registered trademark of The Moxa Group.
All other trademarks or registered marks in this manual belong to their respective manufacturers.
Disclaimer
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the
part of Moxa.
Moxa provides this document “as is,” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but
not limited to, its particular purpose. Moxa reserves the right to make improvements and/or changes to this
manual, or to the products and/or the programs described in this manual, at any time.
Information provided in this manual is intended to be accurate and reliable. However, Moxa assumes no
responsibility for its use, or for any infringements on the rights of third parties that may result from its use.
This product might include unintentional technical or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the
information herein to correct such errors, and these changes are incorporated into new editions of the
publication.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction ..................................................................................................1-1
Overview.................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Software Architecture .............................................................................................................. 1-2
Journaling Flash File System (JFFS2)........................................................................ 1-3
Software Package ....................................................................................................... 1-4
Chapter 2
Getting Started .............................................................................................2-1
Powering on the IA241/240 ..................................................................................................... 2-2
Connecting the IA241/240 to a PC .......................................................................................... 2-2
Serial Console ............................................................................................................ 2-2
Telnet Console............................................................................................................ 2-3
SSH Console .............................................................................................................. 2-4
Configuring the Ethernet Interface .......................................................................................... 2-6
Modifying Network Settings with the Serial Console ................................................ 2-6
Modifying Network Settings over the Network ......................................................... 2-7
Configuring the WLAN via the PCMCIA Interface ................................................................ 2-7
IEEE802.11g .............................................................................................................. 2-7
SD Socket and USB for Storage Expansion............................................................................2-11
Test Program—Developing Hello.c ....................................................................................... 2-12
Installing the Tool Chain (Linux)............................................................................. 2-12
Checking the Flash Memory Space .......................................................................... 2-13
Compiling Hello.c .................................................................................................... 2-13
Uploading and Running the “Hello” Program.......................................................... 2-14
Developing Your First Application ........................................................................................ 2-14
Testing Environment ................................................................................................ 2-15
Compiling tcps2.c..................................................................................................... 2-15
Uploading and Running the “tcps2-release” Program.............................................. 2-16
Testing Procedure Summary .................................................................................... 2-18
Chapter 3
Managing Embedded Linux ........................................................................3-1
System Version Information..................................................................................................... 3-2
System Image Backup.............................................................................................................. 3-2
Upgrading the Firmware............................................................................................. 3-2
Loading Factory Defaults ........................................................................................... 3-4
Backing Up the User Directory .................................................................................. 3-4
Deploying the User Directory to Additional IA241/240 Units................................... 3-5
Enabling and Disabling Daemons............................................................................................ 3-5
Setting the Run-Level .............................................................................................................. 3-7
Adjusting the System Time ...................................................................................................... 3-8
Setting the Time Manually ......................................................................................... 3-8
NTP Client.................................................................................................................. 3-8
Updating the Time Automatically............................................................................... 3-9
Cron—Daemon to Execute Scheduled Commands ................................................................. 3-9
Chapter 4
Managing Communications ........................................................................4-1
Telnet / FTP ............................................................................................................................. 4-2
DNS ......................................................................................................................................... 4-2
Web Service—Apache ............................................................................................................. 4-2
Install PHP for Apache Web Server ......................................................................................... 4-4
IPTABLES ............................................................................................................................... 4-6
NAT.........................................................................................................................................4-11
NAT Example ........................................................................................................... 4-11
Enabling NAT at Bootup .......................................................................................... 4-12
Dial-up Service—PPP............................................................................................................ 4-12
PPPoE .................................................................................................................................... 4-15
NFS (Network File System)................................................................................................... 4-17
Setting up the IA241/240 as an NFS Client.............................................................. 4-18
Mail........................................................................................................................................ 4-18
SNMP .................................................................................................................................... 4-18
OpenVPN............................................................................................................................... 4-26
Chapter 5
Development Tool Chains ...........................................................................5-1
Linux Tool Chain ..................................................................................................................... 5-2
Steps for Installing the Linux Tool Chain................................................................... 5-2
Compilation for Applications ..................................................................................... 5-2
On-Line Debugging with GDB .................................................................................. 5-3
Windows Tool Chain................................................................................................................ 5-3
System Requirements for Windows Tool Chain......................................................... 5-4
Steps for Installing Windows Tool Chain ................................................................... 5-4
Using the BASH Shell................................................................................................ 5-8
Compilation for Applications ..................................................................................... 5-8
On-Line Debugging with Insight.............................................................................. 5-10
Chapter 6
Programmer’s Guide....................................................................................6-1
Flash Memory Map.................................................................................................................. 6-2
Device API............................................................................................................................... 6-2
RTC (Real Time Clock) ........................................................................................................... 6-2
Buzzer ...................................................................................................................................... 6-2
WDT (Watch Dog Timer) ........................................................................................................ 6-3
UART....................................................................................................................................... 6-6
DI/DO ...................................................................................................................................... 6-8
Make File Example ................................................................................................................ 6-14
Chapter 7
Software Lock...............................................................................................7-1
Chapter 8
UC Finder ......................................................................................................8-1
Windows UC Finder ................................................................................................................ 8-2
Installing the Software................................................................................................ 8-2
Broadcast Search ........................................................................................................ 8-4
Linux ucfinder.......................................................................................................................... 8-5
Appendix A System Commands..................................................................................... A-1
busybox (V0.60.4): Linux normal command utility collection............................................... A-1
File manager.............................................................................................................. A-1
Editor......................................................................................................................... A-1
Network..................................................................................................................... A-1
Process....................................................................................................................... A-2
Other.......................................................................................................................... A-2
MOXA special utilities.............................................................................................. A-2
Appendix B Service Information..................................................................................... B-1
MOXA Internet Services..........................................................................................................B-2
Problem Report Form ..............................................................................................................B-3
Product Return Procedure ........................................................................................................B-4
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
The MOXA ThinkCore IA241 and IA240 are RISC-based ready-to-run embedded computers.
Available features include four RS-232/422/485 serial ports, dual 10/100 Mbps Ethernet ports,
PCMCIA, SD socket for storage expansion and USB 2.0 host making IA241/240 ideal for your
embedded applications.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰ Overview
‰ Software Architecture
¾ Journaling Flash File System (JFFS2)
¾ Software Package
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Introduction
Overview
The ThinkCore IA241/IA240 embedded computers, which are designed for industrial automation
applications, feature 4 RS-232/422/485 serial ports, dual Ethernet ports, 4 digital input channels, 4
digital output channels, and a PCMCIA cardbus and SD socket. The computers come in a compact,
IP30 protected, industrial-strength rugged chassis. The DIN-Rail vertical form factor makes it easy
to install the IA241/240 embedded computers in small cabinets. This space-saving feature also
facilitates easy wiring, and makes the IA241/240 the best choice as front-end embedded
controllers for industrial applications.
In addition to the standard models, the ThinkCore IA241/IA240 also come in wide temperature
models. The IA241-T and IA240-T have an operating temperature range of -40 to 75°C, and are
appropriate for harsh industrial automation environments. The industrial mechanism of the
ThinkCore IA241/IA240 design provides robust, reliable computing. Due to the RISC-based
architecture, the ThinkCore IA241/IA240 will not generate a lot of heat when in use. The high
communication performance and fanless design make the IA241/IA240 ideal for industrial
automation environments.
The ThinkCore IA241/240 computers use a MOXA ART 192 Mhz RISC CPU. Unlike the X86
CPU, which uses a CISC design, the RISC architecture and modern semiconductor technology
provide these embedded computers with a powerful computing engine and communication
functions, but without generating a lot of heat. A 16 MB NOR Flash ROM and a 64 MB SDRAM
give you enough memory to install your application software directly on the embedded computer.
In addition, dual LAN ports are built right into the RISC CPU. This network capability, in
combination with the ability to control serial devices, makes the ThinkCore IA241/240 ideal
communication platforms for data acquisition and industrial control applications.
The IA241/240’s pre-installed Linux operating system (OS) provides an open software operating
system for your software program development. Software written for desktop PCs can be easily
ported to the computer with a GNU cross compiler, without needing to modify the source code.
The OS, device drivers (e.g., serial and buzzer control), and your own applications, can all be
stored in the NOR Flash memory.
The ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux Series (referred to here as IA241/240, or as the target computer)
consists of two models: ThinkCore IA241-LX with CardBus, and ThinkCore IA240-LX (which
doesn’t support CardBus). Both models have exactly the same hardware and software features,
except for the PCMCIA CardBus provided by the ThinkCore IA241-LX.
Software Architecture
The Linux operating system that is pre-installed in the IA241/240 follows the standard Linux
architecture, making it easy to accept programs that follow the POSIX standard. Program porting
is done with the GNU Tool Chain provided by Moxa. In addition to Standard POSIX APIs, device
drivers for the USB storage, buzzer and Network controls, and UART are also included in the
Linux OS.
1-2
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
AP
API
OS Kernel
Protocol
Stack
Device
Driver
Microkernel
Hardware
Introduction
User Application
Daemon (Apache, Telnet, FTPD, SNMP)
Application Interface (POSIX, Socket, Secure Socket)
TCP, IP, UDP, CMP, ARP, HTTP, SNMP, SMTP
PCMCIA, CF, WLAN, USB, UART, RTC, LCM, Keypad
File
System
Memory control, Schedule, Process
RS-232/422/485, Ethernet, PCMCIA, CompactFlash, USB
The IA241/240’s built-in Flash ROM is partitioned into Boot Loader, Linux Kernel, Root File
System, and User directory partitions.
In order to prevent user applications from crashing the Root File System, the IA241/240 uses a
specially designed Root File System with Protected Configuration for emergency use. This
Root File System comes with serial and Ethernet communication capability for users to load the
Factory Default Image file. The user directory saves the user’s settings and application.
To improve system reliability, the IA241/240 has a built-in mechanism that prevents the system
from crashing. When the Linux kernel boots up, the kernel will mount the root file system for read
only, and then enable services and daemons. During this time, the kernel will start searching for
system configuration parameters via rc or inittab.
Normally, the kernel uses the Root File System to boot up the system. The Root File System is
protected, and cannot be changed by the user. This type of setup creates a “safe” zone.
For more information about the memory map and programming, refer to Chapter 5, Programmer’s
Guide.
Journaling Flash File System (JFFS2)
The Root File System and User directory in the flash memory is formatted with the Journaling
Flash File System (JFFS2). The formatting process places a compressed file system in the flash
memory. This operation is transparent to the user.
The Journaling Flash File System (JFFS2), which was developed by Axis Communications in
Sweden, puts a file system directly on the flash, instead of emulating a block device. It is designed
for use on flash-ROM chips and recognizes the special write requirements of a flash-ROM chip.
JFFS2 implements wear-leveling to extend the life of the flash disk, and stores the flash directory
structure in the RAM. A log-structured file system is maintained at all times. The system is always
consistent, even if it encounters crashes or improper power-downs, and does not require fsck (file
system check) on boot-up.
JFFS2 is the newest version of JFFS. It provides improved wear-leveling and garbage-collection
performance, improved RAM footprint and response to system-memory pressure, improved
concurrency and support for suspending flash erases, marking of bad sectors with continued use of
the remaining good sectors (enhancing the write-life of the devices), native data compression
1-3
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Introduction
inside the file system design, and support for hard links.
The key features of JFFS2 are:
y Targets the Flash ROM Directly
y Robustness
y Consistency across power failures
y No integrity scan (fsck) is required at boot time after normal or abnormal shutdown
y Explicit wear leveling
y Transparent compression
Although JFFS2 is a journaling file system, this does not preclude the loss of data. The file system
will remain in a consistent state across power failures and will always be mountable. However, if
the board is powered down during a write then the incomplete write will be rolled back on the next
boot, but writes that have already been completed will not be affected.
Additional information about JFFS2 is available at:
http://sources.redhat.com/jffs2/jffs2.pdf
http://developer.axis.com/software/jffs/
http://www.linux-mtd.infradead.org/
Software Package
Moxa private (V1.2)
Linux 2.6.9
ARP, PPP, CHAP, PAP, IPv4, ICMP, TCP, UDP, DHCP, FTP, SNMP
V1/V3, HTTP, NTP, NFS, SMTP, SSH 1.0/2.0, SSL, Telnet, PPPoE,
OpenVPN
JFFS2, NFS, Ext2, Ext3, VFAT/FAT
File System
OS shell command Bash
Busybox
Linux normal command utility collection
Utilities
tinylogin
login and user manager utility
telnet
telnet client program
ftp
FTP client program
smtpclient
email utility
scp
Secure file transfer Client Program
Daemons
pppd
dial in/out over serial port daemon
snmpd
snmpd agent daemon
telnetd
telnet server daemon
inetd
TCP server manager program
ftpd
ftp server daemon
apache
web server daemon
sshd
secure shell server
openvpn
virtual private network
openssl
open SSL
Linux Tool Chain
Gcc (V3.3.2)
C/C++ PC Cross Compiler
GDB (V5.3)
Source Level Debug Server
Glibc (V2.2.5)
POSIX standard C library
Windows Tool Chain
Gcc (V3.3.2)
C/C++ PC Cross Compiler
Glibc(V2.2.5)
POSIX standard C library
Insight (V6.1)
Windows environment source level debug utility
Boot Loader
Kernel
Protocol Stack
1-4
2
Chapter 2
Getting Started
In this chapter, we explain how to connect the IA241/240, how to turn on the power, how to get
started programming, and how to use the IA241/240’s other functions.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰ Powering on the IA241/240
‰ Connecting the IA241/240 to a PC
¾ Serial Console
¾ Telnet Console
¾ SSH Console
‰ Configuring the Ethernet Interface
¾ Modifying Network Settings with the Serial Console
¾ Modifying Network Settings over the Network
‰ Configuring the WLAN via the PCMCIA Interface
¾ IEEE802.11g
‰ SD Socket and USB for Storage Expansion
‰ Test Program—Developing Hello.c
¾ Installing the Tool Chain (Linux)
¾ Checking the Flash Memory Space
¾ Compiling Hello.c
¾ Uploading and Running the “Hello” Program
‰ Developing Your First Application
¾ Testing Environment
¾ Compiling tcps2.c
¾ Uploading and Running the “tcps2-release” Program
¾ Testing Procedure Summary
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Powering on the IA241/240
Connect the SG wire to the shielded contact located in the upper left corner of the IA241/240, and
then power on the computer by connecting it to the power adaptor. It takes about 30 to 60 seconds
for the system to boot up. Once the system is ready, the Ready LED will light up.
NOTE
After connecting the IA241/240 to the power supply, it will take about 30 to 60 seconds for the
operating system to boot up. The green Ready LED will not turn on until the operating system is
ready.
ATTENTION
This product is intended to be supplied by a Listed Power Unit and output marked with “LPS”
and rated 12-48 VDC, 580 mA (minimum requirements).
Connecting the IA241/240 to a PC
There are two ways to connect the IA241/240 to a PC: through the Serial Console port or via
Telnet over the network.
Serial Console
The serial console port gives users a convenient way of connecting to the IA241/240’s console
utility. This method is particularly useful when using the computer for the first time. The signal is
transmitted over a direct serial connection, so you do not need to know either of its two IP
addresses in order to connect to the serial console utility.
Use the serial console port settings shown below.
Baudrate
Parity
Data bits
Stop bits:
Flow Control
Terminal
115200 bps
None
8
1
None
VT100
2-2
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Once the connection is established, the following window will open.
To log in, type the Login name and password as requested. The default values are both root:
Login: root
Password: root
Telnet Console
If you know at least one of the two IP addresses and netmasks, then you can use Telnet to connect
to the IA241/240’s console utility. The default IP address and Netmask for each of the two ports
are given below:
LAN 1
LAN 2
Default IP Address
192.168.3.127
192.168.4.127
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
Use a cross-over Ethernet cable to connect directly from your PC to the IA241/240. You should
first modify your PC’s IP address and netmask so that your PC is on the same subnet as one of
IA241/240’s two LAN ports. For example, if you connect to LAN 1, you can set your PC’s IP
address to 192.168.3.126 and netmask to 255.255.255.0. If you connect to LAN 2, you can set
your PC’s IP address to 192.168.4.126 and netmask to 255.255.255.0.
To connect to a hub or switch connected to your local LAN, use a straight-through Ethernet cable.
The default IP addresses and netmasks are shown above. To login, type the Login name and
password as requested. The default values are both root:
Login: root
Password: root
2-3
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
You can proceed with configuring the network settings of the target computer when you reach the
bash command shell. Configuration instructions are given in the next section.
ATTENTION
Serial Console Reminder
Remember to choose VT100 as the terminal type. Use the cable CBL-RJ45F9-150, which comes
with the IA241/240, to connect to the serial console port.
Telnet Reminder
When connecting to the IA241/240 over a LAN, you must configure your PC’s Ethernet IP
address to be on the same subnet as the IA241/240 that you wish to contact. If you do not get
connected on the first try, re-check the serial and IP settings, and then unplug and re-plug the
IA241/240’s power cord.
SSH Console
The IA241/240 supports an SSH Console to provide users with better security options.
Windows Users
Click on the link http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html to download
PuTTY (free software) to set up an SSH console for the IA241/240 in a Windows environment.
The following figure shows a simple example of the configuration that is required.
2-4
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Linux Users
From a Linux machine, use the “ssh” command to access the IA241/240’s console utility via SSH.
#ssh 192.168.3.127
Select yes to complete the connection.
[root@bee_notebook root]# ssh 192.168.3.127
The authenticity of host ‘192.168.3.127 (192.168.3.127)’ can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 8b:ee:ff:84:41:25:fc:cd:2a:f2:92:8f:cb:1f:6b:2f.
Are you sure you want to continue connection (yes/no)? yes_
NOTE
SSH provides better security compared to Telnet for accessing the IA241/240’s console utility
over the network.
2-5
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Configuring the Ethernet Interface
The network settings of the IA241/240 can be modified with the serial console, or online over the
network.
Modifying Network Settings with the Serial Console
In this section, we use the serial console to configure the network settings of the target computer.
1.
Follow the instructions given in a previous section to access the Console Utility of the target
computer via the serial console port, and then type #cd /etc/network to change directories.
2.
Type #vi interfaces to edit the network configuration file with vi editor. You can
configure the Ethernet ports of the IA241/240 for static or dynamic (DHCP) IP addresses.
Static IP addresses:
As shown below, 4 network addresses must be modified: address, network, netmask, and
broadcast. The default IP addresses are 192.168.3.127 for LAN1 and 192.168.4.127 for
LAN2, with default netmask of 255.255.255.0.
Dynamic IP addresses:
By default, the IA241/240 is configured for “static” IP addresses. To configure one or both
LAN ports to request an IP address dynamically, replace static with dhcp and then delete the
address, network, netmask, and broadcast lines.
2-6
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Default Setting for LAN1
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.3.127
network: 192.168.3.0
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.3.255
3.
Dynamic Setting using DHCP
iface eth0 inet dhcp
After the boot settings of the LAN interface have been modified, issue the following
command to activate the LAN settings immediately:
#/etc/init.d/networking restart
NOTE
After changing the IP settings, use the networking restart command to activate the new IP
address.
Modifying Network Settings over the Network
IP settings can be activated over the network, but the new settings will not be saved to the flash
ROM without modifying the file /etc/network/interfaces.
For example, type the command #ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.1 to change the IP address of
LAN1 to 192.168.1.1.
Configuring the WLAN via the PCMCIA Interface
IEEE802.11g
The following IEEE802.11g wireless card modules are supported:
y
y
y
y
y
y
ASUS—WL-107g
CNET—CWC-854 (181D version)
Edmiax—EW-7108PCg
Amigo—AWP-914W
GigaByte—GN-WMKG
Other brands that use the Ralink RT2500 series chip set
To configure the WLAN for IEEE802.11g:
1.
Unplug the CardBus Wireless LAN card first.
2.
Use the command #vi /etc/networking/interfaces to open the “interfaces”
configuration file with vi editor, and then edit the 802.11g network settings (circled in red in
the following figure).
2-7
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
3.
Getting Started
Additional WLAN parameters are contained in the file RT2500STA.dat. To open the file,
navigate to the RT2500STA folder and invoke vi, or type the command
#vi /etc/Wireless/RT2500STA/RT2500STA.dat to edit the file with vi editor. Options
for the various parameters are listed below the figure.
2-8
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
CountryRegion—Sets the channels for your particular country / region
Setting
Explanation
0
use channels 1 to 11
1
use channels 1 to 11
2
use channels 1 to 13
3
use channels 10, 11
4
use channels 10 to 13
5
use channel 14
6
use channels 1 to 14
7
use channels 3 to 9
WirelessMode—Sets the wireless mode
Setting
Explanation
0
11b/g mixed
1
11b only
2
11g only
SSID—Sets the softAP SSID
Setting
Any 32-byte string
NetworkType—Sets the wireless operation mode
Setting
Explanation
Infra
Infrastructure mode (uses access points to transmit data)
Adhoc
Adhoc mode (transmits data from host to host)
Channel—Sets the channel
Setting
Explanation
0
Auto
1 to 14
the channel you want to use
AuthMode—Sets the authentication mode
Setting
OPEN
SHARED
WPAPSK
WPANONE
2-9
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
EncrypType—Sets encryption type
Setting
NONE
WEP
TKIP
AES
DefaultKeyID—Sets default key ID
Setting
1 to 4
Key1Str, Key2Str, Key3Str, Key4Str—Sets strings Key1 to Key4
Setting
The keys can be input as 5 ascii characters, 10 hex numbers, 13 ascii characters, or 26
hex numbers
TxBurst—WPA pre-shared key
Setting
8 to 64 ascii characters
WpaPsk—Enables or disables TxBurst
Setting
Explanation
0
disable
1
enable
TurboRate—Enables or disables TurboRate
Setting
Explanation
0
disable
1
enable
BGProtection—Sets 11b/11g protection (this function is for engineering testing only)
Setting
Explanation
0
auto
1
always on
2
always off
ShortSlot—Enables or disables the short slot time
Setting
Explanation
0
disable
1
enable
2-10
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
TxRate—Sets the TxRate
Setting
Explanation
0
Auto
1
1 Mbps
2
2 Mbps
3
5.5 Mbps
4
11 Mbps
5
6 Mbps
6
9 Mbps
7
12 Mbps
8
18 Mbps
9
24 Mbps
10
36 Mbps
11
48 Mbps
12
54 Mbps
RTSThreshold—Sets the RTS threshold
Setting
1 to 2347
FragThreshold—Sets the fragment threshold
Setting
256 to 2346
SD Socket and USB for Storage Expansion
Both the IA241 and IA240 provide an SD socket for storage expansion. Moxa provides an SD
flash disk for plug & play expansion that allows users to plug in a Secure Digital (SD) memory
card compliant with the SD standard V1.0 for up to 1 GB of additional memory space. The SD
socket is located on the front panel of the IA241/240. To install an SD card, you must first remove
the SD protection cover to access the socket, and then plug the SD card directly into the socket.
Remember to press on the SD card first if you want to remove it.
The SD card will be mounted at /mnt/sd.
In addition to the SD socket, a USB 2.0 host is located on the front panel. The USB host is also
designed for storage expansion. To expand the storage by USB flash disk, you just need to plug
the USB flash disk into this USB port. The flash disk will be detected automatically, and its file
partition will be mounted into the OS. The USB storage will be mounted at /mnt/usbstorage.
2-11
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Test Program—Developing Hello.c
In this section, we use the standard “Hello” programming example to illustrate how to develop a
program for the IA241/240. In general, program development involves the following seven steps.
Step 1:
Connect the IA241/240 to a Linux PC.
Step 2:
Install Tool Chain (GNU Cross Compiler & glibc).
Step 3:
Set the cross compiler and glibc environment variables.
Step 4:
Code and compile the program.
Step 5:
Download the program to the IA241/240 Via FTP or
NFS.
Step 6:
Debug the program
Æ If bugs are found, return to Step 4.
Æ If no bugs are found, continue with Step 7.
Step 7:
Back up the user directory (distribute the program to
additional IA241/240 units if needed).
x86
Cross
Compiler
Installing the Tool Chain (Linux)
The Linux Operating System must be pre-installed in the PC before installing the IA241/240 GNU
Tool Chain. Fedora core or compatible versions are recommended. The Tool Chain requires
approximately 100 MB of hard disk space on your PC. The IA241/240 Tool Chain software is
located on the IA241/240 CD. To install the Tool Chain, insert the CD into your PC and then issue
the following commands:
#mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
#sh /mnt/cdrom/tool-chain/linux/install.sh
The Tool Chain will be installed automatically on your Linux PC within a few minutes. Before
compiling the program, be sure to set the following path first, since the Tool Chain files, including
the compiler, link, library, and include files are located in this directory.
PATH=/usr/local/arm-linux/bin:$PATH
Setting the path allows you to run the compiler from any directory.
NOTE
Refer to Appendix B for an introduction to the Windows Tool Chain. In this chapter, we use the
Linux tool chain to illustrate the cross compiling process.
2-12
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Checking the Flash Memory Space
If the flash memory is full, you will not be able to save data to the Flash ROM. Use the following
command to calculate the amount of “Available” flash memory:
/>df –h
If there isn’t enough “Available” space for your application, you will need to delete some existing
files. To do this, connect your PC to the IA241/240 with the console cable, and then use the
console utility to delete the files from the IA241/240’s flash memory. To check the amount of free
space available, look at the directories in the read/write directory /dev/mtdblock3. Note that the
directories /home and /etc are both mounted on the directory /dev/mtdblock3.
NOTE
If the flash memory is full, you will need to free up some memory space before saving files to
the Flash ROM.
Compiling Hello.c
The package CD contains several example programs. Here we use Hello.c as an example to show
you how to compile and run your applications. Type the following commands from your PC to
copy the files used for this example from the CD to your computer’s hard drive:
# cd /tmp/
# mkdir example
# cp –r /mnt/cdrom/example/* /tmp/example
To compile the program, go to the Hello subdirectory and issue the following commands:
#cd example/hello
#make
You should receive the following response:
[root@localhost hello]# make
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc –o hello-release hello.c
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-strip –s hello-release
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc –ggdb -o hello-debug hello.c
[root@localhost hello]# _
Next, execute hello.exe to generate hello-release and hello-debug, which are described below:
hello-release—an ARM platform execution file (created specifically to run on the IA241/240)
hello-debug—an ARM platform GDB debug server execution file (see Chapter 5 for details about
2-13
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
the GDB debug tool).
NOTE
Since Moxa’s tool chain places a specially designed Makefile in the directory
/tmp/example/hello, be sure to type the #make command from within that directory. This
special Makefile uses the mxscale-gcc compiler to compile the hello.c source code for the Xscale
environment. If you type the #make command from within any other directory, Linux will use
the x86 compiler (for example, cc or gcc).
Refer to Chapter 5 to see a Makefile example.
Uploading and Running the “Hello” Program
Use the following commands to upload hello-release to the IA241/240 via FTP.
1.
From the PC, type:
#ftp 192.168.3.127
2.
Use the bin command to set the transfer mode to Binary mode, and then use the put command
to initiate the file transfer:
ftp> bin
ftp> put hello-release
3.
From the IA241/240, type:
# chmod +x hello-release
# ./hello-release
The word Hello will be printed on the screen.
root@Moxa:~# ./hello-release
Hello
Developing Your First Application
We use the tcps2 example to illustrate how to build an application. The procedure outlined in the
following subsections will show you how to build a TCP server program plus serial port
communication that runs on the IA241/240.
2-14
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Testing Environment
The tcps2 example demonstrates a simple application program that delivers transparent,
bi-directional data transmission between the IA241/240’s serial and Ethernet ports. As illustrated
in the following figure, the purpose of this application is to transfer data between PC 1 and the
IA241/240 via an RS-232 connection. At the remote site, data can be transferred between the
IA241/240’s Ethernet port and PC 2 over an Ethernet connection.
PC 1
PC 2
RS-232
LAN
tcps2.c
Read serial data
Write data to PC1
Serial Rx
Buffer
LAN Rx
Buffer
Send data to PC2
Receive LAN data
Compiling tcps2.c
The source code for the tcps2 example is located on the CD-ROM at
CD-ROM://example/TCPServer2/tcps2.c. Use the following commands to copy the file to a
specific directory on your PC. We use the direrctory /home/ia240241/1st_application/. Note that
you need to copy 3 files—Makefile, tcps2.c, tcpsp.c—from the CD-ROM to the target directory.
#mount –t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
#cp /mnt/cdrom/example/TCPServer2/tcps2.c/home/ia240241/1st_application/tcps2.c
#cp /mnt/cdrom/example/TCPServer2/tcpsp.c/home/ia240241/1st_application/tcpsp.c
#cp /mnt/cdrom/example/TCPServer2/Makefile.c/home/ia240241/1st_application/Makefile
Type #make to compile the example code:
You will get the following response, indicating that the example program was compiled
successfully.
2-15
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
root@server11:/home/ia240241/1st_application
[root@server11 1st_application]# pwd
/home/ia240241/1st_application
[root@server11 1st_application]# 11
total 20
-rw-r—r-- 1 root root 514 Nov 27 11:52 Makefile
-rw-r—r-- 1 root root 4554 Nov 27 11:52 tcps2.c
-rw-r—r-- 1 root root 6164 Nov 27 11:55 tcps2.c
[root@server11 1st_application]# make_
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc -o tcps2-release tcps2.c
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-strip –s tcps2-release
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc -o tcpsp-release tcpsp.c
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-strip –s tcpsp-release
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc –ggdb -o tcps2-debug tcps2.c
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc –ggdb -o tcpsp-debug tcpsp.c
[root@server11 1st_application]# 11
total 92
-rw-r—-r-- 1 root root
514 Nov 27 11:52 Makefile
-rwxr-xr—x 1 root root 25843 Nov 27 12:03 tcps2-debug
-rwxr—xr-x 1 root root 4996 Nov 27 12:03 tcps2-release
-rw-r—-r-- 1 root root 4554 Nov 27 11:52 tcps2.c
-rwxr—xr-x 1 root root 26823 Nov 27 12:03 tcpsp-debug
-rwxr—xr-x 1 root root 5396 Nov 27 12:03 tcpsp-release
-rw-r—-r-- 1 root root 6164 Nov 27 11:55 tcpsp.c
[root@server11 1st_application]#
Two executable files, tcps2-release and tcps2-debug, are created.
tcps2-release—an ARM platform execution file (created specifically to run on the IA241/240)
tcps2-debug—an ARM platform GDB debug server execution file (see Chapter 5 for details about
the GDB debug tool).
NOTE
If you get an error message at this point, it could be because you neglected to put tcps2.c and
tcpsp.c in the same directory. The example Makefile we provide is set up to compile both tcps2
and tcpsp into the same project Makefile. Alternatively, you could modify the Makefile to suit
your particular requirements.
Uploading and Running the “tcps2-release” Program
Use the following commands to use FTP to upload tcps2-release to the IA241/240.
1.
From the PC, type:
#ftp 192.168.3.127
2.
Next, use the bin command to set the transfer mode to Binary, and the put command to
initiate the file transfer:
ftp> bin
ftp> put tcps2-release
root@server11:/home/ia240241/1st_application
[root@server11 1st_application]# ftp 192.168.3.127
Connected to 192.168.3.127
220 Moxa FTP server (Version wu-2.6.1(2) Mon Nov 24 12:17:04 CST 2003) ready.
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
2-16
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
KERBEROS_V4 rejected as an authentication type
Name (192.168.3.127:root): root
331 Password required for root.
Password:
230 User root logged in.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> bin
200 Type set to I.
ftp> put tcps2-release
local: tcps2-release remote: tcps2-release
277 Entering Passive Mode (192.168.3.127.82.253)
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for tcps2-release.
226 Transfer complete
4996 bytes sent in 0.00013 seconds (3.9e+04 Kbytes/s)
ftp> ls
227 Entering Passive Mode (192.168.3.127.106.196)
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
-rw------1 root
root
899 Jun 10 08:11 bash_history
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
4996 Jun 12 02:15 tcps2-release
226 Transfer complete
ftp>
3.
From the IA241/240, type:
# chmod +x tcps2-release
# ./tcps2-release &
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~#
drwxr—xr-x 2
drwxr—xr-x 15
-rw------- 1
-rw-r--r-- 1
root@Moxa:~#
root@Moxa:~#
drwxr—xr-x 2
drwxr—xr-x 15
-rw------- 1
-rwxr-xr-x 1
root@Moxa:~#
4.
ls –al
root root
0 Jun 12
root root
0 Jan 1
root root
899 Jun 10
root root 4996 Jun 12
chmod +x tcps2-release
ls -al
root root
0 Jun 12
root root
0 Jan 1
root root
899 Jun 10
root root 4996 Jun 12
02:14
1970
08:11 .bash_history
02:15 tcps2-release
02:14
1970
08:11 .bash_history
02:15 tcps2-release
The program should start running in the background. Use the #ps –ef command to check if
the tcps2 program is actually running in the background.
#ps // use this command to check if the program is running
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# ls –al
drwxr—xr-x 2 root root
0 Jun 12
drwxr—xr-x 15 root root
0 Jan 1
-rw------- 1 root root
899 Jun 10
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4996 Jun 12
root@Moxa:~# chmod +x tcps2-release
root@Moxa:~# ls -al
drwxr—xr-x 2 root root
0 Jun 12
drwxr—xr-x 15 root root
0 Jan 1
-rw------- 1 root root
899 Jun 10
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4996 Jun 12
root@Moxa:~# ./tcps2-release &
[1] 187
start
root@Moxa:~# ps
[1]+ Running
./tcps2-release &
2-17
02:14
1970
08:11 .bash_history
02:15 tcps2-release
02:14
1970
08:11 .bash_history
02:15 tcps2-release
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
root@Moxa:~#
NOTE
Use the kill command for job number 1 to terminate this program: #kill %1
#ps -ef // use this command to check if the program is running
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
[1]+ Running
./tcps2-release &
root@Moxa:~# ps -ef
PID Uid
VmSize Stat Command
1 root
532 S
init [3]
2 root
SWN [ksoftirqd/0]
3 root
SW< [events/0]
4 root
SW< [khelper]
13 root
SW< [kblockd/0]
14 root
SW [khubd]
24 root
SW [pdflush]
25 root
SW [pdflush]
27 root
SW< [aio/0]
26 root
SW [kswapd0]
604 root
SW [mtdblockd]
609 root
SW [pccardd]
611 root
SW [pccardd]
625 root
SWN [jffs2_gcd_mtd3]
673 root
500 S
/bin/inetd
679 root
3004 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
682 bin
380 S
/bin/portmap
685 root
1176 S
/bin/sh --login
690 root
464 S
/bin/snmpd
694 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
695 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
696 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
697 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
698 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
701 root
352 S
/bin/reportip
714 root
1176 S
-bash
726 root
436 S
/bin/telnetd
727 root
1164 S
-bash
728 root
1264 S ./tcps2-release
729 root
1592 S ps -ef
root@Moxa:~#
NOTE
start -d /etc/apache
start
start
start
start
start
-d
-d
-d
-d
-d
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
Use the kill -9 command for PID 187 to terminate this program: #kill -9 %187
Testing Procedure Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Compile tcps2.c (#make).
Upload and run tcps2-release in the background (#./tcps2-release &).
Check that the process is running (#jobs or #ps -ef).
Use a serial cable to connect PC1 to the IA241/240’s serial port 1.
Use an Ethernet cable to connect PC2 to the IA241/240.
On PC1: If running Windows, use HyperTerminal (38400, n, 8, 1) to open COMn.
On PC2: Type #telnet 192.168.3.127 4001.
On PC1: Type some text on the keyboard and then press Enter.
On PC2: The text you typed on PC1 will appear on PC2’s screen.
2-18
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
The testing environment is illustrated in the following figure. However, note that there are
limitations to the example program tcps2.c.
PC 1
PC 2
RS-232
LAN
tcps2.c
Read serial data
Write data to PC1
NOTE
Serial Rx
Buffer
LAN Rx
Buffer
Send data to PC2
Receive LAN data
The tcps2.c application is a simple example designed to give users a basic understanding of the
concepts involved in combining Ethernet communication and serial port communication.
However, the example program has some limitations that make it unsuitable for real-life
applications.
1.
2.
The serial port is in canonical mode and block mode, making it impossible to send data from
the Ethernet side to the serial side (i.e., from PC 2 to PC 1 in the above example).
The Ethernet side will not accept multiple connections.
2-19
3
Chapter 3
Managing Embedded Linux
This chapter includes information about version control, deployment, updates, and peripherals.
The information in this chapter will be particularly useful when you need to run the same
application on several IA241/240 units.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰ System Version Information
‰ System Image Backup
¾ Upgrating the Firmware
¾ Loading Factory Defaults
¾ Backing Up the User Directory
¾ Deploying the User Directory to Additional IA241/240 Units
‰ Enabling and Disabling Daemons
‰ Setting the Run-Level
‰ Adjusting the System Time
¾ Setting the Time Manually
¾ NTP Client
¾ Updating the Time Automatically
‰ Cron—daemon to Execute Scheduled Commands
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
System Version Information
To determine the hardware capability of your IA241/240, and what kind of software functions are
supported, check the version numbers of your IA241/240’s hardware, kernel, and user file system.
Contact Moxa to determine the hardware version. You will need the Production S/N (Serial
number), which is located on the IA241/240’s bottom label.
To check the kernel version, type:
#kversion
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# kversion
Version 1.0
root@Moxa:~#
NOTE
The kernel version number is for the factory default configuration, and if you download the latest
firmware version from Moxa’s website and then upgrade the IA241/240’s hardware.
System Image Backup
Upgrading the Firmware
The IA241/240’s bios, kernel, and root file system are combined into one firmware file, which can
be downloaded from Moxa’s website (www.moxa.com). The name of the file has the form
ia240-x.x.x.frm or ia241-x.x.x.frm, with “x.x.x” indicating the firmware version. To upgrade the
firmware, download the firmware file to a PC, and then transfer the file to the IA241/240 via a
serial Console or Telnet Console connection.
ATTENTION
Upgrading the firmware will erase all data on the Flash ROM
If you are using the ramdisk to store code for your applications, beware that updating the
firmware will erase all of the data on the Flash ROM. You should back up your application files
and data before updating the firmware.
Since different Flash disks have different sizes, it’s a good idea to check the size of your Flash
disk before upgrading the firmware, or before using the disk to store your application and data
files. Use the #df –h command to list the size of each memory block and how much free space is
available in each block.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mtdblock2 8.0M
6.0M
2.0M
75% /
/dev/ram0
499.0k
16.0k
458.0k
3% /var
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /tmp
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /home
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /etc
tmpfs
30.4M
0
30.4M
0% /dev/shm
root@Moxa:~# upramdisk
root@Moxa:~# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mtdblock2 8.0M
6.0M
2.0M
75% /
/dev/ram0
499.0k
16.0k
458.0k
3% /var
3-2
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
tmpfs
30.4M
0
30.4M
/dev/ram1
16.0M
1.0k
15.1M
0%
root@Moxa:~# cd /mnt/ramdisk
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk#
8% /tmp
8% /home
8% /etc
0% /dev/shm
/mnt/ramdisk
The following instructions give the steps required to save the firmware file to the IA241/240’s
RAM disk and how to upgrade the firmware.
1.
Type the following commands to enable the RAM disk:
#upramdisk
#cd /mnt/ramdisk
2.
Type the following commands to use the IA241/240’s built-in FTP client to transfer the
firmware file (ia240-x.x.x.frm or ia241-x.x.x.frm) from the PC to the IA241/240:
/mnt/ramdisk> ftp <destination PC’s IP>
Login Name: xxxx
Login Password: xxxx
ftp> bin
ftp> get ia240-x.x.x.frm
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# ftp 192.168.3.193
Connected to 192.168.3.193 (192.168.3.193).
220 TYPSoft FTP Server 1.10 ready…
Name (192.168.3.193:root): root
331 Password required for root.
Password:
230 User root logged in.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> cd newsw
250 CWD command successful. “/C:/ftproot/newsw/” is current directory.
ftp> bin
200 Type set to I.
ftp> ls
200 Port command successful.
150 Opening data connection for directory list.
drw-rw-rw1 ftp ftp
0 Nov 30 10:03 .
drw-rw-rw1 ftp ftp
0 Nov 30 10:03 .
-rw-rw-rw1 ftp ftp 13167772 Nov 29 10:24 ia240-1.0.frm
226 Transfer complete.
ftp> get ia240-1.0.frm
local: ia240-1.0.frm remote: ia240-1.0.frm
200 Port command successful.
150 Opening data connection for ia240-1.0.frm
226 Transfer complete.
13167772 bytes received in 2.17 secs (5925.8 kB/s)
ftp>
3-3
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
3.
Managing Embedded Linux
Next, use the upfirm command to upgrade the kernel and root file system:
#upfirm ia240-x.x.x.frm
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# upfirm ia240-1.0.frm
Moxa ThinkCore IA240 upgrade firmware utility version 1.0.
To check source firmware file context.
The source firmware file conext is OK.
This step will destroy all your firmware.
Continue ? (Y/N) : Y
Now upgrade the file [kernel].
Format MTD device [/dev/mtd1] . . .
MTD device [/dev/mtd1] erase 128 Kibyte @ 1C0000 – 100% complete.
Wait to write file . . .
Compleleted 100%
Now upgrade the file [usrdisk].
Format MTD device [/dev/mtd2] . . .
MTD device [/dev/mtd2] erase 128 Kibyte @ 800000 – 100% complete.
Wait to write file . . .
Compleleted 100%
Upgrade the firmware is OK.
ATTENTION
The upfirm utility will reboot your target after the upgrade is OK.
Loading Factory Defaults
To load the the factory default settings, you must press the reset-to-default button for more than 5
seconds. All files in the /home & /etc directories will be destroyed. Note that while pressing the
reset-to-default button, the Ready LED will blink once every second for the first 5 seconds. The
Ready LED will turn off after 5 seconds, and the factory defaults will be loaded.
Backing Up the User Directory
1.
Create a backup file. First type the following command to enable the RAM disk:
#upramdisk
Next, use the file system backup utility provided by Moxa:
#backupuf /mnt/ramdisk/usrfs-backup
2.
Once the file system is backed up, use FTP to transfer the file usrfs-backup to your PC.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# upramdisk
root@Moxa:~# cd /mnt/ramdisk
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# df –h
Filesystem
Size
Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mtdblock2
8.0M
6.0M
2.0M
75%
/
/dev/ram0
499.0k
17.0k 457.0k
4%
/var
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8%
/tmp
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8%
/home
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8%
/etc
tmpfs
30.4M
0
30.4M
0%
/dev/shm
/dev/ram1
16.0M
1.0k 15.1M
0%
/var/ramdisk
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# backupuf /mnt/ramdisk/usrfs-backup
Sync the file system…
Now backup the user root file system. Please wait. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backup user root file system OK.
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk#
3-4
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
Deploying the User Directory to Additional IA241/240 Units
For some applications, you may need to ghost one IA241/240 user file system to other IA241/240
units. Back up the user file system to a PC (refer to the previous subsection, Backing Up the User
File System, for instructions), and then type the following commands to copy the backup to
additional IA241/240 units.
#upramdisk
#cd /mnt/ramdisk
#upfirm usrfs-backup
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# ls -al
drwxr—xr-x 3 root root
1024 Jun 15 02:47
drwxr—xr-x 15 root root
0 Sep 29 2004
-rw------- 1 root root 12288 Jun 15 02:45 lost+found
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root
27263140 Jun 15 02:48 usrfs-backup
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# upfirm usrfs-backup
Moxa ThinkCore IA240 upgrade firmware utility version 1.0.
To check source firmware file context.
The source firmware file conext is OK.
This step will destroy all your firmware.
Continue ? (Y/N) : Y
Now upgrade the file [userdisk]:
Format MTD device [/dev/mtd3] . . .
MTD device [/dev/mtd3] erase 128 Kibyte @ 600000 – 100% complete.
Wait to write file . . .
Compleleted 100%
Upgrade the firmware is OK.
Enabling and Disabling Daemons
The following daemons are enabled when the IA241/240 boots up for the first time.
snmpd ..........SNMP Agent daemon
telnetd ..........Telnet Server / Client daemon
inetd .............Internet Daemons
ftpd...............FTP Server / Client daemon
sshd ..............Secure Shell Server daemon
httpd ............Apache WWW Server daemon
3-5
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
Type the command “ps –ef” to list all processes currently running.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# cd /etc
root@Moxa:/etc# ps -ef
PID Uid
VmSize Stat Command
1 root
532 S
init [3]
2 root
SWN [ksoftirqd/0]
3 root
SW< [events/0]
4 root
SW< [khelper]
13 root
SW< [kblockd/0]
14 root
SW [khubd]
24 root
SW [pdflush]
25 root
SW [pdflush]
27 root
SW< [aio/0]
26 root
SW [kswapd0]
604 root
SW [mtdblockd]
609 root
SW [pccardd]
611 root
SW [pccardd]
625 root
SWN [jffs2_gcd_mtd3]
673 root
500 S
/bin/inetd
679 root
3004 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
682 bin
380 S
/bin/portmap
685 root
1176 S /bin/sh --login
690 root
464 S
/bin/snmpd
694 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
695 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
696 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
697 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
698 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
701 root
352 S
/bin/reportip
714 root
1176 S -bash
726 root
436 S
/bin/telnetd
727 root
1180 S -bash
783 root
628 R
ps -ef
root@Moxa:/ect#
start -d /etc/apache
start
start
start
start
start
-d
-d
-d
-d
-d
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
To run a private daemon, you can edit the file rc.local, as follows:
#cd /etc/rc.d
#vi rc.local
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# cd /etc/rc.d
root@Moxa:/etc/rc.d# vi rc.local
Next, use vi to open your application program. We use the example program tcps2-release, and
put it to run in the background.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
# !/bin/sh
# Add you want to run daemon
/root/tcps2-release &~
The enabled daemons will be available after you reboot the system.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# ps -ef
PID Uid
VmSize Stat Command
1 root
532 S
init [3]
2 root
SWN [ksoftirqd/0]
3 root
SW< [events/0]
4 root
SW< [khelper]
13 root
SW< [kblockd/0]
14 root
SW [khubd]
24 root
SW [pdflush]
3-6
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
25 root
27 root
26 root
604 root
609 root
611 root
625 root
673 root
674 root
679 root
682 bin
685 root
690 root
694 nobody
695 nobody
696 nobody
697 nobody
698 nobody
701 root
714 root
726 root
727 root
783 root
root@Moxa:~#
SW
SW<
SW
SW
SW
SW
SWN
500 S
1264 S
3004 S
380 S
1176 S
464 S
3012 S
3012 S
3012 S
3012 S
3012 S
352 S
1176 S
436 S
1180 S
628 R
Managing Embedded Linux
[pdflush]
[aio/0]
[kswapd0]
[mtdblockd]
[pccardd]
[pccardd]
[jffs2_gcd_mtd3]
/bin/inetd
/root/tcps2-release
/usr/bin/httpd -k start
/bin/portmap
/bin/sh --login
/bin/snmpd
/usr/bin/httpd -k start
/usr/bin/httpd -k start
/usr/bin/httpd -k start
/usr/bin/httpd -k start
/usr/bin/httpd -k start
/bin/reportip
-bash
/bin/telnetd
-bash
ps -ef
-d /etc/apache
-d
-d
-d
-d
-d
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
Setting the Run-Level
In this section, we outline the steps you should take to set the Linux run-level and execute requests.
Use the following command to enable or disable settings:
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/ect/rc.d/rc3.d# ls
S19nfs-common S25nfs-user-server S99showreadyled
S20snmpd
S55ssh
S24pcmcia S99rmnologin
root@Moxa:/etc/rc.d/rc3.d#
#cd /etc/rc.d/init.d
Edit a shell script to execute /root/tcps2-release and save to tcps2 as an example.
#cd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d
#ln –s /etc/rc.d/init.d/tcps2 S60tcps2
SxxRUNFILE stands for
S: start the run file while linux boots up.
xx: a number between 00-99. Smaller numbers have a higher priority.
RUNFILE: the file name.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/ect/rc.d/rc3.d# ls
S19nfs-common S25nfs-user-server S99showreadyled
S20snmpd
S55ssh
S24pcmcia S99rmnologin
root@Moxa:/ect/rc.d/rc3.d# ln –s /root/tcps2-release S60tcps2
root@Moxa:/ect/rc.d/rc3.d# ls
S19nfs-common S25nfs-user-server S99rmnologin
S20snmpd
S55ssh
S99showreadyled
S24pcmcia S60tcps2
root@Moxa:/etc/rc.d/rc3.d#
3-7
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
KxxRUNFILE stands for
K: start the run file while linux shuts down or halts.
xx: a number between 00-99. Smaller numbers have a higher priority.
RUNFILE: the file name.
To remove the daemon, remove the run file from the /etc/rc.d/rc3.d directory by using the
following command:
#rm –f /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S60tcps2
Adjusting the System Time
Setting the Time Manually
The IA241/240 has two time settings. One is the system time, and the other is the RTC (Real Time
Clock) time kept by the IA241/240’s hardware. Use the #date command to query the current
system time or set a new system time. Use #hwclock to query the current RTC time or set a new
RTC time.
Use the following command to query the system time:
#date
Use the following command to query the RTC time:
#hwclock
Use the following command to set the system time:
#date MMDDhhmmYYYY
MM = Month
DD = Date
hhmm = hour and minute
YYYY = Year
Use the following command to set the RTC time:
#hwclock –w
Write current system time to RTC
The following figure illustrates how to update thesystem time and set the RTC time.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# date
Fri Jun 23 23:30:31 CST 2000
root@Moxa:~# hwclock
Fri Jun 23 23:30:35 2000 -0.557748 seconds
root@Moxa:~# date 120910002004
Thu Dec 9 10:00:00 CST 2004
root@Moxa:~# hwclock –w
root@Moxa:~# date ; hwclock
Thu Dec 9 10:01:07 CST 2004
Thu Dec 9 10:01:08 2004 -0.933547 seconds
root@Moxa:~#
NTP Client
The IA241/240 has a built-in NTP (Network Time Protocol) client that is used to initialize a time
request to a remote NTP server. Use #ntpdate <this client utility> to update the system time.
#ntpdate time.stdtime.gov.tw
#hwclock –w
3-8
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
Visit http://www.ntp.org for more information about NTP and NTP server addresses.
10.120.53.100 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:~# date ; hwclock
Sat Jan 1 00:00:36 CST 2000
Sat Jan 1 00:00:37 2000 -0.772941 seconds
root@Moxa:~# ntpdate time.stdtion.gov.tw
9 Dec 10:58:53 ntpdate[207]: step time server 220.130.158.52 offset 155905087.9
84256 sec
root@Moxa:~# hwclock -w
root@Moxa:~# date ; hwclock
Thu Dec 9 10:59:11 CST 2004
Thu Dec 9 10:59:12 2004 -0.844076 seconds
root@Moxa:~#
NOTE
Before using the NTP client utility, check your IP and DNS settings to make sure that an Internet
connection is available. Refer to Chapter 2 for instructions on how to configure the Ethernet
interface, and see Chapter 4 for DNS setting information.
Updating the Time Automatically
In this subsection, we show how to use a shell script to update the time automatically.
Example shell script to update the system time periodically
#!/bin/sh
ntpdate time.nist.gov # You can use the time server’s ip address or domain
# name directly. If you use domain name, you must
# enable the domain client on the system by updating
# /etc/resolv.conf file.
hwclock –systohc
sleep 100 # Updates every 100 seconds. The min. time is 100 seconds. Change
# 100 to a larger number to update RTC less often.
Save the shell script using any file name. E.g., fixtime
How to run the shell script automatically when the kernel boots up
Copy the example shell script fixtime to directory /etc/init.d, and then use
to change the shell script mode. Next, use vi editor to edit the file
Add the following line to the bottom of the file:
chmod 755 fixtime
/etc/inittab.
ntp : 2345 : respawn : /etc/init.d/fixtime
Use the command #init
q
to re-init the kernel.
Cron—Daemon to Execute Scheduled Commands
Start Cron from the directory /etc/rc.d/rc.local. It will return immediately, so you don’t need to
start it with ‘&’ to run in the background.
The Cron daemon will search /etc/cron.d/crontab for crontab files, which are named after
accounts in /etc/passwd.
Cron wakes up every minute, and checks each command to see if it should be run in the current
minute. When executing commands, output is mailed to the owner of the crontab (or to the user
named in the MAILTO environment variable in the crontab, if such a user exists).
Modify the file /etc/cron.d/crontab to set up your scheduled applications. Crontab files have the
following format:
3-9
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
mm
min
0-59
h
hour
0-23
dom
date
1-31
mon
month
1-12
Managing Embedded Linux
dow
week
0-6 (0 is Sunday)
user
user
command
command
The following example demonstrates how to use Cron.
How to use cron to update the system time and RTC time every day at 8:00.
STEP1: Write a shell script named fixtime.sh and save it to /home/.
#!/bin/sh
ntpdate time.nist.gov
hwclock –systohc
exit 0
STEP2: Change mode of fixtime.sh
#chmod 755 fixtime.sh
STEP3: Modify /etc/cron.d/crontab file to run fixtime.sh at 8:00 every day.
Add the following line to the end of crontab:
* 8 * * * root /home/fixtime.sh
STEP4: Enable the cron daemon manually.
#/etc/init.d/cron start
STEP5: Enable cron when the system boots up.
Add the following line in the file /etc/init.d/rc.local
#/etc/init.d/cron start
3-10
4
Chapter 4
Managing Communications
In this chapter, we explain how to configure the IA241/240’s various communication functions.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Telnet / FTP
DNS
Web Service—Apache
Install PHP for Apache Web Service
IPTABLES
NAT
¾ NAT Example
¾ Enabling NAT at Bootup
Dial-up Service—PPP
PPPoE
NFS (Network File System)
¾ Setting up the IA241/240 as an NFS Client
Mail
SNMP
OpenVPN
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
Telnet / FTP
In addition to supporting Telnet client/server and FTP client/server, the IA241/240 also supports
SSH and sftp client/server. To enable or disable the Telnet/ftp server, you first need to edit the file
/etc/inetd.conf.
Enabling the Telnet/ftp server
The following example shows the default content of the file /etc/inetd.conf. The default is to
enable the Telnet/ftp server:
discard dgram udp wait root /bin/discard
discard stream tcp nowait root /bin/discard
telnet stream tcp nowait root /bin/telnetd
ftp stream tcp nowait root /bin/ftpd -l
Disabling the Telnet/ftp server
Disable the daemon by typing ‘#’ in front of the first character of the row to comment out the line.
DNS
The IA241/240 supports DNS client (but not DNS server). To set up DNS client, you need to edit
three configuration files: /etc/hosts, /etc/resolv.conf, and /etc/nsswitch.conf.
/etc/hosts
This is the first file that the Linux system reads to resolve the host name and IP address.
/etc/resolv.conf
This is the most important file that you need to edit when using DNS for the other programs. For
example, before you use #ntpdate time.nist.goc to update the system time, you will need to add the
DNS server address to the file. Ask your network administrator which DNS server address you
should use. The DNS server’s IP address is specified with the “nameserver” command. For
example, add the following line to /etc/resolv.conf if the DNS server’s IP address is 168.95.1.1:
nameserver 168.95.1.1
10.120.53.100 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/etc# cat resolv.conf
#
# resolv.conf This file is the resolver configuration file
# See resolver(5).
#
#nameserver 192.168.1.16
nameserver 168.95.1.1
nameserver 140.115.1.31
nameserver 140.115.236.10
root@Moxa:/etc#
/etc/nsswitch.conf
This file defines the sequence to resolve the IP address by using /etc/hosts file or /etc/resolv.conf.
Web Service—Apache
The Apache web server’s main configuration file is /etc/apache/conf/httpd.conf, with the
default homepage located at /home/httpd/htdocs/index.html. Save your own homepage to the
following directory:
/home/httpd/htdocs/
Save your CGI page to the following directory:
4-2
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
/home/httpd/cgi-bin/
Before you modify the homepage, use a browser (such as Microsoft Internet Explore or Mozilla
Firefox) from your PC to test if the Apache Web Server is working. Type the LAN1 IP address in
the browser’s address box to open the homepage. E.g., if the default IP address is still active, type
http://192.168.3.127 in the address box.
To open the default CGI page, type http://192.168.3.127/cgi-bin/test-cgi in your browser’s
address box.
4-3
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
To open the default CGI test script report page, type http://192.168.3.127/cgi-bin/test-cgi in your
browser’s address box.
NOTE
The CGI function is enabled by default. If you want to disable the function, modify the file
/etc/apache/conf/httpd.conf. When you develop your own CGI application, make sure your CGI
file is executable.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/home/httpd/cgi-bin# ls –al
drwxr—xr-x 2 root root
0 Aug 24 1999
drwxr—xr-x 5 root root
0 Nov 5 16:16
-rwxr—xr-x 1 root root
757 Aug 24 1999 test-cgi
root@Moxa:/home/httpd/cgi-bin#
Install PHP for Apache Web Server
This embedded computer supports the PHP option. However, since the PHP file is 3 MB, it is not
installed by default. To install it yourself, first make sure there is enough free space (at least 3 MB)
on your embedded flash ROM).
Step 1: Check that you have enough free space
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/bin# df -h
Filesystem
Size
/dev/mtdblock2
8.0M
/dev/ram0
499.0k
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
tmpfs
30.4M
root@Moxa:/bin#
Used Available Use% Mounted on
6.0M
2.0M 75% /
17.0k
457.0k 4% /var
488.0k
5.5M 8% /tmp
488.0k
5.5M 8% /home
488.0k
5.5M 8% /etc
0
30.4M
0% /dev/shm
To check that the /dev/mtdblock3 free space is greater than 3 MB.
4-4
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
Step 2: Type ‘upramdisk’ to get the free space ram disk to save the package.
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/bin# upramdisk
root@Moxa:/bin# df -h
Filesystem
Size
/dev/mtdblock2
8.0M
/dev/ram0
499.0k
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
tmpfs
30.4M
/dev/ram1
16.0M
root@Moxa:/bin#
Used Available Use% Mounted on
6.0M
2.0M 75% /
18.0k
456.0k 4% /var
488.0k
5.5M 8% /tmp
488.0k
5.5M 8% /home
488.0k
5.5M 8% /etc
0
30.4M
0% /dev/shm
1.0k
15.1M
0% /var/ramdisk
Step 3: Download the PHP package from the CD-ROM. You can find the package in
CD-ROM/target/php/php.tar.gz
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/bin# cd /mnt/ramdisk
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# ftp 192.168.27.130
Connected to 192.168.27.130.
220 (vsFTPd 2.0.1)
Name (192.168.27.130:root): root
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
230 Login successful.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> cd /tmp
250 Directory successfully changed.
ftp> bin
200 Switching to Binary mode.
ftp> get php.tar.gz
local: php.tar.gz remote: php.tar.gz
200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV.
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for php.tar.gz (1789032 bytes).
226 File send OK.
1789032 bytes received in 0.66 secs (2.6e+03 Kbytes/sec)
ftp>
Step 4: utar the package. To do this, type the command ‘tar xvzf php.tar.gz’
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# tar xvzf php.tar.gz
envvars
envvars.old
httpd.conf
httpd.conf.old
install.sh
lib
lib/libmysqlclient.so.15
lib/libpng.so.2
lib/libphp5.so
lib/libmysqlclient.so.15.0.0
lib/libgd.so
lib/libxml2.so.2.6.22
lib/libgd.so.2.0.0
lib/libjpeg.so
lib/libxml2.so.2
lib/libgd.so.2
php
php/php.ini
phpinfo.php
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk#
4-5
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
Step 5: Run ‘install.sh’ and select to install php
192.168.3.127 – PuTTY
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk# ./install.sh
Press the number:
1. Install PHP package
2. Uninstall PHP package
3. Exit.
1
Start to install PHP. Please wait ...
Starting web server: apache.
PHP install sucess.
root@Moxa:/mnt/ramdisk#
Step 6: Test it. Use the browser to access http://192.168.3.127/phpinfo.php
If you want to uninstall PHP, follow steps 2 to 5 but select the uninstall option.
IPTABLES
IPTABLES is an administrative tool for setting up, maintaining, and inspecting the Linux kernel’s
IP packet filter rule tables. Several different tables are defined, with each table containing built-in
chains and user-defined chains.
4-6
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
Each chain is a list of rules that apply to a certain type of packet. Each rule specifies what to do
with a matching packet. A rule (such as a jump to a user-defined chain in the same table) is called
a “target.”
The IA241/240 supports 3 types of IPTABLES table: Filter tables, NAT tables, and Mangle
tables:
A. Filter Table—includes three chains:
INPUT chain
OUTPUT chain
FORWARD chain
B. NAT Table—includes three chains:
PREROUTING chain—transfers the destination IP address (DNAT)
POSTROUTING chain—works after the routing process and before the Ethernet device
process to transfer the source IP address (SNAT)
OUTPUT chain—produces local packets
sub-tables
Source NAT (SNAT)—changes the first source packet IP address
Destination NAT (DNAT)—changes the first destination packet IP address
MASQUERADE—a special form for SNAT. If one host can connect to Internet, then
other computers that connect to this host can connect to the Internet when the computer
does not have an actual IP address.
REDIRECT—a special form of DNAT that re-sends packets to a local host independent
of the destination IP address.
C. Mangle Table—includes two chains
PREROUTING chain—pre-processes packets before the routing process.
OUTPUT chain—processes packets after the routing process.
It has three extensions—TTL, MARK, TOS.
The following figure shows the IPTABLES hierarchy.
4-7
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
Incoming
Packets
Mangle Table
PREROUTING Chain
NAT Table
PREROUTING Chain
Local Host
Packets
Other Host
Packets
Mangle Table
INPUT Chain
Mangle Table
FORWARD Chain
Filter Table
INPUT Chain
Filter Table
FORWARD Chain
Local
Process
Mangle Table
POSTROUTING Chain
Mangle Table
OUTPUT Chain
NAT Table
OUTPUT Chain
Filter Table
OUTPUT Chain
NAT Table
POSTROUTING Chain
Outgoing
Packets
The IA241/240 supports the following sub-modules. Be sure to use the module that matches your
application.
ip_conntrack
ip_conntrack_ftp
ipt_conntrack_irc
ip_nat_ftp
ip_nat_irc
ip_nat_snmp_basic
ip_queue
ipt_LOG
ipt_MARK
ipt_MASQUERADE
ipt_MIRROT
ipt_REDIRECT
ipt_REJECT
ipt_TCPMSS
ipt_TOS
ipt_ULOG
4-8
ipt_ah
ipt_esp
ipt_length
ipt_limit
ipt_mac
ipt_mark
ipt_multiport
ipt_owner
ipt_state
ipt_tcpmss
ipt_tos
ipt_ttl
ipt_unclean
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
NOTE
Managing Communication
The IA241/240 does NOT support IPV6 and ipchains.
The basic syntax to enable and load an IPTABLES module is as follows:
#lsmod
#insmod ip_tables
#insmod iptable_filter
Use lsmod to check if the ip_tables module has already been loaded in the IA241/240. Use
insmod to insert and enable the module.
Use the following command to load the modules (iptable_filter, iptable_mangle, iptable_nat):
#insmod iptable_filter
iptables-restore, iptables-save
Use iptables,
NOTE
to maintain the database.
IPTABLES plays the role of packet filtering or NAT. Take care when setting up the IPTABLES
rules. If the rules are not correct, remote hosts that connect via a LAN or PPP may be denied
access. We recommend using the Serial Console to set up the IPTABLES.
Click on the following links for more information about iptables.
http://www.linuxguruz.com/iptables/
http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO//packet-filtering-HOWTO.html
Since the IPTABLES command is very complex, to illustrate the IPTABLES syntax we have
divided our discussion of the various rules into three categories: Observe and erase chain rules,
Define policy rules, and Append or delete rules.
Observe and erase chain rules
Usage:
# iptables [-t tables] [-L] [-n]
-t tables: Table to manipulate (default: ‘filter’); example: nat or filter.
-L [chain]: List List all rules in selected chains. If no chain is selected, all chains are listed.
-n:
Numeric output of addresses and ports.
# iptables [-t tables] [-FXZ]
-F: Flush the selected chain (all the chains in the table if none is listed).
-X: Delete the specified user-defined chain.
-Z: Set the packet and byte counters in all chains to zero.
Examples:
# iptables -L -n
In this example, since we do not use the -t parameter, the system uses the default ‘filter’ table.
Three chains are included: INPUT, OUTPUT, and FORWARD. INPUT chains are accepted
automatically, and all connections are accepted without being filtered.
#iptables –F
#iptables –X
#iptables -Z
4-9
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
Define policy for chain rules
Usage:
# iptables [-t tables] [-P] [INPUT, OUTPUT, FORWARD, PREROUTING, OUTPUT, POSTROUTING]
[ACCEPT, DROP]
-P:
Set the policy for the chain to the given target.
INPUT:
For packets coming into the IA241/240.
OUTPUT: For locally-generated packets.
FORWARD: For packets routed out through the IA241/240.
PREROUTING: To alter packets as soon as they come in.
POSTROUTING: To alter packets as they are about to be sent out.
Examples:
#iptables
#iptables
#iptables
#iptables
#iptables
#iptables
–P
–P
–P
–t
–t
-t
INPUT DROP
OUTPUT ACCEPT
FORWARD ACCEPT
nat –P PREROUTING ACCEPT
nat –P OUTPUT ACCEPT
nat –P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
In this example, the policy accepts outgoing packets and denies incoming packets.
Append or delete rules:
Usage:
# iptables [-t table] [-AI] [INPUT, OUTPUT, FORWARD] [-io interface] [-p tcp, udp, icmp,
all] [-s IP/network] [--sport ports] [-d IP/network] [--dport ports] –j [ACCEPT. DROP]
-A: Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain.
-I: Insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule number.
-i: Name of an interface via which a packet is going to be received.
-o: Name of an interface via which a packet is going to be sent.
-p: The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check.
-s: Source address (network name, host name, network IP address, or plain IP address).
--sport: Source port number.
-d: Destination address.
--dport: Destination port number.
-j:
Jump target. Specifies the target of the rules; i.e., how to handle matched packets. For
example, ACCEPT the packet, DROP the packet, or LOG the packet.
Examples:
Example 1: Accept all packets from lo interface.
# iptables –A INPUT –i lo –j ACCEPT
Example 2: Accept TCP packets from 192.168.0.1.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.0.1 –j ACCEPT
Example 3: Accept TCP packets from Class C network 192.168.1.0/24.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.1.0/24 –j ACCEPT
Example 4: Drop TCP packets from 192.168.1.25.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.1.25 –j DROP
Example 5: Drop TCP packets addressed for port 21.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp --dport 21 –j DROP
Example 6: Accept TCP packets from 192.168.0.24 to IA241/240’s port 137, 138, 139
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.0.24 --dport 137:139 –j ACCEPT
Example 7: Log TCP packets that visit IA241/240’s port 25.
4-10
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp --dport 25 –j LOG
Example 8: Drop all packets from MAC address 01:02:03:04:05:06.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p all –m mac –mac-source 01:02:03:04:05:06 –j DROP
NOTE: In Example 8, remember to issue the command #modprobe ipt_mac first to load module
ipt_mac.
NAT
NAT (Network Address Translation) protocol translates IP addresses used on one network to
different IP addresses used on another network. One network is designated the inside network and
the other is the outside network. Typically, the IA241/240 connects several devices on a network
and maps local inside network addresses to one or more global outside IP addresses, and un-maps
the global IP addresses on incoming packets back into local IP addresses.
NOTE
Click on the following link for more information about iptables and NAT:
http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO/NAT-HOWTO.html
NAT Example
The IP address of LAN1 is changed to 192.168.3.127 (you will need to load the module
ipt_MASQUERADE):
IP/Netmask: 192.168.3.100/24
Gateway: 192.168.3.127
PC1 (Linux or Windows)
LAN1
LAN1: 192.168.3.127/24
Embedded Computer
LAN2: 192.168.4.127/24
LAN2
PC2 (Linux or Windows)
IP/Netmask: 192.168.4.100/24
Gateway: 192.168.4.127
NAT Area / Private IP
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
#echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
#insmod ip_tables
#insmod iptable_ filter
#insmod ip_conntrack
#insmod iptable_nat
#insmod ipt_MASQUERADE
#iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j SNAT --to-source 192.168.3.127
#iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -s 192.168.3.0/24 -j MASQUERADE
4-11
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
Enabling NAT at Bootup
In most real world situations, you will want to use a simple shell script to enable NAT when the
IA241/240 boots up. The following script is an example.
#!/bin/bash
# If you put this shell script in the /home/nat.sh
# Remember to chmod 744 /home/nat.sh
# Edit the rc.local file to make this shell startup automatically.
# vi /etc/rc.d/rc.local
# Add a line in the end of rc.local /home/nat.sh
EXIF=‘eth0’ #This is an external interface for setting up a valid IP address.
EXNET=‘192.168.4.0/24’ #This is an internal network address.
# Step 1. Insert modules.
# Here 2> /dev/null means the standard error messages will be dump to null device.
insmod ip_tables 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_nat_ftp 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_nat_irc 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_conntrack 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_conntrack_ftp 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_conntrack_irc 2> /dev/null
# Step 2. Define variables, enable routing and erase default rules.
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin
export PATH
echo “1” > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
/bin/iptables -F
/bin/iptables -X
/bin/iptables -Z
/bin/iptables -F -t nat
/bin/iptables -X -t nat
/bin/iptables -Z -t nat
/bin/iptables -P INPUT
ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -t nat -P PREROUTING ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -t nat -P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -t nat -P OUTPUT
ACCEPT
# Step 3. Enable IP masquerade.
Dial-up Service—PPP
PPP (Point to Point Protocol) is used to run IP (Internet Protocol) and other network protocols over
a serial link. PPP can be used for direct serial connections (using a null-modem cable) over a
Telnet link, and links established using a modem over a telephone line.
Modem / PPP access is almost identical to connecting directly to a network through the
IA241/240’s Ethernet port. Since PPP is a peer-to-peer system, the IA241/240 can also use PPP to
link two networks (or a local network to the Internet) to create a Wide Area Network (WAN).
NOTE
Click on the following links for more information about ppp:
http://tldp.org/HOWTO/PPP-HOWTO/index.html
http://axion.physics.ubc.ca/ppp-linux.html
The pppd daemon is used to connect to a PPP server from a Linux system. For detailed
information about pppd see the man page.
Example 1: Connecting to a PPP server over a simple dial-up connection
The following command is used to connect to a PPP server by modem. Use this command for old
ppp servers that prompt for a login name (replace username with the correct name) and password
(replace password with the correct password). Note that debug and defaultroute 192.1.1.17 are
optional.
4-12
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
#pppd connect ‘chat -v “ “ ATDT5551212 CONNECT” “ ogin: username word: password’
/dev/ttyM0 115200 debug crtscts modem defaultroute
If the PPP server does not prompt for the username and password, the command should be entered
as follows. Replace username with the correct username and replace password with the correct
password.
#pppd connect ‘chat -v “ “ ATDT5551212 CONNECT” “ ‘ user username password password
/dev/ttyM0 115200 crtscts modem
The pppd options are described below:
connect ‘chat etc...’
This option gives the command to contact the PPP server. The ‘chat’ program is used to dial a
remote computer. The entire command is enclosed in single quotes because pppd expects a
one-word argument for the ‘connect’ option. The options for ‘chat’ are given below:
-v
verbose mode; log what we do to syslog
“ “
Double quotes—don’t wait for a prompt, but instead do ... (note that you must include a space
after the second quotation mark)
ATDT5551212
Dial the modem, and then ...
CONNECT
Wait for an answer.
“ “
Send a return (null text followed by the usual return)
ogin: username word: password
Log in with username and password.
Refer to the chat man page, chat.8, for more information about the chat utility.
/dev/
Specify the callout serial port.
115200
The baudrate.
debug
Log status in syslog.
crtscts
Use hardware flow control between computer and modem (at 115200 this is a must).
modem
Indicates that this is a modem device; pppd will hang up the phone before and after making the
call.
defaultroute
Once the PPP link is established, make it the default route; if you have a PPP link to the Internet,
this is probably what you want.
192.1.1.17
This is a degenerate case of a general option of the form x.x.x.x:y.y.y.y. Here x.x.x.x is the local IP
address and y.y.y.y is the IP address of the remote end of the PPP connection. If this option is not
specified, or if just one side is specified, then x.x.x.x defaults to the IP address associated with the
local machine’s hostname (located in /etc/hosts), and y.y.y.y is determined by the remote machine.
4-13
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
Example 2: Connecting to a PPP server over a hard-wired link
If a username and password are not required, use the following command (note that noipdefault is
optional):
#pppd connect ‘chat –v” “ “ “ ‘ noipdefault /dev/ttyM0 19200 crtscts
If a username and password is required, use the following command (note that noipdefault is
optional, and root is both the username and password):
#pppd connect ‘chat –v” “ “ “ ‘ user root password root noipdefault
/dev/ttyM0 19200 crtscts
How to check the connection
Once you’ve set up a PPP connection, there are some steps you can take to test the connection.
First, type:
/sbin/ifconfig
(The folder ifconfig may be located elsewhere, depending on your distribution.) You should be
able to see all the network interfaces that are UP. ppp0 should be one of them, and you should
recognize the first IP address as your own, and the “P-t-P address” (or point-to-point address) the
address of your server. Here’s what it looks like on one machine:
lo
Link encap Local Loopback
inet addr 127.0.0.1
Bcast 127.255.255.255 Mask 255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU 2000
Metric 1
RX packets 0 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
ppp0
Link encap Point-to-Point Protocol
inet addr 192.76.32.3 P-t-P 129.67.1.165 Mask 255.255.255.0
UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING MTU 1500 Metric 1
RX packets 33 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
TX packets 42 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
Now, type:
ping z.z.z.z
where z.z.z.z is the address of your name server. This should work. Here’s what the response
could look like:
waddington:~$p ping 129.67.1.165
PING 129.67.1.165 (129.67.1.165): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=0 ttl=225 time=268 ms
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=1 ttl=225 time=247 ms
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=2 ttl=225 time=266 ms
^C
--- 129.67.1.165 ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 247/260/268 ms
waddington:~$
Try typing:
netstat -nr
This should show three routes, something like this:
Kernel routing table
Destination
Gateway
iface
129.67.1.165
0.0.0.0
Genmask
Flags
Metric
Ref
Use
255.255.255.255
UH
0
0
6
4-14
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
ppp0
127.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
ppp0
0.0.0.0
129.67.1.165
255.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Managing Communication
U
UG
0
0
0
0
0 lo
6298
If your output looks similar but doesn’t have the destination 0.0.0.0 line (which refers to the
default route used for connections), you may have run pppd without the ‘defaultroute’ option. At
this point you can try using Telnet, ftp, or finger, bearing in mind that you’ll have to use numeric
IP addresses unless you’ve set up /etc/resolv.conf correctly.
Setting up a Machine for Incoming PPP Connections
This first example applies to using a modem, and requiring authorization with a username and
password.
pppd/dev/ttyM0 115200 crtscts modem 192.168.16.1:192.168.16.2 login auth
You should also add the following line to the file /etc/ppp/pap-secrets:
*
*
““
*
The first star (*) lets everyone login. The second star (*) lets every host connect. The pair of
double quotation marks (““) is to use the file /etc/passwd to check the password. The last star (*)
is to let any IP connect.
The following example does not check the username and password:
pppd/dev/ttyM0 115200 crtscts modem 192.168.16.1:192.168.16.2
PPPoE
1.
2.
3.
Connect IA241/240’s LAN port to an ADSL modem with a cross-over cable, HUB, or switch.
Login to the IA241/240 as the root user.
Edit the file /etc/ppp/chap-secrets and add the following:
“username@hinet.net” * “password” *
“username@hinet.net” is the username obtained from the ISP to log in to the ISP account.
“password” is the corresponding password for the account.
4.
Edit the file /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and add the following:
“username@hinet.net” * “password” *
4-15
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
5.
Managing Communication
“username@hinet.net” is the username obtained from the ISP to log in to the ISP account.
“password” is the corresponding password for the account.
Edit the file /etc/ppp/options and add the following line:
plugin pppoe
4-16
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
6.
Managing Communication
Add one of two files: /etc/ppp/options.eth0 or /etc/ppp/options.eth1. The choice depends on
which LAN is connected to the ADSL modem. If you use LAN1 to connect to the ADSL
modem, then add /etc/ppp/options.eth0. If you use LAN2 to connect to the ADSL modem,
then add /etc/ppp/options.eth1. The file context is shown below:
Type your username (the one you set in the /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
files) after the “name” option. You may add other options as desired.
7. Set up DNS
If you are using DNS servers supplied by your ISP, edit the file
/etc/resolv.conf by adding the following lines of code:
nameserver ip_addr_of_first_dns_server
nameserver ip_addr_of_second_dns_server
For example:
nameserver 168..95.1.1
nameserver 139.175.10.20
8. Use the following command to create a pppoe connection:
pppd eth0
The eth0 is what is connected to the ADSL modem LAN port. The example above uses LAN1.
To use LAN2, type:
pppd eth1
9. Type ifconfig ppp0 to check if the connection is OK or has failed. If the connection is OK,
you will see information about the ppp0 setting for the IP address. Use ping to test the IP.
10. If you want to disconnect it, use the kill command to kill the pppd process.
NFS (Network File System)
The Network File System (NFS) is used to mount a disk partition on a remote machine, as if it
were on a local hard drive, allowing fast, seamless sharing of files across a network. NFS allows
users to develop applications for the IA241/240, without worrying about the amount of disk space
that will be available. The IA241/240 supports NFS protocol for client.
4-17
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
NOTE
Managing Communication
Click on the following links for more information about NFS:
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NFS-HOWTO/index.html
http://nfs.sourceforge.net/nfs-howto/client.html
http://nfs.sourceforge.net/nfs-howto/server.html
Setting up the IA241/240 as an NFS Client
The following procedure is used to mount a remote NFS Server.
1.
2.
3.
To know the NFS Server’s shared directory.
Establish a mount point on the NFS Client site.
Mount the remote directory to a local directory.
#mkdir
#mount
–p
–t
/home/nfs/public
nfs NFS_Server(IP):/directory
/mount/point
Example
#mount –t nfs 192.168.3.100:/home/public
/home/nfs/public
Mail
smtpclient is a minimal SMTP client that takes an email message body and passes it on to an
SMTP server. It is suitable for applications that use email to send alert messages or important logs
to a specific user.
NOTE
Click on the following link for more information about smtpclient:
http://www.engelschall.com/sw/smtpclient/
To send an email message, use the ‘smtpclient’ utility, which uses SMTP protocol. Type
#smtpclient –help to see the help message.
Example:
smtpclient –s test –f sender@company.com
< mail-body-message
–S
IP_address
receiver@company.com
-s: The mail subject.
-f: Sender’s mail address
-S: SMTP server IP address
The last mail address receiver@company.com is the receiver’s e-mail address.
mail-body-message is the mail content. The last line of the body of the message should contain
ONLY the period ‘.’ character.
You will need to add your hostname to the file /etc/hosts.
SNMP
The IA241/240 has built-in SNMP V1 (Simple Network Management Protocol) agent software. It
supports RFC1317 RS-232 like group and RFC 1213 MIB-II.
The following simple example allows you to use an SNMP browser on the host site to query the
IA241/240, which is the SNMP agent. The IA241/240 will respond.
***** SNMP QUERY STARTED *****
1: sysDescr.0 (octet string) Version 1.0
2: sysObjectID.0 (object identifier) enterprises.8691.12.240
4-18
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
3: sysUpTime.0 (timeticks) 0 days 03h:50m:11s.00th (1381100)
4: sysContact.0 (octet string) Moxa Systems Co., LDT.
5: sysName.0 (octet string) Moxa
6: sysLocation.0 (octet string) Unknown
7: sysServices.0 (integer) 6
8: ifNumber.0 (integer) 6
9: ifIndex.1 (integer) 1
10: ifIndex.2 (integer) 2
11: ifIndex.3 (integer) 3
12: ifIndex.4 (integer) 4
13: ifIndex.5 (integer) 5
14: ifIndex.6 (integer) 6
15: ifDescr.1 (octet string) eth0
16: ifDescr.2 (octet string) eth1
17: ifDescr.3 (octet string) Serial port 0
18: ifDescr.4 (octet string) Serial port 1
19: ifDescr.5 (octet string) Serial port 2
20: ifDescr.6 (octet string) Serial port 3
21: ifType.1 (integer) ethernet-csmacd(6)
22: ifType.2 (integer) ethernet-csmacd(6)
23: ifType.3 (integer) other(1)
24: ifType.4 (integer) other(1)
25: ifType.5 (integer) other(1)
26: ifType.6 (integer) other(1)
27: ifMtu.1 (integer) 1500
28: ifMtu.2 (integer) 1500
29: ifMtu.3 (integer) 0
30: ifMtu.4 (integer) 0
31: ifMtu.5 (integer) 0
32: ifMtu.6 (integer) 0
33: ifSpeed.1 (gauge) 100000000
34: ifSpeed.2 (gauge) 100000000
35: ifSpeed.3 (gauge) 38400
36: ifSpeed.4 (gauge) 38400
37: ifSpeed.5 (gauge) 38400
38: ifSpeed.6 (gauge) 38400
39: ifPhysAddress.1 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.41 (hex)
40: ifPhysAddress.2 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.40 (hex)
41: ifPhysAddress.3 (octet string) 00 (hex)
42: ifPhysAddress.4 (octet string) 00 (hex)
43: ifPhysAddress.5 (octet string) 00 (hex)
44: ifPhysAddress.6 (octet string) 00 (hex)
45: ifAdminStatus.1 (integer) up(1)
46: ifAdminStatus.2 (integer) up(1)
47: ifAdminStatus.3 (integer) down(2)
48: ifAdminStatus.4 (integer) down(2)
49: ifAdminStatus.5 (integer) down(2)
50: ifAdminStatus.6 (integer) down(2)
51: ifOperStatus.1 (integer) up(1)
52: ifOperStatus.2 (integer) up(1)
53: ifOperStatus.3 (integer) down(2)
54: ifOperStatus.4 (integer) down(2)
55: ifOperStatus.5 (integer) down(2)
56: ifOperStatus.6 (integer) down(2)
57: ifLastChange.1 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
58: ifLastChange.2 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
59: ifLastChange.3 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
60: ifLastChange.4 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
61: ifLastChange.5 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
62: ifLastChange.6 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
63: ifInOctets.1 (counter) 25511
64: ifInOctets.2 (counter) 2240203
65: ifInOctets.3 (counter) 0
66: ifInOctets.4 (counter) 0
67: ifInOctets.5 (counter) 0
68: ifInOctets.6 (counter) 0
69: ifInUcastPkts.1 (counter) 254
4-19
Managing Communication
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
70: ifInUcastPkts.2 (counter) 28224
71: ifInUcastPkts.3 (counter) 0
72: ifInUcastPkts.4 (counter) 0
73: ifInUcastPkts.5 (counter) 0
74: ifInUcastPkts.6 (counter) 0
75: ifInNUcastPkts.1 (counter) 0
76: ifInNUcastPkts.2 (counter) 0
77: ifInNUcastPkts.3 (counter) 0
78: ifInNUcastPkts.4 (counter) 0
79: ifInNUcastPkts.5 (counter) 0
80: ifInNUcastPkts.6 (counter) 0
81: ifInDiscards.1 (counter) 0
82: ifInDiscards.2 (counter) 0
83: ifInDiscards.3 (counter) 0
84: ifInDiscards.4 (counter) 0
85: ifInDiscards.5 (counter) 0
86: ifInDiscards.6 (counter) 0
87: ifInErrors.1 (counter) 0
88: ifInErrors.2 (counter) 0
89: ifInErrors.3 (counter) 0
90: ifInErrors.4 (counter) 0
91: ifInErrors.5 (counter) 0
92: ifInErrors.6 (counter) 0
93: ifInUnknownProtos.1 (counter) 0
94: ifInUnknownProtos.2 (counter) 0
95: ifInUnknownProtos.3 (counter) 0
96: ifInUnknownProtos.4 (counter) 0
97: ifInUnknownProtos.5 (counter) 0
98: ifInUnknownProtos.6 (counter) 0
99: ifOutOctets.1 (counter) 51987
100: ifOutOctets.2 (counter) 3832
101: ifOutOctets.3 (counter) 0
102: ifOutOctets.4 (counter) 0
103: ifOutOctets.5 (counter) 0
104: ifOutOctets.6 (counter) 0
105: ifOutUcastPkts.1 (counter) 506
106: ifOutUcastPkts.2 (counter) 42
107: ifOutUcastPkts.3 (counter) 0
108: ifOutUcastPkts.4 (counter) 0
109: ifOutUcastPkts.5 (counter) 0
110: ifOutUcastPkts.6 (counter) 0
111: ifOutNUcastPkts.1 (counter) 0
112: ifOutNUcastPkts.2 (counter) 0
113: ifOutNUcastPkts.3 (counter) 0
114: ifOutNUcastPkts.4 (counter) 0
115: ifOutNUcastPkts.5 (counter) 0
116: ifOutNUcastPkts.6 (counter) 0
117: ifOutDiscards.1 (counter) 0
118: ifOutDiscards.2 (counter) 0
119: ifOutDiscards.3 (counter) 0
120: ifOutDiscards.4 (counter) 0
121: ifOutDiscards.5 (counter) 0
122: ifOutDiscards.6 (counter) 0
123: ifOutErrors.1 (counter) 0
124: ifOutErrors.2 (counter) 0
125: ifOutErrors.3 (counter) 0
126: ifOutErrors.4 (counter) 0
127: ifOutErrors.5 (counter) 0
128: ifOutErrors.6 (counter) 0
129: ifOutQLen.1 (gauge) 1000
130: ifOutQLen.2 (gauge) 1000
131: ifOutQLen.3 (gauge) 0
132: ifOutQLen.4 (gauge) 0
133: ifOutQLen.5 (gauge) 0
134: ifOutQLen.6 (gauge) 0
135: ifSpecific.1 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
136: ifSpecific.2 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
4-20
Managing Communication
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
137: ifSpecific.3 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
138: ifSpecific.4 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
139: ifSpecific.5 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
140: ifSpecific.6 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
141: atIfIndex.1.192.168.27.139 (integer) 1
142: atIfIndex.2.192.168.4.127 (integer) 2
143: atPhysAddress.1.192.168.27.139 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.41 (hex)
144: atPhysAddress.2.192.168.4.127 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.40 (hex)
145: atNetAddress.1.192.168.27.139 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
146: atNetAddress.2.192.168.4.127 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
147: ipForwarding.0 (integer) forwarding(1)
148: ipDefaultTTL.0 (integer) 64
149: ipInReceives.0 (counter) 1289
150: ipInHdrErrors.0 (counter) 0
151: ipInAddrErrors.0 (counter) 0
152: ipForwDatagrams.0 (counter) 9
153: ipInUnknownProtos.0 (counter) 0
154: ipInDiscards.0 (counter) 0
155: ipInDelivers.0 (counter) 1160
156: ipOutRequests.0 (counter) 858
157: ipOutDiscards.0 (counter) 0
158: ipOutNoRoutes.0 (counter) 0
159: ipReasmTimeout.0 (integer) 0
160: ipReasmReqds.0 (counter) 0
161: ipReasmOKs.0 (counter) 0
162: ipReasmFails.0 (counter) 0
163: ipFragOKs.0 (counter) 0
164: ipFragFails.0 (counter) 0
165: ipFragCreates.0 (counter) 0
166: ipAdEntAddr.192.168.27.139 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
167: ipAdEntAddr.192.168.4.127 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
168: ipAdEntIfIndex.192.168.27.139 (integer) 1
169: ipAdEntIfIndex.192.168.4.127 (integer) 2
170: ipAdEntNetMask.192.168.27.139 (ipaddress) 255.255.255.0
171: ipAdEntNetMask.192.168.4.127 (ipaddress) 255.255.255.0
172: ipAdEntBcastAddr.192.168.27.139 (integer) 1
173: ipAdEntBcastAddr.192.168.4.127 (integer) 1
174: ipAdEntReasmMaxSize.192.168.27.139 (integer) 65535
175: ipAdEntReasmMaxSize.192.168.4.127 (integer) 65535
176: ipRouteDest.192.168.4.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.0
177: ipRouteDest.192.168.27.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.0
178: ipRouteIfIndex.192.168.4.0 (integer) 2
179: ipRouteIfIndex.192.168.27.0 (integer) 1
180: ipRouteMetric1.192.168.4.0 (integer) 0
181: ipRouteMetric1.192.168.27.0 (integer) 0
182: ipRouteMetric2.192.168.4.0 (integer) -1
183: ipRouteMetric2.192.168.27.0 (integer) -1
184: ipRouteMetric3.192.168.4.0 (integer) -1
185: ipRouteMetric3.192.168.27.0 (integer) -1
186: ipRouteMetric4.192.168.4.0 (integer) -1
187: ipRouteMetric4.192.168.27.0 (integer) -1
188: ipRouteNextHop.192.168.4.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
189: ipRouteNextHop.192.168.27.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
190: ipRouteType.192.168.4.0 (integer) direct(3)
191: ipRouteType.192.168.27.0 (integer) direct(3)
192: ipRouteProto.192.168.4.0 (integer) local(2)
193: ipRouteProto.192.168.27.0 (integer) local(2)
194: ipRouteAge.192.168.4.0 (integer) 0
195: ipRouteAge.192.168.27.0 (integer) 0
196: ipRouteMask.192.168.4.0 (ipaddress) 255.255.255.0
197: ipRouteMask.192.168.27.0 (ipaddress) 255.255.255.0
198: ipRouteMetric5.192.168.4.0 (integer) -1
199: ipRouteMetric5.192.168.27.0 (integer) -1
200: ipRouteInfo.192.168.4.0 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
201: ipRouteInfo.192.168.27.0 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
202: ipNetToMediaIfIndex.1.192.168.27.139 (integer) 1
203: ipNetToMediaIfIndex.2.192.168.4.127 (integer) 2
4-21
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
204: ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.192.168.27.139 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.41 (hex)
205: ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.2.192.168.4.127 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.40 (hex)
206: ipNetToMediaNetAddress.1.192.168.27.139 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
207: ipNetToMediaNetAddress.2.192.168.4.127 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
208: ipNetToMediaType.1.192.168.27.139 (integer) static(4)
209: ipNetToMediaType.2.192.168.4.127 (integer) static(4)
210: ipRoutingDiscards.0 (integer) 0
211: icmpInMsgs.0 (counter) 130
212: icmpInErrors.0 (counter) 3
213: icmpInDestUnreachs.0 (counter) 128
214: icmpInTimeExcds.0 (counter) 0
215: icmpInParmProbs.0 (counter) 0
216: icmpInSrcQuenchs.0 (counter) 0
217: icmpInRedirects.0 (counter) 0
218: icmpInEchos.0 (counter) 2
219: icmpInEchoReps.0 (counter) 0
220: icmpInTimestamps.0 (counter) 0
221: icmpInTimestampReps.0 (counter) 0
222: icmpInAddrMasks.0 (counter) 0
223: icmpInAddrMaskReps.0 (counter) 0
224: icmpOutMsgs.0 (counter) 144
225: icmpOutErrors.0 (counter) 0
226: icmpOutDestUnreachs.0 (counter) 135
227: icmpOutTimeExcds.0 (counter) 0
228: icmpOutParmProbs.0 (counter) 0
229: icmpOutSrcQuenchs.0 (counter) 0
230: icmpOutRedirects.0 (counter) 7
231: icmpOutEchos.0 (counter) 0
232: icmpOutEchoReps.0 (counter) 2
233: icmpOutTimestamps.0 (counter) 0
234: icmpOutTimestampReps.0 (counter) 0
235: icmpOutAddrMasks.0 (counter) 0
236: icmpOutAddrMaskReps.0 (counter) 0
237: tcpRtoAlgorithm.0 (integer) other(1)
238: tcpRtoMin.0 (integer) 200
239: tcpRtoMax.0 (integer) 120000
240: tcpMaxConn.0 (integer) -1
241: tcpActiveOpens.0 (counter) 0
242: tcpPassiveOpens.0 (counter) 0
243: tcpAttemptFails.0 (counter) 0
244: tcpEstabResets.0 (counter) 0
245: tcpCurrEstab.0 (gauge) 0
246: tcpInSegs.0 (counter) 0
247: tcpOutSegs.0 (counter) 0
248: tcpRetransSegs.0 (counter) 0
249: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
250: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
251: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
252: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
253: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
254: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
255: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
256: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
257: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
258: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
259: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
260: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
261: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
262: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
263: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
264: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
265: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
266: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
267: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
268: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
269: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
270: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
4-22
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
271: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
272: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
273: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
274: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
275: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
276: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
277: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
278: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
279: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
280: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
281: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
282: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
283: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
284: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
285: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
286: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
287: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
288: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
289: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1024
290: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1024
291: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1025
292: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1025
293: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 2049
294: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 2049
295: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1026
296: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1026
297: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 9
298: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 9
299: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 111
300: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 111
301: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 80
302: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 80
303: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 21
304: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 21
305: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 22
306: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 22
307: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 23
308: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 23
309: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
310: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
311: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
312: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
313: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
314: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
315: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
316: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
317: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
318: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
319: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
320: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
321: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
322: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
323: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
324: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
325: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
326: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
327: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
328: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
329: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
330: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
331: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
332: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
333: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
334: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
335: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
336: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
337: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
4-23
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
338: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
339: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
340: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
341: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
342: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
343: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
344: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
345: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
346: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
347: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
348: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
349: tcpInErrs.0 (counter) 6
350: tcpOutRsts.0 (counter) 37224
351: udpInDatagrams.0 (counter) 434
352: udpNoPorts.0 (counter) 8
353: udpInErrors.0 (counter) 0
354: udpOutDatagrams.0 (counter) 903
355: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1024 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
356: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1024 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
357: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.2049 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
358: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.2049 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
359: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1026 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
360: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1026 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
361: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1027 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
362: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1027 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
363: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.9 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
364: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.9 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
365: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.161 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
366: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.161 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
367: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.4800 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
368: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.4800 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
369: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.854 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
370: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.854 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
371: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.111 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
372: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.111 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
373: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1024 (integer) 1024
374: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1024 (integer) 1024
375: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.2049 (integer) 2049
376: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.2049 (integer) 2049
377: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1026 (integer) 1026
378: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1026 (integer) 1026
379: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1027 (integer) 1027
380: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1027 (integer) 1027
381: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.9 (integer) 9
382: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.9 (integer) 9
383: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.161 (integer) 161
384: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.161 (integer) 161
385: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.4800 (integer) 4800
386: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.4800 (integer) 4800
387: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.854 (integer) 854
388: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.854 (integer) 854
389: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.111 (integer) 111
390: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.111 (integer) 111
391: rs232Number.0 (integer) 4
392: rs232PortIndex.1 (integer) 1 [1]
393: rs232PortIndex.2 (integer) 2 [2]
394: rs232PortIndex.3 (integer) 3 [3]
395: rs232PortIndex.4 (integer) 4 [4]
396: rs232PortType.1 (integer) rs232(2)
397: rs232PortType.2 (integer) rs232(2)
398: rs232PortType.3 (integer) rs232(2)
399: rs232PortType.4 (integer) rs232(2)
400: rs232PortInSigNumber.1 (integer) 3
401: rs232PortInSigNumber.2 (integer) 3
402: rs232PortInSigNumber.3 (integer) 3
403: rs232PortInSigNumber.4 (integer) 3
404: rs232PortOutSigNumber.1 (integer) 2
4-24
Managing Communication
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
405: rs232PortOutSigNumber.2 (integer) 2
406: rs232PortOutSigNumber.3 (integer) 2
407: rs232PortOutSigNumber.4 (integer) 2
408: rs232PortInSpeed.1 (integer) 38400
409: rs232PortInSpeed.2 (integer) 38400
410: rs232PortInSpeed.3 (integer) 38400
411: rs232PortInSpeed.4 (integer) 38400
412: rs232PortOutSpeed.1 (integer) 38400
413: rs232PortOutSpeed.2 (integer) 38400
414: rs232PortOutSpeed.3 (integer) 38400
415: rs232PortOutSpeed.4 (integer) 38400
416: rs232AsyncPortIndex.1 (integer) 1 [1]
417: rs232AsyncPortIndex.2 (integer) 2 [2]
418: rs232AsyncPortIndex.3 (integer) 3 [3]
419: rs232AsyncPortIndex.4 (integer) 4 [4]
420: rs232AsyncPortBits.1 (integer) 8
421: rs232AsyncPortBits.2 (integer) 8
422: rs232AsyncPortBits.3 (integer) 8
423: rs232AsyncPortBits.4 (integer) 8
424: rs232AsyncPortStopBits.1 (integer) one(1)
425: rs232AsyncPortStopBits.2 (integer) one(1)
426: rs232AsyncPortStopBits.3 (integer) one(1)
427: rs232AsyncPortStopBits.4 (integer) one(1)
428: rs232AsyncPortParity.1 (integer) none(1)
429: rs232AsyncPortParity.2 (integer) none(1)
430: rs232AsyncPortParity.3 (integer) none(1)
431: rs232AsyncPortParity.4 (integer) none(1)
432: rs232InSigPortIndex.1.2 (integer) 1 [1]
433: rs232InSigPortIndex.2.2 (integer) 2 [2]
434: rs232InSigPortIndex.3.2 (integer) 3 [3]
435: rs232InSigPortIndex.4.2 (integer) 4 [4]
436: rs232InSigPortIndex.1.3 (integer) 1 [1]
437: rs232InSigPortIndex.2.3 (integer) 2 [2]
438: rs232InSigPortIndex.3.3 (integer) 3 [3]
439: rs232InSigPortIndex.4.3 (integer) 4 [4]
440: rs232InSigPortIndex.1.6 (integer) 1 [1]
441: rs232InSigPortIndex.2.6 (integer) 2 [2]
442: rs232InSigPortIndex.3.6 (integer) 3 [3]
443: rs232InSigPortIndex.4.6 (integer) 4 [4]
444: rs232InSigName.1.2 (integer) cts(2)
445: rs232InSigName.2.2 (integer) cts(2)
446: rs232InSigName.3.2 (integer) cts(2)
447: rs232InSigName.4.2 (integer) cts(2)
448: rs232InSigName.1.3 (integer) dsr(3)
449: rs232InSigName.2.3 (integer) dsr(3)
450: rs232InSigName.3.3 (integer) dsr(3)
451: rs232InSigName.4.3 (integer) dsr(3)
452: rs232InSigName.1.6 (integer) dcd(6)
453: rs232InSigName.2.6 (integer) dcd(6)
454: rs232InSigName.3.6 (integer) dcd(6)
455: rs232InSigName.4.6 (integer) dcd(6)
456: rs232InSigState.1.2 (integer) off(3)
457: rs232InSigState.2.2 (integer) off(3)
458: rs232InSigState.3.2 (integer) off(3)
459: rs232InSigState.4.2 (integer) off(3)
460: rs232InSigState.1.3 (integer) off(3)
461: rs232InSigState.2.3 (integer) off(3)
462: rs232InSigState.3.3 (integer) off(3)
463: rs232InSigState.4.3 (integer) off(3)
464: rs232InSigState.1.6 (integer) off(3)
465: rs232InSigState.2.6 (integer) off(3)
466: rs232InSigState.3.6 (integer) off(3)
467: rs232InSigState.4.6 (integer) off(3)
468: rs232OutSigPortIndex.1.1 (integer) 1 [1]
469: rs232OutSigPortIndex.2.1 (integer) 2 [2]
470: rs232OutSigPortIndex.3.1 (integer) 3 [3]
471: rs232OutSigPortIndex.4.1 (integer) 4 [4]
4-25
Managing Communication
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
472: rs232OutSigPortIndex.1.4 (integer) 1 [1]
473: rs232OutSigPortIndex.2.4 (integer) 2 [2]
474: rs232OutSigPortIndex.3.4 (integer) 3 [3]
475: rs232OutSigPortIndex.4.4 (integer) 4 [4]
476: rs232OutSigName.1.1 (integer) rts(1)
477: rs232OutSigName.2.1 (integer) rts(1)
478: rs232OutSigName.3.1 (integer) rts(1)
479: rs232OutSigName.4.1 (integer) rts(1)
480: rs232OutSigName.1.4 (integer) dtr(4)
481: rs232OutSigName.2.4 (integer) dtr(4)
482: rs232OutSigName.3.4 (integer) dtr(4)
483: rs232OutSigName.4.4 (integer) dtr(4)
484: rs232OutSigState.1.1 (integer) off(3)
485: rs232OutSigState.2.1 (integer) off(3)
486: rs232OutSigState.3.1 (integer) off(3)
487: rs232OutSigState.4.1 (integer) off(3)
488: rs232OutSigState.1.4 (integer) off(3)
489: rs232OutSigState.2.4 (integer) off(3)
490: rs232OutSigState.3.4 (integer) off(3)
491: rs232OutSigState.4.4 (integer) off(3)
492: snmpInPkts.0 (counter) 493
493: snmpOutPkts.0 (counter) 493
494: snmpInBadVersions.0 (counter) 0
495: snmpInBadCommunityNames.0 (counter) 0
496: snmpInBadCommunityUses.0 (counter) 0
497: snmpInASNParseErrs.0 (counter) 0
498: snmpInTooBigs.0 (counter) 0
499: snmpInNoSuchNames.0 (counter) 0
500: snmpInBadValues.0 (counter) 0
501: snmpInReadOnlys.0 (counter) 0
502: snmpInGenErrs.0 (counter) 0
503: snmpInTotalReqVars.0 (counter) 503
504: snmpInTotalSetVars.0 (counter) 0
505: snmpInGetRequests.0 (counter) 0
506: snmpInGetNexts.0 (counter) 506
507: snmpInSetRequests.0 (counter) 0
508: snmpInGetResponses.0 (counter) 0
509: snmpInTraps.0 (counter) 0
510: snmpOutTooBigs.0 (counter) 0
511: snmpOutNoSuchNames.0 (counter) 0
512: snmpOutBadValues.0 (counter) 0
513: snmpOutGenErrs.0 (counter) 0
514: snmpOutGetRequests.0 (counter) 0
515: snmpOutGetNexts.0 (counter) 0
516: snmpOutSetRequests.0 (counter) 0
517: snmpOutGetResponses.0 (counter) 517
518: snmpOutTraps.0 (counter) 0
519: snmpEnableAuthenTraps.0 (integer) disabled(2)
***** SNMP QUERY FINISHED *****
NOTE
Click on the following links for more information about MIB II and RS-232 like groups:
http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1213.html
http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1317.html
Æ IA241/240 does NOT support SNMP trap.
OpenVPN
OpenVPN provides two types of tunnels for users to implement VPNS: Routed IP Tunnels and
Bridged Ethernet Tunnels. To begin with, check to make sure that the system has a virtual
device /dev/net/tun. If not, issue the following command:
4-26
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
# mknod /dev/net/tun c 10 200
An Ethernet bridge is used to connect different Ethernet networks together. The Ethernets are
bundled into one bigger, “logical” Ethernet. Each Ethernet corresponds to one physical interface
(or port) that is connected to the bridge.
On each OpenVPN machine, you should generate a working directory, such as /etc/openvpn,
where script files and key files reside. Once established, all operations will be performed in that
directory.
Setup 1: Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on Different Subnets
1.
Set up four machines, as shown in the following diagram.
Host A
local net
OpenVPN A
LAN1: 192.168.2.173
LAN1: 192.168.2.171
Internet
LAN2: 192.168.8.173
LAN1: 192.168.8.174
LAN1: 192.168.4.172
Host B
LAN2: 192.168.4.174
local net
OpenVPN B
Host A (B) represents one of the machines that belongs to OpenVPN A (B). The two remote
subnets are configured for a different range of IP addresses. When this setup is moved to a
public network, the external interfaces of the OpenVPN machines should be configured for
static IPs, or connect to another device (such as a firewall or DSL box) first.
# openvpn --genkey --secret secrouter.key
Copy the file that is generated to the OpenVPN machine.
2.
Generate a script file named openvpn-bridge on each OpenVPN machine. This script
reconfigures interface “eth1” as IP-less, creates logical bridge(s) and TAP interfaces, loads
modules, enables IP forwarding, etc.
#---------------------------------Start----------------------------#!/bin/sh
iface=eth1 # defines the internal interface
maxtap=`expr 1` # defines the number of tap devices. I.e., # of tunnels
IPADDR=
NETMASK=
BROADCAST=
# it is not a great idea but this system doesn’t support
# /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
ifcfg_vpn()
{
4-27
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
while read f1 f2 f3 f4 r3
do
if [ “$f1” = “iface” -a “$f2” = “$iface” -a “$f3” = “inet” -a “$f4” = “static” ];then
i=`expr 0`
while :
do
if [ $i -gt 5 ]; then
break
fi
i=`expr $i + 1`
read f1 f2
case “$f1” in
address ) IPADDR=$f2
;;
netmask ) NETMASK=$f2
;;
broadcast ) BROADCAST=$f2
;;
esac
done
break
fi
done < /etc/network/interfaces
}
# get the ip address of the specified interface
mname=
module_up()
{
oIFS=$IFS
IFS=‘
‘
FOUND=“no”
for LINE in `lsmod`
do
TOK=`echo $LINE | cut -d’ ‘ -f1`
if [ “$TOK” = “$mname” ]; then
FOUND=“yes”;
break;
fi
done
IFS=$oIFS
if [ “$FOUND” = “no” ]; then
modprobe $mname
fi
}
start()
{
ifcfg_vpn
if [ ! \( -d “/dev/net” \) ]; then
mkdir /dev/net
fi
if [ ! \( -r “/dev/net/tun” \) ]; then
# create a device file if there is none
mknod /dev/net/tun c 10 200
fi
# load modules “tun” and “bridge”
mname=tun
module_up
mname=bridge
module_up
# create an ethernet bridge to connect tap devices, internal interface
brctl addbr br0
brctl addif br0 $iface
4-28
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
# the bridge receives data from any port and forwards it to other ports.
i=`expr 0`
while :
do
# generate a tap0 interface on tun
openvpn --mktun --dev tap${i}
# connect tap device to the bridge
brctl addif br0 tap${i}
# null ip address of tap device
ifconfig tap${i} 0.0.0.0 promisc up
i=`expr $i + 1`
if [ $i -ge $maxtap ]; then
break
fi
done
# null ip address of internal interface
ifconfig $iface 0.0.0.0 promisc up
# enable bridge ip
ifconfig br0 $IPADDR netmask $NETMASK broadcast $BROADCAST
ipf=/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
# enable IP forwarding
echo 1 > $ipf
echo “ip forwarding enabled to”
cat $ipf
}
stop() {
echo “shutdown openvpn bridge.”
ifcfg_vpn
i=`expr 0`
while :
do
# disconnect tap device from the bridge
brctl delif br0 tap${i}
openvpn --rmtun --dev tap${i}
i=`expr $i + 1`
if [ $i -ge $maxtap ]; then
break
fi
done
brctl delif br0 $iface
brctl delbr br0
ifconfig br0 down
ifconfig $iface $IPADDR netmask $NETMASK broadcast $BROADCAST
killall -TERM openvpn
}
case “$1” in
start)
start
;;
stop)
stop
;;
restart)
stop
start
;;
*)
echo “Usage: $0 [start|stop|restart]”
4-29
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
exit 1
esac
exit 0
#---------------------------------- end -----------------------------
Create link symbols to enable this script at boot time:
# ln -s /etc/openvpn/openvpn-bridge /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S32vpn-br # for example
# ln -s /etc/openvpn/openvpn-bridge /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K32vpn-br # for example
3.
Create a configuration file named A-tap0-br.conf and an executable script file named
A-tap0-br.sh on OpenVPN A.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.174
dev tap0
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
up /etc/openvpn/A-tap0-br.sh
#----------------------------------Start-----------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.4.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev br0
#---------------------------------- end ------------------------------
Create a configuration file named B-tap0-br.conf and an executable script file named
B-tap0-br.sh on OpenVPN B.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.173
dev tap0
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
up /etc/openvpn/B-tap0-br.sh
#---------------------------------- Start---------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev br0
#---------------------------------- end -----------------------------
Note: Select cipher and authentication algorithms by specifying “cipher” and “auth”. To see
with algorithms are available, type:
# openvpn --show-ciphers
# openvpn --show—auths
4.
Start both of OpenVPN peers,
# openvpn --config A-tap0-br.conf&
# openvpn --config B-tap0-br.conf&
If you see the line “Peer Connection Initiated with 192.168.8.173:5000” on each machine, the
connection between OpenVPN machines has been established successfully on UDP port 5000.
4-30
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
5.
Managing Communication
On each OpenVPN machine, check the routing table by typing the command:
# route
Destination
192.168.4.0
192.168.2.0
192.168.8.0
Gateway
Genmsk
*
255.255.255.0
*
255.255.255.0
*
255.255.255.0
Flags
U
U
U
Metric
0
0
0
Ref
0
0
0
Use
0
0
0
Iface
br0
br0
eth0
Interface eth1 is connected to the bridging interface br0, to which device tap0 also connects,
whereas the virtual device tun sits on top of tap0. This ensures that all traffic from internal
networks connected to interface eth1 that come to this bridge write to the TAP/TUN device
that the OpenVPN program monitors. Once the OpenVPN program detects traffic on the
virtual device, it sends the traffic to its peer.
6.
To create an indirect connection to Host B from Host A, you need to add the following routing
item:
route add –net 192.168.4.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
To create an indirect connection to Host A from Host B, you need to add the following routing
item:
route add –net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
Now ping Host B from Host A by typing:
ping 192.168.4.174
A successful ping indicates that you have created a VPN system that only allows authorized
users from one internal network to access users at the remote site. For this system, all data is
transmitted by UDP packets on port 5000 between OpenVPN peers.
7.
To shut down OpenVPN programs, type the command:
# killall -TERM openvpn
Setup 2: Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on the Same Subnet
Set up four machines as shown in the following diagram:
Host A
local net
OpenVPN A
LAN1: 192.168.2.173
LAN1: 192.168.2.171
LAN2: 192.168.8.173
Internet
1.
LAN1: 192.168.8.174
LAN1: 192.168.4.172
Host B
LAN2: 192.168.4.174
local net
4-31
OpenVPN B
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
2.
Managing Communication
The configuration procedure is almost the same as for the previous example. The only
difference is that you will need to comment out the parameter “up” in
“/etc/openvpn/A-tap0-br.conf” and “/etc/openvpn/B-tap0-br.conf”.
Setup 3: Routed IP
1.
Set up four machines as shown in the following diagram:
Host A
local net
OpenVPN A
LAN1: 192.168.2.173
LAN1: 192.168.2.171
Internet
LAN2: 192.168.8.173
LAN1: 192.168.8.174
LAN1: 192.168.4.172
Host B
2.
LAN2: 192.168.4.174
local net
OpenVPN B
Create a configuration file named “A-tun.conf” and an executable script file named
“A-tun.sh”.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.174
dev tun
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
ifconfig 192.168.2.173 192.168.4.174
up /etc/openvpn/A-tun.sh
#--------------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet
route add -net 192.168.4.0 netmask
#---------------------------------
Start----------------------------behind the remote peer
255.255.255.0 gw $5
end ------------------------------
Create a configuration file named B-tun.conf and an executable script file named B-tun.sh on
OpenVPN B:
remote 192.168.8.173
dev tun
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
ifconfig 192.168.4.174 192.168.2.173
up /etc/openvpn/B-tun.sh
#--------------------------------- Start---------------------------#!/bin/sh
4-32
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communication
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw $5
#--------------------------------- end -----------------------------
Note that the parameter “ifconfig” defines the first argument as the local internal interface and
the second argument as the internal interface at the remote peer.
Note that $5 is the argument that the OpenVPN program passes to the script file. Its value is
the second argument of ifconfig in the configuration file.
3.
Check the routing table after you run the OpenVPN programs, by typing the command:
# route
Destination
Gateway
Genmsk
192.168.4.174
*
255.255.255.255
192.168.4.0
192.168.4.174 255.255.255.0
192.168.2.0
*
255.255.255.0
192.168.8.0
*
255.255.255.0
4-33
Flags
UH
UG
U
U
Metric
0
0
0
0
Ref
0
0
0
0
Use
0
0
0
0
Iface
tun0
tun0
eth1
eth0
5
Chapter 5
Development Tool Chains
This chapter describes how to install a tool chain in the host computer that you use to develop your
applications. In addition, the process of performing cross-platform development and debugging are
also introduced. For clarity, the IA241/240 embedded computer is called a target computer.
The following functions are covered in this chapter:
‰ Linux Tool Chain
¾ Steps for Installing the Linux Tool Chain
¾ Compilation for Applications
¾ On-Line Debugging with GDB
‰ Windows Tool Chain
¾ System Requirements for Windows Tool Chain
¾ Steps for Installing Windows Tool Chain
¾ Using the BASH Shell
¾ Compilation for Applications
¾ On-Line Debugging with Insight
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Development Tool Chains
Linux Tool Chain
The Linux tool chain contains a suite of cross compilers and other tools, as well as the libraries
and header files that are necessary to compile your applications. These tool chain components
must be installed in your host computer (PC) running Linux. We have confirmed that the
following Linux distributions can be used to install the tool chain.
Fefora core 1 & 2.
Steps for Installing the Linux Tool Chain
The tool chain needs about 485 MB of hard disk space. To install it, follow the steps.
1.
Insert the package CD into your PC and then issue the following commands:
#mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
#sh /mnt/cdrom/tool-chain/linux/install.sh
2.
Wait for the installation process to complete. This should take a few minutes.
3.
Add the directory /usr/local/arm-linux/bin to your path. You can do this for the current
login by issuing the following commands:
#export PATH=“/usr/local/arm-linux/bin:$PATH”
Alternatively, you can add the same commands to $HOME/.bash_profile to make it
effective for all login sessions.
Compilation for Applications
To compile a simple C application, use the cross compiler instead of the regular compiler:
#arm-linux-gcc –o example –Wall –g –O2 example.c
#arm-linux-strip –s example
#arm-linux-gcc -ggdb –o example-debug example.c
Most of the cross compiler tools are the same as their native compiler counterparts, but with an
additional prefix that specifies the target system. In the case of x86 environments, the prefix is
i386-linux- and in the case of IA204/241 ARM boards, it is arm-linux-.
For example, the native C compiler is gcc and the cross C compiler for ARM in the IA241/240 is
arm-linux-gcc.
The following cross compiler tools are provided:
ar
Manages archives (static libraries)
as
Assembler
c++, g++
C++ compiler
cpp
C preprocessor
gcc
C compiler
gdb
Debugger
ld
Linker
nm
Lists symbols from object files
objcopy
Copies and translates object files
objdump
Displays information about object files
ranlib
Generates indexes to archives (static libraries)
readelf
Displays information about ELF files
5-2
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
size
Development Tool Chains
Lists object file section sizes
strings
Prints strings of printable characters from files (usually object files)
strip
Removes symbols and sections from object files (usually debugging information)
On-Line Debugging with GDB
The tool chain also provides an on-line debugging mechanism to help you develop your program.
Before performing a debugging session, add the option -ggdb to compile the program. A
debugging session runs on a client-server architecture on which the server gdbserver is installed
int the targe computer and the client ddd is installed in the host computer. We’ll asuumne that you
have uploaded a program named hello-debug to the target computer and strat to debug the
program.
1.
Log on to the target computer and run the debugging server program.
#gdbserver 192.168.4.142:2000 hello-debug
Process hello-debug created; pid=38
The debugging server listens for connections at network port 2000 from the network interface
192.168.4.142. The name of the program to be debugged follows these parameters. For a
program requiring arguments, add the arguments behind the program name.
2.
In the host computer, change the directory to where the program source resides.
cd /my_work_directory/myfilesystem/testprograms
3.
Execute the client program.
#ddd --debugger arm-linux-gdb hello-debug &
4.
Enter the following command at the GDB, DDD command prompt.
Target remote 192.168.4.99:2000
The command produces a line of output on the target console, similar to the following.
Remote debugging using 192.168.4.99:2000
192.168.4.99 is the machine’s IP address, and 2000 is the port number. You can now begin
debugging in the host environment using the interface provided by DDD.
5.
Set a break point on main by double clicking, or by entering b
6.
Click the cont button.
main
on the command line.
Windows Tool Chain
The Windows tool chain is a cross development environment that simulates the Linux root file
system, allowing users to develop applications in a Windows PC environment. The following
figure shows an example of what the tool chain looks like.
/
Your group is currently “mkpasswd”. This indicates that
The /etc/passwd (and possibly /etc/group) files should be rebuil
See the man pages for mkpasswd and mkgroup then, for example, ru
mkpasswd –l [-d] > /etc/passwd
mkpasswd –l [-d] > /etc/group
Note that the –d switch is necessary for domain users.
stephen_lin@abc-06d82fcbf1a /
$ ls –al
total 9
drwxr—xr-x 8 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 8 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 2 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 7 stephen_ mkpasswd
0
0
0
0
5-3
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
10
10
10
10
17:24
17:24
19:48
19:24
.
..
bin
etc
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
-rw-r--r-- 1
drwxr—xr-x 5
-rwxr—xr-x 1
-rw-r--r-- 1
drwxr—xr-x 2
drwxr—xr-x 14
drwxr—xr-x 6
stephen_
stephen_
stephen_
stephen_
stephen_
stephen_
stephen_
mkpasswd
mkpasswd
mkpasswd
mkpasswd
mkpasswd
mkpasswd
mkpasswd
Development Tool Chains
3262 Jan 10 22:03 insight.ico
0 Jan 10 19:48 lib
53 Jan 10 22:03 moxa.bat
3262 Jan 10 22:03 moxa.ico
0 Jan 10 19:48 tmp
0 Jan 10 19:48 usr
0 Jan 10 18:12 var
stephen_lin@abc-06d82fcbf1a /
$ _
System Requirements for Windows Tool Chain
Your Windows OS must satisfy the following requirements.
1. Windows 2000 workstation or Windows XP professional.
2. Minimum of 500 MB of free hard drive space on a single drive.
3. CD-ROM or equivalent.
4. Ethernet capabilty to upload application programs to the target computer.
5. Being able to log on as an administrator.
6. Windows username without spaces.
You will be using a BASH shell window to enter commands. In addition, for editing text files,
such as configuration files, you should use vi editor. Do NOT use WordPad, which could cause
problems when the files are transferred to a bona fide Linux environment.
Steps for Installing Windows Tool Chain
1.
Double click on the tool chain file to start the installtion process, and choose Next.
5-4
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
2.
Development Tool Chains
Browse to the directory where you prefer to set the root directory for the tool chain. Options
of All Users and Unix are recommended. Then, choose Next.
If you have installed a tool chain before, its root directory would show up in the Root
Directory text field. If you continue the installation, the new tool chain in a previous root
directory would override the old one. Choose a different directory to keep both tool chains.
3.
Navigate to the directory where the packages of the tool chain reside. By default, it is on the
CD-ROM: \\tool-chain\windows. Choose Next to proceed.
It may take anywhere from 5 to 20 minutes to check the packages in the CD-ROM.
5-5
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
4.
Development Tool Chains
All packages are selected by default. Choose Next to continue.
y Category column: Shows a hierarchical display of packages with category name highest
and package name lowest. Click the plus sign (+) next to a category name to open the
category and see the packages within that category.
y Base Category: List all packages that will be installed by default (along with any
dependencies). If you view the Base column for the Base category, you should see every
package selected for installation.
y Packages: In the packages listing field, package names are arranged by
Category/Full/Partial according to the View by button. When viewing by Category, click
the plus sign (+) to open or close the packages under that category. This is the same list
you see in flat form when viewing by Full/Partial. By default, named packages are
installed.
y Install: If the package was not previously installed, select this option to install the package
now.
y Reinstall: If the package was previously installed, select this option to install it again. This
will overwrite the previous installation.
y Uninstall: If the package was previously installed, select this option if you do NOT want to
make any changes.
y Skip: Ignores a package entirely, regardless of whether it was previously installed or
uninstalled. Packages marked “Skip” are omitted from the Partial display.
5-6
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Development Tool Chains
5.
The Progress window opens. The installer will install all packages that were selected. This
process could take from 5 to 30 minutes, depending on the speed of your system. When the
installation completes, the Complete the Installation window will appear.
6.
Checkmark Create icon on Desktop to place a Moxa BASH Shell icon on your desktop, and
then click on Finish.
5-7
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
7.
Development Tool Chains
Click on OK to complete the installation process.
Using the BASH Shell
A command-line interface is used to develop applications with the tool chain. To access the
command line, you need to launch a BASH shell window.
To open a BASH shell window, choose Start Menu Æ Programs Æ UC Tool Chain Æ Moxa
Bash Shell, or lick on the desktop Moxa Bash Shell icon.
/
Your group is currently “mkpasswd”. This indicates that
The /etc/passwd (and possibly /etc/group) files should be rebuil
See the man pages for mkpasswd and mkgroup then, for example, ru
mkpasswd –l [-d] > /etc/passwd
mkpasswd –l [-d] > /etc/group
Note that the –d switch is necessary for domain users.
stephen_lin@abc-06d82fcbf1a /
$ ls –al
total 9
drwxr—xr-x 8 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 8 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 2 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 7 stephen_ mkpasswd
-rw-r--r-- 1 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 5 stephen_ mkpasswd
-rwxr—xr-x 1 stephen_ mkpasswd
-rw-r--r-- 1 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 2 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 14 stephen_ mkpasswd
drwxr—xr-x 6 stephen_ mkpasswd
0 Jan 10 17:24 .
0 Jan 10 17:24 ..
0 Jan 10 19:48 bin
0 Jan 10 19:24 etc
3262 Jan 10 22:03 insight.ico
0 Jan 10 19:48 lib
53 Jan 10 22:03 moxa.bat
3262 Jan 10 22:03 moxa.ico
0 Jan 10 19:48 tmp
0 Jan 10 19:48 usr
0 Jan 10 18:12 var
stephen_lin@abc-06d82fcbf1a /
$ _
Compilation for Applications
Windows tool chain is a cross compiler that can be used to compile Linux source code on a
Windows operating system, allowing programmers to develop projects on a Windows-based PC.
In this section, we describe the procedures you should follow to compile a project with the
Windows tool chain.
First, copy the source codes of your project in the Windows tool chain’s installation directory. In
the example shown here, we want to compile the hello example provided in our CD-ROM. We
will copy the source code to /UC which is the root directory of the Windows tool chain. Check the
root directory, where you can find the hello directory.
5-8
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Development Tool Chains
/
Mkpasswd –l [-d] > /etc/passwd
Mkgroup –l [-d] > /etc/group
Note that the –d switch is necessary for domain users.
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu ~
$ cd /
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu /
$ ls –al
total 9
drwxrwx--- 9 Jared_Wu
drwxrwx--- 9 Jared_Wu
drwxrwx--- 2 Jared_Wu
drwxrwx--- 7 Jared_Wu
drwx------ 2 Jared_Wu
-rwxr-x--- 1 Jared_Wu
drwxrwx--- 5 Jared_Wu
-rwxr-x--- 1 Jared_Wu
-rwxr-x--- 1 Jared_Wu
drwxrwx--- 4 Jared_Wu
drwxrwx--- 13 Jared_Wu
drwxrwx--- 6 Jared_Wu
4294967295
0 Nov 4 18:11 .
4294967295
0 Nov 4 18:11 .
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:10 bin
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:10 etc
mkpasswd
0 Nov 4 18:07 hello
4294967295 3262 Nov 4 11:12 insight.ico
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:10 lib
4294967295
53 Nov 4 10:12 moxa.bat
4294967295 3262 Nov 4 11:12 moxa.ico
4294967295
0 Nov 4 18:11 tmp
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:06 usr
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:06 var
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu /
$
Next, enter the hello directory and invoke the make program that will execute the compilation
instructions written in the Makefile to compile the hello project.
/hello
drwxrwx--- 7
drwx------ 2
-rwxr-x--- 1
drwxrwx--- 5
-rwxr-x--- 1
-rwxr-x--- 1
drwxrwx--- 4
drwxrwx--- 13
drwxrwx--- 6
Jared_Wu
Jared_Wu
Jared_Wu
Jared_Wu
Jared_Wu
Jared_Wu
Jared_Wu
Jared_Wu
Jared_Wu
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:10 etc
mkpasswd
0 Nov 4 18:07 hello
4294967295 3262 Nov 4 11:12 insight.ico
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:10 lib
4294967295
53 Nov 4 10:12 moxa.bat
4294967295 3262 Nov 4 11:12 moxa.ico
4294967295
0 Nov 4 18:11 tmp
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:06 usr
4294967295
0 Nov 4 11:06 var
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu /
$ cd hello/
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu /hello
$ make
/usr/local/mxscaleb/bin/mxscaleb-gcc –o hello-release hello.c
/usr/local/mxscaleb/bin/mxscaleb-strip –s hello-release
/usr/local/mxscaleb/bin/mxscaleb-gcc –ggdb -o hello-debug hello.c
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu /hello
$ ls
Makefile README hello-debug
hello-release
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu /hello
$
5-9
hello.c
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Development Tool Chains
After that, use FTP to upload the executable file to the UC, and then run the executable.
/hello
ftp> bye
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu /hello
$ ftp 192.168.14.9
Connected to 192.168.14.9.
220 Moxa FTP server <Version wu-2.6.1<2> Mon Nov 24 12:17:04 CST 2003> ready.
User <192.168.14.9:<none>>: root
331 Password required for root.
Password:
230 User root logged in.
ftp> bin
200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for hello-release.
226 Transfer complete.
ftp: 2744 bytes sent in 0.00Seconds 2744000.00Kbytes/sec.
ftp> bye
221-You have transferred 2744 bytes in 1 files.
221-Total traffic for this session was 3131 bytes in 1 transfers.
221-Thank you for using the FTP service on Moxa.
221 Goodbye.
Jared_Wu@Jared_Wu /hello
$
root@Moxa:~# chmod 777 hello-release
root@Moxa:~# ./hello-release
Hello
On-Line Debugging with Insight
Insight is a graphical user interface that accompanies GDB, the GNU Debugger was written in
Tcl/Tk by people working at Red Hat, Inc., and Cygnus Solutions. Red Hat was generous enough
to make Insight available for public use, and continues to maintain the program.
Click on http://sources.redhat.com/insight/ for more information about using Insight, or click on
Help Topics under the Help menu to read the user manual.
5-10
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
5-11
Development Tool Chains
6
Chapter 6
Programmer’s Guide
This chapter includes important information for programmers.
The following functions are covered in this chapter:
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Flash Memory Map
Device API
RTC (Real Time Clock)
Buzzer
WDT (Watch Dog Timer)
UART
DI/DO
Make File Example
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Flash Memory Map
Partition sizes are hard coded into the kernel binary. To change the partition sizes, you will need to
rebuild the kernel. The flash memory map is shown in the following table.
Address
0x00000000 – 0x0003FFFF
0x00040000 – 0x001FFFFF
0x00200000 – 0x009FFFFF
0x00A00000 – 0x00FFFFFF
Size
256 KB
1.8 MB
8 MB
6 MB
Contents
Boot Loader—Read ONLY
Kernel object code—Read ONLY
Root file system (JFFS2) —Read ONLY
User directory (JFFS2) —Read/Write
Mount the user file system to /mnt/usrdisk with the root file system. Check to see if the user file
system was mounted correctly. If user file system is okay, the kernel will change the root file
system to /mnt/usrdisk. If the user file system is not okay, the kernel will use the default Moxa
file system. To finish boot process, run the init program.
NOTE
1.
2.
3.
The default Moxa file system only enables the network and CF. It lets users recover the user
file system when it fails.
The user file system is a complete file system. Users can create and delete directories and
files (including source code and executable files) as needed.
Users can create the user file system on the PC host or target platform, and then copy it to
the IA241/240.
Device API
The IA241/240 supports control devices with the ioctl system API. You will need to include
<moxadevice.h>, and use the following ioctl function.
int ioctl(int d, int request,…);
Input: int d - open device node return file handle
int request – argument in or out
Use the desktop Linux’s man page for detailed documentation:
#man ioctl
RTC (Real Time Clock)
The device node is located at /dev/rtc. The IA241/240 supports Linux standard simple RTC
control. You must include <linux/rtc.h>.
1.
Function: RTC_RD_TIME
int ioctl(fd, RTC_RD_TIME, struct rtc_time *time);
Description: read time information from RTC. It will return the value on argument 3.
2.
Function: RTC_SET_TIME
int ioctl(fd, RTC_SET_TIME, struct rtc_time *time);
Description: set RTC time. Argument 3 will be passed to RTC.
Buzzer
The device node is located at /dev/console. The IA241/240 supports Linux standard buzzer control,
with The IA241/240’s buzzer running at a fixed frequency of 100 Hz. You must include
<sys/kd.h>.
Function: KDMKTONE
6-2
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
ioctl(fd, KDMKTONE, unsigned int arg);
Description: The buzzer’s behavior is determined by the argument arg. The “high word” part
of arg gives the length of time the buzzer will sound, and the “low word” part gives the
frequency.
The buzzer’s on / off behavior is controlled by software. If you call the “ioctl” function, you
MUST set the frequency at 100 Hz. If you use a different frequency, the system could crash.
WDT (Watch Dog Timer)
1.
Introduction
The WDT works like a watch dog function. You can enable it or disable it. When the user
enables WDT but the application does not acknowledge it, the system will reboot. You can set
the ack time from a minimum of 50 msec to a maximum of 60 seconds.
2.
How the WDT works
The sWatchDog is disabled when the system boots up. The user application can also enable
ack. When the user does not ack, it will let the system reboot.
Kernel boot
…..
….
User application running and enable user ack
….
….
3.
The user API
The user application must include <moxadevic.h>, and link moxalib.a. A makefile
example is shown below:
all:
arm-linux-gcc –o xxxx
xxxx.c -lmoxalib
int swtd_open(void)
Description
Open the file handle to control the sWatchDog. If you want to do something you must first to
this. And keep the file handle to do other.
Input
None
Output
The return value is file handle. If has some error, it will return < 0 value.
You can get error from errno().
int swtd_enable(int fd, unsigned long time)
Description
Enable application sWatchDog. And you must do ack after this process.
Input
int fd
- the file handle, from the swtd_open() return value.
unsigned long time - The time you wish to ack sWatchDog periodically. You must ack the
sWatchDog before timeout. If you do not ack, the system will be reboot automatically. The
minimal time is 50 msec, the maximum time is 60 seconds. The time unit is msec.
6-3
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Output
OK will be zero. The other has some error, to get the error code from errno().
int swtd_disable(int fd)
Description
Disable the application to ack sWatchDog. And the kernel will be auto ack it. User does not to
do it at periodic.
Input
int fd - the file handle from swtd_open() return value.
Output
OK will be zero. The other has some error, to get error code from errno.
int swtd_get(int fd, int *mode, unsigned long *time)
Description
Get current setting values.
mode –
1 for user application enable sWatchDog: need to do ack.
0 for user application disable sWatchdog: does not need to do ack.
time – The time period to ack sWatchDog.
Input :
int fd - the file handle from swtd_open() return value.
int *mode - the function will be return the status enable or disable user application need to
do ack.
unsigned long *time – the function will return the current time period.
Output:
OK will be zero.
The other has some error, to get error code from errno().
int swtd_ack(int fd)
Description
Acknowledge sWatchDog. When the user application enable sWatchDog. It need to call this
function periodically with user predefined time in the application program.
Input
int fd - the file handle from swtd_open() return value.
Output
OK will be zero.
The other has some error, to get error code from errno().
int swtd_close(int fd)
Description
Close the file handle.
Input
int fd - the file handle from swtd_open() return value.
6-4
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Output
OK will be zero.
The other has some error, to get error code from errno().
4.
Special Note
When you “kill the application with -9” or “kill without option” or “Ctrl+c” the kernel will
change to auto ack the sWatchDog.
When your application enables the sWatchDog and does not ack, your application may have a
logical error, or your application has made a core dump. The kernel will not change to auto
ack. This can cause a serious problem, causing your system to reboot again and again.
5.
User application example
Example 1:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <moxadevice.h>
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
int fd;
fd = swtd_open();
if ( fd < 0 ) {
printf(“Open sWatchDog device fail !\n”);
exit(1);
}
swtd_enable(fd, 5000); // enable it and set it 5 seconds
while ( 1 ) {
// do user application want to do
…..
….
swtd_ack(fd);
…..
….
}
swtd_close(fd);
exit(0);
}
The makefile is shown below:
all:
arm-linux-gcc –o xxxx xxxx.c –lmoxalib
Example 2:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/select.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <moxadevice.h>
static void mydelay(unsigned long msec)
{
struct timeval time;
6-5
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
time.tv_sec = msec / 1000;
time.tv_usec = (msec % 1000) * 1000;
select(1, NULL, NULL, NULL, &time);
}
static int swtdfd;
static int stopflag=0;
static void stop_swatchdog()
{
stopflag = 1;
}
static void do_swatchdog(void)
{
swtd_enable(swtdfd, 500);
while ( stopflag == 0 ) {
mydelay(250);
swtd_ack(swtdfd);
}
swtd_disable(swtdfd);
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
pid_t sonpid;
signal(SIGUSR1, stop_swatchdog);
swtdfd = swtd_open();
if ( swtdfd < 0 ) {
printf(“Open sWatchDog device fail !\n”);
exit(1);
}
if ( (sonpid=fork()) == 0 )
do_swatchdog();
// do user application main function
…..
…..
…..
// end user application
kill(sonpid, SIGUSR1);
swtd_close(swtdfd);
exit(1);
}
The makefile is shown below:
all:
arm-linux-gcc –o xxxx xxxx.c –lmoxalib
UART
The normal tty device node is located at /dev/ttyM0
… ttyM3.
The IA241/240 supports Linux standard termios control. The Moxa UART Device API allows you
to configure ttyM0 to ttyM3 as RS-232, RS-422, 4-wire RS-485, or 2-wire RS-485. IA241/240
supports RS-232, RS-422, 2-wire RS-485, and 4-wire RS485.
You must include <moxadevice.h>.
#define
#define
#define
#define
RS232_MODE 0
RS485_2WIRE_MODE
RS422_MODE 2
RS485_4WIRE_MODE
1
3
6-6
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
1.
Programmer’s Guide
Function: MOXA_SET_OP_MODE
int ioctl(fd, MOXA_SET_OP_MODE, &mode)
Description
Set the interface mode. Argument 3 mode will pass to the UART device driver and change it.
2.
Function: MOXA_GET_OP_MODE
int ioctl(fd, MOXA_GET_OP_MODE, &mode)
Description
Get the interface mode. Argument 3 mode will return the interface mode.
There are two Moxa private ioctl commands for setting up special baudrates.
Function: MOXA_SET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE
Function: MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE
If you use this ioctl to set a special baudrate, the termios cflag will be B4000000, in which case the
B4000000 define will be different. If the baudrate you get from termios (or from calling tcgetattr())
is B4000000, you must call ioctl with MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE to get the actual
baudrate.
Example to set the baudrate
#include <moxadevice.h>
#include <termios.h>
struct termios term;
int
fd, speed;
fd = open(“/dev/ttyM0”, O_RDWR);
tcgetattr(fd, &term);
term.c_cflag &= ~(CBAUD | CBAUDEX);
term.c_cflag |= B4000000;
tcsetattr(fd, TCSANOW, &term);
speed = 500000;
ioctl(fd, MOXA_SET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE, &speed);
Example to get the baudrate
#include <moxadevice.h>
#include <termios.h>
struct termios term;
int fd, speed;
fd = open(“/dev/ttyM0”, O_RDWR);
tcgetattr(fd, &term);
if ( (term.c_cflag & (CBAUD|CBAUDEX)) != B4000000 ) {
// follow the standard termios baud rate define
} else {
ioctl(fd, MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE, &speed);
}
Baudrate inaccuracy
Divisor = 921600/Target Baud Rate. (Only Integer part)
ENUM = 8 * (921600/Targer - Divisor) ( Round up or down)
Inaccuracy = (Target Baud Rate – 921600/(Divisor + (ENUM/8))) * 100%
E.g.,
To calculate 500000 bps
Divisor = 1, ENUM = 7,
Inaccuracy = 1.7%
*The Inaccuracy should less than 2% for work reliably.
6-7
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Special Note
1.
If the target baudrate is not a special baudrate (e.g. 50, 75, 110, 134, 150, 200, 300, 600, 1200,
1800, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800, 921600), the termios
cflag will be set to the same flag.
2.
If you use stty to get the serial information, you will get speed equal to 0.
DI/DO
int set_dout_state(int doport, int state)
Description
Set the digital output state to high or low.
Input
int doport - the digital output port number. It is 0 to 3.
int state - the output state, high or low. You can use define DIO_HIGH or DIO_LOW.
Output
OK will be zero.
int get_din_state(int doport, int *state)
Description
Get the digital input current state at now.
Input
int diport - the digital input port number. It is 0 to 3.
int *state - To save the digital input state at now.
Output
OK will be zero.
int get_dout_state(int doport, int *state)
Description
Get the digital output current state at now.
Input
int doport - the digital output port number. It is 0 to 3.
int *state - To save the digital output state at now.
Output
OK will be zero.
int set_din_event(int diport, void (*func)(int diport), int mode, long int duration)
Description
Set the callback function for digital input port when the state is changed from high to low, low to
high or any sate changed.
Input
int diport - the digital output port number. It is 0 to 3.
void (*func)(int diport) - The call back function point. It will be called when the set event
happens.
int mode - Set the kind event. High to low, low to high or both.
long int duration - We know the digital signal sometime is not reliable. You can the duration time
6-8
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
to except the error signal. If you set to zero, it will not detect the duration time. You can set 40 ms
to 3600000 ms by increase 20 ms.
Output
OK will be zero.
Digital Input Signal
DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW
duration
int get_din_event(int diport, int *mode, long int *duration)
Description
Get the set event for digital input port.
Input
int diport - the digital output port number. It is 0 to 3.
int *mode - Save the set event.
long int *duration - Save the set duration time value.
Output
OK will be zero.
Special Note
Don’t forget to link the library libmoxalib & libpthread for DI/DO programming, and also
include the header file moxadevice.h. The DI/DO library only can be used by one program at a
time.
6-9
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Example
Example 1
File Name: tdio.c
Description: The program indicates to connect DO1 to DI1, change the digital output state to high
or low by manual input, then the detect and count the state changed events from DI1.(OK)
#include
#include
#include
#include
<stdio.h>
<stdlib.h>
<moxadevice.h>
<fcntl.h>
#ifdef DEBUG
#define dbg_printf(x...) printf(x)
#else
#define dbg_printf(x...)
#endif
#define MIN_DURATION 40
static char *DataString[2]={“Low “, “High “};
static void hightolowevent(int diport)
{
printf(“\nDIN port %d high to low.\n”, diport);
}
static void lowtohighevent(int diport)
{
printf(“\nDIN port %d low to high.\n”, diport);
}
int main(int argc, char * argv[])
{
int i, j, state, retval;
unsigned long duration;
while( 1 ) {
printf(“\nSelect a number of menu, other key to exit. \n\
1. set high to low event \n\
2. get now data.
\n\
3. set low to high event \n\
4. clear event
\n\
5. set high data.
\n\
6. set low data.
\n\
7. quit
\n\
8. show event and duration \n\
Choose : “);
retval =0;
scanf(“%d”, &i);
if ( i == 1 ) { // set high to low event
printf(“Please keyin the DIN number : “);
scanf(“%d”, &i);
printf(“Please input the DIN duration, this minimun value must be over %d :
“,MIN_DURATION);
scanf(“%lu”, &duration);
retval=set_din_event(i, hightolowevent, DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW, duration);
} else if ( i == 2 ) { // get now data
printf(“DIN data : “);
for ( j=0; j<MAX_DIN_PORT; j++ ) {
get_din_state(j, &state);
printf(“%s”, DataString[state]);
}
printf(“\n”);
printf(“DOUT data : “);
for ( j=0; j<MAX_DOUT_PORT; j++ ) {
get_dout_state(j, &state);
printf(“%s”, DataString[state]);
6-10
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
}
printf(“\n”);
} else if ( i == 3 ) { // set low to high event
printf(“Please keyin the DIN number : “);
scanf(“%d”, &i);
printf(“Please input the DIN duration, this minimun value must be over %d :
“,MIN_DURATION);
scanf(“%lu”, &duration);
retval = set_din_event(i, lowtohighevent, DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH, duration);
} else if ( i == 4 ) { // clear event
printf(“Please keyin the DIN number : “);
scanf(“%d”, &i);
retval=set_din_event(i, NULL, DIN_EVENT_CLEAR, 0);
} else if ( i == 5 ) { // set high data
printf(“Please keyin the DOUT number : “);
scanf(“%d”, &i);
retval=set_dout_state(i, 1);
} else if ( i == 6 ) { // set low data
printf(“Please keyin the DOUT number : “);
scanf(“%d”, &i);
retval=set_dout_state(i, 0);
} else if ( i == 7 ) { // quit
break;
} else if ( i == 8 ) { // show event and duration
printf(“Event:\n”);
for ( j=0; j<MAX_DOUT_PORT; j++ ) {
retval=get_din_event(j, &i, &duration);
switch ( i ) {
case DIN_EVENT_HIGH_TO_LOW :
printf(“(htl,%lu)”, duration);
break;
case DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH :
printf(“(lth,%lu)”, duration);
break;
case DIN_EVENT_CLEAR :
printf(“(clr,%lu)”, duration);
break;
default :
printf(“err “ );
break;
}
}
printf(“\n”);
} else {
printf(“Select error, please select again !\n”);
}
switch(retval) {
case DIO_ERROR_PORT:
printf(“DIO error port\n”);
break;
case DIO_ERROR_MODE:
printf(“DIO error mode\n”);
break;
case DIO_ERROR_CONTROL:
printf(“DIO error control\n”);
break;
case DIO_ERROR_DURATION:
printf(“DIO error duratoin\n”);
case DIO_ERROR_DURATION_20MS:
printf(“DIO error! The duratoin is not a multiple of 20 ms\n”);
break;
}
}
return 0;
}
6-11
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Example 2
File Name: tduration.c
Description: The program indicates to connect DO1 to DI1 and program will change digital output
state automatically at the fixed frequency, then detect event change of the digital input state is high
or low in different duration. (OK)
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
<stdio.h>
<stdlib.h>
<signal.h>
<sys/time.h>
<fcntl.h>
<unistd.h>
<pthread.h>
<moxadevice.h>
#ifdef DEBUG
#define dbg_printf(x...) printf(x)
#else
#define dbg_printf(x...)
#endif
#define DURATION_NUM 7
#define TEST_NUM 10
static int ndin_StateChangeDetected, ndout_StateChangeDetected;
static int nDuration;
static unsigned long duration[2][DURATION_NUM]={ { 50, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15 }, { 160,
140, 120, 100, 80, 60, 40, } };
/********************************************************************
When the din state changed form high to low, this function will be invoked
********************************************************************/
static void low2highevent(int diport)
{
ndin_StateChangeDetected++;
dbg_printf(“din state changed:%d\n”,ndin_StateChangeDetected);
}
/********************************************************************
This function is used to exchange the dout state periodically
********************************************************************/
void dout_control(int signo)
{
int state;
get_dout_state(0, &state);
dbg_printf(“dout state changed:%d\n”,state);
if(state) // exchange the dout state periodically
{
ndout_StateChangeDetected++;
set_dout_state(0, 0);
}
else
{
set_dout_state(0, 1);
}
}
void dio_test_function(void )
{
struct itimerval value;
int j, i, nChoice;
struct timeval tv;
do {
printf(“0.Test for Din duration==0.\n”);
6-12
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
printf(“1.Test for Din duration!=0.\n”);
printf(“9.Quit.\n” );
printf(“Please select a choice>“);
scanf(“%d”,&nChoice);
if( nChoice == 9 ){ // Quit
break;
}
else if( nChoice == 0 ){ //test for din duration==0
for ( nDuration=0; nDuration < DURATION_NUM; nDuration++ ) {
// configure the dout frequency. When the timer timeouts, dout_control() will be
called to change the dout state
value.it_value.tv_sec = duration[0][nDuration]/1000;
value.it_value.tv_usec = (duration[0][nDuration]%1000) *1000 ;
value.it_interval = value.it_value;
setitimer(ITIMER_REAL,&value,NULL);
ndin_StateChangeDetected = 0; // reset these counters
ndout_StateChangeDetected = 0;
printf(“DI duration,:0, DO duration:%d\n”,duration[0][nDuration]);
set_din_event(0, low2highevent, DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH, 0);
while( ndin_StateChangeDetected < TEST_NUM ) {
pause();
}
printf(“ndin_StateChangeDetected:%d, ndout_StateChangeDetected:%d,\n”,
ndin_StateChangeDetected, ndout_StateChangeDetected);
printf(“loss detection
probability:%f\%,\n”,(ndout_StateChangeDetected-ndin_StateChangeDetected)*100.0/nd
out_StateChangeDetected);
}
}//end of if( nChoice ==0 )
else if( nChoice == 1 ) { //test for din duration!=0
for ( nDuration=0; nDuration < DURATION_NUM; nDuration++ ) {
// configure the dout frequence. when the timer timeout, dout_control() will be
call to change the dout state
value.it_value.tv_sec = duration[1][nDuration]/1000;
value.it_value.tv_usec = ( duration[1][nDuration]%1000 ) *1000 ;
value.it_interval = value.it_value;
setitimer(ITIMER_REAL,&value,NULL);
// Test for: dout kept in the same frequency but din set for different duration
for( i=0; i<DURATION_NUM; i++) {
if( duration[1][i] <= duration[1][nDuration] ) {
// reset these counters
ndin_StateChangeDetected = 0;
ndout_StateChangeDetected = 0;
printf(“DI duration,:%d, DO duration:%d\n”, duration[1][i],
duration[1][nDuration] );
set_din_event(0, low2highevent, DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH, duration[1][i]);
while( ndout_StateChangeDetected < TEST_NUM ) {
pause();
}
printf(“ndin_StateChangeDetected:%d, ndout_StateChangeDetected:%d,\n”,
ndin_StateChangeDetected, ndout_StateChangeDetected);
printf(“loss detection
probability:%f\%,\n”,(ndout_StateChangeDetected-ndin_StateChangeDetected)*100.0/nd
out_StateChangeDetected);
}
} //end of for( i=0; i<DURATION_NUM; i++)
6-13
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
}
}
} while(1);
pthread_exit(NULL);
}
void init_sigaction(void)
{
struct sigaction act;
act.sa_handler=dout_control;
act.sa_flags=0;
sigemptyset(&act.sa_mask);
sigaction(SIGALRM,&act,NULL);
}
int main(int argc, char * argv[])
{
pthread_t dio_test;
init_sigaction();
set_dout_state(0, 0);
// set the DOUT0 as high
set_din_event(0, low2highevent, DIN_EVENT_LOW_TO_HIGH, duration[1][0]);
dio_test_function();
while( nDuration < DURATION_NUM )
usleep(100000);
}
DIO Program Make File Example
FNAME=tdio
FNAME1=tduration
CC=arm-linux-gcc
STRIP=arm-linux-strip
release:
$(CC) -o
$(CC) -o
$(STRIP)
$(STRIP)
$(FNAME) $(FNAME).c -lmoxalib -lpthread
$(FNAME1) $(FNAME1).c -lmoxalib -lpthread
-s $(FNAME)
-s $(FNAME1)
debug:
$(CC) -DDEBUG -o $(FNAME)-dbg $(FNAME).cxx -lmoxalib -lpthread
$(CC) -DDEBUG -o $(FNAME1)-dbg $(FNAME1).cxx -lmoxalib -lpthread
clean:
/bin/rm -f $(FNAME) $(FNAME)-dbg $(FNAME1) $(FNAME1)-dbg *.o
Make File Example
The following Makefile file example codes are copied from the Hello example on the IA241/240’s
CD-ROM.
CC = /usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc
CPP = /usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc
SOURCES = hello.c
OBJS =
$(SOURCES:.c=.o)
all: hello
hello: $(OBJS)
$(CC) -o $@ $^ $(LDFLAGS) $(LIBS)
6-14
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
clean:
rm -f $(OBJS) hello core *.gdb
6-15
Programmer’s Guide
7
Chapter 7
Software Lock
“Software Lock” is an innovative technology developed by the Moxa engineering force. It can be
adopted by a system integrator or developer to protect his applications from being copied. An
applicaion is compiled into a binary format bound to the embedded computer and the operating
system (OS) that the application runs on. As long as one obtains it from the computer, he/she can
install it into the same hardware and the same operating system. The add-on value created by the
developer is thus lost.
Moxa engineering force has developed this protection mechanism for your applications via data
encryption. The binary file associated with each of your applications needs to undergo an
additional encryption process after you have developed it. The process requires you to install an
encryption key in the target computer.
1.
Choose an encryption key (e.g.,”ABigKey”) and install it in the target computer by a preutility program, ‘setkey’.
#setkey ABigKey
Note: set an empty string to clear the encryption key in the target computer by:
#setkey ““
2.
Develop and compile your program in the development PC.
3.
In the development PC, run the utility program ‘binencryptor’ to encrypt your program with
an encryption key.
#binencryptor yourProgram ABigKey
4.
Upload the encrypted program file to the target computerby FTP or NFS and test the program.
The encryption key is a computer-wise key. That is to say, a computer has only one key installed.
Running the program ‘setkey’ multiple times causes the key to be overrided.
To prove the effectiveness of this software protection mechanism, prepare a target computer that
has not been installed an encryption key or install a key different from that used to encrypt your
program. In any case, the encrypted program fails immediately.
This mechanism also allows the computer with an encryption key to bypass programs that are not
encrypted. Therefore, in the development phase, you can develop your programs and test them in
the target computer cleanly.
8
Chapter 8
UC Finder
UC Finder comes in handy if you forget the IP address of the target computer while you have a
demand for troubleshooting field problems. This utility works by sending a broadcast message
over the LAN to search for IP addresses of target computers. Two versions of UC Finder are
provided. The GUI version works in Windows environments, and the command line utility works
in Linux environments.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰ Windows UC Finder
¾ Installing the Software
¾ Broadcast Search
‰ Linux ucfinder
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
UC Finder
Windows UC Finder
The UC Finder utility is used to search the LAN or intranet for Moxa embedded computers.
Installing the Software
1.
Once the Setup program starts running, click on Next to proceed.
2.
Click on Next when the Select Additional Tools window opens to proceed with the
installation.
8-2
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
UC Finder
3.
Click on Next to install program files in the default directory, or select an alternative location.
4.
Click on Finish to complete the installation of UC Finder.
8-3
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
UC Finder
Broadcast Search
The Broadcast Search function is used to locate all IA241/240 units that are connected to the
same LAN as your Windows computer.
Since the Broadcast Search function searches by MAC address and not IP address, all IA241/240’s
connected to the LAN will be found, regardless of whether or not they are on the same subnet as
the host.
1.
Click o n the Broadcast Search button to start searching.
2.
The Searching window displays the Model, MAC Address, and IP Address of devices that
were located..
8-4
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
3.
NOTE
UC Finder
When the search is complete, the same information is displayed in the UC Finder window.
UC Finder is designed to determine the IP addresses of all UC units connected to the same LAN
the host that is running UC Finder. To configure UC’s IP addresses or other configuration
parameters, use Telnet over the network, or connect directly to the serial Console port to access
IA241/240’s Console utility.
Linux ucfinder
Copy ucfinder from the Documentation and Software CD to your Linux PC, and then use the
following command to start the program. UC Finder will automatically locate all IA241/240 units
on the LAN, and then report their IP addresses.
#./ucfinder
8-5
A
Appendix A
System Commands
busybox (V0.60.4): Linux normal command utility collection
File manager
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
cp
ls
ln
mount
rm
chmod
chown
chgrp
sync
mv
pwd
df
mkdir
rmdir
copy file
list file
make symbolic link file
mount and check file system
delete file
change file owner & group & user
change file owner
change file group
sync file system, let system file buffer be saved to hardware
move file
display now file directly
list now file system space
make new directory
delete directory
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
vi
cat
zcat
grep
cut
find
more
test
sleep
echo
text editor
dump file context
compress or expand files
search string on file
get string on file
find file where are there
dump file by one page
test file exist or not
sleep (seconds)
echo string
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
ping
route
netstat
ifconfig
tracerout
tftp
telnet
ftp
ping to test network
routing table manager
display network status
set network ip address
trace route
Editor
Network
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Process
1.
2.
kill
ps
kill process
display now running process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
dmesg
sty
zcat
mknod
free
date
env
clear
reboot
halt
du
gzip, gunzip
hostname
dump kernel log message
to set serial port
dump .gz file context
make device node
display system memory usage
print or set the system date and time
run a program in a modified environment
clear the terminal screen
reboot / power off/on the server
halt the server
estimate file space usage
compress or expand files
show system’s host name
Other
MOXA special utilities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
backupfs
bf
kversion
cat /etc/version
upramdisk
downramdisk
backup file system (user directory)
built the file system (user directory)
show kernel version
show user directory version
mount ramdisk
unmount ramdisk
A-2
System Commands
B
Appendix B
Service Information
This appendix shows you how to contact Moxa for information about this and other products, and
how to report problems.
The following topics are covered in this appendix:
‰ MOXA Internet Services
‰ Problem Report Form
‰ Product Return Procedure
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Service Information
MOXA Internet Services
Customer satisfaction is our number one concern, and to ensure that customers receive the full
benefit of our products, Moxa Internet Services has been set up to provide technical support, driver
updates, product information, and user’s manual updates.
The following services are provided
E-mail for technical support................................support@moxa.com
World Wide Web (WWW) Site for product information:
.............................http://www.moxa.com
B-2
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Service Information
Problem Report Form
MOXA ThinkCore IA241/240
Customer name:
Company:
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Date:
1.
Moxa Product: † ThinkCore IA241
2.
Serial Number:
† ThinkCore IA240
_________________
Problem Description: Please describe the symptoms of the problem as clearly as possible, including any error
messages you see. A clearly written description of the problem will allow us to reproduce the symptoms, and
expedite the repair of your product.
B-3
ThinkCore IA241/240 Linux User’s Manual
Service Information
Product Return Procedure
For product repair, exchange, or refund, the customer must:

Provide evidence of original purchase.

Obtain a Product Return Agreement (PRA) from the sales representative or dealer.

Fill out the Problem Report Form (PRF). Include as much detail as possible for a shorter
product repair time.

Carefully pack the product in an anti-static package, and send it, pre-paid, to the dealer. The
PRA should be visible on the outside of the package, and include a description of the problem,
along with the return address and telephone number of a technical contact.
B-4