A sampling of NPS theses, reports and papers on UxS

A sampling of NPS theses, reports and papers on UxS
Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive
Dudley Knox Library Publications
Bibliographies
2015-02
A sampling of NPS theses, reports and
papers on UxS
Marlatt, Greta E.
Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/38058
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA
A SAMPLING OF NPS THESES,
REPORTS AND PAPERS ON UxS
Created by
Jeff Rothal and Andrea Davis
Updated by
Greta E. Marlatt
August 2011
Updated February 2015
Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited
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A SAMPLING OF NPS THESES, REPORTS AND PAPERS ON UxS
ABSTRACT
This document presents a sampling of unclassified, unlimited distribution (public release) NPS
student theses and dissertations, NPS faculty reports, journal articles, and conference papers
produced between 2005 and 2014. Thesis, dissertation, and faculty report citations were collated from
Calhoun, the Dudley Knox Library’s publicly accessible institutional archive
(http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/) using the following search strategies:
Theses:
‘naval postgraduate school' AND (robot$ OR autonomous OR unmanned OR U?V OR A?V
OR drone OR (remotely piloted))
Reports (Technical Reports):
'naval postgraduate school' AND (robot$ OR autonomous OR unmanned OR U?V OR A?V
OR drone OR (remotely piloted)) NOT (thesis or dissertation)
where $ and ? are multi-character and single character truncators, respectively.
Journal Articles and conference paper citations were retrieved from these proprietary subscription
databases, using the following search strategies:
Journal articles:
Web of Science http://libproxy.nps.edu/login?url=http://isiknowledge.com/wos or
http://isiknowledge.com/wos [subscription or IP access required]
TS=(robot* OR autonomous OR unmanned OR U?$V OR A?$V OR drone* OR (remotely
piloted)) AND AD=((USN OR Nav*) AND (NPS OR NPGS OR post*) AND (Monterey OR CA
OR USA))
Journal articles and conference papers:
Engineering Village 2 http://libproxy.nps.edu/login?url=http://www.engineeringvillage2.org or
http://www.engineeringvillage2.org [subscription or IP access required]
All fields: robot* OR autonomous OR unmanned OR drone* OR USV* OR AUV* OR UAV* OR
UUV* OR UAS* OR UCAV* OR UCAS* OR UMV* or “micro air” or “micro vehicle” or
uninhabited
Author affiliation: Naval Post*
where the * is a multi-character truncator
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A SAMPLING OF NPS THESES, REPORTS AND PAPERS ON UxS
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A SAMPLING OF NPS THESES, REPORTS AND PAPERS ON UxS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL .......................................................................................................... 1
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................ i
THESES................................................................................................................................................ 1
2014 ............................................................................................................................................... 1
2013 ............................................................................................................................................. 17
2012 ............................................................................................................................................. 32
2011 ............................................................................................................................................. 45
2010 ............................................................................................................................................. 58
2009 ............................................................................................................................................. 68
2008 ............................................................................................................................................. 81
2007 ............................................................................................................................................. 95
2006 ........................................................................................................................................... 113
2005 ........................................................................................................................................... 130
NPS Reports.................................................................................................................................... 144
2014 ........................................................................................................................................... 144
2013 ........................................................................................................................................... 144
2012 ........................................................................................................................................... 145
2011 ........................................................................................................................................... 146
2010 ........................................................................................................................................... 149
2009 ........................................................................................................................................... 151
2008 ........................................................................................................................................... 152
2007 ........................................................................................................................................... 153
2006 ........................................................................................................................................... 154
2005 ........................................................................................................................................... 155
Journal Articles ............................................................................................................................... 156
2014 ........................................................................................................................................... 156
2013 ........................................................................................................................................... 159
2012 ........................................................................................................................................... 161
2011 ........................................................................................................................................... 163
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A SAMPLING OF NPS THESES, REPORTS AND PAPERS ON UxS
2010 ........................................................................................................................................... 167
2009 ........................................................................................................................................... 170
2008 ........................................................................................................................................... 176
2007 ........................................................................................................................................... 179
2006 ........................................................................................................................................... 182
2005 ........................................................................................................................................... 184
Conference Papers ......................................................................................................................... 186
2014 ........................................................................................................................................... 186
2013 ........................................................................................................................................... 188
2012 ........................................................................................................................................... 196
2011 ........................................................................................................................................... 201
2010 ........................................................................................................................................... 206
2009 ........................................................................................................................................... 212
2008 ........................................................................................................................................... 223
2007 ........................................................................................................................................... 231
2006 ........................................................................................................................................... 236
2005 ........................................................................................................................................... 242
PATENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 249
APPENDIX ....................................................................................................................................... 250
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THESES
2014
Bell, Timothy L. Sea-Shore Interface Robtic Design. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42580
Abstract: An exoskeleton platform was developed, prototyped and tested for mobility
performance in a beachfront environment. New platform, drive-train, motor-controller and wheel
design were employed in the experiment. The objective was to improve on the shortcoming of
previous NPS research. Three wheel-designs were tested during fixed pattern tests on grass,
concrete and sand. Data suggests that, with regard to power consumption, there is a marginal
difference on preferred wheel design. The sparse print round wheel showed promise in heavy
vegetation; however, the WhegTM wheel proved to be the most versatile on various terrains. This
suggests that a WhegTM wheel with improved round wheel characteristics would be optimal for
various beachfront terrains.
Burke, Eric M. and Danny L. Ewing, Jr. Improving Warehouse Inventory Management Through
RFID, Barcoding and Robotics Technologies. MBA Professional Paper. Master of Business
Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2014.
Advisors: Nicholas Dew and Geraldo Ferrer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44556
Abstract: The purpose of this MBA project is to explore the potential value of combining
automatic identification and robotics technology in order to improve asset visibility within a
warehouse environment. The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) experiences high costs associated
with inventory inaccuracies and annual inventory audits. Our project examines technologies that
could be used to improve the DLA’s asset visibility. This study examines current industry
applications of viable technologies in the marketplace and whether implementing these
technologies would provide a sound economic solution. A cost–benefit analysis is included to
determine the affordability of efficiencies that RFID and barcoding bring to warehouse operations.
This analysis encompasses costs for systems purchase, implementation, and integration. Benefits
are measured by determining cost savings in manpower requirements, increased efficiencies in
order and restocking times, and improved accuracy in inventory management. The qualitative
analysis addresses the advantages and disadvantages of an automatic identification system
implementation. It also addresses future potential for the use of robots to improve inventory
management. Ultimately, the project concludes that 2D barcoding far more cost effective within
10 years; however, both 2D barcoding and RFID can provide a positive return on investment.
Bumatay, Anthony A. and Grant Graeber. Achieving Information Superiority using Hastily
Formed Networks and Emerging Technologies for the Royal Thai Armed Forces
Counterinsurgency Operations in Southern Thailand. M.S. in Network Operations.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Brian Steckler and Edward Fisher
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/41353
Abstract: The southern Thailand provinces of Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla have seen a
resurgence in Malay-Muslim violence since 2004. The scale and level of sophistication of the
insurgent attacks have caused instability in the region and disruption in a country already marred
by political turmoil. This thesis examines the history, trends in violence and actors behind the
Malay-Muslim insurgency as well as the effectiveness of the Royal Thai Armed Forces'
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counterinsurgency response. This is to create an analytical context that may be useful in the
current Royal Thai Armed Forces (RTARF) approach in southern Thailand. This thesis also
explores the applicability of network centric technologies such as hastily formed networks (HFN)
as the backbone of a technological framework that will deliver information superiority to enable
the Thai government to gain a tactical edge against the insurgent movement in southern
Thailand. Along with the HFN concept, an overview of the emerging technologies that were
demonstrated during the U.S.-Thailand Crimson Viper technology demonstration in Hat Yao,
Thailand from August 19, 2013, are provided. This discussion will show how alternative power
sources, social network analysis, persistent surveillance systems and unmanned vehicles, if
integrated with HFN wireless ad hoc networking, provides an effective model to support the
RTARF's counterinsurgency operations in southern Thailand.
Calibro, Taylor K. Obstacle Detection and Avoidance on a Mobile Robotic Platform Using
Active Depth Sensing. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, June 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun
Second Reader: Zac Staples
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42591
Abstract: The ability to recognize and navigate surrounding environments free from collision with
obstacles has been at the forefront of mobile robotic applications since its inception. At the price
of nearly one tenth of a laser range finder, the Xbox Kinect uses an infrared projector and camera
to capture images of its environment in three dimensions. The objective of this thesis was to
investigate if the Xbox Kinect can be utilized to detect thin or narrow obstacles that are often
invisible to the P3-DX mobile robotic platform. We present an algorithm to process and analyze
point cloud data from the Xbox Kinect sensor and transform it into a two-dimensional map of the
surrounding environment for further use with the P3-DX. Obstacle avoidance scenarios were then
performed using two separate algorithms: a narrow corridor following algorithm and a potential
fields algorithm. The results demonstrate that in a structured testing environment, the Xbox
Kinect can be used to detect and avoid narrow obstacles that are not immediately recognized by
the onboard sonar array of the P3-DX.
Camacho, Nahum. Improving Operational Effectiveness of Tactical Long Endurance
Unmanned Aerial Systems (TALEUAS) by Utilizing Solar Power. Mechanical Engineer and
M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Vladimir Dobrokhodov and Kevin D. Jones
Second Reader: Isaac Kaminer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42593
Outstanding Thesis Award
Abstract: This thesis develops, implements, and validates a hybrid energy-harvesting technique
that enables extracting energy from the environment by utilizing convective thermals as a source
of potential energy, and exploiting solar radiation for photovoltaic (PV) energy to achieve long
endurance flight of an autonomous glider. The dynamic behavior of convective thermals, as well
as their mathematical models, are studied to determine their motion, while the navigation task is
simultaneously solved using a Bayesian search approach that is based on the prior knowledge of
the 3D elevation. This study advances an existing technique for detection of thermals by
implementing the online identification of the airplane sink rate polar. The glider’s climb rate is
optimized by implementing a modified thermalling controller, and its performance is compared to
an existing method of centering in thermals. The integration of the energy extracted from the
solar radiation is accomplished by the design of an Electrical Energy Management System (EEMS)
that safely collects and distributes the energy onboard. The electrical energy is supplied by the
semi-rigid mono crystalline silicon solar cells, which are embedded into the skin of the glider’s
wings without distorting the airfoil. To validate and verify the algorithms developed in
MATLAB/Simulink, an interface to a high-fidelity pilot’s training flight simulator was designed.
Furthermore, the numerical algorithms were integrated onboard a prototype SB-XC glider
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equipped with solar cells to enable the desired energy-harvesting technique. Flight test results
verify the feasibility of the developed algorithms.
Campbell, Brenton. Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using an Articifical Physics Approach.
M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Timothy H. Chung and Richard M. Harkins
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44531
Oustanding Thesis Award
Abstract: This thesis explores the use of an artificial physics framework to provide centralized
control of a collection of agents in close proximity to a human operator. Based on the spatial
separation between agents, agents to way-point, and agents to operator, the artificial physics
framework calculates virtual forces that are summed and translated into velocity commands. The
virtual forces are modeled after real physical forces such as gravitational and Coulomb, forces but
are not restricted to them, for example, the force magnitude may not be proportional to one
divided by separation distance squared. These virtual forces allow the collection of agents, or the
swarm, to autonomously find the operator, create a formation, and navigate way-points. The
operator has high-level control of the agents via a hand held-controller. This framework is
applicable to a scenario where an operator in the field needs to work with several autonomous
vehicles but is unable to devote a high-level of focus to controlling agent behavior.We
implemented an artificial physics framework in two simulation environments and in physical
indoor experiments with a team of three unmanned aerial vehicles. The results from the physical
experiments show that an artificial physics-based framework is an effective way to allow multiple
agents to follow a human operator inside a small arena with only minimal operator input.
Carey, Seamus B. Increasing the Endurance and Payload Capacity of Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles with Thin-Film Photovoltaics. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael
Second Reader: Alejandro Hernandez
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42594
Abstract: Prior research has shown that the endurance of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)
can be significantly extended using thin film photovoltaic cells. The different power requirements
of the RQ-11B Raven variants are explored in this thesis, and it is demonstrated that a CuInGaS2
(CIGS) solar array adhered to the wing of an RQ-11B not only extends the flight time but also
expands the payload capacity of the platform. Power requirements and existing endurance of the
digital variant of the RQ-11B were measured to establish a baseline of the platform’s
performance and validate previous research. A modular wing with an integrated CIGS array was
then designed and constructed to be incorporated with the existing power circuitry of the
platform. The baseline tests were repeated to determine the power generated by the array and
supplied to the digital RQ-11B. It was shown that a solar integrated RQ-11B has a larger payload
capacity and extended endurance, while still maintaining the modular and expeditionary nature of
the existing platform. The concept of this research may be applied to all unmanned aerial
platforms in order to expand their power generation to operate simultaneous or demanding
payloads without stressing the existing power supply.
Chang, Ellen M. Defining the Levels of Adjustable Automony: A Means of Improving
Resilience in an Unmanned Aerial System. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Warren Vaneman
Second Reader: Oleg Yakimenko
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43887
Abstract: This thesis investigates how to design in different levels of autonomy to improve the
resilience of an unmanned aerial system (UAS) by applying the Function-specific Level of
Autonomy Tool (FLOAAT) developed by NASA. This tool helps to define the levels of autonomy
human-operators are comfortable with as well as assists designers in understanding how to
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design in that level of autonomy. The thesis begins by reviewing past literature about resilience in
engineered systems, defining terms pertaining to autonomy, introduces the concept of adjustable
autonomy, and reviews the development supervisory control levels that define adjustable
autonomy. It broadens the research that NASA performed and applies the tool to UAS functions.
The extension of this thesis would lead to a more unified approach to defining levels of autonomy
that can be adjusted for control of autonomous systems, and the development of components of
software architecture that lead to greater systems resilience through integration of the humanoperator in a way that is trusted. This effort is intended to create a foundation for humancentered automation to properly accommodate human-operator trust.
Davis, Robert B. Applying Cooperative Localization to Swarm UAVs Using an Extended
Kalman Filter. M.S. in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Timothy H. Chung and Duane T. Davis
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43900
Abstract: Cooperative Localization (CL) is a process by which autonomous vehicles operating as a
team estimate the position of one another to compensate for errors in the positioning sensors
used by a single agent. By combining independent measurements originating from members of
the team, a single estimate of increased accuracy will result. This approach has the potential to
enhance the positional accuracy of an agent over use of a standard GPS, which would be
essential for behaviors within a swarm requiring precision move-ments such as maintaining close
formation. CL can also provide accurate positional information to the entire group when operating
in an intermittent or denied GPS environment. In this thesis, a distributed CL algorithm is
implemented on a swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) using an Extended Kalman Filter.
Using a technique created for ground robots, the equations are modified to adapt the algorithm
to aerial vehicles, and then operation of the algorithm is demonstrated in a centralized system
using AR Drones and the Robot Operating System. During tests, the positional accuracy of the
UAV using CL improved over use of dead reckoning. However, the performance is not as expected
based on the results noted from the referenced two-dimensional application of the al-gorithm. It
is presumed that the sensors on-board the AR Drone are responsible. Since the platform is simply
a low-cost solution to show proof-of-concept, it is concluded that the implementation of CL
presented in this thesis is a suitable approach for enhancing positional accuracy of UAVs within a
swarm.
Denevan, Thomas J. Cost-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles/Unmanned Aerial
Systems in Filling the Role of Logistical Support. M.S. in Management. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Simona Tick and Douglas Brinkley
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44549
Abstract: This thesis conducts a comparative cost analysis for using unmanned aerial vehicles
(UAVs)/unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for logistical resupply purposes as opposed to the
traditional logistical resupply resources. First, the thesis examines the types of UAVs in the U.S.
Department of Defense (DOD) inventory as well as the traditional aircraft currently used for
logistical purposes. Then, using a cost-based analysis, the thesis identifies possible logistical uses
for selected UAVs based on specific capabilities and scenarios where the use of these systems
would be most advantageous compared to traditional logistic resources. As the DOD continues to
develop the emerging technologies of UAVs, the findings of this thesis may point to some
immediate adaptations in the logistical resupply process that could result in cost savings.
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Dillard, Chase H. Energy-Efficient Underwater Surveillance by Means of Hybrid Aquacopters.
M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December
2014.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Vladimir Dobrokhodov and Kevin Jones
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44551
Outstanding Thesis Award
Abstract: This thesis develops algorithms in support of a prototype hybrid air-water quadcopter
platform: the AquaQuad. We consider the scenario in which AquaQuads with underwater acoustic
sensing capabilities are tracking a submerged target from the surface of the ocean using sparse
distributed measurements. Multiple nonlinear estimation filters are evaluated for the tracking
scenario, resulting in the selection of the unscentedKalman filter (UKF). Geometric positioning
effects on estimators are explored through analysis of the horizontal dilution of precision metric.
The UKF is then implemented in real-time on quadrotors using time-difference of arrival pseudomeasurements in an instrumented Vicon lab space. The AquaQuads will primarily drift, but
possess battery-limited flight capabilities. To increase on-station time, we seek to maximize use
of the environment. In addition to solar energy, we take advantage of ocean currents that
traditional autonomous platforms seek to reject. A novel sampling-based approach for pathplanning is therefore created and lab-tested. The new algorithm, Dead-Reckoning RapidlyExploring Random Tree Star (DR-RRT*), combines the infinite-time optimality guarantees of
RRT* with the unique AquaQuad mobility requirements. The DR-RRT* develops obstacle-free
paths to a goal by linking brief flight and energy-efficient drift segments together, resulting in an
energy savings of 27 percent over direct flight.
Everly, Randall E. and David C. Limmer. Cost-effectivenss Analysis of Aerial Platforms and
Suitable Communications Payloads. M.S. in Information Technology Management and Master
of Business Adminstration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Cameron MacKenzie and Glenn Cook
Second Reader: John Gibson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/41375
Abstract: The goal of this research is to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of selected aerial
platforms and suitable communication payloads for use as communication relays in support of
distributed military operations. Aerial platforms, for the purpose of this study, include UAVs,
towers and aerostats. A multi-objective analysis is utilized to compare dissimilar attributes
together among the alternatives. Cost data for each system considered is presented. To analyze
the cost-effectiveness of alternatives for different mission sets, three hypothetical scenarios are
used including disaster relief, long-range relay, and the tactical user. This research identifies the
most cost-effective aerial platforms and communication payloads for each scenario based on the
authors' preferences. Future decision makers can utilize this study as a decision tool to match
their own preferences.
Foster, Joseph D. Swarming Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): Extending Marine Aviation
Ground Task Force Communications Using UAVs. M.S. in Defense Analysis. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2014.
Thesis Advisor: John Dillard
Second Reader: Douglas Brinkley
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44564
Abstract: Technological advances and research are pushing the application of unmanned vehicles
in exciting directions. This thesis emphasis is on cost estimation for a new unmanned aerial
vehicle (UAV) with swarm applications. The new swarm UAV theoretical can be designed to
emulate the current unmanned aerial system (UAS) mission, and expand upon the
communication relay mission. Small UASs have a line-of-sight capability limitation that leaves
room for improvement. The UAVs organic to the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) are the primary focus
for this analysis because organic USMC UAVs are habitually small UAVs. The analysis will
determine a rough cost estimation range for a future AV with new technology. Based on the
adaptation of networking topologies and research, the communication relay mission is a feasible
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capability to Peruse in future swarm UAVs. The analysis suggests that a swarm UAV is
comparable in cost to legacy UAVs currently in service in the USMC.
Hermsdorfer, Kathryn M. Environmental Data Collection Using Autonomous Wave Gliders. M.S.
in Meteorology and Physical Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Qing Wang
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44577
Abstract: The Sensor Hosting Autonomous Remote Craft (SHARC), also known as Wave Glider, is
an autonomous ocean vehicle powered by wave motion. This slow-moving platform makes longterm deployments and environmental data collection feasible, especially in data sparse regions or
hazardous environments. The standard SHARC hosts a meteorological station (Airmar PB200)
that samples air pressure, temperature, wind speed and wind direction at 1.12 m. The SHARC
automatically transmits a 10-minute averaged data suite through an Iridium satellite link. In an
effort to evaluate the SHARC default Airmar sensors and seek optimal sensors for air-sea
interaction studies,NPS has developed an independent package of meteorological sensors,
theNPS Met, for use on the SHARC.NPS Met measures pressure, air temperature, wind, SST, and
relative humidity. This SHARC payload package was deployed three times in the Monterey Bay,
along with a collocated drifting buoy (Marine Air-Sea Flux buoy, or MASFlux) with proven flux,
mean, wave, and SST measurement for comparison and validation. This thesis will present
analyses of data from the new mast and Airmar as compared to known, quality measurements
fromNPS MASFlux and NDBC buoy. Surface fluxes, evaporation duct heights and strength are
derived from the SHARC measurements using the COARE algorithm.
Hewgley, Charles W., IV. Pose and Wind Estimation for Autonomous Parafoils. PhD. in Electrical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2014.
Disseration Supervisor: Roberto Cristi
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43926
Abstract: This dissertation presents two contributions to the development of autonomous aerial
delivery systems (ADSs), both of which advance the prospect of enabling an ADS to land on a
moving platform, such as the deck of a ship at sea. The first contribution addresses the problem
of estimating the target’s position and velocity. A novel, dual-rate estimation algorithm based on
Unscented Kalman filtering allows the ADS to use visual measurements from a fixed monocular
sensor to estimate the target’s motion even when the ADS’s swinging motion in flight causes the
target to be out of view. The second contribution addresses the problem of planning a landing
trajectory considering winds in the vertical air mass between the target’s height and the ADS’s
altitude. A wind model that assumes a logarithmic relationship between horizontal wind velocity
and height in the air mass enables the ADS’s guidance algorithm to plan a valid landing trajectory
in the presence of these winds. This dissertation contains simulation results for the visual
estimation algorithm that show that estimation errors are minimal after estimator convergence.
Flight test results indicate that the wind modeling algorithm was useful for computing landing
trajectories.
Hilger, Ryan Peter. Acoustic Communications Considerations for Collaborative Simultaneous
Localization and Mapping. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Douglas Horner
Second Reader: Noel DuToit
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44579
Abstract: This thesis considers the use of acoustic communications in reducing position
uncertainty for collaborating autonomous underwater vehicles. The foundation of the work relies
on statistical techniques for accurate navigation without access to GPS, known as Simultaneous
Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Multiple AUVs permit increased coverage, system redundancy
and reduced mission times. Collaboration through acoustic communications can minimize
navigational uncertainty by permitting the group to benefit from locally discovered information.
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However, the propagation of acoustic communications can be used to counter detect the system
during naval operations. The thesis gives explicit consideration to tactical security in acoustic
communications for a multi-AUV SLAM system. It provides initial techniques and analysis for
minimizing communications between AUVs. The reduction is accomplished through a statistical
method that allows for the estimation of the updated covariance matrices. Normally, SLAM
techniques use expropioceptive (sonar and cameras) sensors and computer vision algorithms for
the detection and tracking of navigational references. We propose a novel use of the acoustic
modem as another sensor. It leverages the physical characteristics of underwater acoustic
transmissions and the information transmitted in the signal to provide an additional
measurement. We believe this is the first emphasis on minimizing communications within a multivehicle SLAM approach.
Jones, Courtney David. An Analysis of the Defense Acquisition Strategy for Unmanned
Systems. M.S. in Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Nicholas Dew and William Fast
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/41400
Abstract: In the past 12 years of sustained conflict, the Department of Defense (DoD) has
procured thousands of unmanned systems, from ordnance disposal robots to airborne
surveillance platforms to unmanned cargo helicopters. These assets have saved countless lives
and have become critical to DoD strategy. The health of the U.S. robotics industry must become
a national strategic imperative in order to maintain technology dominance. The cyclical nature of
DoD funding inevitably results in industry expansion and consolidation. The unmanned systems
industry will be subject to consolidation pressures. Keeping unmanned system cost-per-copy low
is critical; thus, economies of scale should be highly valued. However, premature robotics
industry consolidation could threaten innovation and competition that will be critical for the U.S.
military to maintain its dominance. With impending budget reductions, there will be increasing
pressure to narrow down on robotics technologies to achieve efficiencies and reduce costs.
However, to maintain the health of the robotics industry, the acquisition strategy must be
contingent on the evolution of industry. This thesis examines the defense robotics industry and
historical technology S-curves for comparable industries and evaluates unmanned system
acquisition strategies.
Juriga, Jacob T. Terrain Aided Navigation for REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle. M.S. in
Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Doug Horner
Second Reader: Noel DuToit
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42654
Abstract: This research investigates the ability to create an undersea bathymetry map and
navigate relative to the map. This is known as terrain aided navigation (TAN). In our particular
case, the goal was for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to reduce positional uncertainty
through the use of downward-looking swath sonar and employing TAN techniques. This is
considered important for undersea operations where positioning systems such as GPS are either
not available or difficult to put in place. There are several challenges associated with TAN that are
presented: The image processing necessary to extract altitude data from the sonar image, the
initial building of the bathymetry map, incorporating a system and measurement model that
takes into consideration AUV motion and sensor uncertainty and near-optimal, real-time
estimation algorithms. The thesis presents a methodology coupled with analysis on datasets
collected from joint Naval Postgraduate School/National Aeronautical Space Administration
experimentation conducted at the Aquarius undersea habitat near Key Largo, Florida.
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Kubisak, Timothy D. Investigation of Acoustic Vector Sensor Data Processing in the Presence
of High Variable Bathymetry. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Kevin B. Smith
Second Reader: Daphne Kapolka
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42664
Abstract: Data has been collected on acoustic vector sensors mounted on autonomous
underwater gliders in the Monterey Bay during 2012–2013. Previous processing work computed
the acoustic vector intensity to estimate bearing to impulsive sources of interest. These sources
included small explosive shots deployed by local fishermen and humpback whale vocalizations.
While the highly impulsive shot data produced unambiguous bearing estimations, the longer
duration whale vocalizations showed a fairly wide spread in bearing. In this work, causes of the
ambiguity in bearing estimation are investigated in the context of the highly variable bathymetry
of the Monterey Bay Canyon, as well as the coherent multipath interference in the longer
duration calls. Sound speed data collected during the previous experimental effort, along with a
three-dimensional bathymetric relief of the Monterey Bay Canyon, are incorporated into a threedimensional version of the Monterey-Miami Parabolic Equation Model. Propagation results are
computed over a frequency band from 336–464 Hz in order to provide predictions of pulse arrival
structure. This data is analyzed using conventional pressure plane-wave beamforming techniques
in order to highlight horizontal coupling caused by the canyon bathymetry. The data is also
analyzed using the previously developed acoustic vector intensity processing string and shown to
exhibit a qualitatively similar spread in the estimated bearing.
Lee, Joong Yang. Expanded Kill Chain Analysis of Manned-Unmanned Teaming for Future
Strike Operations. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy h. Chung
Second Reader: Ronald E. Giachetti
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43944
Abstract: This study explores the concept of manned-unmanned teaming in the context of the
joint capability areas and investigates the expanded kill chain for a manned and unmanned team
for future strike operations. The study first elucidated capabilities that can be realized by
manned-unmanned teams. A design reference mission for a manned-unmanned team (strike)
operation was developed, enabling operational activity and functional analysis of the expanded
kill chain. Simulation models were built to examine the time-efficiencies of the mannedunmanned teaming concept. This research used insights from the results of the models to explore
alternatives in asset generation and systems link-up tactics. The analysis of strike operations
cycle times that include total mission operations time, airborne time, and time to complete
systems link-up provided data to generate recommendations. Besides identifying areas on which
to focus efficiency improvement efforts, this study also proposes tactics and concept of
operations to enhance the effectiveness of strike operations by manned-unmanned teams. This
study reveals that fighter endurance is a limiting factor in manned-unmanned operations and
proposes a synchronized launch or pre-launch establishment of communications and datalink as
possible ways to mitigate these limiting factors.
Lowe, Donald R., Holly B. Story, and Matthew B. Parsons. U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems
(UAS)—A Historical Perspective to Identifying and Understanding Stakeholder
Relationships. Joint Applied Project. M.S. in Program Management. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Advisor: Richard B. Doyle
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42678
Abstract: This research is intended to advance understanding of relationships between unmanned
aircraft systems (UAS) stakeholders and programs to allow the Army to increase efficiencies and
reduce costs. It was found that the Army had never completed a formal UAS stakeholder
identification and analysis. Internal and external stakeholders are identified here and fall within
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categories of Army executive program leadership (e.g., Program Executive Office for Aviation),
Army and service components (active, Guard, reserve forces), senior Army leadership (e.g.,
Headquarters, Department of Army), other federal and non-federal government entities (e.g.,
Congress), commercial interests (e.g., industry and academia), and other interested parties, such
as the American people. An analysis of relationships affecting these stakeholders was conducted,
including organizational beliefs and cultures, management of resources, policies and law and
future UAS enhancements planned by the Army and industry partners. The most important
problems found were inter-service and inter-branch disputes that shape UAS policies and
procedures, forecasting for future UAS growth while managing costs and finding more efficient,
less redundant ways to use current UAS capabilities, and safe integration into the national
airspace system. This stakeholder analysis allows the Army to leverage the support of others for
funding, resources, intellectual property, lessons learned and cooperation.
Margonis, Sotirios. Preliminary Design of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle using MultiObjective Optimization. Mechanical Engineer, M.S. in Mechanical Engineering, and M.S. in
Information Technology Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March
2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Joshua Gordis and Tarek Abdel-Hamid
Second Reader: Fotis Papoulias
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/41415
Outstanding Thesis Award
Abstract: The aim of this work is to explore the applicability and usability of multi-objective
optimization into various aspects of the design of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). First,
I begin with an introduction of the systems engineering design process and the background work
for the multi-objective optimization process. Furthermore, I investigate and analyze the existing
multi-objective optimization methods in decision making. I focus on various design aspects of an
AUV such as the hull design, the weight distribution, the propulsion and, especially, the power
supply technology. The objectives I used in the model are the minimization of the power needed
to propel the vehicle and the maximization of both the weight of the energy section and the total
range. Implementation of both the model and the optimization are carried out using Matlab,
particularly the global optimization toolbox and the multi-objective genetic algorithm solver,
whereas a special case of two objectives is implemented in Excel using Visual Basic and Excel
solver. This research also explores the potential for a designer to use goals in the multi-objective
optimization as well as approaches that let a designer choose one particular solution once all
Pareto optimal solutions are found.
McMillan, Stuart I. and Jason G. McPhee. An Analysis of the First Fifteen Years of the
Department of Defense Framework for Unmanned Ground Systems. MBA Professional
Paper. Master of Business Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2014.
Thesis AdvisorS: Nicholas Dew and John T. Dillard
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44613
Outstanding Thesis Award
Abstract: The Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) program traces its roots back to Desert Shield
and Desert Storm. At that time, warfighters observed the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and
recognized the potential for their ground use. Literature supporting this research focuses on UGV
history, the Sigmoid Curve, associated push and pull factors, and the Department of Defense
(DOD) Acquisition Strategy. DOD UGV master plans, which are used to conduct comparative
analyses of programs, changes, and trends from year to year, examine the cost, schedule, and
performance of all programs from 1991 to 2004. This research focuses on experienced schedule
overruns, slippage, and the examination of characteristics leading to system success. This
research also explains the relationship between push and pull factors and further outlines the
evolution of UGV program requirements based on global conflicts and various mission types. This
research clearly indicates that UGVs are created for force protection more than any other
warfighting function.
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Moore, Jeanie. Da Vinci’s Children Take Flight: Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the Homeland.
M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security and Defense). Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, March 2014.
Thesis Advisor: John Rollins
Second Reader: Robert Simeral
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/41420
Outstanding Thesis Award
Abstract: In 2015, the Federal Aviation Administration will open national airspace to unmanned
aircraft systems (UAS). Nonmilitary uses for UAS range from agriculture services to
entertainment purposes, and include tasks as mundane as inspecting gutters and as
consequential as fighting fires. Outside of the safety issues that accompany many breakthrough
technologies, the effort to integrate UAS into national airspace is enmeshed in political, legal and
economic policies that require careful navigation. Factors like cybersecurity and technological
advancements will continue to influence the way UAS can be used. This thesis provides an
orientation to the key considerations in UAS integration. Policy recommendations include early
stakeholder engagement; a national data protection law; no-fly zones around private residences;
clearly identifying UAS operators and owners; nonlethal payloads in national airspace; adapting
current surveillance laws to UAS; a single, national privacy law to facilitate the free flow of
commerce and coordination across state lines; a federal office in charge of monitoring data
privacy; accountability of data collectors; limited exemptions for activities conducted in the
interest of national security or to protect life and property; and managing cybersecurity risks.
Morisseau, Peter M. Coast Guard Maritime Security in the Underwater Domain. MBA Professional
Paper. Master of Business Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
March 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: John Dillard and Gary Langford
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44624
Abstract: The Coast Guard serves as the primary agency responsible for maritime domain
awareness (MDA) and transportation security under the Department of Homeland Security
through the Ports, Waterways, and Coastal Security (PWCS) mission. While significant
investments have been made in recent years for surface and air assets along with increased
command and control capabilities, little has been done to expand the PWCS mission to the
underwater domain. This thesis examines the need for the Coast Guard to develop MDA in the
underwater domain. This is accomplished by applying the fundamental processes from capability
gap analysis and analysis of alternatives (AoA), as would be necessary for initiating the
acquisition process. Through the gap analysis and AoA processes, the organization is able to
determine whether an operational need truly exists, whether current or emerging technology is
available to support a materiel solution, and whether there is the appropriate level of investment.
Ultimately, the intent of this thesis is to determine whether the Coast Guard has a validated
capability gap, and what opportunities exist to close the gap.
Murray, Kate L. Early Synthetic Prototyping: Exploring Designs and Concepts Within Games.
M.S. in in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Rudolph Darken and Brad Naegle
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44627
Outstanding Thesis Award
Abstract: Early Synthetic Prototyping (ESP) is a process and set of tools that enable warfighters
to inform technology development and acquisition decisions by assessing emerging technologies
in a game environment. Collaborators in acquisition, science and technology, and industry can
develop models and scenarios for play and assessment. ESP allows an unbounded increase in
potentially disruptive ideas to be explored at minimal cost by inviting warfighters at all levels to
drive, define, and refine future systems. We conducted a study asking: (1) What feedback can be
gathered from game play? (2) Would that feedback be valuable? To this end, groups of military
officers were engaged in several scenarios to explore an unmanned vehicle concept called Robotic
Wingman. Through the game sessions, players expressed ideas on the characteristics of a
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preferred interface and how to best employ Wingman. Using a game environment to explore
design concepts early in the acquisition process can be applied to early requirement refinement
and rudimentary tradeoff analysis. The encouraging results of this preliminary work demonstrate
a strong potential to leverage game environments to explore revolutionary concepts to efficiently
and effectively shape the future of the Department of Defense.
Naccarato, Vincent, Joong Yang Lee, Meng His Wu, Ittai Bar Ilan, James Efird, Benjamin Elzner,
Darrell Morgan, Kayla Tawoda, Evan Wolfe, Wei Jun Goh, Sok Hiang Loo, Kok Wah Ng, Chee
Siong Ong, Choon Ming Tan, Hock Woo Tan, Chung Siong Tng and Kangjie Yang. The
Distributed Air Wing. Capstone Project, Cohort 20, Team Bravo. M.S. in Systems Engineering
Analysis. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Project Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Jeffrey Kline
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42717
Abstract: The development of advanced anti-access/area denial (A2AD) threats by potential
adversaries presents a significant challenge to the United States Navy. The proliferation of these
threats makes operating an aircraft carrier from contested waters a high-risk endeavor. If a
carrier must be withheld from the battle or is put out of action, the entire capability of the air
wing is lost. The Systems Engineering process was applied to this problem by exploring a concept
called the Distributed Air Wing (DAW). This high-level concept includes various methods to
distribute and disperse naval air capabilities from their centralized location on an aircraft carrier.
This study outlines the development and analysis of three conceptual designs that fall under the
concept of the DAW: a dispersed land and sea basing concept that utilizes carrier-borne Navy and
Marine Corps aircraft, a seaborne unmanned aircraft courier system, and a carrier-based
unmanned air-to-air vehicle. The analysis within shows that a mixture of these alternatives in
varying degrees delivers the Fleet’s most critical capabilities— Intelligence, Surveillance and
Reconnaissance (ISR), Offensive/Defensive Counter Air, and Surface/Land Strike— with less risk
than the current Carrier Air Wing (CVW) force structure and operational doctrine
Oncu, Mehmet and Suleyman Yildiz. An Analysis of Human Causal Factors in Unammned Aerial
Vehicle (UAV) Accidents. MBA Professional Paper. Master of Business Administration.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2014.
Advisors: Edward H. Powley and Bryan J. Hudgens.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44637
Abstract: Human error has been identified as the major contributor in many severe aviation
mishaps, even for accidents involving Unmanned Aircraft (UA) systems. The Department of
Defense (DOD) has used the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)
taxonomy successfully for ten years to discover the human error in UA mishaps. It is important
not to ignore the indisputable human presence in UA and the possible human-related causal
factors in UA mishaps so we might be better able to reduce and prevent possible incidents.
HFACS with its four main and 19 subcategories is a useful framework for identifying which factors
have arisen historically, and which of them should have priority. The results of this study reveals
that among 287 causal factors attributed to 68 accidents, 65 percent of the factors were
associated with humans. Moreover, this study also discloses that the rater who categorizes the
factors can differently observe, understand, and interpret the findings of mishap investigation;
thus, human error may even impact the categorization phase due to the rater’s perception. The
research concluded that even though HFACS carried out its functionality well, further study is
needed to conduct intense statistical analysis with unlimited data and to validate HFACS with
more case studies and various raters.
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Ong, Chee Siong. Logistics Supply of the Distributed Air Wing. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual
Environments, and Simulation. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September
2014.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy Chung
Second Reader: Eugene Paulo
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43969
Abstract: The use of the aircraft carrier has been the norm for delivering sizable amounts of air
power swiftly to any part of the world. A capstone project, conducted by the system engineering
curriculum, proposed to distribute the air assets from the aircraft carrier to multiple Expeditionary
Airbases (EABs), which are land bases located within the operating theater. This thesis studies
the logistical demands of the EABs, and adopts the Marine Aviation Logistics Support Program II
(MALSP II) concept for the logistics supply of the Distributed Air Wing. Airship, fixed wing
Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), and rotary wing UAV are explored as the main cargo transportation
means. This thesis develops a vehicle routing optimization model to optimize the transportation
fleet size and mix, and a discrete event simulation to analyze the logistics concept. Experiments
are conducted to determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of using cargo UAVs, using
cargo trucks as a reference for comparisons. All platforms achieved the three days’ turnaround
time, as stipulated by MALSP II. The airship is found to be the most cost-effective solution.
Rotary wing and fixed wing UAVs deliver their supplies much faster, but are more suitable for
quick response missions, instead of large cargo deliveries.
Patton, Scott A. A Comparison of Tactical Leader Decision Making Between Automated and
Live Counterparts in a Virtual Environment. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments, and
Simulation. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Quinn Kennedy
Second Reader: Jonathan Alt
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42705
Abstract: The use of responsible autonomous systems may not be far away. Prior to developing
or using responsible autonomous systems, it may be important to know if tactical leaders would
make different types of decisions with automated systems than they would make with a human
live crew. This work attempts to determine if decisions, time to make decisions, and confidence in
decisions differ when tactical leaders rely on an autonomous wingman or a live wingman. Virtual
Battlespace Simulation 2 was used to provide the virtual environment in which 30 military
personnel completed a simulated mission that entailed five decision points. Participants were
randomly assigned to have an autonomous or live wingman. Decision patterns were compared to
a standard based on Army Doctrine for mechanized infantry Bradley sections and subject matter
experts. Results indicated no significant group difference in decisions made, time to make
decisions, and confidence in decisions. However, significant group differences emerged in the
aspects of the wingman that participants trusted most and least. Although most participants
indicated that they would not trust autonomous wingmen in real combat, results suggest that
participants would revert to doctrinal decisions when faced with an unambiguous situation with
an unmanned system with which they had some experience.
Ramos, Nicole R. Assessment of Vision-Based Target Detection and Classification Solutions
Using an Indoor Aerial Robot. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Oleg A. Yakimenko
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43984
Abstract: The role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in military, commercial and recreational
applications is continuously evolving as devel-opments in technology increase capabilities. The
research herein presents an inexpensive computer-vision-based solution for detection and
classification of a stationary target with a mobile aerial sensor as a prototyping platform. The
main goal of this system is to use commercial-off-the-shelf and open-source components to
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reduce design complexity to provide a legacy product for future develop-ment of specific
capabilities. Color imagery collected during flight using a low-resolution camera is used to test
the application of a simple algorithm against a commercially available and low cost sensor.
Original image processing algorithms that leverage the existing body of works in the open-source
community are developed and tested within the Systems Engineering construct. System architecture leverages a modular approach that can be easily modified and adapted to changing
requirements and objectives. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations for further study and
system development are presented.
Saadat, Muhammad K. The Drone Dilemma: Investigating the Causes of Controversy Between
the United States and Pakistan. M.A. in Security Studies (Combating Terrorism: Policy &
Strategy). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Carolyn Halladay
Second Reader: Feroz H. Khan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44660
Abstract: The thesis examines the effects of U.S. drone strikes on Pakistan’s politics, internal
security, and relationship with the United States. It analyzes the perspectives of the United
States and Pakistan within the realm of national interests, legal framework, and ethical aspects,
as well as considers short-term benefits and long-term consequences. Whatever the tactical
efficacy of drone strikes may be, they have contributed to anti-American feelings and a growing
trust deficit between the United States and Pakistan, and adversely affected the actual cause of
fighting terrorism. The thesis concludes that drones have not achieved significant success in the
war on terror. The attacks have achieved tactical successes at a very heavy cost for Pakistan—
and possibly to the detriment of the global war on terror. Drone operations have supplemented
terrorist recruitment and resolve, pumped up anti-U.S. feeling in Pakistan and across the globe,
and have set up dangerous precedents for countries potentially possessing other countries. The
study offers a number of recommendations that are not new, but if followed can promote
improvement at every tier.
Scott, Barry S. Strategy in the Robotic Age: A Case for Automous Warfare. M.A. in Security
Studies (Strategic Studies). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2014.
Co-Thesis Advisors: Donald Abenheim and James Wirtz.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43995
Abstract: The advent of a Robotic Age in combat has set the stage for a renewed style of
warfare: autonomous warfare. The outstanding feature of this new era is the arrival of robotics
on the battlefield, but the significance of the new warfare style is that it mandates a shift in the
way humans approach modern combat. In 2010, the Department of Defense restated autonomy
as the single greatest theme for today’s unmanned systems. Autonomy, however, has long been
a theme in warfare and weapons; therefore, the concept should apply to both those who fight
and to their machines. Autonomy is the current buzzword for improving technology, but
increasing autonomy for the soldier or combatant is the defining characteristic of autonomous
warfare. With a view to this development, this study suggests changes in the character of war,
and proposes autonomous warfare as an operating concept that empowers, rather than replaces,
humans in battle.
Shim, JooEon. Optimal Estimation of Glider's Underwater Trajectory with Depth-Dependent
Correction Using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model with Application to Antisubmarine
Warfare. M.S. in Physical Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Peter C. Chu
Second Reader: Chenwu Fan and Ronald Betsch
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44002
Abstract: An underwater glider is a cost-effective underwater unmanned vehicle with highendurance for oceanographic research or naval applications. Its navigation and localization
accuracy are important because these accuracies provide spatiotemporally high resolution ocean
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data with saving energy and time. The glider, however, is affected by the ocean currents because
of its minimal velocity, which is due to its buoyancy-driven propulsion system. It also lacks of
inexpensive and efficient localization sensors during its subsurface mission. Therefore, knowing
its precise underwater position is a challenging task. This study attempts to develop a novel
correction method for estimating a glider’s optimal underwater trajectory. In four steps, it
compares the corrected trajectories, which are developed using depth-averaged and depthdependent correction methods using the Regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). The results
suggest that the depth-dependent correction method is more accurate. This study for estimating
a glider’s underwater trajectory accurately would be beneficial to oceanographic research and
naval applications, especially antisubmarine warfare (ASW) such as operating Intelligence,
Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR); operating littoral ASW; providing communication
networks; and supporting tactical oceanography.
Smith, Montrell F. Converting a Manned LCU Into an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV): Aa
Open Systems Architecture (OSA) Case Study. M.S. in Systems Engineeing Management.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Donald P. Brutzman
Second Readers: Richard D. Williams, III and Paul V. Shebalin
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44004
Abstract: This thesis demonstrates the process by which the concepts of open systems
architecture (OSA) might be applied within the context of an existing systems engineering
methodology to result in a flexible system. This is accomplished by combining an existing
systems engineering process model with OSA management and business principles to execute a
successful asset-repurposing program. To demonstrate utility of this OSA approach to systems
engineering management, this thesis analyzes an atypical asset-repurposing program: the
conversion of a 1610 Class Landing Craft Utility to an unmanned surface vehicle. This thesis
shows that OSA technical architecture is best implemented by defining high-level, business and
technical flexibility requirements. This thesis argues that proper up-front architecting can balance
non-recurring acquisition costs with future recurring lifecycle and modernization costs. A
reference model and open standards are used to show the value of interface flexibility. This
analysis makes the case for extending the useful service life of a Naval asset via repurposing
rather than disposing of the asset, as is traditional. Furthermore, this analysis shows that
strategic reuse or repurposing of assets represents an innovative alternative to the traditional
sense of new-product acquisition, new-construction, and product modernization decisions.
Sözen, Volkan. Optimal Deployment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Border Surveillance.
M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Emily Craparo
Second Reader: Thomas Lucas
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42729
Outstanding Thesis Award
Abstract: Border surveillance is an important concern for most nations wanting to detect and
intercept intruders that are trying to trespass a border. These intruders can include terrorists,
drug traffickers, smugglers, illegal immigrants, and others who represent a threat to national
interests. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) allow for modernization and improvement of border
surveillance. There are a number of advantages to using UAVs. Many UAVs can be controlled by a
single operator, which reduces personnel costs; they are very fast and can patrol large regions;
and they have wider regions of visibility than conventional surveillance methods, which increases
the probability of detecting intruders. This thesis formulates mathematical models designed to
find the best way to utilize a given fleet of UAVs by deciding their routes, altitudes, and speeds in
order to maximize the probability of detecting intruders trying to trespass a given border. These
models will enable decision makers to effectively acquire and employ a UAV fleet for border
surveillance.
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Stamey, Barcley W. Domestic Aerial Surveillance and Homeland Security: Should Americans
Fear the Eye in th Sky? M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security and Defense). Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Erik Dahl
Second Reader: Clay Moltz
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/41446
Abstract: Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, also known as drones) are being increasingly more
utilized in domestic law enforcement operations, enabling officers to maximize situational
awareness from overhead while minimizing their exposure to danger. As the domestic airspace is
scheduled to be fully drone integrated by 2015, growing concerns over national security and
privacy issues have highlighted the capabilities and potential implications of using UAS on a
national scale. This thesis examines the potential effectiveness of utilizing domestic aerial
surveillance to increase homeland security while addressing how, and to what level, these
programs should be federally overseen and regulated without infringing on Americans' civil
liberties. This thesis argues that large-scale UAS operations by federal agencies are costinefficient and lack tangible results, while state and local agency operations, which employ
smaller systems in more specific situations, are less expensive and more effective. Current U.S.
law allows for aerial surveillance by law enforcement, but updating privacy legislation to account
for modern technology should be considered. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) needs
to accelerate its working relationship with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and its UAS
approval process to establish and maintain privacy safeguards to ensure the highest level of
national security while minimizing civil liberty infringement.
Stimpert, Sian E. Lightening the Load of a USMC Rifle Platoon Through Robotics Integration.
M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Alejandro Hernandez and Richard C. Milllar.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42733
Abstract: With the increase of the loaded weight that a Marine carries, the integration of robotics
is a significant point of interest to the United States Marine Corps, especially to the Expeditionary
Energy Office. Through the use of the agent-based modeling and simulation application,
Pythagoras, robots are integrated into a Marine Expeditionary Unit’s rifle platoon to alleviate the
burden on each Marine. This study examines the rifle platoon’s energy and power consumption,
operational reach, and operational effectiveness for a scouting and patrolling mission. A systems
engineering methodology results in a tradeoff analysis on the rifle platoon’s success, relative to
the number of integrated robots. Integrating six robots in a rifle platoon can improve the
platoon’s ability to fulfill its mission, while supporting the Marine Corps’ energy strategy. In the
context of energy initiatives, this research forms the baseline for investigating the impact of robot
integration in Marine combat operations through simulations.
Terjesen, Steven. Navigation System Design and State Estimation for a Small Rigid Hull
Inflatable Boat (RHIB). Mechanical Engineering, M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2014.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Douglas Horner and Sean Kragelund
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44016
Abstract: Autonomous operation of a small rigid hull inflatable boat (RHIB) is a complex problem
that requires a robust network of sensors, controllers, processors, and actuators. Furthermore,
autonomous navigation requires accurate state estimation, fusing and filtering data from an array
of sensors to give the best possible estimates of attitude, position, and velocity. This thesis will
address the hardware modifications and navigation state estimators used to configure the SeaFox
Mk II RHIB for future autonomous operations. The study began with a RHIB capable of manual
and remote-controlled operation. The proprietary controllers and processors were replaced with
an open architecture system that enabled an autonomous mode of operation and data collection
from a suite of global positioning satellite receivers and inertial measurement units. Multiple
navigation state estimators were designed using the extended Kalman filter and several variants
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of the unscented Kalman filter. Each filter was evaluated against simulated and actual sea trial
data to determine its accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency.
Tng, Chung Siong. Effects of Sensing Capability on Ground Platform Survivability During
Ground Forces Maneuver Operations. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, September 2014
Thesis Co-Advisor: Eugene P. Paulo and Douglas H. Nelson
Second Reader: Mark R. Stevens
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44018
Avstract: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effects of sensing capability on ground
platform survivability during ground force maneuver operations. Sensor classification probability
of ground platforms and speed of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are the factors being studied,
and the Map Aware Non-Uniform Automata (MANA) agent-based simulation software was used to
create a hypothetical Ground Force Maneuver Operation Scenario for this exploration. A tailored
Waterfall systems engineering process model guided the study in identifying alternatives which,
other than increasing armor thickness, can improve platform survivability during ground force
maneuver operations. The Nearly Orthogonal Latin Hypercube was the Design of Experiment
methodology used to determine the number of design points to be simulated, and the results
generated from the multiple simulation runs were analyzed using regression analysis and
partition tree analysis. The sensor classification probability of the Bradley M6 Linebacker and
M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank, and the speed of UAV, were identified to be the three most
significant factors affecting platform survivability. More importantly, the study provides decision
makers with quantitative data, which can be used as references to determine the requirements
for sensing capability enhancement programs.
Wanier, Blake M. A Modular simulation Framework for Assessing Swarm Search Models. M.S.
in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2014.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: James Eagle
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/44027
Abstract: The ability to utilize large numbers of unmanned systems as search agents allows the
implementation of different search strategies that are not currently explored utilizing today’s
search decision support and analysis tools. This thesis develops a framework in MATLAB that
allows the investigation of search strategies that utilize large numbers, or a swarm, of search
agents. By implementing a modular design, multiple aspects of the search, such as tactics,
searcher characteristics, and target characteristics, can easily be varied and analyzed. Utilizing
JMP to perform statistical analysis, future design requirements can be refined in order to advise
decision makers on possible alternatives and trade spaces for optimizing swarm search
performance. Numerical studies demonstrate the ability to leverage the developed simulation and
analysis framework to investigate three canonical swarm search models as benchmarks for future
exploration of more sophisticated swarm search scenarios.
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2013
Beach, Timothy M. Mobility Modeling and Estimation for Delay Tolerant Unmanned Ground
Vehicle Networks. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, June 2013.
Advisors: Preetha Thulasirama and Grace Clark
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34624
Abstract: An ad hoc unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) network operates as an intermittently
connected mobile delay tolerant network (DTN). The path planning strategy in a DTN requires
mobility estimation of the spatial positions of the nodes as a function of time. The purpose of this
thesis is to create a foundational mobility estimation algorithm that can be coupled with a
cooperative communication routing algorithm to provide a basis for real time path planning in
UGV-DTNs. In this thesis, we use a Gauss-Markov state space model for the node dynamics. The
measurements are constant power received signal strength indicator (RSSI) signals transmitted
from fixed position base stations. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is derived for estimating of
coordinates in a two-dimensional spatial grid environment. Simulation studies are conducted to
test and validate the models and estimation algorithms. We simulate a single mobile node
traveling along a trajectory that includes abrupt maneuvers. Estimation performance is measured
using zero mean whiteness tests on the innovations sequences, root mean squared error (RMSE)
of the state estimates, weighted sum squared residuals (WSSRs) on the innovations, and the
posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound (PCRLB). Under these performance indices, we demonstrate
that the mobility estimator performs effectively.
Blandin, Mathiew; Brux, Jeramy; Caraway, Christopher; Cook, Jamie; Fromille, Samuel; Haertel,
David; Hall, Steven; Kish, John Paul; Szachta, Stephen. SE Cross-Campus Study (SEA 19A)
2024 Unmanned Undersea Warfare Concept. M.S. in Systems Engineering Analysis.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2013.
Advisor: Timothy Chung
Second Reader: James Eagle
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34733
Abstract: Potential adversaries throughout the world continue to acquire and develop
sophisticated multi-layered, anti-access, area-denial (A2AD) systems. To maintain its maritime
superiority, the United States must continue to innovate systems that are capable of operating in
and defeating these A2AD environments. In particular, command of the undersea domain
remains vital and will increasingly be critical in facing this future battle space. The challenges our
nation faces, however, are not limited only to the technological capabilities of the warfighters, but
also include a myriad of confounding constraints. In addition to the expected shortfalls of
mission-ready assets, the Submarine Forces also must address significant pressures in defense
spending. Nevertheless, unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) remain one of the top priorities of
the Chief of Naval Operations, as UUVs serve as effective force multipliers, while greatly reducing
risk, in critical missions in A2AD environments. This report presents the findings of analysis and
assessment conducted by an integrated systems engineering and analysis team of military officer
students at the Naval Postgraduate School. Their operationally driven tasking seeks to design a
system-of-systems of unmanned and manned undersea vehicles to ensure undersea dominance
both in the near term and into the next decade. The importance of the systems perspective to
this study is reflected by the extensive engagement with many operational stakeholders,
academic researchers, industry partners, and acquisitions programs across the Naval enterprise.
The capability-based approach highlights the mission suitability of both currently fielded UUVs
and also technologies realizable within the next decade. The capstone final report summarizes
these critical insights and provides detailed recommendations to inform decision makers of the
present to prepare for the undersea forces of the future.
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Cabello, Carlos S. Droning On: American Strategic Myopia Toward Unmanned Aerial Systems.
M.S. in Defense Analysis. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Bradley Jay Strawser
Second Reader: Robert O’Connell
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/38890
Abstract: Throughout the past decade of wars, the U.S. has deployed unmanned aerial systems,
commonly referred to as drones, from Africa to Asia collecting intelligence and targeting
adversaries. The nation now stands at a crossroad seeking to develop future American drone
policy against an evolving threat while at the same time shaping global norms. The past decade
of American drone use focused on short-term benefits, intelligence collection and lethal targeting,
rather than on the long-term consequences of technology diffusion, or ethical and legal
frameworks. Myopic drone strategies threaten to establish a global precedent that could
undermine the stability of international relations, as state and non-state actors (SANSA) have
begun to build, arm, and operate lethal unmanned systems at an alarming rate. Unmanned
technology development and usage is outpacing international norms, regulations, and policies.
These systems will usher in an era of unrestricted drone usage unless international regulations
and standards are developed. This thesis examines whether American drone strategy is myopic
and whether it is creating a dangerous international precedent. A qualitative analysis will identify
the short-term benefits and long-term consequences of U.S. drone strategy, focusing on
unmanned technology diffusion, ethical justifications, and legal frameworks. Examining American
drone strategy can help explain why a myopic policy may be beneficial in the short-term, yet may
increase threats to national interests in the long-term. The thesis concludes with an assessment
of whether strategic myopia has already set a dangerous international precedent, which SANSA
will use to justify their future drone programs.
Cena, James M. Power Transfer Efficiency of Mutually Coupled Coils in an Aluminum AUV
Hull. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December
2013.
Thesis Co-Advisors: David Jenn and Alexander L. Julian
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/38895
Abstract: To charge the United States Navys Remote Environmental Measuring Units (REMUS)
autonomous undersea vehicle (AUV) in situ requires the REMUS to mate with a docking station.
There are two problems with this docking station. The docking system requires the REMUS to
make electrical contact with the dock, which can lead to electrical shorting in an undersea
environment. The dock is also designed to fit a single type of AUV. AUVs of different sizes require
a new docking system. A different means of power transfer is required that can be used in a
universal docking station. An inductive power transfer (IPT) system can be used in a universal
docking station. In this report, we calculated the power transfer efficiency of an IPT system
operating at 100 kHz using circular coils. These calculated results were then compared to three
sets of measured efficiency data: an IPT system without ferrite tiles; an IPT system with the
receiving coil attached to ferrite tiles; and an IPT system with the receiving coil/ferrite tile
combination placed inside an aluminum AUV hull. Efficiency was poor, less than 10 percent with
an air gap of 55 mm, when the receiving coil was placed inside the aluminum hull.
Choon, Junwei. Development and Validation of a Controlled Virtual Environment for Guidance,
Navigation and Control of Quadrotor UAV. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisors: Oleg Yakimenko and Isaac Kaminer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37600
Abstract: This thesis is focused on the development of a six degrees of freedom (6DOF)
simulation model of a commercial-off-the-shelf quadrotor. The dynamics of the quadrotor and its
control strategy are described. The Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) of the Autonomous
Systems Engineering and Integration Laboratory (ASEIL) laboratory used in conducting the
experiments is also analyzed. Simulation results are then verified with actual flight data. A direct
method of calculus of variations is employed in the development of an algorithm for optimal
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trajectory generation and collision-free flight. Using the differential-flatness characteristics of the
system, the trajectory optimization is posed as a nonlinear constrained optimization problem in
virtual domain, not explicitly related to the time domain. Appropriate parameterized functions
employing an abstract argument, known as the virtual arc, are used to ensure initial and terminal
constraints satisfaction. A speed factor maps the virtual to the time domain and controls the
speed profile along any predetermined trajectory. An inner loop attitude controller was used to
achieve almost global asymptotic attitude tracking for trajectory following. The trajectory
generation and following algorithms were verified using the 6DOF simulation model through a
simulated collision avoidance scenario.
Chua, Boon Heng. Integration of Multiple Unmanned Systems in an Urban Search and Rescue
Environment. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
March 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Oleg Yakimenko
Second Reader: Mark Stevens
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/32805
Abstract: In view of the local, regional and global security trends over the past decade, the
threats of disaster to the populace inhabiting urbanized areas are real and there is a need for
increased vigilance. There can be multiple causes for urban disaster natural disasters, terrorist
attack and urban warfare are all viable. This thesis focused on the event in which an urban
search and rescue operation is required due to the aftermath of a terrorist activity. Systems
engineering techniques were utilized to analyze the problem space and suggested a plausible
solution. Application of unmanned vehicles in the scenario enhanced the reconnaissance,
intelligence and surveillance capabilities of the responding forces, while limiting the exposure risk
of personnel. One of the many challenges facing unmanned systems in a cluttered environment is
a capability to rapidly generate reactive obstacle avoidance trajectories. A direct method of
calculus of variations was applied for the unmanned platforms to achieve mission objectives
collaboratively, and perform real-time trajectory optimization for a collision-free flight. Dynamic
models were created to enable simulated operations within the thesis design scenario.
Experiments conducted in an indoor lab verified the unmanned systems ability to avoid obstacles
and carry out collaborative missions successfully.
Craft, Timothy L. The Systems Engineering Desighn of a Smart Forward Operating Base
Surveillance System for Forward Operating Base Protection. M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2013.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Rachel Goshorn and Deborah Goshorn
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34650
Abstract: Forward operating bases are vulnerable to terrorist activity due to their location and
limited resources. Threat awareness under these conditions is paramount to the safety of the
personnel and to mission accomplishment. In the absence of the manpower required to maintain
complete and continuous monitoring of the FOBs surroundings, an automated surveillance system
is needed. The Smart FOB Surveillance System (SFSS) employs a multi-agent behavior analysis
and decision system with Swarm Intelligence (SI) through a network-centric systems engineering
method of development to create a robust surveillance system. The SFSS provides the capability
of an intelligence automated system for continuously monitoring areas for certain behaviors,
linking individuals, predicting future behaviors, and taking appropriate action against them to
eliminate threats and the possibility of future threats. Environments, such as insurgent urban
areas, Forward Operating Bases, country borders, and other high-value target areas all require
constant personnel behavior surveillance and monitoring. The SFSS utilizes a complex network of
aerial, fixed and mobile terrestrial units, capable of identifying and processing audible, visual, and
signal intelligence in order to determine personnel behavior in a given area of interest as well as
recording and processing intelligence data. The focus is on creating a system to protect Forward
Operating Bases (FOB) by providing continuous and autonomous surveillance and threat alerts.
In this manner, a Smart FOB Surveillance System (SFSS) will be designed in this thesis using the
systems engineering process.
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Damron, David W. Tropical Cyclone Reconnaissance with the Global Hawk: Operational
Thresholds and Characteristics of Convective Systems Over the Tropical Western United
States. M.S. in Meteorology and Physical Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Patrick A. Harr
Second Reader: Barbara Scarnato
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/38913
Abstract: In a tropical cyclone (TC), in situ observations measure storm location, intensity, and
structure. These parameters are valuable for initializing numerical models and providing
forecasters with current conditions on which to base their forecast. Over the western North Pacific
(WPAC), a lack of in situ observations in TCs is hypothesized to be one component that
contributes to a recent leveling of forecast skill. In this study, the use of a Global Hawk (GH)
unmanned aerial vehicle as an observing platform for TCs over the WPAC is examined. It is
hypothesized that the GH can greatly benefit the Department of Defense by reducing the
uncertainty in TC track forecasts, which has been mandated by the U.S. Pacific Command as a
priority for increasing the area of sea maneuverability A limit to successful GH operations is the
ability to operate at altitudes above typical cloud tops of WPAC TCs. A climatology of WPAC TC
cloud-top heights and temperatures was examined to relate these parameters to storm
characteristics. It is concluded that use of a GH for tropical cyclone reconnaissance in the WPAC
is a viable option to provide in situ observations of tropical cyclone characteristics for improved
model and operational forecasts.
Dengler, Judson J. An Examination of the Collateral Psychological and Political Damage of
Drone Warfare in the FATA Region of Pakistan. M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security
And Defense). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Fathali Moghaddam
Second Reader: David Brannan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37611
Abstract: This research will examine the collateral psychological and political damage of the
United States drone warfare program on Pakistani society in the Federally Administered Tribal
Areas (FATA), to determine if this is an effective, proactive homeland defense tactic. The use of
drone aircraft by the United States government has increased worldwide since this evolving
technology was first utilized in 2001. Each drone strike impacts militants, noncombatants, and
ordinary civilians. The potential for collateral damage and civilian casualties may overshadow the
tactical gain of even successful drone strikes by inspiring radicalization, and creating recruiting
opportunities for militants. The findings of this research will recommend an alternative framework
from which to evaluate the effectiveness of drone warfare based on the collateral psychological
and political impact on society in this region. Traditional studies of drone warfare have tended to
analyze from a tactical perspective. The examination of drone warfare, based on the damage
done to the psychological experiences and political attitudes of FATA residents who may turn
against the U.S., provides policy makers with the ability to better assess the impact of drone
strikes on communities, and determine the optimal situation to leverage this lethal tactic, while
minimizing negative outcomes.
Dimitriou, Georgios. Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles into Surveillance Systems in
Complex Maritime Environments. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments, And Simulation
(MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Quinn Kennedy
Second Reader: Thomas W. Lucas
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37613
Abstract: One of the most important missions all Navies have is to constantly and sufficiently
monitor their area of responsibility. This task becomes more challenging when a surveillance
system operates in a complex environment with high traffic of merchant and fishing vessels and
the existence of many islands. Potential tactics that targets might use increase the difficulty of
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this task. Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) into a surveillance system that consists of
ground radars and surface ships might enhance the systems capabilities and mitigate its
vulnerabilities. In this study, the extremely complex maritime environment of the Aegean Sea is
modeled in the Map Aware Non Uniform Automata (MANA) agent-based simulation environment
to explore the effectiveness of UAVs in those conditions. The results from almost 100,000
simulated Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance missions are analyzed using descriptive
statistics, ANOVA, stepwise regression, and partition trees. It was found that by integrating one
or two UAVs into a traditional surveillance system, it becomes more efficient in the detection and
persistent surveillance of enemies and neutral targets. The most important factors that affect the
surveillance systems performance are the detection capabilities of its sensors, the communication
accuracy, and the enemys counter-detection capability. Thus, Greece and other countries with
similar geographical characteristics should deploy UAVs in a maritime surveillance role.
Fitzgerald, Jessica L. Characterization Parameters for a Three Degree of Freedom Mobile
Robot. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December
2013.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
Second Reader: Andres Larraza
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/38929
Abstract: Control and Navigation logic was developed for a 3-Degree of Freedom Surf-Zone Robot
to assist in the identification and characterization of platform parameters for use in the Shuey
Dynamic Model. These parameters included, primarily platform rotational inertia and wheel slip.
Data was collected in various track scenarios including benign flat terrain and more complicated
beach runs. Track lengths spanned short straight paths of no more than 10 meters to full-run
point-to-point autonomous navigation paths of up to 80 meters. The longer runs included turns of
up to 180 degrees and terrain inclines of 2 degree or less. As expected the Shuey model proved
reliable for short runs of no more than 10 meters. For long length runs in the beach environment
the Dynamic Model diverged quickly. This is attributed to, primarily, wheel slip conditions and the
fact that the Shuey Model is open loop. Motor current was monitored under load conditions to
identify wheel slip and simple algorithms were implemented to account for this with little success.
However, closed loop heading input resulted in significant improvement to the model
Fritz, James R. Computer-aided Detection of Rapid, Overt, Airborne, Reconnaissnace Data
with the Capability of Removing Ocean Noises. M.S. in Joint Meteorology and Physical
Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2013.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Peter Chu and Chenwu Fan
Second Reader: Ronald E. Betsch
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/38932
Abstract: There have been three times more attacks to naval ships using sea mines than all other
forms combined. Sea mines have always been viewed upon as underhanded and unchivalrous,
yet they provide a weaker navy the capability to stall and damage a vastly superior navy.
Utilizing unmanned sensors to detect sea mines is the goal of the navy for the future. Computeraided detection (CAD) of sea mines is much faster and more consistent than a human operator,
yet it is not currently being utilized by any of our mine countermeasure assets. Although there
are many studies that have incorporated computer aided detection and classification algorithms
with sonar imagery for mine warfare, few have used Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). During
an amphibious assault scenario the ability to land assets quickly and mitigate risk is vital to the
success. This thesis analyzes Rapid Overt Aerial Reconnaissance data from an Office of Naval
Research experiment by Fort Walton Beach, FL. The CAD algorithm that was developed
consistently detects sea mines in LIDAR data while having a manageable false alarm rate.
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Gaerther, Uwe. UAV Swarm Tactics: An Agent-based Simulation and Markov Process Analysis.
M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Michael Atkinson
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34665
Abstract: The rapid increase in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in recent decades
lead to their potential use as saturation or swarm threats to Allied Forces. One possible counter
measure is the design and deployment of a defensive UAV swarm. This thesis identifies a future
concept of swarm-versus-swarm UAV combat, focusing on the implications of swarm tactics and
identifies important factors for such engagements. This work provides initial key insights through
significant modeling, simulation, and analysis. The contributions of the presented work include
the design of an agent-based simulation and the formulation of an associated analytical model.
The agent-based simulation allows for the UAV to be modeled as an agent that follows a simple
rule set, which is responsible for the emergent swarm behavior relevant to defining swarm
tactics. A two-level Markov process is developed to model the air-to-air engagements, where the
first level focuses on one-on-one combat while the second level incorporates the results from the
first and explores multi-UAV engagements. Tactical insights obtained from this study can be
contrasted with tactics for manned air combat, which highlights the potential need to develop
new tactics for unmanned combat aviation as well as for swarm scenarios. Additional analysis
performed in this thesis provides further tactical recommendations and outlines multiple avenues
of future study.
Harrop, John P. Improving the Army’s Joint Platform Allocation Tool (JPAT). M.S. in Operations
Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Emily Craparo
Second Reader: Christopher Marks
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37635
Abstract: The U.S. Army’s joint platform allocation tool (JPAT) is an integer linear program that
was developed by the Army’s Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center and the Naval
Postgraduate School to help inform acquisition decisions involving aerial reconnaissance and
surveillance (R&S) resources. JPAT evaluates inputs such as mission requirements, locations of
available equipment, and budgetary constraints to determine an effective assignment of
unmanned aerial R&S assets to missions. As of September 2013, JPAT is solved using a rolling
horizon approach, which produces a sub-optimal solution, and requires substantial computational
resources to solve a problem of realistic size. Because JPAT is an integer linear program, it is a
suitable candidate for using decomposition techniques to improve its computational efficiency.
This thesis conducts an analysis of multiple approaches for increasing JPATs computational
efficiency. First, we reformulate JPAT using Benders decomposition. Then, we solve both the
original and decomposed formulations using the simplex and barrier algorithms with multiple size
datasets. In addition, we experiment with an initial heuristic solution and other techniques in our
attempts to improve JPATs runtime. We find that while Benders decomposition does not result in
significant improvements in computation time for the instances considered in this thesis, initial
solution heuristics and other modifications to the model improve JPATs performance.
Horner, Douglas. A Data-driven Framework for Rapid Modeling of Wirelss Communication
Channels. PhD. in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2013.
Disseration Supervisor: Geoffrey Xie
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/38947
Abstract: Accurate estimation and prediction of wireless signal strength holds the promise to
improve a wide variety of applications in network-ing and unmanned systems. Current estimation
approaches use either simplistic attenuation equations or detailed physical models that provide
limited accuracy and may require a lengthy period of environmental assessment and
computation. This dissertation presents a new, data-driven, stochastic framework for rapidly
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building accurate wireless connectivity maps. The framework advances the state of the art in
three aspects. First, it augments the classic spatial interpolation procedure known as Kriging with
a complementary additive approach to capture the typical anisotropic nature of wireless channels
in cluttered environments. Second, it includes a technique for rapidly creating and maintaining a
connectivity map in near real-time through the use of a spatial Bayesian recursive filter. Third, it
introduces a novel methodology to adapt the resolution of a connectivity map based on the
spatial characteristics and the quantity of available sample measurements. Detailed analyses,
using several datasets collected recently in the Monterey Harbor, have confirmed the power and
agility of the proposed approach.
Ironhill, Christopher, Bryan Otis, Frederick Lancaster, Angel Perez, Diana Ly, Nam Tran. Small
Tactical Unmanned Aerial System (STUAS) Rapid Integration and Fielding Process
(RAIN). Team RAIN/Cohort 311-101A4/121A4 M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisors: Rama Gehris and Bonnier Young
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37705
Abtract: The Department of the Navy (DoN) maintains an inventory of Small Tactical Unmanned
Aircraft Systems (STUAS). These systems are designed for payload modularity to support user
selection of multiple mission configurations in order to meet any unique mission need. Numerous
mission ready payloads have been developed for each system, and only need to be integrated in
order to become part of the fielded unmanned aerial system (UAS) configuration. Unfortunately,
the DoN does not have a method that maintains sufficient systems engineering (SE) discipline to
rapidly integrate and field new mission configurations to the fleet in support of aggressive
schedules and urgent user needs. The typical fielding time frame can range from 24 to 36
months, instead of the desired 6 to 18 months. Furthermore, without a sufficient SE approach,
risk to mission success is not well understood. This paper captures all applicable requirements for
fielding a new capability onto an existing UAS, and using an SE approach, outlines a process to
rapidly integrate payloads DoN system. The process identified provides a comprehensive list of
integration requirements; a cost, schedule, and performance trade-off analysis; technical risk
associated with each tradeoff option; and recommendations on how to best support a rapid
fielding timeline.
Justice, Joel M. Active Shooters: Is Law Enforcement Ready for a Mumbai Style Attack? M.A. in
Security Studies (Homeland Security And Defense). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2013.
Thesis Co-Advisors: David Brannan and Patrick Miller
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37645
Abstract: Between April 16, 2007, and December 14, 2012, the United States has seen 25 mass
shootings, seven of which occurred in 2012. A report by United States Department of Homeland
Security, in 2009, suggested that the United States will be the target of a terrorist act that could
cause a high number of casualties. The November 26, 2008, attack on Mumbai is a transparent
example of how determined terrorists, trained to die fighting, can bring a large metropolitan city
to its knees. It is entirely probable that Mumbai-type attacks could occur in the United States.
Since the local law enforcement respond to attacks in progress, any active shooter event would
be handled by the local jurisdiction. Many law enforcement agencies have begun to incorporate
tactical plans to respond to Mumbai-type terrorist attacks. This thesis focused on police
preparedness of select large metropolitan law enforcement agencies for potential Mumbai-type
terrorist attacks. A comparative analysis of these police agencies was conducted, which showed
that the frequency of training was found to be varying and inadequate by these agencies. A
similar concern was that none of the agencies had equipped all the police officers with rifles,
which were deemed critical to engage well-equipped active shooters. It is the conclusion of the
thesis that gaps in preparedness exist and law enforcement organizations have room for
improvement. It was also concluded that agencies need to enhance communication capability
between neighboring jurisdictions and focus on triage of the victims during the early stages of
attacks when medical personnel would be unable to approach.
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Kim, Kyungnho. Integrating Coordinated Path Following Algorithms to Mitigate the Loss of
Communication Among Multiple UAVs. M.S. in Information Technology Management.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Raymond R. Buettner
Co-Advisors: Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov and Kevin D. Jones
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/32848
Abstract: The thesis addresses the problem of mid-air collision avoidance among multiple
Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) capable of communicating their flight states
across a time-varying communication network. The UAVs capabilities to (a) follow a given path
and to (b) exchange and coordinate their relative position while on the path are considered the
key factors enabling the time-critical coordination that in turn guarantees the safety of flight. The
thesis is based on the key results of the recently developed concept of Coordinated Path
Following (CPF) for multiple autonomous agents. While the path-following methodology is
adapted without modification, the information exchange over the time-varying communication
network and its impact on the performance of coordination was analyzed in a comparative study.
The impact of the time-varying information flow is represented by the loss of link ratio, which is
the ratio of time without information exchange to the nominal timeframe of communication in a
given bidirectional network. The particular coordination metrics utilized are the coordination error
(difference between the relative positions of UAVs on the paths) and the Euclidian distance
between the UAVs (space separation). On the other hand, the control effort necessary to achieve
the desired coordination is represented by the level and variation of the commanded velocity
profile. The particular goal of the numerical study was to understand the amount of control effort
required to achieve the desired separation of UAVs capable of exchanging a minimum number of
parameters over a degrading communication network.
Kiremitci, Huseyin. Satellite Constellation Optimization for Turkish Armed Forces. M.S. in Space
Systems Operations. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2013.
Thesis Advisor: J.Scott Matey
Second Reader: Alan Scott
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/32849
Abstract: Advancing technologies in smallsats provide remote sensing and communications
capabilities achievable with a constellation of satellites at a reasonable cost to meet military
needs. Like any other nation looking for a cheap but effective solution in that area, Turkey might
also benefit from a replacement of its remote sensing assets. Currently Turkish Armed Forces rely
on a limited number of reconnaissance aircraft and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, which do not
provide real-time or near real-time remote sensing capabilities. Near real-time remote sensing
needs for the Turkish warfighter dictates Turkish Armed Forces reach that capability as soon as
possible. Likewise, replacing its conventional communication radios with satellite communication
devices would also fulfill warfighter needs. While current communication devices have physical
limitations in Turkeys mountainous terrain and the surrounding seas, satellite communication
capability would provide wider coverage and for specific frequencies might provide better
resistance to jamming and interference too. For the benefit of Turkish Armed Forces
communications needs, a satellite constellation must be optimized such that effective coverage
will be achieved with the least number of satellites to provide a reasonable cost. In this study,
Satellite constellation optimization for the Turkish Armed Forces will be achieved by using
Analytical Graphics, Inc.s Systems Tool Kit software for simulation and analysis of several
possible communications and remote sensing satellite constellations covering Turkish territory
and surrounding seas.
Lim, Zhifeng. The Rise of Robots and the Implications for Military Organizations. M.S. in
Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisors: Gary O. Langford and Douglas H. Nelson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37662
Abstract: This thesis explores the reasons for the inevitability of the extensive use of robots in
military organizations, projects the adoption timeframe for robots in military organizations,
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proposes how robots might evolve, assesses the impact of robots on military organizations and
suggests the way forward for military organizations to facilitate the adoption of robots. Macro
environmental trends suggest that the use of robots is the way forward for military organizations.
The thesis projects that the adoption rate of robots will pick up from this point forward and will
reach market saturation in a matter of decades. The use of robots has physical, functional, and
behavioral implications for military organizations, and their increasing numbers will affect how
militaries are organized and alter the existing organizational processes in the long term. Military
organizations will benefit from a better understanding of the impact of robots and the resulting
challenges. Taking the necessary steps to mitigate the challenges and facilitate the evolutionary
transition for the military organizations will allow these organizations to reap the benefits of
robots and to operate effectively in the changing macro environment.
Lucas, Andrew R. Digital Semaphore: Technical Feasibility of QR Code Optical Signaling for
Fleet Communications. M.S. in Systems Technology (Command, Control & Communications).
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Don Brutzman
Second Readers: Ray Buettner and Jeff Weekley
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34699
Abstract: In recent decades, optical LOS communications such as flag semaphore or flashing
light have atrophied to the point where, if they are required, U.S. Naval forces are at a distinct
disadvantage. RF communications have become critical to nearly all operations, but this capability
comes at the cost of disclosing the location of operations. Depending on the platform, these RF
communications can become a critical vulnerability. EMCON attempts to minimize this
vulnerability through the elimination of any RF emissions from a ship, but communication
requirements in recent years have essentially prevented a complete suppression of RF emissions.
This work proposes mitigating emissions vulnerability by utilizing a new method of optical
communications at LOS visual ranges reminiscent of flag semaphore. Tactical QR code
communications streaming digital data through optical signaling has the potential to provide
tactical communications at a moderate range, allowing critical communications to be relayed to
and from off-ship platforms. Additional technological advances can be used to overcome current
range, security, reliability, and throughput barriers. This project demonstrates how a combination
of essential technical capabilities can be used to establish a QR code communications system as a
potentially useful approach for tactical operations.
McMullen, Eric L. and Brian Shane Grass. Effects of UAV Supervisory Control on F-18 Formation
Flight Performance in a Simulator Environment. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments, and
Simulation (Moves). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2013.
Thesis Advisors: Ji-Hyun Yang and Quinn Kennedy
Second Reader: Joseph Sullivan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/32870
Abstract: Continual advances in technology, along with increased cockpit workload particularly
the shift from two-seat to single-seat fighters to save money and reduce risk to lifepush the limits
of human mental capacity. Additionally, there is interest within the military aviation community to
integrate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control into the cockpit in order to expand force
projection capability. This study compared the effects on formation flight performance of two
different secondary tasks, specifically a traditional secondary task such as target prosecution with
an electro-optical Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) pod, and a futuristic secondary task such as
UAV supervisory control. A total of 34 military fighter aviators volunteered to fly three fiveminuteF-18 simulator sessions in close formation with no secondary task, and then treated with
each of the two secondary tasks. Results provided clear indication that the futuristic task was
significantly more challenging than the traditional task, and that both secondary tasks
significantly increased the average mean following distance and variance compared to the
undistracted flying baseline scenario. Additionally, we found no evidence that increased flight
experience (total flight hours) significantly improved performance of the prescribed primary task
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when treated with the futuristic task distraction. Knowledge gained from the results could
contribute to improved crew resource management (CRM) and pilot workload management as
well as flight safety resulting from the modification of flight procedures based on known effects of
distractions in the cockpit.
Ozcan, Begum Y. Effectiveness of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Helping Secure a Border
Characterized by Rough Terrain and Active Terrorists. M.S. in Operations Research.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Thomas W. Lucas
Second Reader: Jeffrey Appleget
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34717
Abstract: Border security is of great importance to most countries. Turkey has been in conflict
with terrorist groups since the 1980s. Up to now, more than 40,000 people have been killed,
including Turkish soldiers and civilians. The porosity and openness of Turkeys Iraq border,
combined with the rugged topography of the region, creates a passage for terrorist groups to
move materiel and personnel. Technical capabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs can be
used to improve coverage along borders. However, their effectiveness is highly dependent on the
characteristics of the region. In this study, 87 km of the Turkey-Iraq border is modeled in Map
Aware Non Uniform Automata (MANA) to examine the potential impact of UAVs on detecting and
classifying terrorists seeking passage from Northern Iraq into Turkey. The results from the
103,200 simulated terrorist incursions are analyzed using descriptive statistics, stepwise linear
regression, lasso regression, regression trees, and random forests. The use of UAVs is found to
be efficient in the detection and classification of terrorists in this region. The analysis techniques
reveal that the most significant factors are the UAVs detection and classification performance, as
well as the terrorists counter detection capabilities. Thus, Turkey (and countries trying to secure
similar terrain) should purchase (or build) and employ hard-to-detect UAVs with sophisticated
sensors.
Richter, Stephen P. Digital Semaphore: Tactical Implications of QR Code optical Signaling for
Fleet Communications. M.S. in Systems Technology (Command, Control & Communications).
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2013.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Don Brutzman and Ray Buettner
Second Reader: Jeff Weekley
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34727
Abstract: This thesis focuses on potential tactical uses of Quick Response (QR) codes for optical
signaling. It examines visual communications methods used effectively by the fleet throughout
history, both during peace and wartime operations. Due to the advent of new technology, radio
frequency line-of-sight (RF LOS) communications have come to the forefront of current
operations, leaving the fleet vulnerable when conducting operations in an emissions controlled
(EMCON) environment. In addition, the use of QR codes can circumvent the issues associated
with Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordinance (HERO) as well as provide a new
effective method for conducting Identification Friend Foe/Neutral (IFFN). The ultimate goal of this
thesis is to initiate new efforts that provide the fleet with an option for a new visual
communication method. The need for a reliable visual line-of-sight (LOS) communications
method has become apparent. This work proposes the tactical use of QR codes for visual
communications, conveniently described as Digital Semaphore. QR codes have the ability to
become the newest and most effective method of visual communication, replacing older, less
effective forms. This thesis examines the use of various sensors and cameras to read and decode
QR codes, and also proposes new practical uses of QR codes for communications on board ships,
aircraft, and unmanned vehicles. Prototype software is provided as an initial-candidate QR
Tactical Decision Aid (TDA). The ultimate goal of this thesis is to provide the fleet with an option
for a visual communications method that allows ships and other units operating in a tactical
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emissions controlled environment to minimize communications vulnerability and maximize
operational effectiveness.
Sagir, Yavuz. Dynamic Bandwidth Provisioning using Markov Chain Based on RSVP. M.S. in
Electronic Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Preetha Thulasiraman
Second Reader: Joshua D. Green
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37708
Abtract: An important aspect of wireless communication is efficiency. Efficient network resource
management and quality of service (QoS) are parameters that need to be achieved especially
when considering network delays. The cooperative nature of unmanned ground vehicle (UGV)
networks requires that bandwidth allocation be shared fairly between individual UGV nodes,
depending on necessity. In this thesis, we study the problem of dynamic bandwidth provisioning
in a UGV network. Specifically, we integrate the use of a basic statistical model, known as the
Markov chain with a widely known, network bandwidth reservation protocol, known as the
Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). The Markov chain results are used with RSVP to identify
specific bandwidth allocation requirements along a path such that data transmission along that
path is successful. Using a wireless simulation program known as Qualnet, we analyze the
bandwidth efficiency and show that this algorithm provides higher bandwidth guarantees and
better overall QoS when compared with solely using RSVP in wireless communication networks.
Santiago, Mariela I. Systems Engineering and Project Management for Product Development:
Optimizing Their Working Interfaces. M.S. in Systems Engineering Management. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisor: John Osmundson
Second Reader: Gary Langford
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37709
Abstract: This work discusses common issues that occur from the inadequate integration of
systems engineering into the project management process. In so doing, this work is shaped by
the following questions: What are the most common conflicts between Program Management and
Systems Engineering during product development? Where in the product development cycle do
conflicts occur? How can the conflicts be mitigated? This work identified three main conflicts
within the product development process of the four case studies, the Hubble telescope, the Mars
Polar Lander, the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (Program, and the
Constellation program. The three main problems are insufficient systems engineering in the
product development process, insufficient budget and tight schedule, and inadequate risk
management. These three issues eventually led to the mishaps and failures of the case studies
examined in this thesis. This work proposes that, in order to mitigate conflicts in the integration
of project management and systems engineering, systems engineers and project management
should be able to have a common language, understand each others objectives, and understand
how these objectives benefit both the product and the project. Therefore, its recommendations
are that systems engineers be trained in project management and project managers be trained in
systems engineering and that this training should include risk management. In this case, risk
management is the common language between systems engineering and project management.
Severinghaus, Robert N. Improving UXS Network Availability with Asymmetric Polarized
MIMO. PhD in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2013.
Dissertation Co-Supervisors: Murali Tummala and John McEachen
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34740
Abstract: To improve the efficiency of communications among unmanned systems, the research
focused on the novel use of asymmetric polarized MIMO and network availability. The dissertation
objective was to maintain the highest network availability for a mobile ad hoc network with
heterogeneous communication capabilities. Using a hybrid dual-polarized Rayleigh fading channel
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model, asymmetric antenna configurations were studied in simulation for bit error rate and
capacity. For a 11 configuration, polarization reciprocity was used to exploit the polarized channel
knowledge, thereby maximizing received uplink power. The optimum gains to maximize uplink
capacity were also derived for varying channel cross-polarization values. Larger configurations of
21 and 22 were investigated, including overlays of orthogonal space-time block coding, which
improved diversity performance in the polarized channels. Extending these link results to realistic
scenarios with unmanned systems, a reference point group mobility model including large-scale
propagation was proposed to compute the network availability. Another scenario detailed robot
exploration of unknown environments, which included large-scale path loss models. While
deploying the network, the factors of exploration strategies, signal thresholds and routing were
shown to impact the availability metric. Lastly, four extensible formation models were analyzed
for their influence on network availability.
Stevens, Timothy S. Analysis of Nondeterministic Search Patterns for Minimization of UAV
Counter-Targeting. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, March 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Michael Atkinson
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/32905
Abstract: In an attempt to mitigate the expanding counter-UAV capabilities of adversary
countries developed in response to the United States_ increased reliance on these platforms, we
apply a nondeterministic search pattern to a finite area searcher. By implementing a Levy
distribution on search leg lengths we analyze the trade-offs between efficiency and evasiveness
of the searcher, comparing the expected time to target detection for a given set of Levy
parameters to a probabilistic time to counter-targeting based on intelligence driven enemy
capability. The culmination of this thesis is the development of a robust simulation tool, capable
of modeling various parameters on both searcher and search area, the output of which is a
quantifiable estimate on the probability of mission success.
Stiles, Zachariah H. Dynamic Towed Array Models and State Estimation for Underwater Target
Tracking. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2013.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Robert G. Hutchins and Xiaoping Yun
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37725
Abstract: The ability of Towed Linear hydrophone Arrays (TLA) to detect submarine-emitted
narrow band tonals makes them the submarine tracking sensor of choice. Recent TLA
improvements allow surface ships, Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs), Unmanned Surface
Vehicles (USVs), and submarines alike to detect modern submarines by towing arrays. Allowing
the full spectrum of Navy assets access into the Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) arena is vital to
countering future submerged threats. The generation of dynamic TLA and state estimation
models in Simulink is detailed in this thesis. The dynamic TLA model receives user-specified TLA
parameters and performs Dolph-Chebyshev optimization to form a set of beams which are
steered for tracking. The TLA parameters can be specified to meet the needs of the towing
vehicle, whether it is a submarine, ship, USV or UUV. The state estimation model uses outputs
received from a mobile platform towing an array to estimate the target state. The state
estimation model uses both bearing-only and Doppler-bearing Extended Kalman Filters to
estimate target state. These models provide a basic platform which can be used to enhance ASW
capabilities. Specifically, the models can aid in determining optimal future ASW-asset allocation,
improving TLA tracking algorithms, and improving information presented to submarine operators.
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Streenan, Andrew T. Diver Relative UUV Navigation for Joint Human-Robot Operations. M.S. in
Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Noel Du Toit
Second Reader: Doug Horner
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37726
Abstract: A novel application for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) is considered here: a
robotic diver assistant that enables close-quarters robotic operations with human divers. A
robotic diver assistant has the potential to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and safety of
diver operations. The robot diver assistant must share the operating environment with human
divers, navigate relative to the environment to reach a specified site location (along with moving
divers), and then maneuver among the mostly static divers as they perform their tasks on
location. The robot operates in three unique scenarios: station-keeping, diver-following
(shadowing), and diver-leading (vectoring). Various strategies for navigating among divers while
ensuring diver safety are investigated. A reactive strategy, based on potential fields, is
investigated and applied to station-keeping and diver-following. A deliberative approach, which
plans the robots motion over a finite horizon, is presented for diver leading. These approaches
are applied to the SeaBotix vLBV300 platform for which a simulator is developed based on a
decoupled motion model for the platform, as well as experimental results in a controlled test
tank.
Taranto, Matthew T. A Human Factors Analysis of USAF Remotely Piloted Aircraft Mishaps.
M.S. in Human Systems Integration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2013.
Thesis Advisors: Michael E. McCauley and Christian (Kip) Smith
Second Reader: Chad W. Seagren
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34751
Abstract: As the effort to demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of Remotely Piloted Aircraft
(RPA) systems continues, there is an increasing demand for improved total system performance;
specifically, reduced mishap rates. The USAF MQ-1 and MQ-9 have produced lifetime mishap
rates of 7.58 and 4.58 mishaps per 100,000 flight hours, respectively. To improve the
understanding of RPA mishap epidemiology, an analysis was completed on USAF MQ-1 and MQ-9
RPA mishaps from 2006-2011. The dataset included 88 human error-related mishaps that were
coded using the DoD Human Factors Analysis and Classification System. The specific research
question was: Do the types of active failures (unsafe acts) and latent failures (preconditions,
unsafe supervision, and organizational influences) differ between the MQ-1 and MQ-9 when
operated with the same Ground Control Station (GCS)? The single inclusion of Organizational
Climate (organizational influence) in the Level II logistic regression model suggests that there is
not a statistically significant difference in RPA-type mishaps with regard to human error. These
results suggest that human performance requirements should be coupled to the GCS and not
aircraft type. The models have the promise to inform RPA certification standards and future
system designs.
Teo, Harn Chin. Closing the Gap Between Research and Field Applications for Multi-UAV
Cooperative Missions. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Oleg Yakimenko and Paul Montgomery
Second Reader: Gary Langford
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37730
Abstract: The ability to fly multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in collaboration has the
potential to expand the scope of feasible UAV missions and could become the backbone of future
UAV missions. However, despite having garnered significant research interest, there is no
indication that systems supporting collaborative operation of multiple UAVs are close to achieving
field deployment. The challenge of successfully deploying a quality system is inherently complex,
and systems engineering offers an approach to handle the complexities. Effective application of
systems engineering requires both knowledge breadth and depth. This thesis presents the results
of a consolidation of information intended to support the conduct of systems engineering
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activities; and describes an experiment to ascertain the sensitivities of some key operational
parameters, e.g., acquisition, pointing, and tracking. The experiment was conducted using
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) and visual tracking equipment employing
state-of-the-art technology to understand the operating challenges and requirements of using
this equipment to provide situational awareness for a UAV pilot.
Teters, James C.,II. Enhancing Entity Level Knowledge Representation and Environmental
Sensing in COMBATXXI Using Unmanned Aircraft Systems. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual
Environments, And Simulation (MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Imre Balogh
Second Reader: Peter Nesbitt
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37732
Abstract: Current modeling and simulation techniques may not adequately represent military
operations using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). A method to represent these conditions in a
combat model can offer insight to the use and application of UAS operations, as well as
understanding the sensitivity of simulation outcomes to the variability of UAS performance.
Additionally, using combat model simulations that do not represent UAS behavior and conditions
that cause this variability may return misleading or incomplete results. Current approaches
include explicit scripting of behaviors and events. We develop a proof of principle search,
targeting, and acquisition (STA) model for use with UAS within COMBATXXI, leveraging existing
STA research conducted at the MOVES Institute at the Naval Postgraduate School. These dynamic
behaviors are driven by events as they unfold during the simulation run rather than relying on
preplanned events as in the scripted approach. This allows these behaviors to be highly reusable
since they do not contain scenario or incident specific information. We demonstrate the
application of the new STA model in a tactical convoy scenario in COMBATXXI. A design of
experiments and post analysis quantifies the sensitivity of the measures of effectiveness of
success to conditions contributing to variability in UAS performance.
Weiss, Joshua D. Real-time Dynamic Model Learning and Adaptation for Underwater Cehicles.
M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September
2013.
Thesis Advisor: Noel du Toit
Second Reader: Douglas Horner
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/37741
Abstract: Precision control of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) requires accurate knowledge
of the dynamic characteristics of the vehicles. However, developing such models are time and
resource intensive. The problem is further exacerbated by the sensitivity of the dynamic model to
vehicle configuration. This is particularly true for hovering-class UUVs since sensor payloads are
often mounted outside the vehicle body. Methods are investigated in this thesis to learn the
dynamic model for such a hovering-class UUV in real time from motion and position
measurements. Several system identification techniques, including gradient estimation, Bayesian
estimation, neural network estimation, and recursive linear least square estimation, are
employed to estimate equations of motion coefficients. Experimental values are obtained for the
surge, sway, heave, and yaw degrees of freedom. Theoretical results are obtained for the roll and
pitch degrees of freedom. The experimentally obtained model is then compared to the true
vehicle behavior.
Wodele, Ryan. Business Case Analysis of the Special Operations Air Mobility Vehicle. Master of
Business Administration. MBA Professional Report. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, December 2013.
Advisors: Stephen Hansen, Mina Pizzini and Bryan Hudgens
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/39038
Abstract: Special Operations Air Mobility Vehicle (SOAMV) is the military term used to describe
the Weight Shift Control (WSC) aircraft. The WSC aircraft is a type of Light-Sport aircraft that has
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certain characteristics that distinguish it from the more vague aircraft industry segment of LightSport aircraft. The WSC aircraft consists of three major, but simple parts: the wing, the carriage,
and the pilot. Everything about this aircraft is based on simple, portable, and inexpensive
concepts with very little use of modern technology. This keeps the costs down and maximizes the
basics of aviation, to include calling on the skills and training of the pilot. Several manufacturers
produce this commercial aircraft. They are Air Creation USA, Airborne, Evolution, Concept
Aviation, Manta Aircraft S.A., and Northwing Design. This project has three objectives: (1)
describe the WSC aircraft and its capabilities. Assess its benefits and costs relative to the V-22
Osprey, the newest troop transport helicopter, and the US Air Force (USAF) Predator, an
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Drone; (2) perform an industry analysis of the WSC training and aircraft
sales industry; and (3) determine the expected government training capabilities and costs.
Zorn, James B. A Systems Engineering Analysis of Unmanned Maritime Systems for U.S.
Coast Guard Missions. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, June 2013.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Mark Stevens
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34766
Abstract: The U.S. Coast Guard is uniquely suited to utilize multi-mission unmanned maritime
systems (UMS) to maintain its leading role in maritime safety, security and stewardship. Current
UMS technological capabilities coupled with USCG mission needs motivate an analysis of
proposed USCG UMS through a systems engineering methodology. This work begins by
decomposing the capability needs for USCG UMS by developing a series of concepts of operations
(CONOPS) in a “solution neutral” context. Following capabilities analysis, multi-mission
commonalities help derive three USCG UMS alternatives: (1) Cutter-Based Tactical UUV, (2)
Shore-Based Harbor/Coastal UUV/USV, and (3) Operational Offshore USV. These alternatives and
their respective system architectures provide a design concept for near- to mid-term (5-10 year)
acquisition. Finally, feasibility analysis reviews key system enablers (such as technology,
capability, policy, and supportability and manpower) for the alternatives to justify a realistic
integration timeline. Recommendations for technology investments, enhanced UMS partnerships,
USCG unmanned system policies and organizational knowledge are provided to reduce delays and
to accelerate delivery of needed capabilities to the field. This study lays the foundation for future
strategic planning of USCG UMS (i.e., a USCG UMS Roadmap) while providing additional
motivation for USCG unmanned systems in general.
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2012
Acton, Brian E. and David L. Taylor. Autonomous Dirigible Airships: a Comparative Analysis
and Operational Efficiency Evaluation for Logistical Use in Complex Environments.
Master of Business Administration. MBA Professional Report. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2012.
Advisors: John Khawam and Jeffrey Kline
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7299
Abstract: The fiscal year 2012 budget resolution forced many agencies to significantly reduce
their budget spending and adhere to stricter budgetary policies. The one agency that was hit the
hardest was the Department of Defense; it was forced to reduce its budget by $10 trillion over a
span of 10 years. With the ongoing War on Terror, the Department of Defense estimated in 2010
that the cost of maintaining a single soldier in a wartime environment grew exponentially to well
over $1 million per soldier. The U.S. involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan started a major shift,
from using manned vehicles to using unmanned vehicles, also known as autonomous vehicles.
These autonomous vehicles can be controlled remotely via satellite or radio signals. Currently,
the majority of unmanned vehicle usage is in autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that
provide air surveillance, reconnaissance, and assault purposes across all services. This major shift
to autonomous vehicles has kept a large number of troops out of dangerous environments such
as Iraq and Afghanistan, has reduced the risk of losing soldiers lives, and, at the same time, has
reduced the costs of keeping soldiers in these dangerous environments for long periods of time.
The purpose of this project is to provide a comparative analysis and operational efficiency
evaluation of current and in-development airships, or dirigibles, to expand the UAVs capability as
a viable logistic support platform. This project demonstrates that airships, manned or unmanned,
can reduce costs, particularly important with the current budgetary concerns throughout the
Department of Defense. The expanded use of airships for logistics could benefit all services due
to their flexibility, lift capability, interoperability, and lower cost.
Adams, Jerrod C. An Interpolation Approach to Optimal Trajectory Planning for Helicopter
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. M.S. in Applied Mathematics. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Wei Kang
Second Reader: Hong Zhou
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7300
Abstract: This thesis explores numerical methods to provide real-time control inputs to achieve
an optimal trajectory which minimizes the time required for a Helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
(HUAV) to reorient to a given target. A library of optimal trajectories is populated using a pseudo
spectral computational algorithm applied to the mathematical model developed by the National
University of Singapore and Singapore Department of Defense to simulate flight characteristics
for their HeLion small scale HUAV system. The model is a complex system of non-linear
differential equations fifteen state variables and four control variables used to simulate the
aerodynamic forces on the HUAV. Then, using the library of optimal trajectories for known target
locations, we apply interpolation methods to provide control inputs in order to intercept an attack
heading to a target more quickly than an online, full scale optimization approach. All simulations
in this thesis are modeled using the MATLAB program.
Atkinson, Robert E., III. Tropical Cyclone Reconnaissance over the Western North Pacific with
the Global Hawk Operational Requirements, Benefits, and Feasibility. M.S. in Meteorology
and Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Patrick A. Harr
Second Reader: Jeff Kline
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17315
Abstract: Over the North Atlantic Ocean, an operational manned aircraft-based tropical cyclone
(TC) reconnaissance program is conducted by the United States Air Force. However, no such
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program is conducted over the western North Pacific (WPAC), where the maximum annual
number of TCs occurs. Rather, remotely-sensed observations from satellites provide data on TC
characteristics. While operational forecasts of TC track over the WPAC have improved, the rate of
improvement has declined, and no such decline has been observed over the North Atlantic. In
this study, the declining rate of improvement in WPAC forecast accuracy is examined relative to
the lack of direct observations. The capabilities of manned-aircraft are compared with use of a
Global Hawk unmanned aerial system for use as an observing platform. This is proposed in view
of a declining capability in satellite data coverage. Current Global Hawk programs are reviewed
with respect to requirements for operational tropical cyclone reconnaissance over the western
North Pacific. A multi-year demonstration project is proposed to obtain in situ observations of TC
location and intensity. The observation impacts on improved tropical cyclone forecasts will be
assessed such that a positive impact will lead to recommendation of a Global Hawk for
operational tropical cyclone reconnaissance.
Barker, William P. An Analysis of Undersea Glider Architectures and an Assessment of
Undersea Glider Integration into Undersea Applications. M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: John Osmundson
Second Reader: Steven Bousquet
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17320
Abstract: Currently, buoyancy driven underwater gliders are deployed globally to gather
oceanographic data from across the worlds oceans. This thesis examines the utility of underwater
gliders within the context of providing additional U.S. Navy capabilities. An extensive survey of
available underwater gliders was undertaken and the resultant survey pool of ten gliders down
selected to five gliders of fixed wing configuration. A comprehensive architectural analysis was
then conducted of seven key architectural attributes of the five selected gliders. The architectural
analysis compared various implementations of the key architectural attributes relative to
desirable traits and capabilities for a notional U.S. Navy glider. Following the architectural
analysis a proposed architecture for a U.S. Navy underwater glider was developed which includes
a compendium of best features gleaned from the architectural analysis. Drivers and rationale for
selection of specific key architectural attributes and features are also provided. Additionally, a
comparison of constraints and capabilities of underwater gliders is provided. Finally, a comparison
of the current and proposed capabilities of underwater gliders versus other Autonomous Undersea
Vehicles, specifically Unmanned Undersea Vehicles, is proffered.
Bateman, Travis K. Design and Laboratory Implementation of Autonomous Optimal Motion
Planning for Non-holonomic Planetary Rovers. M.S. in Astronautical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Mark Karpenko and I. Michael Ross
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/27791
Abstract: This work investigates the challenge of designing and implementing minimum-time
trajectories for an autonomous, non-holonomic, planetary rover. The optimal trajectories were
implemented at the Control and Optimization Laboratories with a TRAXXAS remote controlled
vehicle modified to enable autonomous operations. These modifications include the addition of an
ArduPilot controller into the architecture of the vehicle. The ArduPilot controls the inputs to the
drive motor and steering servos to implement the trajectory commands generated by the
trajectory optimization tool, DIDO. The challenging problem of parallel parking was used to
evaluate a canonical maneuvering scenario and illustrate a procedure for motion planning that
could be used for guiding a planetary rover. Three cases were evaluated with different starting
points to illustrate the difficulties associated with controlling a non-holonomic vehicle. The
starting points were located in front of, next to, and behind the parking space. In addition to each
case, three scenarios were evaluated for complexity no cars, two cars parked with an ideal
amount of space between them, and two cars parked with minimal space between them. A
VICON motion capture system was used measure the vehicle trajectory in experiments.
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Beach, Joseph N. Integration of an Acoustic Modem onto a Wave Glider Unmanned Surface
Vehicle. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Joseph A. Rice
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7308
Abstract: This thesis examines the possibility of integrating an acoustic modem onto a Wave
Glider with the goal of providing a bidirectional communications gateway for submerged sensors,
platforms, and networks. The Wave Glider unmanned surface vehicle continuously harvests
energy from the environment and is able to hold station without needing to refuel. A unique twobody architecture and wing system directly converts wave motion into thrust, and solar panels
provide electricity for sensor payloads. Data messages are transmitted to shore via satellite, and
the continuous surface presence means that data can be delivered in real time as it is collected.
The objective of this thesis is to identify the best location for an acoustic modem on the Wave
Glider, considering the factors of hydrodynamic drag on the vehicle and acoustic performance of
the modem.
Chua, Chee Nam. Integration of Multiple UAVs for Collaborative ISR Missions in an Urban
Environment. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2012.
Thesis Advisors: Oleg Yakimenko and Fotis Papoulias
Second Reader: Gerard Leng
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17343
Abstract: Military conflicts are shifting from jungles and deserts to cities. This is because
terrorists, insurgents, and guerillas find these areas provide a rich target environment and good
hideouts. With the use of UAVs, urban threats can be tracked and targeted effectively. However,
in an urban environment where there is little or no GPS signals and many obstacles, navigation of
UAVs is a major challenge. Multiple UAVs can be employed to share sensor information to counter
these challenges and to perform Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions
with greater ground coverage and better success rates. This thesis explored the various types of
UAVs deployed for urban operations and investigated the trends of the UAVs in terms of their
parameters such as weight, altitude, speed, and sensor suite. The challenges and requirements
for interoperability of multi-UAV operations in urban environments were also discussed. A directmethod-based control system for multiple UAV collaboration and obstacle collision avoidance was
proposed. The UAVs were able to share and integrate their sensors information for joint
cooperation. A dynamic model was developed for the simulation testing of the algorithm.
Following that, physical experiment was carried out in an indoor environment on Quanser QBallX4 UAV to evaluate the results.
Day, Michael. Multi-Agent Task Negotiation Among UAVs to Defend Against Swarm Attacks.
M.S. in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Timothy H. Chung and Chris Darken
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6784
Abstract: This research involves a multi-agent based simulation modeling a large swarm of
adversarial UAVs attacking a surface target and groups of friendly UAVs responding to thwart the
attack. Defense systems need to cooperatively negotiate which enemy systems to engage to
maximize the number of aggressor systems destroyed. Using optimal centralized task assignment
methods as a baseline, various distributed methods are examined for efficiency and
effectiveness. Our findings indicate that the optimality of distributed methods does approach that
of centralized methods, though further study is warranted in future simulations with additional
constraints, and in field experimentation with physical UAVs. We further find that the number of
defender agents, the effectiveness of their weapon systems, and their speeds contribute
significantly to the defender swarm’s effectiveness.
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Dono, Thomas F. Optimized Landing of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Swarms. M.S.
in Operations Analysis. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy Chung
Second Reader: Chad Seagren
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7331
Abstract: This research explores a future concept requiring the efficient and safe, landing and
recovery of a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The presented work involves the use of
an overarching (centralized) airspace optimization model, formulated analytically as a networkbased model with side constraints describing a time-expanded network model of the terminal
airspace in which the UAVs navigate to one or more (possibly moving) landing zones. This model
generates optimal paths in a centralized manner such that the UAVs are properly sequenced into
the landing areas. The network-based model is grown using agent based simulation with simple
flocking rules. The resulting solution is compared to another agent-based model which uses
similar avoidance rules for the landing of these UAVs, exploring the benefit of distributed
computation and decision-making characteristic of swarming models. Relevant measures of
performance include, e.g., the total time necessary to land the swarm. Extensive simulation
studies and sensitivity analyses are conducted to demonstrate the relative effectiveness of the
proposed approaches.
Futch, Thomas D. An Analysis of the Manpower Impact of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on
Subsurface Platforms. M.S. in Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
March 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Bill Hatch and Chad W. Seagren
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6795
Abstract: Currently the submarine force is exploring two possible UAVs, Switchblade and
ScanEagle. Each brings capabilities to the submarine to allow safer operations while continuing to
perform the required mission. The constantly changing operational environment has forced all
elements of the military to adapt and overcome. The submarine force is tasked with more
missions and less support than ever before. As a result the ability to adapt and overcome has
create a need for additional capabilities in the form of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A
manpower analysis was conducted to identify requirements necessary for submarine launched
UAV operations. Current surface launched UAV Navy Enlisted Classification (NEC) codes were
used as a comparison for the analysis. Currently these NECs are only available to aviation source
ratings. Analysis shows that there are several submarine specific ratings that have the same
knowledge entry requirements as the aviation source ratings that are eligible to operate UAVs.
Furthermore, research showed that based on the simplicity of operation of Switchblade and
ScanEagle, that no additional manpower requirements are necessary. Specifically, on all classes
of submarines, Switchblade can be launched and flown with no additional watchstations manned,
compared to a standard mission watchbill. Also, with ScanEagle, SSGN class submarines require
no additional watchstanders once the UAV is launched, and airborne than would be required for a
normal mission watchbill. Incorporating UAVs into the arsenal of a submarine is a vital
requirement that needs accomplished. This research recommends the creation of a specific NEC
for the submarine force to identify UAV operators.
Gromadski, Christopher R. Extending the Endurance of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using
Advanced Flexible Solar Cells. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael
Second Reader: Rudolf Panholzer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/27836
Abstract: Most currently fielded small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAV) have flight times limited
to 90 minutes due to battery life and are often forced to work in teams of multiple craft to
provide tactical level units with continuous observation of the battlefield. Continuous operations
additionally place a strain on logistics trains by requiring either more batter-ies or fuel to support
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recharging. Prior theses have examined the ability of solar cells to extend the flight endurance
and capabilities of SUAVs during peak sunlight conditions. This research demonstrated the
viability of augmenting the onboard power supply with advanced thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV)
cells made of copper-indium-gallium sele-nide (CIGS) over a longer period of time. The additional
source of power will reduce, at times even eliminate, the demand on the lithium polymer
batteries of a Raven SUAV as sunlight conditions change throughout the day. All components
used in construction were commercially available, including foam wings that closely resembled
the air-foil of a Raven SUAV with increased surface area. The laboratory tests used standard
operating procedures from the operators manual and input from the training community to
accurately simulate flight conditions and field use. This research demonstrates that degraded
components and non-ideal sunlight conditions still provide a significant improvement over the
original system for a minimal cost in money and weight. The approach is relevant to the use of
the system in austere combat zones which require results in conditions that are rarely ideal. The
research additionally ap-plied projections to the capabilities of the augmenting circuitry on
unmodified Raven wings and Puma SUAVs.
Hajri, Riadh. UAV to UAV Target Detection and Pose Estimation. M.S. in Systems Technology.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Raymond Buettner
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7351
Abstract: The objective of this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of using computer vision to
provide robust sensing capabilities suitable for the purpose of UAV to UAV detection and pose
estimation using affordable CCD cameras and open coding libraries. We accomplish this by
reviewing past literature about UAV detection and pose estimation and exploring comparison of
multiple state-of-the-art algorithms. The thesis presents implementation studies of detection
approaches including color-based detection and component-based detection. We also present
studies of pose estimation methods including the PosIt algorithm, homography-based detection,
and the EPFL non-iterative method. The thesis provides a preliminary strategy for detecting small
UAVs and for estimating its six degree of freedom (6DOF) pose from image sequences within the
prescribed airspace. Discussion of its performance in processing synthetic data is highlighted for
future applications using real-life data sets.
Heiss, Kevin L. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) Operator Alternatives. M.S. in Management. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Bill Hatch
Second Reader: Ben Roberts
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6806
Abstract: A cultural debate exists to determine if the MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and
Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) should be operated by rated pilots,
commissioned officers, or enlisted personnel. Each military service has historically treated this
issue differently. The U.S. Navy currently requires rated pilots to fly Fire Scout, the U.S. Army
and Marine Corps allow enlisted personnel to fly their Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV),
and the Air Force only allows rated pilots to fly their UAV systems. Technology has advanced
rapidly in the area of UAVs as they have advanced from being remotely piloted aircraft to now
being completely autonomous. This research examined the Air Vehicle Operator (AVO)
requirements for autonomous vehicles such as Fire Scout and will demonstrate that the U.S Navy
should create a pilot program that trains enlisted personnel to operate Fire Scout. This research
identifies the costs and benefits associated with each type of prospective operator
alternativerated pilots, commissioned Surface Warfare Officers (SWO), and Operations Specialist
(OS) enlisted personnel. By utilizing enlisted AVOs vice rated pilots, training costs will be found to
be reduced from millions to tens of thousands, annual amortized manning costs will be cut by
more than half, and total cost savings will be found to be on the order of a billion dollars over a
ten-year period. The research will also identify both tangible and intangible benefits by allowing
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enlisted personnel to become Fire Scout AVOs. Benefits are identified relating to training time,
manning constraints, physiological constraints, culture, and safety. Furthermore, this research
will summarize current Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) necessary to operate an
autonomous air vehicle such as Fire Scout.
Huang, Chung-Huan. Design and Development of Wireless Power Transmission for Unmanned
Air Vehicles. M.S. in Electronic Warfare Systems Engineering and M.S. in Electrical Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Ric Romero
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17380
Abstract: This thesis is an exploration of microwave wireless power transmission (WPT) for microair vehicles (MAVs). WPT, converting radio frequency (rf) power into usable direct current (dc)
power, can be implemented with a rectifying antenna, or rectenna. The emphasis of this thesis is
on the simulation of rectenna efficiency and measurement of experimental hardware. In this
thesis, power reflection in the rectifier matching circuit was investigated by a series of
simulations using Agilent Advanced Design System (ADS). Tuning elements were added and
adjusted in order to optimize the efficiency. A maximum efficiency of 57 per cent was obtained at
10 gigahertz (GHz) with 200 mW input to the rectenna. A full-wave rectenna was built and
hardware experiments were conducted to measure the efficiency of the WPT and characterize the
behavior of the circuit. The design is optimized for an input power of 200 mW but, because of
hardware limitations, only low-input power levels (about 1 mW) could be tested. A comparison of
measurement and simulation results is given, and possible reasons for the differences are
discussed.
Hurban, Michael A. Adaptive Speed Controller for the SeaFox Autonomous Surface Vessel.
M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Douglas Horner and Sean Kragelund
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6811
Abstract: The thesis addressed the control system development for a high-speed surface vessel.
In particular, the work utilized modern adaptive control techniques to design a speed following
controller for the SeaFox ASV; the vehicle features three distinct speed, regimes including the
displacement, rapid transition and planing regimes. The study started with the collection of
experimental data required to characterize the operating modes and the inherent nonlinear
phenomena of the high-speed ASV. Then, it proceeded to system identification study with an
objective to develop a mathematical model of the vehicle thus aiming to represent the ASVs
speed dynamics at various regimes and to facilitate control system development. After
completing the model development, three speed following controllers were designed A classical
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID), a nonlinear Model Reference Adaptive (MRAC) and a L1
Adaptive Controller. The motivation behind the choice of three different controllers is two-fold.
First, comparison of the linear and nonlinear control approaches is desired to better illustrate the
achievable control architecture limitations. Second, comparing two types of nonlinear adaptive
control architectures allowed the selection of the best control algorithm for operating the ASV
speed in the presence of highly non-linear dynamics and significant disturbances acting on it.
Furthermore, each controller is integrated with the SeaFox mathematical model and implemented
with and without realistic operational disturbances. This provided a basis for objective comparison
among the controllers and gave a means to demonstrate their relative robustness and
performance characteristics. Finally, the MRAC and the PID controller were implemented onboard
the actual SeaFox ASV and tested in numerous sea-trials under natural conditions to once again
demonstrate the advantages and limitations of the chosen control architectures.
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Jacobi, Loren, Rick Campbell, Chee Nam Chau, Chin Chuan Ong, Szu Hau Tan, Hock Hin Cher, Cory
Alexander, Christien Edwards, Anner Diukman, Sze Yi Ding, Matthew Hagstette, Howe Leng
Kwek, Adam Bush, Matt Meeks, Kine Yin Tham, Mei Ling Ng, Ing Kang Yeo, Yew Kok Loke.
Tailorable Remote Unmanned Combat Craft. Systems Engineering Analysis Cohort 18, Team
B. M.S. in Systems Engineering Analysis. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2012.
Capstone Project Advisor: Gary Langford and Timothy Chung
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/15434
Abstract: U.S. military and civilian vessels are critically vulnerable to asymmetric threats in
littoral environments. Common asymmetric weapons such as Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles (ASCM),
Low Slow Flying (LSF) aircraft and Fast Attack Craft (FAC) / Fast Inshore Attack Craft (FIAC)
threaten U.S. strategic goals and can produce unacceptable losses of men and material. The SEA18B team presents an operational concept for a family of Unmanned Surface Vessels USV)
capable of defending ships from asymmetric swarm attacks. This USV, the Tailorable Remote
Unmanned Combat Craft (TRUCC), can operate in concert with the next generation of capital
surface vessels to combat this critical threat with maximum efficiency. Critical performance
criteria of the TRUCC family were determined through agent-based simulation of a Straits of
Hormuz Design Reference Mission. Additional models addressed ship synthesis and operational
availability. A Technology and Capability Roadmap outlines areas of interest for investment and
development of the next-generation USV. Interim technology and capability milestones in the
Roadmap facilitate incremental USV operational capabilities for missions such as logistics, decoy
operations and Mine Warfare. The TRUCC operational concept fills a critical vulnerability gap. Its
employment will reduce combat risk to our most valuable maritime assets: our ships and our
Sailors.
Jones, Levi. Coordination and Control for Multi-Quadrotor UAV Missions. M.S. in Mechanical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Oleg Yakimenko
Second Reader: Noel Du Toit
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6816
Abstract: This thesis is centered upon an optimal trajectory generation algorithm that allows realtime control for cooperation of multiple quadrotor vehicles for intelligence, surveillance, and
reconnaissance missions with minimal user input. The algorithm is designed for an indoor
environment where global positioning system data is unavailable or unreliable, forcing the
vehicles to obtain position data using other sensors. This thesis specifies the lab setup and well
as the control approach used. Data acquired from two experiments is included to demonstrate
the effectiveness of the control approach. The control approach described within allows for a fully
autonomous system with user input required only at the initiation of a mission. The algorithm
blends trajectory planning, trajectory following, and multi-vehicle coordination to achieve the
goal of autonomy. The focus of the thesis was on trajectory generation and multi-vehicle
coordination, while leveraging existing trajectory following controller implementations. The
trajectory generation is accomplished with a direct transcription of the optimization problem that
leverages inverse dynamics and separates spatial and temporal planning. The vehicle motion is
constrained, and simplifying multi-vehicle coordination assumptions allow for the efficient solution
and execution of the problem.
Kaptan, Ali. Net-centric Controlled Distributed Stand-in-Jamming using UAVs Transmission
Losses and Range Limitations Due to Geo-localization Problem over Turkish Geography.
M.S. in Electronic Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: David Jenn and Edward Fisher
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17382
Abstract: Network Centric Warfare (NCW) and swarming have become very important operational
terms parallel to the improvements in wireless network technologies. These relatively new
concepts are being widely used in many operational applications. The main purpose of this
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research effort is to examine the metrics of NCW, and the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
swarms in electronic attack (EA) missions. UAVs have already been used in many military
operations. Swarming a number of small UAVs in a distributed beamforming approach to have
the desired operational effect is the current popular research area. Distributed beamforming and
swarm behavior of self-synchronized autonomous UAVs are investigated in this study. Two
simulation scenarios were created and implemented to show the effectiveness of EA against
radars and wireless communication links. In reality, EA against a single node in a network, such
as a radar or communication link, is unlikely to be successful by itself, however simulation results
showed that the decision making process of the enemy network and OODA (Observe, Orient,
Decide, Act) cycle is directly vulnerable to jamming.
Kolar, Ramesh. Business Case Analysis of Medium Altitude Global ISR Communications
(MAGIC) UAV System. Master of Business Administration. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Daniel Nussbaum
Thesis Co-Advisor: Raymond Franck
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7369
Abstract: This study is a business case analysis of a Medium Altitude Global ISR Communication
(MAGIC) UAV system. The MAGIC platform is analyzed together with three other medium-altitude
ISR platforms. A cost model for RDT and E and O and S for the MAGIC is developed based on
historical data. A baseline case for MAGIC is then developed with Average Production Unit Cost
(APUC) of $17M, RDT and E cost of $510M, and discount factor of 0.025 for the analysis. A Net
Present Value of Life Cycle Cost (NPVLCC) and a return ratio as defined by the ratio of the
NPVLCC of alternative platforms to the NPVLCC of MAGIC are used in the analysis. Results are
presented for 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 nm ranges. MAGIC outperforms Reaper and Global
Hawk, while Predator outperforms MAGIC at the 500 nm. MAGIC outperforms all others in the
1000, 2000 and 3000 nm range. The analysis is extended to cover other payloads for the same
ranges. The results show that MAGIC is favored over Reaper for 1000 nm and 2000 nm range,
and the return ratio is marginal for 500 nm. MAGIC is favored in all ranges when compared with
Global Hawk.
Larkins, Colin G. The EP-3E vs. the BAMS UAS: An Operating and Support Cost Comparison.
M.S. in Information Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Raymond Buettner
Second Reader: William Robinette
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17395
Abstract: The battlefield is constantly changing and the need for swift, persistent intelligence,
surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), has increased the focus on the use of unmanned aerial
vehicles (UAVs) to help meet collection requirements. Certain UAVs can have longer dwell and
on-station times than manned vehicles, with some UAVs capable of dwell times in excess of 20
hours. UAVs have an additional benefit of eliminating some of the risks associated with manned
aircraft conducting ISR missions. Consequently, UAVs have been closely reviewed as a
replacement craft for several manned ISR aircraft and have taken increasing roles in the world of
ISR. Given an uneven record of success in the implementation of UAS, and Congressional
concerns regarding the relative cost of UAV programs, the purpose of this thesis is to reexamine,
compare and analyze the Operating and Support (O and S) costs for both the EP-3E ISR aircraft
with the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) that the Chief
of Naval Operations (CNO) has declared to be the primary system to replace the EP-3E capability.
This comparison includes all costs from initial system deployment through the end of the
platforms service life. This thesis uses the revised O and S cost methodology in accordance with
Department of Defense (DoD) Instruction 5000.2, Operation of the Defense Acquisition System.
In addition, a typical O and S comparison, this thesis modifies the existing BAMS O and S costs to
account for the additional costs of bandwidth, ground station support, collection sites, and risks
as they apply to the BAMS UAS. These factors were not adequately considered in the original O
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and S analysis. Once the analysis and comparison is completed, a recommendation is made as to
whether or not the decision to replace the EP-3E ISR system with the BAMS UAS should be
revisited.
Martin, Michael. Global Versus Reactive Navigation for Joint UAV-UGV Missions in a Cluttered
Environment. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
June 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Oleg Yakimenko
Second Reader: Roberto Crisit
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7380
Abstract: This thesis presents the coordination of an unmanned, multi-vehicle team that
navigates through a congested environment. A novel approach is outlined that enables the
control of multiple vehicles based on both computer vision and optimal trajectory algorithms.
Various sensors are used to achieve localization in the indoor environment in lieu of global
positioning data. Specifically, a Quanser Qball quadrotor is equipped with a downward-looking
camera and sonar altimeter, while a Quanser Qbot ground vehicle is outfitted with sonar and
infrared range finders. This equipment is complemented by an Optitrack motion-capture system.
Using conventional image-processing techniques, the birds-eye images supplied by the quadrotor
provide information regarding the dynamic environment that surrounds the ground vehicle. The
ground vehicle can then produce a global, optimal trajectory, assuring collision-free operations.
The optimization problem is addressed by applying the Inverse Dynamics in the Virtual Domain
(IDVD) method that uses both the inverse kinematics of the ground vehicle and obstacle
information. Furthermore, the IDVD method enables the separation of spatial and temporal
planning. As verification of the results of this research, the developed approach for path planning
is executed in a fully controlled lab environment and then compared with a sonar-based, reactive
obstacle avoidance technique.
Medford, Christopher M. The Aerodynamics of a Maneuvering UCAV 1303 Aircraft Model and its
Control through Leading Edge Curvature Change. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: M.S. Chandrasekhara
Second Reader: G.V. Hobson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17417
Abstract: This study investigates the aerodynamic effects of modifying the leading edge on an
unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) 1303. Literature suggests that leading edge accelerations
are reduced for rounder leading edges and stall characteristics are altered. These phenomena are
examined using the previously tested 1/72 scale model with a 47-degree leading edge sweep and
a cranked trailing edge delta wing with fuselage. The study consists of both flow visualization and
aerodynamic force and moment measurements. The model is maneuvered in the NPS water
tunnel where a five-component strain gage load balance system measures the forces experienced
by it. The model is pitched at different rates with different degrees of yaw for these studies. This
process is repeated for a modified leading edge with a radius double the baseline. Preliminary
results show that the rounded leading edge acted as expected, alleviating signs of tip-stall in the
normal force distribution and smoothing pitch-breaks in the pitching moment distribution. Rolling
moment was shown to increase with angle of attack for the modified leading edge case.
Menjivar, Jose D. Bridging Operational and Strategic Communication Architectures
Integrating Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems as Airborne Tactical Communication
Vertical Nodes. M.S. in Information Technology Management. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Douglas J. MacKinnon
Second Reader: John H. Gibson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17418
Abstract: The United States Department of Defense enterprise communication architectures are
presently designed to support large-scale fixed organizations and rely primarily on satellite
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mediums. However, they are inadequate in tactical level environments, and are not readily
available nor affordable to support multiple operators in various tactical locations. Incorporating
Small-Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) with communication repeaters could expand local
mobile ad-hoc networks coverage for users in communications degraded environments and
reduce satellite dependency. The proof of concept is focused on leveraging existing Government
Off The Shelf (GOTS) technology with ever increasing Small-UAS functionality to explore the
potential reduction of communication inadequacies in tactical environments. Through the efforts
of this thesis, the goal is to extend and enhance beyond line of sight (BLOS) and on-the-move
communications at the small unit level. The findings provide face validation that Small-UAS
equipped with a communication payload can provide these services that enhance voice
transmissions, and thus, enable TCP/IP data transfer in communication degraded environments
without interfering with the Small-UAS primary ISR function or airworthiness. Future efforts in
this line of inquiry may also inform the use of multiple Small-UAS to extend the networks and
autonomous operations, and perhaps, eliminate the requirement for a ground Small-UAS
operator.
Pham, Loc V., Brandon Dickerson, James Sanders, Michael Casserly, Vicente Maldonado, Demostenes
Balbuena, Stephen Graves, Bhavisha Pandya. UAV Swarm Attack: Protection System
Alternatives for Destroyers. Systems Engineering Project Report. Cohort 311-1120 Team
Crane M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December
2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Paul V. Shebalin and Bonnie Young
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/28669
Abstract: The Navy needs to protect Destroyers (DDGs) from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
attacks. The team, focusing on improving the DDG’s defenses against small radar cross section
UAVs making suicide attacks, established a DRM, identified current capability gaps, established a
functional flow, created requirements, modeled the DDG’s current sensing and engagement
capabilities in Microsoft Excel, and used Monte Carlo analysis of 500 simulation runs to determine
that four out of eight incoming IED UAVs are likely to hit the ship. Sensitivity analysis showed
that improving weapon systems is more effective than improving sensor systems, inspiring the
generation of alternatives for improving UAV defense. For the eight feasible alternatives the team
estimated cost, assessed risk in accordance with the requirements, simulated performance
against the eight incoming UAVs, and performed cost benefit analysis. Adding CIWS mounts is
the most cost effec-tive alternative, reducing the average number of UAV hits from a baseline of
3.82 to 2.50, costing $816M to equip the 62-DDG fleet for a 12-year life cycle. Combining that
with upgraded EW capabilities to jam remote-controlled UAVs reduces the hits to 1.56 for
$1844M, and combining those with decoy launchers to defeat the radar-seeking Harpy UAVs
reduces the hits to 1.12 for $2862M.
Rogers, Darren J. GSM Network Employment on a Man-Portable UAS. M.S. in Information
Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September
2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Raymond R. Buettner and Kevin D. Jones
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17449
Abstract: There are numerous national systems that offer communications support with enhanced
capabilities to support ISR. For the tactical unit, it can be challenging and cumbersome to deal
with national systems that may or may not be able to provide near real-time support due to
other, high priority tasking. The deployment of a low-cost GSM communications support system
with enhanced capabilities (CSSEC) to support intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance
(ISR), which a tactical unit could have organically, would relieve the warfighter of having to
depend on national assets and processes. Employing a CSSEC system on a man-portable or small
UAS would allow the range of the system to be greatly extended, as opposed to a ground-based
system which may be difficult to operate in a high-threat environment. Commercial off-the-shelf
(COTS) hardware is readily available and easily acquired. With a CSSEC deployed on a UAS, a
tactical unit conducting ground operations would not be geographically constrained to a specific
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location to conduct ISR. Nor would they draw attention to the unit in having to set up antennas
and other equipment on a building or outpost. Leveraging COTS hardware and open-source
software will keep overall cost low without having to deal with software licensing requirements
associated with proprietary systems.
Rochholz, Timothy W. Wave-Powered Unmanned Surface Vehicle as a Station-Keeping
Gateway Node for Undersea Distributed Networks. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Joseph A. Rice and Timothy H. Chung
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17448
Abstract: By analyzing data from a long-duration deployment of four wave-powered unmanned
surface vehicles called Wave Gliders, an assessment of operating characteristics informs the
potential utility of the Wave Glider in an undersea distributed network as a replacement for a
moored communications gateway buoy. Specifically, the wave-powered propulsion system is
analyzed to assess endurance, operability, and application in an underwater distributed network
as the gateway node. The results of the study serve to identify the parameters for an experiment
designed to test the Wave Glider as a station-keeping gateway node.
Savage, Marta K. Design and Hardware-in-the-loop Implementation of Optimal Canonical
Maneuvers for an Autonomous Planetary Aerial Vehicle. M.S. in Astronautical Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Mark Karpenko and I. Michael Ross
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/27898
Abstract: A truly autonomous aerial vehicle is required for conducting aerial missions at distances
great enough to cause time lag in communications, such as on other planets. This level of
autonomy also reduces the requirement for trained UAV pilots to fly round-the-clock missions.
Development of optimal canonical maneuvers is a step towards achieving real-time optimal
trajectory generation and more fully autonomous aircraft capable of independent and efficient
flight maneuvering. This thesis develops a model of the MONARC aerial vehicle and sets up the
optimal control problem for generating canonical maneuver profiles. The DIDO optimal control
software is used in order to generate time-optimal trajectories for flight implementation on the
MONARC test bed. The ability of the MONARC to fly the optimal trajectories is verified using a
6DOF SIMULINK model. Several canonical maneuvers were developed and optimized to generate
trajectories for multiple flight scenarios. One of these cases is analyzed for implementation as
part of a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation. This HIL test will verify that the optimization
model has sufficient fidelity to be used to generate optimal trajectories that can be physically
flown by the MONARC.
Shuey, Eric and Mika Shuey. Modeling and Simulation for a Surf Zone Robot. M.S. in Applied
Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Richard Harkins and Timothy H. Chung
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/27905
Abstract: A kinematic and dynamic model for a three degree-of-freedom surf zone robot is
developed and tested with a physical test platform and with a simulated robot in Robot Operating
System. Derived from Lagrangian mechanics and relying on angular wheel velocities from
encoders, the model successfully demonstrates accurate prediction of motion on simple terrain.
The application of the model to future platforms is analyzed and a broad examination of the
current state of surf zone robotic systems is provided. An in-depth discussion of the potential
improvements to the model is made and the critical work still needed to realize a complete and
deployable surf zone platform is described for future study.
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Soylu, Umit. Multi-Target Tracking for Swarm vs. Swarm UAV Systems. M.S. in Computer
Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Joel Young
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17462
Abstract: Unmanned systems, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), are developing
technologies that are becoming increasingly important. This thesis provides a model for
generating a common operational picture (COP) for unmanned systems that is applicable in
today’s technology, and presents results and analysis based on simulation studies. This thesis
specifically investigates a swarm versus swarm unmanned systems scenario in which opposing
teams of UAVs approach each other. Different methodologies for generating a COP from the
perspective of a given team are investigated, and a simulation is designed to explore the
performance of the selected strategies for performing multi-target tracking. The results of the
simulation show the performance of the presented approach where targets are assumed in the
field of view of the tracking agents, false detections may or may not be present, and all entities
maneuver according to nondeterministic motion models.
Tham, Kine Yin. Study of Command and Control (C&C) Structures on Integrating Unmanned
Autonomous Systems (UAS) into Manned Environments. M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Gary Langford
Second Reader: John Osmundson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17468
Abstract: The use of unmanned systems in the military has been growing. Although the
technologies and associated capabilities of unmanned autonomous systems (UAS) continue to
progress rapidly, comparatively little has been considered about how these systems will impact a
future operating environment. This thesis used scenario planning, specifically a slice-of- time
scenario planning, to explore the future operating environment and examined integrating UAS
into the current manned environment. This thesis highlighted a few technologies which will shape
the future of unmanned systems. The thesis also explored a case study based on STARFISH
Project by the Acoustic Research Laboratory (ARL), a laboratory within the Tropical Marine
Science Institute (TMSI) of the National University of Singapore (NUS), and derived a proposed
roadmap for integrating unmanned systems into the manned environment.
Van Bourgondien, Jeffery. Analysis of the Sustainment Organization and Process for the
Marine Corps RQ-11B Raven Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS). MBA Professional
Report. Master of Business Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
March 2012.
Advisors: David F. Matthews and Raymond E. Franck
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6883
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to outline and analyze the acquisition and sustainment
process for the current U.S. Marine Corps RQ-11B Raven Digital Data Link small unmanned aerial
system program. The current sustainment of the Marine Corps Raven evolved from the support
employed for its predecessor analog variant in 2008, which was originally supported by Marine
organic assets below depot-level maintenance requirements. The Ravens manufacturer,
AeroVironment Inc., now stations a field service representative in theater and has been since
around June 2011 under a contractor logistics support contract after the Marine Corps struggled
to implement organic support and sustain its Ravens at the organizational and intermediate
levels. This report serves as a case study for insights into the acquisition strategies for future
unmanned systems. I explore the advantages and limitations of organic versus contractor
support options in the form of monetary, organizational, and logistical resource allocation by
analyzing the spectrum of solutions throughout the supply and maintenance constructs. The
analysis covers both operational and sustainment perspectives through the lens of doctrine,
organization, training, material, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities implications.
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Wallace, John A. Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into Modern Policing in an Urban
Environment. M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security and Defense). Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, September 2012.
Thesis Advisor: Patrick Miller
Second Reader: Nadav Morag
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17474
Abstract: This thesis examines the possibilities and advantages of incorporating the use of
unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into operational use by local public safety agencies. The use of
UAS has become a vital tool for the military but still has not become a tool used by domestic
police forces. This thesis explores the options of using this type of technology, such as an
economical alternative or enhancement to existing aviation programs and better situational
awareness for tactical operations. In addition, to reviewing issues and concerns related to privacy
considerations; this thesis addresses program implementation, creation of best practices policy
and procedures, benefits to community safety, and flight regulations and restrictions under the
oversight of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
Wiseman, Adam. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Planning for Information Exploitation. M.S.
in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Douglas Horner and Oleg Yakimenko
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6890
Abstract: The ability of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to dynamically plan safe routes
and maneuvers in dangerous environments is directly relevant for the future of the use of AUVs
in the exploration and exploitation of the underwater environment, specifically the littorals and
inland waters. This thesis builds upon the existing body of knowledge of the REMUS AUV
dynamics and kinematics and develops a control scheme for a real-time optimized vehicle
trajectory that will permit continuous and autonomous collection and exploitation of external
sensor data, which will facilitate full 360-degree, 2-dimensional mapping of the underwater
environment surrounding the vehicle while preventing the vehicle from coming into contact with
mapped objects in the water. The developed control schema will seek to generate a trajectory in
real-time that optimizes a key parameter of interest, the Information Gain, while minimizing a
specified cost function of constraints, such as kinematic limits and obstacle avoidance criteria.
Yau, Meng Wee Joses. Localization of Surface or Near-Surface Drifting Mines for Unmanned
Systems in the Persian Gulf. M.S. in Physical Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2012.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Peter C. Chu and Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Ronald E. Betsch
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7436
Abstract: This thesis investigates the combined use of ocean models, such as idealized surface
current flows, and search models, including expanding area and discrete myopic search methods,
to improve the probability of detecting a near-surface, drifting object over time. Enhanced search
effectiveness is facilitated by the use of robotic search agents, such as a tactical unmanned
underwater vehicle (UUV) or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), leveraging simulation methods to
inform the search process. The presented work investigates the impact of using nave versus
optimized search patterns on localizing a drifting object, including a surrogate ocean model using
idealized flow as well as historical data sets with Weibull-distributed perturbations. Numerical
studies and extensive analysis using different permutations of model parameters (including the
relative speed of the drifting object, time late in the searcher’s arrival to the search area, sensor
sweep width, and duration of the search mission) identify the significant factors affecting the
overall probability of detection. Such insights enable further explorations using empirical datasets
for specific oceanographic regions of interest.
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2011
Actkinson, John Ira. Minesweeping for Pressure Actuated Mines by Air Injection into a Water
Column. M.S. in Engineering Acoustics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Bruce Denardo
Second Reader: Daphne Kapolka
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5493
Abstract: The U.S. Navy historically has not had an adequate means to remotely pressure sweep
for mines at reasonable speeds and cost, and this is still the case. The Navy has addressed such
threats, but countermeasures are time consuming and considered to be very resource intensive.
During this thesis two sets of data were collected in tow tank experiments using two different
sizes of Bubble Squid apparatus. This thesis is a continuation of work already completed by
Lieutenant Jeffery Murawski from December 2009. This continuation was able to extend the
proof-of-concept with larger scale tow-tank testing at NPS. Further testing with the much larger
three-meter Bubble Squid apparatus culminated in experiments conducted in March 2010 at the
David Taylor Research Basin in Carderock, MD. The data that was collected and analyzed in this
thesis will show that the Bubble Squid apparatus is a viable concept for solving the pressure
influence minesweeping capability gap.
Ardhaoui, Mejdi Ben. Implementation of Autonomous Navigation and Mapping Using a Laser
Line Scanner on a Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. M.S. in Computer Science. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Duane Davis
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10728
Abstract: The objective of this thesis is to investigate greater levels of autonomy in unmanned
vehicles. This is accomplished by reviewing past literature about the developing of components of
software architecture that are necessary for unmanned systems to achieve greater autonomy.
The thesis presents implementation studies of existing sensor-based robotic navigation and
mapping algorithms in both software and hardware, including a laser range finder, on a quadrotor
unmanned aerial vehicle platform for real-time obstacle detection and avoidance. This effort is
intended to lay the groundwork to begin critical evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of
the MOOS-IVP autonomy architecture and provide insight into what is necessary to achieve
greater levels of intelligent autonomy in current and future unmanned systems.
Chan, Chung Wei. Investigation of Propagation in Foliage using Simulation Techniques. M.S.
in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2011.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Vic Romero
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10577
Abstract: In a foliage environment, radio wave propagation is subjected to fading on both largescales and small-scales that impair the quality and reliability of data link transmission. This has
implications in many military applications. An example is the performance of communications
links and unmanned aerial vehicle radio links when the ground forces are operating in foliage
environments. The purpose of this research is to evaluate some simple models for propagation of
radio waves in foliage using an electromagnetic field simulation application. The three
dimensional (3D) electromagnetic field simulation application, CST Studio Suite, was used in the
modeling and simulation process. Specifically, the CST Microwave Studio module was used to
model the forest using dielectric blocks. Various combinations of forest dimensions, material
dielectric parameters and antenna placements were simulated to obtain propagation models of
radio waves in foliage environment. The simulation models are compared to three empirical
models presented in the literature for propagation in foliage environment. Using the simulation
model, we examined the coverage diagram for a transmitter antenna immersed in foliage. The
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results show that the proposed simulation models provide a rough approximation to radiowave
propagation in an actual rainforest environment. Based on the simulated results, the path loss in
foliage is affected by the forest's electrical characteristics, the height of the transmitter and the
height of receiver.
Chin, Chee Keen. Extending the Endurance, Missions and Capabilities of Most UAVS Using
Advanced Flexible. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, March 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael
Second Reader: Rudolf Panholzer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5824
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA576544
Abstract: The extension of flight time for military miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has
been demonstrated through the implementation of thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) cells. Currently,
most electric mini-UAVs are powered by high energy density lithium-ion or lithium polymer
batteries; however, the flight endurance is usually limited between 60 to 90 minutes before
requiring a forced recovery to replace exhausted batteries. In this thesis, the viability of
extending flight endurance by complementing the on-board battery source of a mini-UAV using
advanced TFPV cells made of copper-indium-gallium di-selenide (CIGS) semiconductor materials
is considered. In order to achieve a higher efficiency, the simulation and testing phase
incorporates the use of a DC-to-DC converter and a maximum power point tracking device or
algorithm to provide the desired output voltage and deliver maximum power from the TFPV cells
to the battery and load. In addition to investigating the application of TFPV cell technology,
development of new high power/energy density batteries and fuel cells technologies, as well as
the potential benefit of applying less mature, high-efficiency photovoltaic cells to military UAVs
are also considered.
Cobb, Brandon J. Adaptive Discrete Event Simulation for Analysis of Harpy Swarm Attack.
M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Arnold Buss
Second Reader: Jeffrey Kline
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5501
Abstract: Harpy swarm attacks are a new type of threat designed for Suppression of Enemy Air
Defenses. Research into combating Harpy swarm attacks has been conducted but the simulation
software used to date, Naval Simulation System, is inadequate for future research. A new and
mission-focused simulation tool is necessary in order to advance research in defensive tactics
against Harpy and other unmanned aerial vehicle threats (UAV). This research develops a
simulation model for a Harpy swarm attack using Simkit to meet the need for a mission specific
analytical tool. The base model consists of a user-defined Harpy patrol area and a ship traversing
the area on a course and speed also defined by the user. A total of 16 parameters are defined
and implemented. The model records the time any Harpy impacts the ship to provide data for the
response variable, the number of Harpy hits on the ship. Main effect and full factorial regressions
were performed as well as a partition tree to determine which parameters had the most
significance on the number of Harpies which hit the ship. These model characteristics and future
enhancements will provide researchers the ability to assess alternative anti-UAV swarm tactics.
Darnell, Bart W. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: A Logical Choice for Homeland Security
Support. M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security and Defense). Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Erik Dahl
Second Reader: Clay Moltz
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10587
Abstract: Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) have been part of aviation from the beginnings of
manned aviation and have become a vital tool of our overseas military and national security
operations. Public and private sector interest continues to grow for UAS to be used in a variety of
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domestic missions, such as border patrol, law enforcement, and search and rescue. With growing
concerns over issues, such as border security and critical infrastructure protection, it would seem
that UAS would be a logical choice for increased homeland security support, and yet they remain
only in limited use. This thesis examined why UAS are not widely used domestically for homeland
security support and found that their sluggish integration into the National Airspace System
stems from a perceived flight safety risk. However, UAS operations have improved; systems,
such as the Predator have flight safety trends equivalent to that of some manned aircraft.
Nevertheless, government, private industry, academia, and other UAS stakeholders should
continue to work together to further UAS safety. Specifically, they should collaborate to improve
UAS component reliability, develop aviation regulations and standards to account for peculiar UAS
characteristics, and improve public perception.
Doherty, Sean Michael. Cross Body Thruster Control and Modeling of a Body of Revolution
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, March 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Douglas Horner
Second Reader: Oleg Yakimenko
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5728
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA543855
Abstract: Cross body thrusters permit a body of revolution Autonomous Underwater Vehicle to
retain the energy efficiency of forward travel while increasing the ability to maneuver in confined
areas such as harbors and piers. This maneuverability also permits more deliberate underwater
surveys using a fixed, mounted forward and downward looking sonar. This work develops the
necessary hydrodynamic coefficients, using methods applied to earlier vehicles, to develop a valid
computer simulation model. Additionally, this work develops a polynomial regression translating
thruster input in RPM to an applied force output, which is incorporated into the vehicle model.
This model is then employed to examine the response and control, specifically at low speed, of a
body-of-revolution Autonomous Underwater Vehicle equipped with off-axis cross-body thrusters.
These results are then utilized to develop a series of PID controllers for use onboard the REMUS
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.
Emmersen, Tracy, Ng Kiang Chuan, David Chiam, Ong Zi Xuan, Perh Hong Yih Daniel, Koh Wee Yung,
Wes Wessner, Jon Saburn, Lim Choon Wee, Wong Chee Heng, Christian Silvestrini, Lu Zheng
Liang, Phil Castaneda, Sor Wei Lun, Pek Wee Kok, Jim Drennan, Teo Yong Kiong; Tan Yick Fung,
Scott Harvey, William Walker, Wee Hong Chuan, Matt Malinowski, Kelvin Zhu, Thomas Mills,
Chang Chung Wei. Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems. MSSEA in Systems Engineering.
SEA Cohort 17, Team B. NPS-SE-11-004. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
Department of Systems Engineering, June 2011.
Capstone Project Advisor: John Osmundson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6959
Abstract: Over the next twenty years, the proliferation of threats in the undersea environment
will likely challenge the platform-centric model that the United States Navy uses to maintain
dominance in Undersea Warfare (USW). Meanwhile, rapidly maturing technologies offer greater
capabilities to potential adversaries around the world. Such a paradigm creates an imperative for
the Navy to harness emerging technologies to maintain USW dominance amid a dynamic threat
environment, while balancing cost, risk, and required performance. This systems engineering
analysis develops Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems (AUWS) that provide a technological and
tactical advantage based on the needs of the war-fighter. Following critical analysis of the
numerous possible alternatives for performing the necessary Command, Control,
Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) and
prosecution and an objective screening process, four system architectures, and associated
operational concepts, are selected for detailed analysis. From cost, risk, and performance
analyses, superior AUWS concepts are shown to be flexible, scalable, and tailorable systems that
balance critical need areas. This analysis highlights the need for new warfare systems that can
meet future challenges to the traditional platform-centric model for USW dominance. Using the
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results and recommendations in this analysis will allow the Navy to deploy capabilities that
effectively and efficiently meet future operational needs.
Fodera, Christopher M. Transitioning the Tactical Marine Corps to IPv6. M.S. in Information
Sciences. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Alex Bordetsky
Second Reader: David Cabrera
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5602
Abstract: As communication in tactical arenas continues to trend from serial to Internet Protocol
(IP) based, the necessity for tactical programs of record to embrace IP communications becomes
more and more imperative. While many Marine Corps tactical communications programs of
record already recognize this trend and its significance, some are affected more heavily than
others. Numerous advantages exist for transitioning from Internet Protocol version 4 to Internet
Protocol version 6, and a top-down transition makes most sense for deployed and deploying
units, the Data Distribution System-Modular is the system best suited to take on this role. The
Naval Postgraduate School's Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation (CENETIX) and
Tactical Network Topology (TNT) field experimentation program, along with the Marine Corps
Tactical Systems Support Activity (MCTSSA), can take on this task of transitioning the Tactical
Marine Corps to IPv6.
Halle, Steven and Jason Hickle. The Design and Implementation of a Semi-Autonomous SurfZone Robot Using Advanced Sensors and a Common Robot Operating System. M.S. in
Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2011.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Richard Harkins and Timothy H. Chung
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5690
Abstract: A semi-autonomous vehicle, MONTe, was designed, modeled and tested for deployment
and operation in a surf-zone coastal environment. The MONTe platform was designed to use
unique land based locomotion that incorporates wheel-legs(WhegsTM) and a tail. Semi-autonomy
was realized with data from onboard sensors and implemented through open source Robot
Operating System (ROS), hosted on an Ubuntu Linux based processor. Communications via IEEE
802.11 protocols proved successful for data telemetry in line of site operations. Basic mobility
and tail control of the platform was modeled in Working Model 2D. Field tests were successfully
conducted to demonstrate mobility and semi-autonomous waypoint navigation. Future
developments will look to improve the overall design and test water borne mobility, navigation,
and communication.
Hong, Bryan Y. An Effective Noise Filtering Method for Mine Detection. M.S. in Meteorology and
Physical Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Peter Chu
Second Reader: Ronald E. Betsch
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5576
Abstract: Automatic detection of sea mines in coastal regions is difficult due to highly varying sea
bottom conditions present in the underwater environment. Detection systems must be able to
discriminate objects that vary in size, shape, and orientation from naturally occurring and manmade clutter. Additionally, these automated systems must be computationally efficient to be
incorporated into Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor systems characterized by high sensor
data-rates and limited processing abilities. Commonly used noise filters largely depend on the
window (or neighborhood) size, which makes the mine detection ineffective. Using the bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) analysis, an effective, robust sea mine
detection system can be created. A family of decomposed images is generated and applied to
optical lidar image data from the Rapid, Overt, Airborne, Reconnaissance (ROAR) experiment
supplied by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City. These decompositions project key image
features, geometrically defined structures with orientations, and localized information into distinct
orthogonal components or feature subspaces of the image. Application of the BEMD method to
the analysis on side scan sonar data is also provided. Accurate detection and classification of
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mines is time consuming and requires divers or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) in the
water. The navy continues to pursue more expedient methods in mine countermeasures, and
with airborne lidar, a surf zone (SZ) and landing zone can be quickly surveyed for possible mines.
In the near surf zone, all possible mines can be quickly neutralized by dropping guided munitions,
eliminating the need to send divers or AUVs to verify contacts. Still, the need for improved
methods of detection and classification is needed. BEMD, a relatively new method of signal
analysis developed about fifteen years ago, was tested on lidar imagery from the ROAR
experiment to look for any improvements in detecting and classifying mines.
Jurta, Daniel and Bryan Pettigrew, Adam Dye, Joshua Hodge, James Mullen, and Grant Schweikert.
MQ-8B Fire Scout UAV Manning Cost Benefit Analysis. Executive Master of Business
Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Senior Consultant: Frank R. “Chip” Wood
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/7070
Abstract: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: At the request of the Intelligence, Surveillance, and
Reconnaissance Task Force, the Naval Air Systems Command‘s program office for Multi-Mission
Tactical Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)—also known as PMA-266, began MQ-8B flight
operations in Afghanistan. Due to the importance and short notice of this request, the initial
manning and support measures for the Fire Scout detachment has relied heavily on contractors.
In an effort to refine and redirect the future manning of Fire Scout detachments, PMA-266 asked
the Washington DC Naval Postgraduate School Consulting Group to evaluate three different
courses of action (COAs) detailing manning options for deployment of the MQ-8B Fire Scout for
the next year. The three COAs were: 1) Manning with a military component 2) Manning with NGC
contract services 3) Manning through a third party contractor. This report recommends that PMA266 use the military component COA to the maximum extent possible. In addition to annual cost
savings of over $10M, a military component provides greater mission-focus and flexibility
inherent in a military chain of command as compared to a contract manning structure. The Navy
would also benefit by obtaining operational UAS experience as it looks to develop an unmanned
aviation community. The experience gained could be used to develop Navy instructors for
operator and maintenance training instead of continuing to rely on contract support for these
requirements.
Kilitci, Serkan, and Muzaffer Buyruk. An Analysis of the Best Available Unmanned Ground
Vehicle in the Current Market with Respect to the Requirements of the Turkish Ministry
of National Defense. Master of Business Administration. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2011.
Advisors: John T. Dillard and Kathryn Aten
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10633
Abstract: Today, Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provide significant supporting capabilities in
military operations worldwide. When UGVs are used to their full potential, the number of
casualties is decreased and the combat effectiveness of warfighters is increased. UGVs are being
developed in different sizes to meet different mission capability requirements. The employment of
available UGVs and the development of new UGV capabilities have been rising steadily. Countries
have started giving more importance to UGVs, and they are now being employed all over the
world. The Turkish Ministry of National Defense (MND) can use the advantages of UGVs in a
number of ways to assist in its efforts against terrorist activities. The purpose of this MBA project
is to conduct an analysis of the best available UGV in the current market with respect to the
requirements of the Turkish MND. After providing some background and market research on
UGVs, we will explore their capabilities and their capability gaps in regard to the requirements of
the Turkish MND. In the end, this project will determine the best available near-term UGV for the
Turkish MND by employing the Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) method of the U.S. Defense
Acquisition System.
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Larkin, Matthew S. Brave New Warfare: Autonomy in Lethal UAVS. M.S. in Management
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2011.
Thesis Co-Advisors: George Lucas and William Hatch
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5781
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA543725
Abstract: The Department of Defense (DoD) is making significant strides to develop and deploy
unmanned vehicles in a variety of environments. Specifically, the Secretary of the Navy is
sponsoring a new program, Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and
Research ("CRUSER"), at the Naval Postgraduate School to enhance the ability to address
unmanned vehicle research in a systematic manner. The area of research in this thesis strives to
position the technological advancements within an ethical framework that will guide the
development and use of these technologies. Autonomous platforms may bring significant
advantages and enhance our abilities for mission accomplishment. This project concludes that
they are best deployed in conventional conflicts, and may have more limited and problematic
uses during irregular warfare and COIN operations. Laws pertaining to the deployment of
autonomous and unmanned platforms are unclear and need to be strengthened on an
international scale. Furthermore, the questions regarding what are permissible uses of
autonomous platforms should also include future operators and personnel involved in the
acquisition and engineering of these platforms, and should not be left solely in the hands of
lawyers and diplomats. The combination of autonomy and lethality is found to work best when
limited to the targeting of an enemy's weapons systems and aircraft in highly scripted
environments rather than enemy combatants and personnel themselves.
Lednicky, Eric J. Analytically Quantifying Gains in the Test and Evaluation Process through
Capabilities-based Analysis. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Rachel T. Silvestrini
Second Reader: Harrison C. Schramm
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5578
Abstract: Military operating environments are increasingly diverse and technically challenging.
Fielding relevant weapons systems to meet the demands of this environment is increasingly
difficult, prompting policy shifts that mandate a focus on systems capable of combating a wide
threat range. The Capabilities-Based Test and Evaluation (CBT&E) construct is the Department of
the Navy’s effort to concentrate on integrated system design with the objective of satisfying a
particular operational response (capability) under a robust range of operating conditions. One
aspect of CBT&E is the increased employment of advanced mathematical and statistical
techniques in the Test and Evaluation (T&E) process. This study illustrates advantages of
incorporating these invaluable techniques, like Design of Experiments (DOE) and Modeling and
Simulation (M&S), within the T&E process. We also suggest a general methodology for
approaching test plan design, presented via a notional scenario in which a complex system must
defend a forward outpost. We found through statistical analysis that the application of DOE
concepts to the System Under Test (SUT) throughout three primary phases of T&E quantifiably
improved the accomplishment of the selected Measure of Effectiveness (MOE).
Liu, Chun-Yi. An Improved Rectenna for Wireless Power Transmission for Unmanned Air
Vehicles. M.S. in Electronic Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Ric Romero
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5561
Abstract: This thesis continues an NPS project related to wireless power transmission for micro
air vehicles (MAVs). The conversion of radio-frequency (rf) power into usable direct-current (dc)
power is performed by a rectifying antenna, or rectenna. The emphasis of this thesis is the
simulation and experimental study of various rectenna designs to determine which best provides
high efficiency, stable output power, and lightweight design. The analysis of rectenna design
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focuses on four subsystems: (1) the receiving antenna, (2) the matching sections, (3) the
rectification, and (4) the post-rectification filter. Based on the findings of this research, the
ultimate rectenna design implements a half-wave dipole antenna that performs full-wave
rectification with two diodes. The post-rectification filter is implemented by a capacitor to obtain
stable dc power. The final design achieved an efficiency of nearly 66% for input power in the
range of 200 mW.
Milionis, Georgios. A Framework for Collaborative Quadrotor - Ground Robot Missions. M.S. in
Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Oleg Yakimenko
Thesis Co-Advisor: Richard Harkins
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10654
Abstract: The thesis proposes a real-time control algorithm for the cooperation of a joint team
consisting of a Quadrotor and a Ground robot for coordinated ISR missions. The intended
application focuses on indoor environments, where Global Positioning System signals are
unreliable or simply unavailable so that the control algorithms must rely on local sensor
information. The thesis describes the appropriate set up of the lab and includes simulations using
a full dynamic model of the quadrotor and robot, demonstrating the suitability of the
implemented and the proposed control scheme into a waypoint navigation scenario. The
implemented controller uses the Linear Quadratic Regulator method imposed into five different
channels; pitch, roll, yaw, x-y position and height, configured to the appropriate gains for
smoother following of the trajectory. The proposed control scheme incorporates three key aspects
of autonomy; trajectory planning, trajectory following and collaboration of the two vehicles. Using
the differentially-flat dynamics property of the system, the trajectory optimization is posed as a
non-linear constrained optimization within the output space in the virtual domain, not explicitly
related to the time domain. A suitable parameterization using a virtual argument as opposed to
time is applied, which ensures initial and terminal constraint satisfaction. The speed profile is
optimized independently, followed by the mapping to the time domain achieved using a speed
factor.
Miller, Glenn A. Evaluation of HRI Payloads for Rapid Precision Target Localization to Provide
Information to the Tactical Warfighter. M.S. in Information Warfare Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Kevin Jones
Second Reader: Ray Buettner
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5512
Abstract: High Resolution Imagery (HRI) with precise location and targeting data for the
warfighter has become an integral part in today's asymmetric warfare environment. This thesis
conducted practical testing of systems and employed qualitative research methods to evaluate
HRI payloads for SUAS to provide rapid precision target localization to the warfighter. The
research attempted to evaluate new HRI systems integration with the current SUAS's to produce
accurate or reduced error images for intelligence and targeting data. The targeting solutions were
to be evaluated against those calculated solutions achieved on a manned aircraft. This part of the
evaluation was not completed due to the discovery of radio frequency noise interference induced
by systems modifications required to fit the small confines of the SUAS platform. Targeting
solution research was conducted using archival images from a manned flight mission. Once the
system and technology is modified to eliminate the radio frequency noise there is a high
probability of successfully proving the desired capability.
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Munoz, Mauricio F. Agent-Based Simulation and Analysis of a Defensive UAV Swarm Against
an Enemy UAV Swarm. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, June 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Michael P. Atkinson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5700
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA547892
Abstract: Unmanned systems, including unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs), are
increasingly important in military operations. Given the growth of unmanned systems technology
worldwide, these systems may increasingly pose a real threat to U.S. and Allied forces in the near
future. This thesis proposes a future concept of employing a defensive UCAV swarm, launched
from a friendly sea-based platform. To simulate this defensive swarm system, an agent-based
simulation model was developed, and appropriate designs of experiments and statistical analyses
were conducted. The investigated factors were drawn from the literature review to create several
experimental designs with the objective of identifying the significant design factors of the Blue
UCAV system. The result of the analysis shows that only five of the eleven candidate factors
analyzed are significant, which can be used to inform the engineering specification of preliminary
requirements for potential future development.
Pawlenko, Matthew. Derivation of River Bathymetry Using Imagery from Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles (UAV). M.S. in Meteorology and Physical Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisors: Philip A. Durkee and K.Todd Holland
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5466
Abstract: In many places that U.S. forces operate, there exists an insufficient amount of data
regarding river water depths, which is a necessity for safe operational planning. Satellite sensors
and airborne manned platforms have been used for bathymetric derivation, but are not in
abundance, nor do they have the spatial resolution required to examine smaller rivers. Using
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), this research examines the feasibility of using a ratio method
with digital imagery to derive water depths, as well as a simpler polynomial regression to create
a lookup table for use in the field. The results show that the ratio method of Red to Blue had
higher correlation than Red color band on its own, and that the simple polynomial regression
using a ratio of Red to Blue had higher correlation than more widely accepted methods. However,
both methods are limited by a maximum depth, which is defined as the point where color no
longer changes with depth. All depths beyond this point appear as this maximum depth. These
findings show that using imagery from UAVs for bathymetric derivation could be a feasible
alternative to accepted satellite imagery methods, but further research is needed to demonstrate
operational utility.
Payton, Leslie T. The Future of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Support of the Marine
Expeditionary Unit. M.S. in Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Daniel Nussbaum
Second Reader: Don Summers
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10667
Abstract: The USMC Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) is commonly referred to as "the nation's
911 force." It must be capable of executing a full spectrum of missions from low-intensity
humanitarian assistance and noncombat evacuations to high-intensity major combat operations.
The structure and equipment are designed around this multimission requirement. However, the
USMC owns the fixed-winged Shadow unmanned aircraft system (UAS), and is in the process of
acquiring a small fixed-wing UAS, the small tactical UAS (STUAS) to provide intelligence,
surveillance, and reconnaissance. The USMC is also researching a cargo resupply UAS based on
helicopter technology. The USMC focus on single mission UAS does not fit with the MEU's mission
requirements. This thesis will examine MEU mission requirements and recommend a UAS
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capability set that best supports MEU operations. From this recommended set of requirements,
the thesis will use a cost analysis to determine a future UAS program of record.
Peterson, Troy M. and Jason R. Staley. Business Case Analysis of Cargo Unmanned Aircraft
System (UAS) Capability in Support of Forward Deployed Logistics in Operation
Enduring Freedom (OEF). Master of Business Administration. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2011.
Advisors: Raymond E. Franck and Daniel A. Nussbuam
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10672
Abstract: Based on our analysis K-MAX is an attractive alternative to current methods of
resupply. These findings led to our conclusion that the K-MAX is a program worthy of DoD
investment and becoming a program of record. The concept for the utilization of unmanned
aircraft system (UAS) capability in support of logistics in operation enduring freedom (OEF) is in
response to a United States Marine Corps urgent needs requirement. This capability significantly
decreases the ground convoy requirement. In addition, the introduction of UAS would reduce
American forces' exposure to exterior enemy threats while conducting resupply missions. The
Cargo UAS (CUAS) program is a Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIRSYSCOM) initiative. The
Marines' main interest in the program is the ability to have a system that can operate
autonomously beyond line of sight with GPS en route waypoint navigation and be controlled
remotely at designated cargo delivery locations. The purpose of this study is to estimate potential
cost savings in the form of resource human life valuations. This study conducts a business case
analysis (BCA) comparing the estimated costs of the UAS program to the current methods for
providing logistical support through traditional ground convoys, fixed and rotary wing assets.
Rice, Marshall, Rahul Petrie, Daniel Reese, Kurtis Hoots, Robert Taylor, Drew Nash, Jonathan TrdanSchmidt, Thuan Huynh, and Bunny Cooper. United States Navy Oceanic Armed
Reconnaissance System. MSSE & MSES. NPS-SE-11-017. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, 2011.
Project Advisors: Mark M. Rhodes and Josephy W. Sweeney III
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6967
Abstract: A student team at the Naval Postgraduate School studied the need for, and
development of, a system that effectively and economically deters piracy in an area of interest.
The system's proposed area of operation is the Gulf of Aden, but the system may be deployed to
any operational theater where piracy threatens maritime commerce. Piracy and hijacking of ships
off the Somali Coast have grown tenfold since 2006. In response to this growing problem, the
U.S. Navy, along its with allies, formed Combined Task Force 151 (CTF-151) to protect
approximately 33,000 merchant vessels transiting through this area daily. CTF-151 patrols the
Internationally Recommended Transit Corridor (IRTC) in the Gulf of Aden and because of this,
Somali pirates have begun to migrate away from the IRTC and CTF-151 patrols. For this reason,
the team studied the use of UAV technology that allowed for broader area of piracy surveillance
and detection. The system that was conceived and analyzed was the Oceanic Armed
Reconnaissance System (OARS). The OARS Basic alternative, when analyzed against CTF-151,
was found to be the most cost effective system. This OARS Basic system is comprised of a
Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) as a host vessel, ScanEagle UAVs, an SH-60 Helicopter, and Zodiac
Rigid Hulled Inflatable Boats (RHIB).
Slatt, Michael. Development and Testing of a Hybrid WhegTM-mobile Platform for Autonomous
Surf-zone Operations. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, December 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
Second Reader: Peter Crooker
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10695
Abstract: Mobility Over Non-Trivial Terrain (MONTe) is a hybrid (wheel-leg) WhegTM-mobile
platform created for two purposes. The first purpose is to verify the simulated benefits of
adapting previous six-legged Wheg robotic platforms to a four-legged Wheg amphibious design
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with a tail. The second purpose is to provide a platform to continue autonomous design and
testing in the amphibious environment. In addition, the challenges of previous NPS surf-zone
designs are investigated as well as the new challenges of making an amphibious platform to
include the following: suspension system, drivetrain, tail integration, environmental control for
subsystems, power distribution system and water-borne operation.
Snyder, Derek J. Design Requirements for Weaponizing Man-Portable UAS in Support of
Counter-Sniper Operations. M.S. in Information Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Raymond R. Buettner and Kevin D. Jones
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5543
Abstract: The sniper is a highly successful tool used by the enemy to create both physical and
psychological effects on U.S. and Coalition forces. A single enemy sniper can pin down an entire
company-sized element for an extended period of time, resulting in measurable disruptions in
operations. This threat is as old as the rifle itself but has been somewhat shadowed by the
proliferation of the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) over the past few years. Nevertheless,
many resources are being dedicated to counter-sniper technology to include: permanently
mounted radar systems, vehicle mounted systems, and shot detection systems worn by the
individual Soldier to identify the point of origin (POO) of the small arms fire and thus the location
of the sniper. This location is extremely helpful information, but knowledge of the sniper's
location alone will not always be enough to regain freedom of maneuver. If the sniper is free to
target, his target is not free to maneuver. This thesis explores the design requirements of
weaponizing man-portable UAS at the tactical level in support of counter-sniper operations so
that the sniper is not free to operate without risk. These systems are already commonly deployed
on the battlefield, and if a scalable weapons system capability can be provided, it will
immediately reduce the effectiveness of the adversary snipers.
Sosebee, Philip D. Flow Visualization and Detailed Load Measurements Over a Maneuvering
UCAV 1303. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
March 2011.
Thesis Advisor: M.S. Chandrasekhara
Second Reader: G.V. Hobson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5743
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA543022
Abstract: The unsteady aerodynamic performance of a maneuvering 1/72nd scale model of an
unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) 1303 geometry has been studied in the Naval Postgraduate
School water tunnel. Despite the numerous past publications on UCAV flows, none pertains to the
UCAV maneuvering characteristics. Due to its nonslender wing, the flow features over the chosen
aircraft are unique in that both features of highly yawed wings and of delta wings are present.
Even though the speeds and Reynolds numbers are low in a water tunnel, the results of the
present studies attest to the suitability of a water tunnel for performing such studies. Force
measurements taken at various Reynolds numbers, model attitudes and maneuvering rates for
comparison proved to be valid for data comparison to potential flight scenarios. The UCAV 1303
model has a 47 degrees leading edge sweep and a cranked trailing edge delta wing with a
fuselage. Pitching and rolling maneuvers were performed in various combinations to demonstrate
the real flight conditions of a maneuvering UCAV. A five-component strain-gage and flow
monitoring software were used to determine force and moment coefficients in real time. These
coefficients were analyzed and compared to previous flow visualization tests to correlate the
various flow features recorded during that phase of the study, and to determine the overall
stability of a delta wing UCAV. These plots demonstrate what is seen visually at Reynolds
numbers from 1.17x104 to 2.94x104. Where the pitch break occurs on the wings during
maneuvers is correlated and dependent on Reynolds number, as initially suspected. Performing
unsteady maneuvers helped in retaining the approximate linear variation of lift coefficient to
higher angles of attack. Roll maneuvers produced oscillatory side forces and moments at high
angles of attack and roll, indicating potentially serious unsteady forces.
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Suh, George Y. Shear and Stability at the Base of the Mixed Layer in the Arctic Ocean: The
Role of Inertial Motions. M.S. in Meteorology and Physical Oceanography. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, March 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy Stanton
Second Reader: William Shaw
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5751
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA543824
Abstract: The Arctic environment changed significantly over recent decades and declines in
perennial sea ice and thickness concentrations have been frequently observed. Current predictive
models providing researchers with conservative estimates of sea ice concentrations, the lack of
observations and understanding of the physical processes that promote changes in sea ice create
inaccuracies that need to be improved. A fusion of buoy observations, satellite derived ice
concentrations, and modeled wind data are made in this thesis to provide a better insight into sea
ice inertial motions and its influence on the processes that occur in the Arctic Ocean mixed layer
and to investigate whether these processes can be parameterized to improve predictive models.
Observations made in the Canadian Basin and the Transpolar Drift by high resolution
Autonomous Ocean Flux Buoys (AOFBs), SSMI and AMSR-E satellite derived ice concentrations,
and ERA-Interim winds are used to examine the relationships between winds, ice coverage and
sea ice inertial oscillations. Data collected from AOFBs and collocated Ice-Tethered Profilers
(ITPs) are analyzed to investigate whether ocean mixed layer inertial oscillations contribute to
shear instability at the base of the mixed layer, which serves as a mechanism for vertical
transport of heat in water masses underlying the mixed layer. Results show that simple linear
regression models cannot explain the relationship between inertial sea ice velocities and modeled
winds. However, they do indicate that the magnitude of the inertial sea ice velocities during
summers is greater when compared to winter. Analysis further reveals a relationship between sea
ice inertial oscillations and sea ice concentrations. We conclude that parameterizing the
conditions that permit significant inertial motions in terms of changing areal ice conditions is
viable. Inertial oscillations generated in the Arctic Ocean mixed layer do contribute significantly to
the instability at the base of the mixed layer, especially during summers. However, comparisons
of dynamic instability at the base of the mixed layer to satellite derived sea ice concentrations
reveal no conclusive relationship.
Tuggle, Christopher K. The Use of Autonomous Vehicles for Spatially Measuring Mean Velocity
Profiles in Rivers and Estuaries. M.S. in Meteorology and Physical Oceanography. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Jaime MacMahan
Second Reader: Ed Thornton
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5538
Abstract: Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are commonly used in oceanic and more recently estuarine
and riverine environments because they are small, versatile, efficient, moving platforms equipped
with a suite of instruments for measuring environmental conditions. However, moving vessel
observations, particularly those associated with Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)
measurements, can be problematic owing to instrument noise, flow fluctuations, and spatial
variability. A range of ADCPs manufactured by different companies were integrated onto an
Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV), an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV), and some additional
stationary platforms, and were deployed in a number of natural riverine and estuarine
environments to evaluate the quality of the velocity profile over the depth, minimum averaging
time interval requirements and AV mission planning considerations. An appropriate averaging
window, T*, was determined using the Kalman Algorithm with a Kalman gain equal to 1%. T*
was found to be independent of depth, flow velocity, and environment. There was no correlation
(R2=0.18) for T* between flow magnitude and direction. Results from all measurements had a
similar T* of approximately 3 minutes. Based on this, an averaging window of 4 minutes is
conservatively suggested to obtain a statistically confident measure of the mean velocity profile.
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Tyree, Michael G. Initial Design and Concept of Operations for a Clandestine Data Relay UUV
to Circumvent Jungle Canopy Effects on Satellite Communications. M.S. in Information
Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September
2011.
Thesis Advisor: Raymond Buettner
Second Reader: Sean Kragelund
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5537
Abstract: Communications within jungle environments has always been a difficult proposition.
This is especially true of collection assets beneath triple canopy jungle that need to communicate
with overhead national assets. The traditional methods of countering the negative effects of the
canopy on EM signals have been to increase the power to offset the losses, or to utilize new,
more canopy transparent portions of the EM spectrum. However, there are complications with
both of these methods. Simply increasing transmitted power increases the drain on the system's
power supply, thus lowering effective on-station time. Shifting to a different portion of the EM
spectrum can negatively affect the transmission rate of the system and requires specialized
equipment such as antennas and modulators. This work addresses the issue by designing a semiautonomous UUV, which will clandestinely relay data from the embedded jungle systems to
overhead national assets. Rather than trying to punch through the canopy directly, the proposed
UUV will take advantage of the fact that most jungle water ways have, at the very least, a
thinner canopy overhead if not a clear view of the sky for less lossy satellite communications.
This shifts the primary communications from an Earth-Sky problem to a lateral wave model
where the communications travels parallel to the canopy. While the jungle is still not an ideal
medium for communications, other methods can be used to address these losses. The proposed
UUV will be designed to be cheap and constructed from existing systems. It will also be small,
and lightweight, enough to be delivered and deployed in theater via aircraft, boats, and operators
on the ground. Additionally it will be capable of long on station times due to the ability recharge
on station.
Walliser, James C. Trust in Automated Systems: The Effect of Automation Level on Trust
Calibration. M.S. in Human Systems Integration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, June 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Lawrence G. Shattuck
Second Reader: Robert L. Shearer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5628
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA547808
Abstract: Automated systems perform functions that were previously executed by a human.
When using automation, the role of the human changes from operator to supervisor. For effective
operation, the human must appropriately calibrate trust in the automated system. Improper trust
leads to misuse and disuse of the system. The responsibilities of an automated system can be
described by its level of automation. This study examined the effect of varying levels of
automation and accuracy on trust calibration. Thirty participants were divided into three groups
based on the system's level of automation and provided with an automated identification system.
Within the Virtual Battlespace 2 environment, participants controlled the video feed of an
unmanned aircraft while they identified friendly and enemy personnel on the ground. Results
indicate a significant difference in the ability to correctly identify targets between levels of
automation and accuracy. Participants exhibited better calibration at the management by consent
level of automation and at the lower accuracy level. These findings demonstrate the necessity of
continued research in the field of automation trust.
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Watts, Bryan D. Integration of Control Algorithms for Quadrotor UAV's Using an Indoor
Sensor Environment. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2011.
Thesis Advisor: Isaac Kaminer
Second Reader: Vladimir Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5529
Abstract: This thesis develops an architecture that facilitates the design and indoor testing of
control algorithms implemented onboard quadrotor UAV's using an ultra-wideband (UWB) indoor
positioning solution from Ubisense. Initially, details are provided on basic quadrotor dynamics,
the setup of the indoor sensor environment, and the communication scheme. A thorough analysis
is conducted on the accuracy and estimation lag of Ubisense UWB sensors for providing indoor
position information to the quadrotor. Once this framework is established, the focus is placed on
design and experimental validation of the altitude hold control algorithm. The observer used is a
discrete Kalman filter that minimizes the covariance of position and acceleration measurement
inputs to produce a smooth estimation of states (position, velocity and acceleration). These
estimated states are then fed into a modified PD plus Integral controller to produce quadrotor
thrust commands for given altitude step commands. Results indicate that the technology used is
capable of maintaining a UAV's altitude within an error margin of +/-13.3 cm, but the relatively
slow update rate of the Ubisense system limits the possibility of more complex and aggressive
maneuvers.
Zaborowski, Robert Michael. Onboard and Parts-based Object Detection from Aerial Imagery.
M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulation (MOVES) and M.S. In Computer Science.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2011.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Mathias Kölsch and Chris Darken
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5523
Abstract: The almost endless amount of full-motion video (FMV) data collected by Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and similar sources presents mounting challenges to human analysts,
particularly to their sustained attention to detail despite the monotony of continuous review. This
digital deluge of raw imagery also places unsustainable loads on the limited resource of network
bandwidth. Automated analysis onboard the UAV allows transmitting only pertinent portions of
the imagery, reducing bandwidth usage and mitigating operator fatigue. Further, target detection
and tracking information that is immediately available to the UAV facilitates more autonomous
operations, with reduced communication needs to the ground station. Experimental results
proved the utility of our onboard detection system a) through bandwidth reduction by two orders
of magnitude and b) through reduced operator workload. Additionally, a novel parts-based
detection method was developed. A whole-object detector is not well suited for deformable and
articulated objects, and susceptible to failure due to partial occlusions. Parts detection with a
subsequent structural model overcomes these difficulties, is potentially more computationally
efficient (smaller resource footprint and able to be decomposed into a hierarchy), and permits
reuse for multiple object types. Our parts-based vehicle detector achieved detection accuracy
comparable to whole-object detection, yet exhibiting said advantages.
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2010
Archontakis, Andreas. Assessing the Flight Quality of a Large UAV for SensorsGround Robots
Aerial Delivery. M.S. in Information Warfare. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2010.
Thesis Co-Advisors: O. Yakimenko and A. Bordetsky
Second Reader: P. Ateshian
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5116
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA531461
Abstract: The new goal for unmanned aerial systems will be to find creative methods of keeping
the cost low and still maintain effectiveness. This thesis discusses the importance of UAVs over
the last few years, suggests the development of a low-cost, large UAV, and evaluates the results.
We also examine the idea of a platform for deploying multiple aerial-delivery, parafoil-based
systems and discuss scenarios for the improvement of the collaboration of the large UAV with the
Snowflake project.
Burkamshaw, Leon Keith. Towards a Low-Cost Quadrotor Research Platform. M.S. in Software
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2010.
Thesis Advisor: Douglas Horner
Second Reader: James B. Michael
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10540
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA518360
Abstract: Two aspects of currently available Miniature UAVs (MUAVs) that limit the adoption of
this technology for civil and research purposes are the high cost and closed design philosophy.
This thesis attempts to solve these problems by presenting an open source design that is focused
on low-cost, while maintaining a reasonable level of performance. The use of Commercial OffThe-Shelf (COTS) equipment is maximized where possible to reduce development time and cost.
A novel approach used by this design is the use of a Nintendo Wii MotionPlus device as an Inertial
Measurement Unit (IMU). This mass produced COTS part provides a three degree of freedom IMU
for minimal cost. All software is of a modular design to ease understanding and facilitate
improvements. To reduce development time, and to help discover requirements, a Rapid
Application Development (RAD) methodology has been adopted that is suitable for
implementation by a single developer. Software prototypes are constructed and iteratively built
upon to discover more requirements. At the completion of each phase, testing is performed. Once
a suitable level of maturity has been reached, the software prototype is rolled into the main build.
Flight-testing is performed at the completion of the design along with a quantitative measure of
flight stability.
Byers, Kenneth. Situational Awareness for Surveillance and Interdiction Operations (SASIO):
Tactical Installation Protection. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, March 2010.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Rachel T. Johnson
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5383
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA518377
Abstract: Security of a Forward Operating Base (FOB) is of high interest and operational
importance to the U.S. military and allied forces. The Situational Awareness for Surveillance and
Interdiction Operations (SASIO) model simulates the operational tasking of a single Unmanned
Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and a ground-based interceptor that are designed to search, identify, and
intercept potential hostile targets prior to reaching the FOB. This thesis explains the SASIO model
and its implementation in JAVA. This theoretical model leverages Design of Experiments (DOE),
which varies multiple characteristics of the system to explore insights for the tactical employment
of UAV and interceptor to combat potential hostile actions against a predefined area of interest.
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Designed screening simulation experiments identifies influential factors to provide guidance for
tactical employment of Blue Force assets, as well as provide alternative means to influence Red
force behavior in a beneficial manner. This thesis analyzed the effects of the influential factors
with respect to the percentage of threats interdicted, time to acquire threats, and mean distance
away from the FOB that the threats were interdicted. Through analytical techniques, a
quantifiable measure of the employment strategy for the UAV and ground-based interceptor was
achieved.
Coba, Javier V. Application of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells to Extend
the Endurance and Capabilities of the Raven RQ-11B Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. M.S. in
Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2010.
Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael
Second Reader: Todd Weatherford
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5118
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA531540
Abstract: Prior thesis work has demonstrated the possibility of extending the flight time of
military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAV) by 200% with the implementation of thinfilm
photovoltaic (TFPV) cells. In this thesis, we investigate how thin-film photovoltaic cells, made out
of Copper Indium Gallium Di-Selenide (CIGS) semiconductor materials and mounted on the wings
of the Raven RQ-11B SUAV, provide sufficient electrical power to fully operate the UAV for
extended periods of time. This research focuses on extending the flight time of the Raven RQ-11B
and on minimizing its sole dependence on lithium-ion batteries. This research will also
demonstrate that increasing the size of the wings, adding a DC to DC power converter, and using
a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) will enable the Raven RQ-11B to keep its lithium-ion
battery charging continuously, while operating under varying daylight conditions. Additionally,
this research will investigate the advantage of enabling systems on the ground to "self-charge."
This will enable tactical units to operate in any field, to include areas where power sources are
unavailable.
Davis, Cledo L. The Systems Integration of Autonomous Behavior Analysis to Create a
"Maritime Smart Environment" for the Enhancement of Maritime Domain Awareness.
M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2010.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Rachael Goshorn and Deborah Goshorn
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5352
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA524661
Abstract: Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) is a very challenging mission area in an everincreasing net-centric environment, which is inundated with data from many highly advanced,
capable sensors and communication suites. With all these technological data collection and
dissemination advances, the information available is just too voluminous for humans alone to
process and react to manually, sifting the "wheat from the chaff," and be expected to accomplish
effective operational decision making regarding maritime threats to national security, as well as
to international peace and trade on the high seas. This thesis addresses MDA Joint Integrating
Concept capability gaps, MDA-003C and MDA-004C, for aggregating, analyzing and displaying
maritime information in order to understand the maritime environment to identify threats and
predicting activity within the maritime domain. Applying the Systems Engineering process, the
concept, requirements analysis, architectures, and system design and validation description for a
systems integration solution is presented. The proposed implementation entails integrating
autonomous behavior analysis capability that utilizes syntactical grammar-based spatial-temporal
behavior classifications within existing Net-Centric MDA environments. In attestation to this
implementation, this thesis describes the research conducted on a demonstrable proof-of-concept
laboratory system, the Watchman Maritime Smart Environment System, whose representative
architecture for specific autonomous behavior analysis implementation is provided.
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DeDeaux, Cedric N. Energy Capture Module (ECM) for Use in Unmanned Mobile Vehicles
(UMVS) with a Specific Study of the Draganflyer X6 UAV. M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2010.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Robert Harney and Rachel Goshorn
Second Reader: Mark Stevens
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5172
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA531569
Abstract: Unmanned drones, robots, and vehicles are often chosen to perform tasks in harsh and
dangerous environments. Autonomous vehicles are ideal in tactical situations when these vehicles
can perform functions for warfighters when the risk to human life is significantly too high. In
particular, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become a common staple of military
operations. Common sizes range from slingshot-launched spy bots to global guardians. Small
UAV of all types have limited mission endurance due to volume and weight constraints of their
energy storage and power sources. In many cases, UAVs are limited in the extent to which they
could provide tactical advantage because of their need to be recharged or refueled. Even with the
use of highly efficient energy and power sources, it is extremely difficult to design a feasible
energy system that will provide power for prolonged duration missions. A method, energy
capture, exists to provide recharging of an energy source remotely. By utilizing electromagnetic
waves, energy can be transmitted wirelessly over great distances. This method has been
implemented in several forms today, and shows promise as a possible way to provide for much
greater UAV mission endurance. An Energy Control Module (ECM) is proposed as a scalable and
Modular Open System (MOS) design concept that can utilize either a tuned laser photovoltaic cell
or a microwave receiver to convert received electromagnetic energy to maintain the onboard UAV
platform battery charged. The ECM can utilize ground or shipboard based power supply to
wirelessly transmit power to a UAV. This thesis presents a study of the characteristics needed for
an ECM that allows a small UAV platform to remain on station and perform its designed functions
while recharging its energy source for prolonged duration missions.
French, Daniel W. Analysis of Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) Architectures and an
Assessment of UUV Integration into Undersea Applications. M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2010.
Thesis Advisor: John S. Osmundson
Second Reader: James S. Griffin
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5111
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA531528
Abstract: There are prominent unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) systems existing in the
commercial marketplace today, but these systems have a relatively small role and presence in
U.S. Navy application. This thesis suggests what existing commercially available UUV system
architectural attributes could be used now in U.S. Navy applications. After a survey of multiple
existing commercial UUV systems, five of the prevalent systems in the marketplace were selected
for analysis and comparison of their system architecture. This thesis included a comprehensive
architectural analysis on seven specific architectural attributes of these UUV systems. Other UUV
systems were also analyzed to support specific system architecture discussion. Major architecture
considerations were made by the UUV system designers and likely drivers of existing system
attributes were discussed as well as the benefits and disadvantages of these system attributes.
Finally, based on the material and findings of the thesis, recommendations for a notional UUV
system design and architecture for the U.S. Navy was presented.
Fry, Jered N. and Steven E. Tutaj. A Business Case Analysis for the Vulture Program. MBA
Professional Report. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2010.
Advisors: Daniel A. Nussbaum and Alan J. Laverson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10488
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA536326
Abstract: The Vulture program is an initiative being developed by the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The end goal of the Vulture program is to develop a high
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altitude long endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is capable of maintaining a
1,000-pound payload on station for five years. The DARPA goals for the Vulture program include,
at a minimum, the development and demonstration of advanced reliability technologies for the
proposed future Vulture system. It is envisioned that Vulture will provide affordable, persistent
coverage over an area of interest for surveillance and communications relay missions. The
purpose of this study is to estimate the potential cost savings and identify other benefits
associated with the potential operational use of Vulture. This study conducts a business case
analysis (BCA) comparing the estimated costs of the Vulture program to those of the Global Hawk
and Global Observer systems. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the cost variables, as well as
a general risk assessment for Vulture.
Gatzke, Benjamin Thomas. Trajectory Optimization for Helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
(UAVs). M.S. in Applied Mathematics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2010.
Thesis Advisor: Wei Kang
Second Reader: Hong Zhou
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5315
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA524550
Abstract: This thesis explores the numerical methods and software development for optimal
trajectories of a specific model of Helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in an obstacle-rich
environment. This particular model is adopted from the UAV Laboratory of the National University
of Singapore who built and simulated flights for an X-Cell 60 small-scale UAV Helicopter. The
code, which allowed the team to simulate flights, is a complex system of non-linear differential
equations-5 state variables and four control variables-used to maneuver the state trajectories.
This non-linear model is incorporated into a separate optimization algorithm code, which allows
the user to set initial and final time conditions together with various constraints, and, using the
same variable scheme, optimize a trajectory. The optimal trajectory is defined by using a cost
function-the performance measure-and the system is subject to a set of constraints (such as
mechanical limitations and physical three-dimensional obstacles). Simulations conclude that
solutions are readily obtained; however, it is still very difficult to derive trajectories that are truly
optimal, and our work calls for more future research in computational programs for optimal
trajectory planning. All simulations in this thesis are modeled using the MATLAB program.
Gill, Travis J. Carrier Air Wing Tactics Incorporating the Navy Unmanned Combat Air System
(NUCAS). M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March
2010.
Thesis Advisor: Susan M. Sanchez
Second Reader: Douglas E. Otte
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5364
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA518620
Abstract: The United States Navy has established a Program Office for Acquisition, PMA-268, to
develop the Navy Unmanned Combat Air System (NUCAS). The NUCAS will be a fighter-sized
aircraft capable of a variety of missions including deep-strike, Intelligence Surveillance and
Reconnaissance (ISR), Time Sensitive Targeting (TST) and Air-to-Air Refueling (AAR).The NUCAS
will offer new capabilities to the operability of a Carrier Air Wing (CAW). Potential benefits include
improvements in combat sortie completion rate for manned aircraft such as the F/A-18 Super
Hornet and the F-35C Lighting II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). In this thesis, we evaluate a strike
scenario that focuses on the coordination of the NUCAS, the F/A-18 Super Hornet,and the F-35C
Lightning II. We construct a simulation model of the scenario, and use a designed experiment to
run 12,000 simulated coordinated strike events. We then use a variety of statistical and graphical
tools to evaluate the result in order to determine the quantity of aircraft required for mission
success, and operational factors necessary to limit friendly aircraft losses. The results indicate
that a division of four NUCAS aircraft is advantageous, in terms of achieved high target casualty
rates and high blue survivability rates. The results also highlight the necessity of stealth
technology requirements in future aircraft development.
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Gray, Stephen C. Leveraging Naval Riverine Forces to Achieve Information Superiority in
Stability Operations. M.S. in Information Systems Management. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2010.
Thesis Advisor: R.Mitchell Brown III
Second Reader: Karl D. Pfeiffer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5075
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA536372
Abstract: The conflicts of Iraq and Afghanistan have provided an undeniable storyline: U.S. forces
can conduct a conventional mission better than any in the world, but that mission, accomplished
in short order, leaves behind a situation for which conventional forces and equipment are illprepared. This situation requires a new mission: Stability Operations. The blue-water is not
where these 21st century conflicts will likely take place, and forces such as the U.S. Navy
Riverines are among the many forces that provide a capability to integrate and communicate with
local populations that cannot be matched by blue-water forces. While the riverine force's mission
set is one that could become heavily utilized in stability operations, the ability to conduct those
missions is currently hindered by a lack of implementation of information technology. The current
disadvantages that greatly increase operational risk include a reduced capability to engage the
population, reduced situational awareness, and limited communication reach-back capability. A
riverine force properly equipped with and trained with biometric, unmanned, and information
sharing systems would provide the NECC, and U.S. Navy as a whole, a more comprehensive
ability to conduct stability operations in brown-water areas, something no other conventional
Navy unit can currently accomplish.
Ireland, Robert D. Autonomous Vehicle Systems : Implications for Maritime Operations,
Warfare Capabilities, and Command and Control. M.S. in Systems Technology. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2010.
Thesis Advisor: Shelley P. Gallup
Second Reader: Douglas J. MacKinnon
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5284
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA524742
Abstract: Military operations within the last decade have seen enormous growth in the fielding
and utilization of unmanned tele-operated vehicles in the air, ground, and maritime domains.
With advances in computing and processing technology, these vehicles and systems are
becoming increasingly autonomous in nature and will continue to evolve in the future,
significantly impacting the warfighter and the battlespace. A great deal of research and
development (R&D) is currently underway by the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as in
industry and academia, in the field of autonomous systems. As the technology in this area rapidly
advances, comparatively little is known about how these systems will affect our future
organizational and Command and Control (C2) architectures, or their implications for the future
of warfare in general. This thesis catalogues the current and emerging technologies associated
with these systems, within the context of the capabilities they bring to the warfighter. From this
baseline, an analysis of future capabilities is conducted against selected maritime operations as
identified in the Navy Tactical Task List (NTTL). Impact to organizational performance is analyzed
using the Congruence Model, and possible implications are drawn about the near-term future of
naval operations and organizational change.
Jacobson, Kevin Robert. The Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Surface Warfare (SUW) Module:
Determining the Best Mix of Surface-to-Surface and Air-to-Surface Missiles. M.S in
Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulation (MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2010.
Thesis Advisor: Michael McCauley
Second Reader: Curtis Blasi
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5207
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA531553
Abstract: Asymmetric threats pose increasing challenges to the United States Navy in littoral
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environments. To address the Navy's need for a new platform to serve in this area, the Littoral
Combat Ship (LCS) was designed and put into service. What still has yet to be determined is
what surface-to-surface capability the LCS will have as well as what air-tosurface capability the
LCS helicopter/unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) will have. This study uses freely available data to
build a simulation utilizing an agent-based modeling platform known as MANA. The simulation is
exercised over a broad range of different weapon systems types with their capabilities ranged
across the spectrum of possibilities based on their effectiveness as well as potential difficulties in
targeting small boat threats. Using linear regression and partition trees, an analysis is performed
on the resulting dataset to address the research question. The results show that the NLOS
system is the best surface-to-surface missile system for the LCS as long as the expected rate of
fire is obtained. The best air-tosurface missile system is either APKWS or LOGIR, depending on
which can obtain a rate of fire of one missile every nine seconds or faster. Lastly, the rate of fire
has been shown to be the most important factor in determining the effectiveness of the different
missiles.
Kaya, Fevzi Aytac. Development of a Receiver Processor for UAV Video Signal Acquisition and
Tracking Using Digital Phased Array Antenna. M.S. in Electronic Warfare Systems
Engineering and Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2010.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Terry Smith
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5221
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA531560
Abstract: Air dominance is a key factor concerning today's warfare. Obtaining air dominance
requires having a high degree of situational awareness. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have
gained popularity for surveillance and reconnaissance missions and provide situational awareness
to ground-based military units. During operations it is necessary to maintain an uninterrupted
data and control link between the UAV and the ground control station (GCS). This requires GCS
antennas with signal-tracking capability. The work on this research was based on an ongoing
project that originally started in 2002. The ultimate purpose is to design and build a digital
phased-array antenna system that can automatically acquire, track, demodulate and decode
video signals from a UAV using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. Previous work done
includes integration of hardware components and development of software modules that allow
the array system to auto-track signals from a UAV as well as decode the video signals in a
standard format. The research in this thesis focused on allowing the system to demodulatethe
video signals acquired by the digital tracking array. The baseband demodulation technique
implemented was previously tested with video signals. A new technique utilizing tangent-type
demodulation of signals was also implemented and tested using a bench-top test setup.
Lawler, Paul P. Cost Implications of the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance Unmanned Aircraft
System for the Navy Flying Hour Program and Operation and Maintenence Budget.
Master of Business Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December
2010.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Lawrence Jones and John Mutty
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5059
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA536476
Abstract: The 21st century has ushered in an era of new maritime challenges for the U. S. Navy,
requiring the ability to maintain situational awareness over the world's maritime domain. The
need for global Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) has highlighted gaps in existing organic
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) collection capabilities within the Navy. To fill
this capability gap, the Navy has initiated a recapitalization plan of its airborne ISR force to
leverage the technological capabilities of unmanned systems, of which the Broad Area Maritime
Surveillance (BAMS) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is an integral part. The purpose of this
thesis is to identify and analyze the cost implications of the acquisition of the BAMS UAS for the
Navy's Flying Hour Program (FHP) and the Operation and Maintenance, Navy (OMN) budget by
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developing an Operations and Support (O&S) cost estimation methodology for the BAMS UAS.
Additionally, this thesis analyzes some of the financial and support impacts of this weapon
system within the context of the funding challenges the Navy will face in managing the FHP and
OMN budget accounts in the near future.
Morrison, Richard B. Fiducial Marker Detection and Pose Estimation from LIDAR Range Data.
M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulation (MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, March 2010.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Mathias Kölsch and Timothy H. Chung
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5411
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA518637
Abstract: Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are three dimensional (3D) imaging
sensors applied for mapping terrain, measuring structural dimensions, and navigating robots.
Pulsed laser rangefinders provide precise range measurements that require an estimate of sensor
pose for transformation into world coordinates. Pose information is frequently provided with
extrinsic sources such as Global Positioning System (GPS) or an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU).
Unreliable signal availability for GPS in military environments and the high cost of IMUs limit the
employment of these extrinsic sources. Determining pose intrinsically by detecting landmarks in
the environment within the sensor data is more ideal. Fiducial markers with known geometric
dimensions and orientation provide a means of estimating LIDAR pose and registering data.
Presented is a method for landmark detection and pose estimation within range data. Cylinder,
cone, and sphere geometries are assessed for use as fiducial markers. The detection algorithm
extracts geometric features from LIDAR point data and tests for fit to a fiducial marker model.
Geometric feature extraction compresses the data set and leads to a potential intrinsic
registration method using environment and marks. The detection accuracy and pose estimation
precision are examined with terrestrial LIDAR range data captured in various outdoor street
environments.
Muratore, Mark J. Effective Teaming of Airborne and Ground Assets for Surveillance and
Interdiction. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
June 2010.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Timothy H. Chung and Rachel T. Johnson
Second Reader: Chad W. Seagren
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5267
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA524744
Abstract: As Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) become more prevalent on the battlefield, ground
forces will have to increasingly rely on them for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance
(ISR), as well as target marking, and overwatch operations. The Situational Awareness for
Surveillance and Interdiction Operations (SASIO) simulation analysis tool uses Design of
Experiments (DOX) to study of aspects of UAV surveillance characteristics in conjunction with
ground-based interdiction teams. The goal is to reduce the time required to intercept and capture
targets of interest. Through screening analysis, significant factors can be determined to build a
model that will provide a ground commander with insights to aid in the tactical employment of his
assets. We will examine different teaming strategies and coordination measures between
searching and interdicting assets in order to study the effectiveness of the interdictor possessing
an organic, tracker UAV. The objective of this research is to quantify the benefit or penalty of an
additional UAV asset that is organic to a quick reaction force, in the context of the overall
surveillance and interdiction operation.
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Quincy, Keith E., Jamarr J. Johnson, Michael G. Moran, Drew J. Nilsson, and Bradley G. Thompson,
etal. An Integrated Command and Control Architecture Concept for Unmanned Systems
in the Year of 2030. Integrated Project Report NPS-SE-10-003 M.S. of Science in Systems
Engineering. NPS-SE-10-003 Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2010.
Project Advisor: Gary Langford
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5244
Abstract: U.S. Forces require an integrated Command and Control Architecture that enables
operations of a dynamic mix of manned and unmanned systems. The level of autonomous
behavior correlates to: 1) the amount of trust with the reporting vehicles, and 2) the multispectral perspective of the observations. The intent to illuminate the architectural issues for force
protection in 2030 was based on a multi-phased analytical model of High Value Unit (HVU)
defense. The results showed that autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles are required to defeat
high-speed incoming missiles. To evaluate the level of autonomous behavior required for an
integrated combat architecture, geometric distributions were modeled to determine force
positioning, based on a scenario driven Detect-to-Engage timeline. Discrete event simulation was
used to schedule operations, and a datalink budget assessment of communications to determine
the critical failure paths in the the integrated combat architecture. The command and control
principles used in the integrated combat architecture were based on Boyd's OODA (Obseve,
Orient, Decide, and Act) Loop. A conservative fleet size estimate, given the uncertainties of the
coverage overlap and radar detection range, a fleet size of 35 should be anticipated given an UAV
detection range of 20km and radar coverage overlap of 4 seconds.
Stubblefield, Philip N. Security Enhancement of Littoral Combat Ship Class Utilizing an
Autonomous Mustering and Pier Monitoring System. M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2010.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Rachel Goshorn and Deborah Goshorn
Second Reader: Mark Stevens
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5418
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA518711
Abstract: Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) are designed and built to have minimum crew sizes thus,
while the ship is in port, there are fewer crewmembers to facilitate pier monitoring, security, and
conducting mustering of personnel. The crew of LCS ships presently have too many
responsibilities to ensure 100% coverage of the Pier area 100% of the time, and cannot manually
maintain a real time muster of all ships personnel. This lack of coverage and situational
awareness could make LCS ships vulnerable to terrorist attacks or terrorist monitoring. This
thesis addresses the capability gap for complete and automated personnel mustering and
situational awareness in the pier area for LCS class ships. Through applying the Systems
Engineering process, the concept, external systems diagram, requirements, and functional
architectures for a generic solution are proposed. The proposed solution is an autonomous
system utilizing facial recognition software to maintain a muster of the ship's crew, while in
parallel monitoring the pier area, looking for any known person of interest (e.g., terrorists) and
providing appropriate alerts. Additionally, this thesis provides a demonstrable proof-of-concept
prototype system solution, named Pier Watchman. Its instantiated physical architecture of a
specific autonomous solution to pier monitoring and personnel mustering is provided.
Tozzi, Michael Jay. Development and Implementation of Low Cost Mobile Sensor Platforms
within a Wireless Sensor Network. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2010.
Thesis Advisor: Rachel Goshorn
Second Reader: Duane Davis
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5232
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA531598
Abstract: Sensor networks are used throughout the government and industry for a wide variety
of purposes. Mobile Sensor Platforms (MSPs), from surface combatant vessels to unmanned
aerial vehicles, have been integrated into these sensor networks since their inception. Unmanned
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MSPs currently used in sensor networks have two major drawbacks: They are extremely
expensive and they require the control of a human operator. Remote controlled unmanned
systems currently do not eliminate risk to personnel entirely, because they are typically too
expensive to be considered expendable. If these standard unmanned systems are downed in a
hostile environment, their recovery is often attempted by personnel on the ground; thus, still
risking human lives. The military is exploring the use of low-cost unmanned MSPs to eliminate
the need to risk personnel in their recovery. One of the greatest expenses in the life cycle of any
system is operator cost. To reduce or eliminate operator cost, a platform must be autonomous.
Though algorithms exist for adding autonomous capabilities to a mobile platform, such algorithms
are typically designed for robust systems with a great deal of processing power. Low-cost
systems are typically limited in capability by a low-processing power CPU. For this reason, small
footprint alternatives to existing autonomous control algorithms must be developed to truly
implement a low-cost MSP. This thesis applies the systems engineering process to developing a
generic system solution for the need of a low-cost MSP, with concept of operations, external
systems diagram, generic requirements, functional architecture and decompositions developed.
The proposed generic system solution is then further designed in a scoped environment and
implemented as a proof of concept prototype.
Vandenberg, Troy D. Manning and Maintainability of a Submarine Unmanned Undersea
Vehicle (UUV) Program: A Systems Engineering Case Study. M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2010.
Thesis Advisor: Clifford Whitcomb
Second Reader: W.G. “Jerry” Ellis
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5226;
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA531594
Abstract: The purpose of this thesis is to study the manning and maintainability requirements of
a submarine unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) program. This case study reviews current
commercial and military applications of UUVs and applies their principles to the missions of the
Navy's submarine force. Past and current UUV efforts are lacking requirements documents and
the formal systems engineering process necessary to produce a successful program of record.
Therefore, they are not being funded for use by the war-fighter. The Navy must develop formal
concepts of operations (CONOPS) for the missions and systems that it wants to produce and
allow industry to begin development for a formal future UUV program. Furthermore, the military
has developed countless unmanned systems that have been developed for use in the water, on
the ground and in the air, from which the Navy can apply important lessons learned. Lastly,
analysis suggests that the Navy should continue to support the use of a submarine detachment
for operation and maintainability of future vehicle programs.
Williams, Edward O. Surveillance and Interdiction Models : A Game-Theoretic Approach to
Defend Against VBIEDS. M.S. in Defense Analysis. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, June 2010.
Thesis Advisor: Timothy H. Chung
Second Reader: Frank Giordano
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5329;
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA524793
Abstract: This thesis develops a model for surveillance and interdiction operations by combining a
tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to detect a threat with a ground force to interdict that
threat. The scenario models the defense of a fixed facility such as a Forward Operating Base
against an enemy attack in the form of a Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device (VBIED).
UAVs are increasingly more important in the military, and significant improvements in quantity
and capability allow even tactical units to employ this tool, yet little research has been done on
effective employment techniques at this level. Additionally, VBIEDs are a significant threat, but
the primary counter-VBIED technique is simply hardened perimeter defenses, and little work has
been done to detect and interdict a VBIED before it reaches the target. This research project
addresses both deficiencies. Through spreadsheet and decision theory analysis, the factors that
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impact UAV and ground force employment are examined and effective strategies to employ the
two together are considered. Then through Game Theory, the strategic interactions between
attack and defender are modeled to examine how changes in the conditions can impact the
optimal strategy choices for each side.
Yeh, ShihYuan. Development of a Digital Tracking Array with Single-Channel RSNS and
Monopulse Digital Beamforming. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2010.
Thesis Co-Advisors: David C. Jenn and Roberto Cristi
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4956;
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA536483
Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in military applications, and one of
the most common missions is remote sensing. Remote sensing requires UAVs equipped with
different kinds of sensors. Information collected by remote sensors must be transmitted back to a
ground control station (GCS) to conduct analysis. The majority of UAVs are controlled directly by
GCS personnel using radio frequency (RF), line-of-sight (LOS) links. The ground antenna must
acquire and then track the UAV signal. A digital phased array allows signal processing functions
to be performed in the antenna processor as well as beamforming and tracking. The development
of a digital tracking array with single-channel robust symmetrical number system (RSNS) and
monopulse digital beamforming (DBF) to track a UAV's transmitted signal is described in this
thesis. The RSNS is used as the direction finding (DF) algorithm and can provide high angle
resolution with two closely spaced elements. However, as is typical for an array, the angle
accuracy is reduced at the two ends of the field-of-view (FOV). The monopulse DBF is used to
precisely track the signals. The monopulse tracking technique provides precise angle accuracy
within a FOV of approximately ±45. The tracking system is developed in LabView, and the
performance of a six-element prototype array is demonstrated by measurement in an anechoic
chamber.
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2009
Baravik, Keith Andrew. Object Localization and Ranging Using Stereo Vision for Use on
Autonomous Ground Vehicles. M.S. in Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, June 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Richard Harkins and Nancy Hagel
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4701
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA501221
Abstract: This thesis integrates stereo-vision into existing NPS robot architecture. It
demonstrates that image cross correlation can be used to measure ranges as theory predicts. It
also demonstrates that objects can be ranged and stored into a database map for later use as
common reference points in position determination. Small Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV),
developed using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies are of particular interest for this
robotic vision application. To perform their designated missions, these devices require accurate
position information. Most devices will determine that position using a Global Positioning System
(GPS) receiver; however, the signal is vulnerable to jamming and becomes degraded when not
provided a clear view of the sky. Similarly, the error in dead reckoning (DR) systems increases
with time if not reset using a known reference. The fusion of stereo vision technology with GPS
and DR systems is ideal for use in the design of a command and control module of an unmanned
vehicle that is capable of operating autonomously in an environment where traditional position
determination loses satellite signals or requires a known reference point to reset uncertainty in
position.
Beales, Brian O. F-22 Versus UCAV: Fixing Today's Deficiencies Leaves Questions about
Tomorrow's Dominance. M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security and Defense) Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Robert E. Looney and Robert M. McNab
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4388
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514321
Abstract: This thesis evaluates the U.S. government's decision to end F-22 production and shift
procurement focus toward firstgeneration Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAV). Over the
last eight years since September 11, 2001, the U.S. military has been in a constant asymmetric
battle with violent extremists. UCAVs, like the MQ-1 and MQ-9, have provided a persistent air
power presence and have grown in popularity because of their low cost and versatility. At the
same time, the F-22 has seen no direct combat action, and has been characterized by cost
overruns and significantly overwhelming capabilities. The question becomes has this shift in
procurement to solve irregular warfare deficiencies today introduced issues concerning tomorrows
dominance for the USAF? The evaluation of this decision involves three subareas that provide a
necessary foundation to answer the main research questions: the global defense-spending
environment; analysis of manned versus unmanned flight including cost implications; and an
aircraft effectiveness comparison across a broad threat spectrum. While it is apparent that UCAVs
are less expensive and able to provide a persistent presence in today's threat environment, the
decision to shut down production of the F- 22 decreases the USAF's ability to defend the
Homeland against a full spectrum of potential threats.
Brown, Bronchae M. and Brian L. P. Schulz. The Effects of the Joint Multi-Mission Electro-Optical
System on Littoral Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Operations.
M.S. in Information Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Douglas MacKinnon
Second Reader: Brian Wood
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4638
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509154
Abstract: The United States Department of Defense finds itself in a period of reduced resources
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and growing requirements. In the field of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR),
there have been calls for both manpower and system cuts, while collection requirements continue
to increase. One proposed method for maximizing ISR collection efforts is the development of
multi-mission capable collection equipment. In support of this concept, BAE Systems has
developed the Joint Multi-Mission Electro-optical System (JMMES). Designed for potential use on
both manned and unmanned aircraft, JMMES is capable of multi-mission integration and target
prosecution without the need to exchange system components or system operator, thus
increasing flexibility, responsiveness, and capabilities, while reducing manning and cost
requirements. JMMES incorporates multi-spectral technology and advanced search algorithms to
enhance autonomous collection capabilities. Our thesis investigates how a JMMES equipped SH60 variant aircraft affects U.S. ISR capabilities in the littoral regions, specifically in the areas of
Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW), Surface Warfare (SUW), Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO),
and Search and Rescue (SAR). We teamed with the faculty research group in conducting JCTD
test flights during Trident Warrior 2009. Utilizing both quantitative and qualitative results and
analysis from the exercise flights and post-flight surveys, we developed an organizational
simulation model, using VDT, to evaluate the benefits of JMMES.
Chua, Weng Heng. Flow Visualization Studies Over a UCAV 1303 Model. M.S. in Mechanical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2009.
Thesis Advisor: M.S. Chandrasekhara
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4757
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA501642
Abstract: This study is a qualitative documentation of the main flow features that affect the
aerodynamic performance under steady and unsteady maneuver conditions. The relevant fluid
flow physics is not available presently and, hence, this thesis concentrated on generating those
critical details. Towards this goal, model studies were conducted on the United States Air Force
(USAF) geometry, described as same UCAV 1303, which is essentially a flying wing in the Naval
Postgraduate School (NPS) water tunnel using dye-flow visualization technique. This study
adapted the UCAV model 1303 for the NPS water tunnel by incorporating multiple ports for dye
injection and was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques. To obtain conditionally
sampled flow images, especially for unsteady flow conditions, special phase locking circuitry was
designed, fabricated and integrated with high resolution digital cameras and tunnel flow
monitoring software. Flow visualization images at various Reynolds numbers, model attitudes and
pitch rates were obtained. Strong vortical flow was observed as expected for a 47 degree deltawing. The shallow sweep angle and tail-less geometry seemed to present some unusual
aerodynamic characteristics in regard to vortex bursting.
Dobrydney, John F. IPv6 Tactical Network Management. M.S. in Information Technology
Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Alex Bordetsky
Second Reader: Michael Clement
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4574
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509120
Abstract: Current and emerging technologies and equipment, such as unmanned aerial vehicles,
ground sensors, networked radios, operator-worn sensor vests, and nanotechnology applications
offer warfighters unprecedented command and control and information detection capabilities, yet
the use of this technology has not been fully realized. The current protocol, IPv4, is incapable of
providing enough addresses due to a depletion of IPv4 address space. IPv6, however, offers
unprecedented network support for tactical-level sensor and communications assets in terms of
increased address space, Quality of Service (QoS), flexibility, and security. The Department of
Defense is transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6 in order to capitalize on IPv6's expanded capabilities.
However, one unresolved area is proper IPv6 network management. Currently, the majority of
the configuration and operational knowledge is in the mind of a very few individuals. The
expertise currently available must be developed for application by the tactical network manager
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operating out on the edge of the network, in order to properly administer both an IPv4/IPv6 dual
stacked network during the phased protocol transition and a purely native IPv6 network. Second,
IPv6 features a robust Quality of Service (QoS) capability previously unavailable through IPv4,
which requires research to determine the optimum configuration to support the warfighter's
diverse requirements.
Erdemli, Mustafa Gokhan. General Use of UAS in EW Environment--EW Concepts and Tactics
for Single or Multiple UAS Over the Net-Centric Battlefield. M.S. in Electronic Warfare
Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Edward Fisher and Wolfgang Baer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4512
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA508909
Abstract: With the development of technology, Electronic Warfare has been increasing for
decades its importance in modern battles. It can even be referred to as the heart of today's netcentric battlefield. Unmanned Aerial Systems are gaining more importance every single day.
Nations are working on more complex and more effective UAS in order to accomplish missions
that are very difficult, or even impossible for manned aircraft. Electronic Warfare missions are
often dangerous and risky. Mounting Electronic Warfare equipment on a UAS and using it to
conduct the EW mission is the most rational solution, since it does not endanger human life. This
thesis will examine the possible ways in which UAS can be paired with EW equipment. These two
technologies can be integrated into a single mission over the net-centric battlefield. Furthermore,
this thesis will try to explain the concepts and tactics required to use these integrated
technologies more effectively. At the end of the thesis, a scenario will be run to help the reader
understand the applicability of these tactics in the real environment.
Featherstone, Ralph L. Determination of Critical Factors in Unmanned Casualty Evacuation in
the Distributed Environment. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Gary Horne
Second Reader: Segio Posadas
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4718
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA501188
Abstract: The current battlefield is changing rapidly. Combat operations against irregular forces
are set in a dispersed, non-linear battlefield. Vast distances between small units such as the
infantry squad, and the distances from these small elements to their supporting organizations,
pose unique challenges. Casualty evacuation is an evolving challenge. The goal of casualty
evacuation is to transport an injured Marine from the point of injury to a medical care facility.
Increased dispersion results in longer distances from the point of injury to medical care facilities
with a corresponding increase in the delay between the time of injury and lifesaving surgical care.
The non-linear aspects of this battlefield increase the threat to aircraft crews and platforms
conducting casualty evacuation Unmanned aerial systems offer an alternative means of air
casualty evacuation. This alternative may provide time-critical response while reducing threat to
aircraft crews. The thesis determined the probability distribution of mission completion times and
identified the most influential factors on mission success.
Fitzpatrick, Christian R. Integration of Robotics and 3D Visualization to Modernize the
Expeditionary Warfare Demonstrator (EWD). M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments, and
Simulation (MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Don Brutzman and Amela Sadagic
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4520
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA510015
Abstract: In the summer of 2008, the Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) released a
message to all Marines and Sailors detailing plans to revitalize U.S. naval amphibious
competency. Current responsibilities in Iraq and Afghanistan have significantly reduced available
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training time causing overall amphibious readiness to suffer. In response, this thesis evaluates
3D visualization techniques and other virtual environment technologies available to support these
mission-critical training goals. The focus of this research is to modernize the Expeditionary
Warfare Demonstrator (EWD) located aboard Naval Amphibious Base (NAB) Little Creek, Virginia.
The EWD has been used to demonstrate doctrine, tactics, and procedures for all phases of
amphibious operations to large groups of Navy, Marine Corps, Joint, Coalition and civilian
personnel for the last 55 years. However, it no longer reflects current doctrine and is therefore
losing credibility and effectiveness. In its current configuration, the EWD is limited to a single
training scenario since the display's ship models rely on a static pulley system to show movement
and the terrain display ashore is fixed. To address these shortfalls, this thesis first recommends
the usage of the wireless communication capability within Sun's Small Programmable Object
Technology (SunSPOT) to create robotic vehicles to replace the current ship models. This enables
large-group visualization and situational awareness of the numerous coordinated surface
maneuvers needed to support Marines as they move from ship to shore. The second
recommendation is to improve visualization ashore through the creation of Extensible 3D
Graphics (X3D) scenes depicting high-fidelity 3D models and enhanced 3D terrain displays for
any location. This thesis shows how to create these scenes and project them from overhead in
order to modernize the gymnasium-sized EWD into an amphibious wargaming table suitable for
both amphibious staff training and operational planning. Complimentary use of BASE-IT
projection tables and digital 3D holography can further provide smallgroup, close-up views of key
battlespace locations. It is now possible to upgrade an aging training tool by implementing the
technologies recommended in this thesis to support the critical training and tactical needs of the
integrated Navy and Marine Corps amphibious fighting force.
Francis, Michael R. DIDO Optimization of a Lunar Landing Trajectory with Respect to
Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology. M.S. in Space Systems Operations.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Daniel W. Bursch
Second Reader: James H. Newman
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4508
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA508813
Abstract: In this study, the current and expected state of lunar landing technology is assessed.
Contrasts are drawn between the technologies used during the Apollo era versus that which will
be used in the next decade in an attempt to return to the lunar surface. In particular, one new
technology, Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) and one new method,
DIDO optimization, are identified and examined. An approach to creating a DIDO optimized lunar
landing trajectory which incorporates the ALHAT system is put forth and results are presented.
The main objectives of the study are to establish a baseline analysis for the ALHAT lunar landing
problem, which can then be followed up with future research, as well as to evaluate DIDO as an
optimization tool. Conclusions relating to ALHAT-imposed ConOps (Concept of Operations),
sensor scanning methods and DIDO functionality are presented, along with suggested future
areas of research.
Holland, Courtney L. Characterization of Robotic Tail Orientation as a Function of Platform
Position for Surf-Zone Robots. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Richard HarkinS
Second Reader: Peter Crooker
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4782
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA502235
Abstract: The Naval Postgraduate School Small Robot Initiative is an ongoing effort to develop
autonomous robotic platforms for military applications. The latest design in this series, a
quadruped robot with a tail for stability and obstacle climbing, is currently under development in
collaboration with Case Western Reserve University. Tail orientation as a function of robot
platform attitude is tested for angle of bank climbs at 10 and 15 degrees. Data indicate that
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although the platform induced noise is significant, tail orientation can be successfully managed
with proper PID feedback mechanisms, including tail position as a function of platform attitude.
Gross control of the tail used as an assist for climbing is validated in this experiment. More
sophisticated filter algorithms are indicated for fine tuned tail control, including but not limited to
the Kalman filter.
Hurd, William R. Application of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells to Extend
the Endurance and Capabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. M.S. in Electrical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael
Second Reader: Todd Weatherford
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4539
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA508880
Abstract: In this thesis, we investigate the advantages of modifying current military Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles (UAV) with available thinfilm photovoltaic (PV) cells to increase their endurance,
and/or capabilities. The approach taken was to explore available off-theshelf flexible solar
technology and to integrate it in a proof-of-concept model for testing and analysis. A physically
similar commercially available battery-powered plane was used to demonstrate the materials and
methods by which the RQ-11B (Raven) Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) could be modified.
This research extends academic and private pursuit of solar flight to near-term improvement of
military SUAV. Besides increasing on-station time of reconnaissance assets, this research also
displays the additional advantage of enabling systems on the ground to "self-charge." This will
enable tactical units to operate further afield, untethered from conventional power sources.
Beyond the proof-of-concept, findings are extended to other potential military uses and greater
improvement through new or modified UAV design.
Hurni, Michael Anthony. An Information-Centric Approach to Autonomous Trajectory Planning
Utilizing Optimal Control Techniques. PhD. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Dissertation Supervisor: I.Michael Ross
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10469
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509422
Abstract: This work introduces a new information-centric pseudospectral optimal controlbased
algorithm for autonomous trajectory planning and control of unmanned ground vehicles with realtime information updates. It begins with a comprehensive study and comparison of the various
path planning methods currently in use. It then provides an analysis of the optimal control
method, including vehicle and obstacle modeling techniques, several different problem
formulations, and a number of important insights on unmanned ground vehicle motion planning.
The new algorithm is then utilized on a collection of motion planning scenarios with varying levels
of information; the performance of the planner and the solution accuracies under these varying
levels of information are studied for both single and multi-vehicle scenarios. The multi-vehicle
scenarios compare and contrast centralized, decentralized, decoupled, coordinated, cooperative,
and prioritized control methods. Finally, the versatility of the planner (and the optimal control
technique) is demonstrated, as it is used as both a path follower and trajectory planner in a
collection of scenarios, including multi-vehicle formations and sector keeping.
Lee, Han Chuan. Robustness of Control Laws Implemented in Visual Based Target Tracking
System. M.S. in Engineering Science (Mechanical Engineering). Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Issac I. Kaminer and Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4502
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514273
Abstract: The previously developed guidance law implemented onboard the Small Unmanned
Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) relies exclusively on the information from the image processing software
and allows the performance of coordinated SUAV guidance and vision-based target tracking and
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motion estimation. This enables "passive only" coordinated tracking of noncooperative targets. An
analysis of the system performance shows that the developed target tracking law demonstrates
poor range holding capability when the target performs evasive maneuvers. Therefore, a new
guidance law has been formulated by resolving SUAV dynamics with respect to the moving target
frame, as opposed to the inertial frame in previous formulation. This simple modification results
in theoretically achievable perfect range holding capability for the price of requiring the target
motion information to be known. As a result, this new modification is based on the assumption of
known target states, which in turn requires an implementation of a target motion estimator. An
obvious tradeoff in performance of the "passive only" and "estimator based" target tracking
systems is investigated in this thesis under realistic conditions including target loss events. This
work extends previous results by investigating the performance of both guidance laws to the
variation in target velocity and frequency of tracking loss events. The results obtained are based
on the high fidelity 6DOF simulation implemented in SIMULINK, and analyzed using the multicriteria optimization methodology introduced in the previous work. The results show that both
guidance laws suffer predictable degradation in performance when subject to the external
disturbances and tracking loss events. However, in the absence of tracking loss events, the new
guidance law suffers less degradation in performance as compared to the old guidance law. When
"frequency" of tracking loss events is low (less than 12%), the new guidance law is still able to
provide better performance than the old guidance law As the "frequency" of tracking loss events
increases further (between 12% to 25%), the performance of the new guidance law starts rapidly
degrading, converging to that of the initial system; the target estimator is no longer able to
provide a good prediction of the target velocity and heading to the guidance law.
Letourneau, Jon P. Incorporating Multi-Criteria Optimization and Uncertainty Analysis in the
Model-Based Systems Engineering of an Autonomous Surface Craft. M.S. in Systems
Engineering and Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Cliff Whitcomb and Fotis Papoulias
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4549
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509934
Abstract: This thesis presents an effective methodology and tool set, that explicitly considers
technological uncertainty, to enable design, development, and assessment of alternative system
concept architectures for an autonomous unmanned surface vessel (USV) in a system of systems
(SoS) context. Complex system designs often fail due to poor communication of customer needs
and inadequate understanding of the overall problem. This frequently results in the design team
missing the mark in transforming requirements into a successful conceptual design. Effective
system design requires a defined, flexible, and structured context within which new technological
ideas can be judged. Alternative physical architectures are then modeled, simulated, and
compared to find the "best" solution for further examination. This thesis uses model-based
systems engineering (MBSE) principles to develop a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) model
that allows designers to perform a solution neutral investigation of possible alternative physical
architecture concepts. This ensures a consistent quantitative evaluation of warfighting capability,
suitability, effectiveness, technology maturation, and risk before and during a program execution.
This effort is in support of an extended program to design a system of unmanned systems
intended to provide the DoD with a coordinated, multi-domain, multi-mission, autonomous
security and warfighting asset.
Lintz, William A. Radio Frequency Signal Reception Via Distributed Wirelessly Networked
Sensors Under Random Motion. PhD. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Disseration Supervisors: John McEachen and Murali Tummala
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10472
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509303
Abstract: This research investigates the reception of radio frequency signals using wirelessly
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networked autonomous sensor nodes under random motion. Emphasis is placed on investigating
effects of random motion on sensor array beamforming. Novel techniques to conduct array
operations in spite of the node motion are offered. Conflicting priorities of energy consumption
and array operational requirements are addressed to demonstrate performance of the proposed
solutions. The issues of node management in a beamforming application, degradation of
beamforming performance due to element motion, the need for a weight reset time
determination method, and the effect of unsteady element orientation in network
communications are explored for system implementation. Examination of Doppler shift due to
node motion demonstrated that its impact is negligible on beamforming performance. The
management system proposed for the wireless sensor network enabled sensor operation while
preserving node energy. Analysis of independent node motion on beamforming performance
produced a relationship between motion and gain percent change on aim point. A novel
methodology was offered to determine weight reset times with elements in motion. Investigation
of unsteady antenna orientation produced an innovative method to mitigate communications
degradation. Each proposal proved superior to alternate approaches in terms of performance and
energy conservation.
Marsh, Christopher D. Counter Piracy : A Repeated Game with Asymmetric Information. M.S. in
Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Kyle Y. Lin
Second Reader: Timothy H. Chung
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4542
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA508889
Abstract: This thesis presents a model of a counter-piracy operation, where a task force has one
operational asset (a destroyer) and one reconnaissance asset (an unmanned aerial vehicle) to
reduce piracy in a large region. The region is divided into small areas, and each day the pirates
operate in one area to hijack commercial vessels to collect ransoms. The information is
asymmetric to the two players. The pirates know which area is more profitable, but the task force
does not. The task force can use the operational asset to prevent piracy, and the reconnaissance
asset to collect information on the profitability of each area. The pirates want to maximize their
income over a thirty-day period, while the task force wants to minimize it. The numerical
experiments quantify the value of the operational asset and the reconnaissance asset in this
counter-piracy operation.
McBride, Marlon and Mustafa Masacioglu. Control Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking for
Survivable, Dynamic, Mobile Special Operation Force Communications. M.S. in
Information Technology Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Alex Bordetsky
Second Reader: Michael Clement
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4592
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA508885
Abstract: In the next generation of wireless communication systems, there will be a need for the
rapid deployment of independent mobile users. Significant examples include establishing
survivable, efficient, dynamic mobile communication for tactical Special Operation Force (SOF)
networks, as well as SOF units that are ad hoc networking with first responders conducting
emergency/rescue and disaster relief operations. Such network scenarios cannot rely on
centralized and organized connectivity, and should instead employ applications of newly
developing Control Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (CBMANET). In a CBMANET environment, an
autonomous collection of mobile users communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained
wireless links by taking benefit of nodes mobility and topology control in combination with mobile
platform switching. The network is decentralized. All network activity, including discovering the
topology and delivering messages, must be executed by the nodes themselves (i.e., routing
functionality will be incorporated into mobile nodes). Harnessing the tremendous flexibility and
efficiency of CBMANET would allow for better control and protection of ad hoc mobile networks.
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Therefore, we need to work tirelessly to improve our capabilities in the three aforementioned
control spaces.
McChesney, Nevin A. Three-Dimensional Feature Reconstruction with Dual Forward Looking
Sonars for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Navigation. M.S. in Electrical Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Doug Horner and Roberto Cristi
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4788
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA496699
Abstract: Unmanned Underwater Vehicles frequently rely on two-dimensional sensors for
information about their surroundings. These sensors do not provide adequate information for
obstacle avoidance in cluttered maritime environments. To address that issue, a threedimensional
reconstruction of the environment utilizing occupancy grids and a prototype forward looking
sonar will be considered. Providing the vehicle with three-dimensional views of the environment
will allow for optimal route planning and an increase in successful missions in complex
environments.
McGrew, Timothy M. Army Aviation Addressing Battlefield Anomalies in Real Time with the
Teaming and Collaboration of Manned and Unmanned Aircraft. M.S. in Defense Analysis.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Alex Bordetsky
Second Reader: Brian Greenshields
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4485
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514384
Abstract: This thesis focuses on determining the effectiveness of a new and innovative concept or
Tactic, Technique and Procedure (TTP) for army aviation by teaming Manned and Unmanned
(M/UM) aircraft in the conduct of Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA)
operations in the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE). M/UM aircraft teaming is
described, as well as the evolution of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the technology
applications they bring to bear. M/UM aircraft teaming as a TTP is examined in two case studies:
(1) The 25th Combat Aviation Brigade's (CAB) use of the TTP during a 15-month deployment to
MND-N during OIF 06-08, and (2) The Battle of Sadr City, March-April 2008, in which a highly
successful large, joint and combined arms operation was conducted. A series of experiments
conducted at Camp Roberts, CA by the NPS-lead CENETIX team is reviewed that investigated
using M/UM aircraft teaming and collaboration in the ad-hoc mesh networking environment. This
thesis also describes a game theory model for M/UM aircraft teaming in the conduct of CounterIED operations.
McGuire, Michael. The Integration of the Naval Unmanned Combat Aerial System (N-UCAS)
into the Future Naval Air Wing. Masters in Business Administration. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, December 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: John Mutty and Daniel Nussbaum
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4484
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514238
Abstract: This MBA Project investigates the use of unmanned vehicles, specifically the NavyUnmanned Combat Air System (N-UCAS), which can be employed and deployed in novel ways to
gain access in the access denied surface domain due to the proliferation of anti-ship ballistic
missiles. The capabilities of N-UCAS, coupled with a new employment/deployment model, have
the potential to allow the Navy to maintain the forecasted capacity of the future power projection
fleet while reducing the number of carriers. The savings from the reduction in the carrier fleet
could allow smaller crafts, such as the Joint High Speed Vessel (HSV) and the Littoral Combat
Ship (LCS), to be procured in larger numbers to aid in the shortfalls that the current Naval Force
has in Maritime Security and Cooperative Engagement (MSCE) capacity.
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McLain, Brian K. Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamic Flow Studies Over a 1303 UCAV
Configuration. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: M.S. Chandrasekhara
Second Reader: G.V. Hobson
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4589
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509242
Abstract: This study generated new information through qualitative documentation of the main
flow features and direct measurements of the aerodynamic performance of a tailless, unmanned
combat air vehicle (UCAV) 1303 configuration under both steady and unsteady maneuvering
conditions. Photographic evidence of flow features, measurements of large-scale flow effects, and
that of forces and aerodynamic coefficients during static and dynamic pitch, roll and yaw
maneuvers were obtained. Flow visualization images and force measurements were taken at
various Reynolds numbers, model attitudes and pitch rates for comparison. A 1/72nd-scale model
with a 47-degree leading edge sweep and a cranked trailing edge delta wing with a fuselage was
investigated in the NPS water tunnel. Phase locked, high-resolution flow images were obtained
using a five color dye injection system over the maneuvering model. Both static and dynamic
pitch-up, roll and yaw maneuvers were considered. Additionally, a five-component strain gage
and flow monitoring software were employed to record, in real time, yawing, pitching and rolling
moment information and derive the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for selected
maneuver conditions. Flow visualization revealed the presence of a strong spanwise flow at low
angles of attack and strong vortical flow structures at larger angles of attack, as can be expected,
but not clearly established earlier, for such low sweep angle wings. It also indicated that the
vortical structures and reverse flow were highly Reynolds-number dependent. Normal force and
pitching moment load data correlated well with trends observed for low sweep angle delta wings,
but unexpected side force, yawing moment and rolling moment variations were observed, which
were attributable to asymmetrical vortical flow behavior on the tailless UCAV geometry.
Miranda, Ricardo E. Development of a Nonlinear 6-Degree of Freedom Miniature Rotary-Wing
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Software Model and PID Flight Path Controller using
Mathworks Simulink Simulation Environment. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Robert G. HutchinS
Co-Advisors: Vladimir Dobrokhodov and Ioannis Kitsios
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4586
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509244
Abstract: This paper describes the development of a 6-degree of freedom (6-DOF), nonlinear,
miniature rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (RW UAV) simulation environment using
MathWorks Simulink simulation software. In addition to the modeling process, this research also
conducts flight-path controller design using Proportional-Derivative (PD) control techniques. This
model's development is motivated by the desire to enable a rapid prototyping platform for design
and implementation of various flight control techniques with further seamless transition to the
hardware in the loop (HIL) and flight-testing. The T-Rex Align 600 remote controlled helicopter
with COTS autopilot was chosen as a prototype rotary UAV platform. The development of the
nonlinear simulation model is implemented starting with extensive literature review of helicopter
aerodynamics and flight dynamics theory and applying the mathematical models of the helicopter
components to generate helicopter inertial frame motion simulations from operator commands.
The primary helicopter components modeled in this thesis include the helicopter main rotor
inflow, thrust, flapping dynamics, as well as the tail rotor inflow and thrust responses. The inertial
frame motions are animated using the Flight Gear Version 0.9.8 software. After obtaining
simulations with verifiable results, the nonlinear model is linearized about the hovering flight
condition and a linear model is extracted. Lastly, the PD controller is designed and flight path
software in the loop (SIL) test results are presented and explained. The SIL tests are conducted
for autonomous flight along specified rectangular and figure-8 flight paths.
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Raymer, Michael K. A Comparative Analysis of the Army MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) and Navy MQ-8B Manpower & Training
Requirements. M.S. in Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March
2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Bill Hatch and Cary Simon
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10460
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA497197
Abstract: The recent increased urgency to combat terrorism and asymmetric threats, combined
with the environment in which field troops are forced to operate has created a unique demand for
non-standard war fighting capabilities. Beginning in 2004, the U.S. Navy, in a joint effort with the
U.S. Army, began jointly testing and evaluating the Northrop Grumman MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical
Take Off Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV). This platform has shown very promising early results
in testing and is slated for implementation on the Navy's newest Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). A
manpower analysis of the Fire Scout MQ-8B was conducted to identify requirements applicable to
operating the platform aboard LCS. Current Army MQ-8B manning was described and used to
compute a baseline model determining best mix of manpower requirements needed to implement
Fire Scout at sea. Accurate identification of manpower requirements and training for Fire Scout
operators, technicians and support personnel will eventually diminish reliance on civilian
contractors, and provide the opportunity for joint military operability. The Army MQ-8B Fire Scout
training program was analyzed to compare the suitability and feasibility of Navy training for
operators and technicians. Currently, there is no Navy training program in place to train Fire
Scout operators and technicians to support LCS.
Richard, Mark G. Cooperative Control of Distributed Autonomous Systems with Applications
to Wireless Sensor Networks. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Deok Jin Lee and Isaac I. Kaminer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4742;
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA501360
Abstract: This thesis extends previously developed self-tuning adaptive control algorithms to be
applied to a scenario where multiple vehicles autonomously form a communication chain which
maximizes the bandwidth of a wireless sensor network. In the simulated scenario, multiple
unmanned aerial vehicles are guided to positions that optimize communication links between
multiple ground antennas. Guidance is provided by a self-tuning extremum controller, which uses
adaptive techniques to autonomously guide a vehicle to the optimal location with respect to a
cost function in an uncertain and noisy environment. In the case of high-bandwidth
communication, this optimal location is the point where signal-to-noise ratio is maximized
between two antennas. Using UAVs as relay nodes, an optimized communication chain allows for
greater communication range and bandwidth across a network. Control system models are
developed and tested using computer and hardware-in-the-loop simulations, which will be
validated with a flight test at a future date.
Rozen, Nir. Sensor Interceptor Operational Policy Optimization for Maritime Interdiction
Missions. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset
Second Reader: Moshe Kress
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4370
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514426
Abstract: Maritime Interdiction Missions (MIM) are of great interest and high operational
importance to the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Coast Guard, and allied forces. The MIM scenario discussed
in this thesis includes an area of interest with multiple neutral and hostile vessels moving through
this area, and an interdiction force consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and an
intercepting vessel, whose objectives are to search, identify, and intercept hostile vessels within
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a given time frame. In this thesis, we develop Stochastic Dynamic Programming models, which
represent the MIM scenario. While a theoretical method of producing an optimal decision policy
for the interdiction force is presented in this thesis, it is shown that such computation is
intractable. The models developed in this study are used to analyze and evaluate the
performance of a heuristic decision policy that we recommend to be applied by the interdiction
force. Based on a numerical case study, which includes several representative MIM scenarios, we
show that the number of intercepted hostile vessels following the heuristic decision policy is at
least 60% of the number of hostile vessels intercepted following the optimal decision policy.
Based on the results of the heuristic performance in the numerical case studies, we recommend
the implementation of our suggested heuristic in an operational decision aid for Maritime
Interdiction Missions.
Tan, I-Hsiang Leslie and Devieash James Pandya. UAV Digital Tracking Array Design,
Development and Testing. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2009.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Phillip E. Pace
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4352
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514423
Abstract: This thesis carried out the design and development of an integrated array and receiver
processor that utilizes advanced techniques of Robust Symmetric Numeric System (RSNS) and
monopulse Digital Beamforming (DBF) to accurately track a UAV using commercial-off-the-shelf
(COTS) equipment. This was based on previous work done using virtual spacing RSNS and digital
beamforming to extend the method to a functional six element array with direction finding and
tracking capability. The six element antenna array and direct-conversion receiver were developed
and tested to retrieve a FM-modulated video signal encoded using the NTSC format. This thesis
addresses system-evel design tradeoffs, as well as hardware and software design, development
and testing. A bench top test was conducted to test the functionality of the NTSC decoding and
FM software modules developed and a comprehensive test was done in an anechoic chamber to
characterize the array's capability in DF using RSNS and monopulse DBF.
Thompson, Scott R. Displacement of Tethered Hydro-Acoustic Modems by Uniform Horizontal
Currents. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2009.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Fotis Papoulias and Joseph Rice
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4316
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514338
Abstract: Undersea sensors often include an acoustic modem buoyed above a seabed mooring or
suspended beneath a surface buoy. In both cases, a vertical cable is subjected to horizontal
water currents. This theses examines the two cases, the first characterized by a cable moored to
the bottom of the ocean with a buoyant end, and the second being a cable suspended or towed
from a surface buoy or Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) with a weighted end. The equations of
motion are similar, as both cases have an object affixed to the free end of the cable and the
other end fixed to a stable point. A physics-based algorithm in MATLAB models the effects of drag
and buoyancy on the cable and predicts the steady-state shape of the cable.
Tsai, Yen-Chang. Development of the Phase Synchronization Circuit for Wirelessly Distributed
Digital Phased Array. M.S. in Electronic Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Readers: Robert D. Broadston and Jiheon Ryu
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4611
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509254
Abstract: The Wirelessly Distributed Digital Phased Array (WDDPA) is an ongoing research
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program at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) which has numerous possible applications in
radar and communication systems. The WDDPA incorporates many array elements randomly or
nonuniformly in the environment or on a platform. Array elements are synchronized and
controlled over a wireless channel. Compared to conventional phased array systems, its
advantages are adaptability, survivability and flexibility. Phase synchronization is a critical
component of the WDDPA development. The common phase reference is vital to steer the beam
and control the radiation pattern for the phased array system. The objective of this paper is to
improve the WDDPA synchronization operation. Previous hardware and software architectures
were replaced or modified to improve the accuracy and speed of the phase synchronization. A
series of experiments, first for hardwired channels, then for wireless channels, were conducted
successfully to verify the synchronization operation for two elements. Several problems with the
circuit were diagnosed and then addressed. The overall performance of the improved
synchronization circuit for the demonstration array was satisfactory, allowing phases to be
synchronized within 20° wirelessly. The architecture for the potential successor of the
synchronization circuit is introduced. It is more flexible and robust than the current circuit and
thus more desirable for future applications of the WDDPA.
Valle, Antonio. Feasibility of Developing Academic Laboratories using a Low-Cost Robot. M.S.
in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun and Alexnader Julian
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4599
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509252
Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate the feasibility of developing new
academic laboratories for an introductory robotics course at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)
using low-cost commercially-available robots. In particular, this research used a desktop
computer with Fedora 8 Linux operating system, a wireless network and the Garcia robot from
Acroname Incorporated. The Garcia robot is a wheeled robot that has many onboard devices,
such as encoders, infrared sensors, and a laser range finder with the capability of further
expansion. The investigation of the feasibility of developing laboratories using a low-cost
commercially-available robot yielded mixed results. The positive results were that a lowcost
robot, the Garcia, was found to be a flexible and powerful academic tool. The Garcia robot
allowed for the development and implementation of a collection of laboratories to ensure that
basic robotic functions are understood. The drawbacks were that the Garcia robot was difficult to
start due to the lack of proper documentation. Also, the selected host configuration limited the
Garcia's performance because the configuration injected an initial latency of 15 to 20 seconds.
The latency was noted when communicating with the robot and the laser simultaneously.
Whiteman, Shannon J. Improving Situational Awareness in the Counter-IED Fight with the
Utilization of Unmanned Sensor Systems. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, June 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Eugene Paulo
Second Reader: Mark Rhoades
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4668
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA501551
Abstract: An organized and thorough systems design framework is necessary to successfully
address large-scale, complex problems, such as the utilization of unmanned sensor technologies
to provide situational awareness (SA) in the counter-improvised explosive device (C-IED) fight.
An appropriate systems engineering design process was used to develop such a framework, as
the completion of the first two phases - problem definition and solution design - provides a basis
for analysis of alternatives and a design recommendation. This process generated the following
problem statement: Design a system that, through the use of unmanned sensors, provides
effective and efficient SA to the commander in a C-IED scenario. By effective, the system must
maximize the ability to process sensor imagery and detect, classify, identify, and counter IEDs.
To be efficient, the system must address important characteristics of operational suitability and
survivability. Thus, providing SA, maximizing operational suitability, and maximizing Soldier
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survivability are the primary objectives in the effective and efficient employment of unmanned
sensors in C-IED. Three physical alternatives were generated and synthesized: baseline, nearterm, and long-term. Each alternative consisted of a combination of sensors, satellites, and
unmanned systems to ensure that the top-level SA functions are addressed. Each alternative's
basic specifications, battlefield flow (highlighting each unmanned sensor's use for observe,
process information, and understanding the environment), and drawbacks are addressed.
Yildiz, Bahri. Exploration of the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Along with Other Assets to
Enhance Border Protection. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2009.
Thesis Advisor: Gary E. Horne
Second Reader: Thomas Anderson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4671
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA501385
Abstract: Border protection is a vital national security issue for most countries. The U.S. Customs
and Border Protection (CBP) is responsible for protecting the borders of the U.S. from terrorism,
human and drug smuggling and illegal migration. The U.S. CBP improves manpower, technology
and infrastructure along the border through various projects. In this study, part of the Tucson
sector in Arizona is modeled in an agent-based model (MANA) to explore the effects of using a
hand-launched, mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (miniUAV) along with other assets, such as Border
Patrol (BP) agents, surveillance towers, the Predator B, seismic sensors and communication
centers. The results from the runs of different scenarios, created by a Nearly-Orthogonal Latin
Hypercube (NOLH) design, are analyzed using comparison tests, linear regression, and regression
trees. As a result, the use of miniUAVs is found to be beneficial in capturing the illegal entrants in
this analysis and thus could potentially provide more secure borders. Adequate manpower, in this
case BP agents, and a reliable communication web to compose a Common Operational Picture
(COP) emerge as the most important factors regarding border protection in this analysis.
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2008
Abbott, Benjamin P. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Mission Packages : Determining the Best Mix.
M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.
Co-Advisors: Thomas W. Lucas and Jeffrey Kline
Second Reader: Michael R. Good
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4291
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479783
Abstract: The threat of a large fleet engagement in the open ocean is currently over shadowed by
the asymmetric challenges presented by state and non-state actors using the littorals for illicit
purposes. Unlike traditional multi-mission combatants, the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is a
focused mission platform significantly less capable of handling simultaneous missions, whether
they are planned or not. However, when deploying LCS as a squadron, a Combatant Commander
may select to equip multiple LCS platforms with a mix of focused mission packages to ensure
operational success across the broad range of challenges associated with littoral warfare. Through
the use of simulation, design of experiments, and data analysis, this thesis simulated 41,195
littoral operations to address how many LCS should comprise an employed squadron, what the
composition of a squadron should be, and how sensors and weapon systems contribute to the
effectiveness of an employed squadron. The results indicate that a squadron size of six to ten
LCS produces the best results, and that a compositional rule of thumb of five LCS for the primary
threat and two LCS for the secondary threat applies to each warfare area. Lastly, the number of
casualties suffered in each warfare area reinforces the danger associated with littoral combat and
serves as a reminder that close engagement, while necessary, carries a cost.
Addison II, William F. Autonomous Underway Replenishment at Sea for Riverine Operations.
M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.
Thesis Advisors: Fotis Papoulias and Oleg Yakimenko
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4278
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479664
Abstract: Currently the United States Navy is making a small footprint in the world's littoral
regions with the help of the United States Marine Corps. In Iraq, the Marine Corps is actively
conducting Riverine operations, however they are overly tasked and in need of permanent
replacement by the United States Navy. In order to alleviate the Marine Corps, the Naval
Expeditionary Combat Command with its Riverine Squadrons will soon take over these Riverine
operational commitments in order to reestablish supremacy throughout the Riverine
environment. With this in mind, the Chief of Naval Operations, Center for Naval Analyses
requirements, System Engineering Analysis (SEA- 11) class of 2007 developed a concept of
operations (CONOPS) which the Total Ships System Engineering (TSSE) class of 2007 used to
develop a prototype platform, which met all initial design requirements. In order to take full
advantage of this prototype platform, every effort was taken in order to minimize the number of
crew members on station at any given time. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate the use
of the direct method, which will allow the Specialized Command and Control Craft (SCCC) to
conduct a fully autonomous Underway Replenishment at Sea (UNREP) with a standard supply
vessel. The direct method approach allows for a smooth path is created instead of using waypoint
navigation. Additionally, this method allows for real-time updates at (1Hz).
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Agpaoa, Roy; Cawley, Matthew; Cossey, Chad; Galvan, Jose; Giang, Alan; Hanchinamani, Joseph;
Ikeda, Jeffrey; Kenney, John; Magnusson, Lance; Martinez, Christopher; Newberry, Mike;
Raymond, Eldridge; Rykala, John; Watts, Jason; Wood, Micheal. Hybrid Airship Multi-Role
(HAMR) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Mission Capability : By Keyport MSSE Cohort.
NPS-SE-08-003. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
June 2008.
Project Advisors: E.P. Paulo and M.M. Rhoades
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6935
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA483334
Abstract: The Hybrid Airship Multi-Role (HAMR) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Mission Module
project applies established systems engineering principles and processes to the design of an ASW
payload module that examines the capability of the HAMR to perform persistent ASW mission
support. Critical system functions and objectives are identified and are assigned appropriate
quantitative metrics. Additionally, three alternative architectures are generated and evaluated
using the appropriate metrics based on results from modeling using Naval Systems Simulation
(NSS). Manning is considered as a key stakeholder parameter and is included as an evaluation
concern. The alternatives are also compared through the examination of life cycle costs. The
recommendation to the stakeholders based on the research and results is an unmanned ASW
sensor platform that uses other ASW assets for prosecution.
Alver, Yücel and Murat Özdoğan. Mission Assignment Model and Simulation Tool for Different
Types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulation
(MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Arnold Buss
Second Reader: Enver Yücesan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3929
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488782
Abstract: The use of unmanned aerial vehicles on the battlefield becomes more and more
important every day. Parallel to this growing demand, there is a need for robust algorithms to
solve the mission assignment problem in an optimum way. There are several tools for solving the
assignment problem and testing the results to evaluate the robustness of the proposed
algorithm. For most of the models, input factors are limited to the most important ones to make
the process simpler. The aim of this thesis is to create an optimal solution for the assignment
problem and test its robustness with a stochastic simulation tool. To accomplish the goals more
factors, such as ground abort rates of the UAVs and the area weather risk levels are added.
These factors, which were typically excluded from previous studies, are incorporated to make the
model more realistic. The analysis and the results proved that the assignment algorithm works
well and creates plausible results.
Cascio, Joseph A. Optimal Path Planning for Multi-Arm, Multi-Link Robotic Manipulators. M.S.
Astronautical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2008.
Thesis Advisor: I.M. Ross
Second Reader: A.D. Scott
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3687
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA547109
Abstract: This work investigates the problem of robotic arm control with the goal of achieving
given performance requirements by solving for the optimal joint trajectories and corresponding
controls for tasks, such as point-to-point positioning. The resulting optimal control problem is
highly nonlinear and constrained due to the nonlinearities in the robotic arm dynamics and
kinodynamic constraints including limits on joint velocities and actuator torques. This thesis
illustrates the applicability of pseudospectral methods to solve the optimal path planning problem
for a system of multi-link, multi-degree of freedom robotic arms. The optimal control problem is
defined in standard form and solved using the software package DIDO. Pontryagin's Minimum
Principle is used to verify that the proposed solution satisfies the necessary conditions for
optimality. A particularly challenging aspect that is explored is the optimal motion of multiple
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arms conducting independent tasks with the risk of collision. Collision avoidance can be achieved
by modeling appropriate path constraints. The processes for optimal trajectory planning are
developed for a single two degree-of-freedom manipulator conducting point-to-point positioning
and extended to include dual three degree-of-freedom manipulator maneuvers employing
collision avoidance. The results demonstrate the suitability of pseudospectral techniques to
solving the minimum time and minimum control maneuvers for robotic arms. The employment of
collision avoidance techniques will facilitate continued research in autonomous robotic motion
planning using optimal control criteria in multiple arm systems.
Chua, Choon Seong. Generic UAV Modeling to Obtain Its Aerodynamic and Control
Derivatives. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Anthony J. Healey and Oleg A. Yakimenko
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3817
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA493999
Abstract: This thesis deals with two different software packages to obtain the aerodynamic and
control derivatives for a generic unmanned air vehicle (UAV). These data has a dual application.
Firstly, it is required in the Mathworks' Simulink 6-degree-of-freedom model of a generic
unmanned air vehicle to develop a robust controller and do a variety of trade-offs. Secondly, is
also needed to tune the parameters of the existing real-time controllers such as a Piccolo
autopilot. The first approach explored in this thesis involves using the LinAir software program
developed about a decade ago at Stanford University, the second one relies on the Athena Vortex
Lattice package developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The thesis applies two
aforementioned packages to generate the aerodynamic data for two different-size UAVs, SIG
Rascal and Thorpe Seeop P10B, emphasizing advantages and pitfalls of each approach, and
further compares the obtained data with that of some other UAVs such as BAI Aerosystems Tern
and Advanced Ceramics Corp. Silver Fox. The thesis ends with some computer simulations based
on the obtained aerodynamic data.
Clem, Doyne Damian. Logistically-Constrained Asset Scheduling in Maritime Security
Operations. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset
Second Reader: W. Matthew Carlyle
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3938
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488619
Abstract: Operational commanders and planners are challenged with maintaining fleet presence
in many environments with limited resources. To add to this challenge, there are further
constraints placed upon assets allocated to a given operational commander such as
replenishments at sea, multinational exercises, diplomatic port visits, and predetermined in-chop
and out-chop dates. In the case of the Combined Maritime Force (CMF), which operates in the
FIFTH FLEET Area of Responsibility, these constraints are further magnified by the fact that ships
under his or her operational command are from as many as ten different coalition nations at any
given time. Furthermore, command of the CMF rotates between these coalition nations,
increasing the propensity for inconsistent and sub-optimal resource allocation. This thesis
develops a scheduling tool, Coalition Resource Allocation for Maritime Security (C-RAMS), that is
capable of quickly producing a schedule that optimizes a given measure of effectiveness for
assets assigned to the CMF. This C-RAMS tool accounts for logistics requirements and allows a
commander to set priorities within various sub-regions, types of assets, and specific time periods.
We illustrate how C-RAMS provides such an optimal schedule and also provides insights into
interactions between different priorities and ship types, including those which may be
interpolated for future force configurations, through the use of Visual Basic with an Excel 2003
user interface.
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Collier, Corey M. and Jeffrey C. Kacala. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tactical Satellites,
High-Altitude Long-Endurance Airships, and High and Medium Altitude Unmanned
Aerial Systems for ISR and Communication Missions. M.S. in Space Systems Operations.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2008.
Thesis Advisor: William J. Welch
Second Reader: Charles M. Racoosin
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3934
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488904
Abstract: Before 1991, the United States military's demand for additional communications
bandwidth and timely intelligence was rising rapidly. Since then, with the advent of the Global
War on Terrorism, it has increased substantially. To address this growing need, the Department
of Defense has focused its acquisition and procurement efforts on obtaining new communications
and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms that can help lessen shortfalls
and possibly exploit new, untapped resources. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on
new technology, such as tactical satellites or high-altitude long-endurance airships, as a way to
increase communications and intelligence collection capacities. Likewise, advances in the
capabilities of medium-altitude and high-altitude unmanned aerial systems have resulted in a
more prominent role for them on today's battlefield. Each of these vehicles has a unique niche in
today's military, but the increasing capabilities of each are beginning to create some overlap in
their uses. This study will conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis on these systems for use as a
persistent communications and ISR platform. In particular, it will measure the effectiveness of
each for comparison, and will offer possibilities to increase the overall effective use of the three
together to maximize performance and cost.
Demirel, Ibrahim. Aircraft Pilot Situational Awareness Interface for Airborne Operation of
Network Controlled Unmanned Systems (US). M.S. in Information Technology Management .
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Alex Bordetsky and Eugene Bourakov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4250
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479681
Abstract: This thesis research is focused on Network Centric Operations with Unmanned Systems
(US). It specifically focuses on the currently underdeveloped area of aircraft pilot decision support
for operating USs, including Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)
and Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV), over the network from the board of an aircraft. Building
on Landreth and Glass's thesis on controlling UAV over the network, including from another
manned aircraft, this thesis aims to ease implementation and usage of the, SA interface. The SA
interface enables the operator to be aware of what is going on around the Unmanned System
while it is being operated from a remote location, and to react in the best possible way within a
reasonable amount of time. The Rascal UAV interface was reviewed, SA-related problems were
identified, and solutions to those problems were proposed. After our studies we proposed eight
possible solutions to implement, and one of them is implemented and used. However, due to
some problems, we could not test all our solutions.
Emir, Ender. Implementation and Evaluation of an INS System using a Three Degrees of
Freedom MEMS Accelerometer. M.S. in Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, December 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
Second Reader: Brett Borden
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3853
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA493702
Abstract: Position determination is one the most important aspects of navigation for an
autonomous vehicle and can be accomplished through a variety of methods. Advances in Global
Positioning System (GPS) technology, improved accuracy by a Wide Area Augmentation System
(WAAS), wider coverage, easy integration and low cost, make GPS the most preferable
alternative for the navigation of autonomous vehicles. However, an autonomous vehicle must be
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able to navigate and determine its position on earth without external navigation aids such as
GPS, Loran and Transit. A method of inertial navigation, called dead reckoning, where the robot
calculates its position from a known reference position through using laser range finders, gyros,
shaft encoders and accelerometers, becomes more important for navigation with no external
aids. This thesis examines the navigation ability for robots using a three degree of freedom
accelerometer, which can sense the instantaneous accelerations in three dimensions. Tests and
results of the accelerometer as an inertial system for a mobile robot are implemented in 1-D and
2-D. The results demonstrated that Crossbow MEMS accelerometer can be used for a distance of
10 meters for mobile robot navigation with different levels of errors according to the path
followed in 2-D.
Gregory, Jr., Robert H. Army Transformation and the Future Combat System. M.A. in Security
Studies (Defense Decision-Making). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March
2008.
Thesis Advisor: Daniel Moran
Second Reader: James Wirtz
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4205
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479911
Abstract: This thesis examines current efforts to transform the U.S. Army to face new challenges.
The Army's transformation is based on the development of the Future Combat System (FCS),
initiated in 1999. The FCS consists of eight new manned vehicles, various unmanned sensors,
robotic vehicles, and remote controlled missiles, all connected by a common network. Critics of
the Army's transformation contend that this equipment and associated doctrine is based on
traditional Cold War scenarios rather than the types of challenges the Army is likely to face. This
thesis examines whether the FCS is influenced by traditional preferences for certain types of
doctrine, equipment, and capabilities. To do this, the development of the Army's current
capabilities, through past reforms, is first described. Second, the influence of tradition on the
development of future capabilities is examined. Third, the potential for FCS to achieve its design
goals is measured in both technical and strategic terms. Fourth, the manner in which FCS
capabilities relate to irregular warfare is examined from the perspective of the Army's combat
arms branches. Finally, considering the significance of institutional culture and past reforms, this
thesis determines if outdated traditional considerations influence current Army transformation
efforts.
Hedderly, James W. A Seakeeping Study on the Autonomous Sustainment Cargo Container
Delivery System. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, March 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Fotis Papoulias
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4229
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479942
Abstract: An increasing emphasis has recently been placed with fighting non-national and
irregular forces. Single entity attacks on shipping and transportation units have replaced attacks
on fortified or established military positions. The supply chain from sea to shore has become the
target of opportunity to disrupt the Global War on Terrorism and put further lives in danger.
Autonomous containers will play an essential role to deliver logistical supplies to waterborne
littoral vessels in order to maintain station and complete military operations all while eliminating
the threat to human life as the containers will be programmed to deliver supplies to a specified
local in a reasonable timetable; vessels such as Riverine Warfare patrol craft, Special Operations
craft and Coast Guard search and rescue boats and their crews. The research to be conducted will
focus on the seakeeping characteristics of an autonomous sustainment cargo container and the
feasibility of its deployment. Established geometric data will be used along with changing loading
characteristics and ride effects. The in depth analysis will be focused on the responses of the
container in varying sea conditions and at varying loads to see if further refinement of the design
or policies concerning loading and deployment may be required.
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Hough, George C. Wireless Robotic Communications in Urban Environments: Issues for the
Fire Service. M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Defense and Security). Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Bergin
Second Reader: Kate Remley
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4232
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479946
Abstract: Firefighters are tasked with conducting search and rescue operations at incidents
ranging from minor smoke conditions to multi-agency disasters. In each instance, a rapid risk
assessment must be conducted based on preliminary dispatch information. Small, lightweight
"man portable" robots are a natural fit for gaining improved situational awareness, yet few have
been employed for this application. The problems encountered in using wireless robots in urban
environments are among the primary reasons. This thesis focuses on the wireless link between
the robot and the firefighter employing it. The work presented is useful for policy makers in
allocating public safety spectrum, firefighters in pre-planning responses, and engineers for
designing relevant control systems. While the arguments rest on a technical footing of test data
and models, the paper is written primarily for a non-technical audience. A technology acceptance
model is developed for employing robots wirelessly. Test data is presented showing the
debilitating effects of interference from employing multiple robots concurrently. Models are
applied to predict signal loss in tunnels and urban environments, and results indicate an optimal
frequency range exists between 500 MHz and 1 GHz. A case is presented to allocate spectrum in
this range using a priority access protocol.
Kam, Khim Yee. High Bandwidth Communications Links between Heterogeneous Autonomous
Vehicles using Sensor Network Modeling and Extremum Control Approaches. M.S. in
Engineering Science (Mechanical Engineering). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Isaac I. Kaminer and Deok Jin Lee
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3833
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494117
Abstract: In future network-centric warfare environments, teams of autonomous vehicles will be
deployed in a coorperative manner to conduct wide-area intelligence, surveillance and
reconnaissance (ISR) missions in a tactical environment. The operational range of these survey
vehicles is usually limited by the line-of-sight (LOS) and/or bandwidth constraints of the
communication system. To increase the operational range and to allow real-time transmission of
data back to the command station, autonomous vehicles configured with high bandwidth
communication system are positioned between the command station and the survey vehicles
acting as communication relay vehicles and flying sensors. This will allow the survey vehicles to
transfer their data back to the command station on the move, thus improving the efficiency of
the missions. In this thesis, an autopilot guidance and control algorithm was developed that will
allow the relay vehicles to reposition themselves autonomously to maintain an optimal loitering
flight path to maximize the quality of the communication link between the command station and
survey vehicle. The main contributions of this thesis are two-fold. First, a communication
propagation model was developed to predict the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the communication
link, which is used as a reference SNR signal for the UAVs. Second, the communication model
was then integrated into a feedback control loop to formulate a new real-time adaptive controller,
which is based on an extremum seeking approach with a gradient-based controller, to drive the
relay vehicle to an optimal loitering path using SNR as the cost function.
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Kandasamy, Jaya Kumar. Stabilization System for Camera Control on an Unmanned Surface
Vehicle. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Healey
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3832
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA493888
Abstract: SeaFox is an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) primarily used for maritime security
operations. Currently, a remotely operated vision based camera is used to track a particular
target whilst the USV approaches the intended target. While the USV is in motion, the
hydrodynamic forces and mechanical vibrations makes it difficult for the operator to lock on to
the target at all times. This thesis addresses this issue through the development of a self
compensated motion controller that uses geo-pointing to track and lock onto a target at all times.
The disturbance data as captured by the onboard IMU sensor is used to establish parameters for
the compensator. The compensated pan tilt angles are fed to the vision based camera through a
PID controller. The controller developed will enable the vision based camera system to
autonomously track the intended target independently of the motion of the USV.
Kistner, Patrick B. and David M. Crescitelli. Enhanced Detection of Orthogonal Radar Waveforms
using Time-Frequency and Bi-Frequency Signal Processing Techniques. M.S. in
Information Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Phillip E. Pace
Second Reader: Terry E. Smith
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3931
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488979
Abstract: This thesis investigates the periodic autocorrelation function (PACF) and periodic
ambiguity function (PAF) for orthogonal continuous waveform (CW) modulations used in netted
low probability of intercept (LPI) radar. Three orthogonal polyphase sequences and one frequency
coding sequence are examined and their PACF and PAF characteristics are quantified. The
Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and quadrature mirror filter bank (QMFB) timefrequency signal
processing techniques and the cyclostationary bi-frequency technique (often used in noncooperative intercept receivers) are used to detect the orthogonal CW signals and extract their
parameters. The results shows that a combination of the techniques used were able to extract
the basic signal parameters of bandwidth and code period from the polyphase waveforms and
also the frequency hop slots and code length from the frequency coding sequence. The concept of
using a swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is examined from the viewpoint of a
coordinated group of netted intercept receivers in search of an LPI radar network.
Kocaman, Ibrahim. Distributed Beamforming in a Swarm UAV Network. M.S. in Electronic
Warfare Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.
Thesis Advisor: David Jenn
Second Reader: Terry Smith
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4215;
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479952
Abstract: The use of wireless communication techniques and network centric topologies with
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) within modern warfare concepts makes it possible to utilize new
distributed beamforming applications. The objective of this research is to combine the concept of
wireless beamforming in opportunistic random arrays with the concept of swarm UAVs. A
considerable amount of research has already been done about the feasibility and advantages of
opportunistic arrays for a single platform. Distributed beamforming techniques are widely applied
by many researchers. The use of swarm UAV concepts for a widely dispersed wirelessly
networked opportunistic array may anticipate many advantages over single platform-borne
opportunistic arrays. Major challenges are synchronization and localization, which are caused by
the mobile structure of the proposed network topology. Possible solutions to these problems are
proposed. In this thesis the use of swarm UAVs for jamming is analyzed. Closed form expressions
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for jamming power versus the number of UAVs, ranges, degree of transmitter coherence, and
quality of beamforming are derived. It was found that even for low quality beamforming (large
phase errors, or poor synchronization) significant improvements in system performance is still
achievable.
Kurkcu, Coskun and Kaan Oveyik. U.S. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS) and Network Centric
Warfare (NCW) : Impacts on Combat Aviation Tactics from Gulf War I through 2007
Iraq. M.S. in Information Technology Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, March 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Cary simon and Terry Smith
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4211
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA480077
Abstract: Unmanned, aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an increasingly important element of many
modern militaries. Their success on battlefields in Afghanistan, Iraq, and around the globe has
driven demand for a variety of types of unmanned vehicles. Their proven value consists in low
risk and low cost, and their capabilities include persistent surveillance, tactical and combat
reconnaissance, resilience, and dynamic re-tasking. This research evaluates past, current, and
possible future operating environments for several UAV platforms to survey the changing
dynamics of combat-aviation tactics and make recommendations regarding UAV employment
scenarios to the Turkish military. While UAVs have already established their importance in
military operations, ongoing evaluations of UAV operating environments, capabilities,
technologies, concepts, and organizational issues inform the development of future systems. To
what extent will UAV capabilities increasingly define tomorrow's missions, requirements, and
results in surveillance and combat tactics? Integrating UAVs and concepts of operations
(CONOPS) on future battlefields is an emergent science. Managing a transition from manned- to
unmanned and remotely piloted aviation platforms involves new technological complexity and
new aviation personnel roles, especially for combat pilots. Managing a UAV military
transformation involves cultural change, which can be measured in decades.
Kwok, Yew Heng. A Methodological Approach for Conducting a Business Case Analysis of
Zephyr Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD). M.S. in Operations Security.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Daniel Nussbaum
Second Reader: Alex Bordetsky
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10291
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494056
Abstract: Zephyr, a high altitude long endurance (HALE) solar powered, unmanned aerial vehicle
(UAV) is thus identified as a Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) candidate. This
program is managed by the Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) and is sponsored by United
States Central Command (USCENTCOM) and United States European Command USEUCOM. This
program aims to accelerate the development and operational evaluation of the Zephyr concept so
that the system can transit to production and be deployed in the field to address military needs in
the quickest possible time. The objective of this study is to analyze the Return on Investment
(ROI) of the Zephyr system. This is achieved by developing a model to carry out a Business Case
Analysis (BCA) of JCTDs, including defining the methodical structure required in the business case
report conducting Zephyr JCTD BCA, with a baseline analysis, followed by sensitivity, as well as a
quality risk assessment for Zephyr system. The BCA compares the life cycle costing with that of
the Global Observer, a liquidhydrogen fuelled UAV, in operational scenarios over a period of 15
years.
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Masek, Theodore. Acoustic Image Models for Navigation with Forward-Looking Sonars. M.S.
in Software Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Mathias Kölsch
Second Reader: Kevin Squire
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3754
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494074
Abstract: Cost and miniaturization of autonomous unmanned vehicles (AUV) drive component
reuse and better sensor data analysis. One such component is the forward looking sonar (FLS)
which can be used for obstacle avoidance and to extract vehicle state information. However,
autonomous feature extraction of images from the FLS is difficult due to the noise inherent in the
sensor and the sensor's susceptibility to interference from other acoustic devices. This thesis
investigated techniques to detect and classify common acoustic noise artifacts and common
objects in a single frame. Other techniques require three or more frames to filter objects from
other noise sources. A combination of probabilistic and template-based models were used to
successfully detect and classify acoustic noise and objects. One common noise source is the
micro modem which was detected 100% of the time with 1% false positives. Objects such as the
ocean floor were correctly classified more than 93% of the time in most sites. Due to the short
development time frame, the software was developed with a two-stage approach. First, a high
level scripting language was used for rapid prototyping of different classification techniques. In
order to meet the time-constrained requirements of the target software, the classification
algorithms were encapsulated as C++ classes in an object oriented design once the desired
techniques were identified.
McCadden, Kevin K. and Christopher A. Nigus. Allocation of UAV Search Efforts using Dynamic
Programming and Bayesian Updating. M.S. in Applied Science (Operations Research).
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset
Second Reader: Moshe Kress
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4112
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA483499
Abstract: As unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and availability improves, it becomes
increasingly more important to operate UAVs efficiently. Utilizing one UAV at a time is a relatively
simple task, but when multiple UAVs need to be coordinated, optimal search plans can be difficult
to create in a timely manner. In this thesis, we create a decision aid that generates efficient
routes for multiple UAVs using dynamic programming and a limited-lookahead heuristic. The goal
is to give the user the best knowledge of the locations of an arbitrary number of targets
operating on a specified graph of nodes and arcs. The decision aid incorporates information about
detections and nondetections and determines the probabilities of target locations using Bayesian
updating. Target movement is modeled by a Markov process. The decision aid has been tested in
two multi-hour field experiments involving actual UAVs and moving targets on the ground.
McKeehan, Zachary D. Vision-Based Interest Point Extraction Evaluation in Multiple
Environments. M.S. in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Mathias Kölsch and Kevin Squire
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3952
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488890
Abstract: Computer-based vision is becoming a primary sensor mechanism in many facets of real
world 2-D and 3-D applications, including autonomous robotics, augmented reality, object
recognition, motion tracking, and biometrics. Vision's ability to utilize non-volatile features to
serve as permanent landmarks in motion tracking provides a superior basis for applications such
as initial self-localization, future re-localization, and 3-D scene reconstruction and mapping.
Furthermore, the increased reliance of the United States armed forces on the standoff warfighting
capabilities of unmanned and autonomous vehicles (UXV) in, on, and above the sea, necessitates
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better overall navigation capabilities of these platforms. Towards this end, we draw upon existing
technology to measure and compare current visual interest point extractor performance. We
utilize an inventory of extractors to define and track interest points through physical
transformations captured in images of various scene classifications. We then perform a
preliminary determination of the best-suited extraction descriptor for each visual scene given
multi-frame interest point persistence with maximum viewpoint invariance. Our research
contributes an important cornerstone towards the validation of precision, vision-based navigation,
thereby increasing UXV performance and strengthening the security of the United States and her
allies worldwide.
Moose, Robert G. Covering the Homeland: National Guard Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Support for Wildland Firefighting and Natural Disaster Events. M.A. in Security Studies
(Homeland Security and Defense). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December
2008.
Thesis Advisor: James J. Wirtz
Second Reader: Timothy J. Doorey
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3752
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA493900
Abstract: Over the past decade, the United States Government has had to cope with increasingly
severe large-scale natural disasters. The 2004 hurricane season alone caused 167 deaths and an
estimated $4.6 billion in damages. The following year, Hurricane Katrina took 1,330 lives and
caused an estimated $9.6 billion in damages. The 2007 fire season saw over 85,000 wildland
fires consume more than 9.3 million acres. In Southern California alone, wildfires forced over half
a million people to evacuate their homes, destroyed over 3,079 structures, and caused over $1.8
billion in damages. This thesis examines the possible nontraditional and creative use of
unmanned aircraft systems to mitigate the threat and effects of natural disasters, assist with
search and rescue, and aid postdisaster recovery efforts. This work investigates the use of
National Guard unmanned aircraft systems to provide lead agencies support prior to, during, and
following major disaster incidents. The thesis also explores the benefits and challenges to setting
up National Guard units operating unmanned aircraft systems within the United States equipped
with specialized sensors in a similar fashion to the National Guard modular airborne firefighting
system, and offers subjects for follow on research.
Ong, Chee Wei. A Discovery Process for Initializing Ad Hoc Underwater Acoustic Networks.
M.S. in Engineering Acoustics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Joseph A. Rice
Second Reader: John C. McEachen
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3774
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA493816
Abstract: Seaweb is an underwater acoustic wide-area network connecting autonomous,
distributed nodes. Prior iterations of Seaweb relied on operator intervention to initialize and
manually configure the network routes. This thesis implements a network discovery process that
enables a field of spontaneously deployed, ad hoc nodes to auto-configure for networking
purposes. Network routing is initialized as nodes in the network are discovered, with routes
chosen according to comparative evaluation of a cost function for all candidate routes. The
implemented network discovery process is tested using computer simulation and sea trial data.
The resultant network routes obtained upon completion of the ad hoc network discovery process
are compared with those derived from Dijkstra's algorithm. It is concluded that the network
discovery process always produces a shortest-path route from a master node to any other
discovered nodes in the network. Sensitivity studies on the route cost evaluation function are
performed, and an alternative network discovery scheme is discussed.
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Parsley, Randall S. Creating an Effective Multi-Domain Wide-Area Surveillance Platform to
Enhance Border Security. M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security and Defense).
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Richard Bergin and Nadav Morag
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4194
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479947
Abstract: North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and United States Northern
Command (USNORTHCOM) lack persistent, multi-domain, wide-area surveillance (WAS) to
conduct their assigned homeland defense and homeland security missions. Wide-area
surveillance allows military operators to see vast expanses of the homeland. For example, it is
the difference between a view of Texas and a view of the broad U.S. southern border - from
Texas to California. With WAS, the Department of Defense (DOD) would have access to the big
picture. Without WAS, gaps in radar coverage could allow potential terrorists or people
transporting drugs into the United States - to cross the border undetected. DOD or Customs
would never see them. This thesis examines how NORAD-USNORTHCOM could and must achieve
consistent, wide-area surveillance for the U.S. borders, both southern and northern. This can be
achieved by combining the existing manned and unmanned radars with Over-the-Horizon Radars
capabilities. By combining all three systems to form a family of radar surveillance systems,
working as one consistent radar surveillance system, NORADUSNORTHCOM will be more effective
in homeland defense and homeland security missions.
Pearson, John L. Optimizing Unmanned Aircraft System Scheduling. M.S. in Operations
Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2008.
Thesis Advisor: W. Matthew Carlyle
Second Reader: Sergio Posadas
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4046
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA483449
Abstract: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) are critical for future combat effectiveness. Military
planners from all branches of the Department of Defense now recognize the value that real time
intelligence and surveillance from UASs provides the battlefield commander. The Operations
Analysis Division of the Marine Corps Combat Development Command is currently conducting an
Overarching Unmanned Aircraft Systems study to determine future force requirements. Current
analysis is conducted through the use of the Assignment Scheduling Capability for Unmanned Air
Vehicles (ASC-U) and several specially designed heuristics. The Unmanned Aircraft System
Scheduling Tool (UAS-ST) combines these capabilities into one model and addresses several
issues associated with ASC-U. UAS-ST allows the user to control all aspects of the UAS, define a
scenario, and then generates a flight schedule over a known time horizon based on those inputs.
All missions are assigned a user defined value and the total schedule value is reported. The user
can then quickly change a parameter of the UAS, re-solve the model, and see the impact their
proposed change has on the overall value of the schedule attained. Therefore, UAS-ST is a tool
for analyzing the value of future changes in UAS structure.
Rippeon, Ryan. Clandestine Message Passing in Virtual Environments. M.S. in Computer Science
and M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Gurminder Singh and Joseph Sullivan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3967
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488794
Abstract: Virtual Environments (VEs) present a new challenge for government officials attempting
to monitor computer networks for terrorist communication. VEs bring new dimensions to online
communication through visual appearance and state maintaining servers. In this thesis, various
VEs will be explored to study what current abilities and usage patterns exist. Once characteristics
of the VEs are established, clandestine methods for passing information will be developed along
with proof of concepts. Visual cues, steganography and autonomous bots will be examined.
Monitoring techniques are then discussed to attempt observation and analysis of this information
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at various levels. The expectation is that these results will improve awareness and solidify an
understanding of the more surreptitious capabilities present in these networked environments.
Scioletti, Michael S. A Heuristic Algorithm for Optimized Routing of Unmanned Aerial Systems
for the Interdiction of Improvised Explosive Devices. M.S. in Operations Research.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset
Second Reader: W. Matthew Carlyle
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4001
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA483643
Abstract: Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are effective weapons for insurgents targeting
conventional military and security forces. Real-time information gathering about likely use of
such weapons is one approach to reduce the effectiveness of IEDs. Unmanned aerial system
(UASs) may provide the information gathering capability commanders need to interdict IEDs.
Currently, UASs are not systematically utilized in that capacity. This research develops a routing
tool that uses column-generation techniques and a greedy algorithm to route UASs through
suspected IED locations for the purpose of IED interdiction as it transit to and from command
directed missions. In empirical studies of data sets with up to 125 IED locations and missions, the
routing tool provides optimal or near-optimal solutions in all instances tested. The tool produces
de-conflicted routes for up to three UASs within five minutes of computing time.
Sebalj, Derek. Single Operator Control of Multiple Uninhabited Air Vehicles : Situational
Awareness Requirement. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES).
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2008.
Thesis Advisor: Michael McCauley
Second Reader: Anthony Ciavarelli
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3964
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA489080
Abstract: Militaries around the world, as well as other government agencies, are increasingly
using uninhabited vehicles to perform dull, dirty and dangerous work. In the United States, laws
currently mandate their increasing use throughout the armed services, with set percentages of
overall vehicle fleets. Currently, teams of people operate these vehicles, especially Uninhabited
Air vehicles (UAVs). For example, n:1, where n is the number of operators and n > 1. The
ultimate goal, and the object of much research, is the technology to lower, or even invert the
control ratio from many people to one vehicle to one operator of several vehicles, e.g., 1:m,
where m is the number of vehicles and m > 1. While the technology to automate these vehicles
continues to progress at a rapid pace, less attention has been paid to the Human Factors aspect.
Theoretically, technology exists to enable single operator control of multiple UAVs; however, the
human operator must interact with the vehicle, especially if the vehicle will be used to apply
deadly force. What information does the operator readily need to make these critical decisions?
How will the human operators be able maintain the situational awareness of all vehicles under
their control and make informed decisions as to their employment in dynamic situations? One
possible aid to maintaining Situational Awareness is an overall Situational Awareness display that
gives an overview of the vehicle locations, both geographically and in relation to one another.
The question to be answered is whether this display adds useful information to the operator
without further straining the operator's limited attention resources. Experiment participants were
tasked to provide supervisory control of four simulated UAVs in a simulated environment and
make tasking decisions for the UAVs based on static ground targets that required investigation.
Accuracy of situational awareness information was measured with and without the additional
Situation Awareness display to determine the net benefit of adding an additional display to the
operator's station. Results indicate that the Situational Awareness diplsay helped the UAV pilot
make more accurate decisions regarding the UAV in closest proximity to a target requiring
reinvestigation. Contrary to expectations, the SA display did not increase the speed of decision
making for re-assigning the UAVs to a target of interest. The results support the conclusion that
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operators of multiple UAVs should have some form of Situational Awareness display to aid in
determining the UAVS location geopgraphically and in relation to other UAVs and search objects.
Soh, Mun Lok Bernard. Hardware in the Loop Implementation of Adaptive Vision Based
Guidance Law for Ground Target Tracking. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov and Kevin D. Jones
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3707
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494070
Abstract: An adaptive guidance law of a Vision Based Target Tracking (VBTT) system was
previously developed and implemented onboard a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) in
order to track a ground target moving with a constant velocity. This work extends previous
results by considering scenarios where the variation of target velocity, in both magnitude and
direction, is used to excite the feedback control law for further robustness analysis. This provides
essential insight on the sensitivity of the performance criteria indicated by the range holding
capability, navigation error and the convergence speed of the guidance law. In addition, this
thesis addresses the robustness of the SUAV guidance law to the generalized time delay in
feedback due to, for example, data processing or communications lag. This thesis also extends
the previously obtained results by introducing a multi-criteria optimization technique. The results
obtained are first based on the numerical simulations implemented in SIMULINK and then in high
fidelity HIL simulation environment with Piccolo Plus AP in the control loop. Initial steps in
developing Vision Based HIL environment incorporating TASE gimbal, Piccolo Plus AP, Pan-Tilt
unit and image processing software are presented. The work also includes motivation for the
development, an overview of the existing technologies, and initial implementation of low-level
driving mechanism (drivers) for the realistic representation of the real-world environment.
Sonmezocak, Erkan and Senol Kurt. Optimum Route Planning and Scheduling for Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles. Master of Business Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, December 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Aruna Apte and Susan Heath
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3831
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494126
Abstract: New threat perceptions have extended the sense of self-defense to include preemptive
strikes if a threat is going to occur. For its part, the military should have high Intelligence,
Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities to implement this strategy. UAVs play an
important role as the most effective way of providing high quality ISR in today's modern wars.
The route planning of UAVs is the most critical and challenging problem of wartime. This thesis
will develop three algorithms to solve a model that produces executable routings in order to
dispatch three Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to complete 20 different missions in different
locations. These algorithms seek to maximize the bonus points that are paired with the targets,
representing the priority of the missions. By this definition, the problem can be classified as a
Multiple Tour Maximum Prize Collection Problem (MTMPC). MTMCP is closely related to the
classical Traveling Salesman and Vehicle Routing Problems with the difference that not all nodes
can be visited in the available time. Each node is assigned a bonus point value representing the
priority of that mission, and the objective of the MTMCP is to determine the nodes to be visited to
maximize the collected bonus points.
Tham, Kine Seng. Enhancing Combat Survivability of Existing Unmanned Aircraft Systems.
M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Gary Langford and Ravi Vaidyanathan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3734
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494136
Abstract: The importance of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to warfighters has been growing.
Each loss (regardless of whether the entire UAS or parts of it) has become more expensive and
unaffordable in both an operational and monetary sense. An unmanned aircraft (UA) loss may
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mean that critical missions cannot be performed and millions of dollars of investments on the UA
lost. As most existing UAS were designed to be inexpensive and expendable, there is a need to
enhance their combat survivability. Combat survivability is the capability of UAS to avoid or
withstand a man-made hostile environment. This thesis explored how to enhance the combat
survivability of existing UAS. Potential survivability enhancement options are identified. These
options include changes in tactics, improving the situation awareness of the operator, equipping
the UA with the capability to counter an incoming threat, improving the payload performance,
improving resistance of the data link to jamming. The technology behind these options as well as
the favorable and unfavorable factors of the options are studied and discussed. This thesis also
proposed a process for selecting the "best" solution from survivability enhancement alternatives.
This thesis used systems engineering methodology to enhance the survivability of existing UAS.
Upperman, Teresa Lynn Odom. Elint Signal Processing using Choi-Williams Distribution on
Reconfigurable Computers for Detection and Classification of LPI Emitters. M.S. in
Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Douglas J. Fouts and Phillip E. Pace
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/4156
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA486152
Abstract: This thesis documents the use of the SRC-6 Reconfigurable Computer for use in
analyzing low probability of intercept (LPI) signals using the Choi-Williams distribution. The SRC6 is a reconfigurable computer manufactured by SRC Computers, Inc. which allows the user to
tailor both the software and the hardware to a specific task. This increases the speed at which
the task can be accomplished making it useful for applications in electronic intelligence (ELINT).
The Choi-Williams distribution is a mathematical technique that was first created using MATLAB
and then converted to C code for use on the SRC-6. The purpose of this study is to investigate
the feasibility of using a reconfigurable computer for ELINT applications and the timely detection
and classification of LPI signals. This thesis is part of a larger study to use reconfigurable
computers for the autonomous detection and classification of LPI signals.
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2007
Ball, Gregory P. MAJIC : A Java Application for Controlling Multiple, Heterogeneous Robotic
Agents. M.S. in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September
2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Craig Martell and Kevin Squire
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3339
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473693
Abstract: Current capability to command and control a team of heterogeneous robotic agents is
limited by proprietary command formats and operating systems. A specific challenge in this
context is the specification, the programming, and the testing of software for such a wide variety
of mobile robot teams. This work explores the applicability of an application program interface
(API), called the Multi-Agent Java Interface Controller (MAJIC), that supports command, control,
and coordination of heterogeneous robot teams. MAJIC encapsulates scripted commands,
preprogrammed behaviors, and simultaneous, multi-agent control. By exploiting the powerful
techniques of polymorphism and object-oriented programming, a generic MajicBot class will
provide the necessary level of abstraction between the user and the proprietary architectures.
Utilizing the technique of inheritance, future NPS students will be able to extend the generic class
in order to easily add new robot-specific libraries. Students will also be able to utilize the existing
libraries to program and test their own robot behaviors in real-world environments utilizing the
MAJIC package. A final display of the versatility and power of programming behaviors within the
MAJIC software architecture is demonstrated by a series of example programs conducted on a
team of robots consisting of a Sony Aibo, a Mobile Robots Pioneer, and a K-Team Hemisson.
Casias, Juan Francisco. Performance of Wireless Unattended Sensor Networks in Maritime
Applications. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: John C. McEachen
Second Reader: Weilian Su
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3497
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470042
Abstract: Wireless, unattended sensor networks offer a superior monitoring capability with
unparalleled flexibility. Traditional systems are typically restrictive in the rigidity of their
positioning and topological design requirements. Ongoing research continues to expand the
potential for the use of these un-tethered and autonomous systems ranging from the mundane,
monitoring soil conditions for agricultural crops, to the extreme of military operations, providing
valuable intelligence to commanders in a variety of battlespace conditions. This thesis
investigated the use of this type of system in what may be the most hostile of environmental
conditions from a wireless networking and communications point of view, the water. The network
will be required to organize, establish and maintain itself in a variety of dynamic conditions in or
on the water. Commercial off-the-shelf products developed by Crossbow Technologies were used
in developing the wireless, unattended sensor network consisting of single and multiple nodes.
Nodes were tested on a solid ground surface, on the surface of the water, below the surface of
the water (not submerged), and fully submerged. The most significant findings were attained
with regard to range. Other findings with regard to link quality, network formation, and network
stability support results attained in previous research.
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Chng, Kim Chuan. Determining a Cost-Effective Mix of UAV-USV-Manned Platforms to Achieve
a Desired Level of Surveillance in a Congested Strait. M.S. in Operations Research.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Patricia A. Jacobs and Donald P. Gaver
Second Reader: Wayne P. Hughes, Jr.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3061
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475836
Abstract: This thesis develops concepts of operations (CONOPS) and analytical models to
determine the surveillance assets for a congested strait. Two maritime security threats (Reds)
are a hijacked large ship carrying dangerous cargo or a SB manned by terrorists attempting to
cause damage to other vessels or the port. The Red SB can either conduct a direct attack or a
sneak attack by hiding among other neutral SBs. The defense force consists of shore-based
sensors, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned surface vehicles (USVs), and patrol craft
(PC). The shore-based radar and the UAVs classify unidentified vessels as suspicious or not
suspicious and suspicious SB must be inspected by a USV or PC. Analytical models are introduced
to analyze requirements for numbers of surveillance assets and to assess the effectiveness of the
CONOPS to achieve a desired probability of detecting and intercepting the threat. They
incorporate both differential equations and probabilistic arguments. Results indicate that if the
UAVs generate many false positives then the USVs and PCs have a higher workload which
decreases the probability of detecting a threat. USVs and PCs should give a high priority to
inspecting suspicious SBs rather than identifying unsuspicious SBs to achieve a higher probability
of detecting a threat.
Dolbec, Michael R. Velocity Estimation using Forward Looking Sonar. M.S. in Engineering
Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Doug Horner
Associate Advisor: Mathias Kölsch
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3558
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA467123
Abstract: The thesis investigates a method to estimate the forward velocity and heading rate of
an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Through relatively new technologies small AUVs are
now able to mount a Forward Looking Sonar (FLS) on the vehicle's nose. This can be used for
obstacle avoidance and feature based navigation. The sensor can also be used to estimate motion
of the AUV, which can be useful for undersea navigation. The thesis focuses on a template
matching technique used in computer vision. Two sequential sonar images are compared with the
goal of finding the rotation and translation that best correlates the first to the second sonar
image. The transformation which maximizes the correlation coefficient is then converted to
forward velocity and heading rate through motion analysis. Experimentation shows that the
method provides accurate estimates for both the forward velocity and heading rate of the AUV.
Accuracy of the estimates for forward velocity was at the limitation of the resolution of the sonar.
Using velocities estimated through image processing applied to FLS images entirely with
software, the weight and energy resources currently required by standard measurement
techniques could be used to increase the vehicles endurance or for additional payload capacity.
Another benefit would be the reduction in acoustic and electrical interference with the FLS and
side scan sonar, which would improve the vehicle's obstacle avoidance and mine-hunting
capability. The vehicle could become more flexible in its capability to support additional roles vice
specific missions. This method holds the promise for permitting smaller AUVs with a FLS to
navigate undersea more accurately.
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Foutzitzis, Evangelos K. Multiple Assets Position Determination in a 3-Dimensional
Environment using the APRS Protocol. M.S. in Electronic Warfare Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September2007.
Thesis Advisor: Andrew A. Parker
Second Reader: James F. Ehlert
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3280
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474028
Abstract: Increased situational awareness in the battlefield is one of the main objectives in
today?s operations and applies to all levels of commands. Several attempts have been made to
use tracking devices for detecting and continuously updating the positional data of friendly assets
on a map. Current applications like Falcon View fulfill their objective in presenting the location of
targets of interest on a digital mapping environment. Falcon View is a geographic information
system (GIS) used extensively by DoD for mission planning purposes. When the requirement is
to track airborne assets such as aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), none of the current
applications can present the results in three-dimensions. Instead they project the received tracks
on the ground in 2-dimensions creating a false or impaired perspective of the true tactical
situation. This thesis develops and tests a software application in a plug-in form integrated into
the open-source NASA World Wind mapping engine. The application is designed to determine the
tracks of both airborne and ground-moving assets in three dimensions. It also tests the concept
in a real-world environment and verify the impact it has on situational awareness at various
command levels.
Freye, Jeffrey T. Design of Experiment Analysis for the Joint Dynamic Allocation of Fires and
Sensors (JDAFS) Simulation. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Thomas W. Lucas
Second Reader: Darryl K. Ahner
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3365
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470129
Abstract: The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Analysis Center's Joint
Dynamic Allocation of Fires and Sensors (JDAFS) model, a low-resolution, Discrete Event
Simulation Model with embedded optimization enables the analysis of many scenarios and factors
to explore Joint Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. JDAFS is a
powerful model that combines both discrete event simulation and the optimization of a linear
objective function to generate realistic, reasonable, and consistent solutions to difficult ISR
scheduling problems. Given a scenario and a mix of ISR platforms, JDAFS optimizes a flight
schedule and executes the missions. This research develops a Joint ISR scenario, explores
scenario simulation results, and provides a proof-of-principle analysis that aids in the ISR
decision making process. This study examines 274 design points in each of two scenarios, a nonpenetrating scenario that allows only standoff collection and a penetrating scenario that allows
country of interest overflight. The use of an efficient design of experiment methodology enables
the exploration of the interior and exterior of the response surface for the two experimental
scenarios. Analysis of the simulation output suggests that the optimization interval significantly
impacts total coverage. In the nonpenetrating scenario, shorter optimization intervals ensure
better coverage; however, in the penetrating scenario, longer optimization intervals provide for
improved coverage. The disparity is explained by reduced likelihood of assignment saturation in
the penetrating scenario due to the increased number of mission areas. Sensor range, sensor
package configuration, and platform dwell time also affect the level of coverage. This is clearly
demonstrated by the superior coverage provided by the most capable ISR platforms.
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Gkionis Charalampos. Linear and Planar Array Formation in Wireless Sensor Networks. M.S. in
Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Murali Tummala and John McEachen
Second Reader: T. Owens Walker III
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3436
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470075
Abstract: Wireless sensor networking (WSN) is a relatively new field of research with many
applications, both military and commercial. In the military applications, WSNs could be used in
hostile environments to minimize the need for human presence. A WSN consists of a large
number of small sensor nodes that are deployed in an area of interest for collecting information.
A subgroup of nodes then collaborate their transmissions to achieve beamforming. The
information collected by the WSN is relayed to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), which is
synchronized with the transmission beam of the network. In this study, the positioning of the
nodes in a WSN is investigated with the main object to propose a method to find the best
combination of nodes for beamforming given a random distribution in the sensor field.
Additionally, the method is expandable in two dimensions and capable of forming a planar
antenna array which will improve the beamforming gain. A simulation model was developed in
MATLAB code to study the formation of linear and planar antenna array of nodes. The existing
iterative technique in the formation of a linear antenna array is compared with the proposed and
the results showed an improvement in linearity.
Griffith, Christopher M. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Mounted High Sensitivity RF Receiver to
Detect Improvised Explosive Devices. M.S. in Information Warfare Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Lonnie A. Wilson
Second Reader: Ray A. Elliot
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3303
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474013
Abstract: Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are increasing in complexity and lethality. A RE
system is needed to detect the presence of RF IEDs. This thesis describes the evolution of a
proven ground-based RF detection system. It is designed to collect unintended radio frequency
emissions from the IED's RF triggers and receivers. Modification of the ground-based version
allowed placing this RF system into an airborne platform. The detection range and corresponding
time to react to a possible threat is dramatically improved. Increased time provides greater
protection for the front line troops that are primary targets of RF IEDs, hence reducing the
casualties of U.S. troops. Field testing and technical feasibility demonstrations are conducted
using a NPS-owned TERN UAV at McMillan Airfield located at Camp Roberts, CA. The research
conducted for this thesis primarily deals with the implementation and testing of this RF system
onto UAVs. Several additional benefits make this RF system useable over a wide range of
applications.
Herkamp, John Frederick. Deployment of Shaped Charges by a Semi-Autonomous Ground
Vehicle. M.S. in Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
Second Reader: Peter Crooker
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3432
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470035
Abstract: Neutralization of remotely operated Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is a dangerous
task risking human lives on a daily basis. BigFoot seeks to replace the local human component by
deploying and remotely detonating shaped charges to destroy IEDs. This research developed a
platform that can autonomously navigate GPS waypoints, avoid obstacles, and provide remote
user controls for an onboard robotic arm to deploy and remotely detonate shaped charges.
BigFoot incorporates improved communication range over previous Autonomous Ground Vehicles
and an updated user interface that includes controls for the arm and camera by interfacing
multiple microprocessors. BigFoot is capable of avoiding static and mobile obstacles as well
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handling most surfaces with minor slopes. BigFoot continues to be somewhat limited by
communications range and GPS availability. However, BigFoot is an ideal platform for relatively
short range deployment to neutralize roadside IEDs.
Hui, Kok Meng Edmund. Digital Tracking Array for FM Signals Based on Off-the-Shelf Wireless
Technologies. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2007.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Robert D. Broadston
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3159
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475975
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to design a digital phased array for receiving and
tracking a 2.4 GHz FM video signal from an unmanned air vehicle. The tracking is done using a
monopulse technique. Various numbers of elements were simulated to access the pattern
coverage. The beamforming and demodulation are performed digitally by a computer. Several
antenna architectures were studied and the requirements for hardware components such as the
analog-to-digital converters and amplifiers are specified. Several methods for generating the
carrier signal for the local oscillator are also discussed. They include an independent local
oscillator, a voltage controlled oscillator with feedback (i.e., a phased locked loop) and mixing
with a phase shifted copy of the received signal (Bilotti's method).
Jun, Hyun Il. The Implementation and Testing of a Robotic Arm on an Autonomous Vehicle.
M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
Second Reader: Peter Crooker
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3157
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475886
Abstract: An articulated arm with three degrees of freedom is implemented and tested on an
autonomous robot. Kinematic equations of motion for the arm are modeled and tested. A
communication architecture is successfully implemented for wireless manual control of the arm.
Visual and thermal cues are realized with an onboard camera and a collocated thermal sensor.
Future work suggests investigations for full autonomous arm control without manual operator
intervention based on sensor cues and visual scene correlation.
Knight, Anthony G. and Aaron B. Luck. Tactical Space: Beyond Line of Sight Alternatives for the
Army and Marine Corps Ground Tactical Warfighter. M.S. in Space Systems Operations.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2007.
Thesis Advisor: William Welch
Second Reader: Alan Scott
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3262
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473940
Abstract: United States Army and Marine Corps ground tactical warfighters find themselves
conducting operations across greater distances and with more autonomy from their higher
commands than ever before. As their areas of operations become larger in modern conflicts, and
distributed operations become more the norm, deficits in the tactical warfighter?s ability to
conduct beyond line of sight (BLOS) communications, intelligence, surveillance, and
reconnaissance (ISR), blue force tracking and situational awareness (BFT/SA), and position,
navigation, and timing (PNT) become more noticeable and dangerous. The capabilities existing in
the tactical space this warfighter operates within and from where he is supported cannot meet his
needs now, nor will they likely meet his needs in the future. While upgrades and expansion of
current satellite and unmanned aerial system (UAS) architectures will expand these BLOS
capabilities, it is not likely they will increase sufficiently to reduce the deficit in support. A new
regime, the High Altitude Area of Interest (HAAI) also known as near space, provides potential
capabilities specifically tailored to the tactical warfighter. This thesis reviews the BLOS
requirements of the tactical warfighter, identifies the current and future deficits in each area, and
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identifies emerging areas of support. It then provides recommendations on further development
of integrated architectures spanning multiple regions, to provide efficient, persistent, and
sufficient BLOS capabilities to the tactical warfighter.
Lalis, Vasileios. Exploring Naval Tactics with UAVs in an Island Complex using Agent-Based
Simulation. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2007.
Thesis Advisor: Thomas w. Lucas
Second Reader: Kyle Lin
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3443
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471061
Abstract: The benefits of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) at sea are undisputed. The amount
and speed of the incoming information from a UAV, combined with its maneuverability and "timeon-task" capability, are assets to any navy. For the Greek Navy, the main local operation area is
the Aegean and Ionian Sea. As Greece lies between three continents (Europe, Asia, Africa), there
is a great deal of sea traffic and potential illegal activities, such as smuggling, exploitation of
illegal immigrants, and possible terrorist activity. The scope of this study is to explore naval
tactics with UAVs in an island complex using Agent-Based Simulation. MANA (Map Aware Nonuniform Automata) software, used in this study, provides a visual and realistic background to
conduct simulations of real operations involving many different entities. This thesis demonstrates
that this type of software can rapidly produce, explore and check simulated naval tactics before
actual implementation. It also shows how the UAV's technology plays a key role in a search and
detection operation, whereas the enemy must rely mostly on his tactics.
Lee, Shay Liang. Force Protection Via UGV-UVA Collaboration : Development of Control Law
for Vision Based Target Tracking on SUAV. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering and M.S. in
Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Co- Advisors: Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov and Richard Harkins
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3102
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475930
Abstract: The Naval Postgraduate School UAV Laboratory developed a Small Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle (SUAV) equipped with a Vision Based Target Tracking (VBTT) system as part of its
Tactical Network Topology field experimentation program. The VBTT system includes a
miniaturized gimbaled camera that allows autonomous target tracking while providing concurrent
estimates of target motion including its position, velocity and heading. Using the current control
law, the speed of convergence and the range-holding performance have been found to
deteriorate as target speed increases. The aim of this thesis is to elaborate on the existing control
law in order to achieve better performance. Employing a new and novel algorithm from the
Lyapunov Stability Analysis, for the purpose of adjusting the feedback gain, is proposed in this
thesis; to that end a control law with adjustable gain can be easily implemented based on UAVTarget kinematics to optimize UAV performance. The performance of the newly adjustable gain
control law is tested in both SIMULINK model and Hardware-In-the-Loop simulations to verify any
improvement in performance over the constant gain control law. Principal results offer improved
SUAV target-tracking performance with no additional hardware costs.
Lim, Han Leong. Network Payload Integration for the Scan-Eagle UAV. M.S. in Mechanical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Healey
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3117
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475874
Abstract: With the increasing maturity of Mesh network technology, it is inevitable that we exploit
the synergistic capabilities in networking of autonomous vehicles [1]. The interconnectivity
enables the sharing or dissemination of information between various nodes and has the capability
to enhance communication range between a Ground Control Station (GCS) and autonomous
aircraft which can then be expanded to several GCSs, or in a networked combination of
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) and Unmanned Surface
Vehicle (USV) [2]. This thesis discusses the setup of the Mesh network between the ScanEagle
GCS and the ScanEagle UAV. It describes the modifications on the high gain antenna and the
integration of an ITT Mesh card radio into the ScanEagle. A study of the results conducted in
Panama City to understand the limitations and constraints of several Mesh nodes operating within
a specified area is described, together with a discussion of the results and recommendations for
further work.
Lim, Thiow Yong Dennis. A Methodological Approach for Conducting a Business Case Analysis
of the Global Observer Joint Capability Technology Denomstration (JCTD). M.S. in
Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Daniel Nussbaum
Second Reader: Kyle Lin
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3114
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475934
Abstract: The Global Observer is a Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) initiative
that is being managed by the United States Special Operations Command (US SOCOM). The JCTD
Program seeks to accelerate the development and operational evaluation of mature advanced
technologies to rapidly transition the new capability to military operations. The Global Observer is
a liquid-hydrogen powered unmanned aircraft system that has been designed for deployment as
a stratospheric satellite. It will provide an affordable, persistent presence over any designated
area of interest for surveillance and communications relay missions. The purpose of this study is
to analyze the cost savings, as well as the other benefits associated with the operational
deployment of the Global Observer. This thesis will (1) Develop a model for performing business
case analyses of JCTDs, including defining the methodical structure required in the business case
report; and (2) Conduct the Global Observer JCTD business case analysis, including a baseline
analysis and a comprehensive sensitivity analysis based on a developed operational scenario with
6 designated areas of operations, while comparing the performance with an existing analogous
system, i.e., the RQ-4 Global Hawk.
McCamish, Shawn B. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft during Close
Proximity Operations. PhD in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, December 2007.
Disseration Supervisors: Xiaoping Yun and Marcello Romano
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10213
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475928
Abstract: This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous
distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems,
including rendezvous and docking scenarios. The proposed control algorithm combines the
efficiency of the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and the robust collision avoidance capability of
the Artificial Potential Function (APF) method. The LQR control effort serves as the attractive
force toward goal positions, while the APF-based repulsive functions provide collision avoidance
for both fixed and moving obstacles. The combination of the LQR and APF control logics, referred
to as the LQR/APF control algorithm, yielded promising results as demonstrated by the numerous
multiple spacecraft maneuver simulations reported in this dissertation. In order to validate the
proposed control approach, a multiple spacecraft model validation and visualization technique
was developed using a versatile MATLABSatellite Toll Kit (STK) interface to propagate the
spacecraft models, compare against STK generated ephemeris, and animate for analysis. The
MATLAB-STK interface efficacy was demonstrated during the evaluation and analysis of the
innovative LQR/APF multiple spacecraft control algorithm. The LQR/APF multiple spacecraft close
proximity control algorithm was developed, refined, and thoroughly simulated using high fidelity
six Degree of Freedom (DOF) spacecraft models. In order to evaluate the stability and robustness
of the control approach a Monte-Carlo simulations set was run. The LQR/APF control algorithm
was further evaluated by virtual hardware-in-the-loop implementation at the NPS Spacecraft
Robotics Laboratory. The laboratory hosts the Autonomous Docking and Spacecraft Servicing
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testbed which allows for on-the-ground testing of close proximity multiple spacecraft control
concepts.
McVicker, Michael Charles. Effects of Different Camera Motions on the Error in Estimates of
Epipolar Geometry between Two Dimensional Images in Order to Provide a Framework
for Solutions to Vision Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). M.S.
Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Mathias Kölsch and Kevin Squire
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3251
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474386
Abstract: This thesis explores the effect camera motion and feature tracking have on the
estimations of an epipolar geometry at different stages of a 3D reconstruction and relates the
findings to a framework for vision based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM).
Although there have been previous attempts to determine the quality of algorithms that calculate
a fundamental matrix, both robust and linear, we have found no study that explores the
relationship between camera motion, or likewise the different types of parallax, and errors in the
epipolar geometry between two images as defined by an estimated fundamental matrix. The
interest comes from the fact that there are claims to this end made by two prominent textbooks
in this area. By using synthetic scenes that are projected with and without noise by camera
matrices that define different camera motions between the projections we are able to isolate the
three different type of parallax that can be experienced between projections; no parallax shift
from rotational movement, a high amount of parallax shift from translational movement in the
camera's xy-plane, a high amount of parallax shift from translational movement along the
camera's optical axis (z-plane). We also studied an unconstrained movement with components of
each of the previous three types. The different camera motions are equivalent to different
motions a robot would experience when performing SLAM, specifically, rotational, lateral, forward
and unconstrained motions. There are multiple experiments that explore the effect motion has at
every stage of a projective reconstruction algorithm.
Monroe, Dennis W. Navy Requirements for Controlling Multiple Off-Board Robots Using the
Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle Workbench. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments and
Simulation (MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Don Brutzman
Second Readers: Jeff Weekley and Terry Norbraten
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3446
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471375
Abstract: The Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle Workbench (AUVW) is an ongoing project at NPS
that allows rehearsal, real-time control, and replay of diverse autonomous unmanned vehicle
(AUVs) missions. The AUVW increases the situational awareness of operators while allowing
operators to learn valuable insights in a robots performance before, during, and after a mission.
This thesis examines a variety of strategic authoritative plans for autonomous vehicles to
determine functional mission requirements that autonomous vehicles are expected to be
performing in the near future. Excellent agreement on tactical needs and requirements was found
among these diverse documents. A series of exemplar missions corresponding to specific
requirements are presented as a way to explore and evaluate different tactical capabilities. These
missions are then compared to the current capabilities of the AUVW by planning, running, and
evaluating them in the workbench. Although the AUVW is a powerful tool it still lacks some
functionality to make it tactically usable. Nevertheless, perhaps two thirds of the necessary
capabilities are already supported in the workbench and further capabilities can be feasibly
integrated. The result of this work is a roadmap for future work to add functionality so that the
workbench can thoroughly perform user tasks in all mission areas.
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Nachmani, Gil. Minimum-Energy Flight Paths for UAVs using Mesoscale Wind Forecasts and
Approximate Dynamic Programming. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset
Second Reader: Kevin Jones
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3150
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475882
Abstract: Fuel or battery consumption of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be improved by
utilizing or avoiding air currents. This thesis adopts a network modeling approach to formulate
the problem of finding minimum energy flight paths. The relevant airspace is divided into small
regions using a grid of nodes, inter-connected by arcs. A function, representing energy cost, is
defined on every arc in terms of the solution of a constrained nonlinear program for the optimal
local airspeed to fly in a given wind field. Then, shortest-path models are implemented on the
network to find the optimal paths from an origin to a destination. Five models are studied and
they correspond to cases of pre-planning of flight routes and dynamic updating of routes during
the course of the flight. These models use three-dimensional grids of forecasted wind currents,
produced by the Naval Research Laboratory's Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction
System (COAMPS) with horizontal resolution of 1 km. One of the shortest-path models, a
stochastic-dynamic model, assumes real-time measurement capabilities of the wind velocity in
the vicinity of the UAV, through its GPS-INS system, and provides updated waypoints to follow
after every measurement. For each model, the energy costs of the shortest-path solutions for
1000 randomized missions over a Nevada test site are simulated and compared to the energy
costs of straight-line paths. For a 100 kg UAV, the dynamic model produces an average reduction
of 15.1% in the energy consumption along 40 km long round trips, and an average reduction of
30.1% under windy conditions with average wind speeds larger than 15 m/s. A stochasticdynamic model for maximum duration, solved using a heuristic algorithm, achieves an average
increase of 32.2% in the flight duration for a 100 kg UAV.
Nader, Cesar E. An Analysis of Manpower Requirements for the United States Marine Corps
Tiers II & III Unmanned Aerial Systems Family of Systems Program. Master of Business
Adminstration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Bill Hatch
Second Reader: Cary Simon
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3465
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471381
Abstract: This research was conducted to examine the quantitative and qualitative component
requirements for the Tier II and Tier III of the United States Marine Corps Unmanned Aerial
Systems Program. The main objective of this research is to develop a proposed manpower
structure for a composite squadron in order to improve current UAS capabilities while minimizing
manpower requirements. This was accomplished by conducting an independent assessment of
manpower requirements of the different strategies being considered under the Unmanned Aerial
Systems Family of Systems (UAS FoS) for the Marine Corps for the Tier II and III. In the final
analysis, the research recommends the consolidation of the Tiers II and III to form a composite
UAV squadron, reduce the logistics footprint by relegating the support mission to the MWSS and
the MALS, and combining operational and maintenance billets within the current VMU structure to
consolidate manpower requirements and optimize UAS force structures.
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Oliver, Derek M. An Alternative Optimization Model and Robust Experimental Design for the
Assignment Scheduling Capability for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (ASC-U)
Simulation. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2007.
Thesis Advisor: susan M. Sanchez
Second Reader: Darryl K. Ahner
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3400
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473318
Abstract: The Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulations Institute (MOVES) and the United
States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Analysis Center (TRAC) at the Naval
Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, developed the Assignment Scheduling Capability for
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (ASC-U) discrete event simulation to aid in the analysis of future U.S.
Army Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) requirements. TRAC selected ASC-U to provide insight into
the programmatic decisions addressed in the U.S. Army UAV-Mix Analysis that directly affects
future development and fielding of UAVs to include the Future Combat System. ASC-U employs a
discrete event simulation coupled with the optimization of a linear objective function. At regular
intervals, ASC-U obtains an optimal solution to an assignment problem that assigns UAVs to
mission requirements that are available or will be available at some time in the future. This thesis
presents an alternative optimization model, explores 23 simulation factors, and provides
sensitivity analysis for how UAV coverage may degrade in the presence of adverse random
events. Integer programming, experimental design, and an innovative Optimized Flexible Latin
Hypercube (OFLH) design are used to evaluate a representative sample from an Army 2018
scenario. The conclusions suggest the following: the alternative optimization model developed in
this thesis can successfully maximize ASC-U value without the use of a heuristic; smaller
optimization intervals do not guarantee higher total value when the heuristics are included; to
maximize total value, Early Return should be set to FALSE and Secondary Areas should be set to
TRUE; an OFLH is valuable for robust analysis of simulation models containing many factors; and
as the model factors change over predefined ranges, the solution quality is consistent.
Papadopoulos, Themistoklis. Probability Modeling of Multi-Type Autonomous Unmanned
Combat Aerial Vehicles Engaging Non-Homogeneous Targets Under Imperfect
Information. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES). Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Moshe Kress
Second Reader: Kyle Lin
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3622
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA467498
Abstract: UCAVs are advanced weapon systems that can loiter autonomously in a pack over a
target area, detect and acquire the targets, and then attack them. Modeling these capabilities in
a specific hostile operational setting is necessary for addressing weapons design and operational
issues. While much attention has been given to the engineering and technological aspects of
UCAV developments, there are very few studies on operational concepts for these weapon
systems and their effectiveness and efficiency. This thesis builds probability models (Markov
Chains) that describe UCAV operations, defines Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) for the
engagement performance, maps the functional relations between the parameters and the MOEs,
and obtains insights regarding the design of the UCAVs and their tactical employment. The
models are used to conduct extensive numerical analysis, based on experimental design concepts
and traditional sensitivity analysis. The main focus of the analysis is to investigate optimal and
robust mixes of UCAVs of different types, with respect to the MOEs. While in most cases,
extreme-point solutions are optimal, there are cases where a balanced UCAV mix is better.
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Papalexidis, Nikolaos. Distributed Algorithms for Beamforming in Wirless [Sic] Sensor
Networks. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Murali Tummala and John C. McEachen
Thesis Committee Members: Roberto Cristi and Weilian Su
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3397
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473271
Abstract: Sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN) can establish a link with a UAV by
using beamforming techniques to form a random array with position errors. The position errors'
effect in the array performance is examined using a MATLAB-based simulation model. In order to
spread the processing and communication load among the nodes, two new distributed algorithms
for beamforming in WSN, based on the least squares (LS) approximation of the desired array
response, are proposed. The first is a distributed implementation of the QR decomposition, and
the second is an iterative method for solving the LS problem. Results indicate that the processing
load is effectively shared among the nodes. Especially, in the second approach, the processing
load can be lower than that of the centralized approach, depending on the algorithm's
convergence. For both algorithms, the tradeoff for the ability to spread the processing load is the
increased communication cost, which could cause an overall increase in the total power
consumption in the network. However, the average power per participating sensor node is still
lower than that required by the cluster head in the centralized approach. Consequently, the
network's susceptibility to failures due to excessive power consumption is greatly reduced.
Poulin, Robert J. Mapping Autonomous System's Router Level Topology in IPv6. M.S. in
Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Geoffrey Xie and John Gibson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3412
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473429
Abstract: The core of the Internet is composed of many independent and mutually exclusive
collections of routers, called Autonomous Systems, which are responsible for moving traffic
between communicating end-systems, or hosts, regardless of the relative location of those hosts.
The complexity of the internal composition of these autonomous systems is such that accurate
documentation of their topology, reference to as mapping, is difficult and prone to error.
Developing automated support for this effort remains an area of active research, the potential
benefit of which is the ability to actively monitor the health of the Internet across these
autonomous systems making it possible to identify critical infrastructure chokepoints before their
failure adversely impacts the network or national security. The Internet is in the process of
transitioning to a new version of the Internet Protocol, the fundamental protocol that melds the
heterogeneous networks worldwide into a single cooperative whole. Tools, techniques, and tactics
developed for the current version, IPv4, may hold promise for adaptation to support the new
version, IPv6. This thesis explores several of the IPv4 techniques that hold promise for
adaptation and provides an implementation as a proof-of-concept.
Reber, Daniel N. Optimized Routing of Unmanned Aerial Systems for the Interdiction of
Improvised Explosive Devices. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset
Second Reader: Robert F. Dell
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3242
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474352
Abstract: As of September 2007, improvised explosive devices (IED) account for 43% of U.S.
casualties in Iraq - the largest single cause of death. One reason for their high rate of
effectiveness is that they are extremely difficult to detect. This research develops a tool for
selecting routes that will best employ unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for the purpose of
detecting IED or related activity. We refer to this tool as IED Search Optimization Model (ISOM).
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ISOM - which uses prediction model results as an underpinning - accounts for factors such as
winds, sensor sweep-width, and aircraft deconfliction. We formulate the problem as an Integer
Program and optimally solve it to select the best routes. Initial evaluation of ISOM through field
experiments with actual UAS suggest that the tool produces realistic routes which can be flown in
the expected amount of time. Furthermore, these routes result in a 42% increase in the
likelihood of achieving a detection opportunity over searching nodes in a random manner. ISOM
could be implemented as a "reach-back" capability with an analyst providing daily routes for
tactical operators.
Richerson, John Paul. The Extension of Wireless Mesh Networks Via Vertical Takeoff and
Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. M.S. in Operations Analysis. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: James Eagle and James Ehlert
Second Reader: Kyle Lin
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3132
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475876
Abstract: The evolution of integrated circuits, wireless communications, and data networking
makes wireless networks practical for military and law enforcement applications. The objective of
this thesis is to test and to evaluate network performance and suitability of an 802.11 wireless
access point enabled vertical takeoff and land (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) functioning
as an airborne sensor and communications relay platform. Also, by identifying the production
process of a COTS Remote Controlled Helicopter equipped with a wireless access point, a system
comprised of discrete technologies and production steps can be defined to gain insight into
defeating an Aerial Improvised Explosive Device (AIED). Understanding the true capabilities of a
small VTOL UAV, its applicability to a wireless network, and the production system associated
with the manufacture of an AIED will allow proper planning, application and utilization in support
of security and Force Protection missions and scenarios.
Rogers, John Henrik. A New Sufficient Condition for Robust Interdomain Routing. M.S. in
Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Geoffrey Xie
Second Reader: John Gibson
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3408
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473414
Abstract: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is currently the only interdomain routing protocol
employed on the internet. It allows tens of thousands of Autonomous Systems (ASes) to
exchange routing information while implementing economic and organizational policies. However,
conflicting policies between ASes can cause routing instability and/or unpredictable routing
solutions. A system of routers is robust if routing tables always converge predictably, despite
router and link failures. We pursue an approach to guarantee BGP robustness through operational
guidelines. Existing guidelines for BGP robustness are essentially geared toward satisfying the
same sufficient condition for BGP robustness developed by Griffin and Wilfong. In this thesis, we
first show that there exists a weaker sufficient condition for BGP robustness. We then discuss
how new guidelines for configuring BGP with a guarantee of robustness may be derived from this
new condition. Additionally, we compare various models of BGP behavior and show that the
models do not always have equivalent results and sometimes have completely different behavior.
Schenk, Michael A. Real-Time Implementation of an Asynchronous Vision-Based Target
Tracking System in an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Isaac I. Kaminer
Second Reader: Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3529
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473354
Abstract: Currently, small unmanned aerial vehicles developed by NPS have been able to locate
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and track stationary and moving targets on the ground. New methods of continuous target
tracking are always being developed to improve speed and accuracy, ultimately aiding the user of
the system. This thesis describes one such method, utilizing an open loop filter as well as an
external correction source: Perspective View Nascent Technologies (PVNT). While the PVNT
correction can theoretically improve the accuracy from 20-30 meters to 1-2 meters, it does have
a disadvantage in that the target position updates are delayed anywhere from 1-10 seconds. In
order to account for the delay, an asynchronous filter is used to update the target position data
given the external position correction from PVNT. Two cases have been tested including the
general filter and one that utilizes a road model in the calculations. While an earlier thesis
developed the basic simulation for the system, this thesis discusses improvements and
corrections to the simulation model as well as the necessary steps for real-time implementation.
Seguin, John M. Simulating Candidate Missions for a Novel Glider Unmanned Underwater
Vehicle. M.S. in Information Systems and Operations. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, March 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Don Brutzman
Second Readers: Ray Jones and Richard Willaims
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3664
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA467375
Abstract: Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) are becoming ubiquitous in the framework of
U.S. Navy operations. According to the U.S. Navys UUV Master Plan (2004), research and
development will expand UUV capabilities that enable diverse roles from Intelligence,
Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) and Mine Countermeasures to Anti-Submarine Warfare
(ASW) and Information Operations (IO). However, typical UUVs are severely limited in
operational characteristics such as endurance and range which prevents their use conducting
certain missions. A novel UUV is currently being designed that is projected to support significantly
greater endurance and range characteristics. This UUV is called Seadiver and is being designed
by Institute of Engineering Science of Toulon, France with support from Naval Postgraduate
School. It is a low-cost glider UUV which generates propulsion not with propellers or jet pumps,
but rather by controlling its buoyancy. This method of propulsion is quite efficient and maybe
capable of autonomous operation up to 30 days with a range of around 700 nautical miles. A UUV
with such endurance and range exposes military missions previously impractical for UUVs
especially when used in concert as an array of many UUVs. This thesis creates a simulation using
NPS-produced software simulation tools Simkit, Viskit and AUV Workbench that analyzes the
capabilities and effectiveness of Seadiver UUVs conducting missions of tactical interest.
Sjoberg, Eric J. Autonomous Coordination and Online Motion Modeling for Mobile Robots. M.S.
in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Kevin Squire and Craig Martell
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3206
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474495
Abstract: Robots are rapidly becoming more involved in everyday military operations. As robots
become more capable, their tasks will increase to include such roles as exploring enemy
controlled buildings and caves. The goal of this thesis is to explore methodologies that allow
robots to operate more autonomously. The first goal is to develop an algorithm that allows
groups of robots to construct controlled formations with only local information. Experiments
investigate the ability of this algorithm to handle obstacles, dynamic conditions, and varying
number of robots. The second goal of this work is to demonstrate a method by which a robot can
automatically determine how it is moving. Experiments demonstrate the ability of the algorithm
to learn new models given models from other surfaces and robots. This work facilitates further
research into creating complex formations using only local information and in fully automating
current Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) applications.
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Smeltz, Jeremy M. and Andrew J. Valerius. Sensor Failure Detection through Introspection. M.S.
in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Craig Martell and Kevin Squire
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3518
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473472
Abstract: The advancement of robot technology holds many opportunities for military
applications. One area of research being done is simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM).
SLAM uses a robot's sensors to generate a map of the area while maintaining its current position
within that map. SLAM research is built upon the assumption that all of the sensors are working
correctly. Since field conditions are likely to cause erratic sensor function due to damage or
inclement weather conditions, this assumption must be addressed. The goal of our research is to
discover methods of effectively performing self-diagnostic checks on robots to detect failures and
malfunctions in sensors. There has been little work in the area of error detection in sensors, and
what little work has been done has limited applications. This thesis will perform a series of
experiments using a variety of different error detection techniques. It is our hope that the
methods developed will prove to be applicable to a variety of real world systems.
Smuda, William James. Rapid Prototyping of Robotic Systems. Ph.D in Software Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Disseration Supervisor: Mikhail Auguston
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10225
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473433
Abstract: This effort describes a systems engineering approach to the design and implementation
of software for prototyping robotic systems. Developing networked robotic systems of diverse
physical assets is a continuing challenge to developers. Problems often multiply when adding new
hardware/software artifacts or when reconfiguring existing systems. This work describes a
method to create model-based, graphical domain-specific languages. Domain-specific languages
use terms understandable to domain engineers as well as abstract software engineering
decisions. This methodology enables domain engineers to create quality executable prototypes
without being versed in the intricacies of software engineering.
Stracker, Matthew C. An Operational Manpower Analysis of the RQ-8 Fire Scout Vertical TakeOff Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV). M.S. in Management. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Bill Hatch
Second Reader: Ben Roberts
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3208
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474494
Abstract: In August of 2001 the Secretary of the Navy announced the Navy would expand the
work and experimentation in unmanned vehicle systems. After the events of September 11 this
was accelerated with the increased urgency to combat terrorism and asymmetric threats. The
U.S. Navy is currently undergoing testing and evaluation of the Fire Scout Vertical Take-Off
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) and its integration into the fleet. An in depth analysis of the
Fire Scout's manpower requirements is necessary as part of total force integration. At the present
time, the Navy only utilizes aviation ratings by requirement and assignment as unmanned aerial
system operators, unlike the Army and Marine Corps. Therefore, the Littoral Combat Ship
manpower requirements exceed the Navy's target of 25 persons for the combined RQ-8B and SH60 air detachment. Analysis shows a possible remedy to this problem is to allow non-aviation
ratings the opportunity to operate the Fire Scout. This change in policy and occupational
standards would generate greater operational capability and personnel flexibility for this newly
acquired air ship and surface platform. Specifically, occupational research showed the Aviation
Administrationman (AZ) rating is no more qualified to operate a Fire Scout VTUAV than the
Operations Specialist (OS) rating. In fact, it can be argued that an OS is better qualified
according to occupational standards to operate the Fire Scout. Therefore, one of the
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recommendations of this research is to add Operational Specialist as a source rating to NECs
8363 and 8364 immediately.
Teng, Choon Hon Adrian. Design and Performance Evaluation Study of a Prototype of a
Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Kevin D. Jones and Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3043
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475917
Abstract: This thesis aims to provide a low-cost solution through integrating commercial off-theshelf (COTS) technologies to produce a prototype of a "Tactical Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle
UCAV" system that can be utilized by the front-line ground units in the near future. The Tactical
UCAV is designed to enhance the information collection and autonomous precision strike
capability of the ground units. The Tactical UCAV can also be deployed as sensor nodes as part of
a larger global information grid in a networkcentric warfare operation. The proposed Tactical
UCAV system is comprised of a Hunter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (HUAV), which primarily carries
high resolution sensors and communication devices and is used as a mother-ship for smaller
"Killer UAVs (KUAV)." The KUAV carries a mission specific set of instruments; it can be a sensor
or a warhead or both depending on the desired end results. After the target is acquired by the
HUAV, the target information will be transferred to the KUAV. The KUAV can then be launched in
close proximity of the target with the target position update from the HUAV. This thesis will focus
on the development of a prototype KUAV and the integration of the prototype with the existing
HUAV "Rascal" developed and operated by the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). The KUAV and
the HUAV will form the Tactical UCAV system.
Toh, Leng Huei. A Follow-Up Study on Wireless Power Transmission for Unmanned Air
Vechicles [Sic Vehicles]. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Michael A. Morgan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3039
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475913
Abstract: This thesis was a continuation in part of a NPS project relating to microwave wireless
power transmission for micro air vehicles (MAVs). The concept of using microwaves for
transferring power in free space has existed since the beginning of the 20th century. The
emphasis of this thesis is the experimental study of powering micro air vehicles via the use of
using a microstrip rectenna (rectifying antenna) at 10 GHz. A microstrip rectenna was built and
experiments were conducted to measure the efficiency of the rectenna elements. The conversion
of radio frequency (RF) power into usable DC power was performed by a rectenna. Its function
could be broken down into the following four stages: reception of radio frequency (RF) power,
prerectification filtering, rectification, and post-rectification filtering. A rectenna model based on
past research by NPS students was simulated, built, and tested. The analysis and findings of the
rectenna model were presented, with suggested improvements highlighted.
Tzellos, Konstantinos. Filter Bank Approach to the Estimation of Flexible Modes in Dynamic
Systems. M.S. in Electrical Engineeing. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2007.
Thesis Advisor: Roberto Cristi
Second Reader: Xiaoping Yun
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3467
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473493
Abstract: The problem of estimating frequencies of sinusoids buried in noise has been great
interest in both military and civilian applications. In particular, in Control Systems with flexible
appendages the sinusoidal vibrations can cause instabilities and degrade performance of the
overall system. In this thesis the problem of identifying frequencies disturbances in flexible
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systems using advanced Digital Signal Processing techniques such as filter banks and Quadrature
Mirror Filters is addressed. In a number of situations there is a need to design a controller for a
system with flexible modes. In particular, space applications solar panels and robotic arms
introduce flexible modes in the system which degrades the performance. In these kinds of
applications, the frequencies of flexible modes can not be modeled accurately a priori and they
can change according the operating conditions. The proposed approach is tested by computer
simulations.
Vincent, Patrick J. Energy Conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks. Ph.D in Electrical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Disseration Supervisor: Murali Tummala
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10228
Abstract: This dissertation presents a system-level approach for minimizing the power expended
in achieving communication between a ground-based sensor network and an overhead
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A subset of sensor nodes, termed a transmit cluster, aggregates
data gathered by the network and forms a distributed antenna array, concentrating the radiated
transmission into a beam aimed towards the UAV. We present a method for more uniformly
distributing the energy burden across the sensor network, specifying the time that should elapse
between reassignments of the transmit cluster and the number of hops that should be placed
between successive transmit clusters. We analyze the performance of two strategies for
reconfiguring the communication burden between the sensor network and the UAV in order to
bring the UAV and the sensor network's beam into alignment quickly, while minimizing the
energy expenditure. We analyze the optimal number of nodes that should participate in a
beamforming process in order to minimize the energy expended by the network, and we provide
a framework to analyze the minimum energy expended in a simple beamforming algorithm.
Finally, we analyze the probability that an arbitrarily selected sensor node is connected to a
specified number of other nodes and we present an algorithm for the formation of near-linear
arrays given random placement of nodes.
Volland, Kirk N. Design, Construction and Testing of a Prototype Holonomic Autonomous
Vehicle. M.S. Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
Second Reader: Peter Crooker
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3033
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475739
Abstract: United States Department of Defense (DoD) autonomous vehicle efforts have
concentrated research in areas that support development of unmanned ground and air battlefield
vehicles. Little attention has been paid to applying robotics to automate routine tasks. A robotic
solution consisting of a prototype holonomic vehicle is proposed to search for, detect, and
remove debris that could cause foreign object damage (FOD) to turbine-engine aircraft operated
from ships. Holonomic, or omnidirectional, motion was realized by solving the system of
equations governing the vehicle's motion atop a plane surface. Translational motion without
chassis rotation was achieved through motion control using a single board computer, a pulse
width modulation (PWM) and optical isolation circuit, and a low-cost inertial measurement unit
(IMU). Obstacle detection and avoidance was realized by constructing a microprocessorcontrolled scanning ultrasonic sonar detector head and controller circuit. The sonar detector
demonstrated 360 (degrees) coverage and centimeter resolution. Rudimentary autonomous
operation and wireless manual control via a Java graphical user interface (GUI) were achieved in
an indoor environment.
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Williamson, Todd A. Modeling and Implentation of PID Control for Autonomous Robots. M.S. in
Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
Second Reader: Peter Crooker
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3470
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473631
Abstract: PID control is optimized here to control the course of a small autonomous robot for
military applications. A Visual Basic program was written to model the robot response to the
controller and provide a method of optimization. The computer model is based on empirical data
gathered through testing. Controller theory, robot mechanics, and hardware implementation are
all discussed as they relate to the ability of the robot to get from one location to another along an
efficient path. The controller was tuned to provide optimal direction control and the model was
evaluated for accuracy. The robot completed a 170 degree pivot turn in 4.0 seconds and a 170
degree differential turn in 5.1 seconds. The time predicted by the model for the each turn was
within 10% of what the robot did.
Wolf, Rebecca E. Observations and Modeling of the Shelf Circulation North of the Monterey
Bay during August 2006. M.S. Physical Oceanography. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Steven R. Ramp
Second Reader: Leslie K. Rosenfeld
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3469
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473639
Abstract: In August of 2006 the Adaptive Sampling and Prediction (ASAP) experiment was
conducted near the northern Monterey Bay. Multiple assets including aircraft, autonomous
vehicles, moorings, and numerical models were used to gain a better understanding of threedimensional upwelling centers. Data were collected at two separate mooring locations using
Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) during the experiment. The focus of this thesis is to
determine the effects of local wind forcing on the ocean circulation and provide a comparison
between the data collected at the mooring locations and numerical predictions for the region.
Upwelling and relaxation events are used as the basis for understanding the local wind forcing.
Upwelling typically results in equatorward flow while relaxation events typically result in poleward
flow. Several different types of analyses were used to determine the effects of the local wind
forcing. A visual analysis was performed with stick vector plots and component plots of the
rotated time series that compared the wind with the data from the water column. Two methods
of cross correlation, component correlations and vector correlations, were exploited as well as a
spectral analysis of the wind and ADCP data. Finally the coherence and phase between the wind
and currents were examined. Based on the analysis it became evident that the currents were
forced by both wind and non-local events such as eddies, meanders, and the large-scale
alongshelf pressure gradient. Associated with the ASAP experiment, the Harvard Ocean Prediction
System (HOPS), the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), and the Navy Coastal Ocean
Model (NCOM) provided nowcasts that were compared with the mooring data to determine their
accuracy and precision. Overall, in the beginning of August the models provided reasonable
representations of the flow patterns at the mooring locations. The prediction error increased
towards the end of August which was possibly related to data assimilation techniques and more
non-local forcing at that time. The military application of this thesis is that accurate current
prediction by ocean models will benefit amphibious operations, special warfare operations, and
mine warfare in the littoral zone.
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Yeh, Mingtze. Throughput Evaluation of an Autonomous Sustainment Cargo Container
System. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Fotis Papoulias
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3024
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475748
Abstract: With the development of new concepts in military operations and reductions in
manpower of our military forces, the promotion of autonomous systems has been pushed to the
forefront. Autonomous containers will play an essential role in the ability to deliver logistical
supplies to waterborne littoral vessels enabling them to maintain station and complete there
military operations while reducing the threat to personnel. Programmed to deliver supplies to a
specified local in a reasonable timetable, these containers will play an essential role to vessels
such as Riverine Warfare patrol craft, Special Operations craft and Coast Guard search and
rescue boats. Development of a successful autonomous system that can deliver logistical supplies
in littoral human threat arenas would serve as an immense reduction in logistical supply costs.
The research that is to be conducted will focus on the unique characteristics of an autonomous
sustainment cargo container and its throughput evaluation. Use of geometric data and static
stability is analyzed and compared. In depth analysis primarily focuses on the hull characteristics
of the container and whether subtle alterations to the bow and stern units reduce the resistance
and increase the efficiency of the deliverability rate of the autonomous system.
Zirkelbach, Thomas. Pictorial Display Design to Enhance Spatial Awareness of Operators in
Unmanned Aviation. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES).
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2007.
Thesis Advisor: Michael E. McCauley
Second Reader: Anthony P. Ciavar
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/3568
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA467707
Abstract: In aviation, spatial awareness and spatial orientation are essential for performing the
task of recovering from an unusual attitude. Degraded spatial awareness, particularly in extreme
flight situations, may lead to lower operational effectiveness and to loss of equipment and, in
manned aviation, loss of life. Therefore, inprovements in spatial awareness in complex 3D
environments, including both manned and unmanned aviation. The main goal of this thesis was
to determine whether a new prototype display design, called WEBER-Box, is a useful alternative
or supplement to traditiona flight instruments for unmanned aviation. In addition we combined
the traditional flight instrument as well as the WEBER_Box with a color-coded indication when the
aircraft entered an unusual attitude. In this experiment, the participants executed typical tasks of
a UAV-operator. We investigated the influence of the WEBER-Box on UAV operator's orientation
performance. The important results can be summarized as follows: 1. significant improvement in
correctly solving the orientation tasks, 2. significant reduction in time to solve orientation tasks,
3. color coded indication of unusual attitude significantly decreased the response time and
reduced the error, 4. the proposed display design was accepted, interpreted, and and used to
solve 3D-orientation tasks efficiently.
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2006
Beaver, James W., Andrew D. Bucher, Richard W. Byers, Jennifer M. Free, Pedro R. Mercado, and
Tristan V. Oliveria. Systems Analysis of Alternative Architectures for Riverine Warfare in
2010. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Eugene Paulo and Richard Williams
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2361
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA460370
Abstract: This thesis analyzed the Navy's proposed Riverine Force (RF) structure and capabilities
of 2006. Systems Engineering and Analysis cohort 10 (SEA10) developed a cost-effective system
of systems which increased battlespace awareness and situational responsiveness for 2010.
Riverine missions were decomposed into their functional, physical, and operational architectures
using the detect-to-engage sequence. This analysis determined critical RF functions. Critical
functions detect and engage were then physically represented by feasible force package
alternatives that augmented the baseline RF. SEA10 analyzed these alternatives using agent
based models to identify baseline RF capability gaps and provide insights into possible solutions.
Reduction of modeling data indicated the baseline force was as effective as some upgraded force
packages depending on the measure of performance (MOP) or scenario structure under scrutiny.
Sensor augmentation demonstrated significant improvements to baseline performance by
increasing battlespace awareness. Weapon augmentation alone did not significantly improve
baseline performance by increasing situational responsiveness. Combined sensor-weapon
augmentation performed well across all MOP and scenarios. The Unmanned Surface Vehicle
(USV) was the most cost-effective alternative. Dedicated helicopter support demonstrated the
best performance overall, but was the most costly alternative.
Bessemer, William G. Transitioning to Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles. M.S. in Information
Operations. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Robert O’Connell
Second Reader: Anna Simons
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2361
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA456959
Abstract: The Air Force is currently developing Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAV). The
UCAV is projected for initial testing by 2010. However, after reviewing the Office of Secretary of
Defense's Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap for 2005 2030; obtaining squadrons of UCAVs
will cost billions of dollars and require decades to produce. The United States cannot afford to
wait decades for unmanned weapons. Technology is spreading fast. Third world countries without
stable economies and non-state actors are able to obtain/develop sophisticated weapons that are
capable of destroying tactical aircraft. With sophisticated weapons easily obtainable, the risk of
losing people in air combat is increasing significantly and that in turn is creating a level playing
field for potential U.S. adversaries. Unmanned weapons technology can help America retain its
military edge. However, since unmanned warfare capability is still decades away and is a multibillion dollar project, America needs a quick fix. This study will argue that the most effective way
to decrease risk-of-life and budget costs is to introduce F-16 Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)
aircraft for combat. This thesis will answer the question: How can the government seize the
unmanned aircraft advantages and decrease defense spending until the UCAV is operational? The
answer to this question will illustrate how an effective F-16 UAS force can synchronize resources
to properly complete UCAV development while instantly reducing risk of life.
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Chin, Chee Kian. Experimental Investigation of Pitch Control Enhancement to the Flapping
Wing Micro Air Vehicle. M.S. in Engineering Science (Mechanical Engineering). Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Kevin D. Jones
Second Reader: Christopher Brophy
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2497
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462357
Abstract: The mechanical pitching characteristic of the NPS flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)
developed by Professor Kevin D. Jones are studied experimentally through the use of constant
temperature anemometry and force balance techniques. The MAV without the main fixed-wing is
placed in a laminar flow field within a low speed wind tunnel with the wake after the flapping
wings characterized with a constant temperature anemometer and thrust generation measured
by a load cell at various neutral angles, flapping frequencies and free stream velocities. The
experiments seek to determine the effects on the MAV propulsion when the neutral angle of
attack of the flapping wings is varied. Flow visualization is also performed to better enhance
understanding of the flow field across the pitched flapping wings.
Davis, Duane T. Design, Implementation and Testing of a Common Data Model Supporting
Autonomous Vehicle Compatibility and Interoperability. Ph.D. in Computer Science.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Disseratation Supervisor: Don Brutzman
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10150
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457026
Abstract: "Current autonomous vehicle interoperability is limited by vehicle-specific data formats
and support systems. Until a standardized approach to autonomous vehicle command and control
is adopted, true interoperability will remain elusive. This work explores the applicability of a data
model supporting arbitrary vehicles using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). An exemplar,
the Autonomous Vehicle Command Language (AVCL), encapsulates behavior-scripted mission
definition, goalbased mission definition, inter-vehicle communication, and mission results. Broad
applicability is obtained through the development of a behavior set capturing arbitrary vehicle
activities, and automated conversion of AVCL to and from vehicle-specific formats. The former
uses task-level behaviors suitable for mission scripting and goal decomposition. Translations use
the Extensible Stylesheet Language for Transformation, XML data binding, context-free language
parsing, and artificial intelligence machine learning and search techniques. Translation capability
is demonstrated through mappings of AVCL to and from multiple vehicle-specific formats. A final
demonstration of the power of a common autonomous vehicle data model is provided by the
implementation of a hybrid control architecture. The model's vehicle-independence and the ability
to generate vehicle-specific data are leveraged in the design of an architecture that provides
increased autonomy by augmenting a vehicle's existing controller. The utility of this architecture
is demonstrated through implementation on the Naval Postgraduate School's ARIES Unmanned
Underwater Vehicle."--p. i.
DeVane, John C. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Homeland Defense Missions.
M.A. in Security Studies (Homeland Security and Defense). Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Craig Hooper
Second Reader: Brian Greenshields
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2509
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462422
Abstract: Battlefield success of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) prompted Department of
Defense and Department of Homeland Security leaders to examine their possible applicability to
homeland defense missions within the National Strategy for Homeland Security. The National
Strategy for Homeland Security incorporates all levels of government to include law enforcement
agencies and the military, the predominant owner and operator of UASs. The military, however,
is restricted in its domestic role by the Posse Comitatus Act, and is therefore limited in its
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domestic employment of UASs. In order to determine the applicability of UASs to homeland
defense missions, it is necessary to examine the capabilities of available UASs, to match them
with mission requirements, and determine the legality of where they can be used and who can
operate them. A policy that places combat UAS capability with Title 10 military forces and
homeland defense mission capability with Title 32 and law enforcement agencies will fulfill the
goals stated in the national strategy and function within the current legal framework.
Dunbar, Thomas W. Demonstration of Waypoint Navigation for a Semi-Autonomous Prototype
Surf-Zone Robot. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
June 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Richard Harkins and Ravi Vaidyanathan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2756
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA451347
Abstract: The objective of the Small Robot Technology (SMART) initiative at the Naval Post
Graduate School (NPS) is to develop robots for military uses. One of the goals of this program is
to create a surf--zone reconnaissance robot to do beachhead surveillance and mine detection. To
this end, a prototype robot was created to test the locomotion and navigation functions which will
be used on the surf--zone robot. This work consisted of redesigning the steering mechanism,
strengthen the structure, improving the electrical distribution and upgrading the communications
hardware. Several tests were conducted on both grass and soft sand to evaluate the performance
of the locomotion system and the navigation software. The results demonstrated that the robot
functions best in soft sand as expected. However, several serious mechanical design flaws were
noticed in the body construction and mechanical systems. These flaws, while not detrimental, did
negatively impact the performance of the system. Finally, some suggestions for improving future
prototypes are discussed.
Eikenberry, Blake D. Guidance and Navigation Software Architecture Design for the
Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft (AMPHIS) Test Bed. M.S. in
Astronautical Engineering and Astronautical Engineer Degree. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Marcello Romano
Second Reader: Oleg Yakimenko
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2349
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA477319
Abstract: The Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft (AMPHIS) test bed
examines the problem of multiple spacecraft interacting at close proximity. This thesis
contributes to this on-going research by addressing the development of the software architecture
for the AMPHIS spacecraft simulator robots and the implementation of a Light Detection and
Ranging (LIDAR) unit to be used for state estimation and navigation of the prototype robot. The
software modules developed include: user input for simple user tasking; user output for data
analysis and animation; external data links for sensors and actuators; and guidance, navigation
and control (GNC). The software was developed in the SIMULINK/MATLAB environment as a
consistent library to serve as stand alone simulator, actual hardware control on the robot
prototype, and any combination of the two. In particular, the software enables hardware-in-theloop testing to be conducted for any portion of the system with reliable simulation of all other
portions of the system. The modularity of this solution facilitates fast proof-of-concept validation
for the GNC algorithms. Two sample guidance and control algorithms were developed and are
demonstrated here: a Direct Calculus of Variation method, and an artificial potential function
guidance method. State estimation methods are discussed, including state estimation from
hardware sensors, pose estimation strategies from various vision sensors, and the
implementation of a LIDAR unit for state estimation. Finally, the relative motion of the AMPHIS
test bed is compared to the relative motion on orbit, including how to simulate the on-orbit
behavior using Hill's equations.
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Furukawa, Tyler H. Reactive Obstacle Avoidance for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater
Vehicle Utilizing a Forward Looking Sonar. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Healey
Second Reader: Douglas Horner
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2779
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA451353
Abstract: One day fully autonomous AUV's will no longer require human interactions to complete
its missions. To make this a reality, the AUV must be able to safely navigate in unfamiliar
environments with unknown obstacles. This thesis builds on previous work conducted at NPS's
Center for AUV Research to improve the autonomy of the REMUS class of AUVs with an
implemented FLS. The first part of this thesis deals with accurate path following with the use of
look-ahead pitch calculations. With the use of a SIMULINK model, constraints surrounding
obstacle avoidance path planning are then explored, focusing on optimal sensor orientation
issues. Two path planning methods are developed to address the issues of a limited sonar field of
view and uncertainties brought on by an occlusion area. The first approach utilizes a pop-up
maneuver to increase the field of view and minimize the occlusion area, while the second
approach creates a path with the addition of a spline. Comparing the two methods, it was
concluded that spline addition planner provided a robust optimal obstacle avoidance path and
along with the look-ahead pitch controller completes the design of a "back-seat driver" to
improve REMUS's survivability in an unknown environment.
Gayle, Wayne H. Analysis of Operational Manning Requirements and Deployment Procedures
for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Aboard US Navy Ships. Master of Business Administration.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Bill Hatch
Second Reader: Cary Simon
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2900
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA445406
Abstract: This research was conducted per a Navy Warfare Development Center request that the
Naval Postgraduate School update the Navy's TACMEMO: Integration of UVs into Maritime
Missions TM 3-22-5-W. Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs) are expected to becoming an integral
part of the Navy's maritime mission. To incorporate USVs into the fleet, manpower issues must
be identified and resolved, i.e., manning requirements supporting USV operations; and analysis
of the rate/rating, skill sets, training and procedures required to operate and maintain USVs. The
methodology included Navy lessons learned, operation evaluation reports, and technical
documentations from past and ongoing fleet employment of USVs to identify manning issues.
Research findings included: current USV launch-and-recovery systems on host ships are
personnel intensive compared to other available systems; knowledge, skills and abilities required
of USV support personnel are identified within the BM, EM, EN, ET (Surface), GM, IT, OS, STG
(Surface) rating occupational standards, and it would be easier to train personnel from these
ratings for USV support; and a formal training path should be established for USV operators. In
consonance with Navy Human Capital direction, naval platforms must operate with reduced
manning, however, unmanned systems definitely require trained and specialized personnel to
operate and maintain.
Gezer, Berat Levent. Multi-Beam Digital Antenna for Radar, Communications, and UAV
Tracking Based on Off-the-Shelf Wireless Technologies. M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Robert D. Broadston
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2583
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA456934
Abstract: The state-of-art technologies keep generating new ways of improving on the
performance of the old systems. Array antennas, one of the continuously improving technologies,
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brought many benefits to our life. The superiorities of array antennas remove the disadvantages
of the old technology radars such as great sidelobes, vulnerability to the jammers, and
degradation effect of the clutter. Array antennas find many applications on different areas.
Today, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have begun to be seen in our life more often than
before. UAVs prevent pilot loss of life. They carry out a variety of military and civilian missions
such as surveillance and reconnaissance, target recognition, battle damage assessment, EW,
search and rescue, and traffic monitoring. An important use of the UAVs is troop support,
carrying out reconnaissance and surveillance missions, which requires maintaining a data-link
with troops in order to send any data collected, such as video images, or audio. During
operations it is necessary to continuously maintain a data and control link with the operator. This
requires the ground station antenna to track the UAV so the antenna beam is pointed properly.
The purpose of this research is to design and build an array to angle-track a UAV and, eventually,
to accomplish the data transfer from the UAV to the ground station.
Hall, Jason S. Design and Integration of a Three Degrees-of Freedom Robotic Vehicle with
Control Moment Gyro for the Autonomous Multiagent Physically Interacting Spacecraft
(AMPHIS) Testbed. M.S. in Astronautical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, September 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Marcello Romano
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2354
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA477754
Abstract: The use of fractionated spacecraft systems in on-orbit spacecraft assembly has the
potential to provide benefits to both the defense and civil space community. To this end, much
research must be conducted to develop and prove the requisite technologies to achieve these
benefits. This thesis contributes to that effort by presenting the design and system integration,
operating procedures and software development for a prototype three Degrees-Of-Freedom
(DOF) Spacecraft Simulator. This simulator will be used in the Proximity Operations Simulator
Facility, as part of the Naval Postgraduate School's Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory, to simulate
autonomous guidance, navigation and control (GNC) for spacecraft proximity operations and
assembly within the framework of the Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft
project. The new spacecraft simulator includes several key enhancements over the previous
Autonomous Docking and Spacecraft Servicing Simulator (AUDASS) developed in 2005 including
a smaller and more agile structure, reduced air consumption and a Miniature Single-Gimbaled
Control-Moment-Gyroscope (MSGCMG) to provide the necessary torque about the rotation axis.
The MSGCMG in the simulator is a low-cost, low-mass, easily controlled momentum exchange
device with a high torque to required power ratio. Furthermore, it provides the vehicle with high
slew-rate capability, a key measure of performance in on orbit spacecraft assembly. Simulation
and experimental results are presented for the prototype AMPHIS vehicle, demonstrating a
potential slew-rate of 4.8 deg/s for a 30 degree rest-to-rest maneuver. The ultimate goal of this
thesis is to provide the design specifications, combined with the necessary documentation and
software development, for the prototype vehicle of the testbed for the AMPHIS project. The work
conducted in fabricating the prototype vehicle will enable rapid fabrication of two additional
vehicles which will provide an essential hardware-in-the-loop capability for experimentation with
evolving control algorithms, sensors and mating mechanisms to be used for autonomous
spacecraft assembly.
Hibbert, Kirk R. A Need for Systems Architecture Approach for Next Generation Mine Warfare
Capability. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2006.
Principal Advisor: John Osmundson
Associate Advisor: Martha Jallim Hall
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2635
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457204
Abstract: When operating in a sea borne environment, sea mines can prevent U.S. Navy vessels
from meeting operational objectives. Sea mines have the potential of damaging, or destroying
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ships at sea. The U.S. Navy conducts mine warfare (MIW) operations to meet this threat.
Although effective against mining, our countermining operations are currently employing 1960s
technology in an attempt to keep pace with new Concepts of Operations (CONOPS). Todays
legacy MIW processes currently employed by the warfighter, although capable of countering the
mining threat, are a reactive process that is slow to engage and employ assets that are
cumbersome to operate. With the advent of new technologies, a transformation of MIW capability
is on the horizon and has the potential of influencing how the U.S. Navy maintains maritime
dominance in the openoceans and littoral environments. The influence that technologies bring to
MIW includes multi-spectral sensors, laser imagery, compact modular systems, unmanned and
semi-autonomous weapons, as well as new communications architecture and tactics. Although
these technical innovations present a level of capability superior to the existing legacy systems,
developmental barriers and the lack of an overarching systems architecture will hinder or prevent
these systems from being effectively integrated into tomorrows CONOPS.
Ho, Sze-Tek Terence. Investigating Ground Swarm Robotics using Agent Based Simulation.
M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Susan M. Sanchez
Second Reader: Chwee Seng Choo
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2449
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462523
Abstract: The concept of employing ground swarm robotics to accomplish tasks has been
proposed for future use in humanitarian de-mining, plume monitoring, searching for survivors in
a disaster site, and other hazardous activities. More importantly in the military context, with the
development of advanced explosive detectors, swarm robotics with autonomous search and
detection capability could potentially address the improvised explosive device (IED) problem
faced by foot patrols, and aid in the search for hidden ammunition caches and weapons of mass
destruction (WMDs). The intent of this research is to leverage on agent based simulation to
model a ground robotic swarm on a search and detection mission in a semi-urban environment
rigged with stationary IEDs. Efficient design of experiment (DOE) techniques and data farming
are engaged to help identify controllable factors and capabilities that have the most impact on
overall effectiveness. The focus of this thesis is to explore agent based simulation applied to
swarm robotics; the technological and algorithmic aspects are not delved on. Results from the
simulations provide several insights on the impact of both decision and noise factors on the
performance of the swarm. Incorporation of virtual pheromones as a shared memory map is
modeled as an additional capability that is found to enhance the robustness and reliability of the
swarm.
Hoffman, Andrew J. Object Orientated Programmable Integrated Circuit (OOPIC) Upgrade and
Evaluation for Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV). M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Richard Harkins and Nancy Haegel
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2434
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462596
Abstract: A small, low-power Object-Oriented Programmable integrated circuit (OOPic)
microcontroller was integrated and tested with the architecture for an autonomous ground vehicle
(AGV). Sensors with the OOPic, and the XBee Wireless Suite were included in the integration.
Tests were conducted, including range and time operation analysis for wireless communications
for comparison with the legacy BL2000 microcontroller. Results demonstrated long battery life for
the electronics of the robot, as well as communication ranges exceeding high power modems.
The OOPic was limited by processing power and an ability to interpret some incoming form data.
Consequently its use as a one for one replacement for the BL2000 is limited. However combined
use with the BL2000 shows promise as a replacement for sensor monitoring and a hardware
substitute for the legacy Pulse Width Modulator.
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Kertmen, Aykut. Evaluation of the Littoral Combat Ship (LSC) Potential for the Turkish Navy.
M.S. Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Edward Fisher
Second Reader: Orin Marvel
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2625
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457219
Abstract: This thesis will examine the potential of the two competing designs for the Littoral
Combat Ship (LCS), with regard to potential deployment of this vessel type by the Turkish Navy.
The first design is by Lockheed Martin and has been designated the USS Freedom as the U.S.
Navys first LCS. The second design is by General Dynamics. This thesis will focus on the LCS
usage concepts in Naval Capability Pillars and Information Operations. As a transformation
platform, the LCS will be critical in implementing new operational concepts and in providing a
focused, littoral mission platform for joint forces. Its superior speed and maneuverability; low
radar, infrared, and acoustic signatures; and ability to lay distributed sensor fields are all
fundamental to mission success. It will also carry a squadron of unmanned vehicles (air, surface,
and undersea) that will considerably extend its sensor and weapon coverage and provide
substantial Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) capabilities. This thesis will also discuss present and
future platforms and their concepts of operation in Turkish littoral waters (Aegean Sea, Black
Sea, and Mediterranean Sea).
Khakimbayev, Jasur S. Development of Integrated 3D Terrain Maps for Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle (UAV) Flight and Mission Control Support System (FMCSS). M.S. Modeling, Virtual
Environments and Simulation (MOVES). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March
2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Wolfgang Baer and Curtis L. Blais
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2875
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA445408
Abstract: The purpose of this thesis is to conduct the research necessary to develop integrated
3D terrain maps capable of supporting an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Mission Control Support
System. In this work, the author has tried to explore the feasibility of exploiting digital
topographic maps and further understanding of the digital terrain support available to UAV
FMCSS developers. This thesis explores numerous digital terrain data representations and tools
available to create digital environments. This work examines and gives a methodology how to
find, process, and operate in these environments. To accomplish this, the author explores the
more general problem of where to find the data, what tools are available, and how to put the
pieces together to create a registered digital environment on a state-of-the-art computer. This
work provides a logical construct and design methodology for an analyst to create high fidelity
terrain data sets. It functions as a how to manual to help analysts understand which information
and tools are available to use for different types of simulation projects.
Kriewaldt, Hannah A. Communications Performance of an Undersea Acoustic Wide-Area
Network. M.S. in Engineering Acoustics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March
2006.
Thesis Advisor: Joseph A. Rice
Second Reader: Frank E. Kragh
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2926
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA445438
Abstract: The U.S. Navy is developing through-water acoustic communications capability for
undersea, distributed systems. These wireless communication links form a wide-area network of
fixed nodes consistent with future autonomous sensors on the seafloor. Mobile nodes may
operate in the domain of the grid using the fixed nodes as both navigation reference points and
communication access points. This thesis evaluates the experimental performance of such
networked communications between an undersea vehicle and a ship. Physical-layer
considerations include refraction, wind-induced ambient noise, and vehicle aspect angle.
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Kurcan, Remzi Serdar. Isolated Word Recognition from In-Ear Microphone Data Using Hidden
Markov Models (HMM). M.S. in Electrical Engineering and M.S. in Systems Engineering.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Monique P. Fargues and David Jenn
Second Reader: Ravi Vaidyanathan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2924
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA445459
Abstract: This thesis is part of an ongoing larger scale research study started in 2004 at the
Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) which aims to develop a speech-driven human-machine
interface for the operation of semi-autonomous military robots in noisy operational environments.
Earlier work included collecting a small database of isolated word utterances of seven words from
20 adult subjects using an in-ear microphone. The research conducted here develops a speakerindependent isolated word recognizer from these acoustic signals based on a discrete-observation
Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The study implements the HMM-based isolated word recognizer in
three steps. The first step performs the endpoint detection and speech segmentation by using
short-term temporal analysis. The second step includes speech feature extraction using static and
dynamic MFCC parameters and vector quantization of continuous-valued speech features. Finally,
the last step involves the discrete-observation HMM-based classifier for isolated word recognition.
Experimental results show the average classification performance around 92.77%. The most
significant result of this study is that the acoustic signals originating from speech organs and
collected within the external ear canal via the in-ear microphone can be used for isolated word
recognition. The second dataset collected under low signal-to-noise ratio conditions with additive
noise results in 79% recognition accuracy in the HMM-based classifier. We also compared the
classification results of the data collected within the ear canal and outside the mouth via the
same microphone. The second dataset collected under low signal-to-noise ratio conditions with
additive noise results in 79% recognition accuracy in the HMM-based classifier. We also compared
the classification results of the data collected within the ear canal and outside the mouth via the
same microphone. Average classification rates obtained for the data collected outside the mouth
shows significant performance degradation (down to 63%), over that observed with the data
collected from within the ear canal (down to 86%). The ear canal dampens high frequencies. As a
result, the HMM model derived for the data with dampened higher frequencies does not
accurately fit the data collected outside the mouth, resulting in degraded recognition
performances.
Lamb, Timothy G. Small Unmanned Aerial System (SUAS) Flight and Mission Control Support
System (FMCSS) Design. M.S. in Information Technology Management. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Wolfgang Baer
Second Reader: Edward Fisher
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2574
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457224
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are playing a significant role in the Global War on
Terrorism (GWOT). Until recently, small UAS (SUAS) were an insignificant part of these efforts.
Now their numbers exceed those of their larger counterparts by an order of magnitude. Future
projections anticipate a growing demand for SUAS making now the best time to examine the
functions they perform in order to make better decisions concerning their future design and
development. This thesis provides a brief history of UAS and discusses the current capabilities
and mission areas in which they perform. Their relevance to modern warfare and assumptions
concerning their future roles on the battlefield is presented. Predominant UAS missions are
identified, as well as the technical requirements deemed necessary for their success. A generic
UAS functional model is developed to illustrate where the challenges and technology gaps
manifest in SUAS design. Possible technology solutions that could fill these gaps are presented
and a field experiment is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of several possible solutions.
The goal of this thesis is to identify existing technology gaps and offer technology solutions that
lead to better design of future SUAS flight and mission control support systems (FMCSS).
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Landreth, Kent A. and John C. Glass. Extending the Tactical Horizon: Networking Aircraft to
Enable Persistent Surveillance and Target Development for SOF. M.S. in Defense Analysis.
Technology Management. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Advisor: David W. Netzer
Second Reader: Robert O’Connell
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2582
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457127
Abstract: The NPS Tactical Horizon Extension Project objective is to define and demonstrate a
concept by which task force-level commanders and below can obtain a persistent, over-thehorizon surveillance capability for the purpose of target development and other missions without
tasking national or theater-level assets. Our goal is to increase the ISR capacity of units who
normally would not rate the priority to task a Predator, Global Hawk, or U-2. There are two
guiding tenets in developing this concept. First, the equipment and its control should be organic
to the SOF unit or task force. Second, utilizing this capability should not require the soldier to
carry any additional equipment into the field. Initial research led us to the idea of using
networked unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) to generate an over-the-horizon surveillance
capability for SOF. We demonstrated the concept by forming a network comprised of a forward
ground team, an inexpensive, test-bed UAS equipped with an off-the-shelf video camera, a
manned aircraft, and a tactical operations center (TOC). We attained connectivity through an ITT
Mesh structure at 2.4 GHz, amplified to 1W. Researchers were from the Defense Analysis,
Mechanical and Astronautical Engineering, and Information Sciences Departments. We conducted
successful experiments through the USSOCOM-NPS Cooperative Field Experimentation Program.
Lee, Anthony. Variable Resolution Direction Finding using the Robust Symmetrical Number
System. M.S. in Combat Systems Sciences and Technology. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisors: Phillip Pace, David Jenn and Donald Walters
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2456
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462642
Abstract: A digital implementation of a phase sampling interferometer antenna system based on
the Robust Symmetrical Number System (RSNS) is built using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS)
items. The RSNS-based direction finding (DF) system uses short baselines to achieve a high
resolution DF capability in a physically compact system for use as stand-in sensors on unmanned
aerial vehicles. The RSNS inherent integer Gray code property minimizes the possible encoding
errors and adds a robustness to the accuracy of the estimated Angle of Arrival (AOA). A digital
architecture using quadrature demodulators and real-time controllers provide grreater flexibility
for signal processing and allows for the implementation of a new virtual spacing algorithm. The
virtual spacing concept changes the RSNS moduli values to implement a virtual antenna spacing
without having to physically change the antenna element spacing. This enables higher resolution
DF in circumstances where the Signal-to-Noise Ratio is high enough to provide error free coding
of the AOA. Two four element, digital 3-channel interferometer prototype systems were
constructed and tested in the NPS anechoic chamber. The first antenna array is designed using
pairwise relatively prime (PRP) moduli. When an extension of the virtual spacing concept for
application to N-channel systems was successfully resolved, a second 3-channel array was built
using non-PRP moduli for evaluating the performance of the virtual spacing concept. The
simulated and experimental results, hardware implementation and testing procedures are
presented in this thesis. Results for the first array show that the RSNS-based DF system is able
to provide 0.7 degree RMS resolution with a baseline of 66 cm. For the second virtual spacing
array, the short physical baseline of 14 cm was sensitive to noise and antenna spacing errors.
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Lewis, Laird-Philip Ryan. Rapid Motion Planning and Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for
Unmanned Vehicles. M.S. in Astronautical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: I. Michael Ross
Second Reader: Wei Kang
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2460
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462927
Abstract: This work introduces the use of optimal control methods for path planning and control
of autonomous vehicles in an obstacle-rich environment. Traditional techniques harbor nonoptimal, closed architectures primarily derived at a time when computational complexity could
significantly hinder overall system performance. Advancements in computing power,
miniaturization, and numerical methods permit the utilization of online, optimal path planning
and control, thereby improving system flexibility and autonomy. The backbone of this concept is
state-of-the-art optimal control techniques involving pseudospectral methods and sequential
quadratic programming. Although this research focuses on a robotic car or Unmanned Ground
Vehicle (UGV), several systems, including an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and a pendulum on
a rotational base, are detailed for the purpose of illustrating the technique's modularity. With
respect to the UGV, optimal control methods permit the optimization of maneuver parameters
while accounting for complex vehicle kinematics and workspace obstacles, represented as
dynamic and path constraints respectively. The path constraints are modeled such that an
obstacle of any shape or size can be included. Maneuvering trajectories are first generated in an
open-loop architecture, followed by an application of these same techniques in feedback form.
Lastly, model fidelity is increased to improve control over vehicle behavior and closed-loop
performance and a local knowledge scenario is evaluated.
Long, Eric J. Cost Valuation : A Model for Comparing Dissimilar Aircraft Platforms. Master of
Business Administration. MBA Professional Report. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, December 2006.
Advisors: Douglas A. Brook and William Gates
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/10086
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA460310
Abstract: The purpose of this MBA Project was to investigate and provide an overview of current
cost valuation methods used to compare aircraft and then determine if the current methods were
satisfactory for comparing dissimilar aircraft platforms. The goal of the project was to develop a
model using O&S and procurement cost inputs together with aircraft inventory and utilization
data in order to produce a cost per unit hour for any given aircraft. A demonstration of the
models validity using aircraft and cost data from the Predator UAV and the F-16 was then
performed to illustrate how it can be used to aid comparisons of dissimilar aircraft platforms that
perform similar missions.
Masson, Scott R. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle use in Army Brigade Combat Teams : Increasing
Effectiveness Across the Spectrum of Conflict. M.S. in Defense Analysis. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Tucker
Second Reader: Eugene P. Paulo
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2465
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462656
Abstract: One of the major strengths of the U.S. Army conventional force, and its doctrinal
methods, is the ability to conduct operational and tactical maneuver out of contact with an enemy
force. This allows the U.S. to decide the time, place, and conditions of contact. Under this system
national, strategic, and operational intelligence systems generate, analyze, and disseminate
intelligence to maneuver units. When major conventional operations conclude, or in operations
where they never take place, conventional forces transition to Stability Operations and Support
Operations (SASO). Conducting SASO operations generally requires extensive interaction with,
and conducting operations among, a local populace. The necessary physical interaction with a
local populace causes two significant problems for conventional forces: traditional intelligence
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assets (national, strategic, operational) are largely irrelevant to the operations U.S. forces
conduct, and interacting with a local population whenever outside of a FOB affects the actions of
the population. In military operations other than conventional combat, intelligence must be
generated from the lowest possible tactical level, something conventional forces are not
organized or equipped to do. Proliferating Shadow Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (TUAV)
Platoons throughout Army Brigade Combat Team's (BCTs) subordinate battalions will enable
commanders to gather the tactical intelligence necessary for success.
Matos, Antonio P. Characterization and Application of Four-Layer Semiconductor Structures in
Pulse Mode Operation. M.S. in Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors; Gamani Karunasiri and James H. Luscombe
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2569
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457352
Abstract: The characteristics and application of a thyristor (a four-layer semiconductor structure)
in a pulse generating circuit are explored. A thyristor device was used to create a pulse
generating circuit and the pulse interval duration of this circuit was experimentally measured.
The pulse interval duration was determined to be characterized by a Poisson Point Process
distribution that is dependent on both temperature and applied voltage bias. The adjustable
aperiodicity of the pulse intervals was a key characteristic used to design a distributed processing
system of micro-robots that are capable of swarming. A micro-robotic swarm platform was
simulated using finite element analysis, a JAVA-based swarm model, and three fully operational
macro-scale platforms.
Miller, Benjamin D. Improvised Explosive Devise [Device] Placement Detection from a SemiAutonomous Ground Vehicle. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Richard Harkins
Second Reader: Nancy Haegel
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2476
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462650
Abstract: Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) continue to kill and seriously injure military
members throughout the Iraqi theatre. Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) seeks to identify the
human presence placing the IED and then report that contact to a unit of action. This research
developed a semi-autonomous platform that can navigate to waypoints, avoid obstacles,
investigate possible threats and then detect motion that triggers a visual camera. The information
is then relayed back to the user and can trigger a variety of actions. AGV has been tested in a
numerous environments with a wide range of success. It is limited by the communication range
from its standard 802.11G router and the continuous availability of the global positioning system.
Terrain with extensive peaks and valleys is not ideal for the current platform. However, for
detecting the human presence that is consistent with IED placement, AGV is well suited.
Nannini, Christopher J. Analysis of the Assignment Scheduling Capability for Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles (ASC-U) Simulation Tool. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, June 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Arnold H. Buss and Susan M. Sanchez
Second Reader: Darryl K. Ahner
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2813
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457579
Abstract: The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Analysis Center (TRAC) and
the Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulations Institute (MOVES) at the Naval Postgraduate
School, Monterey, California developed the Assignment Scheduling Capability for UAVs (ASC-U)
simulation to assist in the analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) requirements for the current
and future force. ASC-U employs a discrete event simulation coupled with the optimization of a
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linear objective function. At regular intervals, ASC-U obtains an optimal solution to a simplified
problem that assigns available UAVs to missions that are available or will be available within a
future time horizon. This thesis simultaneously explores the effects of 26 simulation and UAV
factors on the mission value derived when allocating UAVs to mission areas. The analysis assists
in defining the near term (2008) UAV force structure and the investment strategy for the mid
term (2013), and far term (2018). We combine an efficient experimental design, exploratory
modeling, and data analysis to examine 514 variations of a scenario involving five UAV classes
and over 21,000 mission areas. The conclusions suggest the following: the optimization interval
significantly influences the quality of the solution, percent mission coverage may depend on a few
UAV performance factors, small time horizons increase percent mission coverage, and carefully
planned designs assist in the exploration of the outer and interior regions of the response
surface.
Ortiz, John E. Absolute Position Measurement for Automated Guided Vehicles Using the
Greedy DeBruijn Sequence. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Harold M. Fredrickson and Jon T. Butler
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2612
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457411
Abstract: Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) use different techniques to help locate their position
with respect to a point of origin. This thesis compares two approaches that utilize a binary track
laid on the floor for the AGV to follow. Both approaches use equally spaced n-tuples on the track
that the AGV can use to compute its position. Both approaches also have the special feature that
every n-tuple on the binary track is unique and can be used to designate the position of an AGV.
The first approach, developed by E.M. Petriu, uses a Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) as
a model for the binary track. In the second approach, we use a Greedy DeBruijn Sequence
(GDBS) as a model for the binary track. Unlike the PRBS model, the GDBS model has a natural
ordering which can be used to determine the position of the AGV more quickly and efficiently
than the PRBS model.
Phang, Nyit Sin. Tethered Operation of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles to Provide Extended Field
of View for Autonomous Ground Vehicles. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Douglas Horner and Vladimir Dobrokhodov
Second Reader: Anthony J. Healey
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2491
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462612
Abstract: This thesis was part of the ongoing research conducted at the Naval Postgraduate
School to achieve greater collaboration between heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The
research addresses optimal control issues in the collaboration between an Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle (UAV) and Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV). The scenario revolves around using the
camera onboard the UAV to extend the effective field of view of the AGV. For military operations,
this could be helpful in improving security for convoys and riverine patrols. There were three
main problems addressed in this thesis. The first problem dealt with the design of a UAV control
law that takes into consideration the relative speed differences between the UAV and the AGV.
The UAV was assumed to have a greater speed compared to the AGV in this thesis. The second
was the keystone field of view projection effect of the UAVs onboard camera onto the earth. The
image captured by the camera was distorted due to the view angle of the camera from a high
elevation. The third problem addressed was control of the location of the UAV to ensure the
reliability of the communication network between the UAV and the AGV. The communication was
assumed to be a linear function of the relative positions of the UAV and the AGV.
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Price, William D. Control System of a Three DOF Spacecraft Simulator by Vectorable Thrusters
and Control Moment GYROS. M.S. in Astronautical Engineering and Astronautical Engineer.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Marcello Romano
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2350
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA477316
Abstract: This thesis presents the continued design and system integration of a prototype three
Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) Spacecraft Simulator used in the Proximity Operations Simulator
Facility, as part of the Naval Postgraduate School's Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory, to simulate
autonomous guidance, navigation and control (GNC) for spacecraft proximity operations and
assembly as part of the Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft project.
Several key enhancements of the spacecraft simulator were made including the integration of
onboard sensors, improved electrical distribution system, improved command and data handling
system, and the design and integration of vectorable thrusters. A pair of independently controlled
360 degree vectorable thrusters is now included in the spacecraft simulator. A control system and
thruster mapping algorithm were developed to incorporate the translational and rotational control
authority that the vectorable thrusters provide with the rotational control authority of the
previously developed Miniature Single-Gimbaled Control-Moment-Gyroscope (MSGCMG).
Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the functionality of the
prototype AMPHIS vehicle. The work done in developing the prototype vehicle will enable rapid
fabrication of additional vehicles to provide essential hardware-inthe- loop experimentation
capabilities for evolving control algorithms, sensors and mating mechanisms to be used for
autonomous spacecraft assembly.
Reed, Michael S. Use of an Acoustic Network as an Underwater Positioning System. M.S. in
Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2006.
Thesis Advisors: Joseph A. Rice and Roberto Cristi
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2806
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457827
Abstract: Underwater acoustic networks provide an interface between UUVs and surface or landbased control systems. By exploiting range data measured incidental to communications on these
networks it is possible to perform underwater positioning similar to that of the satellite-based
GPS program. In this thesis, several algorithms for generating position fixes from these range
data are implemented, tested, and evaluated with synthetic data. The algorithms are then
applied to data obtained during operations at sea.
Richter, Matthew P. Analysis of Operational Manning Requirements and Deployment
Procedures for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Aboard U.S. Navy Ships. Master of Business
Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Primary Advisor: Bill Hatch
Associate Advisor: Cary Simon
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2616
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457242
Abstract: This research was conducted in association with Naval Warfare Development Command
(NWDC) requests to update Unmanned Vehicle Tactical Memorandum TM-3-22- 5-SW. The
research identified and discussed significant USV manning considerations such as source ratings
and manpower qualities to pilot, operate sensors, support USV electronics, and the manpower
implications associated with various weapons systems alternatives. In addition, this research
described several existing and notional USV tactics, as well as a discussion about the existing
N75 and N76 primary and secondary mission areas USV operations may support. The
methodology consisted of a literature review of USV test reports; USV Advanced Concept
Technology Demonstration briefs; USV Concept of Operations; fleet lessons learned; the USV
tactical memorandum; Naval manpower instructions, and manuals; Weapons Tactical, Field, and
Training Manuals; Military Utility Assessments; search of books, magazines, and manpower
theses. The research found that determining manpower qualities and standard operating
procedures will remain a dynamic process until USV equipment is standardized. The research also
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showed USV launch and recovery is more manpower intensive than that of a standard RHIB.
Gunners Mates (GM) and Aviation Ordnancemen (AO) are potential source ratings to support USV
Hellfire and Javelin missile modules. The Navy should establish a GM Navy Enlisted Classification
(NEC) to support Hellfire and Javelin or add these weapons to existing GM NECs. Electronics
Technicians (ET), Fire Controlmen (FC), and Fire Control Technicians (FT) are potential source
ratings for USV electrical/electronic support. FC and FT are potential source ratings to support the
Remote Operated Small Arms Mount. This research found additional warfighting capabilities can
be gained by equipping surface warfare vessels with USV's without any negative effects to
primary or secondary warfare missions. Overall, USVs enhanced designed capabilities of Naval
warships and directly support a capabilities based Navy.
Rodriguez Gallo, Luis E. Department of Information Sciences. Propagation Modeling of
Wireless Systems on Shipboard External Decks. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Michael A. Morgan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2617
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457355
Abstract: Many onboard ship operations demand full radio coverage over the entire ship, not only
indoor, but also from the interior spaces to the other decks. Onboard a ship, specifically in the
upper decks, radio wave propagation is subjected to fading that would impede the quality and
reliability of data links and communication. One example is the performance of unmanned aerial
vehicle (UAV) data and communications links. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze, model,
and simulate some communication scenarios that occur on naval ships using Urbana. Starting
from known inputs (frequency, ship compartment geometry, material properties, propagation
computation model, and antenna type), analytical results reflecting the propagation mechanisms
and coverage area are presented. Variable inputs can then be optimized to achieve a desired
signal distribution for a specific shipboard environment. The ship models were created by Rhino,
a well-known Windows-based computer drawing software. The values of the signals received on
the different points in the main deck are computed for different frequencies and powers. The
results are used to draw conclusions of the deployment of antennas on the ship as well as
operational aspects such as UAV flight paths.
Schall, Stephen A. Path Calculation and Packet Translation for UAV Surveillance in Support of
Wireless Sensor Networks. M.S. in Computer Science. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Gurminder Singh and Ravi Vaidyanathan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2663
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457291
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a relatively new technology with many potential
applications, including military and homeland security surveillance operations. Accurate
classification of WSN contacts has been attempted using various sensor combinations over the
past few years, yet video and photographic imagery remain the only choices for attaining context
specific contact classification. While cameras have been successfully installed within some WSNs,
there are serious limitations to this solution. Most stemming from the scarce power resources,
immobility, and small form factor common among conventional WSN nodes. An efficient, low cost
answer to this problem involves the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to acquire imagery
of WSN contacts. For this system to scale to the wide expanses that WSNs deploy over, UAV
contact surveillance operations must be controlled autonomously. The objective of this thesis is
to research and implement an autonomous UAV WSN system, where an optimized twodimensional flight plan is produced in response to WSN contact detection. Flight plans
autonomously guide the UAV on a course to either an estimated interception point with the WSN
contact or to the instigated WSN cluster, depending upon user input. The event driven application
produced in this study functions in the periphery of the Kestrel Autopilot System, communicating
flight plans to the UAV through properly crafted Kestrel packets.
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Tay, Boon Chong. Development and Implementation of New Control Law for Vision Based
Target Tracking System Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. M.S. in Engineering
Science (Mechanical Engineering). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December
2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Issac I. Kaminer and Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2420
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462713
A new control law is being developed and implemented for the Vision Based Target Tracking
(VBTT) system onboard a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV). The new control law allows for
coordinated SUAV guidance and vision-based target tracking of stationary and moving targets in
the presence of atmospheric disturbances and measurements noise. The new control law is tested
for its performance and stability in both the theoretical 6DOF simulation and the Hardware-inthe-Loop (HIL) simulation. Principal results show that realistic measures of performance of the
control law are continuous and exhibit predictable degradation of performance with increase of
target speed. The results are encouraging and comparable among theoretical predictions, actual
hardware simulation results, and initial flight testing. The control law development,
implementation, and trial processes and procedures are also examined and categorically
documented in this thesis as future reference on the subject development, as well as for better
knowledge retention, continuation and proliferation of the VBTT system.
Tsaprazis, Konstantinos. Design and Analysis of Side-Looking Sonar Experiments. M.S. in
Applied Physics and M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, December 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Lawrence J. Ziomek and Bruce Denardo
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2411
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462697
Abstract: This research concerns the design and analysis of different Side-Looking Sonar
experiments in order to satisfy different operational requirements. The different designs and
analysis have been done via computer simulation. Side-Looking Sonar (also known as side-scan
sonar) is known for very high quality, high resolution, ocean bottom imaging. Hence, it is used
for bathymetric surveys, commonly called seafloor mapping. It is able to rapidly survey large
ocean areas for bottom and suspended sea-mines or other kinds of threats. Another operational
aspect of these systems is that they allow autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to conduct
operations, mostly in shallow water and near land. Thus Side-Looking Sonar can be a very useful
device in littoral warfare operations. This research has defined the basic parameters that rule the
operation of a Side-Looking Sonar and, furthermore, analyzed various aspects that affect the
performance of these parameters. Special focus was given to the various operational
requirements and conditions that a designer or a user may encounter in realistic situations.
Toward that end, many numerical examples are presented. Moreover, the research has tried to
indicate the various problems that may arise when a Side-Looking Sonar operates in its near-field
region and suggests certain solutions. The active sonar equation and its factors were explained
and were evaluated for a realistic example of mine detection as well.
Verett, Marianna J. Performance and Usage of Biometrics in a Testbed Environment for
Tactical Purposes. M.S. in Information Technology Management. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Alex Bordetsky
Second Reader: David N. Netzer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2414
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462718
Abstract: Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Tactical Network Topology (TNT) experiments seek
to develop, implement and identify sensor-unmanned vehicle network, and network-centric
operations to assist DoD warfighters in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). Using biometric
data for rapid identification of High Value Targets (HVT) in ground and Maritiime Interdiction
Operations (MIO) is critical to the emeging special operations concept. The goal is to explore
solutions and operational constraints associated with biometric data analysis and rapid
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identification by means of adhoc self forming sensor unmanned vehicle (UV) wireless networks.
The objectives of this thesis are to look at how biometrics has performed in a testbed
environment that is simulating a real special operations environment in theatre. This thesis is
meant to explore and explain the biometrics process that was conducted on top of the tactical
network and evaluate its performance. This thesis provided the process model for biometrics
identification in the tactical networks environment. This thesis also evaluated the length of time
that it took to transmit the fingerprint data from the field to the ABIS databvase, with an
identification result then sent back to the field. The longest time that was observed was 70
minutes (using low bandwidth Satellite communications), while the shortest time was 4 minutes
for reachback to ABIS and 2 minutes for a local database.
Vonheeder, Steven R. Analysis and Tuning of a Low Cost Inertial Navigation System in the
ARIES AUV. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Healey
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2418
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462714
Abstract: Autonomous underwater vehicle navigation is a complex problem of state estimation.
Accurate navigation is made difficult due to a lack of reference navigation aids or use of the
Global Positioning System (GPS) that could establish the vehicles position. Accurate navigation is
critical due to the level of autonomy and range of missions and environments into which an
underwater vehicle may be deployed. Navigational accuracy depends not only on the initialization
and drift errors of the low cost Inertial Motion Unit (IMU) gyros and the speed over ground
sensor, but also on the performance of the sensor fusion filter used. This thesis will present the
method by which an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) was tuned after installation of an IMU in the
ARIES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle. The goal of installing the IMU, analyzing the navigational
results and tuning the EKF was to achieve navigational accuracy in the horizontal plane with a
position error of less than one percent of distance traveled when compared to GPS. The research
consisted of IMU installation and software modifications within the vehicle to fully realize the
design goal. Data collection and analysis was conducted through field experiments and computer
simulation. A significant result of this work was development of a pseudo-adaptive algorithm to
vary the measurement noise values in selected channels to for a desired response in the filter
and improve accuracy and precision in the state estimates.
Wahl, Douglas Timothy. Increasing Range and Lethality of Extended-Range Munitions (ERMS)
using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the AUV Workbench to Compute a
Ballistic Correction (BALCOR). M.S. in Meteorology and Physical Oceanography. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Wendell Nuss and Don Brutzman
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2417
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462735
Abstract: Extended Range Munitions (ERMs) are gun-launched rocket-boosted munitions having
an effective range ocer 27 km. In accordance with Sea power 21 and the Marine Corps's
requirements for sea-based fire support, three ERMs are being developed. The purpose of this
work is to increase the range and lethality of these munitions by applying environmental effects
when computing the projectiles' trajectory. A broad review of artillery and munitions literature
reveals that historically 66% of ballistic error can be attributed to meteorological factors. The
most important factors are wind (speed and direction), temperature, and pressure. It has also
been shown that global atmospheric numerical weather presictions (NWP) data typically
outperforms the traditional radiosonde data and is suitable for use in ballistic corrections.
Forecasted NWP products provided by the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanographic
Center (FNMOC) are integrated using the Joint Meteorology and Oceanographic (METOC) Broker
Language (JMBL) into a Five Degree of Freedom (5DOF) aerodynamic model within the
Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) Workbench producing a ballistic correction (BALCOR) for
the munition. This new capability can significantly enhance naval gunfire effectiveness since the
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BALCOR increase the munitions' range and the ability apply kinetic energy onto the target rather
than using it to maneuver to the target.
Yap, Kwee Chye. Incorporating Target Mensuration System for Target Motion Estimation
Along a Road using Asynchronous Filter. M.S. in Engineering Science (Mechanical
Engineering) Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.
Thesis Advisor: Isaac I. Kaminer
Second Reader: Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2427
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462568
Abstract: In support of TNT experiments, the NPS UAV laboratory has developed a Vision-Based
Target Tracking (VBTT) system for a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV). This system
provides an autonomous target tracking capability, while simultaneously estimating the target's
velocity and position.The accuracy of the existing system can be improved by providing external
corrections to the target position estimation from the georectification system (GIS). This thesis
addresses the implementation of an asynchronous correction scheme into the target position
estimation filter. The current autonomous position estimation algorithm provides 20-30 meters
accuracy. The external correction system (Perspective View Nascent Technologies (PVNT)) is
expected to provide target position accuracy of 1-2 m. However, a delay of up to 10 seconds is
expected. Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy of current estimation of target motion, a
new asynchronous correction technique that incorporates the more accurate PVNT data is
proposed. To further improve the target motion estimation, it was also proposed to incoprate a
known road model into the filter and compare its performance with the original filter.
Zacherl, Brian. Weapon-Target Pairing : Revising an Air Tasking Order in Real-Time. M.S. in
Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2006.
Thesis Advisor: W. Matthew Carlyle
Second Readers: R. Kevin Wood and Sergio Posadas
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2531
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457373
Abstract: Well-publicized lost opportunities for U.S. and coalition air forces to strike enemy
leadership targets in Afghanistan and Iraq demonstrate the importance of Time Sensitive
Targeting. How do we "pair" the weapon and weapons delivery platform with their target? The
available platforms (aircraft, manned or unmanned) may be on the ground in an alert status,
loitering airborne, or on their way to attack other targets. The problem is compounded by the
facts that we actually wish to (a) create multiple strike packages simultaneously, (b) recompose
existing strike packages that are disrupted by the new plans, (c) minimize such disruptions, (d)
satisfy minimum kill probabilities, and (e) avoid the attrition of tasked assets. This thesis
develops an automated, optimizing, heuristic decision aid, "RAPT-OR", that rapidly revises a
current Air Taking Order (ATO) to meet the requirements above. Using a set-packing model,
RAPT-OR, an ATO near optimally, on a desktop PC, in less than two seconds, for a typical
scenario with 40 aircraft, four new targets and hundreds of potential strike packages. RAPT-OR
allows decision makers the ability of adjusting risk acceptance in the formulation of possible
courses of action by manipulating friendly attrition importance in formulating a solution.
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2005
Ackerman, James S. Error Analysis of Sensor Measurements in a Small UAV. M.S. in Engineering
Science (Mechanical Engineering). Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September
2005.
Thesis Advisor: Isaac I. Kaminer
Second Reader: Vladimir Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2021
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439651
Abstract: This thesis focuses on evaluating the measurement errors in the gimbal system of the
SUAV autonomous aircraft developed at NPS. These measurements are used by the vision based
target position estimation system developed at NPS. Analysis of the errors inherent in these
measurements will help direct future investment in better sensors to improve the estimation
system's performance.
Baggesen, Arne. Design and Operational Aspects of Autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial
Vehicles. M.S. in Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES). Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, September 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Moshe Kress
Second Advisor: Thomas W. Lucas
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2015
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439358
Abstract: A family of advanced weapon systems that deserves special attention comprises aerial
autonomous weapons called Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs), which are characterized
by the ability to loiter in the target area, sense the targets, acquire the targets, and then engage
them. Modeling this combination of capabilities in a specific operational setting is necessary for
addressing design and operational issues of this weapon. This work focuses on the development
of an analytic probability model that capture
key aspects of the autonomous weapon
systems' engagement process. Special attention is given to simultaneous attack occurrences,
imperfect battle damage assessment, and attack coordination properties. The model is a
continuous-time Markov Chain and for its implementation a state generator and an algorithm that
computes the transition and limiting probabilities has been developed and programmed in Java
based software. The Markovmodel derives values for several measures of effectiveness (MOEs),
and the average engagement time. Different operational scenarios and design configurations are
examined in a sample analysis to demonstrate the model's capabilities. Tradeoffs among sensing,
data processing capabilities, vulnerability and lethality of UCAVs are explicitly represented with
respect to selected MOEs.
Baskin, Clayton M. A Case Study of Insitu-Aircraft Observations in a Waterspout Producing
Cloud. M.S. in Meteorology. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2005.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Haflidi Jonsson and Wendell Nuss
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2320
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA432302
Abstract: An analysis of in-situ aircraft observations collected in the parent cloud of a waterspout
is presented. Previous waterspout studies were confined mainly to photometric and model
simulated data, no in-situ observations were made internal to the parent cloud. On 27 June 2002
the Cooperative Institute for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) UV-18A Twin Otter
aircraft collected observations in a cloud that had developed in a cloud line, located
approximately 15km south of Key West, and that formed a waterspout. This study attempts to
analyze the waterspout formation process using these data and through a series of scale
interactions, from the synoptic scale down to the individual cloud scale. Based upon the analyzed
data a hypothetical formation process is developed. The background synoptic scale flow is shown
to establish the necessary ambient shear as a key factor in the waterspout formation. The
orientation of mesoscale convergent boundaries and thermodynamic processes, internal to the
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cloud, proved to be an essential factor in developing the vertical motion patterns necessary for
formation of an organized circulation in the shear region and to provide the tipping and stretching
of the resultant vortex necessary to account for the waterspout formation. This is consistent with
conclusions derived from previous studies.
Brashear, Jr., Thomas James. Analysis of Dead Time and Implementation of Smith Predictor
Compensation in Tracking Servo Systems for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. M.S. in
Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2005.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Isaac I. Kaminer and Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1848
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443426
Abstract: Recent advances in technology have allowed for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
(SUAVs) to employ miniaturized smart payloads such as gimbaled cameras, deployable
mechanisms, and network sensors. Gimbaled video camera systems, designed at NPS, use two
servo actuators to command line of sight orientation via serial controller while tracking a target
and is termed Visual Based Target Tracking (VBTT). Several Tactical Network Topology (TNT)
experiments have shown high value of this new payload but also revealed inherent delays that
exist between command and actuation of the pan-tilt servo actuators controlling the camera.
Preliminary analysis shows that these delays are due to a communication lag between the ground
control station and the onboard serial controller, a data processing delay within that controller,
and the mechanical delays of the gimbal. This thesis applies system identification techniques to
the servo controller system and considers the implementation of a Smith Predictor into the
camera control algorithm in order to reduce the overall effect of the lag on the system
performance.
Bromley, Joseph M. Evaluation of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) and SPARTAN SCOUT as
Information Operations (IO) Assets. M.S. in Information Systems and Operations. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Michael T. McMaster
Second Reader: Steven J. Iatrou
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2312
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA432431
Abstract: This thesis will address the planned configuration of Lockheed Martin's Flight Zero,
Module Spiral Alpha Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) and the ongoing development of the SPARTAN
SCOUT, one of the Navy's Unmanned Surface Vessels (USV). Technology currently available as
well as developmental technologies will be recommended for implementation in order to make
the LCS and SCOUT assets to Information Operations (IO) objectives. Specific technology will
include Outboard, TARBS, HPM, Loudspeakers, LRAD and Air Magnet. This thesis will include an
evaluation of the current policy for authorizing Information Operations missions, specifically in
the areas of Psychological Operations (PSYOP) and Electronic Warfare (EW).
Carter, Benjamin R. Time-Optimization of High Performance Combat Maneuvers. M.S. in
Aeronautical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.
Thesis Co-Advisors: R.M. Howard and I.M. Ross
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2176
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435593
Abstract: Recent developments in post-stall maneuverability and thrust vectoring have opened up
new possibilities in the field of air combat maneuvering. High angle of attack maneuvers like the
Cobra, Herbst Reversal, and Chakra demonstrate that today's cutting edge fighters are capable of
exploiting the post-stall flight regime for very dynamic and unconventional maneuvers. With the
development and testing of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles, even greater maneuvering ability
is expected. However, little work has been done to make use of this increased ability by
optimizing a wide range of combat maneuvers. The goal of this thesis was to begin that process
by finding several time-optimal air combat maneuvers that could be employed by current and
future high performance fighter aircraft.
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Cesur, Fatih. Optimizing Formation Movement Over Heteregeneous Terrain. M.S. in Operations
Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Gerald G. Brown
Second Reader: Ellen F. Roland
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2174
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435595
Abstract: Formation movement is vital to preserve security among its units during military
operations. We plan movement of a military formation over real, or simulated terrain, maximally
preserving the relative positions of units in formation while it avoids barriers, and while its units
avoid obstacles. Terrain is divided into homogeneous cells (say, squares), and a pair of
neighboring cells is adjacent if the formation can transit between these cells while avoiding
barriers with sufficient clearance. We induce a graph from these adjacencies, and determine the
movement cost on each arc with a fine time-step simulation that finds local movement vectors to
preserve relative formation position while avoiding approach too close to barriers or obstacles
(this emulates solving differential equations with Euler's method). We then nominate an origin
and a destination, select a shortest path, and repeat the time-step simulation over this path to
determine the individual positions of each unit as the formation makes its transit. Game
designers and robot controllers have published schemes to guide formation movement, but their
movements can penetrate barriers, and myopically get caught in cul-de-sacs. By contrast, we
guarantee that if a path exists that avoids these pitfalls, we will find it.
Cfir, Dolev. A Model of Border Patrol to Support Optimal Operation of Border Surveillance
Sensors. M.S. in Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Roberto Szechman
Second Reader: Moshe Kress
Outstanding Thesis Award
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1837
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443427
Abstract: Borders are monitored by a variety of moving and stationary sensors, e.g., patrol
agents, video cameras, ground sensors, UAVs, etc. This paper introduces a model for a moving
sensor that patrols a perimeter that is infiltrated by malevolent agents (targets). Targets arrive
according to a Poisson process along the perimeter with a certain distribution of arrival location,
and disappear (renege) a random amount of time after their arrival. The measures of
effectiveness (MOEs) presented in this paper are the target detection rate and the time elapsed
from target arrival to its detection (waiting time). We study two types of sensor trajectories that
are periodic and with constant speed: 1. The sensor moves from a starting point to a certain
location and then leaps instantaneously back to the starting point. 2. The sensor moves back and
forth between two points. The controlled parameters (decision variables) are the beginning and
end points of the patrolled sector. Properties of these trajectories are demonstrated in great
generality. The results give decision makers a powerful tool for optimally deploying and operating
a variety of sensors in an area of interest.
Crouch, Collier Craig. Integration of Mini-UAVs at the Tactical Operations Level: Implications
of Operations, Implementation, and Information Sharing. M.S. in Systems Technology.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.
Thesis Advisor: James Ehlert
Second Reader: Bill Kemple
Third Reader: Edward Fisher
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2166
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435680
Abstract: Small units maneuvering on the battlefield have little time to establish data links and
interface with the Global Information Grid (GIG) while trying to achieve an objective. The
bandwidth and interface requirements necessary to receive live data from current strategic level
systems limit the small unit operational user's ability to receive and act upon data and
intelligence. Without the ability to interface with current strategic-level UAV assets, these small
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units are left without a comprehensive operational picture. Mini-UAVs offer the capability for the
tactical user, in a variety of missions, to have direct control over the aerial asset without
intervention from higher authority. Organic UAV assets can be used to collect data relevant to
small units without the need for connecting to intelligence systems. This offers increased mobility
and a dedicated collection platform; however, there are still drawbacks to this capability. This
thesis examines mini-UAVs, and their integration into the Coalition Operating Area Surveillance
and Targeting System (COASTS) network.
Duhan, Daniel P. Tactical Decision Aid for Unmanned Vehicles in Maritime Missions. M.S. in
Systems Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2005.
Thesis Co-Advisor: Russell Gottfried and Steven E. Pilnick
Second Reader: W. Matthew Carlyle
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2274
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA433030
Abstract: An increasing number of unmanned vehicles (UV) are being incorporated into maritime
operations as organic elements of Expeditionary and Carrier Strike Groups for development of the
recognized maritime picture. This thesis develops an analytically-based planning aid for allocating
UVs to missions. Inputs include the inventory of UVs, sensors, their performance parameters, and
operational scenarios. Operations are broken into mission critical functions: detection,
identification, and collection. The model output assigns aggregated packages of UVs and sensors
to one of the three functions within named areas of interest. A spreadsheet model uses
conservative time-speed-distance calculations, and simplified mathematical models from search
theory and queuing theory, to calculate measures of performance for possible assignments of
UVs to missions. The spreadsheet model generates a matrix as input to a linear integer program
assignment model which finds the best assignment of UVs to missions based on the user inputs
and simplified models. The results provide the mission planner with quantitatively-based
recommendations for unmanned vehicle mission tasking in challenging scenarios.
Elliott, Derek J. and Matthew G. Thompson. Comparison of "Functional Concept of Battlespace
Awareness" Versus the Concept of "Power to the Edge," with a Focus on Integrating
Shotspotter Sensors and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Shelley Gallup
Scond Reader: William Kemple
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2120
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439286
Abstract: Current military doctrine is primarily hierarchical in nature with respect to power and
authority. The "Functional Concept of Battlespace Awareness" (FCBA) is a military sensor
methodology that employs a hierarchical command structure to test emerging technologies.
Asymmetric warfare, however, demands a faster and more adaptive warfighting mentality that
distributes power and responsibility across more of our forces; particularly those that are at the
frontlines of the battlefield. "Power to the Edge" is a warfighting methodology that emphasizes a
departure from traditional military hierarchies and a transition into a configuration that empowers
"Edge" actors with information and authority. This thesis will prove that "Power to the Edge"
doctrine is a more effective way to fight the enemies we will likely face in the Information Age. By
analyzing and interpreting data collected at the Extended Awareness II and Extended Awareness
IIB experiments, this thesis will show that transition in our current command and control
methodology will be necessary to keep up with a changing enemy.
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Frantz, Natalie R. Swarm Intelligence for Autonomous UAV Control. M.S. in Electrical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, March 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Phillip E. Pace
Second Reader: David C. Jenn
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2152
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435664
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming vital warfare platforms because they
significantly reduce the risk of human life while accomplishing important missions. A UAV can be
used for example, as stand-in sensor for the detection of mobile, low-probability-of-intercept
battlefield surveillance and fire control emitters. With many UAVs acting together as a swarm, the
location and frequency characteristics of each emitter can be accurately determined to
continuously provide complete battlefield awareness. The swarm should be able to act
autonomously while searching for targets and relaying the information to all swarm members. In
this thesis, two methods of autonomous control of a UAV swarm were investigated. The first
method investigated was the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. This technique uses a
non-linear approach to minimize the error between the location of each particle and the target by
accelerating particles through the search space until the target is found. When applied to a
swarm of UAVs, the PSO algorithm did not produce the desired performance results. The second
method used a linear algorithm to determine the correct heading and maneuver the swarm
toward the target at a constant velocity. This thesis shows that the second approach is more
practical to a UAV swarm. New results are shown to demonstrate the application of the algorithm
to the swarm movement.
Friedman, David A. Laboratory Experimentation of Autonomous Spacecraft Docking using
Cooperative Vision Navigation. M.S. in Astronautical Engineering, Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Marcello Romano
Second Reader: Vladimir Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1785
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443198.
Abstract On-orbit, autonomous docking and spacecraft servicing are key areas of research in the
defense and civil space communities. This thesis contributes to that effort by developing portions
of a testbed and an experimental docking vehicle at the Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory of the
Naval Postgraduate School. The testbed was advanced by incorporating a large, flat epoxy
surface and an indoor-GPS system into the laboratory framework. The epoxy floor allows a
vehicle to emulate the space environment by floating on a nearfrictionless surface representing
motion in two dimensions. Pseudo-GPS was integrated into the testbed to allow for independent
verification and validation of a vehicle's performance. The docking simulator was developed by
integrating computer hardware and attitude sensors into a newly-designed vehicle architecture to
support its navigation and control needs. A position and attitude estimator was created to fuse
the vehicle's sensor inputs. A control system was designed to allow for position control through
eight thrusters and attitude control through the use of a reaction wheel. Finally, experiments of
proximity navigation were conducted. One experiment established the versatility of the vehicle's
control system by performing a closed loop maneuver. A second experiment successfully
demonstrated a complete docking scenario.
Gow, Joel A. Testing the HG1700 Inertial Measurement Unit for Implementation into the
AIRES Unmanned Underwater Vehicle. M.S. in Applied Science. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, March 2005.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Anthony J. Healey and Edward B. Thornton
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2149
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA436083
Abstract: The ARIES Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) currently uses an Inertial
Measurement Unit (IMU) with an inherent rotation rate error bias of 10 degrees/hour. Then need
for a more accurate IMU for long term missions has led to the purchase of the Honeywell HG1700
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IMU. The HG1700 is a ring laser gyroscope designed specifically as part of the navigation
software in multiple U.S. missiles. The objective of this research is to perform numerous bench
tests on the HG1700 to test its capabilities and to begin the process of implementing the IMU into
the ARIES unmanned underwater vehicle. Specifically, the IMU is tested for correct setup
configurations, angle of rotation accuracies, the rotation rate error bias, and positional
accuracies. Also, guidelines for integrating the IMU with the current software in the ARIES vehicle
are discussed.
Grabelle, Jason. "Follow the Leader": Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater
Vehicles using Forward Looking Sonar. M.S. in Mechnical Engineering. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, March 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Healey
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2150
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435568
Abstract: With the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) taking place in full force, autonomous
vehicles have become a major asset to government forces. Expansion of single vehicle
technology to multiple vehicle technology is required in order for the United States to stay ahead
of its adversaries in the GWOT and other technological fields (such as oceanography). Multiple
vehicle technology has been explored by many different institutions in the recent past (Leonard,
2001 and Kucik, 2003). Expansion of this technology will lead to greater autonomy and
robustness amongst the vehicles. This thesis presents a simulation of a "follow the leader"
behavior for multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). The follower vehicle incorporates
the use of forward-looking sonar to track the leader vehicle. This process will free up bandwidth
between acoustic modems; allowing data transfer to occur with greater efficiency. Hydrodynamic
coefficients are used to develop steering equations that model REMUS through a track of
specified waypoints similar to a real-world mission track. A two-dimensional forward looking
sonar model with a 120 [degree] horizontal scan and a 110 meter radial range is modeled to
track the leader vehicle. Resulting bearing and range between the two vehicles is incorporated as
control for positioning the follower vehicle.
Hahn, Matthew J. Undersea Navigation Via a Distributed Acoustic Communications Network.
M.S. in Engineering Acoustics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Joseph A. Rice and Clyde L. Scandrett
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2141
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435873.
Abstract Acoustic modems are the basis for emerging undersea wireless communications
networks. US Navy Seaweb technology offers an opportunity to perform undersea navigation and
tracking by virtue of node-to-node ranging measurements acquired as a by-product of the
acoustic communications protocol. A simple localization algorithm is developed and verified with
synthetic data and is then tested with an Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) during an
experiment at sea.
Hemminger, Daniel L. Vertical Plane Obstacle Avoidance and Control of the REMUS
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle using Forward Look Sonar. M.S. in Mechanical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Anthony Healey
Second Reader: Doug Horner
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2135
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435520
Abstract: Current rates of technological advancement continue to translate into changes on our
battlefields. Aerial robots capable of gathering reconnaissance along with unmanned underwater
vehicles capable of defusing enemy minefields provide evidence that machines are playing key
roles once played by humans within our military. This thesis explores one of the major problems
facing both commercial and military UUVs to date. Successfully navigating in unfamiliar
environments and maneuvering autonomously to avoid obstacles is a problem that has yet to be
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fully solved. Using a simulated 2-D ocean environment, the work of this thesis provides results of
numerous REMUS simulations that model the vehicle's flight path over selected sea bottoms.
Relying on a combination of sliding mode control and feedforward preview control, REMUS is able
to locate obstacles such as seawalls using processed forward look sonar images. Once
recognized, REMUS maneuvers to avoid the obstacle according to a Gaussian potential function.
In summary, the integration of feedforward preview control and sliding mode control results in an
obstacle avoidance controller that is not only robust, but also autonomous.
Henning, Wade A. and Daniel T. Walter. Spiral Development in Action : A Case Study of Spiral
Development in the Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Program. Master of Business
Administration. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2005.
Advisors: Aruna U. Apte and Rene G. Rendon
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/9980
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443447.
Abstract: Evolutionary Acquisition (EA) is the established acquisition strategy of choice for the
Department of Defense (DoD) and spiral development (SD) is the preferred process to execute
this tactic. SD is used when the end-state of a weapon system is unknown, and its purpose is to
get valuable capability into warfighters’ hands much more quickly than before, even if the
deliverable is only a partial solution. This approach is markedly different than the traditional DoD
acquisition approach that too often fielded weapon systems late, over budget and with obsolete
technology. As with any DoD initiative, SD is not a panacea. The purpose of this MBA Project is to
identify some of the key characteristics necessary to implement SD in government acquisitions,
and to present lessons learned from a program office currently using a spiral development
approach. This is accomplished through a case study of the Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
(UAV) Program. This paper examines the Global Hawk’s spiral development strategies in several
key program functional areas. It discusses SD challenges, and benefits with particular attention
given to successful tactics and potential pitfalls of using this acquisition approach. Finally, it
derives several lessons learned applicable to any DoD program manager.
Jenkins, Glenn E. and William J. Snodgrass, Jr. The Raven Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
(SUAV), Investigating Potential Dichotomies between Doctrine and Practice. Master of
Business Adminstration. NPS-PM-05-012. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2005.
Advisors: David F. Matthews and Raymond Franck
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/834
Abstract: "The goal of this MBA Project is to investigate possible disconnects between doctrine
and practice in the employment of the Raven Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV). The Army's
current Small UAV requirements are based upon the Future Combat System's Operations
Requirements Document and has not been validated at the platoon or company level. The Raven
SUAV is a Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) item that swiftly became the Army's Small UAV of
choice for operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Doctrine and Techniques, Tactics, and Procedures
(TTP) have been written for the Raven SUAV; however, it is not standard practice for all units
operating the system abroad. The last review of the SUAV operational requirements was
conducted in 2003 but did not specifically address its usage on the battlefield. In an attempt to
fill that gap, this project focuses on real-world usage of the Raven SUAV system. We compare
doctrine versus practice using the Department of Defense's (DOD) Doctrine, Organization,
Training, Material, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities (DOTML-PF) model as the primary logic
construct. The report begins by providing a background of the Raven SUAV, to include its
evolution from a COTS item to the Army's SUAV of choice, and how it has impacted the
warfighter. Next, the authors provide an overview of DOTML-PF in order to provide a basis for
comparing doctrine and practice. The study then looks in-depth at doctrine and practice using
DOTML-PF as the model for revealing differences between the two. Finally, the authors analyze
these differences and recommend solutions to mitigate shortfalls in actual Raven SUAV usage on
the battlefield."--p. i.
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Lear, Matthew R. A Complex Adaptive System Approach to Forecasting Hurricane Tracks. M.S.
in Computer Science. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.
Thesis Advisor: John Hiles
Second Reader: Patrick Harr
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1931
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435521.
Abstract Forecast hurricane tracks using a multi-model ensemble that is comprised by linearly
combining the individual model forecasts have greatly reduced the average forecast errors when
compared to individual dynamic model forecast errors. In this experiment, a complex adaptive
system, the Tropical Agent Forecaster (TAF), is created to fashion a 'smart' ensemble forecast.
The TAF uses autonomous agents to assess the historical performance of individual models and
model combinations, called predictors, and weights them based on their average error compared
to the best track information. Agents continually monitor themselves and determine which
predictors, for the life of the storm, perform the best in terms of the distance between forecast
and best-track positions. A TAF forecast is developed using a linear combination of the highest
weighted predictors. When applied to the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, the TAF system with a
requirement to contain a minimum of three predictors, consistently outperformed, although not
statistically significant, the CONU forecast at 72 and 96 hours for a homogeneous data set. At
120 hours, the TAF system significantly decreased the average forecast errors when compared to
the CONU.
Lear, Matthew R. Forecasting Hurricane Tracks Using a Complex Adaptive System. M.S. in
Meteorology. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Patrick Harr
Second Reader: John Hiles
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1930
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435522
Abstract: Forecast hurricane tracks using a multi-model ensemble that is comprised by linearly
combining the individual model forecasts have greatly reduced the average forecast errors when
compared to individual dynamic model forecast errors. In this experiment, a complex adaptive
system, the Tropical Agent Forecaster (TAF), is created to fashion a 'smart' ensemble forecast.
The TAF uses autonomous agents to assess the historical performance of individual models and
model combinations, called predictors, and weights them based on their average error compared
to the best track information. Agents continually monitor themselves and determine which
predictors, for the life of the storm, perform the best in terms of the distance between forecast
and best-track positions. A TAF forecast is developed using a linear combination of the highest
weighted predictors. When applied to the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, the TAF system with a
requirement to contain a minimum of three predictors, consistently outperformed, although not
statistically significant, the CONU forecast at 72 and 96 hours for a homogeneous data set. At
120 hours, the TAF system significantly decreased the average forecast errors when compared to
the CONU.
Liang, Lawrence A. H. The Use of Agent-Based Simulation for Cooperative Sensing of the
Battlefield. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Susan M. Sanchez
Second Reader: David W. Netzer
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1740
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443319
Abstract: Many military Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations would
benefit greatly from a fleet of disparate sensor-bearing UAVs that are tightly integrated via a
communications network, work cooperatively for a common operational objective, enhance
situation awareness of the areas of operation, and increase persistence of sensor dwell time on
strategic targets. This would enable continuity in the entire target acquisition cycle, from
detection to classification to identification and finally localization of targets, in a diverse and
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dynamic environment. The integration of sensors and development of tactics in a cooperative
sensing environment is one of the current focuses among the military intelligence community,
and hence motivates this thesis effort. By building models with an existing agent-based
simulation platform and using an extremely efficient experimental design methodology,
numerous factors which could potentially affect the effectiveness of a cooperative sensing
network against two arrays of targets are explored. The factors considered include UAV airspeed,
reliability, detection/classification coverage and probability, network latency and degradation,
UAV configurations and responsiveness, as well as air space separation. The two arrays of targets
are mobile armor concentrations and time critical targets; these vary in their deployment profiles,
vulnerability constraints and ease of detectability. Factors characterizing these targets, such as
the shoot-and-scoot behavior of time critical targets, are also investigated. The study provides
operational insights pertaining to the design and effective use of cooperative sensing for ISR
purposes. These include the importance of having good UAV sensor capabilities, the need for a
suite of sensors to aid in locating well-camouflaged time-critical targets, and the need for
"intelligent" application of UAV cooperation tactics based on the characteristics of recentlyclassified targets.
McMindes, Kevin L. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Survivability: The Impacts of Speed,
Detectability, Altitude, and Enemy Capabilities. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Thomas W. Lucas
Second Reader: George E. Ehlers
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1948
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439645
Abstract: Warfighters are increasingly relying on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems at all
levels of combat operations. As these systems weave further into the fabric of our tactics and
doctrine, their loss will seriously diminish combat effectiveness. This makes the survivability of
these systems of utmost importance. Using Agent-based modeling and a Nearly Orthogonal Latin
Hypercube design of experiment, numerous factors and levels are explored to gain insight into
their impact on, and relative importance to, survivability. Factors investigated include UAV speed,
stealth, altitude, and sensor range, as well as enemy force sensor ranges, probability of kill, array
of forces, and numerical strength. These factors are varied broadly to ensure robust survivability
results regardless of the type of threat. The analysis suggests that a speed of at least 135 knts
should be required and that increases in survivability remain appreciable up to about 225 knts.
The exception to speed's dominance is in the face of extremely high capability enemy assets. In
this case, stealth becomes more important than speed alone. However, the interactions indicate
that as both speed and stealth increase, speed yields a faster return on overall survivability and
that speed mitigates increased enemy capabilities.
Ouimet, Sean P. Undersea Navigation of a Glider UUV using an Acoustic Communications
Network. M.S. in Engineering Acoustics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2005.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Joseph A. Rice and Arlene A. Guest
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2080
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439563
Abstract: The US Navy is developing Seaweb undersea acoustic networking technology to enable
distributed autonomous ocean sensors. An Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) can operate as a
mobile node among the grid in the conduct of its own mission, using the fixed nodes as
navigation reference points. The fixed grid provides a cellular communications infrastructure for
command & control and data telemetry. In turn, the UUV can support the fixed grid by physically
redistributing large quantities of data throughout the network or for breaching the sea surface
and acting as a mobile gateway node, communicating via satellite to a command center ashore.
Assimilating UUVs as network nodes significantly enhances undersea network capability,
expanding the available concepts of operations. This thesis concerns the use of the fixed
undersea network as a means to track the UUV and anticipates routine operations of mobile
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nodes in the context of fixed grids. This work is also a fundamental step toward advanced
operations of fully mobile networks in the form of collaborative swarms.
Porter, Michael A. Hyperspectral Imaging using Ultraviolet Light. M.S. in Astronautical
Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, December 2005.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Rcihard C. Olsen and Christopher Brody
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1817
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443375
Abstract: The LINEATE IMAGING NEAR ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER (LINUS) instrument has
been used to remotely detect and measure sulfur dioxide (SO2). The sensor was calibrated in the
lab, with curves of growth created for the 0.29 0.31 æ - spectral range of the LINUS sensor. Field
observations were made of a coal burning plant in St. Johns, Arizona at a range of 537 m. The
Salt River Coronado plant stacks were emitting on average about 100 ppm and 200 ppm from the
left and right stacks respectively. Analysis of the LINUS data matched those values within a few
percent. Possible uses for this technology include remote verification of industry emissions and
detection of unreported SO2 sources.
Quek, Chin Khoon. Vision Based Control and Target Range Estimation for Small Unmanned
Aerial Vehicle. M.S. in Engineering Science (Mechanical Engineering). Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, December 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Isaac I. Kaminer
Second Reader: Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1815
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443306
Abstract: In the tracking of a moving ground target by small unmanned air vehicle (UAV) via
camera vision, the target position and motion cannot be measured directly. Two different types of
filters were assessed for their ability to estimate target motion, namely target velocity, directional
heading on flat ground and distance from the UAV to target. The first filter is a nonlinear
deterministic filter with stability guarantee. The second filter is based on nonlinear Kalman Filter
technique. The application and performance of these two filters are presented, for simulated
vision based target tracking.
Roberts, Scott D. Stability Analysis of a Towed Body for Shipboard Unmanned Surface Vehicle
Recovery. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
March 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Fotis Papoulias
Second Reader: William Solitario
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2239
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA432512A
Abstract: As the U.S. Navy develops new technologies which enhance automation and reduce
crew size onboard naval vessels, unmanned vehicles will become increasingly valuable in
conducting maritime operations. Effective launch and recovery systems (LARS) are necessary for
unmanned vehicles to efficiently conduct operations at sea. The Towed Body system is a LARS
with a wide range of applications for unmanned vehicle operations. The Towed Body can be
evaluated as a small vessel with horizontal and vertical control surfaces. Since it is being towed,
the directional stability of the Towed Body requires unique consideration due to the presence of
the towing force. This thesis examines the effect of varying the longitudinal location of the
vertical control surfaces, as well as the effective aspect ratio, size, and number of vertical control
surfaces. The results identify critical stability values for the various fin configurations.
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Schaeffer, Kevin M. and Thomas J. Gibbons, Jr. Enhancing the Extended Awareness Capability of
the ESG : Integrating Shotspotter and Cursor on Target Technologies with Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles to Enhance the Mission Capability of the ESG. M.S. in Systems Technology.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Shelly Gallup
Second Reader: Bill Kemple
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1858
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435746.
Abstract This thesis discusses two emerging technologies and how their integration with UAVs can
improve the situational awareness capability of the Expeditionary Strike Group. Shotspotter is an
acoustic gunshot detection system and Cursor on Target is an XML based schema to enhance
information exchanges. When integrated with UAVs, these two technologies will drastically
improve an ESG's efficiency and lethality in combat.
Shay, Tracy J. Design and Fabrication of a Planar Autonomous Spacecraft Simulator with
Docking and Fluid Transfer Capability. M.S. in Astronautical Engineering, Naval Postgraduate
School, December 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Marcello Romano
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1823
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443398
Abstract The objective of this thesis is to describe the concept development, design, system
integration, and operating procedures for the AUDASS II vehicle (Autonomous Docking and
Spacecraft Servicing Simulator). The AUDASS II is an improved follow on design of AUDASS I,
developed in September of 2002. The purpose of AUDASS II is to simulate a chaser spacecraft
autonomously rendezvousing and docking with a target spacecraft for the purpose of conducting
fluid transfer. This demonstration involves two vehicles elevated, via air pads, upon a smooth
epoxy surface, thus allowing three near frictionless degrees of freedom. The ultimate goal of this
thesis is to fabricate a vehicle and requisite documentation that will allow future students to
conduct experiments using different control algorithms and/or sensors to conduct autonomous
rendezvous and docking maneuvers.
St. Germain, Kenneth W. Shipboard Radio Frequency and Free Space Optics Communications
System using an Airborne Relay. M.S. in Electrical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, September 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Frank Kragh
Second Reader: Tri Ha
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1991
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439542
Abstract: This thesis explores the possible gains and discusses the constraints of a
communications system that uses a ship to unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radio frequency (RF)
link paired with a UAV to satellite free space optic (FSO) link to accomplish satellite
communications. Analysis shows that a data rate of 2 gigabits per second (Gbps) with a 1 . 10
probability of bit error can be attained by a shipboard system with a relatively small antenna and
power supply if an FSO-enabled UAV is used. An experiment demonstrated that the addition of an
FSO link and additional routing does not reduce the performance of a slower data rate RF link.
The findings indicate that a composite RF and FSO ship-UAV-satellite system can be used within
the Transformational Communications Architecture (TCA) and with the Navy's FORCEnet to
enable network-centric operations (NCO).
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Sulewski, Charles A. An Exploration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the Army's Future Combat
Systems Family of Systems. M.S. in Operations Research. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, December 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Thomas Lucas
Second Reader: Jeffrey B. Schamburg
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1820
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443500.
Abstract Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be a critical part of the U.S. Army's Future Force.
The Future Force will be a highly mobile, network enabled family of systems with integrated
sensors and precision munitions. The Future Force will rely heavily on UAVs to provide eyes on
the battlefield. These eyes will trigger the deployment of precision munitions by other platforms,
and possibly by UAVs themselves. To provide insight into how the numbers and capabilities of
UAVs affect a Future Force Combined Arms Battalion*s (CAB*s) ability to secure a Northeast Asia
urban objective, a simulation was built and analyzed. 46,440 computational experiments were
conducted to assess how varying the opposing force and the numbers, tactics, and capabilities of
UAVs affects the CAB*s ability to secure the objective with minimal losses. The primary findings,
over the factors and ranges examined, are: UAVs significantly enhance the CAB*s performance;
UAV capabilities and their tactics outweigh the number of UAVs flying; battalion level UAVs,
especially when armed, are critical in the opening phases of the battle, as they facilitate the rapid
attrition of enemy High Pay-off Targets; and, at least one company level and a platoon level UAV
enhances dismounts survivability later in the battle.
Ulama, Tuncay. Frequency and Polarization Diversity Jamming of Communications in Urban
Environments. M.S. in Systems Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
September 2005.
Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn
Second Reader: Daniel C. Schleher
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2095
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439586
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate how to exploit frequency and polarization
techniques in reducing the effects of jamming against UAV relay communication links in an urban
warfare environment. There have been early studies investigating the diversity techniques
against multipath and fading problems in urban environments. A medium without any jamming
issues seems almost impossible to exist in today's warfare. Basically, noise jamming issues were
taken into consideration. Urbana Wireless Toolset was used as the computer simulation. Even
though it is a powerful tool to predict the radio wave propagation in urban environments, due to
the problems about modeling the cities (lack of detail, like the shapes of the buildings, objects
and vehicles that could be found in the streets, and other details that would contribute to the
propagation mechanisms), it can only give us a trend with some guidelines instead of an exact
mapping of propagation.
Valentine, Albert R. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Southern Thailand. M.A. in National
Security Studies. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, September 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Aurel Croissant
Second Reader: James F. Ehlert
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/2101
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439701
Abstract: Since 2001, the Kingdom of Thailand has seen a resurgence of ethno-religious (MalayMuslim) violence that has killed approximately 800 people, causing obvious disruption within the
nation and instability in the region. As one of the US' staunchest allies in Southeast Asia and with
the potential for this violence to intensify further, it behooves the US government to offer
solutions to help mitigate or reduce the violence in southern Thailand. This thesis examines the
history of southern Thailand, analyzing the political factors behind the Malay-Muslim rebellions of
the past, tracing the roots of their rebellion back to the era of Patani Raya and the "Siamization"
of the south. It explores the various trends and actors and other antecedent conditions (external
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influences) during the recent violence. Information on the various separatist groups operating in
southern Thailand is provided along with an analysis of the porous Thai-Malay border and the role
of PAS in southern Thailand. Lastly, this thesis examines an NPS field experimentation program
entitled "Coalition Operation Area Surveillance and Targeting System" (COASTS). COASTS
provides tactical, actionable information to remote and local decision-makers by integrating
commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), lighter
than air vehicles (LTA), and unattended air and ground sensors, and wireless meshed networks
technologies. If deployed to problematic areas, systems like COASTS can assist the Royal Thai
government in reducing the violence in the south.
Van Reet, Alan Robert Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater
Vehicle. M.S. in Mechanical Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2005.
Thesis Advisor: Anthony Healey
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1880
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435546
Abstract: In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles US
Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential
for navigation. Use of a contour tracking control algorithm in lieu of preprogrammed waypoint
navigation offers distinct advantages within new challenges. The difficult nature of this problem
lies in the non-trivial connection between the necessary corrective action and the feedback error
used in traditional control methods. Stated simply, modern vehicle control algorithms separate
horizontal and vertical plane navigation. The autonomous vehicle senses heading error and
applies rudder to steer the vehicle to a desired heading. Simultaneously, the vehicle might sense
altitude and apply stern plane angles to maintain a safe height above ground. This thesis
research examines the new problem of sensing depth and altitude in the vertical plane while
steering the vehicle horizontally to find a specified bathymetry contour. While more remains to
understand, this research proves the existence of a solution and suggests similar approaches
may facilitate tying vehicle navigation to other indirect sensors. This thesis presents two contour
tracking control algorithms and examines the performance of each by simulating the response of
the REMUS underwater vehicle to ideal and real-world bathymetry models.
Ward, Jason L. Design of a Prototype Autonomous Amphibious WHEGSTM Robot for Surf-Zone
Operations. M.S. in Applied Physics. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, June
2005.
Thesis Co-Advisors: Richard Harkins and Vaidyanathan
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1878
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435581.
Abstract The Small Robot Initiative at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has spent several
years in development based on the Foster Miller lemmings platform. This platform, in conjunction
with a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) control architecture, is capable of autonomous, land
based waypoint navigation, self orientation, and rudimentary obstacle avoidance. It can receive
waypoint information, manual control input, and transmit video and audio information back to a
control station via 802.11 wireless communication. The introduction of the WHEGS design,
developed at Case Western Reserve University, and a modified version of the COTS control
system will provide a platform with greater speed, mobility and versatility. This thesis developed
a prototype WHEGS vehicle and integrated the control system with improvements in the
navigation routine through the addition of a dead reckoning sensor and calculation function.
Although the mechanical design proved to be highly inefficient and unable to propel itself, the
control system was successful, allowing integration with a more robust mechanical design from
Case Western Reserve University. Follow on development and research will lighten the body
through the use of carbon fiber and test the robots ability to maneuver effectively in the surfzone.
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Yang, Chuan-Hao. A Person-Tracking Mobile Robot using an Ultrasonic Positioning System.
M.S. in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
December 2005.
Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun
Second Reader: Marcello Romano
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/1798
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443332
Abstract: It is desirable in many applications that a mobile robot is able to track and follow a
person. There have been various efforts in literature to create person-tracking robots. However,
current person-tracking robots are not capable of operating in unstructured environments. The
problem of creating a person-tracking mobile robot has been studied by many researchers in
literature. There are two main issues associated with this problem. The first issue is to equip a
robot with proper sensory devices so that it is able to identify and locate the target person in a
crowd in real time. Various approaches have been investigated, including vision, infrared sensors,
ultrasonic sensors, and other approaches. The second issue is to control and navigate the robot
so that it follows the target person within a certain distance. This seems to be simple, but in
reality it is a fairly difficult task. For example, if the target person is in a busy corridor with many
people standing and walking, the robot has to constantly avoid other people while following the
target. There is still no reported evidence that a person-tracking robot has been implemented
that is able to track a person in arbitrary environmental conditions. In this research, by using an
innovative RF/ultrasonic sensor system, an intelligent person-tracking mobile robot is to be
implemented that is able to follow the target person in unstructured, practical environments. The
main focus of the thesis is development and implementation of control algorithms.
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NPS Reports
2014
Oros, Carl L. A Brief history of the NPS Field Experimentation Program: Spanning STAN,
TNTand JIFX. NPS-FX-14-003. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2014.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43732
Abstract: The NPS Field Experimentation Program was initiated in FY02 to provide an opportunity
for NPS faculty and students to evaluate new technologies from their research in a field
environment. These efforts were continued and integrated to create a formal decade long
cooperative field experimental effort with USSOCOM (S&T /J9 and SORDAC) that began in FY03
as STAN (Surveillance and Targeting Acquisition Network) and culminated as TNT (Tactical
Network Topology) in 2013. After TNT, sponsorship of NPS FX transitioned to OSD (AT&L) and the
Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The NPS Joint Interagency Field Experimentation (JIFX)
program exists today to support the S&T needs of all of the COCOMs, interagency, and first
responders. This technical report serves to briefly document the history of the NPS FX program
from STAN through current day JIFX. This document reflects the opinions of the author and does
not represent the official policy or position of the Naval Postgraduate School, the United States
Navy, or any other government organization.
2013
Beverly, Robert, Arthur Berger, Nicholas Weaver, and Larry Campbell. Interring Internet Server
IPv4 and IPv6 Address Relationships. NPS-CS-13-002. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, 2013.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34089
Abstract: While IPv6 is finally experiencing non-trivial deployment, IPv4 and IPv6 are expected to
co-exist for the foreseeable future, implying dual-stacked devices, and protocol interdependence.
We develop and deploy a system for characterizing the association between IPv4 and IPv6
addresses ("siblings") within network server infrastructure, with specific forcus on Internet DNS
and web servers. We develop two novel techniques for finding DNS resolver sibling groups, one
passive and one active. For 674k observed (IPv4, IPv6) address pairs, we find that 34% of the
addresses are one-to-one, i.e. appear in no other pair. Yet there are also complex cases, where
distributed DNS resolution creates interconnected series of nameserver address pairs that can
span continents and autonomous systems, compexity confirmed using active probing. We then
describe a targeted method to actively interrogate candidate (IPv4, IPv6) pairs to determine if
they are assigned to the same device. We find that the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of Internet
servers frequently belong to different interfaces, machines, and even autonomous systems Our
results have important implications on network resilience, security, geolocation and performance
measurement.
Buettner, Raymond R., Carl Oros, Ramsey Meyer and Nelly Turley. NPS Field Experimentation
Program for Special Operations (FEPSO) TNT 13-3 Final Report. NPS-FX-14-002.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2013.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/42544
Abstract: The NPS Field Experimentation Program was initiated in FY02 to Provide an opportunity
for NPS faculty and students to evaluate New technologies from their research in a field
environment. These efforts were continued and integrated to create a cooperative Effort with
USSOCOM (S&T and J9) that began In FY03. TNT 13--‐3 Marked the this decade long USSOCOM--
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‐NPS field experimentation cooperative. This technical report serves to document this final event
This report provides a consolidated analysis of event statistics and technological trends, to
include unmanned autonomous system (UxS) activities from 2010 to 2013. The appendixes
contain the Request for Information (RFI), list of experiments and schedule, experiment
descriptions and after action reports. With the exception of the appendixes, this document
reflects the opinions of the authors and does not represent the official policy or position of the
Naval Postgraduate School, the United States Navy, or any other government organization. The
data in the appendices were provided by the participants and have only been edited for clarity.
Appendices C & D are Distribution B and will be published via a separate report.
2012
Brown, Thomas, Jonathan Damiano, Jhala Shivraj, Ryan Moore, Brett Morgan, Vincent Nguyen,
Thomas Opheim, Timothy Ringwald, William Roman, John Turk, Christina Ushkevich, Kenneth
Wampler, Paul Welsh, Paul and Heather Williams. Next Generation Mine Countermeasures
for the Very Shallow Water Zone in Support of Amphibious Operations. NPS-SE-12-001.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2012.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6968
Abstract: This report describes system engineering efforts exploring next generation mine
countermeasure (MCM) systems to satisfy high priority capability gaps in the Very Shallow Water
(VSW) zone in support of amphibious operations. A thorough exploration of the problem space
was conducted, including stakeholder analysis, MCM threat analysis, and current and future MCM
capability research. Solution-neutral requirements and functions were developed for a bounded
next generation system. Several alternative architecture solutions were developed that included a
critical evaluation that compared performance and cost. The resulting MCM system effectively
removes the man from the minefield through employment of autonomous capability, reduces
operator burden with sensor data fusion and processing, and provides a real-time communication
for command and control (C2) support to reduce or eliminate post mission analysis.
Dew, Nicholas. Strategic Acquisition of Navy Unmanned Systems: Analysis and Options. NPSAM-12-179. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2012.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/33850
Abstract: The U.S. Navy (USN) and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) have many emerging
robotics needs and potentialities. However, although the U.S. is strong in defense robotics in
particular in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) -- recent reports have identified fundamental
weaknesses in the broader U.S. robotics innovation system in which defense robotics is
embedded. Since the potential scale of commercial robotics is far greater than military robotics
over the long run, the U.S. needs to develop a stronger national robotics innovation system to
support the long-term development of defense robotics and help make the nation more secure.
Traditionally, the policy response to such needs has involved stimulating the supply side. This
report identifies robust local U.S. demand for robotics as a critical element in developing a
thriving U.S. robotics innovation system. Therefore, while some DoD acquisition strategies attend
to industry development via supply-side elements (such as research and development support for
major suppliers, Small Business Innovation Research initiatives, etc.), I suggest that these
initiatives must be complemented with a set of pro demand-side acquisition strategies. This
report outlines the rationale for including a demand-side approach in DoD robotics acquisition
policy, a set of appropriate strategies, and a framework for implementation.
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Moltz, James Clay. Submarine and Autonomous Vessel Proliferation: Implications for Future
Strategic Stability at Sea. PASCC Report Number 2012-021. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/34355
Abstract: "Conventional wisdom from the late Cold War onward suggests that the U.S. submarine
force is virtually invulnerable to attack, particularly since the demise of the Soviet Union. U.S.
nuclear force planning and a range of other Navy long-range procurement plans assume the
safety of future SSBN [Ballistic Missile Submarine] and SSN [Nuclear Attack Submarine]
operations and the relative absence of threats. This scoping study tests and challenges these
assumptions by examining international trends in the proliferation of submarines and
autonomous vessel technology. It begins by observing that undersea strategic stability during the
Cold War relied on specific factors that may not be present in the future. The study then surveys
the range of new countries and capabilities emerging in the 21st century undersea environment.
It concludes by suggesting that undersea warfare is going to pose serious new challenges to the
U.S. Navy, possibly putting its sea-based leg of the triad at risk as the number of operational
boats declines, while also observing that overseas SSN operations will be complicated by
changing conditions and ASW [Anti-Submarine Warfare] developments. Finally, Moltz offers
several possible remedies: 1) revision of currently laissez-faire U.S. policies in the area of
submarine export controls; 2) revised procurement and basing policies in regard to U.S. SSBNs
to reduce emerging vulnerabilities; and 3) reconsideration of diesel/AIP [Air-Independent
Propulsion] boats as a supplement to U.S. SSN forces for enhanced ASW and for conducting
certain domestic and overseas missions better suited to smaller, less costly, less vulnerable, and
more nimble vessels."
2011
Bechtel, Wayne, Nathaniel Hathaway, Trevor Jerdee, Eric Laskey, Jill McConaghy, Lisa Quade, Kariym
Smith, Scott Sparrow, and James Tuey. Roving UAV IED Interdiction System. NPS-SE-11002. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, Department of Systems Engineering,
2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6957
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA540926
Abstract: In support of the Naval Postgraduate School's Systems Engineering Capstone, a project
team was formed from Cohort 311-093A to perform an analysis on the possibility of utilizing
Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) in campaign against improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The
goal of the project was to determine if a weapon system is feasible to increase capabilities to the
warfighter in the fight against the IED threat. The project scope was limited to the UAV classes
with local (squad/battalion) control to provide an organic increase in capabilities; specifically Tier
I (man-portable) and Tier II (tactical) families of UAVs. Modeling and simulation, warhead
analysis, and a cost analysis were used to score the proposed alternatives on specific Key
Performance Parameters. This information was analyzed and a recommendation was made to
only arm the Tier II UAV using a small missile.
Calvert, Willard, Rachel Cohn, Gail Goodman, Brian Heidt, Joseph Lojek, Sarah Malecki, and Brian
Powell. A System to Integrate Unmanned Undersea Vehicles with a Submarine Host
Platform. NPS-SE-11-006. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, Department of
Systems Engineering, 2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6961
Abstract: Submarines offer a capability to deploy and retrieve unmanned undersea vehicles
(UUV) in littoral and blue water Areas of Operation while avoiding detection. Integration of the
submarine and UUV through a launch and recovery mechanism offers unique challenges with
respect to host submarine safety, UUV recovery, UUV replenishment and life-cycle costs. The
Capstone team elicited launch and recovery system requirements from stakeholders and
conceived four (4) advanced alternatives and a baseline alternative considered to meet the
requirements. Through functional, cost, risk, modeling and qualitative analysis, this study
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assessed the value of each alternative to stakeholders. Of the concept alternatives explored, a
high tech option featuring a carbon fiber structure, electromechanical pulse launch and recovery
device and proximity vice contact battery charging and UUV stowage features provided the best
value to the stakeholders for the investment. These results highlighted characteristics, including
maintenance considerations, upgradeability, design for reliability and design for universal
applications considered paramount for a successful system. Project lessons learned uncovered
significant risk due to instability of UUV requirements as well as certification issues which
adversely affect a submarine/UUV integration project. Early communications between key
stakeholders must effectively address these short-comings.
Cox, Patrick, Christie Jordan, Kate Mangum, John Mitchell, Kevin O'Neill, and Kevin Seraile.
Unmanned Surface Combatant Considerations for Concept Exploration. NPS-SE-11-007.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, Department of Systems Engineering, 2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6962
Abstract: This capstone project explored the operational and design considerations/constraints
for an autonomous Unmanned Surface Combatant (USC). Using a USC in selected missions could
lead to cost reductions and enhanced capabilities when compared with similar manned
combatants by eliminating personnel and automating ship operations. Operations and Support
(O&S) costs, which include personnel costs, are a large portion of the Navy's total ownership
costs (TOC) for surface combatants, and can be as high as 38 percent of the TOC. Enhanced
capabilities for a USC could be derived from performing operational activities manned ships
cannot; and automated tasks could be performed more efficiently and effectively by a computer
system than a human. A modified waterfall systems engineering process model was used to
explore a USC concept. A needs analysis was performed, and mine warfare and anti-submarine
warfare were identified as appropriate military missions for an initial USC concept. Top level
constraints for a USC concept and support missions were developed. Design considerations,
relevant technologies, and concept risks were investigated. This capstone project concluded that
a lower cost, higher capability autonomous USC is possible based on the current state of relevant
technologies. However there are significant technical challenges to overcome before full
autonomy is possible. Further, more rigorous design studies are recommended.
Emmersen, Tracy; Chuan, Ng Kiang; Chiam, David; Xuan, Ong Zi; Daniel, Perh Hong Yih; Yung, Koh
Wee; Wessner, Wes; Saburn, Jon; Wee, Lim Choon; Heng, Wong Chee; Silvestrini, Christian;
Liang, Lu Zheng; Castaneda, Phil; Lun, Sor Wei; Kok, Pek Wee; Drennan, Jim; Kiong, Teo Yong;
Fung, Tan Yick; Harvey, Scott; Walker, William; Chuan, Wee Hong; Malinowski, Matt; Zhu,
Kelvin; Mills, Thomas; Wei, Chang Chung. Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems. MSSEA in
Systems Engineering. NPS-SE-11-004. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School,
Department of Systems Engineering, 2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6959
Abstract: Over the next twenty years, the proliferation of threats in the undersea environment
will likely challenge the platform-centric model that the United States Navy uses to maintain
dominance in Undersea Warfare (USW). Meanwhile, rapidly maturing technologies offer greater
capabilities to potential adversaries around the world. Such a paradigm creates an imperative for
the Navy to harness emerging technologies to maintain USW dominance amid a dynamic threat
environment, while balancing cost, risk, and required performance. This systems engineering
analysis develops Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems (AUWS) that provide a technological and
tactical advantage based on the needs of the war-fighter. Following critical analysis of the
numerous possible alternatives for performing the necessary Command, Control,
Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) and
prosecution and an objective screening process, four system architectures, and associated
operational concepts, are selected for detailed analysis. From cost, risk, and performance
analyses, superior AUWS concepts are shown to be flexible, scalable, and tailorable systems that
balance critical need areas. This analysis highlights the need for new warfare systems that can
meet future challenges to the traditional platform-centric model for USW dominance. Using the
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results and recommendations in this analysis will allow the Navy to deploy capabilities that
effectively and efficiently meet future operational needs.
Franck, Raymond E., Ira Lewis, David Matthews and Bernard Udis. Emerging Patterns in the Global
Defense Industry. NPS-AM-11-001. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/33589
Abstract: We continue our ongoing research into the global defense industrial base with a view to
better understanding its increasingly complex nature. Our aim has been to understand defense
industrial developments, place those developments in context, and find explanatory paradigms
suitable for better explanation of ongoing trends. In this report we consider the ongoing travails
of the KC-X program, the C-27, and the rise of unmanned aerial combat systems (UAVs, UCAVs,
UASs). The KC-X has been an excellent example of the complicated influences that shape the
U.S. defense acquisition system ''bureaucratic, legalistic, and political. It has also illustrated (to
this point) the capability of those influences to impose significant delays on even relatively simple
projects. The C-27 is an excellent example of the increasingly globalized nature of aerospace
industries'' and their complex relationships with defense customers. The rise of UAVs has been a
significant event for military affairs, defense industrial firms, and military organizations. In this
report, we discuss UAVs in the context of the ongoing competition between the U.S. and its allies
against terrorist-insurgent opponents. We also discuss the organizational issues associated with
UAVs through the Raven UAV and its integration with the U.S. Army’s support structure.
Gordon, Brent and Gregg Lee, Brian Johnson, David Perko, Altonio Bullock, Kent Yen, Marcio Chinn,
Benjamin Tan. Pirate Mother Ship Warning and Reporting System (PMSWRS). NPS-SE-11011. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6963
Abstract: The Pirate Mother Ship Warning and Reporting System (PMSW&RS) analysis identifies a
suitable and effective combination of unmanned aerial systems land launched from regional main
operating bases (MOB) or commercial airfields to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance,
reconnaissance, and tracking of Pirate Mother Ships that are prowling the shipping lanes for
commercial vessels transiting across the Horn of Africa (HOA). The team developed a systems
concept, the context, and a requirements hierarchy to support mission objectives. Architectural
baselines were developed to identify key design characteristics and to provide insight into the
value system design, analysis, modeling, and research efforts. System modeling using IBM
Rational Rhapsody toolset, OMOE analysis, and CAIV analysis confirm that the highest value
solution uses the LEMV.
Payton, Leslie T. The Future of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Support of the Marine
Expeditionary Unit. NPS-CE-11-183. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/33728
Abstract: The USMC Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) is commonly referred to as the nation''s
911 force. It must be capable of executing a full spectrum of missions from low-intensity
humanitarian assistance and noncombat evacuations to high-intensity major combat operations.
The MEU''s structure and equipment are designed around this multi-mission requirement.
However, the USMC owns the fixed-winged Shadow unmanned aircraft system (UAS) and is in
the process of acquiring a small fixed-wing UAS, the small tactical UAS to provide intelligence,
surveillance, and reconnaissance. The USMC is also researching a cargo resupply UAS based on
helicopter technology. The USMC focus on single-mission UAS does not fit with the MEUs mission
requirements. This thesis will examine MEU mission requirements and recommend a UAS
capability set that best supports MEU operations. From this recommended set of requirements,
the thesis will use a cost analysis to determine a future UAS program of record.
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Rice, Marshall and Rahul Petrie, Daniel Reese, Kurtis Hoots, Robert Taylor, Drew Nash, Jonathan
Trdan-Schmidt, Thuan Huynh, Bunny Cooper. United States Navy Oceanic Armed
Reconnaissance System. MSSE & MSES in Systems Engineering. NPS-SE-11-017. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6967
Abstract: A student team at the Naval Postgraduate School studied the need for, and
development of, a system that effectively and economically deters piracy in an area of interest.
The system's proposed area of operation is the Gulf of Aden, but the system may be deployed to
any operational theater where piracy threatens maritime commerce. Piracy and hijacking of ships
off the Somali Coast have grown tenfold since 2006. In response to this growing problem, the
U.S. Navy, along its with allies, formed Combined Task Force 151 (CTF-151) to protect
approximately 33,000 merchant vessels transiting through this area daily. CTF-151 patrols the
Internationally Recommended Transit Corridor (IRTC) in the Gulf of Aden and because of this,
Somali pirates have begun to migrate away from the IRTC and CTF-151 patrols. For this reason,
the team studied the use of UAV technology that allowed for broader area of piracy surveillance
and detection. The system that was conceived and analyzed was the Oceanic Armed
Reconnaissance System (OARS). The OARS Basic alternative, when analyzed against CTF-151,
was found to be the most cost effective system. This OARS Basic system is comprised of a
Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) as a host vessel, ScanEagle UAVs, an SH-60 Helicopter, and Zodiac
Rigid Hulled Inflatable Boats (RHIB).
Roeting, Bill and Charles Menza. BRITEdge 11-1 Limited Objective Experiment. NPS-IS-11-003.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2011.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/684
Abstract: This report summarizes the results of a limited objective experiment to demonstrate
the capability of ROVER technology to provide real-time full motion video surveillance of the US -Mexican border in support of US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agents.
2010
Albrant, Jeremiah, Raymond Buchholz, Brian Clulow, Raymond Held, Amrik Khatra, Todd Miller, Ira
Minor, et al. An Analysis of Sensor Data Path as a "Game Changer" at the Operational
Level of War. NPS-SE-10-009. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6955
Abstract: This project describes a Systems Engineering approach to validate that variation of the
sensor data path at the Operational Level of War (OLW) represents a "game changing" concept to
improve Fleet Battle Management through the Naval Planning Process (NPP) in the Maritime
Operations Center. The team used Vitech's CORE Model Based Systems Engineering tool to model
and simulate the baseline and hypothesized data paths and information processes derived from
two mission threads: Counter-Piracy and Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief. Considerations
for time-sensitive sensor data included key decisions on tasking, collection, processing,
exploitation, fusion, analysis, and dissemination. Modeling and simulation results show that
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) at the OLW provides only a minor improvement to the overall
performance of the NPP and a moderate improvement to the number of information requests the
Maritime Intelligence Operations Center can fulfill. The results are significant in that they appear
to validate an Operational Commander's decision not to directly use UAS to support the OLW.
Future research should be directed towards the determination of the capacity of such "game
changing" technology to effectively support mature operational environments or be the linkage
for other sources of information for mission achievement.
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Bartolomeo, Peter, William McCartney, Jack Plessinger, Shawn Woodson, Andrew Tebbano, Rebeca
Nixon, and Kerry Westervelt. Investigation of the Potential Material Solution for Utilizing
an Unmanned Aerial System to Protect Off-Shore Oil Platforms from Surface Threats.
NPS-SE-10-005. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6951
Abstract: This paper describes a potential material solution for the utilization of an unmanned
aerial system to identify, discriminate, and engage potential surface threats to off-shore oil
platforms. The intent of the research effort was to identify how US maritime forces are presently
deployed to protect off-shore oil platforms from sabotage, takeover, or destruction and to
determine if an unmanned aerial system could be utilized to enhance that effort and perhaps
reduce the manpower requirements. While numerous possible threats exist including aerial and
sub-surface attack, the present study concentrated on surface threats. A disciplined systems
engineering approach was utilized to determine the most cost-effective solution that meets key
stakeholder requirements for identifying, engaging, and neutralizing potential threats in a timecritical manner through either lethal or non-lethal means. The initial capability requirements are
decomposed into functions to be performed and the functions are evaluated through
consideration of either fixedwing, rotary-wing, or lighter-than-air platforms using standard
systems engineering tools and methods to determine the most cost-effective solution that meets
stakeholders needs. Architectural views and functional block diagrams are provided which meet
stakeholder requirements and a preferred solution is provided along with recommendations for
further research.
Chanda, Michael, Julee DiPlacido, John Dougherty, Richard Egan, John Kelly, Trent Kingery, Daniel
Liston, et al. Proposed Functional Architecture and Associated Benefits Analysis of a
Common Ground Control Station for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. NPS-SE-10-002.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6949
Abstract: The proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) and lack of mandated standards
has led to unique Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Ground Control Station (GCS) designs. A
former Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, stated in an
Acquisition Decision Memorandum (ADM) that UAS GCS commonality could reduce manpower,
procurement, sustainment and life cycle costs. While the ADM provided an impetus for
commonality, it did not define a path. This project defines a common GCS functional architecture
that provides the first steps on the path to UAS commonality. Stakeholder documentation was
analyzed to identify areas of greatest concern and to examine previous efforts in this domain.
Then, a tailored systems engineering process was employed to develop a new set of
requirements which includes a common Air Vehicle Operator (AVO) Human-Machine Interface.
These requirements enabled the creation of an innovative functional architecture for a common
GCS concept. The utilization of this architecture has multiple operational, logistical, and financial
benefits. This project quantified AVO training cost benefits and found that implementation of the
common GCS architecture in accordance with the derived requirements will benefit the
Department of Defense through reduced Operations and Support costs and increased operational
capability.
Ford, David N., Thomas J. Housel, and John T. Dillard. System Dynamics Modeling for Improved
Knowledge Value Assessment : A Proof-of-Concept Study. NPS-GSPBB-10-015. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/651
Abstract: Effective and efficient DoD acquisition programs require the analysis of a wide range of
materiel alternatives. Diversity among alternatives, difficulties in selecting metrics and measuring
performance, and other factors make the Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) difficult. The benefits of
alternatives should be included in the AoA, but cost estimates dominate most AoA processes.
Incorporating benefits into AoA is particularly difficult because of the intangible nature of many
important benefits. The current work addresses the need to improve the use of benefits in AoA by
building a system dynamics model of a military operation and integrating it with the Knowledge
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Value Added (KVA) methodology. The synergies may be able to significantly improve the
accuracy of KVA estimates in the AoA process. A notional mobile weapon system was modeled
and calibrated to reflect four weaponized Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Modeling a
hypothetical AoA for upgrading one of the UAV indicated that there were potentially significant
synergies that could increase the number of alternatives that could be analyzed, establishing
common units of benefit estimates for an AoA, improved reliability of an AoA, and improved
justification of AoA results. These can improve alternative selection, thereby improving final
materiel effectiveness, thereby improving the DoD acquisition processes.
Hernandez, Mark, Henry Jackson, Oscar Meza, Craig McKinney, Rebecca Morgan, Billy Palermo,
Sommer Roach, Al Spaterna, and Diane Wathen. MH-60 Seahawk / MQ-8 Fire Scout
Interoperability. NPS-SE-10-006. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6952
Abstract: As part of a Naval Postgraduate School's capstone project in Systems Engineering, a
project team from Cohort 311-0911 performed a Systems Engineering analysis. This Project
focused on defining alternatives for enhanced Anti-Surface Warfare (ASUW) mission effectiveness
through increased interoperability and integration for the Fire Scout Unmanned Air Vehicle and
Seahawk helicopter. Specifically, the Project explored the available trade space for enhancing
communications back to the ship for analysis and decision-making. Modeling and Simulation
(M&S) was used to assess the impact of enhanced communication on specific Key performance
Parameters (KPPs) and Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) associated with the ASUW mission.
Once the trade space was defined, alternatives were analyzed and a recommendation provided
that supports near-, mid-, and long-term mission enhancement.
Quincy, Keith E., Jamarr J. Johnson, Michael G. Moran, Drew J. Nilsson, and Bradley G. Thompson. An
Integrated Command and Control Architecture Concept for Unmanned Systems in the
Year of 2030. NPS-SE-10-003. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/5244
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA524154
Abstract: U.S. Forces require an integrated Command and Control Architecture that enables
operations of a dynamic mix of manned and unmanned systems. The level of autonomous
behavior correlates to: 1) the amount of trust with the reporting vehicles, and 2) the multispectral perspective of the observations. The intent to illuminate the architectural issues for force
protection in 2030 was based on a multi-phased analytical model of High Value Unit (HVU)
defense. The results showed that autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles are required to defeat
high-speed incoming missiles. To evaluate the level of autonomous behavior required for an
integrated combat architecture, geometric distributions were modeled to determine force
positioning, based on a scenario driven Detect-to-Engage timeline. Discrete event simulation was
used to schedule operations, and a datalink budget assessment of communications to determine
the critical failure paths in the the integrated combat architecture. The command and control
principles used in the integrated combat architecture were based on Boyd's OODA (Obseve,
Orient, Decide, and Act) Loop. A conservative fleet size estimate, given the uncertainties of the
coverage overlap and radar detection range, a fleet size of 35 should be anticipated given an UAV
detection range of 20km and radar coverage overlap of 4 seconds.
2009
Bostwick, Shawn, Ben Buenviaje, Ali Fotouhi, Carlos Perez-Luna, Keri Pilling, and Jose C. Umeres.
Augmenting Naval Capabilities in Remote Locations. NPS-SE-10-001. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, December, 2009.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6948
Abstract: The objective of this project was to apply a systems engineering approach to explore
concepts for augmenting naval capabilities in remote sea locations using a standard Systems
Engineering methodology coupled with Design for Lean Six Sigma tools. Because of increased
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challenges related to complexity, cost, and timing, our engineering approach focused on finding
failure modes early and implementing effective countermeasures. Following requirements
analysis and identification of needed functions, the project team synthesized candidate solutions
that introduced new concepts and also exploited known programs of record within the Navy, the
Coast Guard, and the Marine Corps. These included Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), Unmanned
Surface Vehicles (USVs), the aerostat Multi-Function Phased Array Radar, automation, and a
Remote Sea Station. Results from analysis and simulations showed that an Automated SuperHighway Concept (ASHC) addressed the immediate need. The proposed approach combines the
capabilities of the systems above to control the battle space in an effort to divert or destroy all
non-friendly entities in the areas of interest. This approach also allows for persistent presence
and analysis of the enemy movement while reducing the naval task force already assigned to
patrol these areas.
2008
Agpaoa, Roy, Matthew Cawley, Chad Cossey, Jose Galvan, Alan Giang, Joseph Hanchinamani, Jeffrey
Ikeda, et al. Hybrid Airship Multi-Role (HAMR) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Mission
Capability. Keyport MSSE Cohort. NPS-SE-08-003. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate
School, 2008.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/6935
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA483334
Abstract: The Hybrid Airship Multi-Role (HAMR) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Mission Module
project applies established systems engineering principles and processes to the design of an ASW
payload module that examines the capability of the HAMR to perform persistent ASW mission
support. Critical system functions and objectives are identified and are assigned appropriate
quantitative metrics. Additionally, three alternative architectures are generated and evaluated
using the appropriate metrics based on results from modeling using Naval Systems Simulation
(NSS). Manning is considered as a key stakeholder parameter and is included as an evaluation
concern. The alternatives are also compared through the examination of life cycle costs. The
recommendation to the stakeholders based on the research and results is an unmanned ASW
sensor platform that uses other ASW assets for prosecution.
Tvaryanas, Anthony P., William Platte, Caleb Swigart, Jayson Colebank, Nita Lewis Miller, and 311th
Performance Enhancement Directorate. A Resurvey of Shift Work-Related Fatigue in MQ-1
Predator Unmanned Aircraft System Crewmembers. Monterey, California: Naval
Postgraduate School, 2008.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/759
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA477976
Abstract: A previous study showed shift working crewmembers in a MQ-1 Predator unmanned
aircraft system (UAS) squadron had significantly increased fatigue, emotional exhaustion, and
burnout relative to traditional aircrew from another "high-demand, low density" weapon system.
This study presents the results of a follow-up survey of this population of UAS crewmembers who
were supporting "reachback" teleoperations using a modified rotational shift work schedule.
Specifically, shift work-related increases in fatigue, sleepiness, and risk for performance
decrements were examined. Shift system features and individual and situational differences
associated with fatigue were also explored. Finally, shift system features of several types of
schedules were assessed through modeling and simulation. The study found no significant
reduction in reported fatigue despite prior modifications to the shift work schedule. It also
demonstrated the potential for inadequate staffing levels to magnify the adverse effects of shift
work.
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2007
Gassier, David, David Gassier, Jerome Rebollo, and Romain Dumonteil, and Association for the
Development of Teaching and Research Area PACA. Implementing a Low-Cost Long-Range
Unmanned Underwater Vehicle: The SeaDiver Glider. NPS-MV-07-001. Monterey, California:
Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/819
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468591
Abstract: The SeaDiver Glider is an UUV (Unmanned Underwater Vehicle) used for underwater
prospecting at a low cost with a long distances coverage (~1400 miles). It moves without
propellers by changing its buoyancy with the help of ballast and its hydrodynamics profile
reminiscent of a wing (model NACA0022). Ballast inflation makes it raise the surface, ballast
deflated make it submerge the bottom. Ballast is positioned in front of its structure in an optimal
position to use the lift of its shape. This up-and-down movement is converted into horizontal
displacement by the wing-shape of the SeaDiver Glider. It mimics sinusoidal movements from the
sea surface down to 300 feet underwater. This vehicle is able to traverse from one point to
another without human intervention.
Hatch, William D. and Gregory Miller. Graduate School of Business and Public Policy. Unmanned
Vehicles Systems; Unmanned Vehicle Tactical Memorandum (TM 3-22-5-SW) : Report of
Findings and Recommendation. NPS-AM-06-015. Monterey, California Graduate School of
Business & Public Policy: Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/381
Abstract: In response to a request by NWDC, the Naval Postgraduate School agreed to research
and revise the current Maritime Tactical Memorandum (TACMEMO) TM 3-22-5-SW for unmanned
vehicles systems (UVS). The CRUDES fleet would immediately benefit by the removal of Captain's
gigs/second RHIB in favor of a unmanned surface vehicle (USV) in order to increase warfighting
capabilities. An analysis of N86 CRUDES ROC/POEs revealed no impact to primary or secondary
warfighting missions by removing the gig/second RHIB. In today's capabilities-based warfighting,
this replacement better supports the global concept of operations. The research was limited to
sparsely deployed platforms, developmental project results, and test procedures as delineated in
various UV concepts of operations. It was found that the preponderance of UVs remain largely
experimental and not integrated into organizational Navy (SMD/FMD) or Marine Corps (TO&E)
manpower management documents. The research found that unmanned vehicles are actually
part of larger UV systems (which require human operators) and that simply adding UVs does not
result in manpower cost savings. Some advantages of UVs are persistent on station time and
removal of the human operator from potentially harmful and fatiguing environments. Research
indicates that, though still in their infancy, Navy UV's are being employed by naval personnel but
closely supported by contractors while operating on Naval platforms and in Naval units.
Additionally, the majority of existing UV tactics and training address ISR and undersea missions
with no definitive operational doctrine for unmanned combat vehicles (UCV). The report includes
an UV acronym list (Appendix B) extracted from publications (Appendix C), a notional launchand-recovery procedure and a notional estimate of USV manpower requirements and watch
organization. Significant consideration must be made in the design and acquisition process as to
who will operate these systems. The responsibility and spatial acumen required to operate UVs
must be delineated prior to the acquisition phase so as to include key performance parameters
(KPP) in unmanned vehicle design. An UV's size, tier of operational employment and payload play
a critical role in determining level of operator autonomy, responsibility (i.e., paygrade) and
supervision.
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Yakovac, Joseph. Early Lessons Learned from the Army's Future Combat Systems Program
(FCS) : Developing an Appropriate Contractual Arrangement with Industry, Establishing
an Enabling Program Management Structure and Test Organization. NPS-GSBPP-08-003.
Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/605
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA476958
Abstract: The Future Combat System (FCS) program is, without a doubt, the most challenging
modernization program ever attempted by the Army. The requirement defines the need to
develop and field a fully integrated system-of-systems consisting of manned ground vehicles,
unmanned ground systems, and unmanned aerial systems -- all connected by a complex
network. The program is in its fifth year of System Development and Demonstration. Despite two
restructures, due to reprioritizations of dollars within the Army and budget cuts imposed by
Congress, the program remains on schedule to deliver capability to the current force in 2010 and,
by 2017, to field a fully equipped FCS brigade combat team. To date, most articles, studies, and
reports on FCS have focused on the complexities of the task of developing and fielding a systemof-systems and on the unique contractual arrangement between the Army and the program's
lead system integrator. This paper provides early lessons learned from the FCS program that may
be useful to acquisition professionals facing the challenges of managing the complexity inherent
in 21st-century Department of Defense programs.
2006
Gaver, Donald P., Patricia A. Jacobs, and Hiroyuki Sato. Assessing Resource Requirements for
Maritime Domain Awareness and Protection (Security). NPS-OR-06-010. Monterey,
California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2006.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/755
Abstract "A maritime domain or region contains a number w of nonhostile W (White) vessels of
interest. Hostile R (Red) vessels enter the domain. The Rs are traveling through the domain
toward targets. Overhead, friendly (Blue) sensors (S) patrol the domain and classify (perhaps
incorrectly) detected vessels of interest as R or W. The misclassification of a W as an R is a false
positive. An overhead sensor follows (or tracks) any vessel it classifies as R until it is relieved by
another platform, perhaps a destroyer pair (DD). The overhead sensor is here assumed unable to
detect and classify additional vessels while it is following a suspicious vessel; this may well be a
somewhat pessimistic assumption, very possibly "richer possibilities" based on additional assets
(such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)) are available, but loss of track may occur as well as
misclassification. Deterministic and stochastic models are formulated and studied to evaluate the
probability that Rs are successfully neutralized before reaching their destination. The model
results quantify the effect of the resources and time needed to prosecute misclassified Ws (false
positives) on the probability of successfully neutralizing R. The results indicate that the
probability of neutralizing an R vessel is very sensitive to the false positive rate. Technologies,
processes, and procedures that can decrease the false positive rate will increase the effectiveness
of the Maritime Intercept Operation (MIO)."-- p. iii.
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2005
Jenkins, Glenn E. and William J. Snodgrass. The Raven Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV),
Investigating Potential Dichotomies between Doctrine and Practice. NPS-PM-05-012.
Monterey, California: Graduate School of Business & Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School,
2005.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/834
Abstract: "The goal of this MBA Project is to investigate possible disconnects between doctrine
and practice in the employment of the Raven Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV). The Army's
current Small UAV requirements are based upon the Future Combat System's Operations
Requirements Document and has not been validated at the platoon or company level. The Raven
SUAV is a Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) item that swiftly became the Army's Small UAV of
choice for operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Doctrine and Techniques, Tactics, and Procedures
(TTP) have been written for the Raven SUAV; however, it is not standard practice for all units
operating the system abroad. The last review of the SUAV operational requirements was
conducted in 2003 but did not specifically address its usage on the battlefield. In an attempt to
fill that gap, this project focuses on real-world usage of the Raven SUAV system. We compare
doctrine versus practice using the Department of Defense's (DOD) Doctrine, Organization,
Training, Material, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities (DOTML-PF) model as the primary logic
construct. The report begins by providing a background of the Raven SUAV, to include its
evolution from a COTS item to the Army's SUAV of choice, and how it has impacted the
warfighter. Next, the authors provide an overview of DOTML-PF in order to provide a basis for
comparing doctrine and practice. The study then looks in-depth at doctrine and practice using
DOTML-PF as the model for revealing differences between the two. Finally, the authors analyze
these differences and recommend solutions to mitigate shortfalls in actual Raven SUAV usage on
the battlefield."--p. i.
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Journal Articles
2014
Chesi, Simone, Qi Gong, Veronica Pellegrini, Roberto Cristi, Marcello Romano. “Automatic Mass
Balancing of a Spacecraft Three-Axis Simulator: Analysis and Experimentation.” Journal of
Guidance, Control and Dynamics 37, no. 1 (January-February 2014): 197-206.
Abstract: Spacecraft three-axis simulators provide frictionless and, ideally, torque-free hardware
simulation platforms that are crucial for validating spacecraft attitude determination and control
strategies. To reduce the gravitational torque, the distance between the simulator center of mass
and the center of rotation needs to be minimized. This work proposes an automatic mass
balancing system for spacecraft simulators, which uses only the three sliding masses during the
balancing process, without need of further actuators. The proposed method is based on an
adaptive nonlinear feedback control that aims to move, in real time, the center of mass toward
the spacecraft simulator's centerof rotation. The stability of the feedback system and the
convergence of the estimated unknown parameter (thedistance between the center of mass and
the center of rotation) are analyzed through Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed method is
experimentally validated using the CubeSat Three-Axis Simulator at the Spacecraft Robotics
Laboratory of the Naval Postgraduate School.
Chung, Timothy H. and Rachel T. Silvestrini. " Modeling and Analysis of Exhaustive Probabilistic
Search." Naval Research Logistics 61, no. 2 (March 2014): 164-178.
Abstract: This article explores a probabilistic formulation for exhaustive search of a bounded area
by a single searcher for a single static target. The searcher maintains an aggregate belief of the
target's presence or absence in the search area, concluding with a positive or negative search
decision on crossing of decision thresholds. The measure of search performance is defined as the
expected time until a search decision is made as well as the probability of the search decision
being correct. The searcher gathers observations using an imperfect detector, that is, one with
false positive and negative errors, and integrates them in an iterative Bayesian manner. Analytic
expressions for the Bayesian update recursion of the aggregate belief are given, with theoretical
results describing the role of positive and negative detections, as well as sensitivity results for the
effect of the detection errors on the aggregate belief evolution. Statistical studies via design of
simulation experiments provide insights into the significant search parameters, including
imperfect sensor characteristics, initial belief value, search decision threshold values, and the
available prior probability information. Regression analysis yields statistical models to provide
prescriptive guidance on the search performance as a function of these search parameters.
Ciarcià, Marco, Alession Grompone, and Marcello Romano. “A Near-Optimal Guidance for
Cooperative Docking Maneuver.” Acta Astronatica 102 (September/October 2014): 367-377.
Abstract: In this work we study the problem of minimum energy docking maneuvers between two
Floating Spacecraft Simulators. The maneuvers are planar and conducted autonomously in a
cooperative mode. The proposed guidance strategy is based on the direct method known as
Inverse Dynamics in the Virtual Domain, and the nonlinear programming solver known as
Sequential Gradient-Restoration Algorithm. The combination of these methods allows for the
quick prototyping of near-optimal trajectories, and results in an implementable tool for real-time
closed-loop maneuvering. The experimental results included in this paper were obtained by
exploiting the recently upgraded Floating Spacecraft-Simulator Testbed of the Spacecraft
Robotics Laboratory at the Naval Postgraduate School. A direct performances comparison, in
terms of maneuver energy and propellant mass, between the proposed guidance strategy and a
LQR controller, demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.
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Gaver, Donald P. and Patricia A. Jacobs. "Reliability Growth by Failure Mode Removal." Reliability
Engineering & System Safety 130 (October 2014): 27-32.
Abstract: Modern systems, civilian (e.g. automotive), and military (manned and unmanned
aircraft, surface vehicles, submerged vessels), suffer initial design faults or failure modes (FMs),
including software bugs, which detrimentally affect the system's reliability and availability. FMs
must be removed or mitigated in impact during initial testing, including accelerated testing, in
order for the system to meet its reliability requirements and operate satisfactorily in the field.
This paper concerns models for reliability growth in which the behaviors of FMs are assumed
independent, but of different types. Test effort is guided by prior information, expressed
probabilistically, on the random number and tenacities of such FMs that are of various origins in
the designs. Estimation of the numbers of FMs that will ultimately activate while in the field is
considered here.
Johnson. Thomas H. "The Thistle and the Drone: How America’s War on Terror Became a Global War
on Tribal Islam by Akbar Ahmed" The Middle East Journal 86, no. 1 (Winter 2014): 181-182.
Abstract: Book review.
Lucas, George R., Jr. “Automated Warfare.” Stanford Law & Policy Review 25 (2014: 317-340.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43537
Abstract: In this Article, I review the military and security uses of robotics and “unmanned” or
“uninhabited” (and sometimes “remotely piloted”) vehicles in a number of relevant conflict
environments that, in turn, raise issues of law and ethics that bear significantly on both foreign
and domestic policy initiatives. My treatment applies to the use of autonomous unmanned
platforms in combat and low-intensity international conflict, but also offers guidance for the
increased domestic uses of both remotely controlled and fully autonomous unmanned aerial,
maritime, and ground systems for immigration control, border surveillance, drug interdiction, and
domestic law enforcement. I outline the emerging debate concerning “robot morality” and
computational models of moral cognition and examine the implications of this debate for the
future reliability, safety, and effectiveness of autonomous systems (whether weaponized or
unarmed) that might come to be deployed in both domestic and international conflict situations.
Likewise, I discuss attempts by the International Committee on Robot Arms Control (ICRAC) to
outlaw or ban the use of autonomous systems that are lethally armed, as well an alternative
proposal by the eminent Yale University ethicist, Wendell Wallach, to have lethally armed
autonomous systems that might be capable of making targeting decisions independent of any
human oversight specifically designated “mala in se” under international law. Following the
approach of Marchant, et al., however, I summarize the lessons learned and the areas of
provisional consensus reached thus far in this debate in the form of “soft-law” precepts that
reflect emergent norms and a growing international consensus regarding the proper use and
governance of such weapons.
Muratore, Mark, Rachel T. Silvestri and Timothy H. Chung.”Simulation Analysis of UAV and
Ground Teams for Surveillance and Interdiction.” Journal of Defense Modeling and
Simulation 11, no. 2 (2014): 125-135.
Abstract: As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) become more prevalent on the battlefield, ground
forces will increasingly have to rely on them for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, as
well as target marking and overwatch operations. This paper presents the use of the Situational
Awareness for Surveillance and Interdiction Operations simulation analysis tool in conjunction
with the design and analysis of experiments to study aspects of UAVs' surveillance characteristics
in conjunction with ground-based interdiction teams to aid in increasing the number of targets
cleared from the area of interest. Different teaming strategies and coordination measures
between searching and interdicting assets are studied in order to understand the effectiveness of
the interdictor possessing an organic tracker UAV. The objective of this research is to quantify the
benefit or penalty of an additional UAV asset that is organic to a quick reaction force in the
context of the overall surveillance and interdiction operation.
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Song, Kwang Sub and Peter C. Chu. " Conceptual Design of Future Undersea Unmanned Vehicle
(UUV) System for Mine Disposal." IEEE Systems Journal 8, no. 1 (March 2014): 43-51.
Abstract: A conceptual design is proposed for an effective mine countermeasure (MCM) system,
which consists of three unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) and 10-20 small charged
deliverable vehicles. New underwater optical communication systems are introduced to improve
onboard mine reconnaissance and decision making with the key technologies focused on system
and communication efficiency, capability of data processing, and cost-effectiveness of MCM
systems. The proposed UUV MCM system is cost-effective due to adapting disposable mine
neutralization instruments, upgrading data process units, and configuring optical communication
systems between heterogeneous underwater and surface vehicle units in operations. At the same
time, efficient and reliable underwater optical and electromagnetic wave communication systems
are also introduced and analyzed for future system applications.
Wang, Z. A. Sorooshian, G. Prabhakar, M.M. Coggon, and H.H. Jonsson. "Impact of Emissions from
Shipping, Land, and the Ocean on Stratocumulus Cloud Water Elemental Composition during the
2011 E-PEACE Field Campaign." Atmospheric Environment 89 (June 2014): 570-580.
Abstract: This study reports on cloud water chemical and pH measurements off the California
coast during the July August 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE).
Eighty two cloud water samples were collected by a slotted-rod cloud water collector protruding
above the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter in
boundary layer stratocumulus clouds impacted to varying degrees by ocean-derived emissions,
ship exhaust, and land emissions. Cloud water pH ranged between 2.92 and 7.58, with an
average of 4.46. Peak pH values were observed north of San Francisco, simultaneous with the
highest concentrations of Si, B, and Cs, and air masses originating over land. The lowest pH
values were observed south of San Francisco due to ship emissions resulting in the highest
concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, V, Fe, Al, P, Cd, Ti, Sb, P, and Mn. Many of these species act as
important agents in aqueous-phase reactions in cloud drops and are critical ocean micronutrients
after subsequent wet deposition in an ocean system that can be nutrient-limited. E-PEACE
measurements suggest that conditions in the California coastal zone region can promote the
conversion of micronutrients to more soluble forms, if they are not already, due to acidic cloud
water conditions, the ubiquity of important organic agents such as oxalic acid, and the
persistence of stratocumulus clouds to allow for continuous cloud processing.
Wilde, Markus, Zarrin K. Chua and Andreas Fleischner. "Effects of Multivantage Point Systems on
the Teleoperation of Spacecraft Docking," IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
44, no. 2 (April 2014): 200-210.
Abstract: Rendezvous and docking with uncooperative target objects are driving capabilities for
future robotic on-orbit servicing and space debris removal systems. A teleoperation system
augments a robotic system with the perception, cognition, and decision capabilities of a human
operator, which can lead to a more capable and more flexible telerobotic system. The ThirdEye
system was developed in order to support the human operator in the complex relative navigation
task of final approach and docking. It provides the operator with a flexible camera vantage point
which can be positioned freely in the relevant space around and between the chaser and target
spacecraft. The primary and secondary camera views, an attitude head-up display, and a
trajectory prediction display are integrated into an intuitive graphical user interface. A validation
study was conducted to evaluate the effects of this ThirdEye system on the performance of the
teleoperation system during final approach and docking with uncooperative, rotating targets. The
results of this study show that the ThirdEye system increases the overall task success rate by
15% and improves operator situation awareness, without having negative impact on the usage of
system resources. The partial failure rates are decreased by 20-30%. In high-difficulty scenarios,
the operator task load is increased due to the dual task of teleoperating the camera arm and the
spacecraft in tandem, which leads to a minor increase in failure rate in these scenarios.
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2013
Carpin, Stefano, Derek Burch, Nicola Basilico, Timothy H. Chung, and Mathias Kölsch. “Variable
Resolution Search with Quadrotors: Theory and Practice.” Journal of Field Robotics 30, no. 5
(September 2013): 685-701.
Abstract: This paper presents a variable resolution framework for autonomously searching
stationary targets in a bounded area. Theoretical formulations are also described for using a
probabilistic quadtree data structure, which incorporates imperfect Bayesian (false positive and
false negative) detections and informs the searcher's route based on optimizing information gain.
Live-fly field experimentation results using a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle validate the
proposed methodologies and demonstrate an integrated system with autonomous control and
embedded object detection for probabilistic search in realistic operational settings. Lessons
learned from these field trials include characterization of altitude-dependent detection
performance, and we also present a benchmark data set of outdoor aerial imagery for search and
detection applications.
Chandrasekhara, Muguru S. and Brian K. McLain. “Aerodynamic Studies over a Manoeuvring UCAV
1303 Configuration.” Aeronautical Journal 117, no. 1190 (April 2013): 445-465.
Abstract:The flow past an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) 1303 was investigated in a water
tunnel in an effort to understand the complex flow field. The UCAV 1303 is characterised by a non
slender, 47° swept-leading-edge delta wing, with a cranked trailing edge, a cropped wing tip
and a fuselage. It also has no vertical tail. Dye visualisation pictures and five-axis strain gage
load data were obtained on a 1:72 scale model in both steady flow and while the model executed
preprogrammed manoeuvres. From the strain gage data, body axis force and moment data were
derived. In addition to some similarities, comparison of the flow features observed with those of
more well known slender delta wing flows showed some remarkable differences such as tip-stall,
the presence of two like-sense vortices on the same side of the wing, their simultaneous spiral
and bubble bursting. This paper predominantly discusses the flow visualisation results and
attempts to correlate the load data to some of the observed flow features.
Giachetti, Ronald E., Veronica Marcelli, José Cifuentes, and José A. Rojas. “An Agent-based
Simulation Model of Human-Robot Team Performance in Military Environments.” Systems
Engineering 16, no. 1 (Spring 2013): 15-28.
Abstract: Prior to deploying human-robot teams on military missions, system designers need to
understand how design decisions affect team performance. This paper describes a multiagent
simulation model that captures both team coordination and human-robot interaction. The
purpose of the model is to evaluate proposed team designs in uncertain Military Operations in
Urban Terrain (MOUT) scenarios and determine which design factors are most critical to team
performance. The simulation model is intended to be a tool in the systems engineering iterations
of proposing designs, testing them, and then evaluating them during the conceptual design
phase. To illustrate the model's usefulness for this purpose, a fractional factorial design of
experiments is conducted to evaluate team design factors and the two-factor interaction between
controllable factors and noise factors that described the environment and robot reliability. The
experimental results suggest that (1) larger teams have more robust performance over the noise
factors, (2) robot reliability is critical to the formation of human-robot teams, and (3) high
centralization of decision-making authority created communication bottlenecks at the commander
in large teams. This work contributes to the agent-based modeling of teams, and to
understanding how the U.S. Army can attain its goal of greater utilization of robots in future
military operations.
Lee, Kyoungmin, Se-Jin Lee, Mathias Kölsch, Wan Kyun Chung. “Enhanced Maximum Likelihood
Grid Map with Reprocessing Incorrect Sonar Measurements.” Autonomous Robots 35, no. 2-3
(October 2013): 123-141.
Abstract: In this paper, we address the problem of building a grid map as accurately as possible
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using inexpensive and error-prone sonar sensors. In this research area, incorrect sonar
measurements, which fail to detect the nearest obstacle in their beamwidth, generally have been
dealt with in the same manner as correct measurements or have been excluded from the
mapping. In the former case, the map quality may be severely degraded. In the latter case, the
resulting map may have insufficient information after the incorrect measurements are removed
because only correct measurements are frequently insufficient to cover the whole environment.
We propose an efficient grid-mapping approach that incorporates incorrect measurements in a
specialized manner to build a better map; we call this the enhanced maximum likelihood (eML)
approach. The eML approach fuses the correct and incorrect measurements into a map based on
sub-maps generated from each set of measurements. We also propose the maximal sound
pressure (mSP) method to detect incorrect sonar readings using the sound pressure of the waves
from sonar sensors. In several indoor experiments, integrating the eML approach with the mSP
method achieved the best results in terms of map quality among various mapping approaches.
We call this the maximum likelihood based on sub-maps (MLS) approach. The MLS map created
using only two sonar sensors exhibited similar accuracy to the reference map, which was an
accurate representation of the environment. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New
York.
McCamish, Shawn B., Marco Ciarcià and Marcello Romano. “Simulations of Multiple Spacecraft
Maneuvering with MATLAB/Simulink and Satellite Tool Kit.” Journal of Aerospace Information
Systems 10, no. 7 (July 2013): 348-359.
Abstract: A software interface between the MATLAB/Simulink environment and the Satellite Tool
Kit Environment is introduced. This research is based on the need for validating model
performance and visualizing simultaneous multiple-spacecraft proximity maneuvers for emerging
missions. It is common for spacecraft systems to be modeled with MATLAB and Simulink.
Furthermore, the software package Satellite Tool Kit is often used for animating and evaluating
spacecraft maneuvers. In this research, a MATLAB/Satellite Tool Kit interface was developed to
propagate six-degree-of-freedom spacecraft models, compared against Satellite-Tool-Kitgenerated ephemeris, and animated for analysis. MATLAB script with necessary formatting is
used for Satellite Tool Kit initialization and animation. The MATLAB/Satellite Tool Kit simulation
interface allows variations in number, shape, and dimensions of spacecraft. Additionally,
numerous model and simulation parameters can be selected and synchronized between MATLAB
and Satellite Tool Kit. Furthermore, either predetermined, or randomly distributed, initial
spacecraft positions and orientations are permitted by the interface. The paper gives enough
details to allow the interested readers to adapt to their needs and further develop the proposed
software interface.
Xargay, Enric, Isaac Kaminer, Antonio M. Pascoal, Naira Hovakimyana, Vladimir Dobrokhodov,
Venanzio Cichella, A. Pedro Aguiar and Reza Ghabcheloo. “Time-Critical Cooperative Path
Following of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles over Time-Varying Networks.” Journal of
Guidance Control and Dynamics 36, no. 2 (March-April 2013): 499-516.
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of steering a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles along
desired three-dimensional paths while meeting stringent spatial and temporal constraints. A
representative example is the challenging mission scenario where the unmanned aerial vehicles
are tasked to cooperatively execute collision-free maneuvers and arrive at their final destinations
at the same time. In the proposed framework, the unmanned aerial vehicles are assigned
nominal spatial paths and speed profiles along those, and then the vehicles are requested to
execute cooperative path following, rather than open loop trajectory tracking maneuvers. This
strategy yields robust behavior against external disturbances by allowing the unmanned aerial
vehicles to negotiate their speeds along the paths in response to information exchanged over the
supporting communications network. The paper considers the case where the graph that captures
the underlying time-varying communications topology is disconnected during some interval of
time or even fails to be connected at all times. Conditions are given under which the cooperative
path-following closed-loop system is stable. Flight test results of a coordinated road-search
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mission demonstrate the efficacy of the multi-vehicle cooperative control framework developed in
the paper.
2012
Andersson, Klas, Isaac Kaminer, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and Venanzio Cichella. “Thermal
Centering Control for Autonomous Soaring: Stability Analysis and Flight Test Results.” Journal of
Guidance Control and Dynamics 35, no. 3 (May-June 2012): 963-975.
Abstract: This paper addresses the challenge of using autonomous soaring gliders to search for
and exploit thermal lift to extend the gliders' endurance. For this purpose, a simple thermal
centering controller is proposed. The paper includes theoretical analysis of stability and
convergence properties of this controller. Using an exponential Gaussian function to represent the
updraft field of a thermal, the Lyapunov type analysis shows the proposed controller to be
asymptotically stable and determines its region of attraction. The size of the region of attraction
is shown to be a function of the feedback gain that can be adjusted for any given strength and
geometry of thermal. The paper additionally presents simulation and flight test results that verify
the performance of the proposed controller. The results of the flight trials also confirm the
feasibility and effectiveness of using autonomous thermal soaring to extend endurance for
unmanned gliders.
Boxerbaum, Alexander S., Matthew A. Klein, Jeffery E. Kline, Stuart C. Burgess, Roger D. Quinn,
Richard Harkins, Ravi Vaidyanathan. “Design, Simulation, Fabrication and Testing of a Bioinspired Amphibious Robot with Multiple Modes of Mobility.” Journal of Robotics and
Mechatronics 24, no. 4 (2012): 629-641.
Abstract: Surf-zone environments represent an extreme challenges to robot operation. A robot
that autonomously navigates rocky terrain, constantly changing underwater currents, hardpacked moist sand and loose dry sand characterizing this environment, would have significant
utility in a range of defence and civilian missions. The study of animal locomotion mechanisms
can elucidate specific movement principles that can be applied to address these demands. In this
work, we report on the design and optimization of a biologically inspired amphibious robot for
deployment and operation in an ocean beach environment. We specifically report a new design
fusing a range of insectinspired passive mechanisms with active autonomous control
architectures to seamlessly adapt to and traverse a range of challenging substrates both in and
out of the water, and the design and construction of SeaDog, a proof-of-concept amphibious
robot built for navigating rocky or sandy beaches and turbulent surf zones. The robot
incorporates a layered hull and chassis design that is integrated into a waterproof Explorer Case
in order to provide a large, protected payload in an easy-to-carry package. It employs a rugged
drivetrain with four wheel-legs and a unique tail design and actuation strategy to aid in climbing,
swimming and stabilization. Several modes of terrestrial and aquatic locomotion are suggested
and tested versus range of mobility metrics, including data obtained in simulation and hardware
testing. A waterproofing strategy is also tested and discussed, providing a foundation for future
generations of amphibious mobile robots.
Chung, Timothy H. and Joel W. Burdick. “Analysis of Search Decision Making Using Probabilistic
Search Strategies.” IEEE Transactions on Robotics 28, no. 1 (February 2012): 132-144.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a formulation of the spatial search problem, where a mobile
searching agent seeks to locate a stationary target in a given search region or declare that the
target is absent. The objective is to minimize the expected time until this search decision of
targets presence (and location) or absence is made. Bayesian update expressions for the
integration of observations, including false-positive and false-negative detections, are derived to
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facilitate both theoretical and numerical analyses of various computationally efficient (semi)adaptive search strategies. Closed-form expressions for the search decision evolution and
analytic bounds on the expected time to decision are provided under assumptions on search
environment and/or sensor characteristics. Simulation studies validate the probabilistic search
formulation and comparatively demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed search strategies.
MacMahan, Jamie, Ross Vennell, Rick Beatson, Jenna Brown and Ad Reniers. “Divergence-Free
Spatial Velocity Flow Field Interpolator for Improving Measurements from ADCP-Equipped Small
Unmanned Underwater Vehicles.” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 29, no. 3
(March 2012): 478-484.
Abstract: Applying a two-dimensional (2D) divergence-free (DF) interpolation to a one-person
deployable unmanned underwater vehicle's (UUV) noisymoving-vessel acousticDoppler current
profiler (MV-ADCP)measurements improves the results and increases the utility of the UUV in
tidal environments. For a 3.5-h MV-ACDP simulation that spatially and temporally varies with the
M2 tide, the 2D DF-estimated velocity magnitude and orientation improves by approximately
85%. Next the 2D DF method was applied to velocity data obtained from two UUVs that
repeatedly performed seven 1-h survey tracks in Bear Cut Inlet,Miami, Florida. The DFmethod
provides a more realistic and consistent representation of the ADCP measured flow field,
improving magnitude and orientation estimates by approximately 25%. The improvement
increases for lower flow velocities, when the ADCP measurements have lowenvironmental signalto-noise ratio.However, near slack tide when flow reversal occurs, the DF estimates are invalid
because the flows are not steady state within the survey circuit.
Ross, I. Michael and Mark Karpenko. “A Review of Pseudospectral Optimal Control: From Theory to
Flight.” Annual Reviews Control 36, no. 2 (December 2012): 182-197.
Abstract: The home space for optimal control is a Sobolev space. The home space for
pseudospectral theory is also a Sobolev space. It thus seems natural to combine pseudospectral
theory with optimal control theory and construct "pseudospectral optimal control theory", a term
coined by Ross. In this paper, we review key theoretical results in pseudospectral optimal control
that have proven to be critical for a successful flight. Implementation details of flight
demonstrations onboard NASA spacecraft are discussed along with emerging trends and
techniques in both theory and practice. The 2011 launch of pseudospectral optimal control in
embedded platforms is changing the way in which we see solutions to challenging control
problems in aerospace and autonomous systems.
Vaidyanathan, Ravi, Chun-Ta Chen, Chan-Doo Jeong, Charles Williams, Yochiro Endo, Roy E.
Ritzmann, and Roger D. Quinn. “A Reflexive Vehicle Control Architecture Based on a Neural
Model of the Cockroach Escape Response.” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers. Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering 226, no. 5 (May 2012):
699-718. Abstract: This paper presents a biologically inspired architecture for rapid real-time
control of autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles based on a neural model of the escape
response of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. The architecture fuses exteroceptive
and proprioceptive inputs in a manner similar to the insect to produce commands for collision
avoidance and, in some cases, orientation for target strike. It functions as a reflexive subsystem
that integrates smoothly with higher-level planning and behavioral control systems. The
performance of the reflex is demonstrated in simulation and in hardware experiments on both air
and ground vehicles, even in the presence of noisy, false or disruptive sensor data.
Xargay, Enric, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Isaac Kaminer, Antonio M. Pascoal, Naira Hovakimyana and
Chengyu Cao. “Time-Critical Cooperative Control of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles.” IEEE Control
Systems Magazine 32, no. 5 (October 2012): 49-73.
Abstract: Worldwide, there has been growing interest in the use of autonomous vehicles to
execute missions of increasing complexity without constant supervision of human operators. A
key enabling element for the execution of such missions is the availability of advanced systems
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for motion control of autonomous vehicles. Usually, the problems of motion control for a single
autonomous vehicle are roughly classified into three groups.
Yang, Ji Hyun, Jesse Huston, Michael Day and Imre Balogh. “Modeling Peripheral Vision for Moving
Target Search and Detection.” Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 83, no. 6 (June
2012): 585-593.
2011
Bandyopadhyay, Promode R., Henry A. Leinhos, J. Dana Hrubes, Norman Toplosky, and Joshua
Hansen. “Turning of a Short-length Cable using Flapping Fin Propulsion.” IEEE Journal of
Oceanic Engineering 36, no. 4 (2011): 571-585.
Abstract: In this paper, the context of several self-propelled, short-length cables, embedded with
passive sensors for environmental diagnostics and swimming efficiently in formation over long
duration and in shallow water, is considered. The basic problem of this volumetric diagnosticnamely, the low-speed motion control of a short-length, neutrally buoyant cable-is examined.
More specifically, the constant-rate, circular turning of a 7-m-long cable held taut in a shallowwater basin using a biorobotic propulsor that has multiple flapping fins at one end, the other end
being tied to a mooring post, is examined via modeling and laboratory and basin experiments. A
drag analysis is used to estimate the fastest steady turning rate achievable while holding the
cable taut. An axial tension and position controller, as well as a depth controller, is developed and
evaluated in a quiescent laboratory tank accounting for the cycle-averaged hydrodynamic
characteristics of a rigid cylinder to which six flapping fins are attached, three at each end. A
small test range of 100-m scale, containing seven floor-mounted hydrophones in a hexagonal
layout, is built in a stillwater basin to track the motion of the propulsor, to which a pinger is
attached. The estimated overall resolution of the acoustic tracking system is 5 cm; it is possible
to detect the imprint of the environmental unsteadiness on the cable and propulsor assembly. In
the basin experiment, a mean radius of turning of 8.91 m can be achieved within a standard of
deviation of 0.27 m, and a uniform turn rate of 22 min for one full revolution can also be
maintained, when the applied turning force is 10% of the cable tension. The basin experiment
has verified the drag analysis. This paper explores the value of a flapping fin propulsor (which is
inspired by large swimming animals) as an alternative to conventional rotational propulsors for
the low-speed maneuvering of a short cable.
Bevilacqua, Riccardo, Tanya Lehmann, and Marcello Romano. "Development and
Experimentation of LQR/APF Guidance and Control for Autonomous Proximity Maneuvers of
Multiple Spacecraft." Acta Astronautica 68, no. 7-8 (2011): 1260-1275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.08.012
This work introduces a novel control algorithm for close proximity multiple spacecraft
autonomous maneuvers, based on hybrid linear quadratic regulator/artificial potential function
(LQR/APF), for applications including autonomous docking, on-orbit assembly and spacecraft
servicing. Both theoretical developments and experimental validation of the proposed approach
are presented. Fuel consumption is sub-optimized in real-time through re-computation of the LQR
at each sample time, while performing collision avoidance through the APF and a high level
decisional logic. The underlying LQR/APF controller is integrated with a customized wall-following
technique and a decisional logic, overcoming problems such as local minima. The algorithm is
experimentally tested on a four spacecraft simulators test bed at the Spacecraft Robotics
Laboratory of the Naval Postgraduate School. The metrics to evaluate the control algorithm are:
autonomy of the system in making decisions, successful completion of the maneuver, required
time, and propellant consumption. 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Brown, Jenna, Chris Tuggle, Jamie MacMahan, and Ad Reniers. “The Use of Autonomous Vehicles
for Spatially Measuring Mean Velocity Profiles in Rivers and Estuaries.” Intelligent Service
Robotics 4, no. 4 (October 2011): 233-244.
Abstract: Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are commonly used in oceanic and more recently estuarine
and riverine environments because they are small, versatile, efficient, moving platforms equipped
with a suite of instruments for measuring environmental conditions. However, moving vessel
observations, particularly those associated with Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)
measurements, can be problematic owing to instrument noise, flow fluctuations, and spatial
variability. A range of ADCPs manufactured by different companies were integrated on to an
Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV), an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV), and some additional
stationary platforms and were deployed in a number of natural riverine and estuarine
environments to evaluate the quality of the velocity profile over the depth, minimum averaging
time interval requirements, and AV mission planning considerations. Measurements were
obtained at fixed locations to eliminate any spatial variations in the mean flow characteristics.
The USV has the unique capability to station-keep to within 1 m owing to its dual-propeller
design, providing the best setup for spatially mapping velocity profiles. Single-propeller UUVs can
perform a quasi-stationkeeping (<10 m) operation, but are designed for traveling underwater at
speeds >1 m/s. An appropriate averaging window, T∗, was determined using the Kalman
Algorithm with a Kalman gain equal to 1%. T∗ was found to be independent of depth, flow
velocity, and environment. There was no correlation (R2 = 0.18) for T∗ between flow magnitude
and direction. Results from all measurements had a similar T∗ of approximately 3 min. Based on
this, an averaging window of 4 min is conservatively suggested to obtain a statistically confident
measure of the mean velocity profile.
Cazenave, Francois, Yanwu Zhang, Erika McPhee-Shaw, James G. Bellingham, and Timothy P.
Stanton. “High-Resolution Surveys of Internal Tidal Waves in Monterey Bay, California, Using an
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.” Limnology and Oceanography-Methods 9 (December
2011): 571-581.
http://www.mbari.org/staff/yzhang/Cazenave_etal_LOM.pdf
Chung, Hoam, Elijah Polak, Johannes O. Royset, and Shankar Sastry. “On the Optimal Detection of
an Underwater Intruder in a Channel Using Unmanned Underwater Vehicles.” Naval Research
Logistics 58 no. 8 (December 2011): 804-820.
Abstract: Given a number of patrollers that are required to detect an intruder in a channel, the
channel patrol problem consists of determining the periodic trajectories that the patrollers must
trace out so as to maximized the probability of detection of the intruder. We formulate this
problem as an optimal control problem. We assume that the patrollers' sensors are imperfect and
that their motions are subject to turn-rate constraints, and that the intruder travels straight down
a channel with constant speed. Using discretization of time and space, we approximate the
optimal control problem with a large-scale nonlinear programming problem which we solve to
obtain an approximately stationary solution and a corresponding optimized trajectory for each
patroller. In numerical tests for one, two, and three underwater patrollers, an underwater
intruder, different trajectory constraints, several intruder speeds and other specific parameter
choices, we obtain new insight-not easily obtained using simply geometric calculations-into
efficient patrol trajectory design under certain conditions for multiple patrollers in a narrow
channel where interaction between the patrollers is unavoidable due to their limited turn rate.
Chung, Timothy H., Geoffrey A. Hollinger and Volkan Isler. “Search and Pursuit-Evasion in Mobile
Robotics: A Survey.” Autonomous Robots 31, no. 4-SI (November 2011): 299-316.
Abstract: This paper surveys recent results in pursuitevasion and autonomous search relevant to
applications in mobile robotics. We provide a taxonomy of search problems that highlights the
differences resulting from varying assumptions on the searchers, targets, and the environment.
We then list a number of fundamental results in the areas of pursuit-evasion and probabilistic
search, and we discuss field implementations on mobile robotic systems. In addition, we highlight
current open problems in the area and explore avenues for future work.
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Dobrokhodov, Vladimir, Isaac Kaminer, Ioannis Kitsios, Enric Xargay, Naira Hovakimyan,
Chengyu Cao, Irene M. Gregory, and Lena Valavani. “Experimental Validation of L-1 Adaptive
Control: The Rohrs Counterexample in Flight.” Journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics 34,
no. 5 (September-October 2011): 1311-1328.
Abstract: This paper presents flight-test results that examine the performance and robustness
properties of an L-1 control augmentation loop implemented onboard a small unmanned aerial
vehicle. The framework used for in-flight control evaluation is based on the Rohrs
counterexample, a benchmark problem presented in the early 1980s, to show the limitations of
adaptive controllers developed at that time. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations and flight-test
results confirm the abilityofthe L-1 flight control systemtomaintain stability and predictable
performance ofthe closed-loop adaptive system in the presence of general (artificially injected)
unmodeled dynamics. The results demonstrate the advantages of L-1 control as a robust
adaptive control architecture with the potential of facilitating the transition of adaptive control
into advanced flight control systems.
Hollinger, Geoffrey A., Timothy H. Chung and Volkan Isler. “Special Issue on Search and PursuitEvasion with Mobile Robots.” Autonomous Robots 31, no. 4-SI (November 2011): 297-298.
Lee, Deok-Jin and Klas Andersson. "Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for
Wireless Sensor Networks." International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 8, no. 2
(June 2011): 101-113.
http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/15965
Abstract: This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless
sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using longendurance aerial robotic
vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient
climbing based self-estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to
maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The
autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest
thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within
specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly-deployable sensor networks with the highendurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment
monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision-making support. Flight test and simulation
studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for
robust communication networks.
Ma, Jeremy, Timothy H. Chung, and Joel Burdick. “A Probabilistic Framework for Object Search with
6-DOF Pose Estimation.” International Journal of Robotics Research 30, no. 10-SI
(September 2011): 1209-1228.
Abstract: This article presents a systematic approach to the problem of autonomous 3D object
search in indoor environments, using a two-wheeled non-holonomic robot equipped with an
actuated stereo-camera head and processing done on a single laptop. A probabilistic grid-based
map encodes the likelihood of object existence in each cell and is updated after each sensing
action. The updating schema incorporates characteristic parameters modeled after the robot's
sensing modalities and allows for sequential updating via Bayesian recursion methods. Two types
of sensing modalities are used to update the map: a coarse search method (global search) based
on a color histogram approach, and a more refined search method (local search) based on ScaleInvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature matching. If the local search correctly locates the
desired object, its 6-DOF pose is estimated using stereo applied to each SIFT feature (i.e. 3D
SIFT feature), which is then fed as measurements into an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for
sustained tracking. If the local search fails to locate the desired object in a particular cell, the cell
is updated in the probability map and the next peak probability cell is identified and planned to
using a separate grid-based costmap populated via obstacle detection from stereo, with planning
done using an A* planner. Experimental results obtained from the use of this method on a mobile
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robot are presented to illustrate and validate the approach, confirming that the search strategy
can be carried out with modest computation on a single laptop.
Slegers, Nathan and Oleg A. Yakimenko. "Terminal Guidance of Autonomous Parafoils in High Windto-Airspeed Ratios." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G:
Journal of Aerospace Engineering 225, no. 3 (2011): 336-346.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/09544100JAERO749
Abstract: Autonomous precision placement of parafoils is challenging because of their limited
control authority and sensitivity to winds. In particular, when wind speed is near the airspeed,
guidance is further complicated by the parafoils inability to penetrate the wind. This article specifically addresses the terminal phase and develops an approach for generating optimal trajectories
in real-time based on the inverse dynamics in the virtual domain. The method results in efficient
solution of a two-point boundary-value problem using only a single optimization parameter
allowing the trajectory to be generated at a high rate, mitigating effects of the unknown winds. It
is shown through simulation and experimental results that the proposed algorithm works well
even in strong winds and is robust to sensor errors and wind uncertainty.
Sui, Jinxue and Li Yang. “Intelligent 3D Measurement Warehousing Service System Based on LMS
Laser Scanning.” Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences 3, no. 3 (April
2011): 154-162.
Abstract: The intelligent measurement warehousing service system has already applied in
industry many aspects, realizes the unmanned operation through measuring shape, outline and
position of the object and so on, this paper proposed one kind examination method in the
intelligent warehousing service system, examines the goods position to park by using LMS laser
measurement system in the intelligent warehousing service system, uses many algorithms to
gain the configuration information and the positional information about goods, then carries on the
data fusion to the goods shape, adjusts the posture to the goods, enables the goods put in the
warehouse storage spot smoothly, the experiment prove that using LMS to examine can obtain
much more information, high reliability, convenient data, the nimble second exploitive, LMS is be
suitable for the 3D measurement of the intelligent warehousing service system, it is able to meet
the need well.
Xiao, Yang, Yanping Zhang, John H. Gibson, Geoffrey G. Xie, and Hui Chen. “Performance Analysis of
ALOHA and p-Persistent ALOHA for Multi-hop Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.” Cluster
Computing 14, no. 1 (January 2011): 65-80.
Abstract: The extreme conditions under which multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor networks
(UASNs) operate constrain the performance of medium access control (MAC) protocols. The MAC
protocol employed significantly impacts the operation of the network supported, and such
impacts must be carefully considered when developing protocols for networks constrained by
both bandwidth and propagation delay. Time-based coordination, such as TDMA, have limited
applicability due to the dynamic nature of the water channel used to propagate the sound signals,
as well as the significant effect of relatively small changes in propagation distance on the
propagation time. These effects cause inaccurate time synchronization and therefore make timebased access protocols less viable. The large propagation delays also diminish the effectiveness
of carrier sense protocols as they do not predict with any certainty the status of the intended
recipients at the point when the traffic would arrive. Thus, CSMA protocols do not perform well in
UASNs, either. Reservation-based protocols have seldom been successful in commercial products
over the past 50 years due to many drawbacks, such as limited scalability, relatively low
robustness, etc. In particular, the impact of propagation delays in UASNs and other such
constrained networks obfuscate the operation of the reservation protocols and diminish, if not
completely negate, the benefit of reservations. The efficacy of the well-known RTS-CTS scheme,
as a reservation-based enhancement to the CSMA protocol, is also adversely impacted by long
propagation delays. An alternative to these MAC protocols is the much less complex ALOHA
protocol, or one of its variants. However, the performance of such protocols within the context of
multi-hop networks is not well studied. In this paper we identify the challenges of modeling
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contention-based MAC protocols and present models for analyzing ALOHA and p-persistent
ALOHA variants for a simple string topology. As expected, an application of the model suggests
that ALOHA variants are very sensitive to traffic loads. Indeed, when the traffic load is small,
utilization becomes insensible to p values. A key finding, though, is the significance of the
network size on the protocols' performance, in terms of successful delivery of traffic from outlying
nodes, indicating that such protocols are only appropriate for very small networks, as measured
by hop count.
2010
Basset, Gareth, Yunjun Xu, and Oleg A. Yakimenko. "Computing Short-Time Aircraft Maneuvers
using Direct Methods." Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences International 49, no. 3
(June 2010): 481-513. doi:10.1134/S1064230710030159
This paper analyzes the applicability of direct methods to design optimal short-term spatial
maneuvers for an unmanned vehicle in a faster than real-time scale. It starts by introducing
different basic control schemes, which employ online trajectory generation. Next, it presents and
analyzes the results obtained through two recently developed direct transcription (collocation)
methods: the Gauss pseudospec-tral method and the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto pseudosp ectral
method. The achieved results are further compared with those found through the Pontryagin's
Maximum (Minimum) Principle, and the paper continues by providing another set of direct
method simulations incorporating more realistic boundary conditions. Finally, the results obtained
using the third direct method, based on inverse dynamics in the virtual domain, are presented
and discussed.
Bluestein, Howard B., Michael M. French, Ivan PopStefanija, Robert T. Bluth, and Jeffrey B. Knorr. "A
Mobile, Phased-Array Doppler Radar for the Study of Severe Convective Storms the Mwr-05xp."
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91, no. 5 (May 2010): 579-+.
doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2914.1
A mobile X-band, phased-array Doppler radar was acquired from the U.S. Army by the Center for
Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) at the Naval Postgraduate School and
adapted for meteorological use by ProSensing, Inc. The radar was used during field experiments
conducted in the Southern Plains by faculty and students from the School of Meteorology at the
University of Oklahoma during the spring storm seasons of 2007 and 2008. During these field
experiments, storm-scale, rapid-scan, volumetric, Doppler-radar observations were obtained in
tornadic and nontornadic supercells, quasilinear mesoscale convective systems, and in both
boundary layer-based and elevated ordinary convective cells. A case is made for the use of the
radar for studies of convective weather systems and other weather phenomena that evolve on
time scales as short as tens of seconds.
Cowling, Ian D., Oleg A. Yakimenko, James F. Whidborne, and Alastair K. Cooke. "Direct Method
Based Control System for an Autonomous Quadrotor." Journal of Intelligent & Robotic
Systems 60, no. 2 (November 2010): 285-316. doi:10.1007/s10846-010-9416-9
This paper proposes a real time control algorithm for autonomous operation of a quadrotor
unmanned air vehicle. The quadrotor is a small agile vehicle, which as well as being a excellent
test bed for advanced control techniques could also be suitable for internal surveillance, search
and rescue and remote inspection. The proposed control scheme incorporates two key aspects of
autonomy; trajectory planning and trajectory following. Using the differentially-flat dynamics
property of the system, the trajectory optimization is posed as a non-linear constrained
optimization within the output space in the virtual domain, not explicitly related to the time
domain. A suitable parameterization using a virtual argument as opposed to time is applied,
which ensures initial and terminal constraint satisfaction. The speed profile is optimized
independently, followed by the mapping to the time domain achieved using a speed factor.
Trajectory following is achieved with a standard multi-variable control technique and a digital
switch is used to re-optimize the reference trajectory in the event of infeasibility or mission
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change. The paper includes simulations using a full dynamic model of the quadrotor
demonstrating the suitability of the proposed control scheme.
Hurni, Michael A., Pooya Sekhavat, and I. Michael Ross. "Autonomous Multi-Rover Trajectory
Planning using Optimal Control Techniques." Astrodynamics 2009 135, Pts 1-3 135, (2010):
2113-2132.
Future manned and robotic space missions call for autonomous coordination and control of
planetary rovers. This paper presents the implementation of a pseudospectral (PS) optimal
control-based algorithm for autonomous trajectory planning and control of several unmanned
ground vehicles (UGV) with real-time information updates. The mission of the UGVs is to traverse
from their initial start points and reach their targets in minimum time, with maximum robustness,
while avoiding obstacles (static and dynamic) and each other. Control solutions are repeatedly
recomputed and updated throughout the vehicles' missions. Simulation results illustrate the
performance of the planner in various multi-rover scenarios.
Kaminer, Isaac, Antonio Pascoal, Enric Xargay, Naira Hovakimyan, Chengyu Cao, and Vladimir
Dobrokhodov. "Path Following for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using L(1) Adaptive Augmentation
of Commercial Autopilots." Journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics 33, no. 2 (March-April
2010): 550-564. doi:10.2514/1.42056
The paper presents a three-dimensional path-following control algorithm that expands the
capabilities of conventional autopilots, which are normally designed to provide only guidance
loops for waypoint navigation. Implementation of this algorithm broadens the range of possible
applications of small unmanned aerial vehicles. The solution proposed takes explicit advantage of
the fact that normally these vehicles are equipped with autopilots stabilizing the vehicles and
providing angular-rate tracking capabilities. Therefore, the overall closed-loop system exhibits
naturally an inner-outer (dynamics-kinematics) control loop structure. The outer-loop pathfollowing control law developed relies on a nonlinear control strategy derived at the kinematic
level, while the inner-loop consisting of the autopilot together with an L(1) adaptive
augmentation loop is designed to meet strict performance requirements in the presence of
unmanned aerial vehicle modeling uncertainty and environmental disturbances. A rigorous proof
of stability and performance of the path-following closed-loop system, including the dynamics of
the unmanned aerial vehicle with its autopilot, is given. The paper bridges the gap between
theory and practice and includes results of extensive flight tests performed in Camp Roberts,
California, which demonstrate the benefits of the framework adopted for the control system
design.
Kim, Dae-Young, Hyung-Sub Bae, Myeong-Kwan Park, Son-Cheol Yu, Young-Sool Yun, C. P. Cho, and
Ryuichiro Yamane. "A Study of Magnetic Fluid Seals for Underwater Robotic Vehicles."
International Journal of Applies Electromagnetics and Mechanics 33, no. 1-2 (2010): 857863
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAE-2010-1195
Underwater robotic vehicles (URVs) normally use mechanical seals with o-rings, rubber boots,
PTFE or Grafoil wedges, or V-rings. Because mechanical seals can cause an unexpected
malfunction, we try to adapt magnetic fluid seal (MFS) for underwater robotic vehicles. For
reliable design of the MFS, we use numerical simulation of the flow in the MFS using finite
element method. The results obtained from experimental investigations of the operation of the
MFS contacting with pressurized water will be compared to numerical simulation results. 2010 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
Lee, Deok-Jin, Isaac Kaminer, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and Kevin Jones. "Autonomous Feature
Following for Visual Surveillance using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Gimbaled Camera
System." International Journal of Control Automation and Systems 8, no. 5 (October
2010): 957-966. doi:10.1007/s12555-010-0504-1
This paper represents the development of feature following control and distributed navigation
algorithms for visual surveillance using a small unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a low-cost
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imaging sensor unit. An efficient map-based feature generation and following control algorithm is
developed to make an onboard imaging sensor to track a target. An efficient navigation system is
also designed for real-time position and velocity estimates of the unmanned aircraft, which is
used as inputs for the path following controller. The performance of the proposed autonomous
path following capability with a stabilized gimbaled camera onboard a small unmanned aerial
robot is demonstrated through flight tests with application to target tracking for real-time visual
surveillance.
Lee, Deok-Jin and Richard Mark. "Decentralized Control of Unmanned Aerial Robots for Wireless
Airborne Communication Networks." International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 7,
no. 3 (September 2010): 191-200.
This paper presents a cooperative control strategy for a team of aerial robotic vehicles to
establish wireless airborne communication networks between distributed heterogeneous vehicles.
Each aerial robot serves as a flying mobile sensor performing a reconfigurable communication
relay node which enabls communication networks with static or slow-moving nodes on gorund or
ocean. For distributed optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles for communication networks, an
adaptive hill-climbing type decentralized control algorithm is developed to seek out local
extremum for optimal localization of the vehicles. The sensor networks estabilished by the
decentralized cooperative control approach can adopt its configuraiton in response to signal
strength as the function of the relative distance between the autonomous aerial robots and
distributed sensor nodes in the sensed environment. Simulation studies are conducted to
evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed decentralized cooperative control technique for robust
communication networks.
Lock, Richard J., Ravi Vaidyanathan, Stuart C. Burgess, and John Loveless. "Development of a
Biologically Inspired Multi-Modal Wing Model for Aerial-Aquatic Robotic Vehicles through Empirical
and Numerical Modelling of the Common Guillemot, Uria Aalge." Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
5, no. 4 (December 2010): 046001. doi:10.1088/1748-3182/5/4/046001
The common guillemot, Uria aalge, a member of the auk family of seabirds exhibits locomotive
capabilities in both aerial and aquatic substrates. Simplistic forms of this ability have yet to be
achieved by robotic vehicle designs and offer significant potential as inspiration for future concept
designs. In this investigation, we initially investigate the power requirements of the guillemot
associated with different modes of locomotion, empirically determining the saving associated with
the retraction of the wing during aquatic operations. A numerical model of a morphing wing is
then created to allow power requirements to be determined for different wing orientations, taking
into account the complex kinematic and inertial dynamics associated with the motion. Validation
of the numerical model is achieved by comparisons with the actual behaviour of the guillemot,
which is done by considering specific mission tasks, where by the optimal solutions are found
utilizing an evolutionary algorithm, which are found to be in close agreement with the biological
case.
Ma, Lili, Chengyu Cao, Naira Hovakimyan, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and Isaac Kaminer. "Adaptive
Vision-Based Guidance Law with Guaranteed Performance Bounds." Journal of Guidance
Control and Dynamics 33, no. 3 (May-June 2010): 834-852. doi:10.2514/1.46287
This work discusses vision-based tracking of a ground vehicle moving with unknown time-varying
velocity. The follower unmanned aerial vehicle is equipped with a single camera. The control
objective is to regulate the two-dimensional horizontal range between the unmanned aerial
vehicle and the target to a constant. The contribution of this paper has two distinct features. The
developed guidance law uses the estimates of the target's velocity obtained from a fastestimation scheme. It is shown that the fast-estimation scheme has guaranteed performance
bounds and the tracking performance bound can be explicitly derived as a function of the
estimation error. The performance bounds imply that the signals of the closed-loop adaptive
system remain close to the corresponding signals of a bounded closed-loop reference system,
both in transient and steady-state responses. The reference system is introduced solely for the
purpose of analysis. This paper also analyzes the stability and the performance degradation of
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the closed-loop adaptive system in the presence of out-of-frame events, when continuous
extraction of the target's information is not feasible due to failures in the image-processing
module. The feedback loop is then closed using the frozen estimates. The out-of-frame events
are modeled as brief instabilities. A sufficient condition for the switching signal is derived that
guarantees graceful degradation of performance during target loss. The results build upon the
earlier-developed fast-estimation scheme of the target's velocity, the inverse-kinematics-based
guidance law, and insights from switching systems theory.
McCamish, Shawn Baxter, Marcello Romano, and Xiaoping Yun. "Autonomous Distributed
Control of Simultaneous Multiple Spacecraft Proximity Maneuvers." IEEE Transactions on
Automation Science and Engineering 7, no. 3 (2010): 630-644.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TASE.2009.2039010
An autonomous distributed control algorithm for multiple spacecraft performing simultaneous
close proximity maneuvers has been developed. Examples of these maneuvers include automated
on-orbit inspection, assembly, or servicing. The proposed control algorithm combines the control
effort efficiency of the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and the robust collision avoidance
capability of the Artificial Potential Function (APF) method. The LQR control effort serves as the
attractive force toward goal positions, while APF-based repulsive functions provide collision
avoidance for both fixed and moving obstacles. Comprehensive validation and performance
evaluation of the control algorithm is conducted by numerical simulations. The simulation results
show the developed LQR/APF algorithm to be both robust and efficient for controlling multiple
spacecraft during simultaneous docking maneuvers. 2010 IEEE.
Ryan, John P., Shannon B. Johnson, A. Sherman, Kanna Rajan, Frederic Py, H. Thomas, Julio B. J.
Harvey, L. Bird, Jeffrey D. Paduan, and Robert C. Vrijenhoek. "Mobile Autonomous Process
Sampling within Coastal Ocean Observing Systems." Limnology and Oceanography-Methods
8, (August 2010): 394-402. http://aslo.org/lomethods/free/2010/0394.html
Predicting when and where key oceanic processes will be encountered is problematic in dynamic
coastal waters where diverse physical, chemical, and biological factors interact in varied and
rapidly changing combinations. Defining key processes often requires efficient sampling of
specific water masses and prompt sample return for subsequent analyses. This compound
challenge motivated our efforts to develop mobile autonomous process sampling (MAPS) for use
with autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). With this system, features are recognized by
artificial intelligence that integrates AUV sensor data to estimate probabilistic states for adaptive
control of survey navigation and triggering of targeted water samplers. To demonstrate the utility
of the MAPS/AUV system, we focused on intermediate nepheloid layers (INLs), episodic transport
events that may play a role in zooplankton ecology. During multiple field tests in Monterey Bay,
California, the MAPS/AUV system recognized, mapped, and sampled INLs. Invertebrate larvae
contained in the water samples were subsequently characterized with molecular probes
developed for high-throughput screening. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that INLs
function as vehicles for episodic larval transport. Applying MAPS within a greater coastal ocean
observing system permitted description of regional oceanographic dynamics that influenced the
patterns and scales of INL and larval transport.
2009
Bachmann, Richard J., Frank J. Boria, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Peter G. Ifju, and Roger D. Quinn. "A
Biologically Inspired Micro-Vehicle Capable of Aerial and Terrestrial Locomotion." Mechanism
and Machine Theory 44, no. 3 (March 2009): 513-526.
This paper reports the design, fabrication, and field testing of a small (30.5 cm wingspan) robot
capable of aerial and terrestrial locomotion. The micro air-land vehicle (MALV)flies using a chordwise, undercambered, bat-like compliant wing and walks over rough terrain using passively
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compliant wheel-leg running gear. MALV successfully performs transitions from flight to walking
and in some situations, from walking to flight. The lightweight (similar to 100 g) carbon fiber
vehicle can fly, land, and crawl with a sensor payload exceeding 20% its own mass. (c) 2008
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bevilacqua, Riccardo, Jason S. Hall, James Homing, and Marcello Romano. "Ad Hoc Wireless
Networking and Shared Computation for Autonomous Multirobot Systems." Journal of
Aerospace Computing, Information and Communication 6, no. 5 (2009): 328-353.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.40734
A wireless ad hoc network is introduced that enables inter-robot communication and shared
computation among multiple robots with PC/104-based single board computers running the realtime application interface patched Linux operating system. Through the use of IEEE 802.11 ad
hoc technology and User Datagram Protocol, each robot is able to exchange data without the
need of a centralized router or wireless access point. The paper presents three key aspects of this
novel architecture to include: 1) procedures to install the real-time application interface patched
operating system and wireless ad hoc communication protocol on a multiple robot system; 2)
development of a Simulink&reglibrary to enable intercommunication among robots and provide
the requisite software-hardware interfaces for the onboard sensor suite and actuator packages;
3) methods to rapidly generate and deploy real-time executables using Mathwork's Real-Time
Workshop to enable an autonomous robotic system. Experimental test results from the
Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory at the Naval Postgraduate School are presented which
demonstrate negligible network latencies and real-time distributed computing capability on the
Autonomous Spacecraft Assembly Test Bed. A complete manual is also included to replicate the
network and software infrastructures described in this work. Also, the developed
Simulink&reglibrary can be requested from the authors.
Boxerbaum, Alexander S., Richard J. Bachmann, Roger D. Quinn, Richard M. Harkins, Thomas
Dunbar, Stuart C. Burgess, and Ravi Vaidyanathan. "Design and Testing of a Highly Mobile
Insect-Inspired Autonomous Robot in a Beach Environment." International Journal of Design
and Nature and Ecodynamics 4, no. 4 (2009): 319-336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/DNE-V4-N4-319-336
The capability of autonomous platforms to function on beaches and in the ocean surf-zone is
critical for a wide range of military and civilian operations. Of particular importance is the ability
to navigate autonomously through the rocky terrain, hard-packed moist sand, and loose dry sand
characterizing this environment. The study of animal locomotion mechanisms can elucidate
specific movement principles that can be applied to address these demands. In this work, we
report the design, fabrication, control system development, simulation, and field testing of a
biologically inspired autonomous robot for deployment and operation in an ocean beach
environment. The robot successfully fuses a range of insect-inspired passive mechanisms with
active autonomous control architectures to seamlessly adapt to and traverse through a range of
challenging substrates.Field testing establishes the performance of the robot to navigate semirugged terrain in the surf-zone environment including soft to hard-packed sand, mild to medium
inclines, and rocky terrain. Platform autonomy is shown to be effective for navigation and
communication. The fusion of passive mechanisms and active control algorithms results in a
robot with mobility comparable to a legged vehicle with a control system of comparable simplicity
to a wheeled robot. Based on the success of this platform, we further introduce the design of a
fully amphibious robot designed to extend its performance to completely undersea surroundings.
2009 WIT Press.
Chao, Yi, Zhijin Li, John Farrara, James C. McWilliams, James Bellingham, Xavier Capet, Francisco
Chavez, et al. "Development, Implementation and Evaluation of a Data-Assimilative Ocean
Forecasting System Off the Central California Coast." Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical
Studies in Oceanography 56, no. 3-5 (2009): 100-126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.08.011
The development and implementation of a real-time ocean forecast system based on the Regional
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Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) off the coast of central California are described. The ROMS
configuration consists of three nested modeling domains with increasing spatial resolutions: the
US West coastal ocean at 15-km resolution, the central California coastal ocean at 5 km, and the
Monterey Bay region at 1.5 km. All three nested models have 32 vertical sigma (or terrainfollowing) layers and were integrated in conjunction with a three-dimensional variational data
assimilation algorithm (3DVAR) to produce snapshots of the ocean state every 6 h (the
reanalysis) and 48-h forecasts once a day. This ROMS forecast system was operated in real time
during the field experiment known as the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN-II) in
August 2003. After the field experiment, a number of improvements were made to the ROMS
forecast system: more data were added in the reanalysis with more careful quality control
procedures, improvements were made in the data assimilation scheme, as well as model surface
and side boundary conditions. The results from the ROMS reanalysis are presented here. The
ROMS reanalysis is first compared with the assimilated data as a consistency check. An
evaluation of the ROMS reanalysis against the independent measurements that are not
assimilated into the model is then presented. This evaluation shows the mean differences in
temperature and salinity between reanalysis and observations to be less than 1 C and 0.2 psu
(practical salinity unit), respectively, with root-mean-square (RMS) differences of less than 1.5 C
and 0.25 psu. Qualitative agreement is found between independent current measurements and
the ROMS reanalysis. The agreement is particularly good for the vertically integrated current
along the offshore glider tracks: the ROMS reanalysis can realistically reproduce the poleward
California Undercurrent. Reasonably good agreement is found in the spatial patterns of the
surface current as measured by high-frequency (HF) radars. Preliminary results concerning the
ROMS forecast skill and predictability are also presented. Future plans to improve the ROMS
forecast system with a particular focus on assimilation of HF radar current measurements are
discussed. 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
Ghabcheloo, Reza, A. Pedro Aguiar, Antonio Pascoal, Carlos Silvestre, Isaac Kaminer, and Joao
Hespanha. "Coordinated Path-Following in the Presence of Communication Losses and Time
Delays." SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization 48, no. 1 (2009): 234-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/060677884
This paper addresses the problem of steering a group of vehicles along given spatial paths while
holding a desired time-varying geometrical formation pattern. The solution to this problem,
henceforth referred to as the coordinated path-following (CPF) problem, unfolds in two basic
steps. First, a path-following (PF) control law is designed to drive each vehicle to its assigned
path, with a nominal speed profile that may be path dependent. This is done by making each
vehicle approach a virtual target that moves along the path according to a conveniently defined
dynamic law. In the second step, the speeds of the virtual targets (also called coordination
states) are adjusted about their nominal values so as to synchronize their positions and achieve,
indirectly, vehicle coordination. In the problem formulation, it is explicitly considered that each
vehicle transmits its coordination state to a subset of the other vehicles only, as determined by
the communications topology adopted. It is shown that the system that is obtained by putting
together the PF and coordination subsystems can be naturally viewed as either the feedback or
the cascade connection of the latter two. Using this fact and recent results from nonlinear
systems and graph theory, conditions are derived under which the PF and the coordination errors
are driven to a neighborhood of zero in the presence of communication losses and time delays.
Two different situations are considered. The first captures the case where the communication
graph is alternately connected and disconnected (brief connectivity losses). The second reflects
an operational scenario where the union of the communication graphs over uniform intervals of
time remains connected (uniformly connected in mean). To better root the paper in a nontrivial
design example, a CPF algorithm is derived for multiple underactuated autonomous underwater
vehicles (AUVs). Simulation results are presented and discussed. 2009 Society for Industrial and
Applied Mathematics.
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Gong, Qi, L. Ryan Lewis, and I. Michael Ross. "Pseudospectral Motion Planning for Autonomous
Vehicles." Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics 32, no. 3 (2009): 1039-1045.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.39697
A unified optimal motion planning algorithm for heterogeneous vehicles navigating through an
obstacle-cluttered environment has been demonstrated. Discipline-based design of motion
planning algorithms have led to the development and evolution of different techniques to solve
specific problems. These methods use probabilistic means of connecting the initial configuration
to the final configuration thereby enabling an improved capacity to achieve the goal and a
capability to generate initial feasible paths. The optimal control theory is the most natural
framework for solving motion planning problems. The motion planning algorithms that purport to
mimic human rules do not provide the best solutions and also create unintended problems such
as conflicts between rules. Solutions can be obtained quite seamlessly and even more
intelligently than with a human driver as demonstrated in the case of an unmanned car in optimal
control approach.
Jones, Kevin D. and Max F. Platzer. "Design and Development Considerations for Biologically
Inspired Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicles." Experiments in Fluids 46, no. 5 (2009): 799-810.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00348-009-0654-1
In this paper, the decade of numerical and experimental investigations leading to the
development of the authors' unique flapping-wing micro air vehicle is summarized. Early
investigations included the study of boundary layer energization by means of a small flapping foil
embedded in a flat-plate boundary layer, the reduction of the recirculatory flow region behind a
backward-facing step by means of a small flapping foil, and the reduction or suppression of flow
separation behind blunt or cusped airfoil trailing edges by flapping a small foil located in the wake
flow region. These studies were followed by systematic investigations of the aerodynamic
characteristics of single flapping airfoils and airfoil combinations. These unsteady flows were
described using flow visualization, laser-Doppler velocimetry in addition to panel and NavierStokes computations. It is then shown how this flapping-wing database was used to conceive,
design and develop a micro air vehicle which has a fixed wing for lift and two flapping wings for
thrust generation. While animal flight is characterized by a coupled force generation, the present
design appears to separate lift and thrust. However, in fact, the performance of one surface is
closely coupled to the other surfaces. 2009 US Government.
Kang, Wei, I. Michael Ross, Khanh Pham, and Qi Gong. "Autonomous Observability of Networked
Multisatellite Systems." Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics 32, no. 3 (2009): 869877.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.38826
The focus of this paper is on the development of observability theory and estimation algorithms
for multisatellite systems. The results could have applications in space missions that require
minimum support from ground control centers and other systems such as the Global Positioning
System. The main results consist of 1) the observability of two satellites, either cooperative or
noncooperative, using relative measurements only, 2) a computational method for networked
multiagent systems to check the observability using their topologies of communication and
sensor network, 3) an unscented Kalman filter for the estimation of orbits, positions, and
velocities using relative measurements, and 4) simulations on the observability of satellite
systems, including a scenario of two satellites and, in another simulation, a networked
multisatellite constellation with random communication interruptions.
Lee, Deok-Jin and Kyle T. Alfriend. "Additive Divided Difference Filtering for Real-Time Spacecraft
Attitude Estimation using Modified Rodrigues Parameters." Journal of the Astronautical
Sciences 57, no. 1-2 (2009): 93-111.
In this paper, a real-time attitude estimation algorithm is derived by using an additive divided
difference filter as an efficient alternative to the extended Kalman filter. To make the attitude
filtering algorithm suitable for real-time applications and to minimize the computational load, a
square-root sigma point attitude filter is designed by integrating the divided difference filter with
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the additive noise concept using the modified Rodrigues attitude parameters. The new attitude
filter provides numerically stable and accurate estimates of the state and covariance, but the
computational workload of the new estimator is almost identical to the computational complexity
of the extended Kalman attitude filter. For performance evaluation the new sigma point attitude
filter is compared with the unscented attitude filter and the extended Kalman filter. The sensor
measurements include a three-axis magnetometer and rate-gyros. Simulation results indicate
that the proposed additive divided difference attitude filter shows faster convergence with
accurate and reliable estimation.
Pizzi, Rita M. R., Danilo Rossetti, Giovanni Cino, D. Marino, Angelo L. Vescovi, and Wolfgang Baer. "A
Cultured Human Neural Network Operates a Robotic Actuator." Biosystems 95, no. 2 (February
2009): 137-144.
The development of bio-electronic prostheses, hybrid human-electronics devices and bionic
robots has been the aim of many researchers. Although neurophysiologic processes have been
widely investigated and bio-electronics has developed rapidly, the dynamics of a biological
neuronal network that receive sensory inputs, store and control information is not yet
understood. Toward this end, we have taken an interdisciplinary approach to study the learning
and response of biological neural networks to complex stimulation patterns. This paper describes
the design, execution, and results of several experiments performed in order to investigate the
behavior of complex interconnected structures found in biological neural networks. The
experimental design consisted of biological human neurons stimulated by parallel signal patterns
intended to simulate complex perceptions. The response patterns were analyzed with an
innovative artificial neural network (ANN), called ITSOM (Inductive Tracing Self Organizing Map).
This system allowed us to decode the complex neural responses from a mixture of different
stimulations and learned memory patterns inherent in the cell colonies. In the experiment
described in this work, neurons derived from human neural stem cells were connected to a
robotic actuator through the ANN analyzer to demonstrate our ability to produce useful control
from simulated perceptions stimulating the cells. Preliminary results showed that in vitro human
neuron colonies can learn to reply selectively to different stimulation patterns and that response
signals can effectively be decoded to operate a minirobot. Lastly the fascinating performance of
the hybrid system is evaluated quantitatively and potential future work is discussed. (C) 2008
Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramp, Steven R., Russ E. Davis, Naomi E. Leonard, Igor Shulman, Yi Chao, Allan R. Robinson, J.
Marsden, et al. "Preparing to Predict: The Second Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSNII) Experiment in the Monterey Bay." Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in
Oceanography 56, no. 3-5 (2009): 68-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.08.013
http://mseas.mit.edu/publications/PDF/ramp_etal_AOSNII_DSRII_2009.pdf
The Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network Phase Two (AOSN-II) experiment was conducted in
and offshore from the Monterey Bay on the central California coast during July 23-September 6,
2003. The objective of the experiment was to learn how to apply new tools, technologies, and
analysis techniques to adaptively sample the coastal ocean in a manner demonstrably superior to
traditional methodologies, and to use the information gathered to improve predictive skill for
quantities of interest to end-users. The scientific goal was to study the upwelling/relaxation cycle
near an open coastal bay in an eastern boundary current region, particularly as it developed and
spread from a coastal headland. The suite of observational tools used included a low-flying
aircraft, a fleet of underwater gliders, including several under adaptive autonomous control, and
propeller-driven AUVs in addition to moorings, ships, and other more traditional hardware. The
data were delivered in real time and assimilated into the Harvard Ocean Prediction System
(HOPS), the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (JPL/ROMS). Two upwelling events and
one relaxation event were sampled during the experiment. The upwelling in both cases began
when a pool of cold water less than 13 C appeared near Cape Ano Nuevo and subsequently
spread offshore and southward across the bay as the equatorward wind stress continued. The
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primary difference between the events was that the first event spread offshore and southward,
while the second event spread only southward and not offshore. The difference is attributed to
the position and strength of meanders and eddies of the California Current System offshore,
which blocked or steered the cold upwelled water. The space and time scales of the mesoscale
variability were much shorter than have been previously observed in deep-water eddies offshore.
Additional process studies are needed to elucidate the dynamics of the flow. 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
Royset, Johannes O., W. Matthew Carlyle, and R. Kevin Wood. "Routing Military Aircraft with A
Constrained Shortest-Path Algorithm." Military Operations Research 14, no. 3 (2009): 31-52.
We formulate and solve aircraft-routing problems that arise when planning missions for military
aircraft that are Subject to ground-based threats such as surface-to-air missiles. We use a
constrained shortest-path (CSP) model that discretizes the relevant airspace into a grid of
vertices representing potential waypoints, and connects those vertices with directed edges to
represent potential flight segments. The model is flexible: It can route any type of manned or
unmanned aircraft; it can incorporate any number of threats; and it can incorporate, in the
objective function or as side constraints, numerous mission-specific metrics such as risk, fuel
consumption, and flight time. We apply a new algorithm for solving the CSP problem and present
computational results for the routing of a high-altitude F/A-18 strike group, and the routing of a
medium-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle. The objectives minimize risk from ground-based
threats while constraints limit fuel consumption and/or flight time. Run times to achieve a nearoptimal solution range from fractions of a second to 80 seconds on a personal computer. We also
demonstrate that our methods easily extend to handle turn-radius constraints and round-trip
routing. Composite Group: Advances in Military OR.
Royset, Johannes O. and Daniel N. Reber. "Optimized Routing of Unmanned Aerial Systems for the
Interdiction of Improvised Explosive Devices." Military Operations Research 14, no. 4 (2009):
5-19.
The paper describes an optimization-based tool for selecting routes that will best employ
unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for the purpose of detecting improvised explosive devices
(IEDs) or related activity. The routing tool uses preprocessing procedures, an integer linear
program, and an IED prediction model to direct UASs to sectors of the area of operations with
high IED activity, while accounting for factors such as winds, aircraft de-confliction, and blue
force activity. Initial evaluation of the routing tool through field experiments with actual UASs
suggests that the tool produces realistic routes, which can be flown in the allocated amount of
time, even under windy conditions.
Shulman, Igor, Clark Rowley, Stephanie Anderson, Sergio DeRada, John Kindle, Paul Martin, James
Doyle, et al. "Impact of Glider Data Assimilation on the Monterey Bay Model." Deep-Sea
Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56, no. 3-5 (2009): 188-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.08.003
Glider observations were essential components of the observational program in the Autonomous
Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN-II) experiment in the Monterey Bay area during summer of
2003. This paper is focused on the impact of the assimilation of glider temperature and salinity
observations on the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) predictions of surface and subsurface
properties. The modeling system consists of an implementation of the NCOM model using a
curvilinear, orthogonal grid with 1-4 km resolution, with finest resolution around the bay. The
model receives open boundary conditions from a regional (9 km resolution) NCOM
implementation for the California Current System, and surface fluxes from the Coupled OceanAtmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) atmospheric model at 3 km resolution. The
data assimilation component of the system is a version of the Navy Coupled Ocean Data
Assimilation (NCODA) system, which is used for assimilation of the glider data into the NCOM
model of the Monterey Bay area. The NCODA is a fully 3D multivariate optimum interpolation
system that produces simultaneous analyses of temperature, salinity, geopotential, and vector
velocity. Assimilation of glider data improves the surface temperature at the mooring locations
for the NCOM model hindcast and nowcasts, and for the short-range (1-1.5 days) forecasts. It is
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shown that it is critical to have accurate atmospheric forcing for more extended forecasts.
Assimilation of glider data provided better agreement with independent observations (for
example, with aircraft measured SSTs) of the model-predicted and observed spatial distributions
of surface temperature and salinity. Mooring observations of subsurface temperature and salinity
show sharp changes in the thermocline and halocline depths during transitions from upwelling to
relaxation and vice versa. The non-assimilative run also shows these transitions in subsurface
temperature; but they are not as well defined. For salinity, the non-assimilative run significantly
differs from the observations. However, the glider data assimilating run is able to show
comparable results with observations of thermocline as well as halocline depths during upwelling
and relaxation events in the Monterey Bay area. It is also shown that during the relaxation of
wind, the data assimilative run has higher value of subsurface velocity complex correlation with
observations than the non-assimilative run. 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
Tvaryanas, Anthony P. and Glen D. MacPherson. "Fatigue in Pilots of Remotely Piloted Aircraft before
and After Shift Work Adjustment." Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 80, no. 5
(May 2009): 454-461.
Background: Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) with long endurance allow near-continuous
operations, necessitating the implementation of shift work for crewmembers to provide the
necessary manning of ground control stations. Shift work has a well-known association with
fatigue, degraded work performance, and an increased risk for errors and accidents. This study
presents the results of a follow-up survey of a particular population of shift-working RPA
crewmembers 1 yr after modification of their shift work schedule. Methods: A cross-sectional
survey of 66 RPA crewmembers was conducted using a collection of validated fatigue scales. This
data was compared to survey data collected a year prior from the same population and from a
reference group of non-shift-working aircrew. Shift system features and individual and situational
differences associated with fatigue were explored. Additionally, several alternative types of shift
schedules were assessed through modeling and simulation. Results: The study found no
significant reduction in reported fatigue despite prior modifications to the shift work schedule to
increase opportunities for recovery. Months shift working, sleep quality, and disturbances in
family and social activities were associated with overall fatigue scores. Approximately half of
those surveyed met criteria for occupationally Significant fatigue. Months shift working, use of
on-duty napping, and fatigue scores were predictive of those with occupationally significant
fatigue. Modeling of feasible variants of the Current shift work schedule failed to reveal a
significantly improved alternative schedule. Conclusions: Collectively, the results demonstrate a
persistent problem with chronic fatigue in this study population, likely reflective of continued
inadequate opportunities for recover), and restorative sleep.
2008
Bevilacqua, Riccardo and Marcello Romano. "Rendezvous Maneuvers of Multiple Spacecraft using
Differential Drag Under J2 Perturbation." Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics 31, no.
6 (2008): 1595-1607.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.36362
In this work, the residual atmospheric drag is exploited to perform rendezvous maneuvers among
multiple spacecraft in low Earth orbits. These maneuvers are required, for instance, for
autonomous on-orbit assembly. By varying the level of aerodynamic drag of each spacecraft,
relative differential accelerations are generated among the spacecraft of the group and therefore
their relative orbits are controlled. Each of the spacecraft is assumed to include a drag plate,
which can be actively opened or closed, to vary the atmospheric drag. The recently developed
Schweighart-Sedwick model is used to describe the relative dynamics of different spacecraft with
respect to a circular orbit with the inclusion of J2effects. Furthermore, the natural relative
dynamics of each chaser with respect to the target is decoupled into a secular motion and a
periodic oscillation. In particular, the following two-phase control method is proposed. First, the
secular motion of each chaser is controlled via differential drag in order for the spacecraft to
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sequentially move from an arbitrary initial condition to a closed stable relative orbit around the
target spacecraft. After the relative orbit stabilization, a relative eccentricity control is applied to
each spacecraft to zero-out the semi-axis of the relative orbit around the target and to achieve
the rendezvous condition. The control algorithm considers mutual constraints among the values
of differential drag that the different spacecraft can experience. Potential collisions are avoided by
changing the maneuvering initial time. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that it
enables a fleet of spacecraft to rendezvous without propellant expenditure. Furthermore, no
numerical optimization is needed, because the control policy is based on closed-form analytical
solutions. The proposed technique was validated via numerical simulations.
Blanding, Wayne R., Peter K. Willett, Yaakov Bar-Shalom, and Robert S. Lynch. "Directed Subspace
Search ML-PDA with Application to Active Sonar Tracking." IEEE Transactions on Aerospace
and Electronic Systems 44, no. 1 (2008): 201-216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAES.2008.4516999
The maximum likelihood probabilistic data association (ML-PDA) tracking algorithm is effective in
tracking Very Low Observable targets (i.e., very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) targets in a high
false alarm environment). However, the computational complexity associated with obtaining the
track estimate in many cases has precluded its use in real-time scenarios. Previous ML-PDA
implementations used a multi-pass grid (MPG) search to find the track estimate. Two alternate
methods for finding the track estimate are presented - a genetic search and a newly developed
directed subspace (DSS) search algorithm. Each algorithm is tested using active sonar scenarios
in which an autonomous underwater vehicle searches for and tracks a target. Within each
scenario, the problem parameters are varied to illustrate the relative performance of each search
technique. Both the DSS search and the genetic algorithm are shown to be an order of magnitude
more computationally efficient than the MPG search, making possible real-time mplementation.
In addition, the DSS search is shown to be the most effective technique at tracking a target at
the lowest SNR levels-reliable tracking down to 5 dB (postprocessing SNR in a resolution cell)
using a 5-frame sliding window is demonstrated, this being 6 dB better than the MPG search.
2008 IEEE.
Dobrokhodov, Vladimir N., Isaac I. Kaminer, Kevin D. Jones, and Reza Ghabcheloo. "VisionBased Tracking and Motion Estimation for Moving Targets using Unmanned Air Vehicles." Journal
of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics 31, no. 4 (2008): 907-917.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.33206
The algorithm performs autonomous tracking of a moving target, while simultaneously estimating
geographic coordinates, speed, and heading of the target. Tight real-time integration of
unmanned air vehicle's video and telemetry data streams with georeferenced database allows for
reliable target identification, increased precision, and shortened time of target motion estimation.
A low-cost off-the-shelf system is used, with a modified radiocontrolled aircraft airframe, gas
engine, and servos. Tracking is enabled using a low-cost, miniature pan-tilt gimbal. The control
algorithm provides rapid target acquisition and tracking capability. A target motion estimator was
designed and shown in multiple flight tests to provide reasonable targeting accuracy. The impact
of tracking loss events on the control and estimation algorithms is analyzed in detail.
Gezer, Levent, Robert Broadston, David Jenn, and Gert Burgstaller. "Digital Tracking Array using Offthe-Shelf Hardware." IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 50, no. 1 (2008): 108-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MAP.2008.4494509
The design, development, and testing of a digital tracking array is described. The array operates
at 2.4 GHz for tracking video and data from UAVs and other mobile transmitters. A monopulse
tracking technique is used to keep the beam scanned to the direction of the incoming signal. The
array is built entirely of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Calibration, measurement
of patterns, and verification of the tracking function are also discussed. 2008 IEEE.
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Lee, Deok-Jin. "Nonlinear Estimation and Multiple Sensor Fusion using Unscented Information
Filtering." IEEE Signal Processing Letters 15, (2008): 861-864.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LSP.2008.2005447
This letter represents a new unscented information filtering algorithm for nonlinear estimation
and multiple sensor information fusion. The proposed information fusion algorithm is derived by
embedding the unscented transformation method used in the sigma point filter into the extended
information filtering architecture. The new information filter achieves not only the accuracy and
robustness of the sigma point filter but also the flexibility of the information filter for multiple
sensor estimation. Performance comparison of the proposed filter with the extended information
filter is demonstrated through a target-tracking simulation study. 2008 IEEE.
Moreira, Lucia and C. Guedes Soares. "H2 and Hinfin; Designs for Diving and Course Control of an
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle in Presence of Waves." IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
33, no. 2 (2008): 69-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JOE.2008.918689
H2 and H designs applied to the diving and course control of an autonomous underwater vehicle
(AUV) considering the presence of wave disturbances are described. The six-degrees-of-freedom
equations of motion of the vehicle are described as a linear model and divided into three
noninteracting (or lightly interacting) subsystems for speed control, steering, and diving. This
work is based on the slender form of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS, Monterey, CA) AUV,
considering that the subsystems can be controlled by means of two single-screw propellers, a
rudder, port and starboard bow planes, and a stern plane. A model of the AUV dynamics is
presented with the first- and the second-order wave force disturbances, i.e., the Froude-Kriloff
and diffraction forces. An algorithm of nonlinear regression for the rationalization of the
subsurface sea spectrum is provided in this case study. The obtained results are analyzed and
evaluated in the frequency domain comparing the controllers performance considering or not the
inclusion of the model of waves. 2008 IEEE.
Nicholson, John W. and Anthony J. Healey. "The Present State of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
(AUV) Applications and Technologies." Marine Technology Society Journal 42, no. 1 (2008):
44-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4031/002533208786861272
AUVs have proved their usefulness in recent years and continue to do so. This paper is a review
of the current state of the art of AUVs. Present AUV capabilities are reviewed through a
discussion of feasible present-day AUV missions. The state of key AUV design features and sensor
technologies is also addressed, identifying those areas most critical to continued future progress
in AUV development.
Platzer, Max F., Kevin D. Jones, John Young, and Joseph C. S. Lai. "Flapping-Wing Aerodynamics:
Progress and Challenges." AIAA Journal 46, no. 9 (2008): 2136-2149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.29263
It is the objective of this paper to review recent developments in the understanding and
prediction of flapping-wing aerodynamics. To this end, several flapping-wing configurations are
considered. First, the problem of single flapping wings is treated with special emphasis on the
dependence of thrust, lift, and propulsive efficiency on flapping mode, amplitude, frequency, and
wing shape. Second, the problem of hovering flight is studied for single flapping wings. Third, the
aerodynamic phenomena and benefits produced by the flapping-wing interactions on tandem
wings or biplane configurations are discussed. Such interactions occur on dragonflies or on a
recently developed micro air vehicle. The currently available two- and three-dimensional inviscid
and viscous flapping-wing flow solutions are presented. It is shown that the results are strongly
dependent on flapping frequency, amplitude, and Reynolds number. These findings are
substantiated by comparison with the available experimental data.
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Vaidyanathan, Ravi, Troy S. Prince, Mohammad Modarreszadeh, Lalit Gupta, and Fredrick J. Lisy.
"Computationally Efficient Predictive Adaptive Control for Robotic Operation in Dynamic
Environments and Task Domains." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Part B-Journal of Engineering Manufacture 222, no. 12 (December 2008): 1695-1713.
This paper presents a new adaptive predictive control algorithm and its refinement for robotic
utility. The controller addresses the need for practical, computationally efficient, robust real-time
adaptive control for multivariable robotic systems working in challenging industrial environments.
It exploits a special matrix representation to obtain Substantial reductions in the computational
expense relative to standard methods. Controller performance is established for a simple robotic
manipulator directing motion through sharply changing loading conditions and on an industrial
robot loading heavy shells within the weapons magazine of a naval vessel. The new controller
demonstrates the ability to adapt to varying actuator performance and rapidly changing sea
states for which a classic proportional-integral-derivative controller cannot adjust. Control
commands and parameter adjustments are executed in time frames Suitable for real-time use,
even on platforms and in environments with limited computational resources. Future work
involves the implementation and testing of the controller on a prototype robot during facsimile
naval operations. This work may serve as a foundation to address control issues for robots
working in uncertain dynamic environments with varying task domains through the
implementation of computationally efficient predictive adaptive control.
Vincent, Patrick, Murali Tummala, and John McEachen. "A New Method for Distributing Power
Usage Across a Sensor Network." Ad Hoc Networks 6, no. 8 (November 2008): 1258-1280.
We present a method for more uniformly distributing the energy burden across a wireless
ground-based sensor network communicating with ail overhead unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A
subset of sensor nodes, termed a transmit cluster, receives and aggregates data gathered by the
entire network, and forms a distributed antenna array, concentrating the radiated transmission
into a narrow beam aimed towards the UAV. Because these duties are power-intensive, the role
of transmit cluster must be shifted to different nodes as time progresses. We present ail
algorithm to reassign the transmit cluster, specifying the time that should elapse between
reassignments and the number of hops that should be placed between successive transmit
clusters in order to achieve three competing goals: first, we wish to better and more broadly
spread the energy load across the sensor network while, second, minimizing the energy
expended in moving the transmit cluster, all the while, third, reducing to the extent practicable
the time to bring the UAV and the sensor network's beam into alignment. Additionally, we
present a method for reconfiguring the communication burden between the ground-based sensor
network and the UAV. We describe and analyze two alternative strategies to bring the UAV and
the sensor network's beam into alignment, while minimizing the energy expended by the sensor
network. The performance of the two strategies is compared in terms of probability of beam-UAV
alignment as a function of time, and the expected time to alignment. We examine the
performance tradeoff between the choice of strategy and parameters of the sensor network that
affect power conservation. Published by Elsevier B.V.
2007
Ahner, Darryl K. "Real-Time Planning and Control of Army UAVs Under Uncertainty." Journal of
Aerospace Computing, Information and Communication 4, no. 5 (May 2007): 798-815.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.25587
With advances in sensor technology and data fusion used in military operations, more information
is available for decision making. A key question is how to make effective use of this information.
Higher level sensors cue lower level sensors, in this case unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), to
indicate potential target arrivals. Given probability distributions of these target arrivals,
simulation and mathematical programming are used within a dynamic programming framework
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to determine control strategies for UAVs. An adaptive dynamic programming methodology is
presented for the a uniform travel time UAV planning and control problem. Special structure of a
network assignment problem is exploited to recursively update functional approximations
representing future rewards through the network assignment problem's subgradient information.
We develop an approximate dynamic approach to real-time planning and control of unmanned
aerial vehicles with a focus on accounting for stochastic arrivals of new tasks. Experimentation
demonstrates the use of this method and its potential for providing quick real-time controls for
UAVs. Approaching the UAV routing problem using Adaptive Dynamic Programming offers a
tractable framework in which to solve these difficult problems. Copyright 2007 by the American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bachmann, Eric R., Xiaoping Yun, and Anne Brumfield. "Limitations of Attitude Estimnation
Algorithms for Inertial/Magnetic Sensor Modules - Investigating the Effects of Magnetic Variations
on Inertial/Magnetic Orientation Sensors." IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine 14, no. 3
(September 2007): 76-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MRA.2007.901320
Inertial/magnetic sensor modules and their associated data filtering algorithms are designed to
be capable of estimating three degrees of orientation over a wide area in a variety of unprepared
tracking environments. The modules commonly contain three linear accelerometer and three
magnetometers. In an indoor environment, sources of magnetic interference are constantly
present that may affect the direction and magnitude of the field measured by the sensor. This
kind of interference from objects with fixed position and orientation can be calibrated by
removing any soft iron materials and dealing with the hard iron effects directly. Also, if with only
one or known source is present, maintaining a distance of approximately 1m from the source of
interference can avoid distortions. However, in a tracking application, sources of magnetic
distortions vary considerably. In series of experiments, sensor modules are subjected to
controlled changes in the direction and strength of the sensed magnetic field in order to
characterize the resulting orientation estimation errors. A second set of experiments involve
exposing a triad of magnetometers to magnetic fields generated by various electrical appliances
and ferrous objects in order to examine the magnitude of the errors and the range at which they
occur. In the last set, a robot arm is tracked using inertial/magnetic sensor modules and an
optical tracking system. Despite drawbacks, tracking experiments indicate that inertial/magnetic
sensor modules can be used to track posture with an accuracy that is comparable to optical
tracking. However, given the current state of the art of orientation estimation algorithms
designed to process inertial/magnetic sensor module data, it should not be used without studying
first the nature of magnetic field in the environment in which it will be used.
Ghabcheloo, Reza, Antonio Pascoal, Carlos Silvestre, and Isaac Kaminer. "Non-Linear Co-Ordinated
Path Following Control of Multiple Wheeled Robots with Bidirectional Communication Constraints."
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing 21, no. 2-3 (March-April
2007):133-137
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acs.923
The paper presents a solution to the problem of steering a group of wheeled robots along given
spatial paths, while holding a desired inter-vehicle formation pattern. This problem arises for
example when multiple robots are required to search a given area in cooperation. The solution
proposed addresses explicitly the dynamics of the cooperating robots and the constraints
imposed by the topology of the intervehicle communications network. Lyapunov-based
techniques and graph theory are brought together to yield a decentralized control structure
where the information exchanged among the robots is kept at a minimum. With the set-up
proposed, path following (in space) and inter-vehicle co-ordination (in time) are essentially
decoupled. Path following for each vehicle amounts to reducing a conveniently defined error
variable to zero. Vehicle co-ordination is achieved by adjusting the speed of each of the vehicles
along its path according to information on the positions and speeds of a subset of the other
vehicles, as determined by the communications topology adopted. Simulations illustrate the
efficacy of the solution proposed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
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Romano, Marcello, David A. Friedman, and Tracy J. Shay. "Laboratory Experimentation of
Autonomous Spacecraft Approach and Docking to a Collaborative Target." Journal of
Spacecraft and Rockets 44, no. 1 (2007): 164-173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.22092
A new laboratory test bed is introduced that enables the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the
autonomous approach and docking of a chaser spacecraft to a target spacecraft of similar mass.
The test bed consists of a chaser spacecraft and a target spacecraft simulator floating via air pads
on a flat floor. The prototype docking interface mechanism of the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency's Orbital Express mission is integrated on the spacecraft simulators. Relative
navigation of the chaser spacecraft is obtained by fusing the measurements from a single-camera
vision sensor and an inertial measurement unit, through Kalman filters. The target is
collaborative in the sense that a pattern of three infrared light emitting diodes is mounted on it as
reference for the relative navigation. Eight cold-gas on-off thrusters are used for the translation
of the chaser vehicle. They are commanded using a nonlinear control algorithm based on Schmitt
triggers. Furthermore, a reaction wheel is used for the vehicle rotation with a proportional
derivative linear control. Experimental results are presented of both an autonomous proximity
maneuver and an autonomous docking of the chaser simulator to the nonfloating target. The
presented results validate the proposed estimation and control methods and demonstrate the
capability of the test bed.
Squire, Kevin M. and Stephen E. Levinson. "HMM-Based Concept Learning for a Mobile Robot." IEEE
Transactions on Evolutionary Computation 11, no. 2 (April 2007): 199-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEVC.2006.890263
We are developing an intelligent robot and attempting to teach it language. While there are many
aspects of this research, for the purposes here the most important are the following ideas.
Language is primarily based on semantics, not syntax, which is still the focus in speech
recognition research these days. To truly learn meaning, a language engine cannot simply be a
computer program running on a desktop computer analyzing speech. It must be part of a more
general, embodied intelligent system, one capable of using associative learning to form concepts
from the perception of experiences in the world, and further capable of manipulating those
concepts symbolically. In this paper, we present a general cascade model for learning concepts,
and explore the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) as part of the cascade model. HMMs are
capable of automatically learning and extracting the underlying structure of continuous-valued
inputs and representing that structure in the states of the model. These states can then be
treated as symbolic representations of the inputs. We show how a cascade of HMMs can be
embedded in a small mobile robot and used to find correlations among sensory inputs to learn a
set of symbolic concepts, which are used for decision making and could eventually be
manipulated linguistically.
Tao, Weimin, Mingjun Zhang, Ou Ma, and Xiaoping Yun. "Industrial Robot Track Modeling and
Vibration Suppression." Industrial Robot 34, no. 4 (2007): 317-325.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01439910710749645
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the vibration suppression of industrial track
robot and propose a practical solution. Design/methodology/approach - Root-cause analysis
through dynamic modeling, and vibration suppression using the acceleration smoother. Findings The vibration is due to insufficient damping based on the model analysis. The solution achieved
significant performance improvement without redesign of robot hardware and controller.
Research limitations/implications - The design of the proposed acceleration smoother is still
empirical based, which is unable to achieve optimal design. Practical implications - This solution is
very easy to implement. It is robust, reliable and is able to generate consistent results.
Originality/value - A very practical industrial solution, especially useful for upgrading the existing
systems in the field without redesign the hardware and controller. Emerald Group Publishing
Limited.
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Vaidyanathan, Ravi, Monique P. Fargues, Remzi S. Kurcan, Lalit Gupta, Srinivas Kota, Roger D.
Quinn, and Lin Dong. "A Dual Mode Human-Robot Teleoperation Interface Based on Airflow in the
Aural Cavity." International Journal of Robotics Research 26, no. 11-12 (2007): 1205-1223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0278364907082612
Robot teleoperation systems have been limited in their utility due to the need for operator
motion, lack of portability and limitation to singular input modalities. In this article, the design
and construction of a dual-mode human-machine interface system for robot teleoperation
addressing all these issues is presented. The interface is capable of directing robotic devices in
response to tongue movement and/or speech without insertion of any device in the vicinity of the
oral cavity. The interface is centered on the unique properties of the human ear as an acoustic
output device. Specifically, we present: (1) an analysis of the sensitivity of human ear canals as
acoustic output device; (2) the design of a new sensor for monitoring airflow in the aural canal;
(3) pattern recognition procedures for recognition of both speech and tongue movement by
monitoring aural flow across several human test subjects; and (4) a conceptual design and
simulation of the machine interface system. We believe this work will lay the foundation for a new
generation of human machine interface systems for all manner of robotic applications.
2006
Ghabcheloo, Reza, Antonio Pascoal, Carlos Silvestre, and Isaac Kaminer. "Coordinated Path
Following Control of Multiple Vehicles Subject to Bidirectional Communication Constraints RID F9189-2010." Group Coordination and Cooperative Control 336, (2006): 93-111.
The paper addresses the problem of making a set of vehicles follow a a set of given spatial paths
at required speeds, while ensuring that they reach and maintain a desired formation pattern.
Problems of this kind arise in a number of practical applications involving ground and underwater
robots. The paper summarizes and brings together in a unified framework previous results
obtained by the authors for wheeled robots and fully actuated underwater vehicles. The
decentralized solution proposed does not require the concept of a leader and applies to a very
general class of paths. Furthermore, it addresses explicitly the dynamics of the vehicles and the
constraints imposed by the inter-vehicle bi-directional communications network. The theoretical
machinery used brings together Lyapunov-based techniques and graph theory. With the set-up
proposed, path following (in space) and inter-vehicle coordination (in time) can be viewed as
essentially decoupled. Path following for each vehicle is formulated in terms of driving a
conveniently defined generalized error vector to zero; vehicle coordination is achieved by
adjusting the speed of each vehicle along its particular path, based on information on the position
and speed of a number of neighboring vehicles, as determined by the communications topology
adopted. The paper presents the problem formulation and summarizes its solution. Simulations
with dynamics models of a wheeled robot and an underwater vehicle illustrate the efficacy of the
solution proposed.
———. "Coordinated Path Following Control of Multiple Wheeled Robots using Linearization Techniques
RID F-9189-2010." International Journal of Systems Science 37, no. 6 (MAY 15, 2006): 399414.
The paper addresses the problem of steering a fleet of wheeled robots along a set of given spatial
paths, while keeping a desired inter-vehicle formation pattern. This problem arises for example
when multiple vehicles are required to scan a given area in cooperation. In a possible mission
scenario, one of the vehicles acts a leader and follows a path accurately, while the other vehicles
follow paths that are naturally determined by the formation pattern imposed. The paper solves
this and other related problems using a simple algorithm that builds on linearization techniques
and gain scheduling control theory. Using this set-up, path following ( in space) and inter-vehicle
coordination ( in time) are almost decoupled. Path following for each vehicle amounts to reducing
a conveniently defined generalized error vector to zero. Vehicle coordination is achieved by
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adjusting the speed of each of the vehicles along its path, according to information on the
position of all or some of the other vehicles. No other information is exchanged among the
robots. The set-up adopted allows for a simple analysis of the resulting coordinated path
following control system. The paper describes the structure of the coordination system proposed
and addresses challenging problems of robustness with respect to certain types of vehicle
failures.
Kress, Moshe, Arne Baggesen and Eylam Gofer. “Probability Modeling of Autonomous Unmanned
Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs).” Military Operations Research, 11, no. 4 (May 2006): 5-24.
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/41144
Lu, Fei, Mu-Min Song, Guo-Hui Tian, Ning Xi, and Wei Kang. "Event-Based Planning and Control
Technology and the Application in Robotic System." Kongzhi Lilun Yu Yingyong/Control
Theory and Applications 23, no. 5 (2006): 756-762.
There is a growing interest in the technology of event-based planning and control. The basic idea
is to introduce a new action reference variable related to the output of the system, by which the
desired input and the plant are parameterized. The designer can adjust and modify the original
plant in real time to generate the desired system input according to the system output and
sensory information. Therefore the planning becomes a decision component and has the ability to
deal with unexpected or uncertain events. The input can be adjusted automatically by the output
for the realization of the control on real time. Robotic system is an intelligent system, its main
character is the coordination among multiple robots. In the paper, the event-based control theory
and its development are reviewed. Its application in formation of moving robots, in
manufacturing system and the coordination of multi-robot are introduced. The experiment shows
that the event-based planning and control technology can improve the performance of these
systems. Finally, the future research directions are discussed.
Ross, I. Michael and Fariba Fahroo. "Issues in the Real-Time Computation of Optimal Control."
Mathematical and Computer Modelling 43, no. 9-10 (May 2006): 1172-1188.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2005.05.021
Under appropriate conditions, the dynamics of a control system governed by ordinary differential
equations can be formulated in several ways: differential inclusion, control parametrization,
flatness parametrization, higher-order inclusions and so on. A plethora of techniques have been
proposed for each of these formulations but they are typically not portable across equivalent
mathematical formulations. Further complications arise as a result of configuration and control
constraints such as those imposed by obstacle avoidance or control saturation. In this paper, we
present a unified framework for. handling the computation of optimal controls where the
description of the governing equations or that of the path constraint is not a limitation. In fact,
our method exploits the advantages offered by coordinate transformations and harnesses any
inherent smoothness present in the optimal system trajectories. We demonstrate how our
computational framework can easily and efficiently handle different cost formulations, control
sets and path constraints. We illustrate our ideas by formulating a robotics problem in eight
different ways, including a differentially flat formulation subject to control saturation. This
example establishes the loss of convexity in the flat formulation as well as its ramifications for
computation and optimality. In addition, a numerical comparison of our unified approach to a
recent technique tailored for control-affine systems reveals that we get about 30% improvement
in the performance index. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smuda, William J., Grant Gerhart, Man-Tak Shing, and Mikhail Auguston. "A Software Design
Approach for Heterogeneous Systems of Unattended Sensors, Unmanned Vehicles and Monitoring
Stations." Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 6394,
(2006):
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.693035
The design and implementation of software for network systems of diverse physical assets is a
continuing challenge to sensor network developers. The problems are often multiplied when
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adding new elements, and when reconfiguring existing systems. For software systems, like
physical systems, explicit architectural descriptions increase system level comprehension.
Coupled with well defined object oriented design practices, system extensibility is defined and
software reuse and code composition are enabled. Our research is based on model driven design
architecture. High level system models are defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the
language of the software engineer. However, since most experimental work is done by nonsoftware specialists, (electronics Engineers, Mechanical Engineers and technicians) the model is
translated into a graphical, domain specific model. Components are presented as domain specific
icons, and constraints from the UML model are propagated into the domain model. Domain
specialists manipulate the domain model, which then composes software elements needed at
each node to create an aggregate system.
Yun, Xiaoping and Eric R. Bachmann. "Design, Implementation, and Experimental Results of a
Quaternion-Based Kalman Filter for Human Body Motion Tracking." IEEE Transactions on
Robotics 22, no. 6 (December 2006): 1216-1227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TRO.2006.886270
Real-time tracking of human body motion is an important technology in synthetic environments,
robotics, and other human-computer interaction applications. This paper presents an extended
Kalman filter designed for real-time estimation of the orientation of human limb segments. The
filter processes data from small inertial/magnetic sensor modules containing triaxial angular rate
sensors, accelerometers, and magnetometers. The filter represents rotation using quaternions
rather than Enter angles or axis/angle pairs. Preprocessing of the acceleration and magnetometer
measurements using the Quest algorithm produces a computed quaternion input for the filter.
This preprocessing reduces the dimension of the state vector and makes the measurement
equations linear. Real-time implementation and testing results of the quaternion-based Kalman
filter are presented. Experimental results validate the filter design, and show the feasibility of
using inertial/magnetic sensor modules for real-time human body motion tracking.
2005
Ball, Robert E. and Dale B. Atkinson. "Designing for Survivability." Aerospace America 43, no. 11
(2005): 32-36.
The steps taken for survivability for both military and civilian aircraft systems in the US are
discussed. The Joint Aircraft Survivability Program Office (JASPO) service office of the US DoD
was formed in January 2003 by combining the Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft
Survivability with several related activities to increase overall effectiveness. The combined group
has a long and dedicated history of developing survivability technology and getting it applied to
aircraft through the Vulnerability Reduction and Susceptibility Reduction Subgroups. The
enhanced powder panels for fire protection in dry bays and ionomer self-sealing technologies
have shown promise and are lightweight enough for unmanned air vehicles.
Curtin, Thomas B., Denise M. Crimmins, Joseph Curcio, Michael Benjamin, and Christopher Roper.
"Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: Trends and Transformations." Marine Technology Society
Journal 39, no. 3 (2005): 65-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4031/002533205787442521
Three examples of inter-agency cooperation utilizing current generation, individual Autonomous
Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are described consistent with recent recommendations of the U.S.
Commission on Ocean Policy. The first steps in transforming individual AUVs into adaptive,
networked systems are underway. To realize an affordable and deployable system, a networkclass AUV must be designed with cost-size constraints not necessarily applied in developing solo
AUVs. Vehicle types are suggested based on function and ocean operating regime: surface layer,
interior and bottom layer. Implications for platform, navigation and control subsystems are
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explored and practical formulations for autonomy and intelligence are postulated for comparing
performance and judging behavior. Laws and conventions governing intelligent maritime
navigation are reviewed and an autonomous controller with conventional collision avoidance
behavior is described. Network-class cost constraints can be achieved through economies of
scale. Productivity and efficiency in AUV manufacturing will increase if constructive competition is
maintained. Constructive strategies include interface and operating standards. Professional
societies and industry trade groups have a leadership role to play in establishing public, open
standards.
Jones, Kevin D., Chris J. Bradshaw, Jason Papadopoulos, and Max F. Platzer. "Bio-Inspired Design of
Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicles." Aeronautical Journal 109, no. 1098 (2005): 385-393.
In this paper the development and flight testing of flapping-wing propelled, radio-controlled micro
air vehicles are described. The unconventional vehicles consist of a low aspect ratio fixed-wing
with a trailing pair of higher aspect ratio flapping wings which flap in counterphase. The
symmetric flapping-wing pair provides a mechanically and aerodynamically balanced platform,
increases efficiency by emulating flight in ground effect, and suppresses stall over the main wing
by entraining flow. The models weigh as little as 11g with a 23cm span and 18cm length and will
fly for about 20 minutes on a rechargeable battery. Stable flight at speeds between 2 and 5ms -1
has been demonstrated, and the models are essentially stall-proof while under power. The staticthrust figure of merit for the device is 60% higher than propellers with a similar scale and disk
loading.
Wood, E. R. "Vertical Highlights 2004." Vertiflite 51, no. 1 (2005): 64-68.
In vertical flight, 2004 is a year of preparation and transition. For the Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey
tiltrotor, 2004 saw completion of 2900 hours of flight-testing by 14 aircraft in preparation for the
four month Marine Operational Evaluation scheduled to begin in mid-February 2005. For the
Bell/Agusta 609 tiltrotor, final modifications near completion in readiness for flight envelope
expansion that is about to get underway. For Bell Helicopter Textron, Low Rate Initial Production
(LRIP) started in January 2005 for the Bell H-1 Upgrade Program with the first Cobra down the
line at the Bell assembly plant in Amarillo, Texas. For the Lockheed Martin F-35B, the STOVL
version of Joint Strike Fighter, a "STOVL Weight Attack Team" (SWAT) of technical experts
identified and executed weight savings strategies. For Sikorsky Aircraft, the Canadian
government selected the Sikorsky H-92 Superhawk medium lift helicopter to replace Sikorsky
Sea King helicopters currently in service with Canadian forces. The past year also saw
termination of the Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft (UCAR).
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Conference Papers
2014
Cichella, Venanzio, Ronald Choe, S. Bilal Mehdi, Enric Xargay, Naira Hovakimyan, Vladimir
Dobrokhodov, Isaac Kaminer. Trajectory Generation and Collision Avoidance for Safe
Operation of Cooperating UAVs. AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference 2014 SciTech Forum and Exposition 2014. National Harbor, MD: January 13-17, 2014.
Abstract: This paper presents an integrated approach for trajectory generation and time
coordination for multiple vehicles, combined with collision avoidance. Pythagorean Hodograph
B'ezier curves are used to generate desired feasible trajectories that satisfy the dynamic
constraints of the vehicles, and guarantee spatial separation between the paths for safe
operation. Time coordination ensures that the temporal requirements of the mission are met.
Collision avoidance with dynamic obstacles is achieved by properly adjusting the speed profiles of
the vehicles along the corresponding paths. A simulation scenario is presented where three
quadrotors are coordinating their positions along pre-computed paths, while at the same time
avoiding moving objects. The results show that the integrated approach achieves time
coordination along feasible paths, and that the collision avoidance algorithm allows for safe
operation in the presence of moving obstacles.
Hewgley, Charles W., Roberto Cristi, and Oleg A. Yakimenko. “Visual Pose Estimation for
Shipboard Landing of Autonomous Parafoils.” Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE/ION Position,
Location and Navigation Symposium, PLANS 2014. Monterey, CA, United States May 5-8,
2014, p. 1301-1308.
Abstract: This paper outlines an investigation into the use of a simple, focal-plane imaging sensor
for guidance of an autonomous parafoil system for approach and landing on a moving platform
such as a ship underway. The perspective-projective transformation between an object in a
three-dimensional world and an image on a twodimensional plane is analyzed and then
formulated using a homogeneous coordinate system. The estimation problem is addressed;
specifically, the challenge of dealing with the out-of-frame condition due to parafoil oscillation as
it approaches the target. A dual-mode Kalman estimation-scheme is proposed that suspends
measurement when the target is out-of-frame, and incorporates a two-view measurement when
the target reenters the frame.
Keller, James, Dinesh Thakur, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Kevin Jones, Maxim Likhachev, Jean Gallier,
Isaac Kaminer, and Vijay Kumar. “Coordinated commencement of Pre-Planned Routes for FixedWing UAS Starting from Arbitrary Locations-A Near Real-Time Solution.” 2014 International
Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems, ICUAS 2014 - Conference Proceedings.
Orlando, FL: May 27-30. 2014. p. 552-561.
Abstract: Coordinated time optimal path planning and trajectory management algorithms for air
vehicles depend on precise simultaneous mission commencement by all agents. Ground-based
and rotary-wing aerial vehicles can be staged at their mission initial conditions until a mission is
commenced but fixed-wing aerial vehicles, which must maintain a minimum forward airspeed at
all times, can only be positioned approximately. A computationally simple algorithm for these
vehicles that determines simultaneous arrival paths from arbitrary starting points is presented.
The algorithm is based on planar B-spline curves so that fully defined feasible trajectories can be
quickly determined, compactly encoded, and precisely executed.
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Nissen, Mark E. and W. David Price. “Toward Computational Modeling of C2 for Teams of
Autonomous Systems and People.” 19th International Command & Control Research &
Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Alexandria, VA. (June 2014).
http://hdl.handle.net/10945/43381
Abstract: The technological capabilities of autonomous systems (AS) continue to accelerate.
Although AS are replacing people in many skilled mission domains and demanding environmental
circumstances, people and machines have complementary capabilities, and integrated
performance by AS and people working together can be superior to that of either AS or people
working alone. We refer to this increasingly important phenomenon as Teams of Autonomous
Systems and People (TASP), and we identify a plethora of open, command and control (C2)
research, policy and decision making questions. Computational modeling and simulation offer
unmatched yet largely unexplored potential to address C2 questions along these lines. The
central problem is, this kind of C2 organization modeling and simulation capability has yet to be
developed and demonstrated in the TASP domain. This is where our ongoing research project
begins to make an important contribution. In this article, we motivate and introduce such TASP
research, and we provide an overview of the computational environment used to model and
simulate TASP C2 organizations and phenomena. We follow in turn with an approach to
characterizing a matrix of diverse TASP C2 contexts, as well as a strategy for specifying, tailoring
and using this computational environment to conduct experiments to examine such contexts. We
conclude then by summarizing our agenda for continued research along these lines.
Thulasiraman, Preetha, Grace A. Clark, and Timothy M. Beach. “Mobility Estimation Using an
Extended Kalman Filter for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Networks.” 2014 IEEE International
Inter-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and
Decision Support, CogSIMA 2014. San Antonio, TX, March 3-6, 2014, p. 223-229.
Abstract: An ad hoc unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) network operates as an intermittently
connected mobile delay tolerant network (DTN). In this paper, we develop a mobility estimation
algorithm that can be coupled with a cooperative communication routing algorithm to provide a
basis for real time path planning in UGV-DTNs. A Gauss-Markov state space model is used for the
node dynamics. The nonlinear measurement signals are constant-power RSSI (Received Signal
Strength Indicator) signals transmitted from fixed-position base stations. An extended Kalman
filter (EKF) is derived for estimating the position, velocity and acceleration of aUGV node in a
two-dimensional spatial grid environment. We use Matlab to simulate a single mobile node
traveling along a trajectory that includes abrupt maneuvers. Estimation performance is measured
using zero-mean whiteness tests on the innovations sequences, root mean square error (RSME)
of the state estimates, weighted sum squared residuals (WSSRs), and the posterior Cramer-Rao
lower bound (PCRLB). Under these performance indices, we demonstrate that the mobility
estimation algorithm performs effectively.
Thulasiraman, Preetha, and Yavuz Sagir. “Dydnamic Bandwidth Provisioning using Markov Chain
Base RSVP for Unmanned Ground Networks.” 2014 IEEE International Inter-Disciplinary
Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support,
CogSIMA 2014. San Antonio, TX, March 3-6, 2014, p. 130-136.
Abstract: An unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) network operates as an intermittently connected
system, distributed over large geographic areas. The cooperative nature of a UGV network requires
that bandwidth be allocated depending on necessity between individual UGV nodes. In this paper,
we study the problem of dynamic bandwidth provisioning in a UGV network. Specifically, we
integrate the use of a basic statistical model, known as the Markov chain with a widely known
network reservation protocol known as the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). The Markov
chain is used to estimate future traffic demand along a path based on channel conditions. The
Markov chain results are used as input to the RSVP which then allocates the required bandwidth
along the path. Using a wireless network simulation platform called Qualnet, we show that the
integrated Markov chain and RSVP algorithm provides higher bandwidth guarantees and better
overall quality of service (QoS) when compared solely with using RSVP in wireless communication
networks.
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2013
Benton, Joshua E. and Oleg A. Yakimenko. “On Development of Autonomous HAHO Parafoil System
for Targeted Payload Return.” 22nd AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems (ADS)
Conference 2013.
Abstract: An autonomous HAHO (high altitude, high-opening) parafoil system design is presented
as a solution to the final descent phase of an on-demand International Space Station (ISS)
sample return concept. The system design is tailored to meet specific constraints defined by a
larger study at NASA Ames Research Center, called SPQR (Small Payload Quick-Return). Building
on previous work in small, autonomous parafoil systems development, a SPQR-compatible
evolution of an existing advanced parafoil delivery system is designed, built, and test-flown
deployed from unmanned air vehicles and high-altitude balloons. Results of the preliminary tests
of the original and SPQR-compatible systems are presented, and applicability of the test article to
actual spaceflight conditions is discussed.
Brewer, Scott S. “The Use of Unmanned Systems in Law Enforcement.” AUVSI Unmanned Systems
2013. Vol. 2. Washington, DC. August 12-15, 2013. p. 1353-1356.
Carpin, Stefano, Timothy H. Chung, and Brian M. Sadler. “Theoretical Foundations of High-Speed
Robot Team Depolyment.” 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and
Automation, ICRA 2013. Karlsruhe, Germany: May 6-10, 2013.
Abstract: n this paper we study the multi-robot deployment problem under hard temporal
constraints. After proposing a model for this task, we consider the simplest deployment algorithm
and we analyze the relationship between three fundamental parameters, the temporal deadline,
the probability of success, and the number of robots. Because an exact analysis of even the
simplest algorithm is computationally intractable, we derive an approximate bound leading to
performance curves useful to answer design questions (how many robots are needed to get a
certain performance guarantee?) or analysis questions (what is the probability of success given a
certain deadline and number of robots?) Simulations show that the bounds are sharp and provide
a useful tool to predict team deployment performance and tradeoffs.
Casey, Robert T., Mark Karpenko, Renwick Curry, and Gabriel H. Elkaim. “Attitude Representation
and Kinematic Propagation for Low-cost UAVs.” 2013 AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and
Control (GNC) Conference. August 19, 2013 - August 22, 2013.
Abstract: Complementary filter-based algorithms for attitude estimation seek to minimize the
short-comings associated with the low-cost MEMS sensors and low-power embedded processors
that are frequently used in unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper explores the performance
impact of three different ingredients for attitude estimation within the complementary filter
framework: 1) kinematic propagation, 2) attitude representation, and 3) the assumptions on the
behavior of the angular rate vector between samples. Forward Euler integration and matrix
exponential propagation methods are compared within several attitude representations, namely
the direction cosine matrix (DCM), quaternion, Euler angle, and the angle-axis schemes.
Assumptions of constant, linear, and quadratic angular velocities between samples are also
examined. The resulting algorithms are evaluated from the points of view of accuracy,
computational load, and noise response. Tests using analytic inputs as well as real data within
the framework of the SLUGS autopilot are performed to evaluate algorithm performance. The
results of the experiments indicate that by combining matrix exponential propagation with a
quaternion representation of attitude high accuracy can be obtained with a standard processor.
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Choe, Ronald, Venazio Cichella, Enric Xargay, Naira Hovakimyan, Anna C. Trujillo, and Isaac
Kaminer. “A Trajectory-generation Framework for Time-critical Cooperative Missions.” AIAA
Infotech at Aerospace (I at A) Conference 2013 August 19, 2013 - August 22, 2013
Abstract: This paper introduces a heuristic planar trajectory-generation framework for multiple
vehicles. Desired feasible trajectories are generated using Pythagorean Hodograph Bezier curves
that satisfy the dynamic constraints of the vehicles, and guarantee spatial separation between
the paths for safe operation. It is shown that the trajectory generation framework can be cast
into a constrained optimization problem where a set of (sub)optimal desired trajectories are
obtained by minimizing a cost function. To show the efficiency of the algorithm, a simulation
example is given, where three fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are following and
coordinating along feasible trajectories that are generated by the algorithm.
Chung, Timothy H., Kevin D. Jones, Michael A. Day, Marianna Jones, and Michael Clement.
“50 vs. 50 by 2015: Swarm vs. Swarm UAV Live-fly Competition at the Naval Postgraduate
School.” Volume 2. AUVSI Unmanned Systems 2013. Washington, DC: August 12-15, 2013.
p. 1792-1811.
Abstract: Aerial Combat Swarms is a swarm vs. swarm UAV live-fly competition, designed to
inspire new concepts of operations and illuminate new tactics in unmanned systems employment,
specifically in the swarm and counter-swarm robotics arenas. The competition scenario involves a
tournament of "battles" where in each such battle two teams comprising many autonomous aerial
robots vie for air superiority while simultaneously defending a high value unit on the ground
and/or attacking that of the opponent's. The vision for the inaugural grand challenge event is for
50 vs. 50 UAVs by the year 2015. The Aerial Combat Swarms competition further serves as an
innovation testbed, providing the infrastructure and open architecture interface definitions for
hardware/software/network connections between UAVs, ground command stations, observers,
and the "Arbiter," which serves as an "autonomous referee." An additional element includes
specifications for operating in a virtual battle arena for modeling and simulation experiments and
hardware-in-the-loop flight validation. The overarching open design enables participants to
leverage existing technologies available from the Aerial Combat Swarms open source community.
The ambitious grand challenge competition effort described in this paper presents a novel and
unique opportunity to explore advanced tactics for robotic swarms. Perhaps more increasingly
and operationally relevant, this competition actively accelerates future concepts for also engaging
and defeating adversarial unmanned systems.
Cichella, Venanzio, Ronald Choe, S. Bilal Mehdi, Enric Xargay, Naira Hovakimyan, Isaac Kaminer,
and Vladimir Dobrokhodov. “A 3D Path-following Approach for a Multirotor UAV on SO(3). 2nd
IFAC Workshop on Research, Education and Development of Unmanned Aerial Systems,
REDUAS 2013 – Proceedings. Compiegne, France, November 20-23, 2013. P. 13-18.
Abstract: This paper presents a path-following control law that enables a multirotor, equipped
with an autopilot tracking angular rates and thrust reference commands, to converge to and
follow a three-dimensional path. The approach is based on the Special Orthogonal group SO(3)
and allows for independent adjustment of the vehicle's speed profile in order to satisfy desired
temporal specifications. Simulation results illustrate the efficacy of the proposed path-following
control law.
Cichella, Venanzio, Isaac Kaminer, Vladimir Dobrokhodov and Naira Hovakimyan. “Cooperative
Vision Based Tracking of Multiple UAVs.” AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC)
Conference, 2013. August 19-22, 2013.
Abstract: This paper considers the problem of Cooperative Vision Based Tracking of a ground
target by a fleet of multiple UAVs. The objective of this work is to present a decentralized control
algorithm that enables multiple cooperative vehicles to maintain a horizontal orbital path around
the target, while coordinating their space separation. A typical scenario involves multiple aerial
surveillance UAVs which are required to monitor a ground object by orbiting around it (target
tracking), while maintaining a desired phase shift (coordination). To solve the tracking problem,
the angular velocity of each vehicle is used as control input, while the ground speeds are
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adjusted to ensure coordination. The paper provides a Lyapunov-based solution that guarantees
exponential convergence properties of the tracking and distributed time-coordination algorithms.
A rigorous proof based on Lyapunov analysis, as well as flight test results demonstrate the
effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Cosby, J Alan, Yuri B. Shtessel, and Alex Bordetsky. “Retaining Connectivity in Multi-task
Communications Network with Multiple Agents: Connectability Theory Approach.” 2013
American Control Conference, ACC 2013. June 17-19, 2013, Washington, DC. Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Piscataway, NJ, p. 2745-2750.
Abstract: Practical retention of mobile ad hoc network communications via connectability theory
is presented and compared to predictive modeling techniques. Network communication
disruptions is prevented by driving relay agents to computed waypoints using sliding mode and
LQ control, or using predictive modeling to optimally control relay agents. The connectability
matrix is used to determine where future node isolation will occur. This paper expands the
connectability matrix concept into connectability theory to not only predict node isolation, but to
directly compute the waypoints for relay agents. The existing methods of computing waypoints,
of controlling robotic routers to form so called network bridges, and the outcome of predictive
modeling are shown to be special cases of the proposed connectability theory. Also, case studies
and simulations are presented to show this connectability theory's utility in various network
configurations.
Dobrokhodov, Vladimir, Kevin Jones, and Isaac Kaminer. “Rapid Flight Control PrototypingSteps Toward Cooperative Mission-oriented Capabilities.” Proceedings of the American
Control Conference 2013 American Control Conference, ACC 2013. Washington, DC June
17-19, 2013, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Piscataway, NJ, p. 680-685.
Abstract: The paper describes the latest advancements in the development of the Rapid Flight
Control Prototyping system that were motivated primarily by the need to enable cooperative
missions of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles and to enhance the capabilities of human operators
to design and oversee the collaborative behaviors of multiple heterogeneous UAVs. The evolution
of the system is driven by the mission level objectives and supported on one hand by the
progress in miniature sensors, computational power, communication and portable energy
technologies and on the other hand by the advanced capabilities of embedded control and
communication-oriented software. As a result the developed system enables rapid design,
onboard integration and in-flight verification of multiple UAV collaborative concepts that seemed
impossible just a couple of years ago. Advantages of the designed system are illustrated by a
couple of scenarios that were recently developed and verified in flight by multiple cooperating
UAVs. The paper concentrates on presenting the motivation and the conceptual design ideas
which drive the evolution of the flight prototyping platform.
Dono, Thomas F. and Timothy H. Chung. “Optimzed Transit Planning and Landing of Aerial Robotic
Swarms.” 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2013.
Karlsruhe, Germany. May 6-10, 2013. p. 1843-1850.
Abstract: This research explores the efficient and safe landing and recovery of a swarm of
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The presented work involves the use of an overarching
(centralized) airspace optimization model, formulated analytically as a network-based model with
side constraints describing a time-expanded network model of the terminal airspace in which the
UAVs navigate to one or more (possibly moving) landing zones. This model generates optimal
paths in a centralized manner such that the UAVs are properly sequenced into the landing areas.
The network-based model is 'grown' using agent-based simulation with simple flocking rules.
Relevant measures of performance include, e.g., the total time necessary to land the swarm.
Extensive simulation studies and sensitivity analyses are conducted to demonstrate the relative
effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
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Edwards, Christopher, Prathyush P. Memon, Yuri Shtessel, and Alexander Bordetsky. “On
Connectivity Preservation in Mobile Wireless Multi-agent/node Mesh Networks.” 2013 1st
American Control Conference, ACC 2013. June 17-19, 2013 Washington, DC. Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Piscataway, NJ p. 5881-5886.
Abstract: The paper considers the development of a mission planning system for a so-called 'noncooperative' multi-agent network. The network comprises two classes of agent: primary mission
agents and relay agents. The primary mission agents have predefined tasks to execute and
operate autonomously within the field of operation. Although these agents operate
independently, from a mission planning perspective the base station is required to maintain
contact. In order to ensure this, relay agents are employed under the direct command of the
base station with the objective of maintaining connectivity. This paper proposes an architecture
to control the relay agents in such a way that connectivity, as measured in terms of the Fiedler
eigenvalue, is maximized subject to the cost of moving the relay agents. A model predictive
control-like layer is used to generate a set of way-points to position the relay agents at specific
places at specific instances of time to maximize connectivity. These way-points are then
converted into continuous time paths for the relay agents to follow. A low level sliding mode
controller implemented on each relay agent ensures that the proposed path is followed in a
robust fashion.
Fahroo, Fariba and I. Michael Ross. “Enhancing the Practical Agility of UAVs via Pseudospectral
Optimal Control.” Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, v. 444. Berlin:
Springer, 2013, p. 1-30.
Abstract: UAVs have the capability to perform maneuvers that would otherwise be unrealistic to
do in an inhabited craft due to human limitations of both response time as well as comfort or
black-out limits. Given this expansion of its operational envelope, a natural question to ask is on
the design of new maneuvers for UAVs that serve the needs of the mission. One of these needs is
a rapid response time. In this context, we explore the design of a minimum-time velocity reversal
maneuver for a fixed-wing UAV. Pseudospectral optimal control theory is used to address this
problem. We discuss a wide-range of issues from theory to flight implementation. We show that
these issues are interdependent and explore key convergence results that are critical for a
successful flight. Results for a MONARC UAV are used to illustrate the close connection between
theory and practice.
Feng, Lin Ping, Yu Qiang Wu, Shuang Pan and Xibin Wang. “FastSLAM Algorithm for Uninhabited
Flying Vehicle.” 2013 International Conference on Precision Mechanical Instruments and
Measurement Technology, ICPMIMT 2013 May 25-26, 2013 Shenyang, Liaoning, China, p.
3596-3599.
Abstract: For uninhabited flying vehicle, it is a key prerequisite of truly autonomous mobile
vehicles to simultaneously localize and accurately map its surroundings. Kalman filter-based
algorithms require time quadratic in the number of landmarks to incorporate each sensor
observation. This paper presents an algorithm so called FastSLAM that recursively estimates the
full posterior distribution over robot pose and landmark locations, but scales logarithmically with
the number of landmarks in the map. FastSLAM factors the posterior into a product of conditional
landmark distributions and a distribution over UAV paths. The algorithm has been tested in UAV
environments. Experimental results demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of the
FastSLAM algorithm for UAV.
Harada, Masanori, Hideyuki Nagata, and Kevin Bollino. “Tracking Control of a Single Coaxial Rotor
UAV using Dynamic Inversion.” AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Conference.
August 19-22, 2013.
Abstract: This paper investigates the application of nonlinear dynamic inversion (DI) control to
the experimental flight of a Single Coaxial Rotor (SCR) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conducted
in the indoor flight facility of the National Defense Academy (NDA) of Japan. The DI controller is
constructed from a nonlinear dynamical model of the SCR UAV including a stabilizer bar effect.
Feasibility of the approach is verified by numerical simulation before the actual flight experiment.
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Additionally, the DI controller is used for hovering flight, Figure-L maneuvers, and obstacle
avoidance maneuvers. Experimental results validate the numerical simulations of the DI
controller indicating accurate results within an expected tolerance.
Harada, Masanori, Hideyuki Nagata, Johan Simond, and Kevin Bollino. “Optimal Trajectory
Generation and Tracking Control of a Single Coaxial Rotor UAV.” AIAA Guidance, Navigation,
and Control (GNC) Conference 2013 August 19-22, 2013.
Abstract: This paper investigates the application of optimal control to the experimental flight of a
Single Coaxial Rotor (SCR) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conducted in the indoor flight facility
of the National Defense Academy (NDA) of Japan. The optimal control problem is prescribed as a
minimum-length obstacle avoidance maneuver of the SCR UAV and it is solved using
pseudospectral (PS) optimal control theory. The optimal trajectory is computed offline as a
kinematic path-planning problem and then provided to the real UAV system as reference input
commands. While only preliminary studies have been conducted at NDA, the results provide
nominal tracking performance and validate the feasibility of the approach.
Horner, Douglas and Geoffrey Xie. “Data-Driven Acoustic Communication Modeling for Undersea
Collaboration Navigation.” OCEANS 2013 MTS/IEEE - San Diego: An Ocean in Common. San
Diego, CA: September 23-26, 2013.
Abstract: Feedback control of collaborative mobile systems requires assumptions with regards to
wireless networking to bound system performance. Traditional assumptions include a physicsbased signal propagation model which can be especially inaccurate in dynamic and cluttered
communication environments. This paper addresses a data-driven approach for modeling signal
strength. It presents local and global connectivity maps for providing greater resolution with
respect to received signal strength over a bounded area. The approach may be particularly useful
for enabling more flexible and robust multi-vehicle navigation.
Kragelund, Sean, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Aurelio Monarrez, Michael Hurban, Curtis Kho.
“Adaptive Speed Control for Autonomous Surface Vessels.” OCEANS 2013 MTS/IEEE – San
Diego Conference: An Ocean in Common. September 23-26, 2013.
Abstract: The paper addresses the problem of speed control for the SeaFox unmanned surface
vessel (USV). This small, versatile robotic platform can operate over a wide range of speeds,
making it attractive for a number of scientific, commercial, and naval applications. This
versatility, however, comes at a price. The vessel operates in displacement mode at low speeds
and operates in planing mode at high speeds. These two regimes are connected via a highly
unstable transition mode, where steady state operation is not possible, making autonomous
operations challenging. Speed following is one of the key challenges in automating this class of
vessel, as this capability is adversely affected by (i) the inherently slow dynamic response of the
propulsion system, (ii) significant variation of the vessel's hydrodynamics in three distinct
operating modes, and (iii) significant coupling between these hydrodynamics and the propulsion
force. This paper presents a comparative study of three adaptive control algorithms developed for
speed-holding capability on the SeaFox USV: (i) classical PID control with gain scheduling, (ii)
model reference adaptive control, and (iii) L1 adaptive control. Beginning with a description of
the system identification experiments that informed our understanding of the open-loop plant
dynamics, this paper proceeds through controller design and simulation, and presents results
from open ocean sea trials. The experimental results provide a basis for an objective comparison
of each algorithm's speed following performance and explicitly highlight the benefits of adaptive
controllers.
McLauchlan, Lifford, Mehrube Mehrubeoglu, and Jayson Durham. “Problem Based Learning Through
Modeling and Simulation of Unmanned Vehicles.“ 120th ASEE Annual Conference and
Exposition, 2013 June 23, 2013 - June 26, 2013.
Abstract: Problem based learning has been shown to increase student excitement and attention
which will increase student understanding of course material and concepts. With the high cost of
large scale underwater, land and air vehicles, the use of modeling and simulation capabilities
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becomes more important for university programs. Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV)
Workbench was developed at the Naval Postgraduate School as a modeling and simulation
environment to enable physics based real time simulation of autonomous vehicles, such as
unmanned surface vehicles (USV), unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) and unmanned aerial
vehicles (UAV). Vehicle missions can also be replayed for further study. 1-5 At Texas A&M
University-Kingsville and Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, a lab exercise for multiple vehicles
has been created for the students to illustrate waypoint navigation and control for unmanned
surface and air vehicles. Two versions were developed, an abbreviated version for the freshman
students in introductory courses at the two universities, and a more extensive one for the senior
students at Texas A&M University-Kingsville. By enabling a visual representation of the effects of
the control algorithm in the simulated actions, freshman students gain a larger scale
understanding of more advanced theoretical concepts that they will learn during their junior and
senior years, thereby allowing the students to gain insights into how the theory in various
undergraduate classes may be used in applications. The seniors in the undergraduate linear
controls course at Texas A&M University-Kingsville can investigate different controllers such as
Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) in the AUV Workbench environment, thus enabling students
to see how the control of the vehicle is affected as the controller is varied. System-of-Systems
Engineering (SOSE) necessitates an increased sharing and interoperability of information. In
support of mission-driven SOSE, a critical need exists to support science and technology research
and education that provide increased coordination of activities supporting mission driven SOSE.
The AUV Workbench simulation environment enhances the student's understanding of modeling
systems which in turn helps to continue addressing this need at the university educational level.
American Society of Engineering Education, 2013.
McMullen, Eric L., B. Shane Grass, Quinn Kennedy, Joseph Sullivan, and Ji Hyun Yang. “Effects
of UAV Supervisory Control on F-18 Formation Flight Performance in a Simulator Environment.”
AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies (MST) Conference, August 19-22, 2013.
Abstract: No known studies have been conducted to assess the impact of distractions in a military
aviation environment. Constant advances in technology and increasing cockpit workload,
particularly the shift from two-seat to single-seat fighters to save money and reduce the risk to
life, push the limits of human mental capacity. With the rapid increase in the use of unmanned
aerial vehicles (UAVs) over the past decade, there is an interest within the military aviation
community in integrating this capability into the cockpit to expand the firepower, range, or
options. This study compared the effects of two different secondary tasks on the formation flight
performance. The two secondary tasks corresponded to the traditional secondary task of target
prosecution using an electro-optical forward looking infrared (FLIR) pod and a futuristic
secondary task involving unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) supervisory command and control. A
total of 34 military aviators, all U.S. naval aviators with the exception of one U.S. Marine Corps
pilot, with varying levels of flight experience volunteered to fly three 5-min F-18 simulator
sessions in close formation while presented with two secondary tasks; the effects of these
distractions on the following distance performance were evaluated. The simulators used for this
experiment were high fidelity F- 18C/D/E/F tactical operational flight trainers (TOFT), which are
currently used to conduct training and maintain the proficiency of active duty Navy and Marine
Corps pilots. The results provided clear indications that a futuristic task such as a UAV
supervisory interface is significantly more challenging than a traditional task and that both
secondary tasks increased the average mean following distance and variance compared to the
undistracted flying baseline scenario. Additionally, we found no evidence that increased flight
experience (total flight hours) significantly improved the performance of the primary task of
formation flight when the participants were presented with a distraction. The integration of a
futuristic secondary task (UAV supervisory interface) into the simulator cockpit was successful
and well received by the participants, but requires further development to be a viable combat
multiplier. The knowledge gained from the analysis of the performance differences could
contribute to not only improved crew resource management and pilot workload balancing, but
also better flight safety through the modification of flight procedures based on the known effects
of distractions in the cockpit.
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Ohleger, Mike, Geoffrey G. Xie and John H. Gibson. “Extending UAV Video Dissemination Via
Seamless Handover: A Proof of Concept Evaluation of the IEEE 802.21 Standard.” Proceedings
of the 46th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2013,
p. 5106-5114.
Abstract: With an increase in the amount of daily UAV flights and the number of Digital Video
Broadcast Return Channel Satellite (DVBRCS) suites in theater, the demand for a constant access
to the operational picture has also increased. Until recently, there have been limited solutions for
enlarging the access to DVBRCS video feeds. With the advent of wireless technologies, such as
WiFi, WiMAX, 3G, and LTE, the opportunity to extend the access should be considered. In
particular, the IEEE 802.21 standard, known as Media Independent Handover services, could be
the solution to not only extending the network beyond the reaches of the forward operating
bases, but allowing for no loss in connectivity, due to its ability to conduct seamless handovers,
while on the move. In this paper, we present a proof of concept evaluation of the compatibility of
the IEEE 802.21 standard and the DVBRCS system, using an open source implementation. We
find the standard to be a viable solution for extending the services of DVBRCS to forward
deployed units via wireless networks.
Severinghaus, Robert, Murali Tummala, and John McEachen. “Availability of Ad Hoc Wireless
Networks of Unmanned Ground Vehicles with Group Mobility.” Proceedings of the 46th Annual
Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2013, p. 5097-5105.
Abstract: Maintaining network availability is critical to teams of mobile unmanned ground vehicles
(UGV) and requires a realistic mobility model for accurate calculation. Mobile ad-hoc networks
(MANET) have been extensively studied using the random waypoint mobility model. But to more
exactly model teams of unmanned systems and their relative positions, we provide a model of
communication states using the reference point group mobility (RPGM) model. We consider the
unique requirements of unmanned systems as having two data rate thresholds. The analysis
includes log-normal shadowing and determines the probability that each team member has
received power above a threshold while moving. The analysis results allow computation of
network availability in different topologies. We conclude with a discussion of various methods for
overcoming shadowing and small-scale fading effects in order to maintain high network
availability of MANETs.
Shakarian, Paulo, Gerardo I. Simari, and Robert Schroeder. “MANCaLog: A Logic for Multi-Attribute
Network Cascades.” Volume 2. 12th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and
Multiagent Systems 2013, AAMAS 2013. Saint Paul, MN, May 6-10, 2013. P. 1175-1176.
Stevens, Timothy and Timonthy H. Chung. “Autonomous Search and Counter-Targeting Using Levy
Search Models.” 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA
2013. Karlsruhe, Germany, May 6-10. 2013. p. 3953-3960.
Abstract: In this study, we explore the use of nondeterministic search trajectories to accomplish
a two-fold mission of mobile robot search for a stationary target while avoiding counter-targeting
by the adversary throughout the operation. We analyze the characteristics associated with a
Levy distribution of search leg lengths to generate appropriate randomized search trajectories.
We discuss the alteration of the probability distribution of the Levy search as a result of the
method utilized to best address the presence of the bounded search area and confine the
searcher within its boundaries. Through regression analysis of simulation results, we determine
expressions for the coverage ratio evolution of the modified Levy search strategy and the
distribution on time to target detection TD, from which we are able to calculate the expected
time, E[TD], to detect the target uniformly distributed within the search area. We assert
assumptions regarding the adversary's detection and tracking abilities to estimate the expected
time, E[TC], required for it to counter target the searcher. From these two expected times, we
construct a novel probabilistic mission performance metric that measures the likelihood that the
searcher will detect the target before it is counter targeted itself.
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Streenan, Andrew and Noel E. Du Toit. “Diver Relative AUV Navigation for Joint Human-Robot
Operations.” OCEANS 2013 MTS/IEEE - San Diego: An Ocean in Common. San Diego, CA,
September 23-26, 2013.
Abstract: A novel application for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) is considered here: a
robotic diver assistant that enables close-quarters robotic operations with human divers. A
robotic diver assistant has the potential to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and safety of
diver operations. The robot diver assistant must share the operating environment with human
divers: the robot must navigate relative to the environment to reach a specified site location
(along with moving divers), then maneuver among the mostly static divers as they perform their
tasks on location. Strategies for navigating among divers while ensuring diver safety are
presented in this paper. A reactive strategy, based on potential fields, is investigated with a
deliberative approach that accounts for process and environmental disturbances, as well as
measurement noise. The deliberative approach is based on the Partially Closed-Loop Receding
Horizon Control method. Accounting for such uncertainties is required for close-quarter
operations due to the challenges associated with underwater navigation and sensing.
Thakur, Dinesh, Maxim Likhachev, James Keller, Vijay Kumar, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Kevin Jones,
Jeff Wurz, and Isaac Kaminer. “Planning for Opportunistic Surveillance with Multiple Robots.”
IROS 2013: New Horizon, Conference Digest - 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference
on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Tokyo, Japan: November 3-8, 2013.
Abstract: We are interested in the multiple robot surveillance problem where robots must allocate
waypoints to be visited among themselves and plan paths through different waypoints while
avoiding obstacles. Furthermore, the robots are allocated specific times to reach their respective
goal locations and as a result they have to decide which robots have to visit which waypoints.
Such a problem has the challenge of computing the allocation of waypoints across robots,
ordering for these waypoints and dynamical feasibility of the paths between waypoints. We
present an algorithm that runs a series of graph searches to solve the problem and provide
theoretical analysis that our approach yields an optimal solution. We present simulated results as
well as experiments on two UAVs that validate the capability of our algorithm. For a single robot,
we can solve instances having 10-15 waypoints and for multiple robots, instances having five
robots and 10 waypoints can be solved.
Trassare, Samuel T., Robert Beverly, and David Alderson. “A Technique for Network Topology
Deception.” Proceedings - 2013 IEEE Military Communications Conference, MILCOM
2013. San Diego, CA: November 18-20, 2013. p. 1795-1800.
Abstract: Civilian and military networks are continually probed for vulnerabilities. Cyber criminals,
and autonomous botnets under their control, regularly scan networks in search of vulnerable
systems to co-opt. Military and more sophisticated adversaries may also scan and map networks
as part of reconnaissance and intelligence gathering. This paper focuses on adversaries
attempting to map a network's infrastructure, i.e., the critical routers and links supporting a
network. We develop a novel methodology, rooted in principles of military deception, for
deceiving a malicious traceroute probe and influencing the structure of the network as inferred by
a mapping adversary. Our Linux-based implementation runs as a kernel module at a border
router to present a deceptive external topology. We construct a proof-of-concept test network to
show that a remote adversary using traceroute to map a defended network can be presented
with a false topology of the defender's choice.
Weiss, Joshua D. and Noel E. Du Noit. “Real-time Dynamic Model Learning and Adaptation for
Underwater Vehicles.” OCEANS MTS/IEEE - San Diego: Ocean Common. San Diego, CA:
September 23-26, 2013.
Abstract: Precision control of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) requires accurate
knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the vehicles. However, developing such models are
time and resource intensive. The problem is further exacerbated by the sensitivity of the dynamic
model to vehicle configuration. This is particularly true for hovering-class UUVs since sensor
payloads are often mounted outside the vehicle body. This paper presents a method to learn a
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dynamic model for such a hovering-class UUV in real time from motion and position
measurements. System identification techniques are employed to estimate equations of motion
coefficients. Initial results on the approach are presented.
Yang, Ji Hyun , Marek Kapolka, and Timothy H. Chung. “Autonomy Balancing in a Mannedunmanned Teaming (MUT) Swarm Attack.” Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing,
v. 208. Berlin: Springer, 2013. Presented Papers from the 1st International Conference on Robot
Intelligence Technology and Applications, RiTA 2012, p. 561-569.
Abstract: In this paper, we describe a framework for developing an interactive feedback model of
manned-unmanned teaming (MUT) operational mode selections for a broad spectrum of
unmanned vehicle (UV) autonomy levels. Though the highest autonomy levels are within reach as
technology continues to advance, lower level autonomy or human manual control will still be
needed depending on mission scenarios and dynamic situations. Understanding when and how we
change the autonomy level of MUT is critical to ensure system safety and to maximize system
performance. Thus, we propose to integrate feedback from various human state variables (i.e.,
physiological and behavioral signals such as heart rate, skin conductance level, and postures) for
estimating human workload and interest level and key task performance measures (accuracy and
speed for assigned missions, task interaction) into MUT systems so that the MUT adapts its mode
automatically as needed. We developed RESCHU-SA (Research Environment for Supervisory
Control of Heterogeneous Unmanned Vehicles Swarm Attacks), a modified version of the RESCHU
simulator originally developed at MIT. We designed a human-in-the-loop experiment to collect
baseline data for varying levels of autonomy using the RESCHU-SA along with a physiological
sensor BioHarness. Different levels of autonomy include 1) high level autonomy using an auction
algorithm or nearest-neighbor assignment algorithm, 2) low level autonomy using manual
assignment, and 3) interactive autonomy which allows operators to change between high and low
autonomy level. The purpose of the research is to investigate the level of autonomy that should
be given to unmanned vehicles (UVs) to successfully complete a mission using a MUT in a swarm
attack scenario.
2012
Andersson, Klas, Kevin Jones, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Isaac Kaminer. “Thermal Highs and
Pitfall Lows - Notes on the Journey to the First Cooperative Autonomous Soaring Flight.” 51st
IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2012, p. 3392-3397.
Abstract: This paper discusses the development and flight testing of an algorithm for cooperative
soaring by multiple autonomous gliders. Flight test results confirmed that the algorithm
functioned as expected and that the gliders worked cooperatively to find and utilize the same
updrafts during the test. However, the flight also indicated that the effectiveness of the strategy
depends largely on the existing thermal conditions in combination with how restrictively the limits
of separation between the cooperating gliders are set. To the best of the authors' knowledge this
was the world's first cooperative autonomous thermal soaring flight.
Bachmann, Eric, James Calusdian, Eric Hodgson, and Xiaoping Yun. “In situ Heading Drift
Correction for Human Position Tracking using Foot-mounted Inertial/magnetic Sensors.” 2012
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2012, p. 5425-5430.
Abstract: This paper presents a heading drift correction method and experimental results for
position tracking of human movement based on the use of foot-mounted inertial/magnetic sensor
modules. A position tracking algorithm was previously developed, which incorporated a zero
velocity update technique for correcting accelerometer drift. Previous experiments indicated the
presence of a persistent heading drift in the estimated position. In this paper, a simple method
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for correcting this drift is presented. The method requires the user to walk over a closed loop
path with the foot-mounted sensor module. Assuming a constant sensor bias for this initial walk,
the resulting position error is then used to accomplish an in situ correction for position estimates
during future walks. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the drift correction method
and show a significant improvement in position tracking accuracy. Accuracy is determined based
on the final position estimates following walks of 100 and 400 meters. Estimated distance
traveled averages within 0.2% of actual distance traveled and distance from the actual position
averages within 0.28% of actual distance traveled.
Braga, José, Anthony J. Healey, João Sousa. “Navigation Scheme for the LSTS SEACON Vehicles:
Theory and Application.” 3rd IFAC Workshop on Navigation, Guidance and Control of
Underwater Vehicles, NGCUV 2012, p. 69-75.
Abstract: Underwater Systems and Technology Laboratory (LSTS) vehicles used an Extended
Kalman Filter (EKF) navigation scheme that considered global positioning system (GPS),
longbaseline (LBL) and the propeller's angular velocity sensor readings information. Although an
attitude, heading and reference system (AHRS) and a doppler velocity logger (DVL) sensors were
available in the latest generation of vehicles, that information was not used in the original EKF
algorithm. A new filter was designed that considers GPS, LBL, inertial measurement unit (IMU),
AHRS and DVL data. This Navigation scheme, although supporting LBL data information, aims at
a fully autonomous dead reckoning operation, relying only on "proprioceptive" sensors, since the
next generation of LSTS LAUV Seacon vehicles will carry a high precision, low drift error rate IMU.
This paper presents the theory involved in this EKF, as well as other preconditioning functions
applied to extract good data from noisy sensor readings. Simulation and real mission results are
presented to validate the approach.
Brutzman, Don, Robert McGhee, Duane Davis. “An Implemented Universal Mission Controller with
Run Time Ethics Checking for Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles-A UUV Example.” 2012
IEEE/OES Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, AUV 2012.
Abstract: The authors have been involved for several decades in the development and testing of
both remotely controlled and autonomous subsea and ground vehicles. This experience has led us
to view autonomous mobile robot control problems from both a bottom up and a top down
perspective. Specifically, in our work, we have developed and tested a three-level software
architecture called Rational Behavior Model (RBM), in which a top (strategic) level mission control
finite state machine (FSM) orders the rational execution, at an intermediate (tactical) level, of
vehicle behaviors in such a way as to carry out a specified mission. This implementation
experience and these principles have led us to believe that human-like intelligence and judgment
are not required to achieve a useful operational capability in autonomous mobile robots.
Furthermore, we are convinced that a primitive but useful type of robot ethical behavior can also
be attained, even in hazardous or military environments, without invoking concepts of artificial
intelligence. To support our views, we present a software invention called a mission execution
engine (MEE), implemented in the Prolog logic programming language. This MEE can be shown to
represent an extension of the idea of a universal Turing machine and is therefore well grounded
in existing mathematical automata theory. We further show how human readable mission orders,
also written in Prolog, can specialize an MEE to any desired mission control FSM. An important
aspect of our work is that mission orders can be tested exhaustively in human executable form
before being translated into robot executable form. This provides the kind of transparency and
accountability needed for after action review of missions, and possible legal proceedings in case
of loss of life or property resulting from errors in mission orders.
Buettner Jr., Raymond R. “The Impact of Multi-institutional Semi-structured Learning Environments
(MISSLE).” Proceedings - 2012 7th International Conference on System of Systems
Engineering, SoSE 2012, p. 309-313.
Abstract: A specific instance of the multi-institutional semi-structured learning environment
(MISSLE) informing system construct is introduced and described. The description places an
emphasis on aspects that have proven successful in accelerating new systems to the customer
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and in the enhancement of systems for those participating in these collaborative learning events.
Examples are provided that include unmanned/robotic systems, command and control systems,
and surveillance/reconnaissance systems.
Chesi, Simone, Veronica Pellegrini, Qi Gong, Roberto Cristi, and Marcello Romano. “Automatic
Mass Balancing for Small Three-axis Spacecraft Simulator Using Sliding Masses Only.”
ASTRODYNAMICS 2011 - Advances in the Astronautical Sciences: Proceedings of the
AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, p. 2547-2562.
Abstract: Small satellite spacecraft simulator is a very useful tool for developing, improving and
verifying spacecraft attitude control algorithms. Accurate ground testing of spacecraft attitude
dynamics and control requires a frictionless and space-like environment that can be simulated
using spherical air bearing. The major issue using spherical air bearing is the minimization of the
gravitational torque due to misalignment between the spacecraft center of mass and center of
rotation. This paper introduces a novel automatic mass balancing technique that allows to
drastically reduce the gravitational torque by a precise alignment of the center of mass and the
center of rotation using sliding masses only. The automatic mass balancing method, is based on
an adaptive dynamical nonlinear feedback control law that relocates, in real-time, the center of
mass into the spacecraft simulator center of rotation. The control law derivation and simulation
are performed, based on real parameters of CubeSat three-axis simulator of the Spacecraft
Robotic and NanoSatellite Laboratory at the Naval Postgraduate School.
Clau, Sebastian, Stefan Brüggenwirth, Pierre Aurich, Axel Schulte, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and
Isaac Kaminer. “Design and Evaluation of a UAS Combining Cognitive Automation and Optimal
Control.” AIAA Infotech at Aerospace Conference and Exhibit 2012.
Abstract: The University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UBM) and the Naval Postgraduate School
(NPS) conduct cooperative research in the field of single operator UAV guidance and ISR payload
control. For the first time cognitive automation and Optimal Control elements are combined to
join high-level mission guidance with path planning and real-time path following. In this scope,
the CoCAMPUS (Cooperative Cognitive Automation through Mathematically optimized PathFollowing of UAVs) project is conducted to explore how to properly support a single operator in
mission-guidance and flight-control to enhance the overall system performance, based on a
simplified Air-Attack mission including static threats. The Cognitive System Architecture
COSA<sup>2</sup> is used to implement cognitive automation behavior on the basis of explicit
knowledge models, dynamically deriving implicit cost-functions, serving the purpose of path
optimization.
Gulum, Taylan O., Ahmet Y. Erdogan, Tulay Yildirim, and Phillip E. Pace. “A Parameter Extraction
Technique for FMCW Radar Signals using Wigner-Hough-Radon Transform.” 2012 IEEE Radar
Conference: Ubiquitous Radar, RADARCON 2012 - Conference Program, p. 0847-0852.
Abstract: An autonomous parameter extraction algorithm for frequency modulated continuous
wave (FMCW) radar signals using Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD)-Hough transform was
investigated in [1] and extraction of polyphase radar modulation parameters using a Wigner-Ville
distribution-Radon transform was investigated in [2]. The algorithm in [1] produced very
dependable results with as low as -6 dB SNR levels, however some degradation has been
observed below -6 dB SNR. The proposed approach in this study uses the WVD as a timefrequency (T-F) detection technique and combined Hough-Radon transform (HRT) to identify the
parameters of the modulation. We showed that our algorithm can extract FMCW radar modulation
parameters at low SNR levels, such as -9 dB, efficiently.
Harada, Masanori, Masataka Ito, Hideyuki Nagata, and Kevin Bollino. “Minimum-time Hover-to-hover
Maneuver of a Single Coaxial Rotor UAV: Example and Experimental Results.” AIAA Guidance,
Navigation, and Control Conference 2012.
Abstract: This paper investigates the application of optimal control results to the experimental
flight of a Single Coaxial Rotor (SCR) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conducted in the indoor
flight facility of the National Defense Academy of Japan (NDA). The optimal control problem is
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prescribed as a minimum-time hover-to-hover maneuver of the SCR UAV and it is solved using
pseudospectral (PS) optimal control theory. The computed optimal results are applied as openloop commands to the real UAV system. Additionally, a PID control is used for hovering flight
before and after the minimum-time maneuver. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the
feasibility of commanding the UAV with open-loop optimal solutions generated offline.
Horner, Douglas and Geoffrey Xie. “Undersea Acoustic Communication Maps for Collaborative
Navigation.” 2012 IEEE/OES Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, AUV 2012.
Abstract: Communications play a key role in collaborative navigation algorithms. A better
understanding of the ability to send and receive messages permits greater navigational flexibility
and system robustness. This paper focuses on the building of an underwater acoustic
communications map for collaborative navigation. The emphasis is in two areas- A local and
global communications map. The local communications is defined with respect to a single
destination reference point. Using a sample set of a priori signal to noise ratio acoustic modem
data, Kriging techniques are used to create mean and variance map estimates. The global
communications map is a compendium of local maps and is defined within a bounded survey
space. Bayesian Inferencing is used for building the global map. It is based on REML parameter
estimation of an anisotropic covariance function. The paper analyzes acoustic communication
signal to noise datasets recently collected in Monterey Harbor, Monterey, CA and is used to
demonstrate the above-described techniques.
Klein, Matthew A., Alexander S. Boxerbaum, Roger D. Quinn, Richard Harkins, and Ravi
Vaidyanathan. “SeaDog: A Rugged Mobile Robot for Surf-zone Applications.” 2012 4th IEEE
RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics,
BioRob 2012, p. 1335-1340. Abstract: Water and land mine detection performed on beaches
and in turbulent surf-zone areas pose specific challenges to robot operation. A robot which is
useful in the effort to disarm mined waterways must be capable of navigating rocky terrain, hardpacked wet sand and loose dry sand, and constantly changing underwater currents common to
these environments. It is also preferable for them to be man-packable and have a large payload
capacity for sensors. Studies of insect locomotion mechanisms, and their abstraction to specific
movement principles, provides a framework for designing robots that can quickly adapt to varied
terrain types. Based on recent success with beach environment autonomy and a new rugged
waterproof robotic platform, we propose a new design that will fuse a range of insect-inspired
passive mechanisms with active control strategies to seamlessly adapt to and traverse through a
range of challenging environments both in and out of the water.
Lee, K., S. Lee, D. Lee, and Mathias Kölsch. “Odometry-Prefered Scan Matching Method.” 9th
International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intelligence, URAI 2012,
p. 563-564,
Abstract: In this paper, we address the problem of estimating rigid body transformations in twodimensional space. A new probabilistic weight function is proposed to find a solution closes to
odometry information more preferably. The weight function is motivated by hypothesis that a
solution of a scan matching problem which prefers odometry information may show better
performance in terms of accuracy and convergence. Through the test with three real data sets,
our hypothesis was confirmed.
Oleg, Yakimenko and Timothy, Chung. “Extending Autonomy Capabilities for Unmanned Systems
with CRUSER.” 28th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences
2012, ICAS 2012, p. 3365-3370.
Abstract: The paper introduces a field experimentation program developed and maintained at
NPS for almost a decade and its latest expansion, Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned
Systems Education and Research. It also presents some of the successful developments
accomplished within aforementioned initiatives, including indoor and outdoor platforms.
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Schwamm, Riqui and Neil C. Rowe. “The Android Smartphone as an Inexpensive Sentry Ground
Sensor.” Unattended Ground, Sea, and Air Sensor Technologies and Applications XIV,
April 25, 2012 - April 26, 2012. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical
Engineering.
Abstract: A key challenge of sentry and monitoring duties is detection of approaching people in
areas of little human traffic. We are exploring smartphones as easily available, easily portable,
and less expensive alternatives to traditional military sensors for this task, where the sensors are
already integrated into the package. We developed an application program for the Android
smartphone that uses its sensors to detect people passing nearby; it takes their pictures for
subsequent transmission to a central monitoring station. We experimented with the microphone,
light sensor, vibration sensor, proximity sensor, orientation sensor, and magnetic sensor of the
Android. We got best results with the microphone (looking for footsteps) and light sensor (looking
for abrupt changes in light), and sometimes good results with the vibration sensor. We ran a
variety of tests with subjects walking at various distances from the phone under different
environmental conditions to measure limits on acceptable detection. We got best results by
combining average loudness over a 200 millisecond period with a brightness threshold adjusted
to the background brightness, and we set our phones to trigger pictures no more than twice a
second. Subjects needed to be within ten feet of the phone for reliable triggering, and some
surfaces gave poorer results. We primarily tested using the Motorola Atrix 4G (Android 2.3.4) and
HTC Evo 4G (Android 2.3.3) and found only a few differences in performance running the same
program, which we attribute to differences in the hardware. We also tested two older Android
phones that had problems with crashing when running our program. Our results provide good
guidance for when and where to use this approach to inexpensive sensing.
Xu, Nathan, Wei Kang, Guowei Cai, and Chen, Ben M. Chen. “Minimum-time Trajectory Planning for
Helicopter UAVs Using Computational Dynamic Optimization.” Proceedings 2012 IEEE
International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC 2012, p. 2732-2737.
Abstract: In this paper, we apply pseudospectral optimal control, a computational algorithm of
dynamic optimization, to the problem of helicopter UAV for minimum-time trajectory planning in
the presence of obstacles. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimal control subject to the
dynamics and limitations of helicopter UAVs, in which the obstacles are formulated as inequality
constraints by using p-norms. The dynamical system is defined by a set of fifteen states
nonlinear differential equations developed for HeLion, a helicopter UAV constructed in National
University of Singapore (NUS). The problem does not have an analytic solution. We numerically
solve the problem using a pseudospectral method. Various terrain scenarios were tested, from a
single obstacle to multiple obstacles. We found bifurcation points of minimum-time trajectories
near obstacles. The bifurcation points and their relationship with the distance to the obstacle are
analyzed.
Yau, Joses and Timothy H. Chung. “Search-theoretic and Ocean Models for Localizing Drifting
Objects.” 25th IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Robotics and Intelligent Systems,
IROS 2012, p. 4749-4755.
Abstract: This paper investigates the combined use of ocean models, such as idealized surface
current flows, and search models, including expanding area and discrete myopic search methods,
to improve the probability of detecting a near-surface, drifting object over time. Enhanced search
effectiveness is facilitated by the use of robotic search agents, such as a tactical unmanned aerial
vehicle (UAV), leveraging simulation methods to inform the search process. The presented work
investigates the impact of using naive vs. optimized search patterns on localizing a drifting
object, including a surrogate ocean model using idealized flow with Weibull-distributed
perturbations. Numerical studies and extensive analysis using different permutations of model
parameters (including the relative speed of the drifting object, time late in the searcher's arrival
to the search area, sensor sweep width, and duration of the search mission) identify the
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significant factors affecting the overall probability of detection. Such insights enable further
explorations using empirical datasets for specific oceanographic regions of interest.
2011
Blais, Curtis L. and Anders Alstad. “Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) Phase i Standard:
Trial Use Findings and Next Steps.” Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop 2011, 2011
Fall SIW, p. 7-14.
Abstract: The Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) is a common language for
expressing and exchanging plans, orders, requests, and reports across command and control
systems, modeling and simulation systems, and robotic systems. The Simulation Interoperability
Standards Organization (SISO) has approved a Product Development Group (PDG) to generate a
specification and guidelines document for the C-BML standard through a three-phase effort.
Phase 1 specifies the underlying data model for the standard and provides preliminary building
blocks for generation of C-BML expressions together with numerous examples of application of
the standard. Phase 2 will specify a formal grammar governing generation of valid C-BML
expressions. Phase 3 will specify a formal semantic model for C-BML. This paper identifies several
of the organizations participating in a trial use of draft Phase 1 products, describes their
intentions for trial use of the draft products, and provides some initial findings from trial use of
the products. Findings from the trial use will inform finalization of the draft Phase 1 specifications
in preparation for the start of a comment round on the product.
Calusdian, James, Xiaoping Yun and Eric Bachmann. “Adaptive-gain Complementary Filter of
Inertial and Magnetic Data for Orientation Estimation.” 2011 IEEE International Conference
on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2011, p. 1916-1922.
Abstract: Accurate estimation of orientation based on data from small low-cost strapdown inertial
and magnetic sensors is often inaccurate during highly dynamic motion or when trying to track
movements that include two or more periods characterized by significantly different frequencies.
This paper presents a complementary filtering algorithm for estimating orientation based on
inertial/magnetic sensor measurements. The algorithm takes advantage of the complementary
nature of the information offered by high-frequency angular rate sensor data and low-frequency
accelerometers and magnetometers. The filtering algorithm utilizes a single gain that can be
adaptively adjusted to achieve satisfactory performance while tracking two or more different
types of motion. An additional feature of our approach involves the simple estimation of the gyro
bias during periods exhibiting low dynamics and its subsequent use to correct the instantaneous
gyro measurements. Simulation and experimental results are presented that demonstrate the
performance of the algorithm during slow or nearly static movements, as well as, those which are
highly dynamic. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm is able to track pitch and roll
during dynamic motion with an RMS error of less than two degrees This is believed to be superior
to current proprietary commercial algorithms.
Carpin, Stefano, Derek Burch, and Timothy H. Chung. “Searching for Multiple Targets using
Probabilistic Quadtrees.” 2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots
and Systems: Celebrating 50 Years of Robotics, IROS'11, p. 4536-4543.
Abstract: We consider the problem of searching for an unknown number of static targets inside
an assigned area. The search problem is tackled using Probabilisitic Quadtrees (PQ), a data
structure we recently introduced. Probabilistic quadtrees allow for a variable resolution
representation and naturally induce a search problem where the searcher needs to choose not
only where to sense, but also the sensing resolution. Through a Bayesian approach
accommodating faulty sensors returning both false positives and missed detections, a posterior
distribution about the location of the targets is propagated during the search effort. In this paper
we extend our previous findings by considering the problem of searching for an unknown number
of targets. Moreover, we substitute our formerly used heuristic with an approach based on
information gain and expected costs. Finally, we provide some convergence results showing that
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in the worst case our model provides the same results as uniform grids, thus guaranteeing that
the representation we propose gracefully degrades towards a known model. Extensive simulation
results substantiate the properties of the method we propose, and we also show that our variable
resolution method outperforms traditional methods based on uniform resolution grids.
Castaneda, Phil, Chan Chung Wei, David Chiam, Jim Drennan, Tracy Emmersen, Scott Harvey, Koh
Wee Yung, Lim Choon Wee, Lu Zheng Liang, Matt Malinowski, Thomas Mills, Ng Kiang Chuan,
Ong Zi Xuan, Pek Wee Kok, Perh Hong Yih, Jon Saburn, Christian Silvestrini, Sor Wei Lun, Tan
Yick Fung, Teo Yong Kiong, William Walker, Wee Hong Chuan, Wes Wessner, Wong Chee Heng,
Kelvin Zhu. “Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems.” AUVSI Unmanned Systems North
America Conference 2011, p. 691-693.
Abstract: Over the next twenty years, the proliferation of threats in the undersea environment
will likely challenge the platform-centric model that the United States Navy uses to maintain
dominance in Undersea Warfare (USW). Meanwhile, rapidly maturing technologies offer greater
capabilities to potential adversaries around the world. Such a paradigm creates an imperative for
the Navy to harness emerging technologies to maintain USW dominance amid a dynamic threat
environment, while balancing cost, risk, and required performance. This systems engineering
analysis develops Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems (AUWS) that provide a technological and
tactical advantage based on the needs of the warfighter. Following critical analysis of the
numerous possible alternatives for performing the necessary Command, Control,
Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) and
prosecution and an objective screening process, four system architectures, and associated
operational concepts, are selected for detailed analysis. From cost, risk, and performance
analyses, superior AUWS concepts are shown to be flexible, scalable, and tailorable systems that
balance critical need areas. This analysis highlights the need for new warfare systems that can
meet future challenges to the traditional platform-centric model for USW dominance. Using the
results and recommendations in this analysis will allow the Navy to deploy capabilities that
effectively and efficiently meet future operational needs.
Cichella, Venanzio, Enric Xargay, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Isaac Kaminer, Antonio M. Pascoal,
and Naira Hovakimyan. “Geometric 3D Path-following Control for a Fixed-wing UAV on SO(3).”
AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference 2011.
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of steering an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle along a given
path. In the setup adopted, the vehicle is assigned a nominal path and a speed profile along it.
The vehicle is then tasked to follow this nominal path independently of the temporal assignments
of the mission, which is in contrast to "open-loop" trajectory tracking maneuvers. The paper
builds on previous work by the authors on path-following control and derives a new control
algorithm that uses the Special Orthogonal group SO(3) in the formulation of the attitude control
problem. This formulation avoids the geometric singularities and complexities that appear when
dealing with local parameterizations of the vehicle's attitude, and leads thus to a singularity-free
path-following control law. Flight test results performed in Camp Roberts, CA, demonstrate the
efficacy of the path-following control algorithm developed in this paper.
Cichella, Venanzio, Roberto Naldi, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Isaac Kaminer, Lorenzo Marconi.
“On 3D Path Following Control of a Ducted-fan UAV on SO(3).” 2011 50th IEEE Conference on
Decision and Control and European Control Conference, CDC-ECC 2011, p. 3578-3583.
Abstract: This article focuses on the problem of computing a control law for a particular class of
tail-sitter aircraft able to switch their flight configuration from hover to level flight and vice-versa.
We address the problem of steering a ducted-fan UAV along a given path (path following
problem) so as to meet spatial constraints. One possible scenario is the situation where a vehicle
is required to execute collision-free maneuvers under strict spatial limitations and arrive at his
final destination while pointing with a camera to a moving target. Path following control in 3D
builds on a nonlinear control strategy that is first derived at the kinematic level using the Special
Orthogonal Group (SO(3)) theory.
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Chung, Hoam, Elijah Polak, Johannes O. Royset, and S.Shankar Sastry. “Optimal Periodic Patrolling
Trajectories of UUVs Guarding a Channel.” Proceedings of the 2011 American Control
Conference, ACC 2011, p. 888-893. Abstract: Given a number of patrollers, the channel patrol
problem consists of determining the periodic trajectories that the patrollers must trace out so as
to maximize the probability of detection of the intruder. We formulate this problem as an optimal
control problem. We assume that the patrollers' sensors are imperfect and that their motions are
subject to turnrate constraints, and that the intruder travels straight down a channel with
constant speed. Using discretization of time and space, we approximate the optimal control
problem with a large-scale nonlinear programming problem which we solve to obtain an
approximately stationary solution and a corresponding optimized trajectory for each patroller. In
numerical tests, we obtain new insight - not easily obtained using geometric calculations - into
efficient patrol trajectory design for up to two patrollers in a narrow channel where interaction
between the patrollers is unavoidable due to their limited turn rate.
Chung, Timothy H. and Stefano Carpin. “Multiscale Search Using Probabilistic Quadtrees.” 2011
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2011, p. 2546-2553.
Abstract: We propose a novel framework to search for a static target using a multiscale
representation. The algorithm we present is appropriate when the target detection sensor trades
off accuracy versus covered area, e.g., when a UAV can fly and sense at different elevations. A
structure based on quadtrees is used to propagate a posterior about the target location using a
variable resolution representation that is dynamically refined in regions associated with higher
probability of target presence. Probabilities are updated using a Bayesian approach accounting for
erroneous sensor readings in the form of false positives and missed detections. The model we
propose is coupled with a search and decision algorithm that determines where to sense next and
with which accuracy. The search algorithm is based on an objective function accounting for both
probability of detection and motion costs, thus aiming to minimize traveled distances while trying
to localize the target. The paper is concluded with simulation results showing our approach
outperforms commonly used methods based on uniform resolution grids.
Harada, Masanori and Kevin Bollino. “Minimum-time Circling Flight of a Triarm Coaxial Rotor UAV.”
AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference 2011.
Abstract: This paper investigates characteristics of minimum-time trajectories for circling flight of
a Triarm Coaxial Rotor (TCR) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Optimal open-loop solutions for a
circling TCR UAV are presented including scenarios with failed rotors. The optimal control problem
is solved using pseudospectral (PS) optimal control theory. With dual rotors on each of the three
arms, even if one of the rotors stops working, the TCR UAV can maintain stable flight using the
remaining five rotors. Furthermore, depending on the motor power, if two counter-rotating rotors
mounted on different arms are stopped, the UAV can fly using the remaining four rotors.
Numerical results demonstrate that this PS-control approach has the ability to obtain optimal
circling flight trajectories consisting of three phases. With the majority of the flight being steadystate circling, the other phases consist of transient flight between circling and hovering at the
boundary points. It is shown that although the optimal controls vary with each failed rotor
scenario, the state response remains the same. This preliminary assessment is indicative of a
simplified approach to adaptive flight control for improved mission robustness.
Hewgley, Charles W. and Oleg A. Yakimenko. “Improved Surface Layer Wind Modeling for
Autonomous Parafoils in a Maritime Environment.” 21st AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator
Systems Technology Conference and Seminar 2011.
Abstract: This paper investigates the use of atmospheric boundary layer theory to produce more
accurate wind estimates for guiding an autonomous parafoil during the last portion of its flight
before touchdown. The problem of wind estimation for a prototype autonomous parafoil aerial
delivery system is first explained, followed by the simple assumptions for wind estimation that its
guidance algorithm makes. A logarithmic wind profile model in the atmospheric surface layer is
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then introduced. The parameters and limitations of this model are discussed, along with the
characteristics of this model that make it especially useful over the surface of the ocean. Finally,
the incorporation of this model into the guidance algorithm of the prototype aerial delivery
system is discussed, and subsequently evaluated in flight tests against the original algorithm that
did not include the logarithmic surface layer wind model.
Hewgley, Charles W., Oleg A. Yakimenko, and Nathan J. Slegers. “Shipboard Landing Challenges
for Autonomous Parafoils.” 21st AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology
Conference and Seminar 2011.
Abstract: This paper examines some of the challenges that must be overcome if future aerial
delivery systems are to have the capability to land on the flight deck of a ship underway. The
unique aspects of trajectory planning for landing on a ship's flight deck are first examined,
followed by formulation of the position estimation problem for a moving target. Some preliminary
investigations into characterizing the wind over a moving landing platform at sea are then
described. Finally, experimental results are presented for testing of a small prototype
autonomous parafoil with a simple moving target on land.
Lock, Richard J., B.H. Peiris, M. Pasindu, Simon Bates, Stuart C. Burgess, and Ravi Vaidyanathan.
“Quantification of the Benefits of a Compliant Foil for Underwater Flapping Wing Propulsion.”
2011 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, AIM
2011, p. 898-903.
Abstract: This paper presents results detailing the performance of a flexible wing for use on a
vehicle capable of both aerial and aquatic modes of locomotion, with primary focus on the aquatic
substrate. The motivation for the research stems from the ability of avian species within the
natural world demonstrating this multi-modal capability, utilsing a flapping mechanism as a
means of propulsive generation. The fundamental aim is to capture the beneficial traits of a
flexible wing and quantify any potential improvements in performance. We present a simplified
numerical model which acts as an initial design tool prior to the fabrication of a flexible wing. This
model aids in wing geometry selection so that under key kinematic parameters the wing
passively deforms during aquatic operations in a beneficial manner, in an attempt to increase the
maximum lift coefficient of the foil. Using the model we have fabricated a flexible wing and
experimentally evaluated its performance in a range of tests, varying kinematic parameters
relating to the flapping motion and forward velocities and compared this with a rigid wing model
to investigate if the passive chord-wise flexibility leads to an increase in propulsive efficiency. We
present the initial data set making this comparison, showing that the flexible wing was found to
exhibit higher propulsive efficiencies at specific kinematic parameter sets. This modeling and
experimental study will provide a foundation for the design of future vehicles capable of
swimming and aerial locomotion, and help quantify the benefits of passively compliant structures
in flapping wing propulsion.
Ma, Zhanshan, Axel W. Krings, Richard Millar, Feng Wang, and Jun Chao. "Insect Navigation and
Communication in Flight and Migration: A Potential Model for Joining and Collision Avoidance in
MAVs and Mobile Robots Fleet Control." 2011 IEEE Aerospace Conference, AERO 2011,
March 5, 2011 - March 12 IEEE Computer Society, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2011.5747513
Abstract: The human being should be awarded the championship of navigation on the planet, on
the virtues that they not only have invented and manufactured the compass, GPS, aircraft,
vessel, spacecraft, but also have demonstrated exceptional non-instrumental navigation skills.
The Austronesian expansion from the Asian mainland into the Pacific performed by the Pacific
navigators, who eventually populated the most remote islands of the Pacific about 4000 years
ago, is a vivid example (Wehner 1998). However, animals, especially flying birds and insects are
strong contenders. Monarch butterflies can migrate up to 2000 miles from their reproductive sites
in the eastern US and Canada to their over-wintering sites in the forests of Mexico, and it is
postulated that they may possess a biological equivalent of a low-resolution GPS system that is
based on the magnetic field of the earth. In fact, even the long-legged ants (Cataglyphis fortis) in
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the Saharan desert use the dead-reckoning navigation strategy, which is attributed to the
Polynesians, but the ants apparently have acquired the capability much earlier, given the relative
short evolutionary history of humans. In this article, we briefly review the state-of-the-art
research on insect navigation and communication used in flight and communication, with the
objective to inspire cross-disciplinary studies in aerospace engineering, biology and computer
science. After a brief review, we overview and identify seven cross-disciplinary research topics
that may draw on inspirations from insect navigation and communication in flight and migration.
These topics include: ants colony inspired swarm intelligence, honeybee inspired group decisionmaking, insect sociobiology, MAV/mobile robot flight control and remote control of insect flights,
optimal migration strategy, Quorum sensing, and joining and collision avoidance for MAV fleet
control. An interesting question one may pose is: given the rich and advanced navigation and
communication technologies humans have already invented, such as satellite-based GPS, the
Internet, and cellular wireless communication, why do we still expect to possibly learn from
insects? A simple answer is that the distributed and self-organized nature of insect navigation
and communication systems makes it simple but very robust due to their highly adaptive nature.
For example, without satellites, the GPS system will break down, but the biological GPS of
monarch butterfly can operate in natural conditions without even using a battery. 2011 IEEE.
Madgwick, Sebastian O.H., Andrew J.L. Harrison, and Ravi Vaidyanathan. “Estimation of IMU and
MARG Orientation using a Gradient Descent Algorithm.” 2011 IEEE International Conference
on Rehabilitation Robotics, ICORR 2011 - Rehab Week Zurich 2011.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel orientation algorithm designed to support a
computationally efficient, wearable inertial human motion tracking system for rehabilitation
applications. It is applicable to inertial measurement units (IMUs) consisting of tri-axis
gyroscopes and accelerometers, and magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor arrays
that also include tri-axis magnetometers. The MARG implementation incorporates magnetic
distortion compensation. The algorithm uses a quaternion representation, allowing accelerometer
and magnetometer data to be used in an analytically derived and optimised gradient descent
algorithm to compute the direction of the gyroscope measurement error as a quaternion
derivative. Performance has been evaluated empirically using a commercially available
orientation sensor and reference measurements of orientation obtained using an optical
measurement system. Performance was also benchmarked against the propriety Kalman-based
algorithm of orientation sensor. Results indicate the algorithm achieves levels of accuracy
matching that of the Kalman based algorithm; &lt; 0.8&deg; static RMS error, &lt; 1.7&deg;
dynamic RMS error. The implications of the low computational load and ability to operate at small
sampling rates significantly reduces the hardware and power necessary for wearable inertial
movement tracking, enabling the creation of lightweight, inexpensive systems capable of
functioning for extended periods of time.
Sadagic, Amela. “Validation of Virtual Humanoid Intelligent Agents in Virtual Reality Systems.” IEEE
Virtual Reality Conference 2012, VR 2012 – Proceedings, p. 91-92.
Abstract: One of the great benefits VR systems offer is their ability to simulate a number of
virtual humans when their presence is needed in the context of some learning or training
experience. Being that the real humans may not be available to play different roles and support
virtual sessions, the ability of a system to generate highly believable representations of
autonomous virtual humans - virtual intelligent agents - is vital in achieving specific learning and
training objectives. Eliminating the elements of the system that can cause a negative learning
and training transfer is a paramount in those systems. We illustrate the results of two user
studies focused on validation of non-deterministic domain-specific behaviors generated by our
system (example: behaviors typical for a well coordinated group of paramedics or military unit).
The results and observations confirmed that when it comes to VR systems with stringent
requirements and high expectations for positive learning/training transfer, we still need humans
to evaluate and validate synthesized human-like agent behaviors.
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Sujit, P.B., Anthony J. Healey, and João B. Sousa. “AUV Docking on a Moving Submarine Using a KR Navigation Function.” IROS'11 - 2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent
Robots and Systems: Celebrating 50 Years of Robotics, p. 3154-3159
Abstract: Inapproach for docking onto a moving submarine. Docking of a AUV is a difficult
problem due to currents and the presence of no fly zones around the submarine. The navigation
function approach provides an integration of no-fly zones into the controller and determines the
desired heading taking the kinematic constraints of the AUV into account. Simulations are
presented to validate the navigation functions ba this paper, we present a navigation function
based sed docking solution.
Tang, K., Ben Wang, Wei Kang, and Ben Chen. “Minimum Time Control of Helicopter UAVs using
Computational Dynamic Optimization.” 9th IEEE International Conference on Control and
Automation, ICCA 2011, p. 848-852.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the problem of minimum time trajectory planning for helicopter
UAVs. It is formulated as a nonlinear optimal control subject to the dynamics and limitations of
helicopter UAVs. The dynamical system is defined by a set of fifteen states nonlinear differential
equations developed for HeLion, a UAV helicopter constructed in National University of Singapore
(NUS). The problem is then solved numerically using pseudospectral method for dynamic
optimization. The results show that minimum time trajectories are highly nonlinear that require
complicated maneuvering.
Yakimenko, Oleg A. “Recent Advances and New Horizons in Aerial Payload Delivery.” 9th IEEE
International Conference on Control and Automation, ICCA 2011, p. 148-152.
Abstract: This paper discusses a progress in improving a touchdown accuracy of an aerial payload
delivery over the course of the last decade and overviews new applications brought by the
smallest and most accurate systems. Specifically, the paper reviews the key features of a Blizzard
aerial delivery system and introduces several research projects on delivery of small
payload/sensors/ground robots and establishing short-range short-term mesh networks.
Yakimenko, Oleg A., Eugene A. Bourakov, Charles W. Hewgley, Nathan J. Slegers, Red P.
Jensen, Andrew B. Robinson, Josh R. Malone, Phil E. Heidt. “Autonomous Aerial Payload Delivery
System ‘Blizzard’.” 21st AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology Conference
and Seminar 2011.
Abstract: This paper presents a self-contained aerial payload/sensor delivery system Blizzard and
discusses its potential applications.
Yingling, Adam J., Charles W. Hewgley, Thomas A. Seigenthaler, and Oleg A. Yakimenko.
“Miniature Autonomous Rocket Recovery System (MARRS).” 21st AIAA Aerodynamic
Decelerator Systems Technology Conference and Seminar 2011.
Abstract: This paper discusses the development and testing of the new-generation recovery
system in highpowered rockets. It starts from the overall description of the rocket system, the
requirements of the Miniature Autonomous Rocket Recovery System (MARRS) and is followed by
a description of a flight tested MARRS. Next, simulation and results from the flight tests are
given. This paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for follow-on testing
2010
Baer, Wolfgang. "Multi-Eye Input Experiments for UAV Image Navigation and Control." Signal
Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition XIX, April 5, 2010 - April 7 SPIE,
2010:The Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.850555
Abstract: Real time Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) image registration is achieved by stimulating
one eye with a live video image from a flying UAV while stimulating the other eye with calculated
images. The calculated image is initialized by telemetry signals from the UAV and corrected using
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the Perspective View Nascent Technology (PVNT) software package model-image feedback
algorithm. Live and registered calculated images are superimposed allowing command functions
including target geo-location, UAV sensor slewing, tracking, and way point flight control. When
the same equipment is used with the naked eye the forward observer function can be
implemented to produce accurate target coordinates. The paper will then discuss UAV mission
control and forward observer target tracking experiments conducted at Camp Roberts, California.
2010 SPIE.
Bazo, Daniel, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Alexander Lentz, and Chris Melhuish. "Design and Testing of a
Hybrid Expressive Face for a Humanoid Robot." 23rd IEEE/RSJ 2010 International
Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2010, October 18, 2010 - October 22
IEEE Computer Society, 2010:5317-5322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2010.5651469
Abstract: The BERT2 social robot, a platform for the exploration of human-robot interaction, is
currently being built at the Bristol Robotics Laboratory. This paper describes work on the robot's
face, a hybrid face composed of a plastic faceplate and an LCD display, and our implementation
of facial expressions on this versatile platform. We report the implementation of two
representations of affect space, each of which map the space of potential emotions to specific
facial feature parameters and the results of a series of human-robot interaction experiments to
characterize the recognizability of the robot's archetypal facial expressions. The tested subjects'
recognition of the implemented facial expressions for happy, surprised, and sad was robust (with
nearly 100% recognition). Subjects, however, tended to confuse the expressions for disgusted
and afraid with other expressions, with correct recognition rates of 21.1% and 52.6%
respectively. Future work involves the addition of more realistic eye movements for stronger
recognition of certain responses. These results demonstrate that a hybrid face with affect space
facial expression implementations can provide emotive conveyance readily recognized by human
beings. 2010 IEEE.
Byers, Kenneth L., Timothy H. Chung, and Rachel T. Johnson. "Modeling and Analysis of Tactical
Installation Protection Missions." 2010 43rd Winter Simulation Conference, WSC'10,
December 5, 2010 - December 8 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2010:13471355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WSC.2010.5679058
Abstract: Security of U.S. military installations is of high interest and operational importance to
the U.S. military and allied forces. The Situational Awareness for Surveillance and Interdiction
Operations (SASIO) model was developed to simulate the operational tasking of a single
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and a ground-based interceptor used for searching, identifying,
and intercepting potential hostile targets prior to reaching a military base. This research explores
insights for the tactical employment of a UAV and an interceptor to combat potential hostile
actions against a predefined area of interest. The design and analysis of experiments are used to
create surrogate models that quantify the success rates of interception based on the employment
strategies for both the UAV and ground-based interceptor and also characteristics of the mission.
The results provide guidance for tactical employment of Blue Force assets, as well as provide
alternative means to influence Red force behavior in a beneficial manner. 2010 IEEE.
Calusdian, James, Xiaoping Yun, and Leonidas Drakopoulos. "Testing and Evaluation of an
Inertial/Magnetic Sensor-Based Pen Input Device." 23rd IEEE/RSJ 2010 International
Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2010, October 18, 2010 - October 22
IEEE Computer Society, 2010:5232-5237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2010.5653798
Abstract: Testing and evaluation of a novel pen input device are presented in this paper. The pen
input device could be used to write on any type of surface including desktops, blackboards, or in
the air. It is constructed by attaching an inertial/magnetic sensor module to a writing instrument
such as a pencil, a marker, or a piece of chalk. The inertial/magnetic sensor module has three
accelerometers, three angular rate sensors, and three magnetometers. A tracking algorithm and
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a calibration algorithm are described. The tracking algorithm is for estimating the pen tip
trajectories based on the sensor measurements, and the calibration algorithm is for estimating
the relative position of the sensor module on the writing instrument. Experimental results for
writing alphanumeric characters are presented. The relationship between tracking accuracy and
writing speed is also discussed. 2010 IEEE.
Chung, Timothy H. "On Probabilistic Search Decisions Under Searcher Motion Constraints." 8th
International Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics, WAFR, December 7,
2008 - December 9 Springer Verlag, 2008:501-516.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00312-7_31
Abstract: This article presents a sequential decision-theoretic formulation for conducting
probabilistic search for a stationary target in a search region. A general recursion expression
describing the evolution of the search decision (i.e., presence or absence of the target) is
derived, which relates the temporal sequence of imperfect detections, both false positives and
false negatives, to the spatial search conducted by a search agent. This relationship enables
quantification of the decision performance - time till decision - for a given search strategy. Also,
the role of searcher motion constraints, represented by a search graph, on the time till decision is
characterized by the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of this graph. Numerical studies
demonstrate this relationship.
Craig, Richard, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Christopher James, and Chris Melhuish. "Assessment of Human
Response to Robot Facial Expressions through Visual Evoked Potentials." 10th IEEE-RAS
International Conference on Humanoid Robots, Humanoids 2010, December 6, 2010 December 8 IEEE Computer Society, 2010:647-652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICHR.2010.5686272
Abstract: The focus of this work is to investigate and quantify the ability of a humanoid 'hybrid
face' robot to effectively convey emotion to a human observer by mapping their physiological
(EEG) response to perceived emotional information. Specifically, we examine the event related
response during two implicit emotion recognition experiments to determine the modulation of the
face-specific N170 brain response component to robot facial expressions. EEG recordings were
taken from a range of test subjects observing the BERT2 robot cycle through a range of facial
emotions in each emotion recognition experiment. Results from both experiments demonstrate
that the stimuli evoke the N170 component and that digital facial expressions with high
correlations can be discriminated. Emotional expressions evoke a larger response relative to
neutral stimuli, with negative evoking an increased amplitude and latency to positive emotions,
and demonstrate that the response to robot facial expressions evoke similar brain activity to that
of a human emotions. This study is the first of its nature to investigate and quantify the human
physiological response to digital facial expressions as conveyed in real-time by a humanoid robot.
2010 IEEE.
Hurni, Michael A., Pooya Sekhavat, Mark Karpenko, and I. Michael Ross. "Autonomous MultiVehicle Formations using a Pseuodospectral Optimal Control Framework." 2010 IEEE/ASME
International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, AIM 2010, July 6, 2010
- July 9 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2010:980-986.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AIM.2010.5695884
Abstract: Future civilian and military missions call for the autonomous coordination and control of
unmanned vehicles. This paper presents the implementation of a pseudospectral (PS) optimal
control-based algorithm for autonomous trajectory planning and control of multiple UGVs with
real-time information updates. The mission of the UGVs is to maintain formation with respect to a
lead vehicle traversing from a start point to a target point. Each vehicle must avoid static and
dynamic obstacles including other vehicles. Real-time PScontrols accommodate unforseen events
and changes in the environment that may take place over the course of the mission. Simulation
results illustrate the performance of the algorithm for various multi-vehicle scenarios. 2010 IEEE.
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———. "A Pseudospectral Optimal Motion Planner for Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles." 2010
American Control Conference, ACC 2010, June 30, 2010 - July 2 IEEE Computer Society,
2010:1591-1598.
Abstract: This paper presents a pseudospectral (PS) optimal control algorithm for the
autonomous motion planning of a fleet of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The UGVs must
traverse an obstacle-cluttered environment while maintaining robustness against possible
collisions. The generality of the algorithm comes from a binary logic that modifies the cost
function for various motion planning modes. Typical scenarios including path following and multivehicle pursuit are demonstrated. The proposed framework enables the availability of real-time
information to be exploited by real-time reformulation of the optimal control problem combined
with real-time computation. This allows the each vehicle to accommodate potential changes in
the mission/environment and uncertain conditions. Experimental results are presented to
substantiate the utility of the approach on a typical planning scenario. 2010 AACC.
Li, Zhiyuan, Naira Hovakimyan, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and Isaac Kaminer. "Vision-Based Target
Tracking and Motion Estimation using a Small UAV." 49th IEEE Conference on Decision and
Control, CDC 2010, December 15, 2010 - December 17 Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers Inc, 2010:2505-2510.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CDC.2010.5718149
Abstract: This work extends the earlier results on passive vision-based tracking and motion
estimation of a ground vehicle. The follower small unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is equipped with a
single gimbaled pan/tilt camera and a high bandwidth wireless link for video and command
transmitting. The objective is for the UAV to maintain a horizontal circular orbit about the target
with a predefined radius and to concurrently provide real-time estimation of the target's position,
speed and heading. The target velocity estimation problem is formulated such that the recently
developed L1 fast adaptive estimator can be applied. We give a rigorous proof of asymptotic
stability for the guidance law for the static target case, and provide a reformulation of the control
objective for the moving target case so that the existing controller can be applied naturally. 2010
IEEE.
Lizarraga, Mariano I., Gabriel H. Elkaim, G. M. Horn, Renwick Curry, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and
Isaac Kaminer. "Low Cost Rapidly Reconfigurable UAV Autopilot for Research and Development
of Guidance, Navigation and Control Algorithms." 2009 ASME International Design
Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering
Conference, DETC2009, August 30, 2009 - September 2 American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 2009:585-594.
Abstract: This paper presents the development and preliminary results of a rapidly reconfigurable
autopilot for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The autopilot presented differs from current
commercial and open source autopilots mainly as it has been designed to: (i) be easily
reprogrammable via Simulink (models are directly transferred to the autopilot through the RealTime Workshop's code-generation capability); (ii) decouple the traditional tasks of attitude
estimation/navigation and flight control by using two Digital Signal Controllers (one for each task)
interconnected via a Serial Peripheral Interface; and, (iii) being able to interact directly with
Simulink as a Hardware-in-the-Loop simulator. This work details each of the main components of
the autopilot and its ground control station software. Preliminary results for sensor calibration,
Hardware-in-the-loop, ground and flight tests are presented. Copyright 2009 by ASME.
Lock, Richard J., Ravi Vaidyanathan, and Stuart C. Burgess. "Development of a Biologically Inspired
Multi-Modal Wing Model for Aerial-Aquatic Robotic Vehicles." 23rd IEEE/RSJ 2010
International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2010, October 18,
2010 - October 22 IEEE Computer Society, 2010:3404-3409
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2010.5650943
Abstract: This paper presents a numerical model of a morphing wing supporting the development
of a biologically inspired vehicle capable of aerial and aquatic of locomotion. The model draws
inspiration from the seabird Uria aalge, the common guillemot. It is implemented within a
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parametric study associated with aerial and aquatic performance, specifically aiming at
minimizing energy of locomotion. The implications of varying wing geometry and kinematic
parameters are investigated and presented in the form of nested performance charts. Trends
within both the aquatic and aerial model are discussed highlighting the implications of parameter
variation on the power requirements associated with both mediums. Conflicts of geometric
parameter selection are contrasted between the aerial and aquatic model, as well as other trends
that impact the design of concept vehicles with this capability. The model has been validated by
implementing a heuristic optimization of its key parameters under conditions akin to those of the
actual bird; optimal parameters output by the model correlate to the actual behaviour of the
guillemot. 2010 IEEE.
Ma, Zhanshan, Richard Millar, Robert Hiromoto, and Axel Krings. "Logics in Animal Cognition: Are
they Important to Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) and Aerospace Missions?" 2010 IEEE
Aerospace Conference, March 6, 2010 - March 13 IEEE Computer Society, 2010:Aerospace and
Electronics Systems Society
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2010.5446798
Abstract: Conventional wisdom is that logic and language are tightly connected to logics in
human cognition. However, recent studies have revealed that, in animal cognition, there exist
logics that do not depend on languages. In other words, logical behavior is not human brain
specific. At least four logics: perceptual logic, technical logic, social logic, and inference logic have
been studied in animal cognition. Despite the obvious differences between animals and humans
in using languages, recent studies confirm that both humans and animals utilize the so-called
sensor brain maps for most sensory modalities: populations of neurons are selectively tuned to
different stimulus features or feature combinations (Ewert 2005, Ma and Krings 2009). This
commonality suggests that the studies of animal logics should also be insightful for
understanding human logics. After briefly reviewing some of the recent advances in animal logics
research, we turn to a more practical research field - the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) [also
known as Brain Machine Interface (BMI)] in biomedicine. BCI promises to provide non-muscular
communication and control for people with severe motor disabilities. A fundamental goal of BCI is
to translate thought or intent into action with brain activity only (Birbaumer 2006). If we
recognize that logic is about the way of thinking and it is probably the most reliable and possibly
most efficient way to understand thoughts, an interesting question could be: will the
understanding of animal logics be very helpful for BCI research? The current BCI research is
primarily targeted for rehabilitation applications. In this article, we also discuss the potential of
using BCI techniques in aerospace systems and space explorations. One can imagine the
potential that an astronaut operates a robot device by only thinking. Perhaps a revolutionary
breakthrough from BCI technology can be the 'copiloting' of aerial vehicles by multiple pilots
including some who stations at the ground. This copiloting not only reduces the stress (brain
fatigue) of pilots, but also enhances the reliability and fault tolerance of aerial vehicles. 2010
IEEE.
Mace, Michael, Khondaker Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Shouyan Wang, and Lalit Gupta.
"Real-Time Implementation of a Non-Invasive Tongue-Based Human-Robot Interface." 23rd
IEEE/RSJ 2010 International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS
2010, October 18, 2010 - October 22 IEEE Computer Society, 2010:5486-5491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2010.5648834
Abstract: Real-time implementation of an assistive humanmachine interface system based around
tongue-movement ear pressure (TMEP) signals is presented, alongside results from a series of
simulated control tasks. The implementation of this system into an online setting involves shortterm energy calculation, detection, segmentation and subsequent signal classification, all of
which had to be reformulated based on previous off-line testing. This has included the
formulation of a new classification and feature extraction method. This scheme utilises the
discrete cosine transform to extract the frequency features from the time domain information, a
univariate Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier and a two phase cross-validation procedure for
feature selection and extraction. The performance of this classifier is presented alongside a real-
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time implementation of the decision fusion classification algorithm, with each achieving 96.28%
and 93.12% respectively. The system testing takes into consideration potential segmentation of
false positive signals. A simulation mapping commands to a planar wheelchair demonstrates the
capacity of the system for assistive robotic control. These are the first real-time results published
for a tongue-based human-machine interface that does not require a transducer to be placed
within the vicinity of the oral cavity. 2010 IEEE.
McEachen, John. "Cyber and Unmanned Systems Operations." AUVSI Unmanned Systems North
America Conference 2010, August 24, 2010 - August 27 Association for Unmanned Vehicle
Systems International, 2010:1186-1203.
Abstract: The world’s growing reliance on information technology has introduced a level of realtime connectivity that while making US operations much more effective and efficient across
numerous missions areas, has also introduced increased vulnerabilities that continuously require
mitigation and preparedness in order to protect against and deter threats from both state and
non-state actors. History shows that government regulations and protections, despite arguments
that they are anathema to the Internet’s openness, are required to protect our operations and
forces. Furthermore, balance is needed to achieve transparency and information sharing within a
secure trusted cyber environment. Now, more than ever, mission success depends on the ability
to continually achieve network readiness and situational awareness while assuring trust and
security. The key questions before us are: What do I need to do to secure my network from
attack? How will new technologies affect our current security strategies? How do we protect all
technology components given the globalized, complex nature of the supply chain? Are we ready
to promote broad and collaborative engagement among stakeholders from all sectors, geographic
regions, and levels of government? Can we articulate the goal we are striving for, align our
efforts, measure success and chart the path for getting there?
Ross, Mike, Isaac Kaminer, Dave Netzer, Xiaoping Yun, Tony Healey, and Wei Kang.
"Autonomous Systems Curriculum - A Proposal for an Interdisciplinary Education Program."
AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America Conference 2010, August 24, 2010 - August 27
Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, 2010:1204-1246.
Sonnenburg, C., Aditya Gadre, Douglas Horner, Sean Kragelund, A. Marcus, Daniel J. Stilwell, and
Craig A. Woolsey. "Control-Oriented Planar Motion Modeling of Unmanned Surface Vehicles."
MTS/IEEE Seattle, OCEANS 2010, September 20, 2010 - September 23 IEEE Computer
Society, 2010
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2010.5664297
Abstract: This paper describes a comparison of experimentally identified dynamic models for the
planar motion of an unmanned surface vehicle (USV). The objective is to determine a model
which is rich enough to enable effective motion planning and control, simple enough to allow
straight forward parameter identification, and general enough to describe a variety of hullforms
and actuator configurations. Starting from a three degree-of-freedom nonlinear model obtained
from physical principles, we consider four simplified variants: (1) a linear model obtained by
linearizing about straight, constant-speed motion, (2) a first order steering model (for turn rate)
coupled with a first order speed model, (3) a second order steering model (for turn rate and
sideslip angle), coupled with a first order speed model, and (4) a nonlinear model for low speed
operation. The paper provides analysis of system identification data collected from field trials of
three USV platforms in Summer 2010. The platforms represent three distinct control system
implementations: a servo-actuated outboard engine, a servo-actuated jet-drive thruster, and
differential thrusters. 2010 IEEE.
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Xargay, Enric, Naira Hovakimyan, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Isaac Kaminer, Irene M. Gregory, and
Chengyu Cao. "L1 Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition."
AIAA Infotech at Aerospace 2010, April 20, 2010 - April 22 American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics Inc, 2010
Abstract: Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft
represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key
step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and
development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear
systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe
and demonstrate the advantages of L1 adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps
in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive
control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present
the results of a piloted-simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results
of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate
the advantages of L1 adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.
Copyright 2010 by Xargay, Hovakimyan, Dobrokhodov, Kaminer, Cao, Gregory.
Yakimenko, Oleg. "Optimization of Holonomic Attitude Dynamics using IDVD Method." 3rd
International Symposium on Systems and Control in Aeronautics and Astronautics,
ISSCAA2010, June 8, 2010 - June 10 IEEE Computer Society, 2010:1496-1499
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISSCAA.2010.5632357
Abstract: This paper exploits advantages of the differential flatness of rotational dynamics of a
three-dimensional holonomic robot, and presents two alternative approaches to invert it.
Specifically, it utilizes the inverse dynamics in the virtual domain method, widely used for the
translational motion, to develop a simple and yet effective numerical procedure for optimization
of attitude dynamics based on the Euler angles or quaternion. 2010 IEEE.
2009
Andersson, Klas. "Extending Endurance for Small UAVS by Predicting and Searching for Thermal
Updrafts." AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America Conference 2009, August 10, 2009 August 13 Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, 2009:33-41
Abstract: This paper discusses the topic of exploiting atmospheric energy in the form of thermal
updrafts to extend endurance for small unmanned aerial vehicles. It introduces a way to increase
efficiency in the search for thermal lift by developing a dynamic thermal prediction map. This
prediction mapping concept evaluates the underlying ground topography in conjunction with sun
angle. Areas which are likely to produce lift are predicted and marked as waypoints. A search
pattern emerges that focuses on minimizing the time between when the UAV visits each of the
predicted thermal locations. As a form of learning behavior, the prediction map is dynamically
updated with additional waypoints if unexpected thermal activity is encountered during flight.
Andersson, Klas and Isaac Kaminer. "On Stability of a Thermal Centering Controller." AIAA
Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, August 10, 2009 - August 13
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009.
Abstract: In previous work1 the concept of using cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to
search for thermal lift in order to extend endurance was investigated. This paper elaborates upon
this work by including a theoretical analysis of the stability and convergence of the heuristic
controller used for centering on thermals. Using an exponential Gaussian function to represent
the updraft field in a thermal, the analysis proves the controller to be asymptotically stable at the
equilibrium state given. It further provides the region of stability for varying feedback gains of
the controller and for different strength and sizes of the thermal. Copyright 2009 by the American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Andersson, Klas, Isaac Kaminer, Kevin D. Jones, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and Deok-Jin Lee.
"Cooperating UAVs using Thermal Lift to Extend Endurance." Unlimited Conference, April 6,
2009 - April 9 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009.
Abstract: One method of improving flight endurance for UAVs is to take advantage of thermal lift
occurring in convective boundary layers of the atmosphere. This paper investigates the possible
benefits of using a cooperating team of small UAVs to increase the probability of finding thermal
lift. An algorithm that employs a team of two autonomous gliders was developed, simulated and
initially flight tested. Probability studies suggest that a cooperative approach increases the
chance of finding lift to a significant extent. Due to the unpredictable nature of thermals,
simulation results need to be complemented with further flight testing to determine the
effectiveness of this approach. Copyright 2009 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Inc.
Baer, Wolfgang and Mathias Kölsch. "Shadow and Feature Recognition Aids for Rapid Image GeoRegistration in UAV Vision System Architectures." Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and
Target Recognition XVIII, April 13, 2009 - April 15 SPIE, 2009:The International Society for
Optical Engineering (SPIE)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.818225
Abstract: The problem of real-time image geo-referencing is encountered in all vision based
cognitive systems. In this paper we present a model-image feedback approach to this problem
and show how it can be applied to image exploitation from Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) vision
systems. By calculating reference images from a known terrain database, using a novel ray trace
algorithm, we are able to eliminate foreshortening, elevation, and lighting distortions, introduce
registration aids and reduce the geo-referencing problem to a linear transformation search over
the two dimensional image space. A method for shadow calculation that maintains real-time
performance is also presented. The paper then discusses the implementation of our model-image
feedback approach in the Perspective View Nascent Technology (PVNT) software package and
provides sample results from UAV mission control and target mensuration experiments conducted
at China Lake and Camp Roberts, California. 2009 SPIE.
Barisic, Matko, Zoran Vukic, Nikola Miskovic, and Sean P. Kragelund. "A MOOS-Based Online
Trajectory Re-Planning System for AUVs." OCEANS '09 IEEE Bremen: Balancing Technology
with Future Needs, May 11, 2009 - May 14 IEEE Computer Society, 2009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSE.2009.5278131
Abstract: His paper describes an open source navigation system architecture for use in
autonomous underwater vehicles. It is based on the Mission Oriented Operating System
proposed, published and programmed by ( [1], [2]). It is uniquely applicable for work-in-progress
type and development-stage software and capability installation onto an AUV system. This
applicability is achieved by its completely modular nature, which is obtained by the operating
system kernel running separate processes for each advanced navigation or control feature.
Robustness is also achieved in this respect since failures and errors will cause only the individual
modules that incurs them to fail. Such critical errors, bugs and failures will thereby be contained
and their propagation halted from completely freezing even the low-level control loops and
decision-making processes needed to successfully retrieve the malfunctioning AUV. 2009 IEEE.
Bevilacqua, Riccardo, Andrew P. Caprari, Jason Hall, and Marcello Romano. "Laboratory
Experimentation of Multiple Spacecraft Autonomous Assembly." AIAA Guidance, Navigation,
and Control Conference and Exhibit, August 10, 2009 - August 13 American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: This work introduces a novel approach and its experimental verification for propellant
sub-optimal multiple spacecraft assembly via a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). The attitude
dynamics of the spacecraft are linearized at each time step, about the current state vector, and
the relative dynamics between two spacecraft are assumed as a double integrator. This allows for
implementation in real-time of a LQR that computes the optimal gain matrix depending on the
current phase of the spacecraft's mission. As a result, both the attitude and position are sub-
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optimally controlled. The presented logic compensates for the structural evolution related to an
incremental assembly by updating the system's dynamics matrices. The actuators' reallocation
and command of the assembled structure is dealt with through inter-robot wireless ad-hoc
communication. Each spacecraft runs symmetric algorithms, differing only in the number of
docking ports that each possesses for the mission, which are related to the number of assembling
spacecraft and the final structure's desired shape. Once the spacecraft are assembled, one acts
as master by performing the required navigation and control of the new structure through realtime wireless commanding of the other spacecraft's actuators. The improved third generation
(3G-i) of spacecraft simulators developed at the Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory SRL of the Naval
Postgraduate School (NPS) is presented to demonstrate experimental verification of the proposed
methodology. Features of the (3G-i) robots include an unique customized construction of rapid
prototyped thermoplastic (polycarbonate) that incorporates a lightweight modular design with a
small footprint, thus maximizing the entire surface of the SRL robotic testbed.
Boxerbaum, Alexander S., Matthew A. Klein, Richard Bachmann, Roger D. Quinn, Richard Harkins, and
Ravi Vaidyanathan. "Design of a Semi-Autonomous Hybrid Mobility Surf-Zone Robot." 2009
IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, AIM 2009,
July 14, 2009 - July 17 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2009:974-979
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AIM.2009.5229713
Abstract: Surf-zone environments pose extreme challenges to robot operation. A robot that could
autonomously navigate through the rocky terrain, constantly changing underwater currents,
hard-packed moist sand, and loose dry sand characterizing this environment, would have very
significant utility for a range of defence and civilian missions. The study of animal locomotion
mechanisms can elucidate specific movement principles that can be applied to address these
demands. In this work, we report on the design and optimization of a biologically inspired
autonomous robot for deployment and operation in an ocean beach environment. Based on
recent success with beach environment autonomy and a new rugged waterproof robotic platform,
we propose a new design that will fuse a range of insect-inspired passive mechanisms with active
autonomous control architectures to seamlessly adapt to and traverse through a range of
challenging substrates both in and out of the water. 2009 IEEE.
Boyarko, George A. "System Level Simulation of Artificial Potential Function Guidance for a Neutrally
Buoyant Autonomous Vehicle Equipped with Non-Ideal Actuators." 47th AIAA Aerospace
Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, January
5, 2009 - January 8 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: Path planning and trajectory generation in the presence of obstacles is of utmost
importance in vehicle autonomy. While optimal trajectories are able to minimize an objective
function for such an operation, they cannot be evaluated in "real time", require global knowledge
of the environment, are open loop in nature and are not resistant to vehicle and environmental
disturbances. For this reason, Artificial Potential Functions (APF) will be explored for use as a
guidance strategy on board an autonomous vehicle that does not have global knowledge of the
environment or limited actuator capability and is subject to many forms of disturbance. System
level simulations are necessary to analyze the interactions of a given control system in the
presence of nonlinear dynamics of the vehicle, its actuator/sensor properties and the non
deterministic interaction with the environment. A SIMULINK&reg system level model of the
Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is constructed to evaluate the control system
within the current scenario. A novel strategy to mitigate local minima in the APF is also explored.
While the simulation is specific to the AUV, the architecture and guidance methodology is easily
transferable to other autonomous vehicles used in air, space and terrestrial applications.
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Cascio, Joseph, Mark Karpenko, Qi Gong, Pooya Sekhavat, and I. Michael Ross. "Smooth Proximity
Computation for Collision-Free Optimal Control of Multiple Robotic Manipulators." 2009
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2009,
October 11, 2009 - October 15 IEEE Computer Society, 2009:2452-2457
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2009.5354382
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach for trajectory planning of multiple robot
manipulators operating amongst obstacles. Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions are exploited to
compute the proximity between line-swept sphere (LSS) bounding volumes used to model
potentially colliding objects. The KKT multipliers and the parameters giving the minimum distance
between LSS volumes are augmented into the manipulator trajectory planning problem as
dummy control variables. These extra variables allow the planning problem to be cast as a
standard nonlinear optimal control problem with smooth path constraints, which is then solved
using the pseudospectral method. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by a trajectory
planning example involving stationary workspace obstacles and for a centralized multi-robot
system in which each robot acts as a dynamic obstacle that the other should avoid. The optimal
control formulation incorporates practical constraints on the manipulator joint angles, velocities
and accelerations as well as limits on the control torque. The computed collision-free optimal
trajectories are executed on a pair of experimental robots to verify the feasibility of the numerical
results. 2009 IEEE.
Chung, Timothy H., Moshe Kress, and Johannes O. Royset. "Probabilistic Search Optimization
and Mission Assignment for Heterogeneous Autonomous Agents." 2009 IEEE International
Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA '09, May 12, 2009 - May 17 Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2009:939-945
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2009.5152215
Abstract: This paper presents an algorithmic framework for conducting search and identification
missions using multiple heterogeneous agents. Dynamic objects of type "neutral" or "target"
move through a discretized environment. Probabilistic representation of the current level of
situational awareness - knowledge or belief of object locations and identities - is updated with
imperfect observations. Optimization of search is formulated as a mixed-integer program to
maximize the expected number of targets found and solved efficiently in a receding horizon
approach. The search effort is conducted in tandem with object identification and target
interception tasks, and a method for assignment of these missions among agents is developed.
The proposed framework is demonstrated in simulation studies, and an implementation of its
decision support capabilities in a recent field experiment is reported.
Clement, Michael R., Eugene Bourakov, Kevin D. Jones, and Vladimir Dobrokhodov. "Exploring
Network-Centric Information Architectures for Unmanned Systems Control and Data
Dissemination." Unlimited Conference, April 6, 2009 - April 9 American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: The exploration and development of an information architecture for networked
unmanned systems is described. The unmanned systems discussed utilize standard components
for guidance and navigation, coupled with additional computing devices for interfacing with a
network. These platforms in turn communicate with a broader network of devices, applications,
and users via a variety of wireless network links. Networking a platform that is traditionally
operated via serial control links and analog sensor downlinks provides two distinct advantages:
(i) high-level control, or "tasking," of the platform is easily extended from the single operator to
any authorized user on the network; and (ii) sensor data and status information may be
disseminated rapidly across the network to all interested recipients. The architecture developed
through this exploration is applied in a prototype UAV which is utilized as both a high-resolution
imaging platform and a wireless network relay. Testing and evaluation of the architecture occurs
on an ongoing, quarterly basis through a cooperative field experiment program run by U.S.
Special Operations Command and the Naval Postgraduate School.
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Dobrokhodov, Vladimir, Ioannis Kitsios, Isaac Kaminer, Kevin D. Jones, Enric Xargay, Naira
Hovakimyank, Chengyu Cao, Mariano I. Lizarraga, and Irene M. Gregory. "Preliminary Results of
Development, System Integration and Flight Validation of a Metrics Driven L1 Adaptive Control."
Unlimited Conference, April 6, 2009 - April 9 American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: This paper addresses initial steps in the development and flight implementation of a
new metrics driven L1 adaptive flight control system. The work primarily focuses on (i) definition
of appropriate control driven metrics that account for the control surface failures; (ii) tailoring a
recently developed L1 adaptive controller to the design of adaptive flight control systems that
explicitly address these metrics in the presence of control surface failures and dynamic changes
under adverse flight conditions; (iii) development of a flight control system for implementation of
the resulting algorithms onboard of a small UAV; and (iv) conducting a comprehensive flight test
program that demonstrates performance of the developed adaptive control algorithms in the
presence of failures. As an initial milestone, the paper focuses on the adaptive flight system setup
and initial efforts addressing the ability of a commercial off-the-shelf autopilot with and without
adaptive augmentation to recover from abrupt control surface failures.
Gadre, Aditya, Sean Kragelund, Theodore Masek, Daniel Stilwell, Craig Woolsey, and Douglas
Horner. "Subsurface and Surface Sensing for Autonomous Navigation in a Riverine
Environment." AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America Conference 2009, August 10,
2009 - August 13 Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, 2009:1192-1208.
Abstract: Autonomous and robust navigation in a riverine system requires sensing of the surface
and subsurface environment. We report on experiments and development activities conducted by
Virginia Tech and the Naval Post-graduate School to evaluate the effectiveness of optical surface
sensing and acoustic subsurface sensing on an unmanned surface vehicle for autonomous
navigation in a riverine environment. Subsurface sensing utilizes a small forward-looking sonar
with both vertical and horizontal beam patterns. The sonar head is mechanically steered in pan
and tilt. Surface sensing utilizes a laser line-scanner along with optical cameras. The laser linescanner is gimbaled in tilt and roll in order to decouple boat motion. A stochastic map of the
environment, generated from both surface and subsurface sensors, is used for real-time path
planning. Successful experiments have been conducted that demonstrate navigation in a riverine
system where the a priori map is inaccurate and both surface and subsurface obstacles are
present.
Ghabcheloo, Reza, Isaac Kaminer, A. Pedro Aguiar, and Antonio Pascoal. "A General Framework for
Multiple Vehicle Time-Coordinated Path Following Control." 2009 American Control
Conference, ACC 2009, June 10, 2009 - June 12 Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers Inc, 2009:3071-3076.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACC.2009.5160564
Abstract: This paper describes a general framework for the study of multiple vehicle, timecoordinated path following (TCPF) control problems. An example is the situation where a group of
vehicles is tasked to maneuver and arrive at preassigned final positions at the same time in a
collision-free manner, while reducing some optimality criterion. The time of arrival is not fixed a
priori, and the vehicles must negotiate their speeds along the spatial paths that they follow in
order to arrive simultaneously and avoid collision. The general framework adopted leads to
integrated solutions to TC-PF problems that unfold in three steps: 1) Generation of Deconflicted
Trajectories for a group of vehicles, 2) Path Following for each vehicle along its assigned path,
and 3) Coordination of the relative motion of the vehicles along their paths, so as to guarantee
deconfliction and meet desired temporal constraints such as equal times of arrival. The last step
is accomplished by varying the speed of each vehicle about the nominal speed profile computed
in step 1, based on the exchange of information with its neighbors. The paper formulates the
problem mathematically, offers a general framework for its solution, and illustrates the efficacy of
the proposed methodology in simulation with dynamic models of Autonomous Underwater
Vehicles (AUVs). 2009 AACC.
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Harada, Masanori and Kevin Bollino. "Fuel Optimization of Figure-8 Flight for Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles." AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, August 10,
2009 - August 13 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009.
Abstract: This paper investigates characteristics of minimum-fuel figure-8 trajectories for an
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) at high altitude. Given that loitering over an area of interest (i.e.,
ground target) falls within the purview of UAV missions, previous research has shown that
periodic circling flight, consisting of a boost arc (maximum thrust) and a coast arc (minimum
thrust), improves the fuel consumption when compared to steady-state circling. Through
numerical simulations, this work investigates the effectiveness of figure-8 flight for optimizing
fuel consumption while loitering. The results show that the periodic flight improves the fuel
consumption up to 5% when compared to steady-state-flight. In addition, the optimal figure-8
trajectory shape is elongated compared to that of the steady-state flight. As demonstrated, this
optimal control approach can improve the fuel consumption even while fuel is used during the
coast arc. Copyright 2009 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All right
reserved.
Hausler, Andreas J., Reza Ghabcheloo, Isaac Kaminer, Antonio M. Pascoal, and A. Pedro Aguiar.
"Path Planning for Multiple Marine Vehicles." OCEANS '09 IEEE Bremen: Balancing
Technology with Future Needs, May 11, 2009 - May 14 IEEE Computer Society, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSE.2009.5278209
Abstract: Motivated by increasingly complex and challenging missions at sea, there is widespread
interest in the development of advanced systems for cooperative control of multiple autonomous
marine vehicles. Central to the implementation of these systems is the availability of efficient
algorithms for multiple vehicle path planning that can take explicitly into account the capabilities
of each vehicle and existing environmental conditions. Examples include path planning to steer a
group of marine vehicles and enable them to reach a specific target site simultaneously with a
desired formation pattern, while avoiding inter-vehicle collisions, and online path replanning for a
vehicle fleet upon detection of episodic events or obstacles. Multiple vehicle path planning
methods build necessarily on key concepts and algorithms for single vehicle path following.
However, they go one step further in that they must explicitly address such issues as intervehicle collision avoidance and simultaneous times of arrival. As such, they pose considerable
challenges both from a theoretical and practical implementation standpoint. This paper is a brief
survey of multiple vehicle path planning techniques. The exposition is focused on specific
algorithms for path planning developed in the scope of research work in which the authors have
participated. The algorithms make ample use of direct optimization methods that lead to efficient
and fast techniques for path generation. The paper affords the reader a fast paced presentation
of key algorithms that had their genesis in the aircraft field, discusses them critically, and
suggests problems that warrant further consideration. 2009 IEEE.
Hausler, Andreas J., Reza Ghabcheloo, Antonio M. Pascoal, A. Pedro Aguiar, Isaac I. Kaminer, and
Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov. "Temporally and Spatially Deconflicted Path Planning for Multiple
Autonomous Marine Vehicles." 8th International IFAC Conference on Manoeuvring and
Control of Marine Craft, MCMC 2009, September 16, 2009 - September 18 IFAC
Secretariat, 2009:376-381.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3182/20090916-3-BR-3001.0069
Abstract: There is currently a surge of interest in the development of advanced systems for
cooperative control of multiple autonomous marine vehicles. Central to the implementation of
these systems is the availability of efficient algorithms for multiple vehicle path planning that can
take explicitly into account the capabilities of each vehicle and existing environmental conditions.
Multiple vehicle path planning methods build necessarily on key concepts and algorithms for
single vehicle path following. However, they go one step further in that they must explicitly
address intervehicle collision avoidance, together with a number of criteria that may include
simultaneous times of arrival at the assigned target points and energy minimization, to name but
a few. As such, they pose considerable challenges both from a theoretical and practical
implementation standpoint. This paper is a short overview of multiple vehicle path planning
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techniques. The exposition is focused on specific algorithms developed in the scope of research
work in which the authors have participated. Namely, algorithms that ensure that at no time will
two vehicles get closer in space than a desired safety distance, that is, achieve trajectory
deconfliction. The algorithms make ample use of direct optimization methods that lead to efficient
and fast techniques for path generation using a polynomial-based approach. The paper affords
the reader a fast paced presentation of key algorithms that had their genesis in the aircraft field,
discusses the results of simulations, and suggests problems that warrant further consideration.
2009 IFAC.
Hewgley, Charles W. and Oleg A. Yakimenko. "Precision Guided Airdrop for Vertical Replenishment
of Naval Vessels." 20th AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology Conference,
May 4, 2009 - May 7 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: This paper addresses the investigation into the feasibility of the use of precision guided
airdrop as a means to deliver cargo to naval vessels at sea. In this context, precision guided
airdrop means delivering unmanned cargo packages that, once dropped from an aircraft at high
altitude, have the capability to guide themselves to a precise landing point by controlling an
aerodynamic decelerator (parafoil or parachute) to which the cargo package is attached. The
paper describes the problem of replenishment of naval vessels at sea and describes the benefits
that the application of precision airdrop might provide. Improved accuracy of aerial delivery
systems is the major focus of analysis, and how the application of model predictive control has
potential to achieve the necessary improvements in accuracy that would make shipboard landings
possible. A simple example is developed of a model predictive control algorithm adapted to track
a target landing area that is moving with constant velocity. Additional techniques are also
surveyed, as well as other potential applications of precision airdrop to maritime operations.
Hurni, Michael A., Pooya Sekhavat, and I. Michael Ross. "Issues on UGV Optimal Motion Planning
and Obstacle Avoidance." Unlimited Conference, April 6, 2009 - April 9 American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: We present two different optimal control problem formulations that can be used to
solve various trajectory planning scenarios of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV). It is less a
study of trajectory planning than it is an analysis of the optimal control planning method itself.
Numerous issues regarding vehicle modeling, obstacle modeling and computational complexity
are discussed. The results and recommendations presented in this work are quite simple
concepts, but have not been covered in the literature of trajectory planning to the knowledge of
the co-authors. Simulation results illustrate successful implementation in various scenarios.
Jones, Kevin D., Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Isaac Kaminer, Deok Jin Lee, Eugene Bourakov, and
Michael R. Clement. "Development, System Integration and Flight Testing of a High-Resolution
Imaging System for Small UAS." 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New
Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, January 5, 2009 - January 8 American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: The development and flight testing of a high-resolution imaging system for small
unmanned aircraft systems is described. The system utilizes an off-the-shelf camera coupled to
an onboard computer and a wireless network to provide very high quality imagery from a very
low cost platform with a simple web-based tasking and data retrieval interface. The project
incorporates three primary developments: (i) control over a tactical wireless ad-hoc network, (ii)
an advanced path-following flight control algorithm that couples the flight and camera control,
and (iii) a remote control capability for the sensor. The camera is a dual use sensor, providing full
frame/rate video as well as 12MP digital still images, and a gimbal provides a limited pointing
capability. The path-following flight control system allows an untrained operator to scribble a path
on a digital map, which becomes the ground-track for the sensor. The aircraft autonomously
determines the optimal flight trajectory to keep the sensor footprint on this track. A robust
wireless mesh network integrates the aircraft with the tactical network, offering control of
autopilot and sensor functions from any other node on the network. The complete system is
evaluated in the joint Cooperative Field Experiments conducted quarterly by U.S. Special
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Operations Command and the Naval Postgraduate School, where operators put the system to use
in realistic scenarios.
Kitsios, Ioannis, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Isaac Kaminer, Kevin D. Jones, Enric Xargay, Naira
Hovakimyan, Chengyu Cao, et al. "Experimental Validation of a Metrics Driven L1 Adaptive
Control in the Presence of General Unmodeled Dynamics." AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and
Control Conference and Exhibit, August 10, 2009 - August 13 American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: The paper summarizes the results of an ongoing effort in the development and flight
validation and verification of the metrics driven L1 adaptive flight control system. In particular,
the paper develops a unified framework for design, implementation, validation and verification of
flight critical control systems including: (i) definition of experimental control validation technique
that accounts for control surface failures and generalized plant uncertainties or unmodeled
dynamics; (ii) tuning the developed L1 adaptive controller to explicitly address performance
metrics in the presence of control actuator/surface failures and modeling uncertainties under
adverse flight conditions; (iii) development of a flight control system testing environment that
includes both hardware and software setup for implementation of the resulting algorithms
onboard of a small unmanned aerial vehicle; and (iv) designing and conducting of a
comprehensive flight test validation and verification program that demonstrates performance of
the proposed adaptive control algorithms in the presence of failures. Copyright 2009 by Kitsios,
Dobrokhodov, Kaminer, Jones, Xargay, Hovakimyan, Cao, Lizarraga.
Kota, Srinivas, Michael Mace, Lalit Gupta, and Ravi Vaidyanathan. "A DCT-Gaussian Classification
Scheme for Human-Robot Interface." 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on
Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2009, October 11, 2009 - October 15 IEEE
Computer Society, 2009:5503-5508.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2009.5354008
Abstract: The ultimate success of a human-robot-interface system depends on how accurately
user control signals are classified. This paper is aimed at developing and testing a strategy to
accurately classify human-robot control signals. The primary focus is on overcoming the
dimensionality problem frequently encountered in the design of Gaussian multivariate signal
classifiers. The dimensionality problem is overcome by selecting, using two different ranking
criteria, a small set of linear combinations of the input signal space generated by the discrete
cosine transform (DCT). The application of the resulting DCT-Gaussian signal classification
strategy is demonstrated by classifying tongue-movement ear-pressure (TMEP) bioacoustic
signals that have been proposed for control of an assistive robotic arm. Classification results
show that the DCT-Gaussian classifiers outperform classifiers described in a previous study. Most
noteworthy is the fact that the Gaussian multivariate control signal classifiers developed in this
paper can be designed without having to collect a prohibitively large number of training signals in
order to satisfy the dimensionality conditions. Consequently, the classification strategies will be
especially beneficial for designing personalized assistive interfaces for individuals from whom only
a limited number of training signals can reliably be collected due to severe disabilities. 2009 IEEE.
Lackey, Stephanie, Denise Nicholson, and William Becker. "What Can VR Do for U? Virtual Reality for
Training Uninhabited Aircraft Systems." 53rd Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Annual Meeting 2009, HFES 2009, October 19, 2009 - October 23 Human Factors an
Abstract: Ergonomics Society Inc, 2009:1986-1988.
The proliferation of Uninhabited Aircraft Systems (UAS) during forward deployed military
operations presents compelling challenges to the training community. This presentation will
examine how Virtual Reality (VR) technologies may be employed to instantiate novel training
approaches targeted at UAS team coordination and tactics. The RQ-11 Raven-B, and its
associated training issues will be used to illustrate challenges facing the U.S. Marine Corps. VR
solutions currently applied to this domain and emerging research efforts will also be discussed.
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Lee, Deok-Jin, Klas Andersson, and Kevin D. Jones. "Hybrid Control of Long Endurance
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Robust Wireless Communication Networking." AIAA Guidance,
Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, August 10, 2009 - August 13 American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless
sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using high endurance aerial
vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient
descent based self-estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to
maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The
autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, harness thermal energy
from the atmosphere to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage
areas. The rapidly-deployable communication networks with the high-endurance aerial vehicles
can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance,
tracking, and decision-making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to
evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication
networks. Copyright 2009 by Deok Jin Lee.
Lee, Deok-Jin, Khim Kam, Isaac Kaminer, Douglas Horner, Anthony Healey, Sean Kragelund,
Klas Andersson, and Kevin Jones. "Wireless Communication Networks between Distributed
Autonomous Systems using Self-Tuning Extremum Control." Unlimited Conference, April 6,
2009 - April 9 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: This paper represents an effective optimization approach for building high bandwidth
wireless communication networks between distributed autonomous systems using unmanned
aerial vehicles as airborne relay nodes. A self-tuning extremum control technique is developed to
find an optimal location of the aerial vehicles to provide maximum communication throughputs.
The idea behind the self-tuning control is to use an on-line gradient estimator to identify the
derivative of a cost function and to use this as an input to a gradient-based hill-climbing
algorithm. The on-line estimation of the gradient of a performance function is achieved by
utilizing a perturbation-based peek-seeking approach which provides a quantitative gradient
value of the cost function in a numerical way. Flight experiments are conducted to evaluate the
performance of the proposed airborne wireless sensor networking control algorithm. Copyright
2009 by the authors.
Leve, Frederick A., George A. Boyarko, and Norman Fitz-Coy. "Optimization in Choosing Gimbal Axis
Orientations of a CMG Attitude Control System." Unlimited Conference, April 6, 2009 - April
9 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: Control momentum gyros (CMGs) are often chosen for satellites where high attitude
precision and torque are needed while using minimal input power. Control of these types of
systems is complicated and is directly dependent on the number of actuators and their gimbal
axis orientations with respect to the satellite body frame. This paper discusses the potential
benefits of optimizing these gimbal axis configurations and compares these results to existing
configurations such as the box, rooftop, and pyramid. A static optimization is performed to find
the correct gimbal axis configuration in terms of Euler angles for an attitude control system (ACS)
consisting of four CMGs. A four CMG configuration is chosen for minimal redundancy in avoiding
singularities. The paper also proposed a method of reconfiguring the CMG gimbal axis
orientations online. Reconfiguring the CMGs online can be beneficial to larger systems with
deployables and/or systems with on-orbit assembly which can afford the mass and volume of
extra mechanisms for onboard reconfiguration. Copyright 2009 by the American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
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Li, Zhiyuan, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Enric Xargay, Naira Hovakimyan, and Isaac Kaminer.
"Development and Implementation of L1 Gimbal Tracking Loop Onboard of Small UAV." AIAA
Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, August 10, 2009 - August 13
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: This work extends the earlier results of authors on passive vision-based tracking and
motion estimation of a non-cooperating ground vehicle. The follower small unmanned air vehicle
(UAV) is equipped with a single gimbaled pan/tilt camera and a high bandwidth wireless link for
video and command transmitting. The objective is to control the UAV turn rate and gimbaled
camera cooperatively to maintain a horizontal circular orbit about the target with a predefined
radius, and to keep the target image in the center of the image frame, concurrently providing
real-time estimation of the target's position, speed and heading. In this paper, a new L1 adaptive
controller is designed for the gimbal pan control, which provides guaranteed transient
performance in the presence of disturbances and model uncertainty. The target velocity
estimation problem is formulated such that the recently developed L1 fast adaptive estimator can
be applied. We give a rigorous proof of asymptotic stability for the guidance law for the static
target case, and provide a reformulation of the control objective for the moving target case so
that the existing controller can be applied naturally. The impact of target loss events on the
control and estimation algorithms is also analyzed. Copyright 2009 by Zhiyuan Li.
Lizarraga, Mariano I., Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Gabriel H. Elkaim, Renwick Curry, and Isaac
Kaminer. "Simulink Based Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator for Rapid Prototyping of UAV Control
Algorithms." Unlimited Conference, April 6, 2009 - April 9 American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: This paper describes a recently developed architecture for a Hardware-in-the-Loop
simulator for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The principal idea is to use the advanced modeling
capabilities of Simulink rather than hard-coded software as the flight dynamics simulating engine.
By harnessing Simulink's ability to precisely model virtually any dynamical sys- tem or
phenomena this newly developed simulator facilitates the development, validation and
verification steps of flight control algorithms. Although the presented architecture is used in
conjunction with a particular commercial autopilot, the same approach can be easily implemented
on a flight platform with a different autopilot. The paper shows the implementation of the flight
modeling simulation component in Simulink supported with an interfacing software to a
commercial autopilot. This offers the academic community numerous advantages for hardwarein-the-loop simulation of flight dynamics and control tasks. The developed setup has been
rigorously tested under a wide variety of conditions. Results from hardware-in-the-loop and real
flight tests are presented and compared to validate its adequacy and assess its usefulness as a
rapid prototyping tool. Copyright 2009 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Inc.
Lock, Richard J., Ravi Vaidyanathan, Stuart C. Burgess, and Roger D. Quinn. "Impact of Passive
Stiffness Variation on Stability and Mobility of a Hexapod Robot." 2009 IEEE/ASME
International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, AIM 2009, July 14,
2009 - July 17 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2009:980-986
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AIM.2009.5229714
Abstract: This paper presents a biologically inspired approach to simulation design for a walking
hexapod robot with focus on the parameter selection of critical values (e.g. joint stiffness) for
robot performance. The fundamental aim is to mimic key aspects within a dynamic simulation
environment to develop a clearer picture of the tradeoffs that biological systems naturally
regulate. Although the importance of compliance in locomotion and disturbance rejection is well
established in robotics, the actual design selection of system parameters involving tradeoffs
between active movement, passive disturbance rejection, and energy minimization remain a
challenging design task for mobile robots. We present initial work aimed at resolving this issue
for the design optimization of a 20:1 scale Blaberus discoidalis cockroach robot through a
simulation environment where complex interactions between passive stabilization and active
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walking may be examined in detail with respect to energy consumption and robotic performance.
2009 IEEE.
Slegers, Nathan J. and Oleg A. Yakimenko. "Optimal Control for Terminal Guidance of Autonomous
Parafoils." 20th AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology Conference, May 4,
2009 - May 7 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2009
Abstract: This paper deals with the development of guidance, navigation and control algorithms
for a prototype of a miniature aerial delivery system capable of high-precision maneuvering and
high touchdown accuracy. High accuracy enables use in precision troop resupply, sensor
placement, urban warfare reconnaissance, and other similar operations. Specifically, this paper
addresses the terminal phase, where uncertainties in winds cause most of the problems. The
paper develops a six degree-of-freedom model to adequately address dynamics and kinematics of
the prototype delivery system and then reduces it to a two degrees-of-freedom model to develop
a model predictive control algorithm for reference trajectory tracking during all stages. Reference
trajectories are developed in the inertial coordinate frame associated with the target. The
reference trajectory during terminal guidance, just prior to impact, is especially important to the
final accuracy of the system. This paper explores an approach for generating reference
trajectories based on the inverse dynamics in the virtual domain. The method results in efficient
solution of a two-point boundary-value problem onboard the aerial delivery system allowing the
trajectory to be generated at a high rate, mitigating effects of the unknown winds. This paper
provides derivation of the guidance and control algorithms and present analysis through
simulation. Copyright 2009 by N. Slegers and O. Yakimenko.
Wolfgang, Baer. "Live/virtual Cognitive Systems Simulation." 9th WSEAS International
Conference on Applied Computer Science, ACS '09, October 17, 2009 - October 19 World
Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2009:56-61
Abstract: Evidence from neuroscience, physics, and cognitive sciences suggest that conscious
experience involves a feedback loop between the sensor plane and the memories that hold the
explanation of those sensory experiences. If modeled as a loop in time the resulting event
provides a basis for a Whitheadean interpretation of Quantum Theory that eliminates the
vonNeuman division between the classic and quantum worlds. I will show that live cognitive
systems, serving as operators in a control room, when replaced by such cognitive loops can be
treated on the same footing as the quantum systems they observe. This implies our personal
every day cognitive experiences must be recognized as quantum phenomena in a new integrated
world view that provides a theoretical basis for quantum computation in biological systems at
room temperature. I will then discuss the applications for the simulation of the sensor-memory
feedback loop in conventional computer machinery. Though such an implementations only mimics
cognitive operations they can provide a new class of image recognition and real world knowledge
generation algorithms that are useful in cases where simple real world models are adequate. One
such applications is encountered on top down earth models describing the explanation for sensor
measurements from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Experiments conducted in support of the
development of UAV vision systems will then be reviewed and the future for cognitive vision
systems discussed.
Xargay, Enric, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Ioannis Kitsios, Isaac Kaminer, Kevin D. Jones, Naira
Hovakimyan, Chengyu Cao, Mariano I. Lizarraga, and Irene M. Gregory. "Flight Validation of a
Metrics Driven L1 Adaptive Control in the Presence of General Unmodeled Dynamics." 2009 IEEE
International Conference on Control and Automation, ICCA 2009, December 9, 2009 December 11 IEEE Computer Society, 2009:2243-2248
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCA.2009.5410355
Abstract: The paper summarizes the results of an ongoing effort in the development and flight
validation and verification of the metrics driven L1 adaptive flight control system. In particular,
the paper develops a unified framework for design, implementation, validation and verification of
flight critical control systems including: (i) definition of experimental control validation technique
that accounts for generalized plant uncertainties or unmodeled dynamics; (ii) tuning the
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developed L1 adaptive controller to explicitly address performance metrics in the presence of
modeling uncertainties under adverse flight conditions; (iii) development of a flight control
system testing environment for implementation of the resulting algorithms onboard of a small
unmanned aerial vehicle; and (iv) designing and conducting of a comprehensive flight test
validation and verification program that demonstrates performance of the proposed adaptive
control algorithm. 2009 IEEE.
Yakimenko, Oleg A., Nathan J. Slegers, Eugene A. Bourakov, Charles W. Hewgley, Alex B.
Bordetsky, Red P. Jensen, Andrew B. Robinson, Josh R. Malone, and Phil E. Heidt. "Mobile
System for Precise Aero Delivery with Global Reach Network Capability." 2009 IEEE
International Conference on Control and Automation, ICCA 2009, December 9, 2009 December 11 IEEE Computer Society, 2009:1394-1398
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCA.2009.5410590
Abstract: This paper discusses the current status of the development of the mobile aerial delivery
system to be further employed in a variety of different applications. High accuracy of the
developed system enables its use in precision troop resupply, precise sensors placement, urban
warfare reconnaissance and other similar operations. This paper overviews the overall system
architecture and components of the developed aero delivery system itself and then proceeds with
describing the current status of integrating it with an advanced deployment platform, unmanned
aerial system, to achieve mobility and autonomy of operations. The paper also discusses some
other systems in development pursuing similar goals and reviews some novel applications that
become possible with the developed aerial delivery system. 2009 IEEE.
2008
Aguiar, A. Pedro, Antonio M. Pascoal, Isaac Kaminer, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Enric Xargay, Naira
Hovakimyan, Chengyu Cao, and Reza Ghabcheloo. "Time-Coordinated Path Following of Multiple
UAVs Over Time-Varying Networks using L1 Adaptation." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and
Control Conference and Exhibit, August 18, 2008 - August 21 American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2008
Abstract: Motivated by challenging mission scenarios, this paper tackles the problem of multiUnmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) cooperative control in the presence of time-varying
communication networks. Specifically, we address the problem of steering a fleet of UAVs along
given paths (path following) so as to meet spatial and/or temporal constraints. One possible
scenario is the situation where a fleet of vehicles is tasked to execute collision-free maneuvers
under strict spatial constraints and arrive at their final destinations at exactly the same time. The
paper builds on previous work by the authors on coordinated path following and extends it to
allow for time-varying communication topologies. Path following control in 3D builds on a
nonlinear control strategy that is first derived at the kinematic level (outer-loop control). This is
followed by the design of an L1 adaptive output feedback control law that effectively augments
an existing autopilot and yields an inner-outer loop control structure with guaranteed
performance. Multiple vehicle time-critical coordination is achieved by enforcing temporal
constraints on the speed profiles of the vehicles along their paths in response to information
exchanged over a dynamic communication network. We address explicitly the situation where
each vehicle transmits its coordination state to only a subset of the other vehicles, as determined
by the communications topology adopted. Further, we consider the case where the
communication graph that captures the underlying communication network topology may be
disconnected during some interval of time (or may even fail to be connected at any instant of
time) and provide conditions under which the complete coordinated path following closed-loop
system is stable. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation results demonstrate the benefits of the
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developed algorithms. ; 2008 by A. P. Aguiar, I. Kaminer, R. Ghabcheloo, A. M. Pascoal, E.
Xargay, N. Hovakimyan, C. Cao, V. Dobrokhodov.
Ball, Gregory P., Kevin Squire, Craig Martell, and Man-Tak Shing. "MAJIC: A Java Application for
Controlling Multiple, Heterogeneous Robotic Agents." 19th IEEE/IFIP International
Symposium on Rapid System Prototyping, RSP 2008, June 2, 2008 - June 5 Inst. of Elec.
and Elec. Eng. Computer Society, 2008:189-195
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RSP.2008.30
Abstract: When teaching robotics, we have a number of constraints and desires to satisfy. We are
limited by the time available to teach a class, so we need a robotic system that our students can
get up to speed on quickly and easily. We are limited by robot availability, in the robots that are
on hand, but also because manufacturers of inexpensive teaching robots tend to go bankrupt or
change focus quickly, making it difficult to purchase new robots with the same interface as
previous models. Thus, we desire an interface easily adaptable to new robots. Finally, we have
recently become interested in teaching techniques for dealing with teams of possibly
heterogeneous robots. All existing systems that we examined fall short in one or more of these
areas, prompting our development of the The Multi-Agent Java Interface Controller (MAJIC).
MAJIC was designed from the bottom up with modern software engineering principles. The
interface is easy to use and learn, can be quickly adapted to new robots, and allows control of
multiple robots simultaneously. This paper presents the design of this system, highlighting rapid
development and clarity compared with other systems. DOI 10.1109/RSP.2008.30.
Bollino, Kevin P. and L. Ryan Lewis. "Collision-Free Multi-UAV Optimal Path Planning and
Cooperative Control for Tactical Applications." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control
Conference and Exhibit, August 18, 2008 - August 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics Inc, 2008
Abstract: Stemming from previous work that addressed the optimal path planning of an
unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in obstacle-rich environments, this paper demonstrates the
approach's scalability to that of a multi-UAV application. The proposed concept, based on optimal
control techniques and pseudospectral methods, offers the improved system flexibility and
autonomy demanded by UAV tactical missions in urban areas. As demonstrated, employing
optimal control methods for path planning problems provides a simplistic yet powerful capability
of flight trajectory optimization that includes simultaneous collision avoidance between vehicles
and terrain obstacles. Departing from traditional techniques that harbor non-optimal
architectures, the employed method facilitates real-time, onboard computations that may
potentially improve overall system performance. Recent developments in the field of optimal
control theory point at an emerging paradigm shift that may involve less dependency on the
typical inner-loop control. Extending these developments, this paper provides not only a fresh
perspective, but also illustrates a viable technique for efficiently generating maneuvering flight
trajectories for single vehicles or multiple vehicle sorties.
Cheney, Margaret and Brett Borden. "Imaging that Exploits Spatial, Temporal, and Spectral Aspects
of Far-Field Radar Data." Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery XV, March 17,
2008 - March 18 SPIE, 2008:The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.777416
Abstract: We develop a linearized imaging theory that combines the spatial, temporal, and
spectral aspects of scattered waves. We consider the case of fixed sensors and a general
distribution of objects, each undergoing linear motion; thus the theory deals with imaging
distributions in phase space. We derive a model for the data that is appropriate for any
waveform, and show how it specializes to familiar results when the targets are far from the
antennas and narrowband waveforms are used. We develop a phase-space imaging formula that
can be interpreted in terms of filtered backprojection or matched filtering. For this imaging
approach, we derive the corresponding point-spread function. We show that special cases of the
theory reduce to: a) Range-Doppler imaging, b) Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), c)
Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), d) Diffraction Tomography, and e) Tomography of
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Moving Targets. We also show that the theory gives a new SAR imaging algorithm for waveforms
with arbitrary ridge-like ambiguity functions.
Chung, Timothy H. and Joel W. Burdick. "Multi-Agent Probabilistic Search in a Sequential DecisionTheoretic Framework." 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation,
ICRA 2008, May 19, 2008 - May 23 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc,
2008:146-151
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2008.4543200
Abstract: Consider the task of searching a region for the presence or absence of a target using a
team of multiple searchers. This paper formulates this search problem as a sequential
probabilistic decision, which enables analysis and design of efficient and robust search control
strategies. Imperfect detections of the target's possible locations are made by each search agent
and shared with teammates. This information is used to update the evolving decision variable
which represents the belief that the target is present in the region. The sequential decisiontheoretic formulation presented in this paper provides an analytic framework to evaluate team
search systems, as it includes a performance metric (time until decision), a measure of
uncertainty (decision confidence thresholds) and imperfect information gathering (detection
error). Strategies for cooperative search are evaluated in this context, and comparisons between
homogeneous and hybrid search strategies are investigated in numerical studies. 2008 IEEE.
Dobrokhodov, Vladimir, Ioannis Kitsios, Isaac Kaminer, Kevin D. Jones, Enric Xargay, Naira
Hovakimyan, Chengyu Cao, Mariano I. Lizarraga, and Irene M. Gregory. "Flight Validation of a
Metrics Driven L1 Adaptive Control." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference
and Exhibit, August 18, 2008 - August 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Inc, 2008
Abstract: The paper addresses initial steps involved in the development and flight implementation
of new metrics driven L1 adaptive flight control system. The work concentrates on (i) definition of
appropriate control driven metrics that account for the control surface failures; (ii) tailoring
recently developed L1 adaptive controller to the design of adaptive flight control systems that
explicitly address these metrics in the presence of control surface failures and dynamic changes
under adverse flight conditions; (iii) development of a flight control system for implementation of
the resulting algorithms onboard of small UAV; and (iv) conducting a comprehensive flight test
program that demonstrates performance of the developed adaptive control algorithms in the
presence of failures. As the initial milestone the paper concentrates on the adaptive flight system
setup and initial efforts addressing the ability of a commercial off-the-shelf autopilot with and
without adaptive augmentation to recover from control surface failures.
Hall, Janson S. and Marcello Romano. "Control of Satellites with Minimum Number of Control
Actuators." 31st Annual AAS Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference, February
1, 2008 - February 6 Univelt Inc, 2008:61-80
Abstract: Within the framework of a growing need for rapid and continuous space situational
awareness, autonomous on-orbit assembly of small spacecraft is being investigated as a possible
alternative method to the use of monolithic large spacecraft. In this paper, a novel six degrees of
freedom (6-DoF) State Control System (SCS) is presented which uses a minimal set of actuators
composed of two thrusters with hemispherical vectoring capability and one paired thruster
combination. This control system and actuator architecture is proposed as a possible alternative
to conventional fixed thruster architecture for rapidly de-ployable, lower-cost, lower-mass
spacecraft. The potential advantages include simplifying the spacecraft design and reducing the
required fuel and size of the propulsion system while providing the requisite 6-DoF controllability
for proximity spacecraft maneuvers. This paper presents the dynamics model of the proposed
unconventional spacecraft architecture and the demonstration of small-time-local controllability
through Lie Algebra methods. Additionally, the input-output linearizability of the nonlinear MultiInput Multi-Output system is developed through nonlinear control theory. Furthermore, a
feedback linearized control law is designed in order to control the feedback linearized system with
a standard Linear Quadratic Regulator. The analytical results are validated on a reduced model
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(3-DoF) by exploiting the Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft Simulator
(AMPHIS) test bed of the Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory. This testbed consists of a spacecraft
robotic simulator floating via planar air bearing on a flat horizontal floor. The robotic simulator is
provided with a mini-control moment gyroscope and two semi-circular rotating thrusters. Both
the analytical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the promising nature of a
minimally control architecture for small spacecraft during autonomous proximity operations.
Harada, Masanori and Kevin Bollino. "Minimum Fuel Circling Flight for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in a
Constant Wind." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit, August
18, 2008 - August 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2008
Abstract: This paper investigates characteristics of minimum-fuel trajectories for an Unmanned
Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in high altitude, circling flight under a constant wind. Previous research has
shown that periodic circling flight, consisting of a boost arc (maximum thrust) and a coast arc
(minimum thrust), improves the fuel consumption when compared to steady-state circling. Since
the periodic flight includes ascending flight at the boost arc and descending flight at the coast
arc, it is naturally expected that the wind energy influences the trajectories. In this work,
numerical simulations are used to investigate the effects of both wind speed and direction on a
UAV flying around one loop enclosed in a cylindrical boundary area. The results show that the
optimal wind direction manifests as a tail wind just at the coast arc. In addition, the results
demonstrate that the optimal wind direction changes with the wind speed and, in some cases, the
trajectory under high winds results in smaller fuel consumption than the zero wind case. Thus,
the importance of these results is two fold. First, that the periodic flight reveals the existence of
an optimal wind direction for the minimum fuel circling. Second, and probably more importantly,
generating optimal trajectories without rejecting wind disturbances provides an autonomous
capability of using wind to its advantage and therefore improving fuel consumption or perhaps
other mission performance metrics. 2008 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Inc.
Harkins, Richard H., Thomas Dunbar, Alexander S. Boxerbaum, Richard J. Bachmann, Roger D. Quinn,
Ravi Vaidyanathan, and Stuart C. Burgess. "Confluence of Active and Passive Control
Mechanisms Enabling Autonomy and Terrain Adaptability for Robots in Variable Environments."
Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering - IAENG Special Edition of the World
Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2008, WCECS 2008, October 22, 2008 October 24 IEEE Computer Society, 2008:138-149
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WCECS.2008.25
Abstract: We report the successful design and fabrication of an autonomous robot, dubbed the
CASE/NPS Beach Whegs robot, capable of navigating the challenging terrain of the nonsubmersed surf-zone region based on abstracted biological inspiration. Abstracted biological
inspiration attempts to distill salient biological principles and implement them using presently
available technologies; its efficacy lies in the successful fusion of organic and inorganic
architectures such that the proper level of influence of biology is established for optimum
performance. The CASE/NPS Beach Whegs" robot benefits from insect inspired mechanisms of
locomotion for movement over challenging and different terrains. The robot's mechanics are an
integrated and essential part of its control system. It does not have, or need, sensors and control
circuits to actively change its gait. Instead, its mechanics cause it to passively adapt its gait
appropriately to very different terrains. Therefore, its motor control circuits are reduced to
controlling broad directives of the robot. Its navigational system is a higher-level circuit that
communicates desired speed and heading to the local control system. The confluence of active
and passive control mechanisms in the robot have resulted in a system with the simplicity of a
wheeled vehicle that nevertheless facilitates the mobility of a legged vehicle. 2008 IEEE.
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Hurni, Michael A., Pooya Sekhavat, and I. Michael Ross. "Autonomous Trajectory Planning using
Real-Time Information Updates." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and
Exhibit, August 18, 2008 - August 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc,
2008
Abstract: We present a dynamic optimal control method for autonomous trajectory planning and
control of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) using real-time information updates. The objective
of the UGV is to traverse from an initial start point and reach its goal in minimum time, with
maximum robustness, while avoiding both static and dynamic obstacles. This is achieved by
deriving the control solution that carries out the initial planning problem while minimizing a cost
and satisfying constraints based on the initial global knowledge of the area. To combat the
problem of inaccurate global knowledge and a dynamic invironment, the UGV uses its sensors to
map the locally detected change in the environment and continuously updates its global map to
re-compute a control solution that can achieve an optimal trajectory to the goal. Simulation
results illustrate successful implementation of the method in various scenarios.
Lee, Deok-Jin. "Unscented Information Filtering for Distributed Estimation and Multiple Sensor
Fusion." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit, August 18, 2008
- August 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2008
Abstract: This paper represents distributed estimation and multiple sensor information fusion
using an unscented information filtering algorithm. The proposed information fusion algorithm is
developed by embedding the unscented transformation method used in the sigma point filter into
the extended information filtering architecture, and its algorithm is further extended for
distributed estimation in hierarchical sensor networks. The new information fusion filter achieves
not only the accuracy and robustness of the sigma point filter, but also the flexibility of the
information filter for multiple sensor estimation in distributed sensing networks. Performance
comparison of the proposed sensor fusion filter with the extended information filter is
demonstrated through a simple target-tracking simulation study. 2008 by the American Institute
of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
Lee, Deok-Jin and Kyle T. Alfriend. "Additive Divided Difference Filtering for Attitude Estimation using
Modified Rodrigues Parameters." Landis Markley Astronautics Symposium, June 29, 2008 July 2 Univelt Inc, 2008:401-421
Abstract: In this paper, a real-time attitude estimation algorithm is derived by using an additive
divided difference filter as an efficient alternative to the extended Kalman filter. To make the
attitude filtering algorithm suitable for real-time applications and to minimize the computational
load, a square-root sigma point attitude filter is designed by integrating the divided difference
filter with the additive noise concept using the modified Rodrigues attitude parameters. The new
attitude filter provides numerically stable and accurate estimates of the state and covariance, but
the computational workload of the new attitude estimator is almost identical to the computational
complexity of the extended Kalman attitude filter. For performance evaluation the new sigma
point attitude filter is compared with the unscented attitude filter and the extended Kalman filter.
The sensor measurements include a three-axis magnetometer and rate-gyros. Simulation results
indicate that the proposed additive divided difference attitude filter shows faster convergence
with accurate and reliable estimation.
Lee, Deok-Jin, Isaac Kaminer, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and Kevin D. Jones. "Feature Following
and Distributed Navigation Systems Development for a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with LowCost Sensors." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit, August 18,
2008 - August 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2008
Abstract: This paper represents the development of feature following control and distributed
navigation algorithms for a small unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a low-cost sensor unit.
An efficient map-based feature generation and following control algorithm is developed. A
distributed navigation system is designed for real-time attitude, position, and velocity estimation
of the unmanned aircraft with a cascade filtering architecture, resulting in a fault-tolerant
navigation system. The performance of the proposed feature following control and the cascaded
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navigation algorithm is demonstrated in both hardware-in-the-loop simulation and real flight test
with application to feature tracking with a stabilized gimbaled camera onboard a small unmanned
aerial vehicle. 2008 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
Luqi and Douglas S. Lange. "Schema Changes and Historical Information in Conceptual Models in
Support of Adaptive Systems." 1st International Active Conceptual Modeling of Learning
Workshop, November 8, 2006 - November 8 Springer Verlag, 2006:112-121
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77503-4_9
Abstract: Conceptual changes and historical information have not been emphasized in traditional
approaches to conceptual modeling such as the entity-relationship approach. Effective
representations for such changes are needed to support robust machine learning and computeraided organizational learning. However, these aspects have been modeled and studied in other
contexts, such as software maintenance, version control, software transformations, etc. This
paper reviews some relevant previous results, shows how they have been used to simplify
conceptual models to help people make sense out of complex changing situations, and suggests
some connections to conceptual models of machine learning. Areas where research is required to
support conceptual models for adaptive systems are also explored. These are suggested by
studies of the issues surrounding deployment of adaptive systems in mission critical
environments. 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Ma, Lili, Chengyu Cao, Naira Hovakimyan, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, and Isaac Kaminer. "Adaptive
Vision-Based Guidance Law with Guaranteed Performance Bounds for Tracking a Ground Target
with Time-Varying Velocity." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and
Exhibit, August 18, 2008 - August 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc,
2008
Abstract: This work extends the earlier results of authors on vision-based tracking of a ground
vehicle moving with unknown time-varying velocity. The follower UAV is equipped with a single
camera. The control objective is to regulate the 2D horizontal range between the UAV and the
target to a constant. The extension in this paper has two distinct features. The earlier developed
guidance law used the estimates of the target's velocity obtained from a fast estimation scheme.
In this paper, we prove guaranteed performance bounds for the fast estimation scheme and
explicitly derive the tracking performance bound as a function of the estimation error. The
performance bounds imply that the signals of the closed-loop adaptive system remain close to
the corresponding signals of a bounded closed-loop reference system both in transient and
steady-state. The reference system is introduced solely for the purpose of analysis. This paper
also analyzes the stability and the performance degradation of the closed-loop adaptive system in
the presence of out-of-frame events, when continuous extraction of the target's information is
not feasible due to failures in the image processing module. The feedback loop is then closed
using the frozen estimates. The out-of-frame events are modelled as brief instabilities. A
sufficient condition for the switching signal is derived that guarantees graceful degradation of
performance during target loss. The results build upon the earlier developed fast estimation
scheme of the target's velocity, the inverse-kinematics-based guidance law and insights from
switching systems theory.
McCamish, Shawn B., Marcello Romano, Simon Nolet, Christine M. Edwards, and David W. Miller.
"Ground and Space Testing of Multiple Spacecraft Control during Close-Proximity Operations."
AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit, August 18, 2008 - August
21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2008
Abstract: A multiple spacecraft close-proximity control algorithm was implemented and tested
with the Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES)
facility onboard the International Space Station (ISS). During flight testing, a chaser satellite
successfully approached a virtual target satellite, while avoiding collision with a virtual obstacle
satellite. This research contributes to the control of multiple spacecraft for emerging missions,
which may require simultaneous gathering, rendezvous, and docking. The unique control
algorithm was developed at NPS and integrated onto the MIT SPHERES facility. The control
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algorithm implemented combines the efficiency of the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), and the
robust collision avoidance capability of the Artificial Potential Function method (APF). The LQR
control effort serves as the attractive force toward goal positions, while the APF-based repulsive
functions provide collision avoidance for both fixed and moving obstacles. The amalgamation of
these two control methods into a multiple spacecraft close-proximity control algorithm yielded
promising results as demonstrated by simulations performed at NPS. Comprehensive simulation
evaluation enabled implementation and testing of the spacecraft control algorithm on the
SPHERES facility at MIT. Finally, successful ground testing enabled execution of flight testing
onboard the ISS. The NPS's Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory (SRL) and MIT's Space Systems
Laboratory (SSL) simulations, the MIT's SSL SPHERES ground testing, and the SPHERES flight
testing results are all presented in this paper. 2008 by Shawn B. McCamish and Simon Nolet.
Thunberg, Carl and Anthony P. Tvaryanas. "Human-Centered Ground Control Station Design: The
Predator/Reaper Approach." AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America Conference 2008,
June 10, 2008 - June 12 Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, 2008:395-409
Abstract: There is an emerging understanding of unmanned aircraft as complex, distributed
systems rather than simply aircraft, a perspective formally captured in the preferred term of
reference of unmanned aircraft system. Implicit in this systems view should be the
comprehension that the Ground Control Station (GCS) plays a significant role in defining the
overall attributes of a UAS. In the case of the U.S. Air Force's MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper
UAS programs, acknowledgement of this fact has led to a comprehensive initiative led by - the
Advanced Cockpit program - to overhaul the underlying GCS architecture and core humanmachine interface. A significant challenge in addressing GCS design and crewmember
performance, however, is the relatively immaturity of the state of the art in human factors
engineering for this specific application. This paper details the Predator/Reaper program office's
strategy for meeting this challenge - a coordinated systems engineering approach built around a
proven human-centered design process and focused on making usability the primary attribute of
the system. In so doing, the Advanced Cockpit program will allow the Air Force to make maximal
use of its most expensive resource, namely its human capital, while providing enhanced and new
capabilities to the joint force.
Vaidyanathan, Ravi, Troy S. Prince, Mohammad Modarreszadeh, and Frederick J. Lisy.
"Computationally Efficient Predictive Adaptive Control for Robot Control in Dynamic Environments
and Task Domains." 2008 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and
Systems, IROS, September 22, 2008 - September 26 Inst. of Elec. and Elec. Eng. Computer
Society, 2008:3306-3311
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2008.4650926
Abstract: This paper presents the tuning and implementation of a computationally efficient
adaptive predictive control algorithm for robotic utility. The controller addresses the need for
practical, computationally efficient, robust real-time adaptive control for multivariable robotic
systems. It exploits a special matrix representation to obtain substantial reductions in the
computational expense relative to standard methods. We report the design, modeling, and
implementation of the controller on a simple pick-and-place manipulator and on an industrial
robot loading heavy shells within the magazine of a naval vessel. The proposed controller
demonstrates the ability to adapt to varying actuator performance and rapidly changing sea
states. Future work involves the implementation and testing of the controller during actual naval
operations. We believe this work may serve as a foundation to address control issues for robots
working in uncertain dynamic environments and provide a basis for design and control of
shipboard robotic devices. 2008 IEEE.
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Yakimenko Jr., Oleg A., Douglas P. Horner, and Douglas G. Pratt. "AUV Rendezvous Trajectories
Generation for Underwater Recovery." 2008 Mediterranean Conference on Control and
Automation, MED'08, June 25, 2008 - June 27 Inst. of Elec. and Elec. Eng. Computer Society,
2008:1192-1197
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2008.4601975
Abstract: For many years, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have been developed and
employed for a myriad of tasks. Their ability to accurately collect and monitor oceanic conditions
makes them a valuable asset for a variety of naval missions. Deploying and recovering AUVs,
however, is currently largely limited to surface vessels or swimmers. The purpose of this paper is
to demonstrate that by using a mathematical technique called a direct method of calculus of
variations, it is possible for an AUV to autonomously compute and execute a trajectory that will
allow for recovery by a submerged mobile recovery system (another AUV, submarine, etc.). The
algorithm ensures that a smooth trajectory is produced that, while not traditionally optimal, is
realistic and still close to the optimal solution. Also, using this technique allows the trajectory to
be computed very rapidly allowing it to be recomputed every couple of seconds to accommodate
sudden changes, possible adjustments and different disturbances, and therefore to be used in the
real life. 2008 IEEE.
Yakimenko, Oleg A., Yunjun Xu, and Gareth Basset. "Computing Short-Time Aircraft Maneuvers
using Direct Methods." AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit,
August 18, 2008 - August 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2008
Abstract: This paper analyzes applicability of direct methods to optimize short-term spatial
maneuvers of the general aircraft (unmanned vehicle) in a faster than real-time scale. It starts by
introducing different basic control schemes employing online trajectory generation. Then, it deals
with developing a simplified three-degree-of-freedom vehicle model based upon an analytically
presented drag polar, and proceeds with the formulation of a minimum-time optimization
problem. Next, it presents and analyzes the results obtained through two most recently
developed direct transcript (collocation) methods: the Gauss pseudospectral method (GPOCS)
and the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto pseudospectral method (DIDO). The paper further proceeds
with the analysis and synthesis of the optimal control for the same two-point boundary-value
problem using the Pontryagin's Maximum (Minimum) Principle, followed by another set of direct
method simulations incorporating more realistic boundary conditions. Finally, the results achieved
using the third direct method, based on inverse dynamics in the virtual domain, are presented
and discussed. The paper ends with conclusions. 2008 by the American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics, Inc.
Zhao, Hongchao, Ruchuan Zhang, and Hongyun Yu. "Extended Proportional Navigation Guidance Law
for Anti-Warship Missile Based on Lyapunov Stability." 7th World Congress on Intelligent
Control and Automation, WCICA'08, June 25, 2008 - June 27 Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers Inc, 2008:8245-8249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WCICA.2008.4594219
Abstract: An extended proportional navigation guidance (EPNG) law based on Lyapunov stability
is proposed applying the concept of virtual target and 3-dimensional pursuit-evasion model. This
guidance law can satisfy the requirements of miss distance and terminal angle, thus it guarantees
that different parts of the large-airspace varying trajectory link smoothly. Guided by this
guidance law an anti-warship missile realizes various forms of large-airspace varying trajectory.
Adopting the large-airspace variable trajectory, an anti-warship missile can improve its
maneuverability and penetration ability. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the
proposed extended proportional navigation guidance law based on Lyapunov stability. 2008 IEEE.
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2007
Ahner, Darryl K. and Arnold Buss. "Scheduling of Army UAVs Accounting for the Uncertainty of
Attrition." 2007 AIAA InfoTech at Aerospace Conference, May 7, 2007 - May 10 American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2007:809-820.
Abstract: The Assignment Scheduling Capability for Unmanned Aerial Systems (ASC-U) is a
scheduling model whose objective is to maximize the combat value through the assignment of
payloads and air vehicles (AVs) while considering location of units, Unmanned Aerial System
(UAS) components, control devices and location and duration of payload demands. The model
assigns available UAS capabilities (AV, control means, mission payloads, etc.) using an
approximate dynamic programming approach while considering the constraints of the demand
(mission type, location, duration, etc.) and the attributes and performance characteristics of the
UAS capabilities. To account for attrition, we further develop ASC-U using an adaptive dynamic
programming approach to scheduling air vehicles with a focus on accounting for the uncertainty
of attrition.
Bollino, Kevin P. and L. Ryan Lewis. "Optimal Path Planning and Control of Tactical Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles in Urban Environments." Unmanned Systems North America Conference
2007, August 6, 2007 - August 9 Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International,
2007:96-109
Abstract: This paper introduces a new approach to the onboard command and control of
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with particular focus on optimal path planning in obstacle-rich
environments. The proposed concept, based on optimal control techniques and pseudospectral
methods, offers the improved system flexibility and autonomy demanded by UAV tactical
missions in urban areas. As demonstrated, optimal control methods permit the optimization of
maneuver parameters while accounting for vehicle kinematics and workspace obstacles,
represented as dynamic and path constraints respectively. Departing from traditional techniques
that harbor non-optimal architectures, the employed method facilitates real-time, onboard
computations that consequently improve overall system performance.
Bollino, Kevin P., L. Ryan Lewis, Pooya Sekhavat, and I. Michael Ross. "Pseudospectral Optimal
Control: A Clear Road for Autonomous Intelligent Path Planning." 2007 AIAA InfoTech at
Aerospace Conference, May 7, 2007 - May 10 American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics Inc, 2007:1228-1241.
Abstract: This paper captures the essence of intelligent path planning by posing the problem in a
framework based on optimal control theory. Design requirements for autonomous vehicles call for
on-board intelligence capable of making timely decisions, performing tasks in a "smarter"
fashion, and ultimately accomplishing missions with extreme accuracy. This is the definition of an
optimal control problem! Indeed, most, if not all, motion planning problems can be formulated
and solved using optimal control techniques. Motivated by the significant advancements in
optimal control techniques over the last decade, we demonstrate the broad range of unmanned
systems that can operate both optimally and autonomously by solving path-planning problems
using pseudospectral methods.
Dobrokhodov, Vladimir N., Isaac I. Kaminer, Kevin D. Jones, Ioannis Kitsios, Chengyu Cao,
Lili Ma, Naira Hovakimyan, and Craig Woolsey. "Rapid Motion Estimation of a Target Moving with
Time-Varying Velocity." AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference 2007, August
20, 2007 - August 23 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2007:3774-3787.
Abstract: This paper describes the development of a vision-based motion estimation and target
tracking system for a small unmanned air vehicle (SUAV) equipped with an inertially stabilized
gimballed camera. The work concentrates on the design of a new rapid motion estimation
algorithm for a ground target moving with time-varying velocity. The capability to estimate target
motion for tracking significantly improves operational utility of an inexpensive tactical SUAV. This
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work extends previous results in which a SUAV simultaneously tracked a ground target moving at
constant speed and estimated its motion (position and velocity). In this paper, we allow for timevarying unknown target velocity. The target velocity estimation problem is formulated such that
the recently developed 1 rapid estimator can be applied. The estimator uses two real-time
measurements: the target position in the camera frame, provided by image processing software,
and the relative altitude above the target, provided by an external geo-referenced database.
Simulations show that the proposed algorithm is effective at tracking a non-cooperating target
moving with unknown velocity, despite repeated out-of-frame events. The paper also describes
the development of a Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation, reflecting a realistic tactical scenario,
that is intended to provide further validation in advance of flight tests.
Dobrokhodov, Vladimir N., Oleg A. Yakimenko, Kevin D. Jones, Isaac I. Kaminer, Eugene
Bourakov, Ioannis Kitsios, and Mariano Lizarraga. "New Generation of Rapid Flight Test
Prototyping System for Small Unmanned Air Vehicles." 2007 AIAA Modeling and Simulation
Technologies Conference, August 20, 2007 - August 23 American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics Inc, 2007:495-519.
Abstract: This paper describes the development and application of a rapid prototyping system for
flight testing of novel autonomous flight algorithms for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) at the
Naval Postgraduate School. The system provides a small team with the ability to rapidly
prototype new theoretical concepts and flight-test their performance in realistic mission
scenarios. The original development was done using MATRIXX Xmath/SystemBuild environment
almost a decade ago. Currently, the system has been converted to the Mathworks
MATLAB/Simulink development environment. This paper describes the hardware and software
tools developed for the system and briefly discusses the variety of projects including vision-based
target tracking, 3D path following, SUAV control over the network and high-resolution imagery on
the fly.
Hall, Jason S. and Marcello Romano. "A Novel Robotic Spacecraft Simulator with Mini-Control
Moment Gyroscopes and Rotating Thrusters." 2007 IEEE/ASME International Conference on
Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, AIM, September 4, 2007 - September 7 Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2007:IEEE Robotics and Automation Society; IEEE
Industrial Electronics Society; ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division; ETH Zurich
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AIM.2007.4412475
Abstract: A novel hardware-in-the-loop spacecraft simulator is introduced for the laboratory
validation of guidance, navigation and control algorithms. This three-degrees-of-freedom robotic
vehicle uses the principle of airfloating along a flat floor in order to reproduce in two dimensions
the frictionless and weightlessness conditions of the orbital flight. For the first time in its class, to
the authors' knowledge, the new spacecraft simulator uses Miniature Control Moment Gyroscopes
for the attitude control and rotating thrusters for both attitude and translational control. A
pseudo-GPS, a LIDAR and a fiber optic gyroscope are used as navigation sensors. The paper
presents in details the design of the robotic vehicle and the results of preliminary experiments.
2007 IEEE.
Healey, Anthony J., Douglas P. Horner, Sean P. Kragelund, Benjamin Wring, and Aurelio
Monarrez. "Collaborative Unmanned Systems for Maritime and Port Security Operations." 7th
IFAC Conference on Control Applications in Marine Systems, CAMS 2007, September 19,
2007 - September 21 IFAC Secretariat, 2007:1-6.
Horner, Douglas and Oleg Yakimenko. "Recent Developments for an Obstacle Avoidance System
for a Small AUV." 7th IFAC Conference on Control Applications in Marine Systems, CAMS
2007, September 19, 2007 - September 21 IFAC Secretariat, 2007:19-25
Abstract: Improvements in high resolution small forward looking sonar (FLS) and computer
processing have made it possible to develop an obstacle avoidance system (OAS) for small
diameter Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). An AUV with such a system can maneuver
around unanticipated obstacles that may be proud of the ocean floor. This ability can prevent
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serious damage to the vehicle or the environment. This paper discusses developments in control
and computer vision techniques of an OAS designed to vertically avoid obstacles found on the
ocean floor. Results are presented from recent in-water testing. Copyright 2007 IFAC.
Kaminer, Isaac, Oleg Yakimenko, Vladimir Dobrokhodov, Antonio Pascoal, Naira Hovakimyan,
Chengyu Cao, Amanda Young, and Vijay Patel. "Coordinated Path Following for Time-Critical
Missions of Multiple UAVs Via L1 Adaptive Output Feedback Controllers." AIAA Guidance,
Navigation, and Control Conference 2007, August 20, 2007 - August 23 American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2007:915-948
http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2007-6409
Abstract: This paper develops a complete framework for coordinated control of multiple
unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) that are tasked to execute collision-free maneuvers under strict
spatial and temporal constraints in restricted airspace. The framework proposed includes
strategies for deconflicted real-time path generation, nonlinear path following, and multiple
vehicle coordination. Path following relies on the augmentation of existing autopilots with L1
adaptive output feedback control laws to obtain inner-outer loop control structures with
guaranteed performance. Multiple vehicle coordination is achieved by enforcing temporal
constraints on the speed profiles of the vehicles along their paths in response to information
exchanged over a communication network. Again, L1 adaptive control is used to yield an innerouter loop structure for vehicle coordination. A rigorous proof of stability and performance bounds
of the combined path following and coordination strategies is given. Flight test results obtained at
Camp Roberts, CA in 2007 demonstrate the benefits of using L1 adaptive control for path
following of a single vehicle. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations for two vehicles are discussed and
provide a proof of concept for time-critical coordination of multiple vehicles over communication
networks with fixed topologies.
Lewis, L. Ryan, I. Michael Ross, and Qi Gong. "Pseudospectral Motion Planning Techniques for
Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance." 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control 2007,
CDC, December 12, 2007 - December 14 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc,
2007:5997-6002
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CDC.2007.4434545
Abstract: We consider the problem of generating minimum-time trajectories for autonomous
vehicles. Shapes of arbitrary number, size and configuration are modeled in the form of path
constraints in the resulting constrained nonlinear optimal control problem. Pseudospectral
techniques are used to solve the problem. Solutions are obtained within a few seconds even
under a MATLAB environment running on legacy computer hardware. The method is tested under
various obstacle environments, and the optimality of the computed trajectories is verified by way
of the necessary conditions. 2007 IEEE.
Ma, Lili, Chengyu Cao, Naira Hovakimyan, Craig Woolsey, Vladimir N. Dobrokhodov, and Issac I.
Kaminer. "Development of a Vision-Based Guidance Law for Tracking a Moving Target." AIAA
Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference 2007, August 20, 2007 - August 23 American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2007:3760-3773
Abstract: This paper develops a guidance law for a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
performing vision-based tracking of a target moving on the ground. The target's velocity is
unknown, but constant; the relative altitude between the target and the UAV is also assumed to
be unknown and constant. This work extends earlier results for which the relative altitude
between the target and the UAV was known, for example, by comparing captured images with a
geo-referenced database. The problem of estimating the unknown parameters is addressed using
an adaptive estimator that uses real-time measurements of the target position in the camera
frame, as provided by an image processing algorithm. The parameter estimates are used in the
UAV guidance law, with turn rate as the input, where the objective is to maintain a desired
horizontal distance between the UAV and the target. Simulations show that the proposed
algorithm is effective at tracking a target moving with unknown constant velocity, even with
repeated out-of-frame events. A stability proof for the combined estimation and guidance
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algorithm is provided. The paper also describes the development of a Hardware-in-the-Loop
simulation, reflecting a realistic tactical scenario, that is intended to provide further validation in
advance of flight tests.
Marques, Eduardo R. B., Jose Pinto, Sean Kragelund, Paulo S. Dias, Luis Madureira, Alexandre
Sousa, Marcio Correia, et al. "AUV Control and Communication using Underwater Acoustic
Networks." OCEANS 2007 - Europe, June 18, 2007 - June 21 Inst. of Elec. and Elec. Eng.
Computer Society, 2007
Abstract: Underwater acoustic networks can be quite effective to establish communication links
between autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and other vehicles or control units, enabling
complex vehicle applications and control scenarios. A communications and control framework to
support the use of underwater acoustic networks and sample application scenarios are described
for single and multi-AUV operation. 2007 IEEE.
Rice, Joseph A. "US Navy Seaweb Development." 2007 International Conference on Mobile
Computing and Networking, MobiCom'07 - Second Workshop on Underwater Networks,
WUWNet'07, September 14, 2007 - September 14 Association for Computing Machinery,
2007:3-4
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1287812.1287814
Abstract: This talk traces the development of Seaweb through-water networking from 1995 to
the present day. Encompassing the physical, link, network, transport, and session layers of the
open-systems interconnect (ISO/OSI) stack, Seaweb technology enables undersea sensor
networks, autonomous/unmanned underwater vehicle (AUV/UUV) communication navigation, and
submarine communications at speed depth (CSD). Given the severely constrained physical layer,
we examine the benefits of hierarchical network topologies and the need for adaptation to
prevailing environmental conditions and mission requirements. With results derived from an
aggressive experimental program, we consider the quality of service (QoS) trade-offs of
underwater networks in terms of reliability, availability, throughput, area coverage, security, and
latency.
Sjoberg, Eric, Kevin Squire, and Craig Martell. "Online Parameter Estimation of a Robot's Motion
Model." 2007 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems,
IROS 2007, October 29, 2007 - November 2 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc,
2007:735-740.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2007.4399501
Abstract: Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithms rely heavily on a good
motion model to provide critical information about the robot's current pose. Most of these
algorithms assume that the distribution defining a robot's motion will remain stationary over the
period of operation, and as such use a fixed model for the duration of a trial. This does not easily
allow for changes in the robot's motion model due to surface changes, wear and tear, and battery
life. Also, if new robots of a similar class are to be used, a new motion model may need to be
constructed from scratch. In this paper, we introduce a method that allows the robot to
automatically learn its motion model, given a rough estimate of its model or the model from a
robot of similar class. We validate our method by demonstrating that it learns a new motion
model when a robot crosses a threshold onto a different surface. We also demonstrate our
method can estimate the motion model for a new robot given the motion model of a robot of
similar class. 2007 IEEE.
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Vincent, Patrick J., Murali Tummala, and John McEachen. "A Beamforming Approach for Distributed
Wireless Sensor Networks." 2007 IEEE International Conference on System of Systems
Engineering, SOSE, April 16, 2007 - April 18 Inst. of Elec. and Elec. Eng. Computer Society,
2007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SYSOSE.2007.4304326
Abstract: We present an energy-aware approach for enabling communication between a wireless
ground-based sensor network, and an overhead unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Specifically, we
present a technique for assembling a subset of sensor nodes into a distributed antenna array
useful for beamforming. A small subset of sensor nodes receives and aggregates information
gathered by the network, and forms a distributed antenna array, concentrating the radiated
transmission into a narrow beam aimed towards the UAV. Although, in general, the relative
orientations of the elements in a distributed antenna array have an effect on antenna
performance, our proposed approach can be employed in scenarios where the individual sensor
nodes do not have knowledge of their location within an absolute coordinate system.
———. "A New Method for Distributing Power Usage Across a Sensor Network." 2006 3rd Annual
IEEE Communications Society on Sensor and Ad hoc Communications and Networks,
Secon 2006, September 25, 2006 - September 28 Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers Inc, 2006:518-526.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SAHCN.2006.288508
Abstract: We present a method for more uniformly distributing the energy burden across a
wireless ground-based sensor network communicating with an overhead unmanned aerial vehicle
(UAV). A subset of sensor nodes, termed a transmit cluster, receives and aggregates data
gathered by the entire network, and forms a distributed antenna array, concentrating the
radiated transmission into a narrow beam aimed towards the UAV. Because these duties are
power-intensive, the role of transmit cluster must be shifted to different nodes as time
progresses. We present an algorithm to reassign the transmit cluster, specifying the time that
should elapse between reassignments and the number of hops that should be placed between
successive transmit clusters in order to achieve three competing goals: First, we wish to better
and more broadly spread the energy load across the sensor network while, second, minimizing
the energy expended in moving the transmit cluster, all the while, third, reducing to the extent
practicable the time to bring the UAV and the sensor network's beam into alignment. The
algorithm thus extends the lifetime of the sensor network while meeting system-level
performance objectives. 2006 IEEE.
Yun, Xiaoping, Eric R. Bachmann, Hyatt Moore IV, and James Calusdian. "Self-Contained Position
Tracking of Human Movement using Small inertial/magnetic Sensor Modules." 2007 IEEE
International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA'07, April 10, 2007 - April 14
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2007:2526-2533.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2007.363845
Abstract: Numerous applications require a self-contained personal navigation system that works
in indoor and outdoor environments, does not require any infrastructure support, and is not
susceptible to jamming. Posture tracking with an array of inertial/magnetic sensors attached to
individual human limb segments has been successfully demonstrated. The "sourceless" nature of
this technique makes possible full body posture tracking in an area of unlimited size with no
supporting infrastructure. Such sensor modules contain three orthogonally mounted angular rate
sensors, three orthogonal linear accelerometers and three orthogonal magnetometers. This paper
describes a method for using aeeelerometer data combined with orientation estimates from the
same modules to calculate position during walking and running. The periodic nature of these
motions includes short periods of zero foot velocity when the foot is in contact with the ground.
This pattern allows for precise drift error correction. Relative position is calculated through double
integration of drift corrected aeeelerometer data. Preliminary experimental results for various
types of motion including walking, side stepping, and running document accuracy of distance and
position estimates. 2007 IEEE.
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2006
Ahner, Darryl K., Arnold H. Buss, and John Ruck. "Assignment Scheduling Capability for Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles - a Discrete Event Simulation with Optimization in the Loop Approach to Solving a
Scheduling Problem." 2006 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC, December 3, 2006 December 6 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2006:1349-1356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WSC.2006.323234
Many military planning problems are difficult to solve using pure mathematical programming
techniques. One such problem is scheduling unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in military
operations subject to dynamic movement and control constraints. This problem is instead
formulated as a dynamic programming problem whose approximate solution is obtained via the
Assignment Scheduling Capability for UAVs (ASC-U) model using concepts from both simulation
and optimization. Optimization is very effective at identifying the best decision for static
problems, but is weaker in identifying the best decision in dynamic systems. Simulation is very
effective in modeling and capturing dynamic effects, but is weak in optimizing from alternatives.
ASC-U exploits the relative strengths of both methodologies by periodically re-optimizing UAV
assignments and then having the simulation transition the states according to state dynamics.
ASC-U thus exploits the strengths of simulation and optimization to construct good, timely
solutions that neither optimization nor simulation could achieve alone. 2006 IEEE.
Bollino, Kevin P., Michael W. Oppenheimer, and David D. Doman. "Optimal Guidance Command
Generation and Tracking for Reusable Launch Vehicle Reentry." AIAA Guidance, Navigation,
and Control Conference 2006, August 21, 2006 - August 24 American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics Inc, 2006:4614-4636.
The objective of this work is to develop a robust guidance and control architecture for
autonomous reusable launch vehicles that incorporates elements of recent advances in the areas
of optimal trajectory generation and reconfigurable control This work integrates three separately
developed methods to form a coherent architecture with the potential to manage control effector
failures, vehicle structural/aerodynamic degradation, uncertainty, and external disturbances.
Outer-loop guidance commands in the form of body-frame angular rates (roll, pitch, and yaw) are
generated from an optimal reference trajectory that is computed off-line with a direct
pseudospectral method and then tracked by a reconfigurable inner-loop control law. The
appropriate open-loop state histories from the psuedo-four-degree-of-freedom reference
trajectory are converted using a modified backstepping approach that complements the innerloop control law in a six-degree-of-freedom simulation. The inner-loop control law is capable of
reacting and compensating for off-nominal conditions by employing nonlinear reconfigurable
control allocation, dynamic inversion, and model-following/anti-windup prefilters. The results
show that the inner-loop control can adequately track the desired optimal guidance commands;
thus, confirming the applicability of this control architecture for future development involving online, optimal trajectory generation and high-fidelity guidance and control for reentry vehicles.
Davighi, Andrea, Marcello Romano, and Franco Bernelli-Zazzera. "Vibration Suppression of FlexibleLink Manipulator by PZT Actuators and Sensors." Earth and Space 2006 - 10th Biennial
International Conference on Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Challenging
Environments, March 5, 2006 - March 8 American Society of Civil Engineers, 2006:172
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40830(188)172
Abstract: In this paper a vibration suppression control system by piezoelectric actuators and
sensors is presented for a one flexible link manipulators for space activities. This research is
innovative because of the very high flexibility, stringent pointing requirements and a low first
vibration frequency. In the last years there has been a large number of studies on the possible
use of distributed actuators and sensors, in the framework of 'smart' materials technology.
Among the various available materials for smart structures actuators and sensors, lead zirconate
titanate piezoceramics (PZT) patches are very attractive: they undergo mechanical stresses and
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strain when subjected to an applied electric field and, vice-versa, generate an electric field in
response to mechanical stresses and strains. They are easy to bond to a structure, and their high
stiffness makes it possible to induce high strain energy in the system. In fact it is possible to
bond or even embed these materials into a passive traditional structure to perform both sensing
and actuation functions, provided that appropriate placement and size is chosen for them. In this
paper, a Linear Quadratic Regulator controller (LQR) for vibration suppression is used on both an
aluminum link with bonded PZT patches and a carbon fiber link with embedded PZT patches. One
test with aluminum link is conducted also with the link mounted on an Harmonic Drive motor.
Some experimental tests of vibration suppression, to validate the proposed method, are
presented. This experiment has been performed at the Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory of Naval
Postgraduate School at Monterey, while the carbon fiber link were manufactured at Politecnico di
Milano. Copyright ASCE 2006.
Dobrokhodov, Vladimir N., Isaac I. Kaminer, Kevin D. Jones, and Reza Ghabcheloo. "VisionBased Tracking and Motion Estimation for Moving Targets using Small UAVs." 2006 American
Control Conference, June 14, 2006 - June 16 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Inc, 2006:1428-1433.
Abstract: This paper addresses the development of a vision-based target tracking system for a
small unmanned air vehicle. The algorithm performs autonomous tracking of a moving target,
while simultaneously estimating GPS coordinates of the target. A low cost off the shelf system is
utilized, with a modified radio controlled aircraft airframe, gas engine and servos. Tracking is
enabled using a low-cost, miniature pan-tilt gimbal. The control algorithm provides rapid and
sustained target acquisition and tracking capability. A target position estimator was designed and
shown to provide reasonable targeting accuracy. The impact of target loss events on the control
and estimation algorithms is analyzed in detail. 2006 IEEE.
———. "Vision-Based Tracking and Motion Estimation for Moving Targets using Small UAVs." AIAA
Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference 2006, August 21, 2006 - August 24 American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2006:4389-4400.
Abstract: This paper addresses the development of a vision-based target tracking system for a
small unmanned air vehicle. The algorithm performs autonomous tracking of a moving target,
while simultaneously estimating GPS coordinates, speed and heading of the target. Tight realtime integration of UAV's video and telemetry data-streams with geo-refereaced database allows
for reliable target identification, increased precision and shortened time of target motion
estimation. A low cost off the shelf system is utilized, with a modified radio controlled aircraft
airframe, gas engine and servos. Tracking is enabled using a low-cost, miniature pan-tilt gimbal.
The control algorithm provides rapid and persistent target acquisition and tracking capability. A
target position estimator was designed and shown in multiple flight tests to provide reasonable
targeting accuracy. The impact of target loss events on the control and estimation algorithms is
analyzed in detail.
Eikenberry, Blake, Oleg Yakimenko, and Marcello Romano. "A Vision Based Navigation among
Multiple Flocking Robots: Modeling and Simulation." AIAA Modeling and Simulation
Technologies Conference, 2006, August 21, 2006 - August 24 American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2006:695-705.
Abstract: This paper presents modeling and simulation developments related to the navigation
and guidance of a group of robots floating without friction along a planar floor. Each robot has
three degrees-of-freedom, uses a rotating thruster as an actuator, and has both artificial vision
and pseudo-GPS sensors. Each robot is prescribed a desired final relative position: each of the
other robots have an associated desired range, bearing and orientation angle on that bearing.
Each robot will initially locate the others by scanning the floor. Once each robot is found and
identified, they will compute a trajectory and control profile to arrive at the final desired relative
position. Simulated photographs are taken by the camera which alternates between the robots on
the floor. These simulated photos are analyzed to determine the position and pose of each robot.
Tables are constructed to track the positions of each robot and represent the system state. The
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guidance system on board each robot will update their independent system state and re-compute
trajectories as needed. Collision avoidance with other robots and with the floor boundary must be
employed. The paper includes simulations and modeling within MATLAB/Simulink environment
involving enhanced animation.
Esposito, Joel M. and Thomas W. Dunbar. "Maintaining Wireless Connectivity Constraints for Swarms
in the Presence of Obstacles." 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and
Automation, ICRA 2006, May 15, 2006 - May 19 Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers Inc, 2006:946-951.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2006.1641831
Abstract: The low power requirements of many small radio modems suggest that robust
operation is best attained when the transmitter/receiever pair is: (1) separated by less than
some maximum distance (Range); and (2) not obstructed by large dense objects (Line-of-Sight).
Therefore to maintain a wireless link between two robots, it is desirable to comply with these two
spatial constraints. Given a swarm of point robots with specified initial and final configurations
and a set of desired communication links consistent with the above criteria, we explore the
problem of designing inputs to achieve the final configuration while preserving the desired links
for the duration of the motion. Some interesting conclusions about the feasibility of the problem
are offered. An algorithm is provided and its operation is demonstrated through both simulation
and experimentation on Koala Robots.
Ghabcheloo, Reza, A. Pedro Aguiar, Antonio Pascoal, Carlos Silvestre, Isaac Kaminer, and Joao
Hespanha. "Coordinated Path-Following Control of Multiple Underactuated Autonomous Vehicles
in the Presence of Communication Failures." 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
2006, CDC, December 13, 2006 - December 15 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Inc, 2006:4345-4350.
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of steering a group of underactuated autonomous
vehicles along given spatial paths, while holding a desired inter-vehicle formation pattern. For a
general class of vehicles moving in either two or threedimensional space, we show how
Lyapunov-based techniques and graph theory can be brought together to yield a decentralized
control structure where the dynamics of the cooperating vehicles and the constraints imposed by
the topology of the inter-vehicle communications network are explicitly taken into account. Pathfollowing for each vehicle amounts to reducing an appropriately defined geometric error to a
small neighborhood of the origin. Vehicle coordination is achieved by adjusting the speed of each
vehicle along its path according to information on the positions of a subset of the other vehicles,
as determined by the communications topology adopted. The system obtained by putting
together the path-following and vehicle coordination strategies adopted takes a cascade form,
where the former subsystem is input-to-state stable (ISS) with the error variables of the latter as
inputs. Convergence and stability of the overall system are proved formally. The results are also
extended to solve the problem of temporary communication failures. Using the concept of "brief
instabilities" we show that for a given maximum failure rate, the coordinated path following
system is stable and the errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. We illustrate our
design procedure for underwater vehicles moving in three-dimensional space. Simulations results
are presented and discussed..
Jones, Kevin D. and Max F. Platzer. "Bio-Inspired Design of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles - an
Engineer's Perspective." 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 2006, January 9, 2006 January 12 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2006:463-476.
Abstract: In this paper the decade of numerical and experimental investigations leading up to the
development of the authors' unique flapping-wing micro air vehicle is summarized. Early
investigations included the study of boundary layer energization by means of a small flapping foil
embedded in a flat-plate boundary layer, the reduction of the recirculatory flow region behind a
backward-facing step by means of a small flapping foil, and the reduction or suppression of flow
separation behind blunt or cusped airfoil trailing edges by flapping a small foil located in the wake
flow region. These studies were followed by systematic investigations of the aerodynamic
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characteristics of single flapping airfoils and airfoil combinations. These unsteady flows were
described using flow visualization, laser-Doppler velocimetry and panel and Navier-Stokes
computations. It is then shown how this flapping-wing database was used to conceive, design
and develop a micro air vehicle which has a fixed wing for lift and two flapping wings for thrust
generation. While the design appears to separate lift and thrust, in fact, the performance of one
surface is closely coupled to the other surfaces.
Kaminer, Isaac, Oleg Yakimenko, Antonio Pascoal, and Reza Ghabcheloo. "Path Generation, Path
Following and Coordinated Control for Time-Critical Missions of Multiple UAVs." 2006 American
Control Conference, June 14, 2006 - June 16 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Inc, 2006:4906-4913.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2006.1656026
Abstract: The paper proposes a solution to the problem of coordinated control of multiple
unmanned air vehicle (UAV) to ensure collision-free maneuvers under strict spatial and temporal
constraints. First, a set of feasible trajectories are generated for all UAVs using a new direct
method of optimal control that takes into account rules for collision avoidance. A by-product of
this step yields, for each vehicle, a spatial path to be followed together with a nominal desired
speed profile. Each vehicle is then made to execute a pure path following maneuver in threedimensional space by resorting to a novel 3D algorithm. Finally, the speed profile for each vehicle
is adjusted to enforce the temporal constraints that must be met in order to coordinate the fleet
of vehicles. Simulations illustrate the potential of the methodology developed. 2006 IEEE.
Kaminer, Isaac I., Oleg A. Yakimenko, and Antonio M. Pascoal. "Coordinated Control of Multiple
UAVs for Time-Critical Applications." 2006 IEEE Aerospace Conference, March 4, 2006 - March
11 Inst. of Elec. and Elec. Eng. Computer Society, 2006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2006.1656026
Abstract: The paper12 proposes a solution to the problem of coordinated control of multiple
unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) to ensure collision-free maneuvers under strict spatial and
temporal constraints. The solution proposed relies on the decoupling of space and time in the
problem formulation. First, a set of feasible trajectories are generated for all UAVs using a new
direct method of optimal control that takes into account rules for collision avoidance. A byproduct of this step yields for each vehicle a spatial path to be followed, together with a desired
nominal speed profile along that path. Each vehicle is then asked to execute a pure path following
maneuver in three-dimensional space by resorting to a novel 3-D algorithm that enforces
temporal constraints aimed at coordinating the fleet of vehicles. Simulations illustrate the
potential of the methodology developed.
Platzer, Max F. and Kevin D. Jones. "Flapping Wing Aerodynamics - Progress and Challenges."
44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 2006, January 9, 2006 - January 12 American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2006:6051-6069.
Abstract: It is the objective of this paper to review recent developments in the understanding and
prediction of flapping-wing aerodynamics. To this end, several flapping-wing configurations are
considered. First, the problem of single flapping wings is treated with special emphasis on the
question of which flapping modes, amplitudes, frequencies, and wing shapes produce optimum
cruise flight efficiencies. Second, the problem of hovering flight is studied for single flapping
wings. Third, aerodynamic phenomena produced by flapping wing interactions are discussed,
such as tandem wing configurations, as used by dragonflies, or biplane configurations, as used on
the authors' micro air vehicle. Potential flow and viscous flow solutions are presented and the role
of vortex shedding, especially from wing leading edges, is discussed. Comparisons with available
experimental results are provided.
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Puranik, Anand, Gordon Parker, Chris Passerelle, J. Dexter Bird III, Oleg Yakimenko, and Isaac
Kaminer. "Modeling and Simulation of a Ship Launched Glider Cargo Delivery System." AIAA
Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference 2006, August 21, 2006 - August 24 American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2006:5332-5341.
Abstract: The paper deals with the high-fidelity modeling and simulation of a powered parafoilpayload system with respect to its application in autonomous precision airborne cargo delivery. In
the proposed concept the cargo transfer is accomplished in two phases: Initial towing phase
when the glider follows the towing vessel in a passive lift mode and the autonomous gliding
phase when the system is guided to the desired point. During the towing phase, the system gains
as much altitude as possible by taking the angle-of-attauk that will provide the best lift. Once
sufficient altitude is attained, the gliding phase starts. The system is steered to the desired
location by controlling the lengths of the rear suspension lines using two control inputs. The
paper presents the concept of the system, its 6DoF model, the control algorithm at the stage of
passive glide and the simulation results. Copyright 2006 by the American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.
Romano, Marcello, David A. Friedman, and Tracy J. Shay. "Laboratory Experimentation of
Autonomous Spacecraft Approach and Docking to a Collaborative Target." AIAA Guidance,
Navigation, and Control Conference 2006, August 21, 2006 - August 24 American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2006:5434-5460.
Abstract: A new laboratory lest bed is introduced, which enables the hardware-in-the-loop
simulation of the autonomous approach and docking of a chaser spacecraft to a target spacecraft
of similar mass. The test bed consists of a chaser spacecraft and a target spacecraft simulators
floating via air pads on a flat floor. The prototype docking interface mechanism of Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA's) Orbital Express mission is integrated on the
spacecraft simulators. Relative navigation of the chaser spacecraft is obtained by fusing the
measurements from a single-camera vision sensor and an inertial measurement unit, through
Kalman filters. The target is collaborative in the sense that a pattern of three infrared Light
Emitting Diodes is mounted on it as reference for the relative navigation. Eight cold-gas on-off
thrusters are used for the translation of the chaser vehicle. They are commanded using a nonlinear control algorithm based on Schmitt triggers. Furthermore, a reaction wheel is used for the
vehicle rotation with a proportional derivative linear control. Experimental results are presented
of both autonomous proximity maneuver and autonomous docking of the chaser simulator to the
non-floating target. The presented results validate the proposed estimation and control methods
and demonstrate the capability of the test bed.
Romano, Marcello and Jason Hall. "A Test Bed for Proximity Navigation and Control of Spacecraft for
on-Orbit Assembly and Reconfiguration." Space 2006 Conference, September 19, 2006 September 21 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, 2006:3002-3012.
Abstract: This paper introduces the preliminary development of a test-bed related to the research
project named Autonomous Multi-agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft System (AMPHIS) which
is ongoing at the Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory. A new laboratory test bed is under
development which will enable hardware-in-the-loop simulation of autonomous proximity
operations of a cluster of small spacecraft. The test-bed, which is an evolution of a previously
developed Autonomous Docking test-bed, consists of three degrees-of-freedom spacecraft
simulators floating via air pads on a flat floor. In particular, this paper introduces a new
spacecraft simulator which is being currently integrated, using on-off thrusters for the translation
and a small control-moment-gyro for the rotation.
Ross, I. Michael, Qi Gong, Fariba Fahroo, and Wei Kang. "Practical Stabilization through Real-Time
Optimal Control." 2006 American Control Conference, June 14, 2006 - June 16 Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2006:304-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACC.2006.1655372
Abstract: Infinite-horizon, nonlinear, optimal, feedback control is one of the fundamental
problems in control theory. In this paper we propose a solution for this problem based on recent
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progress in real-time optimal control. The basic idea is to perform feedback implementations
through a domain transformation technique and a Radau based pseudospectral method. Two
algorithms are considered: free sampling frequency and fixed sampling frequency. For both
algorithms, a theoretical analysis for the stability of the closed-loop system is provided.
Numerical simulations with random initial conditions demonstrate the techniques for a flexible
robot arm and a benchmark inverted pendulum problem. 2006 IEEE.
Tao, WeiMin, MingJun Zhang, Michael Liu, and XiaoPing Yun. "Residual Vibration Analysis and
Suppression for SCARA Robot Arm in Semiconductor Manufacturing." 2006 IEEE/RSJ
International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2006, October 9,
2006 - October 15 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2006:5153-5158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IROS.2006.282610
Abstract: This paper investigates residual vibrations of industrial SCARA robots in wafer handling
applications. Due to rapid point-to-point movements, SCARA robot arms exhibit large vibrations
after reaching the destination position. A mathematical model particularly suitable for residual
vibration analysis is developed. The root cause of residual vibrations is analyzed using the model.
Based on the root cause analysis, a practical solution to suppress vibrations is proposed. The
solution utilizes an acceleration smoother to smooth the commanded trajectory, and it can be
easily implemented in practice without redesign the robot hardware or control system.
Experimental results show over 40% reduction in both vibration amplitude and settling time.
2006 IEEE.
Vaidyanathan, Ravi, Monique Fargues, Lalit Gupta, Srinivas Kota, Dong Lin, and James West. "A
Dual-Mode Human-Machine Interface for Robotic Control Based on Acoustic Sensitivity of the
Aural Cavity." 1st IEEE/RAS-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and
Biomechatronics, 2006, BioRob 2006, Febrary 20, 2006 - Febrary 22 Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, 2006:927-932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BIOROB.2006.1639210
Abstract: We introduce an unobtrusive sensor-based control system for human-machine interface
to control robotic and rehabilitative devices. The interface is capable of directing assistive robotic
devices in response to tongue movement and/or speech without insertion of any device in the
vicinity of the oral cavity. The interface is centered on the unique properties of the human ear as
an acoustic output device. Our work has shown that various movements within the oral cavity
create unique, traceable pressure changes in the human ear, which can be measured with a
simple sensor (such as a microphone) and analysed to produce commands signals, which can in
turn be used to control robotic devices. In this work, we present: 1) an analysis of the sensitivity
of human ear canals as acoustic output device, 2) the design of a new sensor for monitoring
airflow in the aural canal, 3) pattern recognition procedures for recognition of both speech and
tongue movement by monitoring aural flow across several human test subjects, and 4) a
conceptual design and simulation of the machine interface system.
Vaidyanathan, Ravi, Lalit Gupta, Hyunseok Kook, and James West. "A Decision Fusion Classification
Architecture for Mapping of Tongue Movements Based on Aural Flow Monitoring." 2006 IEEE
International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2006, May 15, 2006 - May
19 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc, 2006:3610-3617.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2006.1642253
Abstract: A complete signal processing strategy is presented to detect and precisely recognize
tongue movement by monitoring changes in airflow that occur in the ear canal. Tongue
movements within the human oral cavity create unique, subtle pressure signals in the ear that
can be processed to produce command signals in response to that movement. The strategy
developed for the human machine interface architecture includes energy-based signal detection
and segmentation to extract ear pressure signals due to tongue movements, signal normalization
to decrease the trial-to-trial variations in the signals, and pairwise cross-correlation signal
averaging to obtain accurate estimates from ensembles of pressure signals. A new decision fusion
classification algorithm is formulated to assign the pressure signals to their respective tongue-
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movement classes. The complete strategy of signal detection and segmentation, estimation, and
classification is tested on 4 tongue movements of 4 subjects. Through extensive experiments, it
is demonstrated that the ear pressure signals due to the tongue movements are distinct and that
the 4 pressure signals can be classified with over 96% classification accuracies across the 4
subjects using the decision fusion classification algorithm. 2006 IEEE.
Vin