ZyXEL Communications | G-102 | User`s guide | ZyXEL Communications G-102 User`s guide

Copyright © 2009
ZyXEL Communications Corporation
DEFAULT LOGIN DETAILS
IP Address
http://192.168.100.1
Password
1234
Firmware Version 1.0
Edition 1, 10/2011
MWR102
Mobile Wireless Router
2
About This User's Guide
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for people who want to configure the MWR102 using the Web-Based
Management Interface. You should have at least a basic knowledge of TCP/IP networking
concepts and topology.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It contains
information on setting up your network and configuring for Internet access.
• Supporting Disc
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• ZyXEL Web Site
Please refer to www.us.zyxel.com for additional support documentation and product
certifications.
User Guide Feedback
Help us to help you. Send all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for
improvement to the following e-mail address. Thank you!
SUPPORT E-MAIL
WEB SITE
techwriter@zyxel.com
www.zyxel.com
3
Customer Support
Please have the following information ready when you contact Customer Support:
•
Product model and serial number
•
Warranty information
•
Date that you received or purchased your device
Brief description of the problem including any steps that you have taken
before contacting the ZyXEL Customer Support representative
•
Support Email
support@zyxel.com
Toll-Free
1-800-978-7222
Website
www.us.zyxel.com
Postal mail
ZyXEL Communications Inc.
1130 N. Miller Street,
Anaheim, CA 92806-2001
U.S.A.
4
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notes
These are how warnings and notes are shown in this User’s Guide.
Warnings tell you about things that could harm you or your device.
Note: Notes tell you other important information (for example, other things you may need
to configure or helpful tips) or recommendations.
Syntax Conventions
• The MWR102 may be referred to as the “MWR102”, the “device”, the “product” or the “system”
in this User’s Guide.
• Product labels, screen names, field labels and field choices are all in bold font.
• A key stroke is denoted by square brackets and uppercase text, for example, [ENTER] means
the “enter” or “return” key on your keyboard.
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters and then press the [ENTER] key. “Select”
or “choose” means for you to use one of the predefined choices.
• A right angle bracket ( > ) within a screen name denotes a mouse click. For example,
Maintenance > Log > Log Setting means you first click Maintenance in the navigation panel,
then the Log sub menu and finally the Log Setting tab to get to that screen.
• Units of measurement may denote the “metric” value or the “scientific” value. For example, “k”
for kilo may denote “1000” or “1024”, “M” for mega may denote “1000000” or “1048576” and so
on.
• “e.g.,” is a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” means “that is” or “in other words”.
5
Icons Used in Figures
Figures in this User’s Guide may use the following generic icons. The MWR102 icon is not an
exact representation of your device.
MWR102
Computer
Notebook
computer
Server
Modem
Firewall
Telephone
Switch
Router
6
Safety Warnings
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming pool.
• Do not leave the device exposed to a heat source or in a high-temperature location such as in
the sun or in an unattended vehicle. To prevent damage, remove the device from the vehicle
or store it out of direct sunlight
• When storing the device for an extended time, store within the following temperature range:
from 32° to 77°F
• Do not operate the device beyond the range of 32° to 104° F
• Do not operate or store the device outside of the above temperature range
• Contact your local waste disposal department to dispose of the device/battery in accordance
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with applicable local laws and regulations.
Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
Do Not keep the unit power on while putting it into suite case, closed box, luggage, computer
bag and any closed storage, do turn the device power off before storage.
Do NOT store things on the device.
Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk of
electric shock from lightning.
Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to dangerous
high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel should service or
disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
Use ONLY power adaptor or cord provided by the manufacturer for your device.
Connect the power adaptor or cord to the right supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in North
America or 230V AC in Europe).
Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the product
where anyone can walk on the power adaptor or cord.
Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause
electrocution.
If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the power outlet.
Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a new
one.
Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a
remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your device.
Antenna Warning! This device meets ETSI and FCC certification requirements when using the
included antenna(s). Only use the included antenna(s).
If you wall mount your device, make sure that no electrical lines, gas or water pipes will be
damaged.
Battery Warnings
Please follow the safety guidelines described in the safety warning and battery warning. Failing to
do so may shorten the lifespan of the internal lithium ion battery or may present a risk of
damage to the unit, fire, chemical burn, electrolyte leak and/or injury.
7
• Do not leave unit exposed to a heat source or in a location that may become hot, such as a
parked vehicle or in direct sunlight. Do not leave in a glove box, trunk or other location that may
become hot.
• Do not puncture or incinerate the device or battery.
• When/if you dispose of the battery, be certain to follow ordinances from local waste disposal
agencies.
• Keep the battery away from small children or pets
• Never use a knife, screwdriver or other sharp object to remove the battery.
• Do not attempt to open the battery.
• Use only the provided recharger to recharge the battery.
• Only replace the battery with the correct replacement battery. Failure to do so may result in fire
or explosion. Contac ZyXEL to obtain the correct replacement battery.
Your product is marked with this symbol, which is known as the WEEE mark. WEEE stands for
Waste Electronics and Electrical Equipment. It means that used electrical and electronic products
should not be mixed with general waste. Used electrical and electronic equipment should be
treated separately.
8
Table of Contents
About This User's Guide..................................................................................................3
Document Conventions ...................................................................................................5
Safety Warnings ..............................................................................................................7
Part I:
1
Introduction .................................................................................................. 13
Getting to Know Your MWR102 ............................................................................. 14
1.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 14
1.2 Applications ................................................................................................... 14
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the MWR102........................................................ 15
1.4 The Front Panel ................................................................................................. 15
1.5 The Rear Panel ................................................................................................. 16
2
Web-Based Management ....................................................................................... 17
2.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 17
2.2 Accessing the Web-Based Management Interface ......................................... 17
2.3
3
Resetting the MWR102 .............................................................................. 18
MWR102 Modes .................................................................................................... 19
3.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 19
4
Router Mode .......................................................................................................... 20
4.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 20
4.2 What You Can Do .......................................................................................... 20
5
Access Point Mode ................................................................................................ 23
5.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 23
5.2 What You Can Do .......................................................................................... 23
5.3 AP Mode Status Screen ................................................................................. 24
5.4 LAN Screen ................................................................................................... 27
6
Tutorials .................................................................................................................29
9
6.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 29
6.2 Connecting to Internet from an Access Point ................................................... 30
6.3 Configuring Wireless Security Using WPS ....................................................... 30
6.4
Enabling and Configuring Wireless Security (No WPS) .............................. 32
Part II:
Wireless ........................................................................................................ 35
7
Wireless .................................................................................................................36
7.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 36
7.2 What You Can Do .......................................................................................... 36
7.3 What You Should Know ................................................................................. 36
7.4 General Wireless LAN Screen ....................................................................... 39
7.5 Wireless LAN Advanced Settings................................................................... 40
7.6 Security.......................................................................................................... 42
7.7 Access Control............................................................................................... 45
7.8 WPS Screen .................................................................................................. 47
7.9 Wireless Site Survey (AP Mode Only) ............................................................ 48
8
Network Settings .................................................................................................... 50
8.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 50
8.2 What You Can Do .......................................................................................... 50
8.3 What You Need To Know............................................................................... 51
8.4 LAN Interface ................................................................................................. 52
8.5 WAN Interface ............................................................................................... 54
Part III: Security ........................................................................................................... 56
9
MAC Filtering ......................................................................................................... 57
9.1 Overview........................................................................................................ 57
9.2 What You Can Do .......................................................................................... 57
9.3 What You Need To Know............................................................................... 57
9.4 MAC Filtering ................................................................................................. 58
Part IV: Management ................................................................................................... 59
10
10
Status ................................................................................................................60
10.1
Overview .................................................................................................... 60
10.2
What You Can Do ...................................................................................... 60
10.3
Status Screen ............................................................................................ 60
11
Statistics ............................................................................................................ 63
11.1
Overview .................................................................................................... 63
11.2
Statistics Screen ........................................................................................ 63
12
Log ....................................................................................................................65
12.1
Overview .................................................................................................... 65
12.2
Log Screen ................................................................................................ 65
13
Upgrade Firmware ............................................................................................. 67
13.1
Overview .................................................................................................... 67
13.2
Upgrade Firmware Screen ......................................................................... 67
14.1
Overview .................................................................................................... 69
14.2
What You Can Do ...................................................................................... 69
14.3
Save/Reload Settings Screen .................................................................... 69
15
Password ........................................................................................................... 72
15.1
Overview .................................................................................................... 72
15.2
Password Screen ....................................................................................... 72
Part V:
16
17
Troubleshooting ............................................................................................. 74
Troubleshooting ................................................................................................. 75
16.1
Overview .................................................................................................... 75
16.2
Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ................................................. 75
16.3
MWR102 Access and Login ....................................................................... 76
16.4
Internet Access .......................................................................................... 77
16.5
Resetting MWR102 to Factory Defaults ..................................................... 79
16.6
Wireless Router/AP Troubleshooting ......................................................... 79
Product Specifications ....................................................................................... 81
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Appendix A: Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ............................... 85
Appendix B: IP Addresses and Subnetting .................................................................... 93
Appendix C: Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address .................................................. 105
Appendix D: Wireless LANs ........................................................................................ 127
Appendix E: Common Services ................................................................................... 141
Appendix F: Legal Information..................................................................................... 146
Appendix G: Open Source Licenses............................................................................ 150
12
Part I: Introduction
13
1 Getting to Know Your
MWR102
1.1 Overview
The MWR102 is a mobile wireless router with 1T1R MIMO technology. It complies with
IEEE 802.11n standards, with Wireless N data rates of up to 150 Mbps, and IEEE
802.11b/g with Wireless B/G data rates of 54 Mbps. It is also backward compatable with
all 11/54 Mbps wireless (802.11b/g) products.
The router allows multiple users to share one broadband connection, as well as secures
your private network. LAN users can share files, printers, or play network games all at
high speeds over the same network.
The MWR102 supports advanced security encryption: WPA, WPA2, open shared key,
and pair-wise key authentication services, giving you vital network security. Moreover,
this router supports energy efficient Ethernet and saves power.
1.2 Applications
You can create the following networks using the MWR102:
• Wired. You can connect a network device via the Ethernet port of the MWR102 so that they
can communicate with each other and access the Internet.
• Wireless. Wireless clients can connect to the MWR102 to access network resources.
• Land line WAN. Connect to a broadband modem/router for Internet access.
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1.3 Good Habits for Managing the MWR102
Do the following things regularly to make the MWR102 more secure and to manage the MWR102
more effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of different
types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an earlier
working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even crashes. If you
forget your password, you will have to reset the MWR102 to its factory default settings. If you
backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the MWR102.
You could simply restore your last configuration.
1.4 The Front Panel
Figure 1 The front panel of the Wireless Router
Table 1 Front Panel LEDs
Name
PWR
WPS
Status
Indication
Green
Power on
Dark
Blink green one time
Blink green
Dark
WLAN
WPS connecting
System stable
Off
The wireless function is disabled.
Flashing
The wireless function is enabled.
Flashing fast
Off
WAN /
LAN
Power off
System reboot
On
Flashing
Sending or receiving data over wireless.
There is no device linked to the corresponding port or
the connection is dropping off.
There are devices linked to the corresponding ports but
no data transmitted or received.
Sending or receiving data over corresponding port.
15
1.5 The Rear Panel
Figure 2 The rear panel of the Wireless Router.




LAN: Through this port, you can connect the router to your PCs and the other
Ethernet network devices.
WAN: This WAN port is where you will connect the cable/DSL Modem, or Ethernet.
DC IN: Plug the end of the cable firmly into the rear panel of the router, and plug
the other end into a USB outlet to power the system.
WPS/Reset Button: Located on the underside of the device. Click this button to
start PBC configuration method for easy WPS setup.Hold the reset button for 5
seconds or more to reset the system to factory defaults. The system will then
reboot, and approximately 60 seconds later will be ready for further use. The reboot
process cannot be interrupted by powering off the device, or the unit will fail. Before
performing the reset process, ensure the system will be able to finish rebooting!
Warning: Incomplete factory setting recovery procedure will cause the Wireless
Router to malfunction! If you are in this situation, do not try to repair it by
yourself. Consult your local distributor for help!
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2 Web-Based Management
2.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to access the MWR102 Web-Based Management Interface and
provides an overview of its screens.
The Web-Based Management Interface is an HTML-based management interface that allows
easy setup and management of the MWR102 via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 7.0 and
later or Firefox 3.0 and later versions or Safari 4.0 or later versions. The recommended screen
resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels or higher. In order to use the Web-Based Management Interface
you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by default in
Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
Refer to the Troubleshooting chapter (Chapter 16) to see how to make sure these functions are
allowed in Internet Explorer.
2.2 Accessing the Web-Based Management
Interface
1
2
3
2.2.1
Make sure your MWR102 hardware is properly connected and prepare your computer or
computer network to connect to the MWR102 (refer to the Quick Start Guide).
Launch your web browser.
Type "http://192.168.100.1" as the website address. Your computer must be in the same
subnet in order to access this website address.
Login Screen
The Web-Based Management Interface initially displays the following login screen.
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Figure 3 Login Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
Password
Type “admin” (default) as the User name.
Type “1234” (default) as the password.
2.3 Resetting the MWR102
If you forget your password or IP address, or you cannot access the Web-Based Management
Interface, you will need to use the RESET button at the back of the MWR102 to reload the
factory-default configuration file. This means that you will lose all configurations that you had
previously saved, the password will be reset to “1234” and the IP address will be reset to
“192.168.100.1”.
2.3.1
Procedure to Use the Reset Button
1 Make sure the power LED is on.
2 Press the RESET button for longer than one second to restart/reboot the MWR102.
3 Press the RESET button for longer than five seconds to set the MWR102 back to its factorydefault configurations. The Power LED will start to blink to indicate that the default configuration is
being loaded.
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3 MWR102 Modes
3.1 Overview
This chapter introduces the different modes available on your MWR102.
3.1.1
Device Modes
This refers to the operating mode of the MWR102, which can act as a:
• Router. This is the default device mode of the MWR102. Use this mode to connect the local
network to another network, like the Internet.
• Access Point. Use this mode if you want to extend your network by allowing network devices to
connect to the MWR102 wirelessly. Go to AP view the Status screen in this mode.
19
4 Router Mode
4.1 Overview
The MWR102 is set to router mode by default. Routers are used to connect the local
network to another network (for example, the Internet).
4.2 What You Can Do
Use the Status screen to view read-only information about your MWR102.
4.2.1
Navigation Panel
Use the sub-menus on the navigation panel to configure MWR102 features.
Figure 4 Navigation Panel
20
The following table describes the sub-menus.
Table 2 Navigation Panel: Router Mode
LINK
Setup Wizard
FUNCTION
This screen guides you through the setup of the MWR102.
Wireless
Basic Settings
Advanced Settings
Use this screen to change the basic wireless settings of the MWR102
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings
Security
Use this screen to change Wireless Security settings.
Access Control
This page allows control over what devices are allowed to access the
router.
WPS
This screen allows you to change the Wi-Fi Protected Setup settings
for the MWR102
Network Settings
LAN Interface
WAN Interface
This screen allows you to configure the parameters for your Local Area
Network.
This screen allows you to configure WAN settings.
Firewall
MAC Filtering
This screen allows you to deny access to specific devices on your
network.
Management
21
Status
Shows the current status and basic settings of the travel router
Statistics
Shows packet counts for wired and wireless Ethernet connections.
Log
Set remote log server parameters and view the system log.
Upgrade Firmware
Upgrade the travel router firmware.
Save/Reload
Settings
Password
Save the current settings to a backup file, or reload the setting from a
previously saved file.
Set or change the travel router ADMINISTRATOR user name and
password.
Logout
22
5 Access Point Mode
5.1 Overview
Use your MWR102 as an access point (AP) if you already have a router or gateway on your
network. In this mode your MWR102 bridges a wired network (LAN) and wireless LAN (WLAN) in
the same subnet.
5.2 What You Can Do
• Use the Status screen to view read-only information about your MWR102.
• Use the LAN screen to set the IP address for your MWR102 acting as an access point.
5.2.1
1
Setting your MWR102 to AP Mode
Flip the switch on the side of the device from “Router” to “AP.”
5.2.2 Accessing the Web-Based Management Interface
in Access Point Mode
Log in to the Web-Based Management Interface in Access Point mode, do the following:
1
Connect your computer to the LAN port of the MWR102.
2
The default IP address of the MWR102 is “192.168.100.1”. In this case, your computer
must have an IP address in the range between “192.168.100.2” and “192.168.100.254”.
3
Click Start > Run on your computer in Windows. Type “cmd” in the dialog box. Enter
“ipconfig” to show your computer’s IP address. If your computer’s IP address is not in the
correct range then see Appendix C for information on changing your computer’s IP
address.
4
After you’ve set your computer’s IP address, open a web browser such as Internet
Explorer and type “192.168.100.1” as the web address in your web browser.
23
5.2.3
Configuring your WLAN and Maintenance
Settings
The configuration of wireless and maintenance settings in Access Point mode is the same as for
Router Mode.
• See Chapter 7 for information on the configuring your wireless network.
5.3 AP Mode Status Screen
Click Management > Status to open the Status screen
Table 3 Status Screen: Router Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Information
Uptime
This is the total time the MWR102 has been on.
Firmware Version
This is current firmware version.
Firmware Build Time
This is the date/time the current version of the firmware was released.
Operation Mode
This is the device mode to which the MWR102 is set – AP Mode.
Wireless Local Network
Network Band
We provide six modes for your selection: 2.4GHz (B), 2.4 GHz
(G), 2.4 GHz (N), 2.4GHz (B+G), 2.4 GHz (G+N), 2.4 GHz
(B+G+N).
You may select one type of network band from the dropdown menu.
SSID (Name)
Shows the current name of your wireless network.
Channel Number
This shows the channel number the MWR102 is currently using over Wireless LAN.
24
Encryption
This shows the level of wireless security the MWR102 is currently using.
BSSID
This displays the MAC address of the wireless device.
Associated Clients
Displays the number of clients currently associated to the MWR102
Local Network
Router IP Address
Displays the IP address designated to the MWR102 by your router.
Subnet Mask
Shows what subnet mask the MWR102 is on.
DHCP
This shows the LAN port’s DHCP role - Server or None.
Auto IP Address
Diversion
Click the drop down list, you may select “Enabled” to divert the IP Address
automatically or select “Disabled” to ban it. When Enabled e, the system will
automatically detect conflicts in the WAN and LAN IP. If there are conflicts, the LAN
IP and LAN DHCP Range will automatically jump to next subnet to avoid conflicts.
Local MAC Address
This is the MAC address of your MWR102
5.3.1
Navigation Panel
Use the menu in the navigation panel to configure MWR102 features in Access Point mode.
The following screen and table show the features you can configure in Access Point mode.
25
Figure 5 Navigation Panel
The following table describes the sub-menus.
Table 4 Navigation Panel: Router Mode
LINK
Setup Wizard
FUNCTION
This screen guides you through the setup of the MWR102.
Wireless
Basic Settings
Advanced Settings
Use this screen to change the basic wireless settings of the MWR102
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings
Security
Use this screen to change Wireless Security settings.
Access Control
This page allows control over what devices are allowed to access the
26
router.
Site Survey
This page provides a tool to scan the wireless network for
nearby routers and APs.
WPS
This screen allows you to change the Wi-Fi Protected Setup settings
for the MWR102
Network Settings
LAN Interface
This screen allows you to configure the parameters for your Local Area
Network.
Management
Status
Shows the current status and basic settings of the travel router
Statistics
Shows packet counts for wired and wireless Ethernet connections.
Log
Set remote log server parameters and view the system log.
Upgrade Firmware
Upgrade the travel router firmware.
Save/Reload
Settings
Password
Save the current settings to a backup file, or reload the setting from a
previously saved file.
Set or change the travel router ADMINISTRATOR user name and
password.
Logout
5.4 LAN Screen
Use this section to configure your LAN settings while in Access Point mode.
Click Network Settings > LAN Interface to see the screen below.
27
Note: If you change the IP address of the MWR102 in the screen below, you will need to
log into the MWR102 again using the new IP address.
Figure 6 Network Settings > LAN Interface
The table below describes the labels in the screen.
Table 5 Network Settings > LAN Interface
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Router IP
Address
Type the IP address in dotted decimal notation. The default setting is
192.168.100.2. If you change the IP address you will have to log in again with the
new IP address.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your
MWR102 will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address that
you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the MWR102.
DHCP
DHCP
Client
Range
DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is a protocol for
assigning dynamic IP addresses “automatically”.
This field asks you to specify the DHCP Client IP address range (default
100~200). You can also click the “Show Client” button to list those connected
DHCP clients.
Note: In Router mode, the DHCP Server is enabled by default. However, in AP
mode, the DHCP Server disabled by default.
Auto IP
Address
Click the drop down list, you may select “Enabled” to divert the IP Address
automatically or select “Disabled” to ban it. When Enabled e, the system will
28
Diversion
automatically detect conflicts in the WAN and LAN IP. If there are conflicts, the
LAN IP and LAN DHCP Range will automatically jump to next subnet to avoid
conflicts.
6 Tutorials
6.1 Overview
This chapter provides tutorials for your MWR102 as follows:
• Connecting to the Internet from an Access Point
• Configuring Wireless Security Using WPS
• Enabling and configuring wireless security
6.1.1
DSL Modem
If your internet connection comes from a DSL modem you will want to follow these steps to best prepare
your modem to connect with the MWR102.
1)
Contact your ISP (Internet Service Provider) and ask them to help you “bridge” your DSL modem.
2)
Find out from your ISP what the “PPPoE Username and Password” are for your Internet connection.
3)
Once the DSL modem has been bridged, connect it (by Ethernet cord) to the WAN port of the MWR102.
4) Open your browser and log into the MWR102. Click on Network Settings > WAN Interface, for the WAN
Access Type select “PPPoE” and enter your PPPoE “Username and Password.”
6.1.2
Cable Modem
•
Connect the cable modem to your MWR102 on the WAN port. Unplug the power to your
cable modem. Depending on your cable modem, it may also have a backup battery
inside. Remove this battery and completely power down the cable modem. Let it sit from
2 to 3 minutes and then reconnect the battery and power to the cable modem.
•
If the router is set with its default settings it should automatically connect to the Internet.
29
6.2 Connecting to Internet from an Access
Point
This section gives you an example of how to set up an access point (AP) and wireless client (a
notebook (B), in this example) for wireless communication. B can access the Internet through the
access point wirelessly. When the MWR is configured in AP mode, it has to connect to a
broadband gateway (wired or wireless router with broadband connection). Local computer(s) can
get IP via wireless connection passed by MWR from the broadband gateway, then gain Internet
access.
Figure 7 Wireless Access Point mode
6.3 Configuring Wireless Security Using
WPS
This section gives you an example of how to set up wireless network using WPS. This example
uses the MWR102 as the AP and NWD210N as the wireless client which connects to a notebook.
Note: The wireless client must be a WPS-aware device (for example, a WPS USB
adapter or PCI card).
There are two WPS methods for creating a secure connection. This tutorial shows you how to do
both.
• Push Button Configuration (PBC) - create a secure wireless network simply by pressing a
button. This is the easier method.
• PIN Configuration - create a secure wireless network simply by entering a wireless client's PIN
(Personal Identification Number) in the MWR102’s interface. This is the more secure method,
since one device can authenticate the other.
30
6.3.1
Push Button Configuration (PBC)
1
Make sure that your MWR102 is turned on and that it is within range of your computer.
2
Make sure that you have installed the wireless client (this example uses the NWD210N)
driver and utility in your notebook.
3
In the wireless client utility, find the WPS settings. Enable WPS and press the WPS
button (Start or WPS button)
4
Log into MWR102’s Web-Based Management Interface and press the Start PBC button
in the Wireless > WPS screen.
Note: Your MWR102 has a WPS button located on its bottom panel, as well as a WPS
button in its configuration utility. Both buttons have exactly the same function; you can
use one or the other.
Note: It doesn’t matter which button is pressed first. You must press the second button
within two minutes of pressing the first one.
The MWR102 sends the proper configuration settings to the wireless client. This may take up to
two minutes. Then the wireless client is able to communicate with the MWR102 securely.
6.3.2
PIN Configuration
When you use the PIN configuration method, you need to use both MWR102’s configuration
interface and the client’s utilities.
1
Launch your wireless client’s configuration utility. Go to the WPS settings and select the
PIN method to get a PIN number.
2
Enter the PIN number to the PIN field in the Wireless > WPS screen on the MWR102.
3
Click Start buttons (or button next to the PIN field) on both the wireless client utility
screen and the MWR102’s WPS Station screen within two minutes.
The MWR102 authenticates the wireless client and sends the proper configuration settings to the
wireless client. This may take up to two minutes. Then the wireless client is able to communicate
with the MWR102 securely.
31
6.4 Enabling and Configuring Wireless
Security (No WPS)
Follow the steps below to configure the wireless settings on your MWR102.
The instructions require that your hardware is connected (see the Quick Start Guide) and you are
logged into the Web-Based Management Interface through your LAN connection.
1
Open the Wireless > Security screen in the AP’s Web-Based Management Interface.
2
Choose a Pre-Shared Key format. (Passphrase or Hex)
3
Enter your desired key, then click the Apply Changes button.
Figure 8 Tutorial: Wireless > Security
6.5
Configure Your Notebook
Note: We use the ZyXEL M-302 wireless adapter utility screens as an example for the
wireless client. The screens may vary for different models.
1. The MWR102 supports IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11n wireless
clients. Make sure that your notebook or computer’s wireless adapter supports one of
these standards.
32
2. Wireless adapters come with software sometimes called a “utility” that you install on
your computer. See your wireless adapter’s User’s Guide for information on how to
do that.
3. After you’ve installed the utility, open it. If you cannot see your utility’s icon on your
screen, go to Start > Programs and click on your utility in the list of programs that
appears. The utility displays a list of APs within range, as shown in the example
screen below.
4. Select the MWR102’s SSID and click Connect.
Figure 9 Connecting a Wireless Client to a Wireless Network
5. Select WPA-PSK and type the security key in the following screen. Click Next.
Figure 10 Security Settings
6. The Confirm Save window appears. Check your settings and click Save to continue.
33
Figure 11 Confirm Save
7. Check the status of your wireless connection in the screen below. If your wireless
connection is weak or you have no connection, see the Troubleshooting section of
this User’s Guide.
Figure 12 Link Status
If your connection is successful, open your Internet browser and enter http://us.zyxel.com or the
URL of any other web site in the address bar. If you are able to access the web site, your wireless
connection is successfully configured.
34
Part II: Wireless
35
7 Wireless
7.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure the wireless network settings in your MWR102. See the
appendices for more detailed information about wireless networks.
7.2 What You Can Do
• Use the Basic Settings screen to enable the Wireless LAN, enter the SSID and select the
channel width.
• Use the Advanced Settings screen to set RF output power and set the RTS Threshold.
• Use the Security screen to set encryption type and passphrase.
• Use the Access Control screen to whitelist and blacklist devices on your network.
• Use the WPS screen to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without having to
configure security settings manually.
7.3 What You Should Know
Every wireless network must follow these basic guidelines.
• Every wireless client in the same wireless network must use the same SSID.
The SSID is the name of the wireless network. It stands for Service Set IDentity.
• If two wireless networks overlap, they should use different channels.
Like radio stations or television channels, each wireless network uses a specific channel, or
frequency, to send and receive information.
• Every wireless client in the same wireless network must use security compatible with the AP.
Security stops unauthorized devices from using the wireless network. It can also protect the
information that is sent in the wireless network.
36
7.3.1
Wireless Security Overview
The following sections introduce different types of wireless security you can set up in the wireless
network.
7.3.1.1
SSID
Normally, the AP acts like a beacon and regularly broadcasts the SSID in the area. You can hide
the SSID instead, in which case the AP does not broadcast the SSID. In addition, you should
change the default SSID to something that is difficult to guess.
This type of security is fairly weak, however, because there are ways for unauthorized devices to
get the SSID. In addition, unauthorized devices can still see the information that is sent in the
wireless network.
7.3.1.2
MAC Address Filter
1
Every wireless client has a unique identification number, called a MAC address. A MAC address
2
is usually written using twelve hexadecimal characters ; for example, 00A0C5000002 or
00:A0:C5:00:00:02. To get the MAC address for each wireless client, see the appropriate User’s
Guide or other documentation.
You can use the MAC address filter to tell the AP which wireless clients are allowed or not
allowed to use the wireless network. If a wireless client is allowed to use the wireless network, it
still has to have the correct settings (SSID, channel, and security). If a wireless client is not
allowed to use the wireless network, it does not matter if it has the correct settings.
This type of security does not protect the information that is sent in the wireless network.
Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized devices to get the MAC address of an authorized
wireless client. Then, they can use that MAC address to use the wireless network.
7.3.1.3
Encryption
Wireless networks can use encryption to protect the information that is sent in the wireless
network. Encryption is like a secret code. If you do not know the secret code, you cannot
understand the message.
The types of encryption you can choose depend on the type of user authentication.
1
Some wireless devices, such as scanners, can detect wireless networks but cannot use wireless networks. These
kinds of wireless devices might not have MAC addresses.
2
Hexadecimal characters are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
37
Table 6 Types of Encryption for
Each Type of Authentication
NO AUTHENTICATION
Weakest
No Security
WEP
WPA-Personal (TKIP)
WPA-Enterprise
Strongest
WPA2-Personal (AES)
WPA2-Enterprise
Usually, you should set up the strongest encryption that every wireless client in the wireless
network supports. Suppose the wireless network has two wireless clients. Device A only supports
WEP, and device B supports WEP and WPA-PSK. Therefore, you should set up WEP in the
wireless network.
Note: It is recommended that wireless networks use WPA-Personal/Enterprise or
stronger encryption. IEEE 802.1x and WEP encryption are better than none at all, but it
is still possible for unauthorized devices to figure out the original information pretty
quickly.
Many types of encryption use a key to protect the information in the wireless network. The longer
the key, the stronger the encryption. Every wireless client in the wireless network must have the
same key.
7.3.1.4
WPS
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is an industry standard specification, defined by the Wi-Fi Alliance.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without having to
configure security settings manually. Depending on the devices in your network, you can either
press a button (on the device itself or in its configuration utility) or enter a PIN (Personal
Identification Number) in the devices. Then, they connect and set up a secure network by
themselves.
38
7.4 General Wireless LAN Screen
Use this screen to enable the Wireless LAN, enter the SSID and select the channel.
Note: If you are configuring the MWR102 from a computer connected to the wireless LAN
and you change the MWR102’s SSID, channel or security settings, you will lose your
wireless connection when you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the
wireless settings of your computer to match the MWR102’s new settings.
Click Wireless > Basic Settings to open.
Figure 13 Wireless > Basic Settings
The following table describes the general wireless LAN labels in this screen.
Table 7 Wireless > Basic Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Basic Settings
39
Allows you to choose between Wireless B/G/N functionality.
Network Band
Allows you to choose between the 20MHz and 40MHz channel.
Channel Width
Channel
Number
This displays the channel the MWR102 is currently using.
Country
Allows you to set your country.
Broadcast
SSID
Set whether or not the MWR102 is discoverable.
Associated
Clients
The Show Clients button shows all clients associated with the MWR102.
7.5 Wireless LAN Advanced Settings
Use this screen to allow wireless advanced features, such as setting output power and the RTS
Threshold
Click Wireless > Advanced Settings. The screen appears as shown.
40
Figure 14 Wireless > Advanced Settings
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 Wireless > Advanced Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter an even
number between 256 and 2346.
Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS (Request To
RTS Threshold Send)/CTS (Clear To Send) handshake.
Enter a value between 0 and 2347.
Beacon
Interval
Beacons are packets sent by an access point to synchronize a
wireless network. Specify a beacon interval value. Default (100ms) is
recommended.
Preamble
Type
The length of CRC blocks in the frames during the wireless
communication.
41
Output Power
Set the output power of the MWR102 in this field. If there is a high density of APs in
an area, decrease the output power of the MWR102 to reduce interference with
other APs. Select one of the following 100%, 70%, 50%, 35%, or 15%. See the
product specifications for more information on your MWR102’s output power.
Apply
Changes
Click Apply Changes to save your changes back to the MWR102.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.6 Security
7.6.1
Disabling Security
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points without any data
encryption.
Note: If you do not enable any wireless security on your MWR102, your network is
accessible to any wireless networking device that is within range.
Figure 15 Wireless > Security
42
7.6.2
WEP Encryption
WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the access
points to keep network communications private. It encrypts unicast and multicast communications
in a network. Both the wireless stations and the access points must use the same WEP key.
In order to configure and enable WEP encryption, click Wireless > Security to display the
Security screen. Select WEP from the Encryption list.
Figure 16 Wireless > Security: WEP
The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
Table 9 Wireless > Security: WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption
Select Static WEP to enable data encryption.
Select Open System, Auto, or Shared Key.
Authentication
Method
This field specifies whether the wireless clients have to provide the WEP key to login
to the wireless client. Keep this setting at Auto unless you want to force a key
verification before communication between the wireless client and the ZyXEL Device
occurs.
Select Shared Key to force the clients to provide the WEP key prior to
communication.
43
Select 64-bit or 128-bit.
Key Length
This dictates the length of the security key that the network is going to use.
Key Format
Select ASCII (5 Characters) or Hex (10 Characters) from the dropdown menu.
Enter a Passphrase.
Encryption Key A passphrase functions like a password. In WEP security mode, it is further
converted by the MWR102 into a complicated string that is referred to as the “key”.
This key is requested from all devices wishing to connect to a wireless network.
Apply
Changes
Click Apply to save your changes back to the MWR102.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.6.3
WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK/WPA2-Mixed
Click Wireless > Security to display the Security screen. Select WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, or
WPA2-Mixed from the Security Mode list.
Figure 17 Wireless > Security: WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK/WPA2-Mixed
44
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 Wireless > Security: WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK/WPA2-Mixed
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption
Select WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-Mixed to enable data encryption.
Pre-shared Key
Format
This field allows you to choose between a passphrase and HEX as your SreShared Key Format.
Pre-Shared Key
WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK/WPA2-Mixed use a simple common password for
authentication.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive keyboard characters.
Apply Changes
Click Apply Changes to save your changes back to the MWR102.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.7 Access Control
The Access Control screen allows you to configure the MWR102 to give exclusive access to
devices (Allow) or exclude devices from accessing the MWR102 (Deny). Every Ethernet device
has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address is assigned at the factory
and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to
know the MAC address of the devices to configure this screen.
To change your MWR102’s MAC filter settings, click Wireless > Access Control. The screen
appears as shown.
45
Figure 18 Wireless > Access Control
The following table describes the labels in this menu.
Table 11 Wireless > Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless
Access
Control
Mode
Define whether entered MAC addresses will be whitelisted or blacklisted.
MAC
Address
Enter the MAC addresses of the wireless station that are allowed or denied access to
the MWR102 in this field. Enter the MAC addresses in a valid MAC address format,
that is, six hexadecimal character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc. Click Apply
Changes.
Comment
Enter any notes about the device being black/whitelisted in this field.
Delete
Selected
Delete single MAC addresses from the list.
Delete All
Delete all MAC addresses from the list.
46
Apply
Changes
Click Apply to save your changes back to the MWR102.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.8 WPS Screen
Use this screen to enable/disable WPS, view or generate a new PIN number and check current
WPS status. To open this screen, click Wireless > WPS.
Figure 19 Wireless > WPS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Network > Wireless LAN > WPS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wi-Fi Protected Setup
Disable WPS
Select this to disable the WPS feature.
47
This displays Configured when the MWR102 has connected to a wireless
network using WPS. The current wireless and wireless security settings also
appear in the screen.
Status
This displays Unconfigured if WPS is disabled and there are no wireless or
wireless security changes on the MWR102 or you click Reset to Unconfigured
to remove the configured wireless and wireless security settings.
Self-PIN Number
This displays a PIN number last time system generated. Click Generate to
generate a new PIN number.
This button is only available when the WPS status displays Configured.
Reset to
Unconfigured
Push Button
Configuration
Click this button to remove all configured wireless and wireless security settings
for WPS connections on the MWR102.
Press this button to begin the PBC process.
Current Key Info
The authentication type, encryption type, and key are displayed here if security
settings are configured.
Client PIN
number
This is where the PIN is displayed when using PIN setup. To generate a PIN,
press the Start PIN button.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the MWR102.
Refresh
Click Refresh to get this screen information afresh.
7.9 Wireless Site Survey (AP Mode Only)
Use this screen to view nearby wireless networks. Go to Wireless > Site Survey to open the
following screen.
Figure 20 Wireless > Site Survey
48
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 Wireless > Site Survey
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Site Survey
SSID
This displays the Network Name (SSID) of the wireless networks close to you.
This displays the MAC address of the wireless device listed.
BSSID
Channel
This displays the wireless channel used by the wireless network.
Type
This displays the network type being used by the wireless network.
Encrypt
This displays the encryption type used by the wireless network.
Signal
This displays the strength of the wireless network signal.
49
8 Network Settings
8.1 Overview
This chapter discusses the MWR102’s Network Settings screens. Use these screens to
configure your LAN and WAN settings.
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many computers are
attached. A LAN is a computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building
or floor of a building.
A WAN (Wide Area Network) connection is an outside connection to another network or the
Internet. It connects your private networks such as a LAN (Local Area Network) and other
networks, so that a computer in one location can communicate with computers in other locations.
Figure 21 LAN and WAN
8.2 What You Can Do
• Use the LAN Interface Setup screen to modify your router’s IP address, DHCP Settings, and
Subnet Mask
• Use the WAN Interface Setup screen to modify your DHCP access type (DHCP client, Static IP,
or PPoE), MTU Size, DNS Settings, and MAC address.
50
8.3 What You Need To Know
The information in this section can help you configure the screens for your WAN and LAN
connections.
8.3.1
Configuring Your Internet Connection
The actual physical connection determines whether the MWR102 ports are LAN or WAN ports.
There are two separate IP networks, one inside the LAN network and the other outside the WAN
network as shown next.
Figure 22 LAN and WAN IP Addresses (implies wired WAN connection)
The LAN parameters of the MWR102 are preset in the factory with the following values:
• IP address of 192.168.100.1 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
• DHCP server enabled with 32 client IP addresses starting from 192.168.100.33.
These parameters should work for the majority of installations. If your ISP gives you explicit DNS
server address(es), read the embedded Web-Based Management Interface help regarding what
fields need to be configured.
8.3.2
WAN MAC Address
The MAC address screen allows users to configure the WAN port's MAC address by either using
the factory default or cloning the MAC address from a computer on your LAN. Choose Factory
Default to select the factory assigned default MAC Address.
Otherwise, click Clone the computer's MAC address - IP Address and enter the IP address of
the computer on the LAN whose MAC you are cloning. Once it is successfully configured, the
address will be copied to configuration file. It is recommended that you clone the MAC address
prior to hooking up the WAN Port.
51
8.4 LAN Interface
The LAN Interface Setup screen allows you to set up your LAN interface, the private IP
of your router’s LAN port, and the subnet mask of your LAN segment. Go to Network >
LAN Interface to access the following screen.
Figure 23 Network > LAN Interface
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Network > LAN Interface
Items
Information
Router IP
Address
The IP of your Router LAN port (default 192.168.100.1).
Subnet Mask
Subnet Mask of you LAN (default 255.255.255.0). All devices
on the network must have the same subnet mask to
communicate on the network.
DHCP
DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is a
protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses “automatically”.
DHCP Client
Range
This field asks you to specify the DHCP Client IP address
range (default 100~200). You can also click the “Show Client”
button to list those connected DHCP clients.
Note: In Router mode, the DHCP Server is enabled by
default. However, in AP mode, the DHCP Server disabled by
52
default.
Auto IP Address
Diversion
8.4.1
Click the drop down list, you may select “Enabled” to divert
the IP Address automatically or select “Disabled” to ban it.
When Enabled, the system will automatically detect conflicts
in the WAN and LAN IP. If there are conflicts, the LAN IP and
LAN DHCP Range will automatically jump to next subnet to
avoid conflicts.
Active DHCP Client List
This window pops up after clicking the Show Client button.
Figure 24 Network > LAN Interface > Show Client
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 Network > LAN Interface > Show Client
Items
Information
IP Address
The IP of the connected client.
MAC Address
The MAC Address of the connected client.
Time Expired
The amount of seconds the client has been connected.
Refresh
This button refreshes the list with the most recent
information.
Close
Closes the Active DHCP Client Table.
53
8.5 WAN Interface
This page allows users to configure WAN settings. You may select the Internet
connection type from the drop down list next to “WAN Access Type” and configure the
parameters for each mode. Go to Network Settings > WAN Interface to open the
following screen.
Figure 25 Network > WAN Interface
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Network > WAN Interface
Items
Information
WAN Access Type
Select to access the WAN as Static, DHCP Client or PPPoE.
Internet IP Address
The IP address provided by your Internet Service Provider
(ISP).
Subnet Mask
The Subnet Mask provided by your Internet Service Provider
(ISP).
Default Gateway
The Default Gateway provided by your Internet Service
54
Provider (ISP).
MTU Size
The Maximum packet size the router will transmit. Any
packet over the specified size will be chopped into a smaller
size before sending. Larger packet size will enhance
performance.
Enter the MTU number in the blank to set the limitation.
Clone MAC Address
There are two ways to clone a MAC address.
One way is to directly input a MAC address into the text
box. To store a MAC address, click the 'Manual Add' button
and add it to the “History MAC Table.” The second way is to
click the 'MAC Clone' button. This will copy the MAC
address from your network card.
Note: The 'History MAC Table' can save a maximum of three
MAC Addresses.
History MAC Table
To Delete MAC Addresses you have added before, mark the
check box on the right hand and click “Delete Selected.” If you
want to delete all saved MAC Addresses, click “Delete All.”
55
Part III:
Security
MAC Filtering
56
9 MAC Filtering
9.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to enable and configure MAC address filtering that allows your
MWR102 to permit and deny access to specific devices on your network.
Enable MAC Filtering to restrict the passage of certain types of data packets from your local
network to the Internet through the travel router. Use of such filters can be helpful in securing or
restricting your local network.
By default the firewall allows all traffic that originates from your LAN computers to go to all
networks.
9.2 What You Can Do
• Use the MAC Filtering screen to enable or disable MAC Filtering, and modify what devices are
restricted to the local network.
9.3 What You Need To Know
The MWR102’s MAC Filtering feature physically separates the LAN and the WAN of selected
devices, and acts as a secure gateway to keep selected devices from having access to the WAN.
The MWR102 is installed between the LAN and a broadband modem connecting to the Internet.
This allows it to act as a gateway for all data passing between the Internet and the LAN.
The MWR102 has one Ethernet WAN port and one Ethernet LAN port, which are used to
physically separate the network into two areas. The WAN (Wide Area Network) port attaches to
the broadband (cable or DSL) modem to the Internet.
The LAN (Local Area Network) port attaches to a network of computers. These computers will
have access to Internet services such as e-mail, FTP and the World Wide Web unless their MAC
address is blocked by the MWR102.
57
9.4 MAC Filtering
This page allows users to restrict data from passing onto the internet from certain
devices. Go to Firewall > MAC Filtering to open the following screen.
Figure 26 Firewall > MAC Filtering
Table 17 Firewall > MAC Filtering
Items
Information
Enable MAC
Filtering
Mark to enable MAC Filtering, and clear to disable.
MAC Address
Comment
Current Filter Table
Enable MAC
Filtering
MAC Address
Comment
Fill in the MAC address of wireless stations you want to forbid
Internet access to.
Input any text to describe the name of the device, reason for
filtering, etc.
Lists MAC Filter Settings you have added before. To delete
settings on the list, click the check box next to the item and
click “Delete Selected.” If you want to delete all saved MAC
addresses, click “Delete All.”
Mark to enable MAC Filtering, and clear to disable.
Fill in the MAC address of wireless stations you want to forbid
Internet access to.
Input any text to describe the name of the device, reason for
filtering, etc.
58
Part IV:
Management
Status
Statistics
Log
Upgrade Firmware
Save/Reload Settings
Password
59
10 Status
10.1
Overview
This chapter discusses how to access and interpret information about the MWR102.
10.2
What You Can Do
• Use the Status screen to view the current status and basic settings of the device.
10.3
Status Screen
This information page shows the current status and basic settings of this device.
Click Management > Status to open the Status screen.
Figure 27 Management > Status
60
Table 18 Management > Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Information
Uptime
This is the total time the MWR102 has been on.
Firmware Build Time
This is the date/time the current version of the firmware was released.
Operation Mode
This is the device mode to which the MWR102 is set – Router Mode.
Wireless Local Network
Network Band
We provide six modes for your selection: 2.4GHz (B), 2.4 GHz (G), 2.4 GHz (N),
2.4GHz (B+G), 2.4 GHz (G+N), 2.4 GHz (B+G+N).
You may select one type of network band from the dropdown menu.
SSID (Name)
Shows the current name of your wireless network.
Channel Number
This shows the channel number the MWR102 is currently using over Wireless LAN.
Encryption
This shows the level of wireless security the MWR102 is currently using.
BSSID
This displays the MAC address of the wireless device.
Associated Clients
Displays the number of clients currently associated to the MWR102
Local Network
Router IP Address
Displays the IP address designated to the MWR102 by your router.
Subnet Mask
Shows what subnet mask the MWR102 is on.
DHCP
This shows the LAN port’s DHCP role - Server or None.
Internet Connection
Connection Type
Shows connection type: Static, DHCP Client or PPPoE.
61
Internet IP Address
The IP address provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Subnet Mask
The Subnet Mask provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Default Gateway
The Default Gateway provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Internet MAC Address
MAC Address of the device on the internet.
62
11 Statistics
11.1
Overview
This page shows users data transfer information, and monitors packets sent and
received
11.2
Statistics Screen
. Click Management > Statistics to access the Statistics screen.
Figure 28 Management > Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Management > Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
This table shows the number of packets sent over the Wireless LAN.
Wireless LAN
This table shows the number of packets received over the Wireless LAN.
Ethernet LAN
This table shows the number of packets sent over Ethernet LAN.
63
This table shows the number of packets received over Ethernet LAN.
This table shows the number of packets sent over the Ethernet WAN.
Ethernet WAN
This table shows the number of packets received over the Ethernet WAN.
Refresh
This button updates the Statistics screen to show the current number of packets
sent and received.
Clear
This button clears the system log.
64
12 Log
12.1
Overview
This page shows current activity on the router, and allows you to set what information
the router logs.
12.2
Log Screen
Click Management > Log to access the Log screen.
Figure 29 Management > Log
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 Management > Log
65
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Log
Checking this box enables system log functionality.
System All
Checking this box shows all logged information passing through the device.
Wireless
Checking this box shows only the information passing through the wireless network.
Apply Changes
This button applies the changes made above. The MWR102 must reboot in order
for these changes to take affect.
Refresh
This button updates the System Log to show the most recent information to pass
through the device.
Clear
This button clears the system log.
66
13 Upgrade Firmware
13.1
Overview
Occasionally, a firmware upgrade may be issued to address bugs or add functionality. This
chapter discusses how to upgrade to the MWR102’s most recent firmware.
Find firmware at http://us.zyxel.com/Support/Download-Library.aspx. The upload process uses
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and may take up to two minutes. After a successful upload,
the system will reboot.
13.2
Upgrade Firmware Screen
Click Management > Upgrade Firmware. Follow the instructions in this screen to upload
firmware to your MWR102.
Figure 30 Management > Upgrade Firmware
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
67
Table 21 Management > Upgrade Firmware
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select File
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse... to
find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two minutes.
Note: Do not turn off the MWR102 while firmware upload is in progress!
After you see the Firmware Upload In Process screen, wait two minutes before logging into the
MWR102 again.
The MWR102 automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In
some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 31 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the Status screen.
If the upload was not successful, an error message appears. Click Return to go back to the
Firmware screen.
68
14 Save/Reload Settings
14.1
Overview
This chapter shows you how to backup, restore and reset your MWR102.
14.2
What You Can Do
Save Settings to File allows you to back up (save) the MWR102’s current configuration to a file
on your computer. Once your MWR102 is configured and functioning properly, it is highly
recommended that you back up your configuration file before making configuration changes. The
backup configuration file will be useful in case you need to return to your previous settings.
Load Settings from File allows you to upload a new or previously saved configuration file from
your computer to your MWR102.
Reset Settings to Default allows you to restore the configuration to factory default.
14.3
Save/Reload Settings Screen
Click Management > Save/Reload Settings. Information related to factory defaults, backup
configuration, and restoring configuration appears as shown next.
69
Figure 32 Management > Save/Reload Settings
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 Management > Save/Reload Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Save…
Click Save… to save the MWR102’s current configuration to your computer.
Load Settings
from File
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse... to
find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Click Upload to begin the upload process.
Note: Do not turn off the MWR102 while configuration file upload is in
progress.
Upload
After you see a “configuration upload successful” screen, you must then wait one
minute before logging into the MWR102 again. The MWR102 automatically restarts
in this time causing a temporary network disconnect.
If you see an error screen, click Back to return to the Backup/Restore screen.
70
Pressing the Reset button in this section clears all user-entered
configuration information and returns the MWR102 to its factory defaults.
Reset
You can also press the RESET button on the rear panel to reset the factory
defaults of your MWR102. Refer to the Web-Based Management Interface
Chapter for more information on the RESET button.
Note: If you uploaded the default configuration file you may need to change the IP
address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default MWR102
IP address (192.168.100.1). See Appendix C for details on how to set up your
computer’s IP address.
71
15 Password
15.1
Overview
This chapter discusses management of the MWR102’s Administrator user name and password.
These are the User name and Password used to access the Web-based Management interface
and make changes to your router.
15.2
Password Screen
Click Management > Password.
Figure 33 Management > Password
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
72
Table 23 Management > Password
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
Type the user name you wish to use to log into the MWR102.
New Password
Type your new system password (up to 30 characters). Note that as you type a
password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you type.
Confirmed
Password
Type the new password again in this field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the MWR102.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
73
Part V: Troubleshooting
74
16 Troubleshooting
16.1
Overview
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential
problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• Internet Access
• Resetting MWR102
• Wireless Router/AP Troubleshooting
16.2
Power, Hardware Connections, and
LEDs
The MWR102 does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1
Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the MWR102.
2
Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the MWR102 and plugged in to
an appropriate power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
3
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the MWR102.
4
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 1.4.
2
Check the hardware connections. See the Quick Start Guide.
75
3
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
4
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor to the MWR102.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
16.3
MWR102 Access and Login
I don’t know the IP address of my MWR102.
1
The default IP address is 192.168.100.1.
2
If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, you might get the IP address of
the MWR102 by looking up the IP address of the default gateway for your computer.
To do this in most Windows computers, click Start > Run, enter cmd, and then enter
ipconfig. The IP address of the Default Gateway might be the IP address of the
MWR102 (it depends on the network), so enter this IP address in your Internet
browser. Set your device to Router Mode, login (see the Quick Start Guide for
instructions) and go to the Local Network table in the Status screen. Your
MWR102’s IP address is available in the Local Network table.
• If the DHCP setting under Local Network is None, your device has a fixed IP address.
• If the DHCP setting under Local Network is Client, then your device receives an IP address
from a DHCP server on the network.
3
If your MWR102 is a DHCP client, you can find your IP address from the DHCP
server. This information is only available from the DHCP server which allocates IP
addresses on your network. Find this information directly from the DHCP server or
contact your system administrator for more information.
4
Reset your MWR102 to change all settings back to their default. This means your
current settings are lost. See Resetting MWR102 in the Troubleshooting section for
information on resetting your MWR102.
I forgot the password.
1
The default password is 1234.
2
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See
Resetting MWR102.
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the Web-Based Configuration
Utility.
76
1
Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is 192.168.100.1.
• If you changed the IP address (Chapter 5), use the new IP address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting
suggestions for “I don’t know the IP address of my MWR102”
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See the Quick Start Guide.
3
Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has
JavaScripts and Java enabled. See Appendix A.
4
Make sure your computer is in the same subnet as the MWR102. (If you know that
there are routers between your computer and the MWR102, skip this step.)
• If there is a DHCP server on your network, make sure your computer is using a
dynamic IP address.
• If there is no DHCP server on your network, make sure your computer’s IP address
is in the same subnet as the MWR102. See Appendix B.
5
Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the MWR102 with the
default IP address.
6
If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of
the advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestion
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the MWR102.
1
Make sure you have entered the password correctly. The default password is 1234.
This field is case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2
This can happen when you fail to log out properly from your last session. Try logging
in again after 5 minutes.
3
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the MWR102.
4
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See
Resetting MWR102.
16.4
Internet Access
I cannot access the Internet.
77
1
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See the Quick Start Guide.
2
Make sure you entered your ISP account information correctly. These fields are casesensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
3
If you are trying to access the Internet wirelessly, make sure the wireless settings in
the wireless client are the same as the settings in the AP.
4
Disconnect all the cables from your device, and follow the directions in the Quick
Start Guide again.
5
Check your System Operation Mode setting.
• Select Router if your device routes traffic between a local network and another
network such as the Internet.
• Select Access Point if your device bridges traffic between clients on the same
network.
6
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
I cannot access the Internet anymore. I had access to the Internet (with
the MWR102), but my Internet connection is not available anymore.
1
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.4.
2
Reboot the MWR102.
3
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
The Internet connection is slow or intermittent.
1
There might be a lot of traffic on the network. Look at the LEDs, and check Section
1.4. If the MWR102 is sending or receiving a lot of information, try closing some
programs that use the Internet, especially peer-to-peer applications.
2
Check the signal strength. If the signal strength is low, try moving the MWR102
closer to the AP if possible, and look around to see if there are any devices that might
be interfering with the wireless network (for example, microwaves, other wireless
networks, and so on).
3
Reboot the MWR102.
4
If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of
the advanced suggestions.
78
Advanced Suggestions
• Check the settings for bandwidth management. If it is disabled, you might consider activating it.
If it is enabled, you might consider changing the allocations.
• Check the settings for QoS. If it is disabled, you might consider activating it. If it is enabled, you
might consider raising or lowering the priority for some applications.
16.5
Resetting MWR102 to Factory
Defaults
If you reset the MWR102, you lose all of the changes you have made. The MWR102 re-loads its
default settings, and the password resets to 1234. You have to make all of your changes again.
You will lose all of your changes when you push the RESET button.
To reset the MWR102,
1
Make sure the power LED is on.
2
Press the RESET button for longer than 1 second to restart/reboot the MWR102.
3
Press the RESET button for longer than five seconds to set the MWR102 back to its
factory-default configurations.
If the MWR102 restarts automatically, wait for the MWR102 to finish restarting, and log in to the
Web-Based Configuration Interface. The password is “1234”.
If the MWR102 does not restart automatically, disconnect and reconnect the MWR102’s power.
Then, follow the directions above again.
16.6
Wireless Router/AP Troubleshooting
I cannot access the MWR102 or ping any computer from the WLAN
(wireless AP or router).
1
Make sure the wireless LAN is enabled on the MWR102
2
Make sure the wireless adapter on the wireless station is working properly.
3
Make sure the wireless adapter installed on your computer is IEEE 802.11
compatible and supports the same wireless standard as the MWR102.
79
4
Make sure your computer (with a wireless adapter installed) is within the transmission
range of the MWR102.
5
Check that both the MWR102 and your wireless station are using the same wireless
and wireless security settings.
6
Make sure you allow the MWR102 to be remotely accessed through the WLAN
interface. Check your remote management settings.
• See the chapter on Wireless LAN in the User’s Guide for more information.
I can’t access the Web -Based Configuration Interface after switching to
AP mode.
When you change from router mode to AP mode, your computer must have an IP address in the
range between “192.168.100.3” and “192.168.100.254”.
Refer to Appendix C for instructions on how to change your computer’s IP address.
The following tables summarize the MWR102’s hardware and firmware features.
80
17 Product Specifications
The following tables summarize the MWR102’s hardware and firmware features.
Table 24 Hardware Features
Dimensions (W x D x H)
162 mm x 115 mm x 33 mm
Weight
252 g
Input: 100~240 V AC, 50~60 Hz
Power Specification
Output: 5V DC 2A
Ethernet ports
Auto-negotiating: 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps in either half-duplex or full-duplex
mode.
Auto-crossover: Use either crossover or straight-through Ethernet cables.
LEDs
PWR, LAN, WAN, WLAN, WPS
Reset Button
The reset button is built into the bottom panel. Use this button to restore
the MWR102 to its factory default settings. Press for 1 second to restart
the device. Press for 5 seconds to restore to factory default settings.
WPS button
Press the WPS on two WPS enabled devices within 120 seconds for a
security-enabled wireless connection.
Temperature: 0º C ~ 40º C / 32ºF ~ 104ºF
Operation Environment
Humidity: 10% ~ 90%
Temperature: -20º C ~ 70º C / -4ºF ~ 158ºF
Storage Environment
Humidity: 20% ~ 70%
Table 25 Firmware Features
81
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
192.168.100.1 (router)
Default IP Address
192.168.100.2. (AP)
Default Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
Default Password
1234
DHCP Pool
192.168.100.33 to 192.168.100.64
Wireless Interface
Wireless LAN
Default Wireless SSID
ZyXEL
Default Wireless DHCP
Pool Size
Wireless LAN: Same as LAN (32 from 192.168.100.33 to
192.168.100.64)
Device Management
Use the Web-Based Configuration Interface to easily configure the rich
range of features on the MWR102.
Allows IEEE 802.11b and/or IEEE 802.11g wireless clients to connect
to the MWR102 wirelessly. Enable wireless security ( WPA(2)-PSK)
and/or MAC filtering to protect your wireless network.
Wireless Functionality
Note: The MWR102 may be prone to RF (Radio
Frequency) interference from other 2.4 GHz devices
such as microwave ovens, wireless phones,
Bluetooth enabled devices, and other wireless LANs.
Download new firmware (when available) from the ZyXEL web site and
use the Web-Based Configuration Interface to put it on the MWR102.
Firmware Upgrade
Note: Only install firmware for your specific model!
Save/Reload Settings
Make a copy of the MWR102’s configuration and put it back on the
MWR102 later if you decide you want to revert back to an earlier
configuration.
82
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol)
Use this feature to have the MWR102 assign IP addresses, an IP
default gateway and DNS servers to computers on your network.
Dynamic DNS Support
With Dynamic DNS (Domain Name System) support, you can use a
fixed URL, www.zyxel.com for example, with a dynamic IP address.
You must register for this service with a Dynamic DNS service provider.
Logging
Use logs for troubleshooting. You can view logs in the Web-Based
Configuration Utility.
PPPoE
PPPoE mimics a dial-up Internet access connection.
83
Appendices
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
IP Addresses and Subnetting
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
Wireless LANs
Common Services
Legal Information
84
Appendix A
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts
and Java Permissions
In order to use the Web-Based Management Interface you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
Note: Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2) or allow
pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP address.
Disable pop-up Blockers
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off Pop-up
Blocker.
85
Figure 34 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in the Privacy
tab.
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
2
Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen.
This disables any web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
Figure 35 Internet Options: Privacy
3
Click Apply to save this setting.
Enable pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the following steps.
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
86
2
Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
Figure 36 Internet Options: Privacy
3
Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have
blocked) with the prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.167.1.
4
Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
87
Figure 37 Pop-up Blocker Settings
5
Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
6
Click Apply to save this setting.
JavaScripts
If pages of the Web-Based Management Interface do not display properly in Internet Explorer,
check that JavaScripts are allowed.
1
In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
88
Figure 38 Internet Options: Security
2
Click the Custom Level... button.
3
Scroll down to Scripting.
4
Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
5
Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
6
Click OK to close the window.
89
Figure 39 Security Settings - Java Scripting
Java Permissions
1
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
2
Click the Custom Level... button.
3
Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
4
Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
5
Click OK to close the window.
90
Figure 40 Security Settings – Java
JAVA (Sun)
1
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced tab.
2
Make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
3
Click OK to close the window.
91
Figure 41 Java (Sun)
92
Appendix B
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses and subnet masks.
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also use
subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
One part of the IP address is the network number, and the other part is the host ID. In the same
way that houses on a street share a common street name, the hosts on a network share a
common network number. Similarly, as each house has its own house number, each host on the
network has its own unique identifying number - the host ID. Routers use the network number to
send packets to the correct network, while the host ID determines to which host on the network
the packets are delivered.
Structure
An IP address is made up of four parts, written in dotted decimal notation (for example,
192.168.1.1). Each of these four parts is known as an octet. An octet is an eight-digit binary
number (for example 11000000, which is 192 in decimal notation).
Therefore, each octet has a possible range of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or 0 to 255 in
decimal.
The following figure shows an example IP address in which the first three octets (192.168.1) are
the network number, and the fourth octet (16) is the host ID.
Figure 42 Network Number and Host ID
93
How much of the IP address is the network number and how much is the host ID varies according
to the subnet mask.
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits are
part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). The term “subnet” is short for “sub-network”.
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the corresponding bit in the IP
address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet mask is “0” then the corresponding bit
in the IP address is part of the host ID.
The following example shows a subnet mask identifying the network number (in bold text) and
host ID of an IP address (192.168.1.2 in decimal).
94
Table 26 Subnet Mask - Identifying Network Number
1ST
OCTET:
2ND
OCTET:
3RD
OCTET:
4TH
OCTET
(192)
(168)
(1)
(2)
IP Address (Binary)
11000000
10101000
00000001
00000010
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
Network Number
11000000
10101000
00000001
Host ID
00000010
By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from
the leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of 32
bits.
Subnet masks can be referred to by the size of the network number part (the bits with a “1”
value). For example, an “8-bit mask” means that the first 8 bits of the mask are ones and the
remaining 24 bits are zeroes.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The following
examples show the binary and decimal notation for 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit and 29-bit subnet masks
Table 27 Subnet Masks
BINARY
DECIMAL
1ST
OCTET
2ND
OCTET
3RD
OCTET
4TH
OCTET
8-bit mask
11111111
00000000
00000000
00000000
255.0.0.0
16-bit mask
11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
255.255.0.0
95
24-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
255.255.255.0
29-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
11111000
255.255.255.248
.
Network Size
The size of the network number determines the maximum number of possible hosts you can have
on your network. The larger the number of network number bits, the smaller the number of
remaining host ID bits.
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network (192.168.1.0 with a 24bit subnet mask, for example). An IP address with host IDs of all ones is the broadcast address
for that network (192.168.1.255 with a 24-bit subnet mask, for example).
As these two IP addresses cannot be used for individual hosts, calculate the maximum number of
possible hosts in a network as follows:
Table 28 Maximum Host Numbers
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF
HOSTS
SUBNET MASK
HOST ID SIZE
8 bits
255.0.0.0
24 bits
2
24
–2
16777214
16 bits
255.255.0.0
16 bits
2
16
–2
65534
24 bits
255.255.255.0
8 bits
2 –2
29 bits
255.255.255.248 3 bits
2 –2
8
254
3
6
Notation
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing a “/”
followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
96
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with subnet mask 255.255.255.128.
The following table shows some possible subnet masks using both notations.
Table 29 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET
MASK
ALTERNATIV
E NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
0
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
128
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
192
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
224
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
240
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
248
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
252
Subnetting
You can use subnetting to divide one network into multiple sub-networks. In the following
example a network administrator creates two sub-networks to isolate a group of servers from the
rest of the company network for security reasons.
In this example, the company network address is 192.168.1.0. The first three octets of the
address (192.168.1) are the network number, and the remaining octet is the host ID, allowing a
8
maximum of 2 – 2 or 254 possible hosts.
The following figure shows the company network before subnetting.
Figure 43 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting
97
You can “borrow” one of the host ID bits to divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate subnetworks. The subnet mask is now 25 bits (255.255.255.128 or /25).
The “borrowed” host ID bit can have a value of either 0 or 1, allowing two subnets; 192.168.1.0
/25 and 192.168.1.128 /25.
The following figure shows the company network after subnetting. There are now two subnetworks, A and B.
Figure 44 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting
98
7
In a 25-bit subnet the host ID has 7 bits, so each sub-network has a maximum of 2 – 2 or 126
possible hosts (a host ID of all zeroes is the subnet’s address itself, all ones is the subnet’s
broadcast address).
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is subnet A itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is its broadcast address. Therefore, the lowest IP address that can be assigned
to an actual host for subnet A is 192.168.1.1 and the highest is 192.168.1.126.
Similarly, the host ID range for subnet B is 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The previous example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a 24-bit address into two
subnets. Similarly, to divide a 24-bit address into four subnets, you need to “borrow” two host ID
bits to give four possible combinations (00, 01, 10 and 11). The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192.
6
Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving 2 - 2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (a host ID of all
zeroes is the subnet itself, all ones is the subnet’s broadcast address).
99
Table 30 Subnet 1
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address (Decimal)
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
Table 32 Subnet 2
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
100
Table 33 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Table 34 Subnet 4
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
101
Example: Eight Subnets
Similarly, use a 27-bit mask to create eight subnets (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111).
The following table shows IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 35 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
Subnet Planning
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 24-bit network number.
Table 36 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
102
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO.
SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 16-bit network number.
Table 37 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO.
SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS
PER SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
103
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
Configuring IP Addresses
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or your
network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their instructions in
selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this
block of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you
are told otherwise. You must also enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the MWR102.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address for your MWR102 that is
easy to remember (for instance, 192.168.100.1) but make sure that no other device on your
network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your MWR102 will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't
104
need to change the subnet mask computed by the MWR102 unless you are instructed to do
otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from the
Internet (running only between two branch offices, for example) you can assign any IP addresses
to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has
reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks:
• 10.0.0.0
— 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP, or it can be assigned from a private
network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the ISP
can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if you are
part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network administrator for the
appropriate IP addresses.
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address; always follow the
guidelines above. For more information on address assignment, please refer to RFC 1597,
Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address
Space.
Appendix C
Setting up Your Computer’s
IP Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems and all versions of
UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need to install and use TCP/IP on your
computer. Windows 3.1 requires the purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7
and later operating systems.
105
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP settings in order to
"communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make sure that your
computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the Prestige’s LAN port.
Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open the Network
window.
106
Figure 45 Windows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components. You need a
network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1
In the Network window, click Add.
2
Select Adapter and then click Add.
3
Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
1
In the Network window, click Add.
2
Select Protocol and then click Add.
3
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4
Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
107
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1
Click Add.
2
Select Client and then click Add.
3
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4
Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then click
OK.
5
Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
Configuring
1
In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP
entry and click Properties
2
Click the IP Address tab.
• If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type your information into
the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 46 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
3
Click the DNS Configuration tab.
• If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
108
• If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the information in the fields
below (you may not need to fill them all in).
109
Figure 47 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
4
Click the Gateway tab.
• If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously installed gateways.
• If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field and click Add.
5
Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6
Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7
Turn on your router and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
1
Click Start and then Run.
2
In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP Configuration
window.
3
Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet
mask and default gateway.
Windows 2000/NT/XP
The following example figures use the default Windows XP GUI theme.
110
1
Click start (Start in Windows 2000/NT), Settings, Control Panel.
Figure 48 Windows XP: Start Menu
2
In the Control Panel, double-click Network Connections (Network and Dial-up
Connections in Windows 2000/NT).
Figure 49 Windows XP: Control Panel
3
Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
111
Figure 50 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
4
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and then click
Properties.
Figure 51 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5
The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in
Windows XP).
• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address automatically.
112
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address and fill in the IP
address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
• Click Advanced.
Figure 52 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
6
If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed
gateways in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in Subnet mask,
and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add in Default
gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in Gateway. To
manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission hops), clear the Automatic
metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
• Click OK when finished.
113
Figure 53 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
7
In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in Windows
XP):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your DNS server IP
address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS server
addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and Alternate DNS server fields.
If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the DNS tab to
order them.
114
Figure 54 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8
Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9
Click Close (OK in Windows 2000/NT) to close the Local Area Connection
Properties window.
10 Close the Network Connections window (Network and Dial-up Connections in
Windows 2000/NT).
11 Turn on your router and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2
In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can
also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and
then click the Support tab.
Windows 7/Vista
1
Click on the
(Start) button.
115
2
Click on Control Panel.
Figure 55 Windows 7/Vista
3
Click on Network and Internet.
Figure 56 Windows 7/Vista
4
Click on Network and Sharing Center
116
Figure 57 Windows 7/Vista
5
On the left side of the screen click on Change Adapter Settings (Windows 7), or
Manage Network Connections (Vista).
6
Right click on Local Area Connection and select Properties.
Figure 58 Windows 7/Vista
7
Highlight Internet Protocol Version 4 and click Properties.
117
Figure 59 Windows 7/Vista
8
Select Use the Following IP Address and enter your IP address, Subnet Mask, and
Default Gateway. Enter your DNS server address (if trying to connect to the internet)
and click OK.
Figure 60 Windows 7/Vista
9
Click OK or Close on the Local Area Connection Properties window to apply the
settings.
118
Macintosh OS 8/9
1
Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/IP
Control Panel.
Figure 61 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
2
Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
119
Figure 62 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the Configure:
list.
4
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your Prestige in the Router address box.
5
Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6
Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7
Turn on your router and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
Macintosh OS X
1
Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System
Preferences window.
120
Figure 63 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2
Click Network in the icon bar.
• Select Automatic from the Location list.
• Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
• Click the TCP/IP tab.
3
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
121
Figure 64 Macintosh OS X: Network
4
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your Prestige in the Router address box.
5
Click Apply Now and close the window.
6
Turn on your router and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
122
Linux
This section shows you how to configure your computer’s TCP/IP settings in Red Hat Linux 9.0.
Procedure, screens and file location may vary depending on your Linux distribution and release
version.
Note: Make sure you are logged in as the root administrator.
Using the K Desktop Environment (KDE)
Follow the steps below to configure your computer IP address using the KDE.
1
Click the Red Hat button (located on the bottom left corner), select System Setting
and click Network.
Figure 65 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Devices
2
Double-click on the profile of the network card you wish to configure. The Ethernet
Device General screen displays as shown.
123
Figure 66 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Ethernet Device: General
• If you have a dynamic IP address click Automatically obtain IP address settings with and
select dhcp from the drop down list.
• If you have a static IP address click Statically set IP Addresses and fill in the Address,
Subnet mask, and Default Gateway Address fields.
3
Click OK to save the changes and close the Ethernet Device General screen.
4
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click the DNS tab in the Network
Configuration screen. Enter the DNS server information in the fields provided.
Figure 67 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: DNS
5
Click the Devices tab.
124
6
Click the Activate button to apply the changes. The following screen displays. Click
Yes to save the changes in all screens.
Figure 68 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Activate
7
After the network card restart process is complete, make sure the Status is Active in
the Network Configuration screen.
Using Configuration Files
Follow the steps below to edit the network configuration files and set your computer IP address.
1
Assuming that you have only one network card on the computer, locate the ifconfigeth0 configuration file (where eth0 is the name of the Ethernet card). Open the
configuration file with any plain text editor.
• If you have a dynamic IP address, enter dhcp in the BOOTPROTO= field. The following
figure shows an example.
Figure 69 Red Hat 9.0: Dynamic IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
• If you have a static IP address, enter static in the BOOTPROTO= field. Type IPADDR=
followed by the IP address (in dotted decimal notation) and type NETMASK= followed by
the subnet mask. The following example shows an example where the static IP address is
192.168.100.10 and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
Figure 70 Red Hat 9.0: Static IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
125
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.100.10
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
2
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), enter the DNS server information in the
resolv.conf file in the /etc directory. The following figure shows an example where two
DNS server IP addresses are specified.
Figure 71 Red Hat 9.0: DNS Settings in resolv.conf
nameserver 172.23.5.1
nameserver 172.23.5.2
3
After you edit and save the configuration files, you must restart the network card.
Enter./network restart in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. The following figure shows an
example.
Figure 72 Red Hat 9.0: Restart Ethernet Card
[root@localhost init.d]# network restart
Shutting down interface eth0:
Shutting down loopback interface:
Setting network parameters:
Bringing up loopback interface:
Bringing up interface eth0:
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
34.1.2 Verifying Settings
Enter ifconfig in a terminal screen to check your TCP/IP properties.
Figure 73 Red Hat 9.0: Checking TCP/IP Properties
[root@localhost]# ifconfig
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:72:5B:44
inet addr:172.23.19.129 Bcast:172.23.19.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:717 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:13 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
RX bytes:730412 (713.2 Kb) TX bytes:1570 (1.5 Kb)
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x1000
[root@localhost]#
126
Ap pe ndi x
Appendix D
Wireless LANs
Wireless LAN Topologies
This section discusses ad-hoc and infrastructure wireless LAN topologies.
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects a set of
computers with wireless stations (A, B, C). Any time two or more wireless adapters are within
range of each other, they can set up an independent network, which is commonly referred to as
an Ad-hoc network or Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). The following diagram shows an
example of notebook computers using wireless adapters to form an Ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Figure 74 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
127
D
BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless stations or between
a wireless station and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is enabled,
wireless station A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other. When
Intra-BSS is disabled, wireless station A and B can still access the wired network but cannot
communicate with each other.
Figure 75 Basic Service Set
ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each containing an
access point, with each access point connected together by a wired network. This wired
connection between APs is called a Distribution System (DS).
This type of wireless LAN topology is called an Infrastructure WLAN. The Access Points not only
provide communication with the wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic in the
immediate neighborhood.
128
An ESSID (ESS IDentification) uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and their
associated wireless stations within the same ESS must have the same ESSID in order to
communicate.
129
Figure 76 Infrastructure WLAN
Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless devices. Channels
available depend on your geographical area. You may have a choice of channels (for your region)
so you should use a different channel than an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce interference.
Interference occurs when radio signals from different access points overlap causing interference
and degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap, your AP
should be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an adjacent AP is using.
For example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent AP is using channel 1, then you
need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access point, but are not
within range of each other. The following figure illustrates a hidden node. Both stations (STA) are
within range of the access point (AP) or wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other, so they
cannot "hear" each other, that is, they do not know if the channel is currently being used.
Therefore, they are considered hidden from each other.
Figure 77 RTS/CTS
130
When station A sends data to the AP, it might not know that the station B is already using the
channel. If these two stations send data at the same time, collisions may occur when both sets of
data arrive at the AP at the same time, resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS defines the biggest
size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake
is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432 bytes), the station
that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS (Request To Send) message to the AP
for permission to send it. The AP then responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all other
stations within its range to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and confirms
with the requesting station the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP without the RTS
(Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on your network and
the "cost" of resending large frames is more than the extra network overhead involved in the RTS
(Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see next), then the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will be
fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Note: Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256 and 2432 bytes)
that can be sent in the wireless network before the AP will fragment the packet into smaller data
frames.
A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to interference while
you should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or networks that are prone to interference.
131
If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see previously) you
set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data
frames will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Preamble Type
A preamble is used to synchronize the transmission timing in your wireless network. There are
two preamble modes: Long and Short.
Short preamble takes less time to process and minimizes overhead, so it should be used in a
good wireless network environment when all wireless stations support it.
Select Long if you have a ‘noisy’ network or are unsure of what preamble mode your wireless
stations support as all IEEE 802.11b compliant wireless adapters must support long preamble.
However, not all wireless adapters support short preamble. Use long preamble if you are unsure
what preamble mode the wireless adapters support, to ensure interpretability between the AP and
the wireless stations and to provide more reliable communication in ‘noisy’ networks.
Select Dynamic to have the AP automatically use short preamble when all wireless stations
support it, otherwise the AP uses long preamble.
Note: The AP and the wireless stations MUST use the same preamble mode in order to
communicate.
IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN
IEEE 802.11g is fully compatible with the IEEE 802.11b standard. This means an IEEE 802.11b
adapter can interface directly with an IEEE 802.11g access point (and vice versa) at 11 Mbps or
lower depending on range. IEEE 802.11g has several intermediate rate steps between the
maximum and minimum data rates. The IEEE 802.11g data rate and modulation are as follows:
132
Table 38 IEEE 802.11g
DATA RATE
(MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
6/9/12/18/24/36/48/54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of IEEE 802.11 to
support extended authentication as well as providing additional accounting and control features. It
is supported by Windows XP and a number of network devices. Some advantages of IEEE
802.1x are:
• User based identification that allows for roaming.
• Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138, 2139) for
centralized user profile and accounting management on a network RADIUS server.
• Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows additional
authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access point or the wireless
stations.
RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication, authorization and
accounting. The access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS
server handles the following tasks:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Authorization
133
Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are connected to
the network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your AP acts as a message relay between the
wireless station and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access. The access
point sends a proper response from the user and then sends another Access-Request
message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user accounting:
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a shared secret
key, which is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over the network. In addition to the
shared key, password information exchanged is also encrypted to protect the network from
unauthorized access.
Types of Authentication
This appendix discusses some popular authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS,
PEAP and LEAP.
134
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server or the AP. Consult your
network administrator for more information.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The authentication server
sends a challenge to the wireless station. The wireless station ‘proves’ that it knows the password
by encrypting the password with the challenge and sends back the information. Password is not
sent in plain text.
However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication server needs to
get the plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus someone other than the
authentication server may access the password file. In addition, it is possible to impersonate an
authentication server as MD5 authentication method does not perform mutual authentication.
Finally, MD5 authentication method does not support data encryption with dynamic session key.
You must configure WEP encryption keys for data encryption.
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless stations for
mutual authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client. After validating the identity of
the server, the client sends a different certificate to the server. The exchange of certificates is
done in the open before a secured tunnel is created. This makes user identity vulnerable to
passive attacks. A digital certificate is an electronic ID card that authenticates the sender’s
identity. However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a Certificate Authority (CA) to handle
certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the
server-side authentications to establish a secure connection. Client authentication is then done by
sending username and password through the secure connection, thus client identity is protected.
For client authentication, EAP-TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy authentication methods
such as PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure connection,
then use simple username and password methods through the secured connection to
authenticate the clients, thus hiding client identity. However, PEAP only supports EAP methods,
such as EAP-MD5, EAP-MSCHAPv2 and EAP-GTC (EAP-Generic Token Card), for client
authentication. EAP-GTC is implemented only by Cisco.
LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of IEEE 802.1x.
135
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key expires when the
wireless connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication times out. A new WEP key is
generated each time reauthentication is performed.
If this feature is enabled, it is not necessary to configure a default encryption key in the Wireless
screen. You may still configure and store keys here, but they will not be used while Dynamic
WEP is enabled.
Note: EAP-MD5 cannot be used with dynamic WEP key exchange
For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP) use
dynamic keys for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate environments, but for
public deployment, a simple user name and password pair is more practical. The following table
is a comparison of the features of authentication types.
Table 39 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual Authentication
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key Exchange
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Integrity
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Deployment Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Client Identity Protection
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
136
WPA(2)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i) is
a wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption, authentication and key
management than WPA.
Key differences between WPA(2) and WEP are improved data encryption and user
authentication.
Encryption
Both WPA and WPA2 improve data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP),
Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x. In addition to TKIP, WPA2 also uses Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter mode with Cipher block chaining Message
authentication code Protocol (CCMP) to offer stronger encryption.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and
distributed by the authentication server. It includes a per-packet key mixing function, a Message
Integrity Check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules,
and a re-keying mechanism.
TKIP regularly changes and rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is never
used twice. The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then
sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically
generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly
communicated between the AP and the wireless clients. This all happens in the background
automatically.
WPA2 AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a block cipher that uses a 256-bit mathematical
algorithm called Rijndael.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data
packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function in
which the receiver and the transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do not
match, it is assumed that the data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity
checking mechanism (MIC), TKIP makes it much more difficult to decode data on a Wi-Fi network
than WEP, making it difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only difference
between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific
credentials. The common-password approach makes WPA-PSK susceptible to brute-force
137
password-guessing attacks but it's still an improvement over WEP as it employs an easier-to-use,
consistent, single, alphanumeric password.
User Authentication
WPA or WPA2 applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate
wireless clients using an external RADIUS database.
If both an AP and the wireless clients support WPA2 and you have an external RADIUS server,
use WPA2 for stronger data encryption. If you don't have an external RADIUS server, you should
use WPA2 -PSK (WPA2 -Pre-Shared Key) that only requires a single (identical) password
entered into each access point, wireless gateway and wireless client. As long as the passwords
match, a wireless client will be granted access to a WLAN.
If the AP or the wireless clients do not support WPA2, just use WPA or WPA-PSK depending on
whether you have an external RADIUS server or not.
Select WEP only when the AP and/or wireless clients do not support WPA or WPA2. WEP is less
secure than WPA or WPA2.
WPA(2)-PSK Application Example
A WPA(2)-PSK application looks as follows.
1
First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared
Key (PSK) must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters (including spaces and
symbols).
2
The AP checks each wireless client's password and (only) allows it to join the
network if the password matches.
3
The AP derives and distributes keys to the wireless clients.
4
The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP or AES encryption process to encrypt data
exchanged between them.
138
Figure 78 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication
WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
You need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number (default is 1812), and the
RADIUS shared secret. A WPA(2) application example with an external RADIUS server looks as
follows. "A" is the RADIUS server. "DS" is the distribution system.
1
The AP passes the wireless client's authentication request to the RADIUS server.
2
The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and
grants or denies network access accordingly.
3
The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then
sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to
dynamically generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that
is wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients.
Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for each
Authentication Method/ key management protocol type. MAC address filters are not dependent
on how you configure these security features.
139
Table 40 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
AUTHENTICATION
METHOD/ KEY
MANAGEMENT
PROTOCOL
ENCRYPTI
ON
METHOD
ENTER
IEEE 802.1X
MANUAL KEY
Open
None
No
Disable
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Open
Shared
WEP
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Yes
Disable
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Yes
Disable
WPA-Enterprise
TKIP
No
Enable
WPA-Personal
TKIP
Yes
Enable
WPA2-Enterprise
AES
No
Enable
WPA2-Personal
AES
Yes
Enable
140
Ap pe ndi x
E
Appendix E
Common Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated protocols and port
numbers. For a comprehensive list of port numbers, ICMP type/code numbers and services, visit
the IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) web site.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or create a
different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/UDP, then the
service uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is USER-DEFINED, the Port(s)
is the IP protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further information
about port numbers.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service or the situations
in which this service is used.
Table 41 Commonly Used Services
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM/New-ICQ
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service. It is
also used as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some
141
servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP
7648
UDP
24032
A popular videoconferencing solution from
White Pines Software.
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that
matches web names (for example
http://us.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
ESP
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security
Protocol) tunneling protocol uses this
service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related
command that can be used to find out if a
user is logged on.
FTP
TCP
20
TCP
21
File Transfer Program, a program to
enable fast transfer of files, including large
files that may not be possible by e-mail.
H.323
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a
client/server protocol for the world wide
web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often
used in e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is often
used for diagnostic or routing purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat program.
142
IGMP
(MULTICAST)
User-Defined
2
Internet Group Management Protocol is
used when sending packets to a specific
group of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm is
used for key distribution and management.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat
program.
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service
uses this protocol.
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a
client/server distributed file service that
provides transparent file sharing for
network environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is the
delivery mechanism for the USENET
newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that
sends out ICMP echo requests to test
whether or not a remote host is reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client
computer get e-mail from a POP3 server
through a temporary connection (TCP/IP
or other).
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables
secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL
(GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the data channel.
143
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that enables
real time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media control)
Protocol (RTSP) is a remote control for
multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP
TCP
115
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the
message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move
messages from one e-mail server to
another.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an interface
to access data on many different types of
database systems, including mainframes,
midrange systems, UNIX systems and
network servers.
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a
UNIX server.
144
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal
Access Controller Access Control System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation
protocol common on the Internet and in
UNIX environments. It operates over
TCP/IP networks. Its primary function is to
allow users to log into remote host
systems.
TFTP
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet
file transfer protocol similar to FTP, but
uses the UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
rather than TCP (Transmission Control
Protocol).
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
Another videoconferencing solution.
145
Ap pe ndi x
F
Appendix F
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2010 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or
software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the
patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products
described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
The device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operations.
146
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This device generates, uses, and can
radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this device does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be
determined by turning the device off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
1
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2
Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
3
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
4
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement
• This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or
transmitter.
• IEEE 802.11b or 802.11g operation of this product in the U.S.A. is firmware-limited to channels
1 through 11.
• To comply with FCC RF exposure compliance requirements, a separation distance of at least
20 cm must be maintained between the antenna of this device and all persons.
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could
void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This device has been designed for the WLAN 2.4 GHz network throughout the EC region and
Switzerland, with restrictions in France.
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
147
Industry Canada Statement
This device complies with RSS-210 of the Industry Canada Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions:
1
this device may not cause interference and
2
this device must accept any interference, including interference that may cause
undesired operation of the device
This device has been designed to operate with an antenna having a maximum gain of 2dBi.
Antenna having a higher gain is strictly prohibited per regulations of Industry Canada. The
required antenna impedance is 50 ohms.
To reduce potential radio interference to other users, the antenna type and its gain should be so
chosen that the EIRP is not more than required for successful communication.
IMPORTANT NOTE:
IC Radiation Exposure Statement:
This equipment complies with IC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled
environment. This equipment should be installed and operated with minimum distance 20cm
between the radiator & your body.
Viewing Certifications
1
Go to http://us.zyxel.com.
2
Select your product on the ZyXEL home page to go to that product's page.
3
Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects in
materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During the
warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure due to
faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the defective
products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it shall
deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating condition. Any
replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent product of equal or
higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty shall not apply if the
148
product has been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or subjected to
abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser.
This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any implied warranty
of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in no event be held liable
for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact your vendor. You may also refer to the warranty
policy for the region in which you bought the device at
http://www.zyxel.com/web/support_warranty_info.php.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information at
www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
GPL-OSS Software Notice
In our continuing effort to disclose important and useful information with regards to our products,
we would like to inform you that certain products you received from ZyXEL Communications Inc.
may contain in part some free software (In accordance with this free software, it is licensed in a
way that ensures your freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software.).
Also, certain ZyXEL products include software code developed by third parties, including software
code subject to the GNU General Public License ("GPL")
Please refer to the following URLs to get more information:
http://us.zyxel.com/opensource
or
http://us.zyxel.com/Support/GPL-OSS/
149
Appendix G
Open Source Licenses
Article I. End-User License Agreement for “MWR102”
Article II.
WARNING: ZyXEL Communications Corp. IS WILLING TO LICENSE THE SOFTWARE
TO YOU ONLY UPON THE CONDITION THAT YOU ACCEPT ALL OF THE TERMS
CONTAINED IN THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THE TERMS
CAREFULLY BEFORE COMPLETING THE INSTALLATION PROCESS AS
INSTALLING THE SOFTWARE WILL INDICATE YOUR ASSENT TO THEM. IF YOU
DO NOT AGREE TO THESE TERMS, THEN ZyXEL IS UNWILLING TO LICENSE THE
SOFTWARE TO YOU, IN WHICH EVENT YOU SHOULD RETURN THE UNINSTALLED
SOFTWARE AND PACKAGING TO THE PLACE FROM WHICH IT WAS ACQUIRED
OR ZyXEL, AND YOUR MONEY WILL BE REFUNDED. HOWEVER, CERTAIN
ZYXEL’S PRODUCTS MAY CONTAIN–IN PART-SOME THIRD PARTY’S FREE AND
OPEN SOFTWARE PROGRAMS WHICH ALLOW YOU TO FREELY COPY, RUN,
DISTRIBUTE, MODIFY AND IMPROVE THE SOFTWARE UNDER THE APPLICABLE
TERMS OF SUCH THRID PARTY’S LICENSES (“OPEN-SOURCED COMPONENTS”).
THE OPEN-SOURCED COMPONENTS ARE LISTED IN THE NOTICE OR APPENDIX
BELOW. ZYXEL MAY HAVE DISTRIBUTED TO YOU HARDWARE AND/OR
SOFTWARE, OR MADE AVAILABLE FOR ELECTRONIC DOWNLOADS THESE FREE
SOFTWARE PROGRAMS OF THRID PARTIES AND YOU ARE LICENSED TO
FREELY COPY, MODIFY AND REDISTIBUTE THAT SOFTWARE UNDER THE
APPLICABLE LICENSE TERMS OF SUCH THIRD PARTY. NONE OF THE
STATEMENTS OR DOCUMENTATION FROM ZYXEL INCLUDING ANY
RESTRICTIONS OR CONDITIONS STATED IN THIS END USER LICENSE
AGREEMENT SHALL RESTRICT ANY RIGHTS AND LICENSES YOU MAY HAVE
WITH RESPECT TO THE OPEN-SOURCED COMPONENTS UNDER THE
APPLICABLE LICENSE TERMS OF SUCH THIRD PARTY.
1.Grant of License for Personal Use
ZyXEL Communications Corp. ("ZyXEL") grants you a non-exclusive, non-sublicense,
non-transferable license to use the program with which this license is distributed (the
"Software"), including any documentation files accompanying the Software
("Documentation"), for internal business use only, for up to the number of users specified
in sales order and invoice. You have the right to make one backup copy of the Software
and Documentation solely for archival, back-up or disaster recovery purposes. You shall
150
not exceed the scope of the license granted hereunder. Any rights not expressly granted
by ZyXEL to you are reserved by ZyXEL, and all implied licenses are disclaimed.
2.Ownership
You have no ownership rights in the Software. Rather, you have a license to use the
Software as long as this License Agreement remains in full force and effect. Ownership
of the Software, Documentation and all intellectual property rights therein shall remain at
all times with ZyXEL. Any other use of the Software by any other entity is strictly
forbidden and is a violation of this License Agreement.
3.Copyright
The Software and Documentation contain material that is protected by international
copyright law, trade secret law, international treaty provisions, and the applicable national
laws of each respective country. All rights not granted to you herein are expressly
reserved by ZyXEL. You may not remove any proprietary notice of ZyXEL or any of its
licensors from any copy of the Software or Documentation.
4.Restrictions
You may not publish, display, disclose, sell, rent, lease, modify, store, loan, distribute, or
create derivative works of the Software, or any part thereof. You may not assign,
sublicense, convey or otherwise transfer, pledge as security or otherwise encumber the
rights and licenses granted hereunder with respect to the Software. ZyXEL is not
obligated to provide any maintenance, technical or other support for the resultant
modified Software. You may not copy, reverse engineer, decompile, reverse compile,
translate, adapt, or disassemble the Software, or any part thereof, nor shall you attempt
to create the source code from the object code for the Software. Except as and only to
the extent expressly permitted in this License, you may not market, co-brand, and private
label or otherwise permit third parties to link to the Software, or any part thereof. You
may not use the Software, or any part thereof, in the operation of a service bureau or for
the benefit of any other person or entity. You may not cause, assist or permit any third
party to do any of the foregoing. Portions of the Software utilize or include third party
software and other copyright material. Acknowledgements, licensing terms and
disclaimers for such material are contained in the License Notice as below for the third
party software, and your use of such material is exclusively governed by their respective
terms. ZyXEL has provided, as part of the Software package, access to certain third party
software as a convenience. To the extent that the Software contains third party software,
ZyXEL has no express or implied obligation to provide any technical or other support for
such software other than compliance with the applicable license terms of such third party,
and makes no warranty (express, implied or statutory) whatsoever with respect thereto.
Please contact the appropriate software vendor or manufacturer directly for technical
support and customer service related to its software and products.
5.Confidentiality
You acknowledge that the Software contains proprietary trade secrets of ZyXEL and you
hereby agree to maintain the confidentiality of the Software using at least as great a
degree of care as you use to maintain the confidentiality of your own most confidential
information. You agree to reasonably communicate the terms and conditions of this
151
License Agreement to those persons employed by you who come into contact with the
Software, and to use reasonable best efforts to ensure their compliance with such terms
and conditions, including, without limitation, not knowingly permitting such persons to use
any portion of the Software for the purpose of deriving the source code of the Software.
6.No Warranty
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS." TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED
BY LAW, ZyXEL DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NONINFRINGEMENT. ZyXEL DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE FUNCTIONS
CONTAINED IN THE SOFTWARE WILL MEET ANY REQUIREMENTS OR NEEDS
YOU MAY HAVE, OR THAT THE SOFTWARE WILL OPERATE ERROR FREE, OR IN
AN UNINTERUPTED FASHION, OR THAT ANY DEFECTS OR ERRORS IN THE
SOFTWARE WILL BE CORRECTED, OR THAT THE SOFTWARE IS COMPATIBLE
WITH ANY PARTICULAR PLATFORM. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE
WAIVER OR EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES SO THEY MAY NOT APPLY TO
YOU. IF THIS EXCLUSION IS HELD TO BE UNENFORCEABLE BY A COURT OF
COMPETENT JURISDICTION, THEN ALL EXPRESS AND IMPLIED WARRANTIES
SHALL BE LIMITED IN DURATION TO A PERIOD OF THIRTY (30) DAYS FROM THE
DATE OF PURCHASE OF THE SOFTWARE, AND NO WARRANTIES SHALL APPLY
AFTER THAT PERIOD.
7.Limitation of Liability
IN NO EVENT WILL ZyXEL BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY THIRD PARTY FOR ANY
INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF
BUSINESS, LOSS OF PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF
BUSINESS INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE
THE SOFTWARE OR PROGRAM, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY,
EVEN IF ZyXEL HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
ZyXEL's TOTAL AGGREGATE LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO ITS OBLIGATIONS
UNDER THIS AGREEMENT OR OTHERWISE WITH RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE
AND DOCUMENTATION OR OTHERWISE SHALL BE EQUAL TO THE PURCHASE
PRICE, BUT SHALL IN NO EVENT EXCEED THE PRODUCT’S PRICE. BECAUSE
SOME STATES/COUNTRIES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF
LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE
LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
8.Export Restrictions
THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT IS EXPRESSLY MADE SUBJECT TO ANY APPLICABLE
LAWS, REGULATIONS, ORDERS, OR OTHER RESTRICTIONS ON THE EXPORT OF
THE SOFTWARE OR INFORMATION ABOUT SUCH SOFTWARE WHICH MAY BE
IMPOSED FROM TIME TO TIME. YOU SHALL NOT EXPORT THE SOFTWARE,
DOCUMENTATION OR INFORMATION ABOUT THE SOFTWARE AND
DOCUMENTATION WITHOUT COMPLYING WITH SUCH LAWS, REGULATIONS,
ORDERS, OR OTHER RESTRICTIONS. YOU AGREE TO INDEMNIFY ZyXEL
AGAINST ALL CLAIMS, LOSSES, DAMAGES, LIABILITIES, COSTS AND EXPENSES,
152
INCLUDING REASONABLE ATTORNEYS' FEES, TO THE EXTENT SUCH CLAIMS
ARISE OUT OF ANY BREACH OF THIS SECTION 8.
9.Audit Rights
ZyXEL SHALL HAVE THE RIGHT, AT ITS OWN EXPENSE, UPON REASONABLE
PRIOR NOTICE, TO PERIODICALLY INSPECT AND AUDIT YOUR RECORDS TO
ENSURE YOUR COMPLIANCE WITH THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS
LICENSE AGREEMENT.
10.Termination
This License Agreement is effective until it is terminated. You may terminate this License
Agreement at any time by destroying or returning to ZyXEL all copies of the Software and
Documentation in your possession or under your control. ZyXEL may terminate this
License Agreement for any reason, including, but not limited to, if ZyXEL finds that you
have violated any of the terms of this License Agreement. Upon notification of
termination, you agree to destroy or return to ZyXEL all copies of the Software and
Documentation and to certify in writing that all known copies, including backup copies,
have been destroyed. All provisions relating to confidentiality, proprietary rights, and
non-disclosure shall survive the termination of this Software License Agreement.
11.General
This License Agreement shall be construed, interpreted and governed by the laws of
Republic of China without regard to conflicts of laws provisions thereof. The exclusive
forum for any disputes arising out of or relating to this License Agreement shall be an
appropriate court or Commercial Arbitration Association sitting in ROC, Taiwan if the
parties agree to a binding arbitration. This License Agreement shall constitute the entire
Agreement between the parties hereto. This License Agreement, the rights granted
hereunder, the Software and Documentation shall not be assigned by you without the
prior written consent of ZyXEL. Any waiver or modification of this License Agreement
shall only be effective if it is in writing and signed by both parties hereto. If any part of
this License Agreement is found invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent
jurisdiction, the remainder of this License Agreement shall be interpreted so as to
reasonably effect the intention of the parties.
153
Article III.
Article IV.
NOTE: Some components of this product incorporate free software
programs covered under the open source code licenses which allows you to freely copy,
modify and redistribute the software. For at least three (3) years from the date of
distribution of the applicable product or software, we will give to anyone who contacts us
at the ZyXEL Technical Support (freesoftware@zyxel.com), for a charge of no more than
our cost of physically performing source code distribution, a complete machine-readable
copy of the complete corresponding source code for the version of the Programs that we
distributed to you if we are in possession of such.
Article V.
Notice
Article VI.
Information herein is subject to change without notice. Companies,
names, and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part
may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
for any purpose, except the express written permission of ZyXEL Communications
Corporation.
Open-Sourced Components
Name
Version
Source
License
GNU/Linux
kernel
bootcode
toolchain
v2.6.30.9
http://www.kernel.org
GPLv2
v1.1e.1
v1.3.6 or
v1.5.5
v1.8e
v0.94.14rc21
v0.9.5
v1.13
NA
http://gcc.gnu.org/
GPLv2
GPLv2
NA
http://www.boa.org/
http://bridge.sourceforge.net/
http://www.busybox.net/
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
http://ushare.geexbox.org/
http://sourceforge.net/projects/dnrd/
http://thekelleys.org.uk/dnsmasq/doc.html
http://freshmeat.net/projects/dosfstools
http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/
http://www.goahead.com/products/webserve
r/default.aspx
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2/3
royalty free licensing terms
auth
boa
bridge-utils
busybox-1.13
discover
dlna_dms
dnrd-2.12.1
dnsmasq-2.33
dosfstools-2.11
gdb
goahead-2.1.1
hostapd-0.6.10
hostapd-0.6.9
IAPP
v1.1a
v2.12.1
v2.33
v2.11
v6.8
v2.1.1
v0.6.10
v0.6.9
v1.7
http://hostapd.sourcearchive.com/
http://hostapd.sourcearchive.com/
http://hostap.epitest.fi/wpa_supplicant/devel/
dir_5a5c05d102ff4f2b85d1c95aa4590d78.ht
ml
154
http://www.goahead.com/pr
oducts/webserver/licensing.
aspx
GPLv2/BSD Dual license
GPLv2/BSD Dual license
GPLv2
igmpproxy
v1.2
http://sourceforge.net/projects/igmpproxy/
GPLv2
iproute2-2.6.29-1
v2.6.19
GPLv2
iptables-1.4.4
v1.4.4
l2tpd
libnl-1.1
v0.69
v1.1
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/w
orkgroups/networking/iproute2
http://www.netfilter.org/about.html#license
http://www.netfilter.org/projects/iptables/dow
nloads.html#iptables-1.4.4
http://sourceforge.net/projects/l2tpd/
http://www.infradead.org/~tgr/libnl/
libusb-0.1.12
v0.1.12
http://www.libusb.org/
lzma465
mbpk_eject
mt-daapd-0.2.4.2
nbserver
v4.65
v0.14
v0.2.4.2
v1.5.30
ntfs-3g2010.10.2
ntpclient
ppp-2.4.4
pptp-1.7.2
radvd-0.9.1
samba-3.0.24
samba-3.0.37
squashfs4.0
udhcp-0.9.9-pre
v2010.10.2
http://sourceforge.net/projects/sevenzip/
NA
http://sourceforge.net/projects/mt-daapd/
http://us1.samba.org/samba/docs/10years.ht
ml
http://ftp.samba.org/pub/samba/oldversions/nbserver-1.5.30.tar.gz
http://www.tuxera.com/community/ntfs-3gdownload/
http://doolittle.icarus.com/ntpclient/
ftp://ftp.samba.org/pub/ppp/
http://sourceforge.net/projects/pptpclient/
http://www.litech.org/radvd/
http://samba.org/samba
http://samba.org/samba
http://sourceforge.net/projects/squashfs/
udhcp is now a drop-in component for
busybox (http://busybox.net)
http://updatedd.philipp-benner.de
updatedd-2.5
usb-modeswitch1.1.3
usb-modeswitchdata-20100623
usbutils-0.86
vsftpd-2.3.2
wide-dhcpv6
wireless_tools.2
5
wireless_tools.2
9
zlib-1.2.3
v2.0
2.4.4
1.7.2
v0.9.1
v3.0.24
v3.0.37
v4.0
v0.9.9
v2.5
v1.1.3
http://www.draisberghof.de/usb_modeswitc
h
GPLv2
GPLv2
GNU LESSER GENERAL
PUBLIC LICENSE Version
2.1
GNU LESSER GENERAL
PUBLIC LICENSE Version
2.1
Public Domain
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
GPLv2
radvd
GPL v2
GPL v2
GPL v2
GPL v2
GPL
GPL v2
v1.1.3
http://www.draisberghof.de/usb_modeswitch
GPL v2
v0.86
v2.3.2
widedhcpv620070507
v25
http://sourceforge.net/projects/linux-usb/files/
http://vsftpd.beasts.org/
http://sourceforge.net/projects/wide-dhcpv6/
GPL v2
GPL v2
Copyright (C) 1998-2004
WIDE Project.
http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Jean_Tourril
hes/Linux/Tools.html
http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Jean_Tourril
hes/Linux/Tools.html
http://www.zlib.org
GPL v2
v29
v1.2.3
155
GPL v2
Zlib
Notice
Information herein is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used
in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose,
except the express written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
This Product includes GNU/Linux kernel, bootcode, toolchain, auth, boa, bridge-utils,
busybox-1.13, discover, dlna_dms, dnrd-2.12.1, dnsmasq-2.33, dosfstools-2.11,
gdbunder, hostapd-0.6.10, hostapd-0.6.9, IAPP, igmpproxy, iproute2-2.6.29-1, iptables1.4.4, l2tpd, mbpk_eject, mt-daapd-0.2.4.2, nbserver, ntfs-3g-2010.10.2, ntpclient, ppp2.4.4, pptp-1.7.2, samba-3.0.24, samba-3.0.37, squashfs4.0, udhcp-0.9.9-pre, updatedd2.5, usb-modeswitch-1.1.3, usb-modeswitch-data-20100623, usbutils-0.86, vsftpd-2.3.2,
wireless_tools.25, and wireless_tools.29 under the GPL License.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to
share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended
to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure
the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to
most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program
whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation
software is covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You
can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our
General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom
to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish),
that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change
the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you
can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to
deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions
translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the
software, or if you modify it. For example, if you distribute copies of such a
program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the
156
rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get
the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2)
offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute
and/or modify the software. Also, for each author's protection and ours, we
want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for
this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on,
we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that
any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors'
reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We
wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually
obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent
this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's
free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification
follow.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of
this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program
or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or
any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the
Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or
translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without
limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by
this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not
restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents
constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made
by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program
does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code
as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License
and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the
Program a copy of this License along with the Program. You may charge a fee
for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer
warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
157
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it,
thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such
modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you
also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that
you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in
part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be
licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this
License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run,
you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the most
ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate
copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that
you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.
(Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print
such an announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to
print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable
sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be
reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then
this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute
them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of
a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole
must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees
extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who
wrote it. Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise
the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on
the Program. In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the
Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a
volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work
under the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under
Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1
and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source
code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above
on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any
third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing
source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding
source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a
158
medium customarily used for software interchange; or, c) Accompany it with
the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source
code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only
if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an
offer, in accord with Subsection b above.) The source code for a work means
the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an
executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all
modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the
scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable.
However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the
major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on
which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the
executable. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to
copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source
code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along
with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as
expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy,
modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it.
However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the
Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do
not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program
(or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this
License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or
modifying the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original
licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and
conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients'
exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing
compliance by third parties to this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions
are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that
contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the
conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy
simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent
obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all.
For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of
the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you,
159
then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. If any portion of this section
is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the
balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is
intended to apply in other circumstances. It is not the purpose of this section
to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to
contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of
protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous
contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in
reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor
to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other
system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. This section is intended to
make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this
License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain
countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright
holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit
geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that
distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In
such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of
this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new
problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it
and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs
whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for
permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software
Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make
exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving
the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the
sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE
LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS"
WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
160
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE
RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH
YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF
ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY
MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL,
INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR
INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS
OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED
BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE
WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY
HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
All other trademarks or trade names mentioned herein, if any, are the
property of their respective owners.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 3, 29 June 2007
Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and
other kinds of works.
The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take
away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU
General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and
change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for
all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public
License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released
this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our
General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom
to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that
you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the
software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can
do these things.
161
To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these
rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain
responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it:
responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for
a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you
received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source
code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1)
assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you
legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.
For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains that
there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and authors' sake,
the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their
problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions.
Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified
versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do so.
This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users' freedom
to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the
area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most
unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit
the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other
domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future
versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.
Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States
should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on
general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special
danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively
proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to
render the program non-free.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification
follow.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS
0. Definitions.
“This License” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
“Copyright” also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works,
such as semiconductor masks.
“The Program” refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License.
Each licensee is addressed as “you”. “Licensees” and “recipients” may be
individuals or organizations.
162
To “modify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a
fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact
copy. The resulting work is called a “modified version” of the earlier work or a
work “based on” the earlier work.
A “covered work” means either the unmodified Program or a work based on
the Program.
To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without permission,
would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under
applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a
private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without
modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other
activities as well.
To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties
to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer
network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.
An interactive user interface displays “Appropriate Legal Notices” to the
extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1)
displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is
no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided),
that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a
copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or
options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.
1. Source Code.
The “source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. “Object code” means any non-source form of a
work.
A “Standard Interface” means an interface that either is an official standard
defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified
for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among
developers working in that language.
The “System Libraries” of an executable work include anything, other than the
work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major
Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves
only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a
Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in
source code form. A “Major Component”, in this context, means a major
essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific
operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler
used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.
The “Corresponding Source” for a work in object code form means all the
source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the
object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those
163
activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or
general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used
unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work.
For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files
associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared
libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically
designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow
between those subprograms and other parts of the work.
The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can
regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.
The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work.
2. Basic Permissions.
All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on
the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This
License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified
Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License
only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License
acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by
copyright law.
You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey,
without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You
may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them
make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for
running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License
in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus
making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your
behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from
making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with
you.
Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the
conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it
unnecessary.
3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.
No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure
under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO
copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or
restricting circumvention of such measures.
When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid
circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is
effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered
work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the
164
work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties'
legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.
4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.
You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive
it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish
on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating
that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section
7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty;
and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you
may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.
5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.
You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to
produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of
section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
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The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the
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ZLIB is third party library and has its own license.
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Jean-loup Gailly
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