Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan Lake County, Minnesota March 2012

Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan Lake County, Minnesota March 2012

Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan

Lake County, Minnesota

March 2012

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan

Lake County, Minnesota

Contact:

Lake County Emergency Management Director

99 Edison Blvd

Silver Bay, MN 55614

15T XN 2976 3884

218-226-4444 office www.co.lake.mn.us

Prepared By:

Geographic Information Sciences Lab

College of Liberal Arts

University of Minnesota Duluth

329 Cina Hall

Duluth, MN 55812

Stacey Stark, Director [email protected]

(218) 726-7438

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Table of Contents

List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................... 7

List of Tables ................................................................................................................................................ 7

Section 1 – Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 9

1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 9

1.1.1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 9

1.1.2 Hazard Mitigation Definition ......................................................................................... 10

1.1.3 Benefits of Mitigation Planning ..................................................................................... 10

1.2 State Mitigation Plan Overview ............................................................................................. 11

Section 2 - Public Planning Process ....................................................................................................... 11

2.1 Planning Team Information ................................................................................................... 11

2.2 Review of Existing Plans ........................................................................................................ 12

2.3 Planning Process Timeline and Steps .................................................................................... 12

Section 3 – Lake County Profile ............................................................................................................. 15

3.1 General County Description .................................................................................................. 15

3.2 Environmental Characteristics .............................................................................................. 15

3.3 Hydrography .......................................................................................................................... 15

3.3.1 Groundwater ................................................................................................................. 16

3.3.2 Lakes .............................................................................................................................. 16

3.3.3 Rivers ............................................................................................................................. 16

3.3.4 Wetlands ....................................................................................................................... 16

3.4 Climate................................................................................................................................... 17

3.5 Demographics ........................................................................................................................ 17

3.6 Economy ................................................................................................................................ 20

3.7 Lake County Community Services & Infrastructure .............................................................. 21

3.7.1 Health Care Providers .................................................................................................... 21

3.7.2 Public Safety Providers/Government Services .............................................................. 21

3.7.3 Utilities/Communications .............................................................................................. 21

3.7.4 Transportation ............................................................................................................... 23

3.8 Land Use and Ownership ....................................................................................................... 23

Section 4 – Risk Assessment .................................................................................................................. 25

4.1 Hazard Identification/Profile ................................................................................................. 25

4.1.1 Hazard Identification ..................................................................................................... 25

4.1.2 Vulnerability Assessment by Jurisdiction ...................................................................... 27

4.1.3 Calculated Priority Risk Index ........................................................................................ 28

4.1.4 Hazard Profiling Concept of Planning ............................................................................ 30

4.1.5 GIS and Hazus-MH ......................................................................................................... 31

4.1.6 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) Records ............................................................ 32

4.1.7 FEMA Declared Disasters............................................................................................... 33

4.2 Vulnerability Assessment ...................................................................................................... 34

4.2.1 Asset Inventory .............................................................................................................. 34

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4.2.2 Facility Replacement Costs ............................................................................................ 36

4.3 Future Development ............................................................................................................. 36

4.4 Hazard Profiles ...................................................................................................................... 37

4.4.1 Wildfire .......................................................................................................................... 37

4.4.2 Severe Winter Storms - Blizzards, Ice Storms ............................................................... 44

4.4.3 Summer Storms – Lightning, Hailstorms, and Windstorms .......................................... 47

4.4.4 Extreme Cold ................................................................................................................. 52

4.4.5 Extreme Heat ................................................................................................................. 52

4.4.6 Flash Flood and Riverine Flood...................................................................................... 52

4.4.7 Dam Failure ................................................................................................................... 61

4.4.8 Drought.......................................................................................................................... 64

4.4.9 Structure Fires ............................................................................................................... 64

4.4.10 Ground and Water Supply Contamination .................................................................... 64

4.4.11 Infectious Diseases ........................................................................................................ 65

4.4.12 Hazardous Materials...................................................................................................... 66

4.4.13 Cyber Terrorism ............................................................................................................. 69

4.4.14 Public Disorder .............................................................................................................. 69

Section 5 – Mitigation Strategy ............................................................................................................. 70

5.1 Community Capability Assessment ....................................................................................... 70

5.1.1 National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) ..................................................................... 70

5.1.2 Plans and Ordinances .................................................................................................... 70

5.2 Mitigation Goals .................................................................................................................... 70

5.3 Mitigation Actions and Projects ............................................................................................ 74

5.3.1 Hazard Mitigation Actions ............................................................................................. 76

5.3.2 Mitigation Actions by Community ................................................................................. 89

Section 6 – Plan Maintenance ............................................................................................................... 91

6.1 Monitoring, Evaluating, and Updating the Plan .................................................................... 91

6.2 Implementation ..................................................................................................................... 91

6.3 Continued Public Involvement .............................................................................................. 93

APPENDIX A - LAKE COUNTY MAPS

APPENDIX B - LAKE COUNTY CRITICAL FACILITIES

APPENDIX C - LAKE COUNTY HAZARD EVENTS

APPENDIX D - ADOPTING RESOLUTIONS

APPENDIX E - STEERING COMMITTEE MEETING

APPENDIX F - PUBLIC MEETING NOTICES AND MEETING NOTES

APPENDIX G - COMPLETED AND DELETED ACTIONS FROM THE 2005 PLAN

APPENDIX H – MITIGATION ACTIONS BY JURISDICTION

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List of Figures

Figure 1. Lake County Jurisdictions and 2010 Population. ........................................................................ 18

Figure 2. Emergency Services and Fire Response Times in Lake County. ................................................. 22

Figure 3. Conceptual Depiction of a Vulnerability Analysis....................................................................... 28

Figure 4. FEMA-Declared Disasters and Emergencies in Minnesota ........................................................ 33

Figure 5. Critical Facilities in Two Harbors, MN. ....................................................................................... 35

Figure 6. Critical Facilities in Silver Bay, MN.............................................................................................. 35

Figure 7. Sources of Wildfire and Number of Incidents (1986-2011) ...................................................... 37

Figure 8. Railroad Fires in Lake County (1986-2011)................................................................................. 38

Figure 9. Debris Burning Fires in Lake County (1986-2011) ...................................................................... 38

Figure 10. Number of Fires and Acres Burned in Lake County (1986 -2011) ............................................ 39

Figure 11. Wildfires in Lake County (1986-2011). ................................................................................... 40

Figure 12. Lake County Community Wildfire Protection Plan, Wildland-Urban Interface Areas, 2006. .. 43

Figure 13. Ice Storm in Silver Bay, March, 2009 ........................................................................................ 45

Figure 14. Historic Severe Wind and Hail Storms in Lake County. ............................................................ 49

Figure 15. A tornado forms in Lake County in May of 2011 ..................................................................... 50

Figure 16. Tornado Touch Downs and Paths, Lake County and Eastern St Louis County ......................... 51

Figure 17. Road Damage Due to Flash Flooding ........................................................................................ 53

Figure 18. The 19 th

Street Storm Water Retention Basin above Skunk Creek. ......................................... 54

Figure 19. Distribution of Total Economic Loss – 100 Year Flood ............................................................. 57

Figure 20. Total Economic Loss Estimates for 100 year flood: Two Harbors, MN .................................... 58

Figure 21. Critical Infrastructure in Two Harbors and 100 year Flood Boundary ..................................... 60

Figure 22. Critical Infrastructure near Finland and 100 year Flood Boundary .......................................... 60

Figure 23. Milepost 7 Tailings Disposal, west of Silver Bay and Beaver Bay, MN ..................................... 62

Figure 24. Dams in Lake County ............................................................................................................... 63

Figure 25. Sites with Hazardous or Chemical Waste in Lake County. ....................................................... 68

List of Tables

Table 1. Multi-Hazard Mitigation Steering Committee 2011 .................................................................... 11

Table 2. Planning Documents Used for MHMP Planning Process ............................................................. 12

Table 3. Lake County Hazard Mitigation Update Meetings ...................................................................... 13

Table 4. Lake County Population by Community. ..................................................................................... 17

Table 5. Lake County Population Change (1940-2010) ............................................................................. 19

Table 6. Lake County Population Projections (2010-2035) ....................................................................... 20

Table 7. Annual Average Employment by Major Industry Sector, Lake County ....................................... 20

Table 8. FEMA MHIRA Natural Hazards .................................................................................................... 26

Table 9. FEMA MHIRA Other Hazards ....................................................................................................... 26

Table 10. Hazards identified in the 2005 Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan .............................. 27

Table 11. Hazards Faced by Lake County from FEMA MHIRA ................................................................... 28

Table 12. Summary of Calculated Priority Risk Index (CPRI) Categories and Risk Levels .......................... 29

Table 13. Priorities of Risks Faced By Lake County Jurisdictions............................................................... 30

Table 14. Hazard Risk Analysis Methods for Lake County ......................................................................... 32

Table 15. National Climatic Data Center Historical Hazards ..................................................................... 32

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Table 16. FEMA-Declared Disasters and Emergencies in Lake County (1964-2011) ................................. 33

Table 17. Lake County Critical Infrastructure and Facilities ...................................................................... 34

Table 18. Lake County Total Building Exposure ........................................................................................ 36

Table 19. Wildfires Larger than 40 acres in Lake County, Minnesota (1986-2011) .................................. 39

Table 20. Losses Due to Wildfires Responded to by MN DNR Forestry Offices. ....................................... 41

Table 21. Acres Burned and Estimated Suppression Costs of Wildfires ................................................... 42

Table 22. Northeast Minnesota Winter Storm Events .............................................................................. 44

Table 23. Northeast Minnesota Ice and Sleet events ............................................................................... 46

Table 24. Storms producing hail of greater than 1 inch diameter in Lake County 1975 – 2006. ............. 48

Table 25. Historic Tornado Events in Lake County, MN (1950-2011) ....................................................... 50

Table 26. Lake County Historical Floods (1997-2010) ............................................................................... 55

Table 27. Historical Flood Crests for USGS gauging stations in Lake County ............................................ 55

Table 28. Lake County Total Economic Loss - 100-Year Flood .................................................................. 56

Table 29. Lake County Properties Intersecting 100 year Floodplain ......................................................... 59

Table 30. Lake County Critical Infrastructure within estimated 100-yr flood boundary ......................... 59

Table 31. Top ten hazardous or chemical incidents from 2005-2010 ....................................................... 67

Table 32. Natural Hazard Mitigation Goals, Strategies, and Objectives ................................................... 70

Table 33. Hazard Mitigation Goals, Strategies, and Objectives for Other Hazards .................................. 73

Table 34. STAPLE+E planning factors ........................................................................................................ 76

Table 35. All Mitigation Actions for Lake County ...................................................................................... 78

Table 36. Selected Characteristics of Jurisdictions participating in the Lake County MHMP ................... 89

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Section 1 – Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Hazard mitigation is defined as any sustained action to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to human life and property from hazards. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has made reducing hazards one of its primary goals; hazard mitigation planning and the subsequent implementation of resulting projects, measures, and policies is a primary mechanism in achieving FEMA’s goal.

Hazard mitigation planning and preparedness will be the most effective instrument to diminish losses by reducing the impact of disasters upon people and property. Although mitigation efforts will not eliminate all disasters, each County shall endeavor to be prepared as much as possible for a disaster.

The Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan (MHMP) is a requirement of the Federal Disaster Mitigation Act of

2000 (DMA 2000). The development of a local government plan is required in order to maintain eligibility for certain federal disaster assistance and hazard mitigation funding programs. In order for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) communities to be eligible for future mitigation funds, they must adopt an MHMP.

Lake County is vulnerable to a variety of potential disasters. These hazards, both natural and human caused, threaten loss of life and property of the County. Such hazards as flooding, wildfires, blizzards, straight line winds, ice storms, and hazardous material spills have the potential for inflicting vast economic loss and personal hardship.

This Hazard Mitigation Plan represents the efforts of local agencies in Lake County in fulfilling the responsibility for hazard mitigation planning. The intent of the plan is to reduce the actual threat of specific hazards by limiting the impact of damages and losses.

1.1.1 Scope

The Lake County Emergency Management Director and the University of Minnesota Duluth Geographic

Information Sciences Lab have combined efforts to update the Lake County 2005 Mitigation Plan, resulting in this plan.

This Hazard Mitigation Plan evaluates and ranks the major natural and technological hazards affecting

Lake County as determined by frequency of event, economic impact, deaths, and injuries. Mitigation recommendations are based on input from state and local agencies, public input, and national best practices.

University of Minnesota Duluth Geographic Information Sciences Lab (GISL) is assisting Lake County planning staff with performing the hazard risk assessment for 100 year floods using the Hazus-MH GIS tool. In recognition of the importance of planning in mitigation activities, FEMA created Hazards USA

Multi-Hazard (Hazus-MH), a powerful geographic information system (GIS)-based disaster risk assessment tool. This tool enables communities of all sizes to predict estimated losses from floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and other related phenomena and to measure the impact of various mitigation practices that might help reduce those losses. The Minnesota Homeland Security and

Emergency Management office has determined that Hazus-MH should play a critical role in

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Minnesota’s risk assessments, and therefore the 100 year flood event hazard analysis is introduced in this plan.

This plan is a multi-jurisdictional plan that covers Lake County, the Cities of Two Harbors, Silver Bay and

Beaver Bay, and the Township of Fall Lake. Because of its geographic isolation from other Lake County jurisdictions, its increased fire and flood vulnerability, and its dependence upon emergency services outside of Lake County, Fall Lake Township was considered a separate jurisdiction for this mitigation plan.

Members from each of these jurisdictions actively participated in the planning process by attending workgroup meetings, providing information, suggesting mitigation strategies and reviewing the plan document. Each jurisdiction will adopt the plan by resolution after approval by FEMA. Copies of the resolutions can be found in Appendix D in the back of the plan.

Lake County has specified the following goals for this Hazard Mitigation Plan:

To evaluate and rank the hazards that impact Lake County.

To determine the extent of existing mitigation programs and policy capabilities within Lake

County

To create a detailed, working document that will establish a standardized process for ensuring coordination of hazard mitigation efforts and to implement an on-going and comprehensive hazard mitigation strategy.

To familiarize state and local officials and the general public about comprehensive hazard mitigation in Lake County and obtain their support.

1.1.2 Hazard Mitigation Definition

Hazard mitigation may be defined as any action taken to eliminate or reduce the long-term risk to human life and property from natural and technological hazards. Potential types of hazard mitigation measures include the following:

Structural hazard control or protection projects

Retrofitting of facilities

Acquisition and relocation of structures

Development of mitigation standards, regulations, policies, and programs

Public awareness and education programs

Development or improvement of warning systems

1.1.3 Benefits of Mitigation Planning

The benefits of hazard mitigation include the following:

Saving lives, protecting the health of the public, and reducing injuries

Preventing or reducing property damage

Reducing economic losses

Minimizing social dislocation and stress

Reducing agricultural losses

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Maintaining critical facilities in functioning order

Protecting infrastructure from damage

Protecting mental health

Reducing legal liability of government and public officials

1.2 State Mitigation Plan Overview

FEMA currently has three mitigation grant programs that are administered by the State of Minnesota: the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP), the Pre-Disaster Mitigation program (PDM), and the

Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) program. Both HMGP and PDM are administered through the

Department of Public Safety, Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management; the FMA is administered by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

Section 2 - Public Planning Process

2.1 Planning Team Information

The Lake County multi-hazard mitigation planning team is headed by the Lake County Emergency

Management Director, who is the primary point of contact. University of Minnesota Duluth staff under contract with Lake County includes Stacey Stark (GISL Director), Steve Graham (GISL Research Analyst) and Adam Pine (Geography). Members of the Lake County MHMP steering committee include

representatives from the public, private, and governmental sectors. Table 1 identifies the planning

team individuals and the organizations they represent.

Table 1. Multi-Hazard Mitigation Steering Committee 2011

Participant Title

Director

Emergency Management Director

Emergency Management Director

Emergency Management Director

Clerk

Chair

Director

Supervisor

Sheriff

Human Services Director

Public Health Supervisor

Superintendent

Director

Emergency Management Director

Sheriff

Assessor

Highway Engineer

Solid Waste Officer

Administrator

Water Planner

Organization

Lake County Emergency Management

City of Silver Bay

City of Beaver Bay

City of Two Harbors

Silver Creek Township

Lake County Commissioners

Lake County Ambulance Service

Fall Lake Township

Lake County Sheriff’s Office

Lake County Human Services

Lake County Public Health

Lake Superior School District #381

Lake View Memorial Hospital and Clinic

Cook County Emergency Management

Cook County Sheriff’s Office

Lake County Assessor’s Office

Lake County Highway Department

Lake County Solid Waste Department

Lake County Planning and Zoning

UM Extension Educator, Natural Resource & Environment

Lake County Soil and Water Conservation District

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The Emergency Management Directors of the cities of Two Harbors, Silver Bay and Beaver Bay are listed on the Steering Committee member list. Although they were unable to attend the Steering

Committee meeting, the Lake County Emergency Management Director held conversations with each

Mayor, Fire Chief or Police Chief directly to incorporate their input. This also included conversations with City Utilities, Street and Maintenance Departments by phone or in person. The list of final mitigation actions was divided into jurisdictions so each could see and address those actions that applied specifically to their cities (see Appendix H).

2.2 Review of Existing Plans

Lake County and its local communities utilized a variety of planning documents to direct community development. These documents include land use plans, comprehensive plans, emergency operations plans, municipal ordinances, and building codes. The planning process also incorporated the existing

natural hazard mitigation elements from previous planning efforts. Table 2 lists the plans, studies,

reports, and ordinances used in the development of the plan.

Table 2. Planning Documents Used for MHMP Planning Process

Author(s) Year Title Description

Where

Used

Lake County

HSEM

2006

2010

Lake County CWPP Lake County

Community Wildfire Protection Plan

Minnesota Statewide

Flood Mitigation Plan

The Lake County Lake County Vulnerability

Report section: Minnesota Statewide Flood

Mitigation Plan

NE MN Wildfire IRP Northeastern Minnesota Wildfire

Integrated Response Plan

Section 4

Section 4

Local, State, and Federal

Gov’t

Collaborative

Lake County

2009 Section 4

Lake County

Lake County

2006

2009

2010

(amended)

Lake County

Comprehensive Plan and Land Use

Ordinance

Pandemic Influenza

Incident Specific

Appendix to the Lake

County Emergency

Operations Plan

Lake County Water

Management Plan

Lake County Comprehensive Plan and Land

Use Ordinance

A coordinated and comprehensive local response to an influenza pandemic

Lake County

Local Water Management Plan Update

Section 3

Section 4

Section 4

2.3 Planning Process Timeline and Steps

In order to update the 2005 Lake County Hazard Mitigation plan UMD consultants worked in coordination with the Lake County Emergency Management Director, State of Minnesota Hazard

Mitigation officials, and members of the steering committee. The goals of the updating process were to include more recent data documenting the critical infrastructure and hazards faced by Lake County

(such as to illustrate the extent of the recent Pagami Creek Fire), reformat and reorganize the plan to

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reflect definitions of hazards as expressed in the 2008 State of Minnesota Multi-Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Plan, and reflect current hazard mitigation priorities in Lake County. Therefore, the new plan includes not only new data documenting the types of hazards faced by Lake County residents and Emergency Planning officials, but also new thinking in Lake County about how to best address these hazards.

Four jurisdictions are part of the Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan. They are Lake County, Two

Harbors, Silver Bay and Beaver Bay. Fall Lake Township was also considered a separate jurisdiction for this mitigation plan because of its geographic isolation from other Lake County cities, its increased fire and flood vulnerability, and its isolated population.

Four meetings took place. The steering committee met on October 12, 2011 at the Two Harbors Law

Enforcement Center to hear an update from UMD consultants about the process of cataloging the critical infrastructure of Lake County and updating the hazards profile of Lake County (see agenda,

Appendix E). At this meeting the consultants discussed with steering committee members any additional data needs. The steering committee also updated the Lake County hazards in order to bring them into compliance with the hazards identified in the 2008 State of Minnesota Multi-Hazard

Identification and Risk Assessment Plan. Existing mitigation actions were discussed.

Any new hazards were prioritized according to the Calculated Priority Risk Index (CPRI). New hazard mitigation actions were discussed for inclusion in the plan, and new mitigation actions were analyzed using the STAPLE+E Process. For more information about the planning process see Chapters 5 and 6.

Three public comment meetings were held in different parts of Lake County, described in Table 3.

These meetings were facilitated by the UMD consultants and attended by the Lake County Emergency

Management Director (see agenda, meeting announcements and meeting summaries, Appendix F).

Meetings were publicized using advertisements in local newspapers as well as social media and attended by both community members and representatives of agencies with a stake in hazard mitigation planning. At these meeting members of the public learned about the hazard mitigation process, received an update on the pace of updating the 2005 plan, and discussed new mitigation actions that could be added to the plan.

Table 3. Lake County Hazard Mitigation Update Meetings

Steering Committee 10/12/2011 Two Harbors Law Enforcement Center

Public Comment 11/1/2011 Two Harbors Fire Hall

Public Comment

Public Comment

11/2/2011 Fall Lake

11/7/2011 Finland Community Center

At the close of these meeting the UMD consultants worked with the Lake County Emergency

Management Director and members of the steering committee to incorporate comments from the public hearings into the overall hazard mitigation plan.

Public input was sought through meetings and through meetings and direct conversations (see

Appendix F). Revisions based upon public comment were incorporated into the basic plan and the mitigation actions: hazards were updated to include Milepost 7 levee; maps were revised to include more sites as critical infrastructure (including ARMER radio towers), emergency response times, and

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corrected names and numbers; the extent shown on the maps was extended to include areas outside

Lake County that provide essential services or transportation routes into Lake County; and Fall Lake

Township was included as a separate jurisdiction due to its uniquely isolated location requiring essential services from outside the county, its high wildfire danger, and evacuation challenges due to road and bridge limitations. Several new mitigation actions were also included to address the public input and concerns.

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Section 3 – Lake County Profile

This section offers a general overview of Lake County to provide a basic understanding of the characteristics of the community such as the physical environment, population, and the location and distribution of services.

3.1 General County Description

Lake County is located approximately 25 miles northeast of the Duluth/Superior Metropolitan Area, including 2,062 square miles. Lake County consists of 3 cities, 5 organized townships, and 2 unorganized townships. The County shares its border on the north with Canada, on the west with St.

Louis County, on the east with Cook County, and on the south with Lake Superior.

Lake County is a rural county, with nearly 90-percent of the population living within five-miles of Lake

Superior. Lake County has a wealth of natural resources, including Lake Superior, vast forest tracts, inland lakes, streams that have limited development, and healthy populations of various plant and animal communities. Fish and wildlife habitat is rich and varied in Lake County. The forest ecosystem is composed of two classifications; the northern boreal forest and the temperate deciduous forest.

The major industries in Lake County are mining, logging, wood products, shipping and transportation, manufacturing, health care and tourism. Within its boundaries are four State Parks and three Scientific and Natural Areas in addition to the Superior National Forest (SNF), which includes portions of the

Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW). Lake County has two State Highways (Highway 61 and Highway 1) and two general aviation airports.

3.2 Environmental Characteristics

The geology of Lake County generally consists of shallow soil depth over bedrock. Underlying Lake

County are crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks at the southern end of the Canadian Shield.

These rock types are estimated to be 1.1 billion years old and covered by a layer of glacial drift.

Lake County has many landforms that resulted from glacial activity. The Rainy Lobe advanced from the northeast as the Lake Superior Lobe occupied the Lake Superior basin. Both lobes moved in a southwesterly direction and were separated by coastal hills. The glacial features resulting from the lobes’ retreat were formed 12 to 14 thousand years ago.

The weathering processes on the parent materials, the bedrock, and glacial deposits produced the soils of Lake County. The county has 12 major soil map unit associations. Six of these have been designated as highly erodible. These designations occur on slopes greater than six-percent. The digital soil survey for Lake County is in progress (http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov).

3.3 Hydrography

The abundance of fresh water is one the greatest resources within Lake County. The hydrography of

Lake County is shown in Figure A-1 in Appendix A. Two major surface water basins dissect Lake County: the Rainy River Basin and the Western Lake Superior Basin. North of the Laurentian Divide the water flows to Hudson Bay. South of the Laurentian Divide, the water flows to the Atlantic Ocean through the

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Great Lakes. Lake County contains portions of five significant regional watersheds including the Rainy

Lake, Lake Superior North, Lake Superior South, Cloquet River, and the St. Louis River watersheds.

The highest elevation of Lake County is west of Isabella at Stormy Tower Hill, 2080 feet above sea level.

The lowest elevation is at Lake Superior, 602 feet above sea level.

3.3.1 Groundwater

Water flow on the surface travels from topographical highs to topographical lows. In the Rainy River watershed no data on ground water flow direction has been found. In the St. Louis River watershed flow direction is northwesterly and southwesterly. The Lake Superior watershed groundwater flows southeasterly towards Lake Superior.

The Keewenawan Aquifer is located in the southern half of the County and consists of basaltic lava flows inter-bedded with other volcanic rock. Water is obtained in the upper 400-feet where fractures and extensive weathering have increased the permeability.

The Precambrian Undifferentiated Aquifer is located in the northern-half of the County and consists of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Limited water supplies are yielded through this aquifer at about five gallons per minute in faults and fractures.

3.3.2 Lakes

Lake County has 841 lakes. Lakes cover over 106 thousand acres (165 square miles) of land in the

County. Lake County has approximately 55-miles of shoreline on Lake Superior. There are four public boat ramp accesses and two marinas along this length of coastline. Nearly all of the inland lakes outside of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) are well accessed.

3.3.3 Rivers

Most of the river and streams of Lake County lack dissolved minerals. Rivers along the North Shore have little ground water input and are subjected to high spring runoff and summer floods. They can be reduced to a trickle in dry conditions and can freeze to the bottom in the winter. The larger rivers in the county along with nearly all the streams in the northern part of the county are classed as warm water streams and contain primarily walleye and northern pike.

3.3.4 Wetlands

Wetlands cover over 360 thousand acres (563 square miles) in Lake County. To qualify for a listing in

Minnesota, a wetland must be 10-acres in size or larger. Wetlands are one of the most efficient natural water filters. Wetland plants and soils clean the water before it goes into groundwater or into rivers.

After being slowed by a wetland, water moves around plants allowing suspended sediments to drop out and settle on the wetland floor. Plant roots and microorganisms in the soil often absorb nutrients from fertilizer application, manure, leaking septic systems, and municipal sewage.

Wetlands in Lake County include eight types. These are seasonally flooded, inland fresh meadows, inland shallow fresh marshes, inland deep fresh marshes, inland open fresh water, shrub swamps, wooded swamps, and bogs.

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Exotic plants such as Eurasian watermilfoil and purple loosestrife have invaded many wetlands in

Minnesota. These plants can take over entire native communities and can threaten native wetland ecosystems. Lake County has documented purple loosestrife within county borders.

3.4 Climate

The climate of Lake County is classified as a continental climate regime characterized by wide variations in temperature. Temperatures can range from 100° F in the summer to -45° F in the winter. The climate of the county, especially along the North Shore, is greatly influenced by Lake Superior. The effect of the lake results in cooler summer temperatures and warmer winter temperatures. The lake also affects winter precipitation as heavy lake effect snowfall generally occurs five to seven miles inland from Lake Superior.

The average annual precipitation is 30” in the Two Harbors area and 29” in the Isabella area. This includes an average snowfall is 65” inches with 171” inches recorded in the winter of 1995-1996.

3.5 Demographics

The City of Two Harbors is the largest incorporated community in Lake County and the designated

County Seat. There are five organized townships within Lake County. The majority of the County residents live along a narrow corridor on the shore of Lake Superior. Table 4 summarizes population by community according to the 2010 U.S. Census. Figure 1 shows Lake County government units and population density.

Table 4. Lake County Population by Community. The populations shown below are not exclusive, for example

Finland Community is included in the Crystal Bay Township.

Community 2010 Population % of County

City of Beaver Bay 181 1.7%

Beaver Bay Township

Crystal Bay Township

Fall Lake Township

Finland Community

City of Silver Bay

Silver Creek Township

Stony River Township

City of Two Harbors

Unorganized Territory 1 (East Lake)

Unorganized Territory 2 (West Lake)

Unorganized Territory 2 (Two Harbors)

462

472

549

195

1,887

1,133

173

3,745

189

8

2086

4.4%

4.3%

5.1%

1.8%

17.4%

10.5%

1.6%

34.5%

1.7%

< 0.1%

19.2%

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Figure 1. Lake County Jurisdictions and 2010 Population. (Note: Dots are randomly distributed within census blocks to reflect density, and do not represent residences)

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Population growth trends have an important influence on the needs and demands of a variety of services such as transportation, law enforcement, and emergency response. An understanding of population trends and location of population concentrations is important for making projections regarding potential impacts in an area in the event of a disaster.

Lake County showed a growing trend between 1990 and 2000, but decreased between 2000 and 2010.

The county population has decreased during the last 30 years by over 16-percent. Seasonal residents and tourists make up a significant portion of the population spending time in Lake County. A little over

30-percent of the Lake County residences are seasonal. Further, Lake County has a thriving hospitality industry attracting tourists to the area. The number of visitors to the area has grown significantly over the last 10 years as is evident from the 72-percent growth in employment in hotels and lodging establishments.

Lake County has a relatively small of population of 10,866 residents, averaging 5.2 persons per square mile. The City of Two Harbors, with a population of 3,745 people, is the largest incorporated community in Lake County and the designated County Seat. Other incorporated cities in Lake County include Silver Bay (1,887 people), and Beaver Bay (181 people), with unincorporated communities including Finland, Little Marais, Knife River, and Isabella. There are five organized townships within

Cook County, including Silver Creek (1,138), Crystal Bay (472), Fall Lake (549), Beaver Bay (473), and

Stony River (173).

Between the 1940 and 2010 United States Census, Lake County saw a population growth of 56.2 percent. The rest of the Arrowhead Region grew by 5.7 percent in this same time period. Between

1990 and 2000, Lake County saw growth of 6.9-percent while the rest of the Arrowhead Region grew by 3.4-percent. Between 2000 and 2010 the population of Lake County fell by 1.7 percent, while the population of the Arrowhead Region (St Louis, Lake, and Cook Counties combined) grew by 1.3 percent.

Table 5 below shows the population changes in Lake County between 1940 and 2010 compared to the

rest of the Arrowhead Region.

Table 5. Lake County Population Change (1940-2010)

Location 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

Change

1940-

2010

56.2%

Change

2000-

2010

-1.7%

Lake

County

6,956 7,781 13,702 13,351 13,043 10,415 11,058 10,866

Lake,

Cook and

St Louis

Counties combined

308,726 305,885 344,857 329,603 343,344 311,342 322,073 326,225

Source: United States Census Bureau, 2012

5.7% 1.3%

Population estimates published by the Minnesota State Demographic Center in 2007 proved not to hold true in 2010. Lake County was estimated to grow by nearly 10-percent between 2005 and 2035.

The abundance of lakeshore property and the proximity to services in Two Harbors makes Lake County

an attractive place to live for the retiree demographic. Table 6 below shows population projections for

Lake County and the Arrowhead Region over the next 25 years.

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Table 6. Lake County Population Projections (2010-2035)

Location 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035

Lake County

Lake, Cook and St

Louis Counties combined

11,480 11,770 11,990 12,180 12,230 12,320

334,500 340,200 344,800 346,900 348,700

Source: Minnesota State Demographic Center, Minnesota Planning, 2007.

Projected Change

2005-2035

+9.4%

+7.2%

3.6 Economy

Lake County is dominated by the service industry both government and commercial. Service is a growing industry for the area. Manufacturing and mining are also significant sectors of employment.

Northshore Mining employs 458 people, or about 10% of Lake County’s workforce.

Table 7. Annual Average Employment by Major Industry Sector, Lake County

INDUSTRY 2000

% of Total

2010

% of Total

Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing

Mining, Quarrying, Extraction

Utilities

Construction

Manufacturing

Wholesale Trade

Retail Trade

Transportation/Warehousing

Information n/a n/a n/a

2 %

12 %

1 %

9 %

1 %

0.1 %

0.1 % n/a

1 %

2 %

11 %

1 %

9 %

1 %

0.3 %

Finance/Insurance

Real Estate

Professional/Technical Service

Company Management

Waste Management

Education Services

Health Care/Social Assistance

Arts/Recreation/Entertainment

Accommodation/Food Services

Other Services

Public Administration

Total Number of Jobs:

3 %

1 %

1 % n/a

2 %

12 %

15 %

0.2 %

12 %

4.4 %

6 %

3,501

3 %

0.4 %

0.7 % n/a

2 %

10 %

16 %

1 %

14 %

3 %

7 %

4,238

The 2010 annual household income was $48,698 compared to a Minnesota average of $55,621. The median household income in Lake County increased over 20% from 2000 to 2010. The percent of Lake

County’s population living below the poverty level for income is 11%, the same as the State of

Minnesota.

Table 7 provides an overview of the annual average employment by major industry sector in Lake

County. The service industry, both government and commercial, and the trade industry represent the majority of the employment. However, the Minnesota Dept. of Economic Security Research and

Statistics does not report in sectors where there is only one employer, so the mining sector data is not available from this office. Tourism is a growing industry for the area. The Minnesota Department of

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Employment and Economic Development reported that 77% of the workforce in Lake County was employed in the private sector in 2010.

Source: Minnesota Dept. of Economic Security Research and Statistics

Office.

3.7 Lake County Community Services & Infrastructure

The following section provides an overview of community services and infrastructure within Lake

County. Community services include such things as healthcare and public safety, while community infrastructure includes power utilities, water and sewer facilities, and the transportation network.

3.7.1 Health Care Providers

There is one primary hospital facility located within Lake County. This is the Lake View Memorial

Hospital located in Two Harbors. The facility contains 25 hospital beds, 50 nursing beds, and three infant beds. Figure A-3 in Appendix A depicts health services within Lake County.

3.7.2 Public Safety Providers/Government Services

There are three locally controlled law enforcement organizations that operate at two administrative levels within the County. The Lake County Sheriff’s Office is administered at the county level while the

Silver Bay and Two Harbors Police Departments are administered at the city level. Figure 2 shows fire

stations and ambulance response jurisdictions in Lake County and fire response times. Figure A-5 in

Appendix A shows government service buildings, which includes city and county buildings, public works garages, state and federal buildings, and law enforcement stations.

3.7.3 Utilities/Communications

There are three electricity providers within Lake County. These include the Cooperative Light and

Power Association of Lake County, Lake Country Power, and Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company.

Each of these is discussed in brief detail below. Figure A-6 in Appendix A depicts Lake County utilities including power substations and communications towers.

There are three propane and natural gas services in Lake County: Como Oil and Propane, Ferrellgas, and Lakes Gas Company.

Established in 2004, the Allied Radio Matrix for Emergency Response (ARMER) Program, administered in coordination with the Minnesota Statewide Radio Board, manages the implementation of a 700/800 megahertz (MHz) shared digital trunked radio communication system. In Lake County, there are five

ARMER towers on-line and five more are planned in 2012. Figure A-7 shows the ARMER locations.

There are four different sewer and water systems within Lake County. These are the Beaver Bay

Wastewater Treatment Facility, the Knife River Sanitary District, Silver Bay Wastewater Treatment

Facility, and Silver Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility. The majority of residential homes in Lake

County use private wells and septic systems.

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Figure 2. Emergency Services and Fire Response Times in Lake County.

Page 22 of 93

MOFD

Ely

ELA AMBULANCE

SERVICE AREA

BWCAW

FNFD

FNFD

ELFD

FNFD

Babbitt

BAFD

BAA AMBULANCE

SERVICE AREA

ELFD

FINLAND-FS

Isabella

THFD

THFD

Schroeder

FINLAND

SILVER BAY AMBULANCE

SERVICE AREA

THFD-FS

THFD FINLAND-DNR

Finland

Little Marais

BRIMSON-FS

SILVER

BAY-FS

BRIMSON-DNR

SILVER

BAY

Ilgen City

Brimson

TWO HARBORS

AMBULANCE

THFD-DNR

SERVICE AREA

THFD

Knife River

SILVER

BAY

BB W/ THFD

FOR MUTUAL

SILVER

BAY-DNR

THFD W/

BB FOR

MUTUAL

BEAVER

BAY

SILVER

BAY

Silver Bay

Beaver Bay

Two Harbors

Response Time in Min.

less than 5

5 - 10

10 - 20

20 - 30

30 - 45

45 - 60

Fire Department Areas

Ambulance Areas

State Park Boundary

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

3.7.4 Transportation

There are multiple layers of road jurisdictions within Lake County. Road types include State trunk highways, township roads, county roads, county state-aid highways, forest roads, city streets and roads. In total, there are 1,881 miles of roadway within Lake County. See the map of Lake County transportation infrastructure in Figure A-8 of Appendix A.

Trunk Highway (TH) 61 and TH 1 are the two State highways contained within Lake County, operated and maintained by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT). Trunk Highway (TH) 61 is important because it provides the only direct link from Duluth along the North Shore region of

Minnesota to Thunder Bay in Canada. Tourist traffic is very common on TH 61, with weekend congestion commonly occurring in the summer. Truck traffic is also very heavy throughout the entire

TH 61 corridor. Trunk Highway 1 is a narrow, two-lane rural road extending across northeast

Minnesota from Lake Superior to Ely. Traffic volumes on TH 1 are relatively low. Growing touristrelated traffic, primarily during peak summer and holiday weekends results in regular congestion.

There are two airports within Lake County. These are the Richard B. Helgeson Airport in Two Harbors and the Silver Bay Municipal Airport in Silver Bay. The Richard B. Helgeson Airport is four miles northwest of Two Harbors is owned by the City of Two Harbors. The facility is at an elevation of 1080 feet located approximately 4 miles from Two Harbors. The longest runway at the airport is a paved runway that extends 4400 feet. The Silver Bay Municipal Airport serves Silver Bay and Lake County and is owned by the City of Silver Bay. The facility is located at an elevation of 1089 feet about 7 miles southwest of Silver Bay on Lake County Road 3. The paved runway extends for 3200 feet.

Arrowhead Transit provides the only transit service located within Lake County and is operated by the

Arrowhead Economic Opportunity Agency (AEOA), a private non-profit agency. The transit system provides weekly and bi-monthly routes to and from Beaver Bay, Silver Bay, Two Harbors, Knife River,

Tofte (Cook County), Brimson (St Louis County) and Duluth (St Louis County). Route deviation and diala-ride service is available on weekdays from 9:00am to 4:00pm, with some exceptions.

There are two water ports within Lake County. These are the port cities of Two Harbors and Silver Bay.

The Canadian National Railway (CN) - formerly the Duluth-Mesabi-Iron Range (DMIR) Railroad- serves the Port of Two Harbors. CN hauls taconite pellets from the Iron Range to Lake Superior where they are loaded on ships destined for steel mills in the lower Great Lakes. In 2002, there was approximately

14.5 million tons of cargo handled at the Port of Two Harbors.

The Port of Silver Bay is serviced by the Northshore Mining (NSM) Railroad. The railroad hauls taconite pellets from the Iron Range to Silver Bay where it is loaded on ships. In 2010, over 6 million tons of cargo was handled in Silver Bay.

3.8 Land Use and Ownership

Land ownership is composed of 57% Federal government, 14% State of Minnesota, and 12% Lake

County. Private land holdings account for 17% of the land ownership in Lake County. Of the 1,364,480acres of land in Lake County approximately 118,000-acres are covered by water and the remaining area is generally forested. Land ownership categories from the 2008 GAP analysis are shown in Figure A-10 in Appendix A. A land cover map is also included as Figure A-9.

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Section 4 – Risk Assessment

The goal of mitigation is to reduce the future impacts of a hazard including loss of life, property damage, disruption to local and regional economies, and the expenditure of public and private funds for recovery. Sound mitigation practices must be based on sound risk assessment. A risk assessment involves quantifying the potential loss resulting from a disaster by assessing the vulnerability of buildings, infrastructure, and people.

Basing risk assessments on the best information available is very important in developing effective mitigation actions that benefit communities. Geographic Information System (GIS) tools are not only helpful in producing maps but show structures at risk and may determine damage estimates for potential hazard scenarios. MN Homeland Security and Emergency Management (HSEM) mitigation staff encourages the use of GIS tools in the risk assessments because they produce good information to be used in risk assessment process. In recognition of the importance of planning in mitigation activities,

FEMA created Hazards USA Multi-Hazard (HAZUS-MH), a powerful (GIS)-based disaster risk assessment tool. This tool enables communities to predict estimated losses from floods, hurricanes and other related phenomena and to measure the impact of various mitigation practices that might help reduce those losses. HAZUS-MH was used by Lake County Planning staff in the hazard risk assessment wherever applicable.

This assessment identifies the characteristics and potential consequences of a disaster, how much of the community could be affected by a disaster, and the impact on community assets. A risk assessment consists of three components — hazard identification, risk profile, and vulnerability profile. The last step is the risk ranking for each jurisdiction.

HSEM also requested that a standardized risk ranking be done for the five year review. The new methodology falls in line with national standards and also will be used for future updates of the

Minnesota All Hazard Mitigation Plan. The new methodology will be explained and used throughout this section.

4.1 Hazard Identification/Profile

4.1.1 Hazard Identification

The cornerstone of the risk assessment is identification of the hazards that affect the jurisdictions. To facilitate the planning process, several sources were employed to ensure that the natural hazards are identified prior to assessment.

The County maintenance of the plan includes continual updates of the hazards identified in the initial plan. Also, FEMA gave more guidance on hazard identification. The mitigation planning team decided to compare the hazards in the initial plan to the current publications to determine if new hazards should be considered or if some should be deleted.

The hazards in Table 8 are identified in the FEMA publication “Multi-Hazard Identification and Risk

Assessment – A Cornerstone of the National Mitigation Strategy” also known as MHIRA. FEMA Region V developed a list based on state mitigation plans in the region. The list was divided into natural and

other hazards (Table 9) to be in line with the 2008 Minnesota State All-Hazards Mitigation Plan.

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Table 8. FEMA MHIRA Natural Hazards

Flash Flood

River Flood

Levee Failure

Dam Failure

Earthquake

Landslide

Sinkholes

Tornadoes

Windstorm

Thunderstorm

Lightning

Hailstorms

Drought

Fog

Severe Winter Storms

Extreme Cold

Extreme Heat

Coastal Erosion

Land Subsidence

Coastal Flooding

Expansive Soils

Soil Erosion & Dust Wildfire*

*Addressed in the State Mitigation Plan because Minnesota is a heavily forested state compared to other states in Region V.

For the purpose of this plan, FEMA defines other hazards or “manmade hazards” as technological hazards and terrorism. These are distinct from natural hazards primarily in that they originate from human activity. In contrast, while the risks presented by natural hazards may be increased or decreased as a result of human activity, they are not inherently human-induced. The term “technological hazards” refers to the origins of incidents that can arise from human activities such as the manufacture, transportation, storage, and use of hazardous materials. For the sake of simplicity, this guide assumes that technological emergencies are accidental and that their consequences are unintended. The term

“terrorism” refers to intentional, criminal, malicious acts. There is no single, universally accepted definition of terrorism, and it can be interpreted in many ways. For the purposes of this plan, FEMA refers to “terrorism” as the use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), including biological, chemical, nuclear, and radiological weapons; arson, incendiary, explosive, and armed attacks; industrial sabotage and intentional hazardous materials releases; and “cyber terrorism.”

Table 9. FEMA MHIRA Other Hazards

Air Transportation Incident

Fixed Hazardous Materials

Fixed Radiological Incident

Agro-Terrorism

Chemical Terrorism

Conventional Terrorism

Structural Fire

Structural Failure

Utility/Communication/Infrastructure

Failure

Energy Failure Transportation Hazardous

Materials

Highway Transportation

Incident

Radiological Terrorism

Bioterrorism Public Disorder

Pipeline Transportation

Incident

Radiological Transportation

Waterway Incident

Cyber Terrorism

Enemy Attack

Animal/Plant/Crop Disease

Special Events

Human Disease Incident

Human Disease Pandemic

Ground and Water Supply

Contamination*

*Addressed in the State Hazard Mitigation Plan because Minnesota has made a high investment in its prized resource, water.

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4.1.2 Vulnerability Assessment by Jurisdiction

The steering committee met on October 12, 2011 in the Two Harbor’s Law Enforcement Center to review and update the hazards faced by residents of Lake County and update the existing mitigation actions published in the 2005 Hazard Mitigation Plan and propose new mitigation actions.

To engage in this process the committee drew on a number of data sources. First, the committee

examined the hazards identified in the 2005 Hazard Mitigation Plan (Table 10). These existing

mitigation actions were discussed and adjusted to reflect the definitions of natural hazards used in the

State of Minnesota 2008 Multi-Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment list of natural hazards (Table

8). This was done in order to assure that the risks faced by Lake County were in line with the priorities

established by the State of Minnesota.

Table 10. Hazards identified in the 2005 Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan

Violent Storms and Extreme Temperatures

Flooding

Dam Failure

Wildfire

Infectious Diseases

Hazardous Materials

Fire

Drinking Water Supply Contamination

Wastewater Treatment Failure

While the MHMP mainly deals with natural hazards, the committee also discussed man-made hazards and how Lake County could prepare itself for non-natural hazards. This planning took place with the understanding that many non-natural hazards could occur as a result of natural disasters (i.e. disruption in electrical service due to freezing rain causing problems for both utility corporations and those vulnerable populations dependent on electricity for heat). This plan draws on a variety of data sources including the State of Minnesota and Homeland Security Emergency Management Critical

Infrastructure Strategy for the State of Minnesota (2010), FEMA’s Local Mitigation Planning How-to

Guide Integrating Manmade Hazards into Mitigation Planning (2003), and the State of Minnesota Multi

Hazards Identification Risk Assessment list of Other Hazards (Table 11).

Based on the committee’s comparison of these two set of hazards, the committee decided on the list of hazards presented in as the current list of hazards faced by Lake County. The 2011 list is more specific; for example, hazardous waste is divided into two distinct categories: transportation hazardous materials and fixed hazardous materials, making it easier to create mitigation actions that respond to specific problems. The committee, composed of representatives from all of the jurisdictions within Lake

County, decided on one comprehensive list of hazards faced by Lake County. This list recognizes the fact that while specific jurisdictions with the county face hazards in slight different ways, the hazard profile across the county is fairly uniform: wildfire, extreme cold, and flash flooding are important hazards to all jurisdictions within the county.

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Table 11. Hazards Faced by Lake County from FEMA MHIRA

Natural Hazards

Flash Flood

Thunderstorm

Extreme Heat

Wildfire

Drought

Severe Winter Storm

Riverine Flood

Man Made Hazards

Tornado

Hailstorm

Structure Fire

Ground and Water Supply

Contamination

Human Disease Incident

Public Disorder

Transportation Hazardous

Materials

Extreme Cold

Dam Failure

Windstorm

Lightning

Cyber Terrorism

Fixed Hazardous

Materials

The committee drew on the Calculated Priority Risk Assessment (CPRI) tool to prioritize each of these hazards. The hazards had already been prioritized based on the CPRI in the 2005 report; therefore the committee adopted these same rankings for the updated list of hazards. The methodology of the CPRI is outlined below.

4.1.3 Calculated Priority Risk Index

The vulnerability assessment builds upon the previously developed hazard information by identifying the community assets and development trends and intersecting them with the hazard profiles to assess the potential amount of damage that could be caused by each hazard event. This concept is generally

illustrated by Figure 3. A Summary of Calculated Priority Risk Index (CPRI) Categories and Risk Levels is

shown in Table 12.

Figure 3.

Conceptual Depiction of a Vulnerability Analysis

Definitions of CPRI Categories in Table 12

Probability – a guide to predict how often a random event will occur. Annual probabilities are expressed between 0.001 or less (low) up to 1 (high). An annual probability of 1 predicts that a natural hazard will occur at least once per year.

Magnitude/Severity – indicates the impact to a community through potential fatalities, injuries, property losses, and/or losses of services. The vulnerability assessment gives information that is helpful in making this determination for each community.

Warning Time – plays a factor in the ability to prepare for a potential disaster and to warn the public.

The assumption is that more warning time allows for more emergency preparations and public information.

Duration – relates to the span of time local, state, and/or federal assistance will be necessary to prepare, respond, and recover from a potential disaster event.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Table 12. Summary of Calculated Priority Risk Index (CPRI) Categories and Risk Levels

CPRI

Category Level ID

Unlikely

Possible

Likely

Highly Likely

Negligible

Limited

Critical

Catastrophic

Less than 6 hours

6 to 12 hours

12 to 24 hours

More than 24 hours

Less than 6 hours

Less than 24 hours

Less than one week.

More than one week.

Degree of Risk

Description

Extremely rare with no documented history of occurrences or events. Annual probability of less than 0.001

Rare occurrences with at least one documented or anecdotal historic event. Annual probability that is between 0.01 and 0.001.

Occasional occurrences with at least two or more documented historic events. Annual probability that is between 0.1 and 0.01.

Frequent events with a well-documented history of occurrence.

Annual probability that is greater than 0.1.

Index

Value

1

2

3

4

1

Negligible property damages (less than 5% of critical and non-critical facilities and infrastructure).

Injuries or illnesses are treatable with first aid and there are no deaths. Negligible quality of life lost. Shutdown of critical facilities for less than 24 hours.

Slight property damages (greater than 5% and less than 25% of critical and non-critical facilities and infrastructure).

Injuries or illnesses do not resulting permanent disability and there are no deaths. Moderate quality of life lost. Shut down of critical facilities for more than 1 day and less than 1 week.

Moderate property damages (greater than 25% and less than 50% of critical and non-critical facilities and infrastructure). Injuries or illnesses result in permanent disability and at least one death. Shut down of critical facilities for more than 1 week and less than 1 month.

Severe property damages (greater than 50% of critical and noncritical facilities and infrastructure). Injuries or illnesses result in permanent disability and multiple deaths.

Shut down of critical facilities for more than 1 month.

Self-explanatory.

Self-explanatory.

Self-explanatory.

2

3

4

4

3

2

Self-explanatory.

Self-explanatory.

Self-explanatory.

Self-explanatory.

Self-explanatory

1

1

2

3

4

Assigned

Weighting

Factor

45%

30%

15%

10%

The prioritized list of hazards is presented in Table 13. The natural hazards fit into four categories. First, the hazard of wildfire stands out as the only high ranking hazard. The risk of wildfire is underlined by the fact that two moderate risks to the county are also related to wildfire: lightning and extreme heat, as well as drought, which was ranked as a low hazard. A second cluster of hazards faced by the county relate to severe weather. Severe winter storms and windstorms can damage power lines within the community and make roads difficult to travel on. Third, the northern climactic conditions of Lake

County mean that extreme cold is a yearly phenomenon. In the sparsely populated part of the county this means that people could be at risk of injury due to exposure. Last, dam failure is a low risk for the county. While most dams are in unpopulated areas, the Milepost 7 tailings pond is a hazard for the county to consider, previously not considered in the 2005 plan.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

The rankings for man-made hazards in the community are also presented in Table 13. Because of its

ability to impact wildfires, structure fire stands out as a moderate priority. Other man-made hazards must also be mitigated because of their ability to interact with natural disasters and the fact that many of these hazards have very little warning time. By preparing in advance for these hazards the county will best be able to meet these challenges.

Table 13. Priorities of Risks Faced By Lake County Jurisdictions

Natural Hazards

Wildfire

Thunderstorm

Severe Winter Storm

Lightning

Windstorm

Tornado

Extreme Cold

Extreme Heat

Flash Flood

Hailstorm

High

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

Dam Failure

Drought

Riverine Flood

Man-made Hazards

Low

Low

Low

Structure Fire Moderate

Ground and Water Supply Contamination Low

Human Disease Incident

Transportation Hazardous Materials

Low

Low

Fixed Hazardous Materials

Cyber Terrorism

Public Disorder

Low

Low

Low

4.1.4 Hazard Profiling Concept of Planning

The mitigation team also determined that the Lake County Emergency Management Department should profile each hazard before ranking the risks for each community. The basis for this method is that the team wanted to have the complete GIS analysis to review before ranking the risks for their communities. The general steps of this method are:

Lake County Emergency Management Department completed all components of the risk profile including the hazard ranking.

Lake County Emergency Management Department reviewed the profile and ranked the overall risk for the county.

The risk profile was sent to HSEM mitigation staff for comment.

Members of the steering committee had the opportunity to rank the risk for individual communities.

The risk profile was presented for comment at public meetings along with the mitigation strategies.

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The risk assessments identify the characteristics and potential consequences of a disaster, how much of the community could be affected by a disaster, and the impact on community assets. A risk assessment consists of three components—hazard identification, risk profile, and vulnerability profile. The last step is the risk ranking for each jurisdiction.

4.1.5 GIS and Hazus-MH

The risk analysis step in this assessment quantifies the risk to the population, infrastructure, and economy of the community. Where possible, the hazards were quantified using GIS analyses and

Hazus-MH.

Hazus-MH generates a combination of site-specific and aggregated loss estimates depending upon the analysis options that are selected and the input that is provided by the user. Aggregate inventory loss estimates, which include building stock analysis, are based upon the assumption that building stock is evenly distributed across census blocks/tracts. Therefore, it is possible that overestimates of damage will occur in some areas while underestimates will occur in other areas. With this in mind, total losses tend to be more reliable over larger geographic areas than for individual census blocks/tracts. It is important to note that Hazus-MH is not intended to be a substitute for detailed engineering studies.

Rather, it is intended to serve as a planning aid for communities interested in assessing their risk to flood-, earthquake-, and hurricane-related hazards. This documentation does not provide full details on the processes and procedures completed in the development of this project. It is only intended to highlight the major steps that were followed during the project.

Site-specific analysis is based upon loss estimations for individual structures. For flooding, analysis of site-specific structures takes into account the depth of water in relation to the structure. Hazus-MH also takes into account the actual dollar exposure to the structure for the costs of building reconstruction, content, and inventory. However, damages are based upon the assumption that each structure will fall into a structural class, and structures in each class will respond in a similar fashion to a specific depth of flooding. Site-specific analysis is also based upon a point location rather than a polygon, therefore the model does not account for the percentage of a building that is inundated.

These assumptions suggest that the loss estimates for site-specific structures as well as for aggregate structural losses need to be viewed as approximations of losses that are subject to considerable variability rather than as exact engineering estimates of losses to individual structures.

Table 14 shows how the hazards were analyzed for Lake County. The parameters for these scenarios

were created though GIS, HAZUS-MH, and historical information to evaluate risk.

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Table 14. Hazard Risk Analysis Methods for Lake County

Hazard Type

Wildfire

HAZUS-MH analysis

GIS analysis

x

Thunderstorms

Severe Winter Storms

Lightning

Windstorm/ Tornadoes

Severe Winter Storms

Extreme Cold

Extreme Heat

Flash Flood

Dam Failure

Drought

Infectious Disease

Hazardous Materials

Fire

Drinking Water x x x x x x x

Historical

Analysis

x x x x x x

4.1.6 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) Records

Historical storm event data was compiled from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). NCDC records are estimates of damage reported to the National Weather Service from various local, state, and federal sources. However, these estimates are often preliminary in nature and may not match the final assessment of economic and property losses related to given weather events.

The NCDC data included 369 reported events in Lake County between April 30, 1975 and August 31,

2011 (earlier records were not available). A summary table of events related to each hazard type is included in the hazard profile sections that follow. A full table listing all events, including additional

details, is included in Appendix C. NCDC hazard categories used in this plan are listed in Table 15.

Table 15. National Climatic Data Center Historical Hazards

HAZARD

Tornadoes/Funnel Cloud

Severe Thunderstorms

Lightning

Heavy Snow, Heavy Snow and Ice, Heavy Snow and

Blowing Snow

Snow

Ice Storm

Extreme Cold, Extreme Wind Chill

Blizzard and Heavy Snow

Lake Effect Snow

Thunderstorm Wind

Hail

High Winds

Drought

Excessive Heat/Heat

Frost/Freeze

Heavy Rain

Flood/Flash flood

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

4.1.7 FEMA Declared Disasters

Another historical perspective is the use of the FEMA-declared disasters in the county. Five federal declarations were made in the past decade (Figure 4).

Figure 4. FEMA-Declared Disasters and Emergencies in Minnesota

5 declarations by county

1964 - 2011

3 - 7

8 - 11

12 - 14

15 - 18

19 - 22

Table 16 shows the details of the disasters including payments for Public Assistance (PA) and Individual

Assistance (IA) are listed under the flooding and severe storms profiles. No declarations were made for the other storms listed in the NCDC database. Reviewing the federal payments for damages from the declared disasters is a way of correlating the impact from the NCDC report. Note that the Pagami Creek

Fire in 2011 predominately burned in Lake County and resulted in an estimated total suppression cost of $23 million. While this fire did not result in individual or public FEMA assistance, and the USDA bore the responsibility for the majority of the cost.

Table 16. FEMA-Declared Disasters and Emergencies in Lake County (1964-2011)

Incident Declaration Date and Incident Individual Assistance

Disaster Number

FEMA Major Disaster Declarations in Lake County

Period (all affected areas)

Public Assistance

(all affected areas)

Severe Storms and

Flooding

Severe Storms,

Winds and Flooding

Flooding

25-Aug-72

DN350

28-Jul-99

DN1283

Severe Storms and

Flooding

16-May-01

DN1370

9-Apr-09

DN1830

FEMA Emergency Declarations in Lake County

Drought

17-Jun-76

DN3013

8-25-72 to

8-25-72

4-4-99 to

8-2-99

3-23-01 to

7-3-01

3-16-09 to

5-22-09

6-17-76 to

6-17-76 n/a n/a n/a

$2,440,267 n/a n/a

$11,679,939

$36,449,898

$29,628,853 n/a

*Note the Public Assistance totals are totals for ALL counties affected in the disaster.

Page 33 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

4.2 Vulnerability Assessment

4.2.1 Asset Inventory

The Hazus-MH defaults, critical facilities, and essential facilities have been updated based on the most recent available data sources. Lake County Emergency Management provided a current critical facility spreadsheet. These sites were geocoded and used for the critical facility mapping and the essential facility updates (schools, medical care facilities, fire stations, and police stations) have been applied to the Hazus-MH flooding model data.

Critical facilities are defined by the Department of Homeland Security in the Automated Critical Asset

Management System (ACAMS) Lake County has used the 18 sectors included in ACAMS to identify their critical infrastructure and key resources. Lake County’s key resources include banking, commercial, manufacturing, postal, communication, and transportation infrastructure as well as dams and National

Monuments and cultural sites.

Table 17 below identifies the critical facilities that were added or updated for the analysis. Essential

facilities are a subset of critical facilities. Names and locations of all critical facilities are found in

Appendix B. Figure 5 shows an example of the critical facilities mapping for Two Harbors and Figure 6

shows an example from the Silver Bay.

Table 17. Lake County Critical Infrastructure and Facilities

ACAMS category Number of Facilities

Identified

Agriculture and Food

Banking and Finance

Chemical and Hazardous Materials

0

4

20

Commercial Facilities

Communications

Dams

Defense Industrial Base

9

6

3

0

Emergency Services

Energy

Government Facilities

Healthcare and Public Health

Information Technology

Manufacturing

National Monuments and Icons

Nuclear

Postal and Shipping

Transportation

Water

15

12

5

5

3

6

3

0

2

23

11

Page 34 of 93

Figure 5. Critical Facilities in Two Harbors, MN.

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

14TH

13TH

12TH

11TH

HARBOR H

ILLS

11TH

AVE

HIDDEN SP

RI

NG

S

10TH

9TH

8TH

HW

Y

61

Two Harbors

EC

7TH

14TH

13TH

12TH

10TH

11TH

9TH

P

Skunk Creek

P

3RD

4TH

2ND

P

1ST

SOUTH

3RD

P

AR

K

ROCK

Y P OINT

Critical Facilities

¹

Schools

BU

RLI

NG

TO

N

!

HW

Y

61

Chemical or Hazardous Materials

!

Banking and Finance n

Commercial Facilities

Government Facilities

Healthcare and Public Health

ê

Manufacturing

N

Postal and Shipping g

Transportation

P

O

IN

T

Figure 6. Critical Facilities in Silver Bay, MN.

Silver Bay

WATE

R TO

WE

R

IN

C

U

Q

Y

SH

AW

RE

ED

PEN

N

MARKS

JA

M

E

S

IV

E

S

HAYS

N

E

L

S

O

N

LAW

ED

IS

O

N

LEE

GA

RD

EN

ED

IS

O

N

HORN

EVAN

S

G

IB

S

O

N

F

IE

L

D

F

L

O

Y

D

KEN

T

C

H

A

S

E

BU

RK

D

A

V

DR

AK

E

D

O

D

G

E

IS

BA

N

KS

CHARL

ES

S

H

O

P

H

IL

L

OU

TE

R

T

R

C

A

E

R

H

W

Y

6

1

G

O

L

F

C

O

U

R

S

E

M

ID

B

R

O

D

PR

OS

PE

CT

M

E

N

S

IN

G

A

D

A

M

S

A

R

T

H

U

R

B

E

L

L

A

IK

E

N

IND

UST

RIA

L PARK

L

A

K

E

V

IE

W

Critical Facilities

¹

Schools

!

Chemical or Hazardous Materials

!

Banking and Finance n

Commercial Facilities

Government Facilities

Healthcare and Public Health

ê

Manufacturing

N Postal and Shipping g

Transportation

Page 35 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

4.2.2 Facility Replacement Costs

Not all facility Replacement Costs were available from Lake County. The general building stock included in HAZUS-MH MR4 (major release 4) was used for the economic loss in the flood analysis.

HAZUS-MH MR4 contains the base aggregated general building stock used for estimating building exposure. HAZUS-MH MR4 contains aggregated general building stock updated to Dun & Bradstreet

2006 and building valuations were updated to R.S. Means 2006. Building counts based on census housing unit counts are available for RES1 (single-family dwellings) and RES2 (manufactured housing) classifications instead of actual building counts.

Facility replacement costs and total building exposure are identified in Table 18. Table 18 also includes

the estimated number of buildings within each occupancy class as calculated by HAZUS general building stock.

Table 18. Lake County Total Building Exposure

Estimated

General Occupancy

Total

Buildings

Total Building Exposure

(Value in thousands of dollars)

Agricultural

Commercial

Education

Government

Industrial

Religious/Non-Profit

Residential

Total

13

290

8

13

90

33

8,085

8,532

$1,733

$147,058

$27,089

$5,807

$32,124

$26,631

$933,217

$1,173,659

4.3 Future Development

Because Lake County is vulnerable to a variety of natural and technological hazards, the county government—in partnership with state government—must make a commitment to prepare for the management of these types of events. Lake County is committed to ensuring that county elected and appointed officials become informed leaders regarding community hazards so that they are better prepared to set and direct policies for emergency management and county response.

The Lake County Comprehensive Plan/Land Use Ordinance does not necessarily identify any specific sites for development but rather emphasizes support for orderly growth and development (and redevelopment) within established communities where infrastructure and transportation exists. This is mainly the North Shore corridor. The plan also touches on the need for the county to support a balanced economic base, recognize the importance of resource base industries, support local business, and participate in legislative process relating to economic development issues.

Page 36 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

4.4 Hazard Profiles

4.4.1 Wildfire

Wildfire is one of the greatest hazards in Lake County.

As shown by the data below, Lake County has been affected by wildfires every year since 1986, putting the probability of a wildfire in any year at greater than 99%.

The immediate danger from wildfire is the destruction of timber, property, wildlife, and injury or loss of life to persons who live in the affected area or who are using recreational facilities in the area. Long-term effects include large amounts of scorched and barren land, which may not return to its pre-fire condition for many years. Major fires can completely destroy ground cover, which can in turn cause erosion. Flash floods, landslides, and mudflows can occur if heavy rains follow a major fire. As a result of population growth and the large blowdown event of 1999 in the BWCAW, the potential for losses of life and property due to wildfire is greater now than in the past. The causes

of wildfire vary. A summary of wildfire sources and the number of incidents is shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7. Sources of Wildfire and Number of Incidents (1986-2011)

12.0

10.0

10.0

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0

5.4

4.9

4.7

5.0

4.6

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

1.8

2.0

1.8

1.3

0.8

0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0

Average

1986-2011

2011

Figure 8 shows a random pattern of railroad fires for the entire period of 1986 to 2011, but when the

data are grouped from 1986-2004 and 2005-2011; there are significantly fewer railroad fires for the latter period. This may be attributed to a change in ownership of the rail lines in 2005 from the Duluth-

Mesabi-Iron Range (DMIR) Railroad to the Canadian National Railway (CN).

Page 37 of 93

Figure 8. Railroad Fires in Lake County (1986-2011)

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Source: Nadarra Forestry, 2011.

Debris fires have declined substantially since 1986 (Figure 9). This is good news regarding one of the primary causes of wildfire in Lake County. This may be attributed to fire prevention actions including providing the public alternatives to debris burning such as recycling and composting (Lake County

Community Wildfire Protection Plan).

Figure 9. Debris Burning Fires in Lake County (1986-2011)

Source: Nadarra Forestry, 2011.

As fire history shows, large wildfires are not uncommon in Lake County (Table 19 and Figures 10 and

11). There is a 100% chance that there will be a wildfire each year. The Pagami Creek Fire started approximately 13 miles east of Ely, on August 18, 2011 and burned 92,682 acres. The fire was caused by lightning. The cost of the Pagami Creek fire was approximately $23 million. Over 800 personnel were assigned to the incident at its peak.

Page 38 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 10. Number of Fires and Acres Burned in Lake County (1986 -2011)

Source: Nadarra Forestry, 2011.

Table 19. Wildfires Larger than 40 acres in Lake County, Minnesota (1986-2011)

Report Date

8/18/2011

FIRENAME

Pagami Creek

10/21/2010 Full Moon

9/11/2006

7/14/2006

Sumpet

Cavity Lake

7/7/2006

4/18/2005

5/31/2002

Turtle Lake

Seven Beavers

Lookout

Mountain

Balsam Lake 5/31/2002

5/27/2002

9/5/1998

6/21/1995

6/9/1995

8/28/1991

5/20/1991

5/16/1991

7/4/1988

Katherine Lake

Moose Horn

Topaz

Little Gabbro na na

Douse na

5/1/1988 na

Source: Nadarra Forestry, 2011.

Location

Total

Acres

Lake Co

Acres Cause

15 miles north of Isabella, MN 92,658 92,658 Lightning

20 Miles NNE of Two Harbors MN 144

14 miles northeast of Isabella, MN 58

2 miles S of Seagull Lake Gunflint Trail 31,830

15 east of Ely MN. 2,085

7.5 mi NNW of Toimi, MN 90

144 Railroad

58 Lightning

4,921 Lightning

2,085 Lightning

90 Misc.

4 miles north of Finland, MN

10 Miles North of Finland MN

12 miles west of Finland, MN

10 mi NNE of Finland, 2 mi S of Moose Lake

8 miles west of Seagull Lake, Gunflint Trail

Near Spruce Lake, east of Greenwood Lake

North Shore Mining Rails near int. Forest

14 mi SW of Seagull Lake, Gunflint Trail

Near Lobo Lake, west of Sand Lake

Near Ridge Pole Lake, west of Hwy 2

120

220

41

42

50

15 miles east of Ely 3,047

65

93

210

317

308

120 Lightning

220 Lightning

41 Debris Burn

42 Misc.

50 Lightning

3,047 Lightning

65 Lightning

93 Railroad

210 Lightning

317 Railroad

308 Debris Burn

Page 39 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 11. Wildfires in Lake County (1986-2011). Note: The smallest fires are represented by buffered ignition points, and not actual perimeters.

Cavity Lake

2006

S t . L o u i s C o

MN16

9

CS

AH18

BWCAW

Little Gabbro

1995

Pagami Creek, 2011

Superior National Forest

L a k e C o u n t y

CS

AH15

CR

40

2

CS

A

H4

CSAH3

CS

A

H7

CSAH6

M

N61

C o o k C o

Fire Areas, 1986 -2011

State Park Boundary

Page 40 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Table 20 below shows Losses Due to Wildfires Responded to by MN DNR Forestry Offices in Lake

County, MN from 1986 to 2011. All damages in this table were from fires 144 acres or less in size. This table does not include losses from some very large fires, such as the recent Pagami Creek Fire, that are usually responded to primarily by the US Forest Service. Losses from these fires are likely many times greater.

Table 20. Losses Due to Wildfires Responded to by MN DNR Forestry Offices.

Type of Loss Total Loss Avg. Loss

1986-2011 Per Year

Maximum Loss

(from any fire)

Size of Fire in Acres

Number of injuries

Number of fatalities

Associated Suppression Costs ($)

800

5

0

$394,174

31

<1

0

$15,161

144

2

0

$72,291

Dollar losses of timber value

Dollar losses of agricultural value

$28,315

$2,300

$1,089

$88

$5,382

$2,300

Dollar losses of personal property

Dollar losses of other property

Number of residential structures damaged

Number of residential structures destroyed

Number of outbuildings damaged

$418,511

$24,226

0

1

1

$16,097

$932

0

<1

<1

$78,000

$17,250

0

Number of outbuildings destroyed 16 <1

Data Source: Wildfires Tracked by Minnesota DNR. Resource Assessment Office, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry. http://deli.dnr.state.mn.us/ . Data are for wildfires for which the DNR was the primary responding agency. These include fires not only on state lands, but also county lands and rural private lands for which there is not another agency with primary responsibility. Wildfires that are not included are those that occur in the Superior National Forest and those that are responded to by local fire departments.

5

1

1

Table 21. Acres Burned and Estimated Suppression Costs of Wildfires Responded to by USDA Forest

Service in Lake County, MN (1986 - 2011)shows the acres burned and estimated suppression costs of

wildfires responded to by USDA Forest Service in Lake County. Loss estimates are based on current per acre fire suppression costs stratified by fire size class and multiplied by the historical fire sizes, except for the 2011 Pagami Creek fire, which is estimated at a total suppression cost of $23 million.

Page 41 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Table 21. Acres Burned and Estimated Suppression Costs of Wildfires Responded to by USDA Forest Service in

Lake County, MN (1986 - 2011)

Type of Loss Total

1986-2011

Avg. Loss

Per Year

Maximum Loss

(from any fire)

Acres Burned 105,307 4,050 92,658

Est. Suppression Costs ($)

2

Acres Burned (w/o Pagami)

3

$39,312,129

12,705

$1,512,005

489

$23,000,000

4,921

Est. Suppression Costs (w/o Pagami) ($)

2,3

$9,401,943 $361,613 $3,242,541

Data Source: Mark Hale, Fire Planner, Chippewa and Superior National Forests.

1

Data are for wildfires for which the USDA Forest Service was the primary responding agency. These include fires not only on Federal lands, but also county lands, state lands, and rural private lands within USFS Fire response area. Wildfires that are not included are those that are responded to MN DNR Forestry and by local fire departments.

2

Suppression costs estimated in 2012 dollars from 2012 USFS Eastern Region per acre suppression costs estimates stratified by size class and multiplied by acres burned by size class in Lake County 1986-2011.

3

Acres and estimated costs excluding the extremely large 2011 Pagami Creek Fire, which is estimated at $25 million in suppression costs.

As wildfires affect more people, active public involvement becomes integral to the success of any wildfire management initiative. The Lake County CWPP (Community Wildfire Protection Plan) is a community-based plan that has two objectives. First, it identifies and prioritizes Wildland Urban

Interface (WUI) areas within Lake County (including State, County, federal and nonfederal lands) for hazardous fuels reduction treatments and recommends methods for achieving hazardous fuels reductions. Second, the plan outlines measures for reducing fire danger to structures throughout Lake

County in at-risk communities. This plan is based on local needs of 16 WUI areas (Figure 12). These

sixteen areas were collaboratively defined by Lake County based communities with support from land management agencies. This county-wide plan addresses issues such as fire response, community preparedness, and structure and infrastructure protection along with mitigation measures for potential wildland fire fuel hazards. During development of the Lake County Community Wildfire Protection

Plan, communities discussed and refined priorities for protecting life, property, and critical infrastructure within their County. Please refer to this document for more information about wildfire and wildfire mitigation in Lake County.

Page 42 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 12. Lake County Community Wildfire Protection Plan, Wildland-Urban Interface Areas, 2006.

Page 43 of 93

Fernberg

Corridor-Kawishiwi-Triangle

BWCA

Birch-Slate

North

Isabella

Sand

Lake

Nine

Mile

South

Toimi

Thomas-Marble-Kane

Lake

Drummond-Knife

River Valley

Two Harbors

Railroad

Corridor

Cloquet

Lake

Finland-Murphy

City rior

Sh ore

-Sta te

Pa

Lax Lake

La ke

Su pe

Silver Bay

Railroad

County

Road #3

Corridor

Lak e S up erior

Sh ore

-Sta te P ark s

WUI Hazard Rating

High

Medium

Low rks

State Park Boundary

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

4.4.2 Severe Winter Storms - Blizzards, Ice Storms

Blizzards are storms that contain heavy snowfall, strong winds, and cold temperatures. The combination of these elements creates blinding snow with near zero visibility, deep snowdrifts, and life-threatening wind chill temperatures. Blizzards are the most dramatic and destructive of all winter storms that occur within Lake County. Blizzards are generally characterized as storms bearing large amounts of snow accompanied by strong winds. They have the ability to completely immobilize travel in large areas and can be life-threatening to humans and animals in their path. According to the

National Weather Service (NWS), although there is no fixed temperature requirement for blizzard conditions, the life-threatening nature of low temperatures in combination with blowing snow and poor visibility increases dramatically when temperatures falls below 20-degrees Fahrenheit. Blizzards typically occur between October and April; however, they occur with the most frequency from early

November to the end of March.

The total of notable events defined as heavy snow, blizzard, lake effect snow, and winter storms in Lake

County recorded by NCDC for the period from 1993 to present is 92, with at least one occurring each year (100% chance). During this period, NCDC recorded at least one “heavy snow” event in every year except 2007 and 2009, “blizzards” in 3 years, and “winter storms” or “lake effect snow” in 11 of the 18

years. An overview of some of the most notable winter storm events can be found in Table 22 below.

Table 22. Northeast Minnesota Winter Storm Events

Date Type Cost Deaths Injuries

March-07 Blizzard

January-97

Snow &

Ice Storm

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Description

White out conditions and zero visibility in Two Harbors. The

Cities of Duluth and Superior pulled snow plows off the road and travel became impossible. Storm totals: Two Harbors 19", wind gust of up to 52 mph.

21” in Duluth, 23” in Pequot Lakes, 18” in Finlayson, 16” in Two

Harbors, and 12” in Babbitt.

January-94

Heavy

Snow

October-91 Blizzard

January-82 Blizzard

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

4

Up to 3.5 feet of snow fell along the higher terrain near Lake

Superior. 44” in Finland, 20” in Two Harbors. Several accidents occurred.

The "Halloween Blizzard". Most businesses shut down, no bus service. 21 inches fell in less than 24 hrs. Cook County, schools closed, 70 traffic accidents were reported in Duluth. Over 32" in the single storm in parts of Lake County.

52 mph winds. DTA canceled, 20+ cars stranded, Park Point closed off, Blatnik Bridge closed to traffic, all schools closed, 21 traffic accidents. Snow Emergency declared.

January-75 Blizzard $14M 35 N/A 18" inches in Silver Bay and 9.5" in Duluth

January-72 Blizzard N/A 1 4 Schools closed

Source: ARDC Library Search, http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~210512 and Minnesota Climatology Office .

The greatest numbers of blizzards historically have occurred in the months of January, followed by

March and November, respectively. Lake County, along with all areas of Minnesota, is susceptible to blizzards.

Page 44 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Damages from blizzards can range from human and livestock deaths to significant snow removal costs.

Between the years 1975 and 1991, there were 49 deaths associated with blizzards statewide, or an average of three deaths per year. Deaths attributable to blizzards have dropped in recent years, primarily due to increased weather awareness and warning capabilities across the State. The economic costs of winter storms is generally not recorded by NCDC, however a winter storm in November 2001 showed property damage of $500,000.

Ice storms are described as occasions when damaging accumulations of ice occur during freezing rain situations. The terms freezing rain and freezing drizzle warn the public that a coating of ice is expected on the ground and on other exposed surfaces. Heavy accumulations of ice can bring down trees, electrical wires, telephone poles and lines, and communication towers.

Communications and power can be disrupted for days while utility companies work to repair extensive damages. Ice forming on exposed objects generally ranges from a thin glaze to coatings more than one inch thick. Even small accumulations of ice on sidewalks, streets, and highways may cause extreme hazards to Lake County motorists and pedestrians. Sleet does not stick to trees and wires, but sleet in sufficient thickness does cause hazardous driving conditions. Heavy sleet is a relatively rare occurrence, defined as an accumulation of ice pellets covering the ground to a depth of one-half inch or more (Figure 13).

Ice and sleet storms typically occur from October through April. According to statistics maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Lake County freezing rain and freezing drizzle events occur on average at least one day per year. The month of March has on average the greatest number of days in which freezing rain and freezing drizzle occurs. No data are available for property damages due to ice and freezing rain storms. The National Weather Service (NWS) notes that over 85-percent of ice stormrelated deaths are the result of traffic accidents.

Figure 13. Ice Storm in Silver Bay, March, 2009

Page 45 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Observing winter storm watches and warnings and adequate preparation can usually lessen the impact of blizzard events in Minnesota. Technical advances made in transportation, including improved vehicles and better constructed and maintained roads, have also contributed to the decline in deaths related to blizzard events. Historical estimates of dollar losses associated with blizzard events were not available for the purposes of this analysis. However, costs incurred by state and local government for snow removal associated with disaster declaration DR1158 (January 1997) totaled over $27,300,000 dollars. Blizzards rank ninth out of the 10 natural hazards economically impacting Minnesota according to the statewide risk analysis.

Table 23 below displays notable ice and sleet events that have impacted northeast Minnesota as

documented by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). As is evident from the table below, these storms impact the Lake County on a regular basis.

Table 23. Northeast Minnesota Ice and Sleet events

Date Location

3/23-24/2009

04/03-4/1999

2/1/1999

01/01-2/1997

11/27-28/1994

04/28-29/1994

03/23-24/1994

11/12-13/1993

1/20/1993

Northeast Minnesota

Northeast Minnesota

Northeast Minnesota

Northeast Minnesota

Southwest, Central,

Northeast, and Southeast

Minnesota.

Entire State

Northern and Central

Minnesota

All but Southeast Minnesota

Northern Minnesota

Description

Two day precipitation totals include .91 inches at Grand Marias and

1.94 inches at Duluth. The .91 inches at Grand Marias was all freezing rain. Power outages began as tree branches snapped and downed power lines. Some of the places hardest hit were Two Harbors,

Finland, and Grand Marias. 2,000 people were without power in Lake

County, many for up to 4 days.

Ice Storm - Ice accumulations up to ½-inch, with a mixture of sleet, snow, and slush on the ground, made travel very hazardous. The weight of ice accumulations brought down trees and power lines and caused extensive damage to an 800-foot television tower. There were widespread electrical outages.

Ice Storm - Freezing rain and freezing drizzle coated the area with as much as ¼ inch of ice.

Ice Storm - Freezing rain left up to a ¼-inch of ice on area roads. Part of State Highway 61 was closed for several hours.

Heavy Snow and Ice - The snow closed the Minneapolis-St. Paul

International Airport. The storm contributed to at least three fatalities. A buildup of ice and snow, combined with strong winds, resulted in numerous downed power lines.

Heavy, wet snow, sleet, and freezing rain occurred.

Heavy Snow and Ice - A late March snowstorm deposited a band of heavy snow, up to 10 inches, as well as a mixture of freezing rain, sleet, and snow, causing extremely slippery road conditions.

Ice Storm and Snow - A wintry mixture of precipitation in the form of freezing rain, sleet, and snow with significant accumulation of ice.

Five inches of snow fell on top of the ice making travel hazardous.

Ice Storm - Freezing rain developed with at least half of an inch of ice coating area roads.

Source: National Climatic Data Center

Heavy snowstorms combined with low temperatures can be a significant danger to life and property and can lead to significant costs in snow removal for local governments. Stranded drivers can make uninformed decisions, such as leaving the car to walk in conditions that can put them at risk. Because of the blinding potential of heavy snowstorms, drivers are also at risk of collisions with snowplows or other road traffic. Further, drivers and homeowners without emergency plans and kits are vulnerable

Page 46 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

to the life threatening effects of heavy snow storms such as power outages, cold weather, and inability to travel, communicate, obtain goods or reach their destinations. Heavy snow loads can cause structural damage, particularly in areas where there are no building codes or for residents living in manufactured home parks. Further, the frequency of structural fires tends to increase during heavy snow events, primarily due to utility disruptions and the use of alternative heating methods by residents.

4.4.3 Summer Storms – Lightning, Hailstorms, and Windstorms

Summer storms, including thunderstorms, hailstorms, and windstorms affect Lake County on an annual basis. Thunderstorms are the most common summer storm in Lake County, occurring primarily during the months of May through August with the most severe storms most likely to occur in June and July.

Thunderstorms are usually locally produced by cumulonimbus clouds, always accompanied by lightning, and often having strong wind gusts, heavy rain and sometimes hail and tornadoes. Straightline winds, heavy rain, and lightning associated with thunderstorms are the greatest concerns for Lake

County.

Lightning

Lightning-caused wildfires are a concern for Lake County. Lightning is caused by the discharge of electricity between clouds or between clouds and the surface of the earth. In a thunderstorm there is a rapid gathering of particles of moisture into clouds and forming of large drops of rain. This gathers electric potential until the surface of the cloud (or the enlarged water particles) is insufficient to carry the charge, and a discharge takes place, producing a brilliant flash of light.

The power of the electrical charge and intense heat associated with lightning can electrocute on contact, split trees, ignite fires, and cause electrical failures. Two lightning storms in Lake County are found in the NCDC record, causing one reported death each. Most lightning casualties occur in the summer months, during the afternoon and early evening. A 2010 report published by Minnesota

Department of Natural Resources (MN DNR) reports a 20-year average of 23 lightning-caused wildfires a year on public land. In 2011 (to date) 22 wildfires were caused by lightning in the state. Based on statistics maintained by the MN DNR Division of Forestry, the 22 average lightning-caused wildfires per year resulted in average annual suppression costs totaling $54,864 dollars and average annual damages totaling $10,357 dollars.

Hailstorms

Hailstorms are a product of severe thunderstorms. Hail is formed when strong updrafts within the storm carry water droplets above the freezing level, where they remain suspended and continue to grow larger, until their weight can no longer be supported by the winds. Hailstones can vary in size, depending on the strength of the updraft. The National Weather Service (NWS) uses the following descriptions when estimating hail sizes: pea size is ¼-inch, marble size is ½-inch, dime size is ¾-inch, quarter size is 1-inch, golf ball size is 1 ¾-inch, and baseball size is 2 ¾-inches. Individuals who serve as volunteer "storm spotters" for the NWS are located throughout the state, and are instructed to report hail dime size (¾-inch) or greater. Hailstorms can occur throughout the year; however, the months of maximum hailstorm frequency are typically between May and August. Although hailstorms rarely cause injury or loss of life, they do cause significant damage to property. Table 24 shows storms producing hail of greater than 1 inch diameter in Lake County.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Table 24. Storms producing hail of greater than 1 inch diameter in Lake County 1975 – 2006.

Date Hail Size Injuries Date Hail Size Injuries

7/1/2000

6/9/2000

1

1.75

0

0 7/16/2006 1 0

8/23/1998

6/26/1984

6/26/1984

6/10/1978

1.5

1.75

1

1.75

0

0

0

0

6/30/1975 1.75 0

Source: National Climatic Data Center

4/18/2004

7/19/2003

7/31/2000

7/1/2000

7/1/2000

1.75

2.5

2.75

1.75

1

0

0

0

1

0

According the 36 year NCDC record, there is a 31% chance of a significant hailstorm any year in Lake

County and a 14% chance in each year that there will be a hailstorm that produces hail one inch in size or greater.

Windstorms and Tornados

Windstorms can and do occur in all months of the year; however, the most severe windstorms usually occur during severe thunderstorms in the warm months. The most common windstorm to affect Lake

County is straight-line winds or downbursts associated with strong thunderstorms. A downburst is a severe localized downdraft from a thunderstorm or a rain shower. This outflow of cool or colder air can create damaging winds at or near the surface. Winds up to 130 mph have been reported in the strongest thunderstorms. Downburst winds can cause as much damage as a small tornado and are frequently confused with tornadoes because of the extensive damage they cause. As these downburst winds spread out they are often referred to as straight-line winds. They can cause major structural and tree damage over a relatively large area. They can also create a hazard for small watercraft on Lake

Superior and inland lakes. Straight-line winds in Lake County caused significant damage during the

Fourth of July windstorm of 1999. This event resulted in a Presidential Disaster Declaration. Much of the blowdown was located in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) and the Superior

National Forest (SNF), covering 203 square miles (5.3 million acres) in total. Major windstorms in Lake

County from 1975 - 2006 are shown in Figure 14.

Winds of greater than 60 M.P.H. are also associated with intense winter, spring, and fall low-pressure systems. These can also inflict damage to buildings and in some cases overturn high-profile vehicles.

This type of windstorm can particularly impact residents living on the shore of Lake Superior and watercraft on Lake Superior.

Page 48 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 14. Historic Severe Wind and Hail Storms in Lake County.

W

Ely

W

1999

W

1979

CSAH18

W

1996

W

2003

W

1998

BWCAW

`

2003

W

1999

W

2003

W

1999

W

2004

Babbitt

W

1999

W

2008

W

2003

Superior National Forest

W

2006

W

W

W

2008

MN1

`

Isabella

W

2008

L a k e C o u n t y

CS

H7

`

2000

W

2008

C o o k C o

S t . L o u i s C o

Finland

Little Marais

1984

W

1990

Brimson

2000

W

`

1975

2004

CS

A

H3

W

CSAH3

CSAH15

`

CS

H4

A

`

CR

40

2

`

Ilgen City

Silver Bay

Beaver Bay

Schroeder

Two Harbors

`

M

N

6

1

`

Hail storms > 1"

W

Wind storms > 50 knots

Blowdown July 4, 1999

State Park Boundary

Page 49 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Tornadoes can occur at any time of year, but they are a rare event for Lake County. In Minnesota, the peak months of tornado occurrence are June, May, and July (in that order). The typical time of day for tornadoes in Minnesota ranges between 4:00 P.M. and 7:00 P.M. Most of these are minor tornadoes, with wind speeds under 125 M.P.H. A typical

Minnesota tornado lasts approximately ten minutes, has a path length of five to six miles, is nearly as wide as a football field, and has a forward speed of about thirty-five miles an hour and affects less than one-tenth of one-percent of the county warned.

Figure 15. A tornado forms in Lake County, May 2011

Tornadoes are defined as violently-rotating columns of air extending from thunderstorms to the ground

(Figure 15). Funnel clouds are rotating columns of air not in contact with the ground; however, the violently-rotating column of air can reach the ground very quickly and become a tornado. If the funnel cloud picks up and blows debris, it has reached the ground and is a tornado. Tornadoes are classified according to the Fujita tornado intensity scale. The tornado scale ranges from low intensity F0 with effective wind speeds of 40 to 70 miles per hour to F5 tornadoes with effective wind speeds of over

260 miles per hour.

Figure 16 below shows tornado touch down points and tracks for in Lake County and eastern St Louis

County from 1950 to 2011. Historic tornado events in Lake County, including the 7 closest (and

reaching), Lake County are listed in Table 25. Nine years of in the 61 year record have experienced

tornadoes in Lake County or affecting Lake County. There is a 15% chance of a tornado affecting Lake

County each year according to this record. There have not been any tornadoes of greater than F2 magnitude for the period of record.

Table 25. Historic Tornado Events in Lake County, MN (1950-2011)

County Date Magnitude Injuries Fatalities

Property

Damage

Length in miles

Width in yards

Lake County May 28, 2011

St. Louis County September 16, 1992

St. Louis County September 16, 1992

Lake County July 7, 1988

Lake County

St. Louis County

St. Louis County

Lake County

September 5, 1987

June 30, 1983

August 14, 1978

June 12, 1976

Lake County

St. Louis County

April 14, 1976

August 6, 1969

St. Louis County May 26, 1958

St. Louis County May 26, 1958

Source: National Climatic Data Center

F1

F0

F1

F1

F0

F0

F0

F1

F1

F2

F0

F1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

$0K

$0K

$25K

$0K

$3K

$0K

$250K

$25K

$25K

$25K

$0K

$0K

2

80

30 n/a

2

2

145 n/a

10

19

1

1

20

3

36

40 n/a

30

12

13

33

58

3

3

Page 50 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 16. Tornado Touch Downs and Paths, Lake County and Eastern St Louis County

Source: NOAA’s National Weather Service Storm Prediction Center: http://www.spc.noaa.gov/gis/svrgis/

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

4.4.4 Extreme Cold

Wintertime in Lake County can be a most brutal time, and especially dangerous for our disabled citizens and outdoor workers. Record temperature lows and arctic-like wind chill factors can cause cold-related illness such as frostbite and hypothermia, which can be deadly. Hypothermia is the greatest and most life-threatening cold weather danger.

In Lake County cold winter weather can have severe or fatal impacts. Hypothermia occurs when core body temperature drops below 96° F. Anyone who is exposed to severe cold without enough protection can develop hypothermia. Frostbite occurs when skin tissue and blood vessels are damaged from exposure to temperatures below 32° F. It most commonly affects the toes, fingers, earlobes, chin, cheeks, nose, and other body parts that are often left uncovered in cold temperatures. The National

Weather Service (NWS) issues "Extreme cold" warnings when it feels like -30° F or colder across a wide area for several hours. Extreme cold watches are issued a day or two before the conditions are expected.

Below zero temperatures occur almost every winter for a period of time. Extreme cold was documented in February and December of 1996 and extreme wind chills were documented for

February of 1995. No deaths were reported. The winter of 2002-3 was one of the driest winters on record. Limited snow cover combined with long cold spells of sub-zero temperatures impacted a large number of septic system water pipes due to frost that went deeper than normal. Fifteen extreme cold events are recorded by NCDC for the period of 1975-present (Table C-1, Appendix C)

4.4.5 Extreme Heat

Human beings need to maintain a constant body temperature if they are to stay healthy. Working in high temperatures induces heat stress when more heat is absorbed into the body than can be dissipated out. Heat illness such as prickly heat, fainting from heat exhaustion, or heat cramps are visible signs that people are working in unbearable heat. In the most severe cases, the body temperature control system breaks down altogether and body temperature rises rapidly. This is a heat stroke, which can be fatal. The National Weather Service (NWS) issues a heat advisory when, during a

24-hour period, the temperature ranges from 105 to 114-degrees during the day, and remains at or above 80-degrees at night.

Summer temperatures in Lake County rarely reach to the point where a heat advisory is warranted as a result of a cooling effect from winds coming of Lake Superior. Summer temperatures typically are in the 70’s away from Lake Superior.

The primary concern regarding extreme heat in Lake County is that dry, hot conditions can increase the risk of wildfires. No extreme heat events are reported by NCDC for Lake County.

4.4.6 Flash Flood and Riverine Flood

Flooding is a significant natural hazard throughout the United States. The type, magnitude, and severity of flooding are functions of the amount and distribution of precipitation over a given area, the rate at which precipitation infiltrates the ground, the geometry and hydrology of the catchment, and flow dynamics and conditions in and along the river channel. Upstream floods, also called flash floods, occur in the upper parts of drainage basins and are generally characterized by periods of intense rainfall over

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

a short duration. These floods arise with very little warning and often result in locally intense damage, and sometimes loss of life, due to the high energy of the flowing water. Flood waters can snap trees, topple buildings, and easily move large boulders or other structures (Figure 17). Six inches of rushing water can upend a person; another 18 inches might carry off a car. Generally, upstream floods cause damage over relatively localized areas, but they can be quite severe in the local areas in which they occur. Urban flooding is a type of upstream flood. Urban flooding involves the overflow of storm drain systems and can be the result of inadequate drainage combined with heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt.

Upstream or flash floods can occur at any time of the year in Minnesota, but they are most common in the spring and summer months.

Downstream floods, sometimes called riverine floods, refer to floods on large rivers at locations with large upstream catchments. Downstream floods are typically associated with precipitation events that are of relatively long duration and occur over large areas. Flooding on small tributary streams may be limited, but the contribution of increased runoff may result in a large flood downstream. The lag time between precipitation and time of the flood peak is much longer for downstream floods than for upstream floods, generally providing ample warning for people to move to safe locations and, to some extent, secure some property against damage. Riverine flooding is less common in Lake County.

Flooding in Lake County is usually a result of small-scale flash floods caused by slow moving thunderstorms or may occur during the spring as a result of snowmelt. The 1999 Fourth of July Storm resulted in $50,000 in damage recovery payments from FEMA for damaged roads in Fall Lake Township.

Two Harbors received close to five inches of rain in the 1999 storm, and ultimately convinced the City to begin a systematic process to address the overall stormwater problem.

Figure 17. Road Damage Due to Flash Flooding

The City of Two Harbors developed and implemented a strategic storm water management plan with the assistance of the Lake County SWCD and numerous additional partners.

Grants were obtained to complete projects including three storm water detention basins (Figure 18), two stream bank restoration projects, one rain garden, and the Two

Harbors Urban Forest Management

Plan. These projects are summarized in the document “Two

Harbors Storm Water Planning –

One Step at a Time”, prepared by the Lake County SWCD and the City of Two Harbors.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 18. The 19 th

Street Storm Water Retention Basin above Skunk Creek.

Skunk Creek was identified as a high priority watershed in 1997 by the Lake

County Water Management Plan. The two square-mile watershed is moderately sloping and is underlain by heavy red clay soils. Combined with an increase in impervious surfaces, this watershed is extremely flashy: it has a large flow-rate after storm events and then can dry down to almost no flow during summer. Skunk Creek flows into

Lake Superior within one-half mile from the public water intake for the

City of Two Harbors.

According to the Lake County Water Plan, high water levels on the south Kawishiwi River have led to well contamination and property damage. Additionally, the White Iron Chain of Lakes (Fall Lake

Township) has seen significant flooding in the past. Some of the flood control precautions in this area depend upon aging dams in Superior National Forest. The Winton Dam failed at one point, resulting in water fluctuation of up to 10 feet. If the Birch Lake Dam failed, this would also cause the Winton Dam to fail. The Winton area is very flat and the shallow floodplain makes it vulnerable to flooding. There are several bridges in Fall Lake Township that if damaged, would isolate communities in the Fall Lake

Township (Figure A-1). Silver Rapids Bridge on the Kawishiwi River, the Kawishiwi River Bridge, and

Garden Lake Bridge in Fredenberg are all critical bridges. For example, the Silver Rapids Bridge is the only bridge connecting the Lake County Community to the larger St Louis County Community of Ely.

Medical care and most provisions for Fall Lake Township are only available in Ely.

Historical Flood Events

Flooding occurrences are minimal countywide. A major flooding event for Lake County was in 1972.

This flood event caused two fatalities and was a result of summer storms. Spring flooding impacted the

City of Two Harbors and the Knife River area in 1999, in addition to the memorable Fourth of July storm that same year that caused a great deal of damage in Two Harbors.

Since 1997, four flood events were reported to the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for Lake

County. The largest flood event occurred October 18, 2007. Minnesota State Patrol reported widespread flooding in southern Lake County, between Silver Bay and Two Harbors, and near the Silver

Cliff Tunnel and Split Rock Lighthouse from the afternoon of October 18 through the early morning hours of October 19. Water also inundated portions of Highway 61, Highway 1, and several county roads, including County Road 3 near Silver Bay and Cramer Road near Finland. The Baptism River near

Tettegouche State Park was also near bank full. Some flooding and many washed out driveways were reported in Silver Bay.

Table 26 lists Lake County’s historical floods since 1997 as recorded by NCDC.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Table 26. Lake County Historical Floods (1997-2010)

Location Date Time Type Magnitude Deaths Injuries Property Damage

Silver Bay

Silver Bay

6/6/2008 12:00 AM Flash Flood N/A

10/18/2007 10:30 AM Flood N/A

Lake County 7/5/1999 2:20 AM Flash Flood N/A

Two Harbors 6/24/1997 4:00 PM Flash Flood N/A

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Source: National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service provides information from gauge locations at points along various rivers across the United States. Flood crest data is provided for three USGS gauging stations:

Knife River near Two Harbors, Kawishiwi River near Ely, and the Basswood River near Winton (Table

27).

Table 27. Historical Flood Crests for USGS gauging stations in Lake County

Historical Flood Crests for Knife River near Two Harbors

Historical Flood Crests for Kawishiwi

River near Ely

Date Height (Feet)

Date Height (Feet)

July 5, 1999

May 10, 1979

June 24, 1997

June 29, 1991

July 4, 1993

March 31, 2005

Sept. 24, 1977

May 29, 1978

August 25, 1995

Sept. 4, 1980

12.14

11.16

10.29

9.82

9.53

9.08

8.94

8.43

8.19

8.09

May 4, 2001

April 24, 1976

April 29, 1969

June 13, 1970

August 27, 1988

May 12, 1972

May 11, 1979

May 20, 1996

April 30, 1981

May 2, 1990

6.07

5.92

5.88

5.83

5.81

5.75

5.66

5.61

5.56

5.54

Historical Flood Crests for Basswood

River near Winton

Date Height (Feet)

June 23, 1968

May 10, 2001

May 5, 1969

Sept. 2, 1988

April 30, 1976

May 4, 1971

May 17, 1992

May 14, 2008

May 24, 1950

July 18, 1999

7.73

7.70

7.32

7.30

7.08

7.03

7.02

6.97

6.94

6.09

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

HAZUS-MH Hazard Analysis

Flood analysis for Lake County was performed using HAZUS-MH Major Release 4 (August 2009). The bundled aggregated general building stock was updated to Dun & Bradstreet 2006. Building valuations were updated to

R.S. Means 2006. Building counts based on census housing unit counts are available for RES1 (single-family dwellings) and RES2 (manufactured housing) instead of calculated building counts.

The site specific inventory (specifically Schools, Hospitals, Fire Stations and Police Stations) was updated using the best available statewide information.

HAZUS-MH was used to generate the flood depth grid for a 100 year return period calculated for 1 square mile drainage areas. The riverine model was determined from a user provided USGS 30m digital elevation model and peak discharge values obtained for 1288 stream reaches generated by the model. The flood boundary output from the HAZUS-MH analysis is shown in Figure A-16 in Appendix A.

HAZUS-MH Aggregate Loss Analysis

HAZUS-MH was used to estimate the likely damages incurred for a 100 year flood event in Lake County. An estimated 7 buildings would be damaged totaling $9.4 million in building losses and $18 million in total economic losses. The total estimated number of damaged buildings, total building losses, and estimated total

economic losses are shown in Table 28.

Table 28. Lake County Total Economic Loss - 100-Year Flood

General Occupancy

Estimated

Total Buildings

Total Damaged

Buildings

Total

Building

Exposure

(In $1000s)

Agricultural 13 0 $1,733

Commercial

Education

Government

Industrial

Religious/Non-Profit

290

8

13

90

33

0

0

0

0

0

$147,058

$27,089

$5,807

$32,124

$26,631

Residential

Total

8,085

8,532

7

7

$933,217

$1,173,659

Total Economic

Loss (In $1000s)

$27

$2,445

$318

$79

$893

$739

$13,573

$18,074

Building Loss

(In $1000s)

$7

$528

$87

$11

$259

$89

$8,433

$9,414

The reported building counts should be interpreted as degrees of loss rather than as exact numbers of buildings exposed to flooding. These numbers were derived from aggregate building inventories which are assumed to be dispersed evenly across census blocks. HAZUS-MH requires that a predetermined amount of square footage of a typical building sustain damage in order to produce a damaged building count. If only a minimal amount of damage to buildings is predicted, it is possible to see zero damaged building counts while also seeing economic

losses. The distribution of losses for Lake County is shown in Figure 19 and a close up of the Knife and Stewart

River areas is shown in Figure 20.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 19. Distribution of Total Economic Loss – 100 Year Flood

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 20. Total Economic Loss Estimates for 100 year flood: Two Harbors, MN

Census blocks of concern should be reviewed in more detail to determine the actual percentage of facilities that fall within the flood hazard areas. The aggregate losses reported in this study may be overstated because values are distributed evenly in a census block.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Another analysis was performed by selecting only the parcels with greater than $250,000 building value that fell within the 100 year flood plain. The results of this analysis (and total building value) are shown in Table 29.

Table 29. Lake County Properties of Greater than $250,000 Building Value Intersecting 100 year Floodplain

Edited Parcel ID Parcel Building Class Description Year Building

Number Value

28-6378-33070 $278,000 RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

Built

2003

Area

2475

28-6311-32070 $643,100

28-6378-33160 $272,100

25-5311-14860 $261,500

RESORTS

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

1926

1997

1978

520

1312

1528

25-5311-14640 $429,400

25-5311-33060 $374,700

25-5200-31710 $277,100

25-5311-14640 $429,400

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

2005

2003

2005

2005

2592

2626

1200

2592

25-5311-33050 $447,300

25-5200-31492 $310,800

26-5607-04130 $550,900

26-5607-04250 $463,400

25-5311-34395 $304,200

28-6311-29745 $282,700

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

SEASONAL RECREATIONAL RESIDENTIAL

(with buildings)

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

2007

1988

2010

1999

2005

1999

1975

1600

2747

2272

2896

1647

25-5282-01040 $544,600

28-6311-29740 $353,100

27-5707-20085 $345,600

Total $6,567,900

RESIDENTIAL (less than 4 units)

2005

1997 n/a

2020

1748

1644

455333

285351 n/a

CAMA Building

Number

278036

13534

256601

192705

325648

301589

272982

325648

295358

309548

481266

266917

259527

266984

HAZUS-MH Essential Facility Loss Analysis

Essential facilities encounter the same impacts as other buildings within the flood boundary: structural failure, extensive water damage to the facility, and loss of facility functionality (i.e. a damaged police station will no longer be able to serve the community). None of the essential facilities included in the HAZUS-MH analysis fall within the flood boundary (care facilities, fire stations, police stations, and schools). Lake County also provided critical infrastructure locations (see Appendix B). Two facilities that Lake County identified as critical fall within

the 100 year flood boundary (Table 30 and Figure 21 and Figure 22).

Table 30. Lake County Critical Infrastructure within estimated 100-yr flood boundary

Type Name Site Address City

Chemical and Hazardous Materials ISD 381 Bus Garage

CenturyLink (formerly Qwest

Communications)

6th Ave

6128 Hwy 1

Two Harbors

Finland Chemical and Hazardous Materials

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 21. Critical Infrastructure in Two Harbors and 100 year Flood Boundary

14TH

HW

Y

61

13TH

12TH

11TH

10TH

9TH

HARBOR H

ILLS

11TH

AVE

HIDDEN SP

RI

NG

S

8TH

Two Harbors

EC

7TH

14TH

13TH

12TH

10TH

11TH

9TH

P

Skunk Creek

P

3RD

4TH

2ND

P

1ST

SOUTH

ISD 381

Bus Garage

P

AR

K

3RD

ROCK

Y P OINT

Critical Facilities

¹

Schools

!

BU

RLI

Chemical or Hazardous Materials

HW

Y

61

Banking and Finance

!

Commercial Facilities

Government Facilities

Healthcare and Public Health

ê

Manufacturing

N

Postal and Shipping g

Transportation

100-Year Flood Boundary

P

O

IN

T

Figure 22. Critical Infrastructure near Finland and 100 year Flood Boundary

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

HAZUS-MH Shelter Requirement Analysis

HAZUS-MH estimates the number of households that are expected to be displaced from their homes due to the flood and the associated potential evacuation. HAZUS-MH also estimates those displaced people that may require accommodations in temporary public shelters. The model estimates 139 households may be displaced due to the flood. Displacement includes households evacuated from within or very near to the inundated area.

Of these, the model estimates 30 people (out of a total 2000 census population of 11,058) may seek temporary shelter in public shelters.

HAZUS-MH Debris Generation Analysis

HAZUS estimates the amount of debris that may be generated by the flood. The model breaks debris into three general categories: 1) Finishes (dry wall, insulation, etc.), 2) Structural (wood, brick, etc.) and 3) Foundations

(concrete slab, concrete block, rebar, etc.). This distinction is made because of the different types of material handling equipment required to handle the debris.

The model estimates that a total of 2,463 tons of debris may be generated. Of the total amount, Finishes composes 44% of the total; Structural composes 28% of the total. If the debris tonnage is converted into an estimated number of truckloads, it will require 99 truckloads (@25 tons/truck) to remove the debris generated by the flood.

4.4.7 Dam Failure

Dams are structures that retain or detain water behind a large barrier. When full or partially full, the difference in elevation between the water above the dam and below creates large amounts of potential energy, creating the potential for failure. Dams can fail due to either 1) water heights or flows above the capacity for which the structure was designed; or 2) deficiencies in the structure such that it cannot hold back the potential energy of the water. If a dam fails, issues of primary concern include loss of human life/injury, downstream property damage, lifeline disruption (transportation routes and utility lines required to maintain or protect life), and environmental damage. In addition to failure that results from extreme floods above the design capacity, dams can fail due to structural deficiencies. Dams require constant monitoring and regular maintenance to assure their integrity. As stated in the flood section, some of the flood control precautions in this area depend upon these aging dams. The Winton Dam failed once, resulting in water fluctuation of up to 10 feet. If the Birch Lake

Dam failed, this would also cause the Winton Dam to fail. The Winton area is very flat and the shallow floodplain makes it vulnerable to flooding.

Milepost 7 is a tailings disposal pond at the seven-mile point from Silver Bay on Northshore Mining Company’s railroad in the Beaver River watershed. The Milepost 7 area was chosen as a site for tailings disposal in part because it is a large, deep valley contained on two sides and part of a third by bedrock slopes. Operation of the facility began in 1980 and during its 40-year projected use the basin is designed to be filled to an elevation of

1,309 feet (Green, 1982). Located only three miles from Lake Superior, this dam could cause catastrophic water quality problems if it failed. (Waters, 1977). Milepost 7 tailings disposal pond is currently 1.7 miles across.

Figure 23 shows Milepost 7 in 2010.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 23. Milepost 7 Tailings Disposal, west of Silver Bay and Beaver Bay, MN

The three dams in Lake County are the Winton Dam, the Birch Lake Reservoir Dam, and Milepost 7 shown in

Figure 24. The Winton and Birch Lake Reservoir Dam are both in Superior National Forest and both owned by

Allete, Inc. Winton Dam is on the Kawishiwi River and is used for hydroelectric power and recreation purposes.

Construction was completed in 1923. Its height is 67 feet with a length of 732 feet. Winton is of earthen construction, and has a maximum discharge of 24,300 cubic feet per second. The Birch Lake Reservoir Dam is also on the Kawishiwi River and was built in 1922 for recreation, fish and wildlife protection, and flood control purposes. Its height is 7 feet and has a maximum discharge of 11,617 cubic feet per second.

Page 62 of 93

HARBOR

HILLS

HI

EN

DD

RI

NG

SP

S

11TH

AVE

9TH

8TH

H

Critical Facilities

!

Dams

7TH

14TH

15TH

13TH

12TH

11TH

10TH

9TH

3RD

Skunk

Creek

4TH

2ND

1ST

SOUTH

3RD

P

A

R

K

HW

Y

61

P

O

IN

T

ROC

KY

T

BU

R

LIN

G

TO

N

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Figure 24. Dams in Lake County

Winton

Hydro Dam

Ely

n

9

Birch Lake

Reservoir Dam

CSAH

18

BWCAW

Babbitt

CSAH

3

Superior National Forest

MN1

Isabella

L a k e C o u n t y

C

SAH

7

C o o k C o

Schroeder

S t . L o u i s C o

Brimson

C

SAH

2

C

SAH

3

CSAH

15

C

R

40

2

Finland

M

N

61

Little Marais

Ilgen City

Milepost 7

M

N

61

SAH

M

N

61

Silver Bay

M

N

61

Beaver Bay

M

N

61

M

N

61

M

N

61

MN

61

MN

61

Two Harbors

M

N

61

M

N

61

Knife River

!

Dams

State Park Boundary

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B

IR

S

D

H

O

T

POLAR

BIR

S

HOT

BIR

C H ica do

C re e k

C ed ar

Cree k

L A

X

L A

KE

Pa l isade

Creek

PIT

TIF FA NI

KLIN KER

TS

N

E

R

C

O

O

P

Qwest

Comm

VISTA

H

W

Y

1

C

R

A

N

B

E

R

R

Y

Sa wm ill k

C

R

A

N

B

E

R

R

Y

S

F

A F

AL

LS

CU T

Ba p tism

R iver

PA

H

L

Crys tal C reek

W

H

Y

6

LUP

IN

E

IL

LG

BL

UF

F

O

HW

Y

61

ES

C

LIF

TA

T E

F

C LIF F

H

W

Y

6

1

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

4.4.8 Drought

A drought refers to an extended period of deficient rainfall relative to the statistical mean for a region. Drought can be defined according to meteorological, hydrological, socioeconomic, and agricultural criteria.

Meteorological drought is qualified by any significant deficit of precipitation. Hydrological drought is manifest in noticeably reduced river and stream flow and critically low groundwater tables. The term agricultural drought indicates an extended dry period that results in crop stress and harvest reduction. Socioeconomic drought refers to the situation that occurs when water shortages begin to affect people and their lives. It associates economic goods with the elements of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought. Many supplies of economic goods (e.g., water, food grains, hydroelectric power) are greatly dependent on the weather. Due to natural variations in climate, water supplies are high in some years, but very low in other years. Droughts in

Lake County are of particular concern because of the potential for forest fires as well as the impacts lower lake levels have on recreation.

Droughts have impacted the Lake County area during different periods over the last century. The most notable drought periods were 1934, 1954-1961, 1976-1977, and 1987-1989.

4.4.9 Structure Fires

FEMA separates structure fires that are human-caused as a manmade hazard. An incendiary attack is the initiation of fire or explosion on or near a target via direct contact or remotely via projectile. The duration of the hazard is generally minutes to hours. The extent of damage is determined by the type and quantity of device/accelerant and materials present at or near target. The effects of structural fire are generally static other than cascading consequences, incremental structural failure, etc. Mitigation factors include built-in fire detection and protection systems and fire-resistive construction techniques. Inadequate security can allow easy access to target, easy concealment of an incendiary device and undetected initiation of a fire. Non-compliance with fire and building codes as well as failure to maintain existing fire protection systems can substantially increase the effectiveness of a fire weapon.

4.4.10 Ground and Water Supply Contamination

Water supply contamination is the introduction of point and non-point source pollutants into public ground water and or surface water supplies. Although minimal, water supply contamination does pose a threat to the county. The causes of water contamination are numerous and range from failing septic systems and leaking underground tanks to improper use of household chemicals. In Lake County, the water supply for seasonal or vacation homes that are used infrequently may go untested for years. It is important to test water every year if a well is not used continuously. Residences near lakes and rivers often have wells that use shallow ground water that is particularly at risk for contamination. Seasonal homes or cottages may have older wells that need repair or replacement, but are a lower priority than the primary residence.

The most obvious concern about an unsafe water supply is the health risk to family or guests. Wastewater contamination serves as a source of bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause gastrointestinal problems or transmit contagious diseases.

Municipal wastewater collection systems often receive additional water during heavy storm events as a result of

Inflow and Infiltration. This may cause the wastewater treatment system to reach its maximum treatment

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

capacity. In this event, excess flow will be directed into waterways untreated, resulting in sewage contamination. Urban runoff is usually collected by a separate storm sewer system and discharged directly into waterways.

Residences outside of the three cities and Silver Creek in Lake County are served by septic systems as opposed to public waste treatment facilities. Contamination of water from septic tanks can occur under various conditions including the poor placement of septic leach fields, badly constructed percolation systems, system failure, and a high density placement of tanks. This water may seep to the land surface, run-off into surface water or flow directly into the water table.

The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) requires routine inspections of all wastewater treatment systems. Inspection of a septic system is required at the point of sale of property or after a property owner applies for a permit for an addition to a structure in shoreland areas.

Septic system failure rates have not been determined systematically throughout Lake County.

The city of Beaver Bay has been plagued with old municipal water lines, and recently has had a series of water line breaks. Beaver Bay issued a Boil Order without Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) consultation on

September 6, 2011. A water main break forced a boil order for residents living in the city because water pressure dropped to levels that could allow bacteria to grow. Residents were instructed to boil water for one minute before drinking. MDH worked closely with them during their boil orders and was required to test the water for safety before the boil orders were lifted.

4.4.11 Infectious Diseases

Infectious disease outbreaks can occur as primary events themselves or they may be secondary events to another disaster or emergency such as a terrorist attack or natural disaster. If a disease outbreak would occur, deaths, fear and misinformation could trigger civil unrest, lawlessness and panic.

The surfacing of diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) (for which there is no cure or vaccination), and bio-terrorism threats underscore the need for a good public health system to early detect new diseases and prevent a large scale epidemic. Increased resistance of diseases to various antibiotics is another area of concern. There are also concerns in Lake County of E. coli bacteria in lake water as a result of residential septic tanks.

Lake County has a Pandemic Influenza Incident Specific Appendix to the Lake County Emergency Operations

Plan. An influenza pandemic will place extraordinary and sustained demands on the public health and medical care systems as well as providers of essential services in Lake County. The importance of influenza viruses as biological threats is due to a number of factors, including a high degree of transmissibility, the presence of a vast reservoir of novel (new) variants, and the unusual properties of the viral genome.

Two types of influenza viruses cause disease in humans: type A and type B. Influenza A viruses are composed of two major antigenic structures essential to vaccines and immunity: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N).

The structure of these two components defines the virus subtype. Influenza A viruses are unique because they can infect both humans and animals thereby causing more severe illness. Antigenic shifts in influenza A viruses

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

have been the cause of the last three pandemics: 1918, 1957, and 1968. In 2009, a statewide outbreak of H1N1 resulted in a large vaccination effort in Lake County. HINI clinics were held by Lake County Public Health (LCPH) in 9 sites throughout the county, including Fall Lake Township. Ten percent of the population was vaccinated at these clinics, many more residents may have been vaccinated at their primary care physicians’ offices in either

Lake or St. Louis counties. There were no identified and verified cases of H1N1. The ability of LCPH to monitor and control the progress and measures of vaccination delivery was critical to the effectiveness of the H1N1 vaccination response.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses data from previous pandemics to provide estimates of the impact of pandemic flu. The estimates range from a moderate pandemic (based upon 1957 and 1968) to a severe pandemic (based upon 1918) outbreak. CDC models provide the following estimates.

In Lake County (based upon the 2000 population of 11,080)

3300 people will be infected

1600 people will require outpatient care

30 to 350 people will be hospitalized

Between 8 and 70 people will die

Effective preventive and therapeutic measures – including vaccines and antiviral agents – will likely be in short supply, as may some antibiotics to treat secondary infections. Healthcare workers and other first responders will likely be at even higher risk of exposure and illness than the general population, further impeding the care of ill persons. Widespread illness in the community will also increase the likelihood of sudden and potentially significant shortages of various personnel who provide other essential community services.

No major outbreaks of infectious disease have been recorded in Lake County.

4.4.12 Hazardous Materials

Hazardous materials are composed of substances that are flammable or combustible, explosive, toxic, noxious, corrosive, oxidizers or radioactive. Business types that commonly use hazardous materials locally include: hospitals, schools, metal plating and finishing, the aircraft industry, public utilities, cold storage companies, the fuel industries, the communication industry, chemical distributors, research, and high technology firms. Each of these facilities is required to maintain plans for warning, notification, evacuation and site security under various regulations. Hazardous materials incidents are generally associated with transportation accidents or accidents at fixed facilities.

Hazardous materials may also be released as a secondary result of natural disasters fire and floods. In either case, buildings or vehicles can release hazardous materials when they are structurally compromised or are involved in traffic accidents. Pipelines can be exposed or ruptured from collapsed embankments, road washouts, bridge collapses, and fractures in roadways.

Hazardous materials spills might cause the short-term or long-term evacuation of an affected area. Depending on the nature of the spill and local weather conditions, residences, businesses, hospitals, schools, nursing homes, and roadways may be evacuated or closed to traffic until cleanup can be affected.

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Table 31 lists the top five hazardous materials incidents in Lake County from 2005-2010. These incidents either had injuries or large quantities of material spill.

Table 31. Top ten hazardous or chemical incidents from 2005-2010

Type of

Incident Date

Incident

Location

Fire y/n

Number

Injuries Quantity Unit

Name of

Material

Reached water

RAILROAD 30-Sep-10

MP 14.8 IRON

RANGE SUB

N 5 0

UNKNOWN

AMOUNT

MOBILE 17-Mar-09

MOBILE 12-Nov-07

INTERSECTION

OF HWY 3 AND

HWY 4 OF LAKE

COUNTY

DM &

IR/CNRAILROAD

YARD

MOBILE 18-Sep-07

4133

MINNESOTA

HIGHWAY 61

N

N

N

1

0

1

6000

40

0

GALLON(S)

GALLON(S)

UNKNOWN

AMOUNT

OIL, FUEL: NO.

2-D

UNKNOWN

DIRTY WATER

CONTAINING

DISSOLVED

SOLIDS FROM

COAL

OIL, FUEL: NO.

2-D

YES

NO

OIL: DIESEL NO

FIXED 3-Sep-06

DM AND IR/CN

RAILROAD

N 0 100 GALLON(S)

IF 280/SIMILAR

TO NO. 6 DIESEL

NO

Transportation

Hazardous materials are transported in Lake County by road and pipeline. Hazardous materials being transported include materials moving from producers to users, moving between storage and use facilities, and hazardous waste moving from generators to treatment and disposal facilities.

The main route connecting communities and residents in Lake County is Trunk Highway (TH) 61. Trunk Highway

61 functions as an international trade route and receives a significant amount of commercial truck traffic, some of which is transporting hazardous materials. Impacts of a transportation-related hazardous materials spill would be the greatest in the more populated areas. However, the limited opportunities for re-routing traffic in case of a road blockage for some sections of the road could create serious problems on TH 61 and could impact travelers as well as businesses.

Fixed Facilities

A variety of hazardous materials are stored in fixed facilities throughout Lake County. For example, Lake County has two small municipal airports that primarily serve small businesses and pleasure travelers. A variety of flammable liquids and chemicals are stored at this facility. Accidents involving aircraft and chemicals related to their operation create a potential situation where hazardous material could be released. There are only three businesses in Lake County that require a facilities plan. These are Northshore Mining, Louisiana Pacific, and

Stanley LaBounty. All sites recognized as having hazardous or chemical waste are shown in Figure 25.

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Figure 25. Sites with Hazardous or Chemical Waste in Lake County.

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4.4.13 Cyber Terrorism

Cyber Terrorism is the electronic attack using one computer system against another. Inadequate security can facilitate access to critical computer systems, allowing them to be used to conduct attacks and cause major disruption. While this type of attack is unlikely, cataloging and understanding the range of services in Lake

County which are dependent on adequately functioning computer systems (i.e. computer systems at hospitals and emergency services) can work to mitigate the consequences from this kind of attack. There are generally no direct effects on the built environment, but because of service disruption the potentially could be a great deal of economic loss, possibly resulting in public disorder. There are no known large-scale incidents of cyber terrorism in Lake County.

4.4.14 Public Disorder

Public disorder can take many forms including demonstrations that become violent, destructive or infringe upon the rights of others. Workplace violence is often the work of a single individual; causing property damage, injury or death using some form of weapon or device.

An active shooter can be defined as an individual involved in Tactical assault or sniping from remote location.

Inadequate security can allow easy access to targets, as well as easy concealment of weapons and undetected initiation of an attack. Mitigation actions must take into consideration second amendment guarantees. Ensuring that State of Minnesota procedures regarding conceal and carry permits are followed is paramount. As well, law enforcement personnel must be trained to respond (including the coordination and practiced response of multiple disciplines and agencies) to any incidents. There are no historic large-scale incidents of public disorder in Lake County.

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Section 5 – Mitigation Strategy

The goal of mitigation is to reduce the future impacts of hazards including property damage, disruption to local and regional economies, the amount of public and private funds spent to assist with recovery, and to build disaster-resistant communities. Mitigation actions and projects should be based on a well-constructed risk assessment, provided in Section 4 of this plan. Mitigation should be an ongoing process adapting over time to accommodate a community’s needs.

5.1 Community Capability Assessment

The capability assessment identifies current activities used to mitigate hazards. The capability assessment identifies the policies, regulations, procedures, programs, and projects that contribute to the lessening of disaster damages. The assessment also provides an evaluation of these capabilities to determine whether the activities can be improved in order to more effectively reduce the impact of future hazards. The following sections identify existing plans and mitigation capabilities within all of the communities. The jurisdictions are individually described in section 5.3.2.

5.1.1 National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)

Lake County and cities within the county are members of the NFIP. There are no Special Flood Hazard Areas

(SFHA) in Lake County. There are no repetitive loss properties in the county.

5.1.2 Plans and Ordinances

Lake County and its incorporated communities have a number of plans and ordinances in place to ensure the safety of residents and the effective operation of communities. These include the Lake County Community

Wildfire Protection Plan, NE MN Wildfire IRP, Lake County Comprehensive Plan and Land Use Ordinance, the

Pandemic Influenza Incident Specific Appendix to the Lake County Emergency Operations Plan, and the Lake

County Water Management Plan.

5.2 Mitigation Goals

In Section 4.0 of this plan, the risk assessment identified Lake County as prone to a number of natural and technological hazards. The Steering Committee members understand that although hazards cannot be eliminated altogether, Lake County can work toward building disaster-resistant communities.

The mitigation goals from the initial mitigation plan were reviewed and have been completely revised. The goals, strategies and objectives listed in the Minnesota All-Hazard Mitigation Plan were adopted for use in the Lake

County Plan (Table 32). The goals for other (non-natural) hazards are shown in Table 33. This framework will

allow for integration of the mitigation actions that are listed by Lake County and its jurisdictions into the state plan. The state will then be able to develop statewide strategy that will benefit all of Minnesota.

Table 32. Natural Hazard Mitigation Goals, Strategies, and Objectives from Minnesota All-Hazard Mitigation Plan.

Goal 1 – Flooding: Reduce deaths, injuries, property loss and economic disruption due to all types of flooding (riverine, flash flooding)

Mitigation Strategy Objectives

Prevention: Planning, technical studies, training, adoption of ordinances and legislation, acquisition and use of equipment, establishing shelters, and encouraging participation in NFIP and CRS will be used to prevent or reduce risks to lives and property from flooding.

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Property Protection: Acquisition, repair, or retrofitting of property and acquisition and use of equipment will be used to prevent or reduce risks to property from flooding.

Public Education and

Awareness:

Public education and access to information will be used to raise public awareness of risks from flooding in order to prevent or reduce those risks.

Natural Resource

Protection:

Structural

Improvements:

Stream corridor protection projects and restoration and soil erosion control projects will be used to prevent or reduce risks and increase the protection of natural resources from flooding.

Emergency Services: Technological improvements, warning systems, responder training, emergency response services, acquisition and use of equipment, and planning will provide emergency services to prevent or reduce the risks to lives and property from flooding.

Construction and maintenance of drains, sewer drainage and separation projects, floodwalls, dams, culverts, levees, roads, bridges, and general flood protection projects will be used to prevent or reduce damages from flooding, loss of services to critical equipment, and the risks they pose to lives, property, and the natural environment.

Goal 2 - Wildfire: Reduce deaths, injuries, property loss, natural resource and economic disruption due to wildfire.

Mitigation Strategy

Prevention:

Objectives

Enforcement of regulations, adoption of ordinances, technical studies, and planning will be used to prevent or reduce wild land fires and the risks they pose to lives, property, and the natural environment.

Property Protection: Vegetation management, water treatment measures (for example sprinklers) will be used to prevent or reduce the risk of wild land fires.

Public Education and

Awareness:

Public education and access to information will be used to raise public awareness of risks from wild land fires in order to prevent or reduce those risks, specifically the Firewise program.

Emergency Services: Planning, responder training, acquisition and use of equipment, evacuations, warning systems, technological improvements, and emergency response services will provide emergency services to prevent or reduce risks to lives and property from wild land fires.

Structural

Improvements:

New or retrofit construction utilizing fire resistant building materials and installation and maintenance of sprinkler and warning systems will be used to prevent or reduce the risk of wild land fires.

Goal 3 – Windstorms: Reduce deaths, injuries, property loss, and economic disruption due to windstorms.

Mitigation Strategy

Prevention:

Objectives

Planning, technical studies, acquisition and use of equipment, adoption of ordinances and legislation, and establishing of shelters will be used to prevent or reduce risks from windstorms to lives, property, and economic activity.

Property Protection: Constructing safe rooms and storm shelters, retrofitting, and vegetation management will be used to prevent or reduce risks to the protection of property from windstorms.

Public Education and

Awareness:

Public education, warning systems, and access to information will be used to raise public awareness of risks from windstorms in order to prevent or reduce those risks.

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Emergency Services: Warning systems, responder training, emergency response services, technological improvements, and response and recovery planning will provide emergency services to prevent or reduce risks from windstorms.

Structural

Improvements:

Mitigation Strategy

Prevention:

Construction of storm shelters and safe rooms and maintenance of other structural projects will be used to prevent or reduce risks from windstorms.

Goal 4 – Severe Winter Storms: Reduce deaths, injuries, property loss, and economic disruption due to severe winter storms.

Objectives

Acquisition and use of equipment, adoption and enforcement of ordinances and legislation, planning, and technical studies will be used to prevent or reduce risk to the protection of lives, property, and economic activity from the risks from severe winter storms.

Property Protection: Acquisition and use of equipment and vegetation management will be used to prevent or reduce risks to property from the risks from severe winter storms.

Public Education and

Awareness:

Public education, warning systems, access to information, and outreach projects will be used to raise public awareness of the risks from severe winter storms in order to reduce those risks.

Emergency Services: Acquisition and use of equipment, emergency response services, warning systems, technological improvements, planning, and responder training will provide emergency services to prevent or reduce risks from severe winter storms.

Structural

Improvements:

Mitigation Strategy

Prevention:

Structural projects will be implemented and maintained to prevent or reduce risks from severe winter storms.

Goal 5 – Lightening: Reduce deaths, injuries, property losses, loss of services, and economic disruption due to lightning.

Objectives

Planning, technical studies, acquisition and use of equipment, adoption of ordinances and legislation, and establishing shelters will be utilized to prevent or reduce the risks from lightning.

Property Protection: Retrofits and construction of safe rooms and storm shelters will be used to prevent or reduce the risks to property from lightning.

Public Education and

Awareness:

Public education, outreach projects, and access to information will be used to raise public awareness of risks from lightning in order to prevent or reduce those risks.

Emergency Services: Responder training, warning systems, emergency response services, planning, acquisition and use of equipment, and technological improvements will provide emergency services to prevent or reduce risks to lives and property from lightning.

Structural

Improvements:

Goal 6 – Dam Failure: Decrease the risks to life and property from dam failure in the State of Minnesota.

Mitigation Strategy Objectives

Prevention:

The construction of safe rooms, shelters, and underground utility lines as well as maintenance of structural projects will be used to prevent or reduce risks from lightning.

Public Education and

Awareness:

Planning, technical studies, inspections, and encouraging participation in NFIP will be used to prevent or reduce risks from dam failures.

Public education will be used to raise awareness of risks from dam failures in order to prevent or reduce those risks.

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Natural Resource

Protection:

Watershed management projects will be used to protect natural resources and prevent or reduce risks from dam failures.

Emergency Services: Planning, responder training, warning systems, emergency response services, technological improvements, and acquisition and use of equipment will provide emergency services to prevent or reduce risks from dam failures.

Structural

Improvements:

Structural projects will be used to prevent or reduce the risks of dam failures.

Goal 7 – Drought: Reduce economic, agricultural, and natural resource disruption due to drought.

Mitigation Strategy Objectives

Prevention: Planning, acquisition and use of equipment, and technical studies will be used to prevent or reduce risks from drought.

Property Protection: Water treatment measures will be used to prevent or reduce risks to property from drought.

Public Education and

Awareness:

Natural Resource

Protection:

Public education and access to information will be used to raise public awareness of risks from drought in order to prevent or reduce those risks.

Planning and implementing watershed plans will be used to prevent or reduce risks from drought.

Structural

Improvements:

Goal 8 – Extreme Temperatures: Reduce deaths, injuries, property loss, and economic disruption due to extreme temperatures.

Mitigation Strategy

Prevention:

Technological improvements and acquisition of equipment for structural projects will be used to prevent or reduce risks from drought.

Objectives

Planning and the acquisition and use of equipment will be used to prevent or reduce risks from extreme temperatures.

Property Protection: Acquisition and use of equipment will be used to prevent or reduce risks to property and economic disruption from extreme temperatures.

Public Education and

Awareness:

Public education and access to information will be used to raise public awareness of the risks from extreme temperatures in order to prevent or reduce those risks.

Structural

Improvements:

Planning, responder training, warning systems, establishing shelters, and technological improvements will provide emergency services to prevent or reduce risks from extreme temperatures.

Table 33. Hazard Mitigation Goals, Strategies, and Objectives for Other Hazards

Goal 15 – Hazardous Materials: Reduce deaths, injuries, property losses, loss of services, and economic disruption due to hazardous materials.

Mitigation Strategy

Prevention:

Objectives

Licensing and regulating facilities, planning, acquisition and use of equipment, training, and training exercises will be used to prevent or reduce risks from hazardous materials.

Property Protection:

Public Education and

Awareness:

Emergency Services:

Measures used to prevent or reduce the release of hazardous materials.

Warning, public education and access to information will be used to raise public awareness of risks from hazardous materials.

Develop hazardous material teams and first responder’s capability to respond to incidents.

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Goal 16 – Structural Fires: Reduce deaths, injuries, property loss and economic disruption due to structural fires (not due to wildfire).

Mitigation Strategy

Prevention:

Objectives

Planning, technical studies, training, adoption of ordinances and legislation and acquisition and use of equipment will be used to prevent or reduce risks to lives and property from structural fires.

Property Protection:

Public Education and

Awareness:

Emergency Services:

Adopt state fire codes and inspect structure per local ordinance.

Public education and access to information will be used to raise public awareness of risks from fires in order to prevent or reduce those risks.

Technological improvements, warning systems, responder training, emergency response services, acquisition and use of equipment, and planning will provide emergency services to prevent or reduce the risks to lives and property from fires.

5.3 Mitigation Actions and Projects

Upon completion of the risk assessment and development of the goals and objectives, the planning committee was provided a list of the six mitigation measure categories from the FEMA State and Local Mitigation Planning

How to Guides. The list of Mitigation Actions by Strategy provided by HSEM was used to assist in identifying mitigation action strategies. The measures are listed as follows:

Prevention: Government, administrative, or regulatory actions or processes that influence the way land and buildings are developed and built. These actions also include public activities to reduce hazard losses. Examples include planning and zoning, building codes, capital improvement programs, open space preservation, and stormwater management regulations.

Property Protection: Actions that involve the modification of existing buildings or structures to protect them from a hazard or removal from the hazard area. Examples include acquisition, elevation, structural retrofits, storm shutters, and shatter-resistant glass.

Public Education and Awareness: Actions to inform and educate citizens, elected officials, and property owners about the hazards and potential ways to mitigate them. Such actions include outreach projects, real estate disclosure, hazard information centers, and school-age and adult education programs.

Natural Resource Protection: Actions that, in addition to minimizing hazard losses, preserve or restore the functions of natural systems. These actions include sediment and erosion control, stream corridor restoration, watershed management, forest and vegetation management, and wetland restoration and preservation.

Emergency Services: Actions that protect people and property during and immediately after a disaster or hazard event. Services include warning systems, emergency response services, and protection of critical facilities.

Structural Projects: Actions that involve the construction of structures to reduce the impact of a hazard.

Such structures include dams, levees, floodwalls, seawalls, retaining walls, and safe rooms.

During the steering committee meetings and public meetings participants were presented with the task of individually listing potential mitigation activities using the FEMA evaluation criteria. The evaluation criteria

(STAPLE+E) involved the following categories and questions.

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Social:

Will the proposed action adversely affect one segment of the population?

Will the action disrupt established neighborhoods, break up voting districts, or cause the relocation of lower income people?

Technical:

How effective is the action in avoiding or reducing future losses?

Will it create more problems than it solves?

Does it solve the problem or only a symptom?

Does the mitigation strategy address continued compliance with the NFIP?

Administrative:

Does the jurisdiction have the capability (staff, technical experts, and/or funding) to implement the action, or can it be readily obtained?

Can the community provide the necessary maintenance?

Can it be accomplished in a timely manner?

Political:

Is there political support to implement and maintain this action?

Is there a local champion willing to help see the action to completion?

Is there enough public support to ensure the success of the action?

How can the mitigation objectives be accomplished at the lowest cost to the public

Legal:

Does the community have the authority to implement the proposed action?

Are the proper laws, ordinances, and resolution in place to implement the action?

Are there any potential legal consequences?

Is there any potential community liability?

Is the action likely to be challenged by those who may be negatively affected?

Does the mitigation strategy address continued compliance with the NFIP?

Economic:

Are there currently sources of funds that can be used to implement the action?

What benefits will the action provide?

Does the cost seem reasonable for the size of the problem and likely benefits?

What burden will be placed on the tax base or local economy to implement this action?

Does the action contribute to other community economic goals such as capital improvements or economic development?

What proposed actions should be considered but be “tabled” for implementation until outside sources of funding are available?

Environmental:

How will this action affect the environment (land, water, endangered species)?

Will this action comply with local, state, and federal environmental laws and regulations?

Is the action consistent with community environmental goals?

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Implementation of the mitigation plan is critical to the overall success of the mitigation planning process. The first step is to decide, based upon many factors, which action will be undertaken first. In order to pursue the top

priority first, an analysis and prioritization of the actions is important. Table 34 lists the factors to consider in the

analysis and prioritization of actions. Some actions may occur before the top priority due to financial, engineering, environmental, permitting, and site control issues. Public awareness and input of these mitigation actions can increase knowledge to capitalize on funding opportunities and monitoring the progress of an action.

Table 34. STAPLE+E planning factors

S – Social

Mitigation actions are acceptable to the community if they do not adversely affect a particular segment of the population, do not cause relocation of lower income people, and if they are compatible with the community’s social and cultural values.

T – Technical

Mitigation actions are technically most effective if they provide a long-term reduction of losses and have minimal secondary adverse impacts.

A – Administrative

Mitigation actions are easier to implement if the jurisdiction has the necessary staffing and funding.

P – Political

Mitigation actions can truly be successful if all stakeholders have been offered an opportunity to participate in the planning process and if there is public support for the action.

L – Legal

It is critical that the jurisdiction or implementing agency have the legal authority to implement and enforce a mitigation action.

E – Economic

Budget constraints can significantly deter the implementation of mitigation actions. Hence, it is important to evaluate whether an action is cost-effective, as determined by a cost benefit review, and possible to fund.

E – Environmental

Sustainable mitigation actions that do not have an adverse effect on the environment, comply with federal, state, and local environmental regulations, and are consistent with the community’s environmental goals, have mitigation benefits while being environmentally sound.

5.3.1 Hazard Mitigation Actions

Lake County and its included municipalities share a common Multi-Hazard Mitigation plan and worked closely to develop it. Each of the incorporated municipalities within the county has a mayor, a city administrator, and an appointed emergency management director. These people work together with their city councils and the Lake

County emergency management director to assure that the hazards and mitigation actions included in this plan are accurate and addressed in their jurisdictions. In addition, each municipality is represented on the Lake

County Emergency Preparedness Group which reviews and evaluates this Plan. The jurisdictions responsible for each action are:

LC: Lake County

TH: Two Harbors

SB: Silver Bay

BB: Beaver Bay

FL: Fall Lake

In addition to the priority and status, comments are made to explain who is responsible to implement the action, its current stage of implementation, or any remarks that may be useful in future discussions. Stating the source of funding and possible dates of completion is helpful in understanding how projects may be funded and when to expect completion once funded. We have also prioritized the actions and listed the actions according to

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

their priority ranking (1=High Priority; 2= Medium High Priority; 3= Medium Low Priority and 4=Low Priority).

Table 35 lists all mitigation actions for Lake County. Appendix H contains separate mitigation action tables for

each jurisdiction.

In addition to ranking the hazard mitigation actions using STAPLE+E, the Steering Committee also reports on the status of the mitigation action. Completed and deleted mitigation actions are denoted in Appendix G. Ongoing mitigation actions from the initial review were incorporated into annual reviews by the mitigation team. The status designations are:

New – actions have not yet started

Ongoing – actions require continuing application

In Progress – actions are currently being acted upon

Complete – the action is complete

Deferred – no progress has been made

Deleted – the action is no longer relevant

The following acronyms are used in the comments fields to note who is responsible for completing the actions in

Table 35 and the separate jurisdiction mitigation action tables in Appendix H:

LCEM – Lake County Emergency Management

LCPH – Lake County Public Health

LCSS – Lake County Social Services

LCHwy – Lake County Highway

LCFstry – Lake County Forestry

ISD 381 – Independent School District 381

VFD – Volunteer Fire Departments

USFS – United States Forest Service

NWS – National Weather Service

MDOT – Minnesota Department of

LCIS – Lake County Information Services

LCSO – Lake County Sheriff's Office

LCP&Z – Lake County Planning and Zoning

LC SWCD – Lake County Soil and Water

Conservation District

DNR – Department of Natural Resources

Transportation

CLP – Cooperative Light and Power

TH – City of Two Harbors

SB – City of Silver Bay

FL – Fall Lake Township

LC – Lake County

Assessor – Lake County Assessor’s Office

THFD – Two Harbors Fire Department

The mitigation types are defined as follows:

BB – City of Beaver Bay

*CWPP indicates a Mitigation Action listed in Community Wildfire Protection Plan

P = Prevention

PP = Property Protection

PE = Public Education

NRP = Natural Resource Protection

ES =Emergency Services

SI = Structural Improvement

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Table 35. All Mitigation Actions for Lake County

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

CWPP 1.1: Facilitate development of and support local jurisdictions in becoming recognized Firewise

Communities.

CWPP 1.2: Provide funding for Level

2 Firewise assessments for all residences and actively conduct

Firewise trainings and assessments.

Priority

1

1

Mitigation

Type

P

PP PE

Status

In

Progress

In

Progress

PP In

Progress

Responsibility Comments

LCEM

LCEM

LCEM

Firewise Coordinator is currently working with 5 eligible and interested communities.

This is supported by a Firewise Grant. Due

2012.

We have conducted over 1100 Level 2

Firewise assessments for homeowners in high and medium risk Wilderness Urban

Interface (WUI) areas. Firewise grants support this effort. Due to be finished in

2013. Once completed, it will be updated every 3-5 years.

A Legislative PDM grant supports this project which has installed 32 sprinkler systems in

Lake County through 2011, with several more due by the end date in 2012.

Hazard

Wildfire

Wildfire

Wildfire CWPP 2.1: Provide 75% sprinkler system reimbursement to eligible, homestead Lake County applicants for the ARDC Wildfire Sprinkler Grant

Program until August, 2012.

CWPP 2.2: Develop and implement metal roofing grant program with cost share for homes located in Lake

County in areas with increased wildfire risk as identified in the

CWPP.

CWPP 2.8: Prioritize and implement hazardous fuels treatments annually for all WUIs.

1

1

1

CWPP 2.3: Develop and implement plan to install dry hydrants and water storage tanks for residential fire response in key locations.

1

PP

SI

P

In

Progress

In

Progress

In

Progress

LCEM

LCEM

Approximately 25 metal roofs were installed with a 75% rebate program funded by Title III

SRS funds, which expires in 2012. Other funding sources will be sought to continue the program.

USFS Stevens Grants support these efforts.

We are currently working with several homeowners groups, with 10-15 individual projects completed in 2011, and 25-30 homeowners due in 2012.

LCEM, VFDs Title III SRS funds are currently supporting this effort. We added 5 dry hydrants in 2011, and expect to add several more in 2012. This funding expires in 2012.

Wildfire

Wildfire

Structure Fire,

Wildfire

Page 78 of 93

Jurisdictions

LC, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, FL

LC, FL

LC, FL

LC, FL

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

CWPP 2.4: Organize and provide brush disposal / chipper programs in communities in Lake County in areas with increased wildfire risk as identified in the CWPP.

CWPP 2.7: Establish GIS mapping products to support the CWPP plan, such as locations of Firewise assessments, external wildfire sprinkler installations, dry hydrants and water storage tanks, etc.

Develop evacuation shelter plans

Priority

1

1

1

Mitigation

Type

P

P

P

Status

In

Progress

New

New

Responsibility Comments

LCEM, USFS,

TH

LCEM

Community chipping programs were conducted in Two Harbors and Fall Lake in

2011, using Title III SRS funding. We expect to conduct similar programs in 2012 and seek funding to continue them.

This was started of necessity during the

Pagami Creek fire of 2011, but has resulted in a robust GIS system integrated with USFS,

DNR and Cook County GIS programs. Some of this work was funded by USFS payments.

LCPH, LCSS In 2011 HSEM awarded Region 2 a State

Homeland Security Program (SHSP) grant to inventory shelters, sponsor a sheltering conference in 2012, provide training and exercise shelter plans.

Hazard

Wildfire

Wildfire

Wildfire, Tornado,

Winter Storm

Train more emergency responders and community residents to be spotters so that they can play a more proactive role in identifying weather hazards.

Incorporate vulnerability of infrastructure and population put at risk when setting funding priorities for infrastructure projects.

Inventory which government facilities, essential services providers and critical infrastructure need backup generators in case of power loss.

CWPP 3.1: Work with partners to effectively communicate fire restrictions to the public as needed.

1

1

1

1

P

P

P

PE

New

New

New

New This will be combined with the red flag warning system.

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LCEM, NWS Skywarn Spotter training is offered each year in Lake County, and all emergency responders will be encouraged to attend.

Online and DVD options, and local trainers are being implemented by the NWS in 2012.

LCEM will coordinate with Lake County LCEM,

Assessor,

LCPH

Assessor to place values on critical infrastructure. LCPH is also conducting a risk and capability assessment in 2012.

LCEM, TH, SB,

BB

The Critical Infrastructure list will be surveyed to develop this list, then funding will be sought to provide backup power sources. Due 2012.

Extreme Cold,

Severe Winter

Storms, Windstorms

Flash Flooding

Lightning, Winter

Storms, Sever

Winter Storms

LC, TH, SB,

BB,

LC, TH, SB,

BB,

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LCEM Wildfire

Jurisdictions

LC, FL, FL

LC, FL

LC, FL

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

CWPP 2.6: Provide NOAA weather radios for emergency updates to property owners in remote, high-risk wildfire areas of Lake County.

Priority

1

Mitigation

Type

PE

Status

Maintain an on-going effort to educate residents and visitors so they know how to respond in case of a wildfire and are aware of evacuation routes.

Broadcast evacuation information to residents and visitors on which routes to use in the case of a fire.

Radio, websites, NOAA, NIXLE and community partners can be used.

Continue inter-agency and multijurisdictional efforts to identify, contain, and extinguish wildfires.

1

1

1

1

PE

PE

ES

P

Ongoing LCEM Articles are placed in newspapers and website. We are seeking funding to provide

NOAA radios to rural and remote citizens and visitors.

Flash Floods,

Windstorms,

Lightning, Severe

Winter Storms,

Thunderstorms.

Wildfire Ongoing LCEM, LCPH During the Pagami Creek fire of 2011, we tested NOAA radios and Nixle, held daily public meetings, and developed a Facebook page, email list, community partners list.

Information on evacuation kits and plans was available.

Ongoing LCEM We worked with all these resources during the Pagami fire, and updated our Emergency

Operations Plan to include these partners.

Wildfire, Lightning

Ongoing

Responsibility Comments

LCEM,USFS,

DNR

Ongoing LCEM, LCHwy,

TH, SB

All agencies cooperate using the NE MN

Interagency Wildfire Response Plan. We are currently working with USFS on an agreement to share costs for this.

Communication is maintained with these departments on problem areas and progress.

Hazard

Wildfire

Flash Flooding Maintain bridge, road, and culvert infrastructure at a level that is capable of sustaining a major storm event and will not be vulnerable to washouts.

Address ice dams that may impact the road system in a timely manner in order to prevent damage to infrastructure, in particular during the spring thaw.

1 P Ongoing LCEM, LCHwy,

MDOT, TH, SB

Local jurisdictions use steamers to clear culverts as needed.

Flash Flooding

Jurisdictions

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, FL

LC, TH, SB,

FL, BB

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

Page 80 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

Participate in regional exercises that test local plans and interaction between agencies, including the

SEOC (State Emergency Operations

Center).

Maintain a group of responders trained at a technician level to respond to contain a hazardous materials event.

Work with MnDOT, State Patrol and

US Customs to update information on hazardous materials that typically travel through Lake County

Locate power lines underground where it is feasible and cost effective. This could be done as part of new construction or as part of reconstruction projects.

CWPP 1.7: Coordinate fire prevention education with all K-12 schools in

Lake County on an annual basis, such as: Smokey Bear Programs (K-2),

Good Fire/Bad Fire messages (3-6), and Firewise messages/trainings (7-

12).

CWPP 2.5: Organize and implement burn barrel pilot projects /amnesty programs with Lake County communities.

Priority

1

1

2

2

2

2

Mitigation

Type

ES

ES

P

P

PE

P

Status

Ongoing

Ongoing

Deferred

In

Progress

In

Progress

In

Progress

Responsibility Comments

LCEM

LCEM, VFDs

LCEM

CLP, TH, MN

Power

LCEM, VFDs,

LCFstry, ISD

381

LCEM

Lake County and local responders participate in at least one regional multidisciplinary exercise per year.

Records will be kept of those VFDs with

Hazmat Tech response teams. Due 2012.

MNDOT currently has no data on hazardous materials on specific state highways. More research must be done to catalog these and provide trainings to responders.

After the 2009 ice storm, DR 1830 Hazard

Mitigation Assistance funds provided Coop

Light and Power with $397,000 to bury powerlines along a 6 mile section of Lax Lake

Road. As of 2012, funds have been awarded but not received for that project. Completion is expected by 2013.

Silver Bay and Two Harbors Fire Depts. present school programs annually, and a

"Firewise in the Classroom" course was presented in Wm Kelley High School in Silver

Bay in 2012. It was funded by Lake County

Forestry, Emergency Mgmt. and ISD 381. We hope to receive a Firewise grant to continue it annually.

A burn barrel brochure has been developed in cooperation with DNR and local law enforcement to be distributed to all Lake

County property owners. A Firewise grant is supporting this action.

Hazard

All-Hazard

Transportation Haz

Mat, Fixed Haz Mat

Transportation

Hazardous Materials

Thunderstorms,

Windstorms,

Extreme Cold,

Winter Storms

Structure Fire

Wildfire

Jurisdictions

LC, TH, SB,

BB,

LC, TH, SB,

FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB

LC, TH, SB

LC

LC, FL

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

CWPP 1.4: Regularly submit news releases on wildfire prevention topics in Lake County newspapers and maintain Lake County Emergency

Management website page with

CWPP related articles, events, and related information.

CWPP 1.6: Create a calendar of public events in Lake County and identify opportunities for providing fire prevention education.

Encourage and provide fire prevention messages at local community celebrations and events.

Prepare for medical surge capability for local clinics, hospitals and EMS providers.

Priority

2

2

2

Mitigation

Type

PE

PE

P

Status

New

New

New

PE New Encourage campground operators to provide information for Lake County visitors regarding storm shelter and safety during severe storms.

Work with Northshore Mining on their Milepost 7 emergency plan in order to coordinate when necessary

Increase public education to make individuals aware of red flag warnings for high wildfire danger.

2

2

2

P

P

New

New

Responsibility Comments

LCEM

LCEM

LCPH

LCEM

LCEM

Articles are submitted to local newspapers.

Website is updated with articles and

Facebook link. A new effort will be to consider how to incorporate red flag warnings into the system.

Firewise displays have been included in local events. A calendar needs to be created and a permanent portable display created for Lake

County. A Firewise grant may support this project.

Hazard

Wildfire

Wildfire

Training and exercises will be developed for medical surge will be conducted in 2012 and funding for required equipment will be sought.

Start a list of all campgrounds, notification and shelter options. This should be posted on bulletin boards located at most campgrounds. Due 2013.

Their plan is expected to be completed in

2012. Training can be planned for 2013.

Infectious Disease

Thunderstorms

Dam Failure

LCEM, USFS Consider whether to notify over NOAA weather radio or other methods. Due 2013.

Drought, Wildfire

Jurisdictions

LC, FL

LC, FL

LC

LC, TH, SB

SB

LC, FL

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

Upgrade and supply backup to municipal water supply and wastewater treatment infrastructures.

Priority

2

Mitigation

Type

SI

Status

New

ES New

Responsibility Comments

SB, BB, TH Silver Bay is increasing water pressure to meet firefighting standards by adjusting/installing main and household pressure reducers. Two Harbors recently installed a new water tower, pump stations, security systems and a diesel generator, but will need new filters in their water treatment plant in 2013. Beaver Bay had boil orders in

2011due to low pressure in 60 year old lines; a storage tank or tanker truck may have prevented that.

LC Hwy, VFDs County planning staff, local townships, and local fire chiefs coordinate on this.

Hazard

Ground and Water

Supply

Contamination

Wildfire, Structure fire

Jurisdictions

BB, SB, TH

LC, FL Improve fire truck access on public and private roads. Roads need to be at least 12' wide and 14' high for fire truck access. Put in turn arounds and alternative egress on dead end roads where feasible.

CWPP 1.5: Develop topic-specific and age appropriate fire prevention themes that address fire issues in

Lake County, such as: Firewise and defensible space, burn barrel education, and mitigating for structural ignitability when building.

Ensure that new developments have adequate access and egress for emergency response vehicles.

2

2

2

Develop baseline water quality monitoring methods to address contaminants including metallic sulfide minerals, copper, mercury, manganese, arsenic, etc.

2

PE

P, ES

NRP

New LCEM, VFDs Local Volunteer Fire Depts. present age-

Ongoing LCEM, LCP&Z,

Assessor VFDs

New appropriate programs in schools annually.

THFD presented their first open house in

2012 with plans to continue annually.

County planning staff and local fire chiefs coordinate on this. Lake County Assessor has sent notices to new developments regarding access requirements.

LCPH, LCEM There is public concern regarding the impact of proposed non-ferrous mining in the county. Baseline monitoring will provide the basis to document the threats and consequences in addition to the benefits of this industry on our water resources.

Wildfire

Wildfire, Structure fire

Ground and Water

Supply

Contamination

LC, FL

LC, FL

LC, FL

Page 83 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

Support efforts in Lake County to address storm water management and flood control.

Priority

2

Mitigation

Type

P

Status

Ongoing

P, NRP Ongoing

Responsibility Comments

LC SWCD

LCP&Z

Lake County Water Management Plan lists priority watersheds, plans and controls, and a 5 year work plan for implementing objectives, managed and supported by the

Lake County Soil and Water Conservation

District. Recent work in Two Harbors included a detention basin, rain garden, streambank stabilization and erosion control projects.

Planning and Zoning will determine whether

Lake County ordinances adequately address this issue.

Hazard

Flash Flooding,

Ground and Water

Supply

Contamination

Flash Flooding,

Ground and Water

Supply

Contamination

Follow the North Shore Management

Plan Shoreland Guidelines for development on Lake Superior and

DNR Shoreland Guidelines for development on inland shoreland property to ensure development is setback from the water.

CWPP 3.2: Enforce open burning restrictions in coordination with local government, fire departments, police, and other key partners.

Develop a strategy and partnerships to allow volunteer fire departments to recruit, train, and retain firefighters to ensure adequate coverage, conduct inspections and provide educational programs.

Cooperate with local utilities and jurisdictions to cost-share on brushing mutually maintained road / utility corridors.

2

3

3

3

P

ES

P

Deferred LCSO, TH, SB,

Deferred

New

DNR

VFDs

CLP

This will be addressed after education is provided by distributing the garbage burning brochure to all Lake Count property owners.

Lake County VFDs hold periodic chief's meetings, along with meetings of the

Lakehead Mutual Aid Fire Association, to address this issue.

This must be done between local jurisdiction highway, street and public works departments and local utilities.

Wildfire

Structure Fire,

Wildfire

Thunderstorms,

Windstorms, Severe

Winter Storms

Jurisdictions

LC, TH, BB,

FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

FL

Page 84 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

Increase methods of alerting vulnerable populations such as the elderly and functional needs populations about the importance of avoiding prolonged exposure to the heat and cold.

Establish working groups or advisory committee to address data security and cyber infrastructure in Lake

County.

Establish working group to create rapid response plan and recommendations for addressing workplace violence events such as active-shooter.

Collect more information of lightning strikes in Lake County to better plan and protect from fire damage

Analyze existing water conservation efforts and needs.

Priority

3

3

3

3

3

Mitigation

Type

P, PE

PP, ES

ES

P

P

Status

New

New

New

New

New

P New Consider proactive approaches to reduce the impact of severe storm events, including tornado safe rooms and community shelters.

CWPP 3.3: Conduct an annual review of the Lake County CWPP Mitigation

Plan to review progress and develop implementation schedule for the next year.

Utilize State Severe Weather

Awareness Week to educate Lake

County residents and visitors on safety during summer storms.

3

3

3

Page 85 of 93

P

PE

Ongoing

Ongoing

Responsibility Comments

LCPH

LCEM

Develop a plan to address partners, public information and dissemination methods, including the NWS PLAN system due on new cell phones in April 2012.

Extreme Cold

Severe weather week is routinely promoted through news articles and websites.

Hazard

LCIS, TH, SB Lake County Information Services updates their Continuity of Operations Plan annually to address this. Two Harbors and Silver Bay may consider the same.

LCSO, LCEM Lake County Sheriff's Office regularly practices active shooter response, and will work with Emergency Management and local

Police Departments on appropriate training and exercises.

LCEM

LC SWCD

LCEM

LCEM

USFS has the capability to map lightning strikes and this information could be used to plan for and mitigate damage from lightning.

Municipal water supplies can be cataloged to help with mitigation and response in drought conditions.

This will be promoted for new residential construction, schools and community gathering places. MN HSEM may have grants available to support this.

This is done at the last CWPP quarterly meeting of the year.

Cyber Terrorism

Public Disorder

Lightning

Drought.

Tornados, windstorms, thunderstorms

Wildfire

Thunderstorms,

Windstorms,

Lightning

Jurisdictions

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB

LC, TH, SB,

LC

LC, TH, SB,

BB

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

Ensure that emergency management personnel, county sheriffs, and other emergency response teams are notified as soon as possible in the event of an approaching storm.

Priority

3

Mitigation

Type

P, ES

Status

Inform the public of the snow removal policy to understand the timeframe for snow remove on specific routes.

Continue the winter storm awareness program.

3

3

PE

PP

P

Ongoing LCEM In addition to promoting and sponsoring

Skywarn trainings, Lake County Emergency

Management will explore weather alert options for emergency response personnel, including NWS INWS alerts for emergency partners in 2012.

Ongoing LCHwy, SB, TH LC Highway Dept. publishes this information online and in a newspaper ad yearly.

Ongoing

Ongoing

Responsibility Comments

LCEM

LCHwy

Lake County promotes Winter Storm

Awareness Week through new articles, website and Nixle.

Lake County Highway Dept. will coordinate this with local jurisdictions.

Maintain an aggressive brushing program to reduce debris that could block a road or interrupt power after a severe windstorm or winter storm.

Steer development away from areas that are difficult to serve with reliable road access, such as wetland or areas prone to washouts or flooding.

Review storm water management guidelines to ensure they are adequate to limit post development run-off and will not result in storm water run-off created flood damages.

Work with state and federal agencies, local jurisdictions, and private parties as necessary to ensure dams are structurally sound, maintained, and functioning properly.

3

3

3

3

P, NRP

P

P

Ongoing

Ongoing

Ongoing

LCP&Z

LCP&Z

LCEM

Planning and Zoning will ensure regulations are adequate and feasible.

Planning and Zoning will ensure regulations are adequate and feasible.

Coordinate with the DNR on this project.

Hazard

Flash Floods,

Windstorms,

Lightning, Severe

Winter Storms,

Thunderstorms.

Severe Winter

Storms

Severe Winter

Storms, Extreme

Cold

Windstorms, Severe

Winter Storms.

Flash Flooding

Flash Flooding

Dam Failure

Jurisdictions

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB

LC

LC, TH, SB,

BB

LC, TH, SB,

BB

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC

Page 86 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

Work with the Department of

Natural Resources (DNR) dam inspection program using their technical expertise in identifying risks and developing solutions for at-risk dams in Lake County

Identify alternative traffic and evacuation routes in the case of major roads closed by a hazardous material spill. Consider routes that need improvements.

Ensure local emergency responders have adequate training to identify and safely respond to potential methamphetamine labs.

Increase education for residents regarding the need to have a fire emergency plan in place.

Priority

3

3

3

3

Mitigation

Type

P, NRP

NRP

ES

PE

Status

Ongoing

Ongoing

Ongoing

Ongoing

Continue working with the MN

Department of Health and the EPA on the development of wellhead and source water protection plans.

Provide information to residents about where they can go for water testing.

Ensure municipal wastewater treatment installations work properly

Continue programs to ensure proper septic treatment systems in areas not served by a central wastewater treatment system.

3

3

3

3

P, NRP

P, PE

P,

P

Ongoing

Ongoing

Ongoing

Ongoing

Responsibility Comments

LCEM

LCEM

LCSO

LCEM

LCP&Z

LCEM

LCP&Z

LCP&Z

Coordinate with the DNR on this project.

Work with LC Highway on this project.

Lake County Sheriff's Office provides trainings on methamphetamine and other hazardous responses.

Longer response times in rural areas put greater responsibility on property owners to prevent or address a fire before the fire department arrives. Can use utility bills to mail information to households

Lake County Planning and Zoning coordinates this program in cooperation with MPCA and

EPA.

This is not done by Lake Country Public health, they are referred out for this service.

Individual pays for this.

Lake County Planning and Zoning coordinates this program in cooperation with MPCA and

EPA.

Lake County Planning and Zoning coordinates this program.

Hazard

Dam Failure

Transportation

Hazardous Materials

Fixed Hazardous

Materials,

Transportation

Hazardous Materials

Structure Fire

Ground and Water

Supply

Contamination

Ground and Water

Supply

Contamination

Ground and Water

Supply

Contamination

Ground and Water

Supply

Contamination

Jurisdictions

LC

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB

LC

Page 87 of 93

Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Mitigation Action

(CWPP = Mitigation Action listed in

Community Wildfire Protection

Plan)

CWPP 2.9: Address structural ignitability treatments to reduce fuel reduction of structures.

Priority

4

Mitigation

Type

P

Status

Deferred

P Deferred

Responsibility Comments

LCEM

ISD381

We are currently addressing metal roofing

(CWPP 2.2) as part of this program. The rest will be deferred until that program is complete.

This may be handled on a case-by-case yearly basis.

Hazard

Wildfire, Structure

Fire

Extreme Cold Support Lake County schools in working with the State to allow additional school closing days in case of a severe winter.

Review current information and delivery systems in place for information relating to extreme temperatures.

CWPP 1.3: Conduct community stakeholder meetings in specific locations to gather feedback and foster resident education and cooperation on fire prevention.

Coordinate with the DNR and the

USFS to keep forest road right-ofways clear for emergency access in case of a road washout.

4

4

4

4

P

PE

P

Deferred

New

Ongoing

NWS

LCEM

LCHwy

NWS continues to review its warning parameters, and implemented a severe cold warning in 2011.

This will only be done in conjunction with other meetings but not specially scheduled.

Lake County Highway will coordinate this with USFS and DNR.

Extreme Cold,

Extreme Heat,

Drought

Wildfire, Structure

Fire

Flash Flooding

Jurisdictions

LC, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, TH, SB,

BB, FL

LC, FL

LC, FL

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

5.3.2 Mitigation Actions by Community

Four jurisdictions are part of the Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan. They are Lake County, Two Harbors,

Silver Bay and Beaver Bay. Table 36 summarizes some key characteristics about these participating jurisdictions.

Importantly, Lake County includes the three cities that are also participating in the plan, and is the jurisdiction taking the lead in hazard mitigation for the other jurisdictions which are not part of the plan. All of the jurisdictions agreed on the same hazard risk priority ranking. The vulnerability of the jurisdictions is also similar; however Fall Lake Township has a greater risk of both flood and wildfire than the rest of the county. Because of its geographic isolation from other Lake County cities, its increased fire and flood vulnerability, and its isolated population, Fall Lake Township was considered a separate jurisdiction for this mitigation plan.

Lake County covers 2,062 square miles and has a population of 10,866 people. It consists of 3 cities, 5 organized townships, and 2 unorganized townships. The County shares its border on the north with Canada, on the west with St. Louis County, on the east with Cook County, and on the south with Lake Superior.

Two Harbors is the County Seat of Lake County and has a population of 3,745. It is located in the southwestern portion of the county along Lake Superior. By population, it is the largest city in the county. Originally incorporated in the 1850s as two different communities called Agate Bay and Burlington, it was incorporated as

Two Harbors in 1907. The city houses about a third of the population of Lake County as well as harbors serving the iron ore and taconite industries in the area.

Silver Bay has a population of 1,887 and is located in the southeastern portion of the county along Lake Superior very close to Beaver Bay. The city was founded in 1954 as a company town where only employees of the

Reserve Mining Company were allowed to purchase homes. The city’s harbor continues to serve the iron ore and taconite industry in the area.

Fall Lake Township has a population of 549 and is unique in that there is a risk of flooding in the township, and because of its proximity to Ely (in St. Louis County) the township’s mitigation actions must be coordinated across county boundaries.

Beaver Bay has a population of 181 and is less than one square mile in size. Incorporated in 1856 the community is the smallest jurisdiction – both by size and population – participating in the Multi- Hazard Mitigation Plan.

Table 36. Selected Characteristics of Jurisdictions participating in the Lake County

Multi-Jurisdictional Hazards Mitigation Plan

Community

2010

Population

Square

Miles

Population Density per Square Mile

Lake County 10,866 2,062

4.75

City of Two Harbors 3,745 3.25

1151

City of Silver Bay 1,887 8.06

234

226

City Beaver Bay

Fall Lake Township

181

549

.80

588 Less than 1

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Lake County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, March 2012

Section 6 – Plan Maintenance

6.1 Monitoring, Evaluating, and Updating the Plan

The Lake County All Hazard Mitigation Plan should be considered a living document. The plan should be reviewed at a minimum every five-years. The guidance in this section will function as the primary tool when reviewing progress on the implementation of the Lake County All Hazard Plan.

Throughout the five-year planning cycle, the Lake County Emergency Management Director will reconvene the MHMP advisory committee to monitor, evaluate, and update the All Hazard Mitigation

Plan annually as part of its annual Emergency Management Review. Additional stakeholders could be added based on need. It may be beneficial to meet on a more regular basis to monitor plan implementation progress and to reassess needs and opportunities. This could be done annually, or in response to funding cycles of programs that provide resources for hazard mitigation activities. If there is need for a special meeting, due to new developments or a declared disaster occurring in the county, the team will meet to update mitigation strategies. Depending on grant opportunities and fiscal resources, mitigation projects may be implemented independently by individual communities or through local partnerships.

The committee will review the county goals and objectives to determine their relevance to changing situations in Lake County. In addition, state and federal policies will be reviewed to ensure they are addressing current and expected conditions. The committee will also review the risk assessment portion of the plan to determine if this information should be updated or modified. The parties responsible for the various implementation actions will report on the status of their projects, and will include which implementation processes worked well, any difficulties encountered, how coordination efforts are proceeding, and which strategies should be revised.

Updates or modifications to the MHMP during the five-year planning process will require a public notice and a meeting prior to submitting revisions to the individual jurisdictions for approval. The plan will be updated via written changes, submissions as the committee deems appropriate and necessary, and as approved by the county commissioners.

The GIS data used to prepare the plan was obtained from existing county GIS data as well as other public data sources. This updated Hazus-MH GIS data has been returned to the county for use and maintenance in the county’s system. As newer data becomes available, the updated data will be used for future risk assessments and vulnerability analyses.

6.2 Implementation

Lake County and its included municipalities share a common Multi-Hazard Mitigation plan and work closely to develop, revise and implement it. Each of the incorporated municipalities within the county has a mayor, a city administrator, and an appointed emergency management director. These people work together with their city councils and the Lake County emergency management director to assure that the hazards and mitigation actions included in this plan are accurate and addressed in their jurisdictions through updated response plans, training and exercises, along with zoning and ordinance

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updates. In addition, each municipality is represented on the Lake County Emergency Preparedness

Group which reviews and evaluates this Plan.

Because wildfire is the greatest hazard in Lake County, a separate Community Wildfire Protection Plan

(CWPP) has been developed and a CWPP steering committee meets regularly. Wildfire mitigation actions were reviewed and revised in 2010 with the facilitation of the Arrowhead Regional Development

Commission, and have been incorporated into this Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan (MHMP) update. In turn, updates maps and information from this MHMP are currently being incorporated into the body of the CWPP.

A number of implementation tools are available to address hazards. Many of these tools are below, however, in some cases additional discussion is needed in order to identify what strategies are most appropriate to use. This will be part of an ongoing discussion as Lake County looks for opportunities for plan implementation. The following tools should be considered:

Education: In many cases education of residents has been identified as one of the most effective mitigation strategies. Lake County is a large rural county with low population densities. This limits the ability to provide services and increases the responsibility residents have to prepare for natural and man-made hazards.

Capital Investments: Capital investments such as fire and ambulance equipment, sprinkler systems and dry hydrants are tools that can limit risks and impacts of natural and man-made hazards.

Data Collection and Needs Assessments: Data collection and needs assessments can aid in gaining a better understanding of threats and allow planning for mitigation strategies accordingly. As resources are limited for this part of the planning process, additional data collection is likely to be an ongoing activity as resources become available.

Coordination: Responsibilities for mitigation strategies run across various county departments, local fire and ambulance departments, tribal, city and township governments, and a host of state and federal agencies. Ongoing coordination is an important tool to ensure resources are used efficiently.

Coordination can also avoid duplication of efforts or prevent gaps that are created because of unclear roles and responsibilities. The mitigation plan review process can function as a tool to have an ongoing discussion on roles and responsibilities and opportunities for coordination.

Regional Cooperation: Counties and public safety services providers throughout the Arrowhead Region often share similar challenges and concerns. In some cases a regional approach may be warranted as a mitigation strategy in order to save resources. Mutual aid agreements are a tool already in use for a number of services. Needs assessments for fire and ambulance services and development of assistance for volunteer recruiting, training, and retention could benefit from a regional approach. Cooperation among counties could also help in lobbying for certain funding priorities that address concerns relating to challenges in service delivery in rural areas. Organizations such as the Arrowhead EMS, Arrowhead

Regional Development Commission, as well as MN Department of HSEM, the Regional Program

Coordinator can offer tools and resources to assist in these cooperative efforts.

Regulation: Regulation is an important mitigation tool for Lake County. Regulation plays a particularly important role for land use, access to structures and the protection of water resources and public

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health. One area the plan identifies a potential need for additional regulation is in addressing methamphetamine laboratories.

6.3 Continued Public Involvement

Continued public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of the Multi-Hazard Mitigation

Plan (MHMP). The Plan is available for comment on the Lake County website. Comments from the public on the MHMP will be received by the Emergency Management Director and forwarded to the MHMP advisory committee and affected municipalities for discussion and action. The public are invited to all planning meetings.

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