SEFRAM | 4451 | Specifications | SEFRAM 4451 Specifications

SEFRAM 4451
50 MHz PROGRAMMABLE
PULSE GENERATOR
OPERATING MANUAL
Operating Manual
M4451 A00
SEFRAM 4451
2
Operating Manual
SEFRAM 4451
INDEX
Page
SAFETY SUMMARY
Section
Section
Section
Section
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1
General Information
5
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Introduction
Description
Safety Remarks
Specifications
8
8
8
9
2
Installation
2.1
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
Introduction
Initial Electrical Inspection
Instrument Mounting
Power Requirements
Grounding Requirements
Signal Connections
GPIB Connections
3
Operating Instructions
3.1
3.6
3.10
3.12
3.13
Introduction
Menu Keys
Power-On Settings
Pulse Definitions
Parameter Limitations
4
Programming
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
Overview
Device State
Interface Function Subsets
Device Address
Message Exchange Protocol
Instrument Identification
Instrument Reset
Command Syntax
Status Reporting
IEEE488.2 Common Commands
Instrument Control Commands
IEEE488.1 Interface Messages
SCPI Command Tree
3
14
14
14
14
15
15
18
21
23
30
32
33
35
35
35
36
36
36
37
37
39
42
45
60
61
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5
Performance Check Procedure
66
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Introduction
Test Equipment
Electrical Checkout
Performance Tests
67
67
67
68
Declaration of conformity
71
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Operating Manual
SEFRAM 4451
Safety Summary
The following safety precautions apply to both operating and maintenance personnel and must
be observed during all phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Before
applying power, follow the installation instructions and become familiar with the operating
instructions for this instrument.
Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual
violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. SEFRAM
assumes no liability for a customer’s failure to comply with these requirements. This is a Safety
Class I instrument.
GROUND THE INSTRUMENT
To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be connected to an
electrical ground. This instrument is grounded through the ground conductor of the supplied,
three-conductor ac power cable. The power cable must be plugged into an approved threeconductor electrical outlet. Do not alter the ground connection. Without the protective ground
connection, all accessible conductive parts (including control knobs) can render an electric
shock. The power jack and mating plug of the power cable meet IEC safety standards.
DO NOT OPERATE IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable gases or fumes. Operation of
any electrical instrument in such an environment constitutes a definite safety hazard.
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS
Instrument covers must not be removed by operating personnel. Component replacement and
internal adjustments must be made by qualified maintenance personnel. Disconnect the power
cord before removing the instrument covers and replacing components. Under certain
conditions, even with the power cable removed, dangerous voltages may exist. To avoid
injuries, always disconnect power and discharge circuits before touching them.
DO NOT SERVICE OR ADJUST ALONE
Do not attempt any internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering
first aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY THE INSTRUMENT
Do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modifications to this instrument.
Return the instrument to SEFRAM or any certified center for service and repair to ensure that
safety features are maintained.
WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS
WARNING and CAUTION statements, such as the following examples, denote a hazard and
appear throughout this manual. Follow all instructions contained in these statements.
A WARNING statement calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or condition, which,
if not followed correctly, could result in injury or death to personnel.
A CAUTION statement calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or condition, which,
if not followed correctly, could result in damage to or destruction of part or all of the product.
WARNING:
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Do not alter the ground connection.
Without the protective ground
connection, all accessible conductive parts (including control knobs) can
render an electric shock. The power jack and mating plug of the power cable
meet IEC safety standards.
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WARNING:
To avoid electrical shock hazard, disconnect power cord before removing
covers. Refer servicing to qualified personnel.
CAUTION:
Before connecting the line cord to the AC mains, check the rear panel AC line
voltage indicator. Applying a line voltage other than the indicated voltage
can destroy the AC line fuses. For continued fire protection, replace fuses
only with those of the specified voltage and current ratings.
CAUTION:
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This product uses components that can be damaged by electrostatic
discharge (ESD). To avoid damage, be sure to follow proper procedures for
handling, storing and transporting parts and subassemblies that contain
ESD-sensitive components.
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Operating Manual
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SEFRAM 4451
7
Section 1
General Information
1.1 Introduction
This manual contains information required to operate, program, check and maintain the SEFRAM 4451 - 50
MHz PROGRAMMABLE PULSE GENERATOR.
1.2 Description
The SEFRAM 4451 is a high performance programmable pulse generator. The instrument generates pulses
with a repetition rate to 50MHz, width from 10ns, variable delay, variable transition times and amplitude.
The pulses can be output in continuous, triggered, gated or burst mode with an internal or external trigger
signal.
The SEFRAM 4451 can be remotely operated via the RS-232 or the IEEE488 interface bus and is SCPI
compatible.
1.3 Safety Remarks
The SEFRAM 4451 is a SAFETY CLASS 1 instrument. Before operation, review the SAFETY SUMMARY
at the front of this manual.
Operating Manual
1.4
SEFRAM 4451
SPECIFICATIONS
The following specifications describe the instrument performance after a 20 minute warm-up period into a 50 ohms
load. All timing characteristics are measured at 50% of amplitude with fastest edges.
PULSE FUNCTIONS
Single
- One pulse at each selected period up to 50MHz repetition
rate.
Double
- One pair of pulses at each period up to 25MHz repetition rate.
Both pulses have the same selected width; the position of the second pulse
set by the delay control.
OPERATING MODES
Continuous
- Output continuous at programmed period rate.
Triggered
- Output quiescent until triggered by an internal, external, GPIB or manual
trigger, then generates one cycle at programmed period rate.
Gated
- Same as triggered mode except pulses are output for the duration of the gated
signal. The last cycle started is completed.
Burst
- Same as triggered mode for programmed number of cycles from 2 to 999,999
as set by the N-BURST function.
External Width
- Trigger duration and rate sets pulse width and repetition.
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
PERIOD
Range
- 20 ns to 10 s (50MHz to 0.1Hz repetition rate).
Resolution
- Up to 6 digits, limited to 100 ps.
Accuracy
- ± 0.01 %
Jitter
- < 0.01% of setting +20ps on Period, Width and Delay.
WIDTH
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Range
- 10ns to (Period - 10ns off time).
Resolution
- Up to 6 digits, limited to 100 ps.
Accuracy
- ±(0.5% of setting +500 ps)
Double Pulse:
- ±(0.5% of setting +3 ns) for the second pulse.
DELAY
Range
- 0ns to (Period – Width - 10ns off time).
Resolution
- Up to 6 digits, limited to 100 ps.
Accuracy
- ±(0.5% of setting +500 ps)
DUTY CYCLE
Range
-1 to 99%.
Resolution
-3 digits (0.1%).
Accuracy:
-Limited by width and pulse accuracy.
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
AMPLITUDE
High Level Range - -9.90V to +10V into 50 ohms load (-19.80V to +20V into open circuit).
Low Level Range
- -10V to +9.90V into 50 ohms load (-20V to +19.80V into open circuit).
Amplitude Range - 0.1V to 10V p-p into 50 ohms load (20V p-p max into open circuit).
Resolution
- 3 digits limited to 10mV.
Accuracy
- ± 1% of setting ± 10 mV into 50 ohms.
Aberrations
- <5% + 20mV into 50 ohms load, for pulse levels between ±5V.
Output Resistance - 50 ohms
Offset Accuracy:
- ± 1% ± 25 mV.
TRANSITION TIMES
Range
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- <6ns to 10ms variable. Leading and trailing edges settable separately and
limited to 20:1 ratio between settings into one of the following ranges: 5ns10
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SEFRAM 4451
100ns; 50ns-1.0us; 500ns-10us; 5.0us-100us; 50us-1.0ms; 500us-10ms, 5 ms –
100 ms.
Resolution
- 3 digits limited to 10 ps.
Accuracy
- ±(5% of setting +2ns)
Linearity
- <5% deviation from a straight line between 10% and 90% points,
for transitions > 50 ns.
INTERNAL TRIGGER
Range
- 100ns to 100s.
Resolution
- 4 digits limited to 100ns.
Accuracy
- ± 0.01%
INPUT AND OUTPUT
TRIGGER INPUT
Sensitivity
- 200 mVp-p minimum.
Minimum Width
- 10ns.
Maximum Rate
- 50MHz.
Input Impedance
- 10 KMΩ
Input Protection
- +15V DC plus peak AC.
Range
- Selectable from -10V to +10V.
Resolution
- 3 digits limited to 10mV.
Slope Selection
- Positive or Negative.
SYNC OUTPUT
A TTL level pulse at the programmed period. Output impedance is 50 ohms, protected against short circuit
and up to ±15V accidental input. The high level is >2V into 50 ohms and with 3.5ns typical transition
times.
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GPIB PROGRAMMING
Internal
- IEEE-488.2 and SCPI compatible.
Address
- 0-30 front panel selected.
Subsets
- SH1, AH1, T6, L4, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1,DT1, C0, E2.
GENERAL
-Non volatile, stores up to 99 complete panel settings. Last user setup also
retained at power down.
Memory
Power Requirements - 100-240V, ±10%, 48-66 Hz, 50VA maximum.
Dimensions
- Height 8.8cm, Width 21.3 cm, Length 30 cm
Weight
- Aprox 3kg Net.
EMC
- According to EN55011 class B for radiated and conducted emissions.
Electrical Discharge Immunity -
According to EN55082
Safety Specifications
- According to EN61010
Operating Temperature
- 0°C to +50°C.
Storage Temperature
- -20°C to +60°C.
Humidity
- 90% RH at 0°C to 30°C,
CE Labeled
NOTES
Specifications are verified according to the Performance Check Procedure in this manual.
Specifications not qualified in this manual are either explanatory notes or general performance
characteristics only.
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Section 2
Installation
2.1
Introduction
This section contains installation information, power requirements, initial inspection and signal connections
for the SEFRAM 4451.
2.2
Initial Mechanical Inspection
Upon receipt, inspect the instrument for any damage that might have occurred in transit and verify the
contents of the shipment (accessories and installed options).
2.3
Initial Electrical Inspection
The SEFRAM 4451 is calibrated and ready for use when received. The Electrical Performance Check
Procedure is detailed in Section 5.
2.4
Instrument Mounting
The SEFRAM 4451- 50 MHz PROGRAMMABLE PULSE GENERATOR is intended for bench use. The
instrument includes a front feet tilt mechanism for optimum panel viewing angle. The instrument does not
require special cooling when operated within conventional temperature limits.
A 5 cm minimum clearance must be provided at the rear of the unit for proper convection cooling. The unit
can be installed in a closed rack or test station if proper airflow is assured.
2.5
Power Requirements
The SEFRAM 4451 can be operated from any source of 100-240V +/-10% AC, at a frequency from 48Hz to
66Hz. The maximum power consumption is 50 VA.
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2.6 Grounding Requirements
To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be connected to an electrical ground. This
instrument is grounded through the ground conductor of the supplied, three-conductor ac power cable. The
power cable must be plugged into an approved three-conductor electrical outlet.
WARNING:
Do not alter the ground connection. Without the protective ground connection, all
accessible conductive parts (including control knobs) can render an electric
shock. The power jack and mating plug of the power cable meet IEC safety
standards.
2.7 Signal Connections
The BNC connectors are:
OUTPUT
- Up to 10V peak-to-peak into 50 ohm impedance (20V p-p into open circuit). The instrument
is protected from short circuit to ground.
TRIG IN
- 10 KΩ impedance, selectable positive or negative slope, variable level from -10V to +10V.
Input protected to ±15V.
SYNC OUT - A positive pulse signal in phase with the main output. TTL levels with a 50 ohm source
impedance and with 3.5ns typical transition times.
2.7.1 Maintaining Pulse Fidelity
Due to the extremely fast pulse rise times obtained from the instrument, special consideration must be given
to preservation of pulse fidelity. Even at low repetition rates, high frequency components are present in the
output waveform. Use high quality coaxial cables, attenuators and terminations.
RG 58 type coaxial cable and typical BNC connectors exhibit impedance tolerances which may cause visible
reflections. For maximum fidelity, use short, high quality, 50 ohm coaxial cables.
When signal comparison measurements or time difference determinations are made, the two signals from the
test device should travel through coaxial cables with identical loss and time delay characteristics.
When making connections that are not in a 50 ohm environment, keep all lead lengths short, 1/4 inch or less.
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2.7.2 Impedance Matching
A mismatch, or different impedance in a transmission line, generates a reflection back along the line to the
source. The amplitude and polarity of the reflection are determined by the load impedance in relation to the
characteristic impedance of the cable. If the load impedance is higher than the characteristic impedance of
the line, the reflection will be of the same polarity as the applied signal. If it is lower, the reflection will be of
opposite polarity. These reflections add or subtract from the amplitude of the incident pulse causing
distortion and irregular pulse shapes.
Impedance-matching network that provides minimum attenuation
A simple resistive minimum attenuation impedance matching network that can be used to match the
instrument output into relatively low impedance is shown in the above figure. To match impedance with the
illustrated network, the following conditions must exist:
(R1 + Z 2 )R 2
= Z1
R1 + Z 2 + R 2
and
R1 +
R1 + Z 1R 2
Z1 + R2
Therefore:
R1 R2 = Z1 Z2, and R1 Z1 = R2 (Z2-Z1)
or
R1 = Z 2 (Z 2 − Z 1)
and
R 2 = Z1
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Z2
Z 2 − Z1
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For example: to match a 50Ω system to a 125Ω system, Z1 equals 50Ω and Z2 equals 125Ω
Therefore:
R1 = 125(125 − 50) = 96.8 Ω
and
R2 = 50
125
= 64.6 Ω
125 − 50
Although the illustrated network provides minimum attenuation, for a purely resistive impedance-matching
device, the attenuation as seen from one end does not equal that seen from the other end. A signal (E1)
applied from the lower impedance source, encounters a voltage attenuation (A1) which is greater than 1 and
less than 2, as follows:
A1 =
E1 R1
=
+1
E2 Z2
A signal (E2) applied from the higher impedance source (Z2) encounters a greater voltage attenuation (A2),
which is greater than 1 and less than 2 (Z2/Z1):
A2 =
E 2 R1 R1
=
+
+1
E1 R 2 Z 1
In the example of matching 50Ω to 125Ω,
A1 =
96.8
+ 1 = 1.77
125
and
A2 =
96.8 96.8
+
+ 1 = 4.43
64.6 50
The illustrated network can be modified to provide different attenuation ratios by adding another resistor
(less than R1) between Z1 and the junction of R1 and R2.
When constructing such a device, the environment surrounding the components should also be designed to
provide smooth transition between the impedances. Acceptable performance can be obtained with discrete
components using short lead lengths; however, a full coaxial environment is preferred.
The characteristic impedance of a coaxial device is determined by the ratio between the outside diameter of
the inner conductor to the inside diameter of the outer conductor expressed as:
Z0 =
138
ε
log 10
D
d
2.7.3 Rise time Measurements in Linear Systems
Consider the rise time and fall time of associated equipment when measuring the rise time or fall time of a
linear device. If the rise time of the device under test is at least ten times slower than the combined rise times
of the instrument, the monitoring oscilloscope, and associated cables, the error introduced will not exceed
1%, and usually may be ignored. If the rise time or fall time of the test device is less than ten times slower
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than the combined rise times of the testing system, determine the actual rise time of the device under test by
using the following formula:
Rt = (Rt 1) 2 + (Rt 2 ) 2 + (Rt 3) 2 + ......
Rt equals the overall rise time or fall time of the entire measurement system and R1, R2, R3, etc. are the rise
times or fall times of the individual components in the system.
2.8 GPIB Connections
The rear panel GPIB connector is a AMPHENOL 57-10240 or equivalent, and connects to a standard IEEE488 bus cable connector. The GPIB line screens are not isolated from chassis and signal ground.
The instrument is shipped with the address set to decimal 10. The address can be changed from the front
panel by using the "SPCL" menu, refer to "SPECIAL FUNCTIONS".
GPIB connector
2.9
RS-232 Connection
The rear panel RS-232 connector is a standard DB-9 male connector configured as a
DCE:
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SEFRAM 4451
DB-9 pin Name
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
N/C
RXD
TXD
N/C
GND
N/C
RTS
CRS
N/C
Note
Computer DB25
pin
8
3
2
7
6
4
5
-
Receive Data
Transmit Data
Signal ground
Request to Send
Clear to send
-
Direction
In
In
Out
Out
In
Out
In
-
2.10 RS-232 Configuration
Before connecting the RS-232 interface, the instrument must be properly configured.
Select UTILITY menu and then F4 - RS232 for setting of the desired baud date.
The instrument use 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity and baud rate from 1200 to 115K
(1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 and 115000).
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Section 3
Operating Instructions
3.1 General Description
This section describes the displays, controls and connectors of the SEFRAM 4451 Pulse Generator.
All controls for the instrument local operation are located on the front panel. The connectors are located on
both front and rear panels.
Figure 3.1 - SEFRAM 4451 Front Panel
1. Power ON-OFF
-Applies and removes AC power to the unit.
2. Display Window
-Displays all instrument data and settings on a LCD.
3. FI-F5 Keys
-Select the menu options that appear on the second line of
the LCD display. Menus differ depending on the selected
parameter, function or mode.
4. MENU Keys
-Select parameters, functions or modes whose settings are
to be displayed or changed.
5. Rotary Knob
-Used to increment/decrement numerical values or to scan
through the possible selections.
6. Modify Keys
-Used to move the cursor (when visible) to either left or right.
7. Output ON
-Controls the main output signal. A build-in LED lights when output is
ON.
3.2 Display Window
The SEFRAM 4451 has a graphic LCD display that can display up to 160x80 dots. When power-on the unit,
a parameter and current settings appear in the display. The bottom displays a menu that corresponds to the
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SEFRAM 4451
output, parameter or mode displayed selected.
3.3 Front Panel Controls
The front-panel controls select, display, and change parameter, function, and mode settings.
Use the rotary input knob and the cursor movement keys to enter data into the pulse generator.
To change a setting:
1. Press the key that leads to a required item.
2. Move cursor using cursor keys to the appropriate position in the numeric field.
3. Use the rotary input or the numerical keyboard to change the value of the displayed item. Changes take
effect immediately.
The following subsections describe the function of each front panel key and connector.
3.4 Connectors
The function generator has two BNC connectors on the front panel and one on the rear panel where you can
connect coaxial cables. These coaxial cables serve as carrier lines for input and output signals delivered to
and from the function generator. Additionally, for ATE 19" rack systems, on the rear panel are two
connectors for optional wiring of the front connectors to the rear panel.
Output Connector
Use this connector to transfer the main output signal from the function generator.
Trig In Connector
Use this connector to apply an external trigger or gate signal, depending on the pulse generator setting, to the
generator.
Sync Out Connector
Use this connector to output a positive TTL sync pulse generated at each pulse cycle.
3.5 Output Connections
The pulse generator output circuits operate as a 50 ohms voltage source working into a 50 ohms load. At
higher frequencies, un-terminated or improperly terminated output cause aberrations on the output waveform.
In addition, loads less than 50 ohms reduce the waveform amplitude, while loads more than 50 ohms increase
waveform amplitude.
Excessive distortion or aberrations caused by improper termination are less noticeable at lower frequencies.
To ensure pulse integrity, follow these precautions:
1. Use good quality 50 ohms coaxial cable and connectors.
2. Make all connections tight and as short as possible.
3. Use good quality attenuators if it is necessary to reduce pulse amplitudes applied to sensitive circuits.
4. Use termination or impedance-matching devices to avoid reflections.
5. Ensure that attenuators and terminations have adequate power handling capabilities.
If there is a DC voltage across the output load, use a coupling capacitor in series with the load. The time
constant of the coupling capacitor and load must be long enough to maintain pulse flatness.
Impedance Matching
If the pulse generator is driving a high impedance, such as the 1 Mohm input impedance (paralleled by a
stated capacitance) of an oscilloscope vertical input, connect the transmission line to a 50 ohms attenuator,
a 50 ohms termination and to the oscilloscope input. The attenuator isolates the input capacitance of the
device and terminates the pulse generator properly.
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3.6 MENU Keys
These keys select the main menus for displaying or changing a parameter, function or mode.
3.6.1 PARAM Menu
This key selects and displays the pulse timing parameters, the double pulse mode and allows changing the
parameter data.
Parameter Menu
F1: PERIOD/FREQ
- Selects and displays the period or the pulse frequency. Change the value using
the shift keys, rotary knob or numerical keys. If a certain setting can't produce
the waveform at the desired parameters, the generator displays an error message.
While the pulse mode is set to external width on, the value of the period may be
changed but the value is not displayed, since the actual value of the period is set
by the external pulse
F2: WIDTH/DUTY
- Selects and displays the pulse width. The minimum value of the width is 10ns,
with the maximum value dependent on the values of the period, delay and
transition times.
The Duty Cycle is defined as the ratio of the pulse width to the pulse period.
Changing the duty cycle will therefore change the width accordingly. The duty
cycle has both a value and a state (on or off). On Power On the duty cycle is off.
This means that the width is determined by the width parameter only. The duty
cycle is set to ON by entering a value. The value may then be changed using the
rotary encoder or the numeric keys. When the duty cycle is on, changing the
period will cause a change in the width such that the duty cycle is kept constant.
The duty cycle is set to OFF by changing the width value. The instrument will
store the last value of the duty cycle, and set the duty cycle to this value when it
is next set to ON. The duty cycle has an absolute range of 1% to 99%, but the
actual value is limited by the values of the period, delay and transition times.
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F3: DELAY
SEFRAM 4451
- This parameter is used in two instances. The first is to set the delay of the
pulse in the single pulse mode. The delay governs the time from the SYNC
signal to the start of the pulse. The second instance is the double pulse mode.
Here the delay governs the time from the SYNC pulse to the second pulse. The
minimum and maximum values of the delay are dependent on the values of the
period, width and leading and trailing edge times. The delay range is 0 to
9.80000s.
Delay Menu
F5: SINGLE/DOUBLE - The unit can be set to generate either a SINGLE pulse or a DOUBLE pulse. In
the double pulse mode, the first pulse is generated without delay from the start
and the second pulse in generated after a delay, from the start of the period, as
determined by the DELAY parameter. Thus, in order to generate a double pulse,
the delay must first be set, and then the double pulse may be set on. The double
pulse mode state is toggled using either the F5 key. The minimum and
maximum values of the delay are determined by the values of the period, width,
delay and transition parameters.
Double Pulse
3.6.2 OUTPUT Menu
The Output menu enables the pulse high and low levels to be set. The levels are limited by four
factors:
- The absolute limits are ±10V.
- The high level must be greater than the low level.
- The pulse amplitude must be between 0.1V and 10V p-p, into 50 ohms.
- The levels cannot exceed the limits as set in the OUTPUT LIMITS menu.
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OUTPUT Menu
F1: HILVL
- Selects the pulse high level voltage.
F2: LOLVL
F3: PREDEF
- Selects the pulse low level voltage.
- Selects the predefine pulse output levels. In addition to being able to set the levels to
any
value within the limits, the user may also select one of four pre-defined levels:
CMOS: Low level (LOLVL) = 0V, High level (HILVL) = 5V
TTL: Low level (LOLVL) = 0.4V, High level (HILVL) = 2.4V
ECL: Low level (LOLVL) = -1.8V, High level (HILVL) = -0.8V
USER: User-defined levels, entered by using the USER menu
PREDEFINED OUTPUT Menu
F5: OUTPUT LIMITS
- Allows entering limits for the output levels to protect external devices
connected to the unit output.
OUTPUT LIMITS Menu
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3.6.3
SEFRAM 4451
PULSE Menu
PULSE Menu
F1: RISE
- Selects the pulse Rise time (Leading edge).
F2: FALL
- Selects the pulse Fall time (Trailing edge).
F3: EQUAL
- Selects equal Rise (Leading edge) and Fall (Trailing edge) times.
F5: NORMAL/COMPL - Selects the Normal or Complement pulse mode.
COMPLEMENT Pulse Mode
The transition time range is 5ns to 100ms, but the value is limited to a 20:1 ratio between the
transition times. In addition, both values must be within one of the following ranges:
5ns - 100ns
50ns - 1us
500ns - 10us
5us - 100us
50us - 1ms
500us - 10ms
5ms – 100ms
The transition times are also limited by the values of the period, width and delay.
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3.6.4 MODE Menu
Selects the output mode: CONT (Continuous), TRIG (Triggered), GATE (Gated), BRST (Burst) and
PHASE.
To select the output mode, press MODE, then press the function key that corresponds to the desired Mode
menu option, as shown:
Mode Menu
F1: CONT - (Continuous) - Selects continuous output.
F2: TRIG
- (Triggered) - Triggers one output cycle of the selected pulse for each trigger event.
F3: GATE - (Gated) - Triggers output cycles as long as the trigger source asserts the gate signal.
F4: BRST - (Burst) - Triggers output N output cycles for each trigger event, where N ranges from 2 to
999,999.
F5: EXTWID - In the external width (EXT WID) pulse mode, the pulse period and width are determined
by the externally applied signal. The SEFRAM 4451 then applies transition and level
parameters to this signal in order to generate the pulse. The period, width and delay may be
changed, but their change has no effect on the pulse, and their values are not displayed. The
trigger mode may not be changed while the external width pulse mode is enabled.
External Pulse
After selecting the TRIG , GATE or BURST menu, the trigger source menu is available:
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Trigger Menu
F1: MAN - Selects manual as the trigger source. Pressing the MAN TRIG key generates
the
trigger. In the Gate trigger mode, the pulse is generated as long as the key is being pressed.
F2: INT - Selects the internal trigger generator as the trigger source. Change the internal
trigger rate displayed with the rotary input knob or numerical keys. The rate has a range of
100ns to 99.99s, although the minimum value is limited by the value of the period in that
the rate cannot be less than the period.
Internal Trigger
F3: EXT - Selects the external trigger signal as the trigger source. The trigger source is
supplied through the TRIG IN connector.
F4: LEVEL/SLOPE - Two parameters are related to external trigger source operation.
These are LEVEL and SLOPE. The Level determines at what voltage level the external
signal will be recognized as a trigger. At level less that this, no pulse will be generated. The
Slope determines whether the positive or negative edge of the trigger signal will trigger the
pulse
3.6.5 SETUPS Menu
The pulse generator can store the current front-panel settings, called a setup, into one of 99 storage buffers.
When you recall a setup, the pulse generator restores the front-panel settings to those that you stored in the
selected buffer. Because it is impossible to 100% guarantee against loss of stored data, you should maintain
a record of the data stored in memory so that you can manually restore such data, if necessary.
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SETUPS Menu
F1: RECALL
- Recalls a previously stored front-panel setup from the selected buffer. Change
the buffer number by using the rotary input knob. Valid storage buffer numbers
are from 1 to 99.
Buffer 0 is the factory default setup; buffer 99 is the last front panel setup before
power-off.
F2: STORE
- Stores the current front-panel setup to the specified storage buffer. Change the
buffer number by using the data keys or the rotary input knob. Valid storage
buffer numbers range from I to 98.
F4: CLEAR ALL
- Clears all data on all memory settings, after a YES or NO selection message.
3.6.6 UTIL Menu
Utility Menu
F1: GPIB
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-Selects the GPIB remote mode of operation. After selection the GPIB can be set to any
value from 1 to 31 using the rotary knob. The value is kept in a nonvolatile memory and
used at power-on. The factory default address is 10. Setting the address to 31 puts the
device in the off-bus state (it will not respond to messages on the GPIB bus).
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GPIB Menu
F2: RS232
-Selects the RS232 remote control mode. After selection, the baud rate can be selected as
1200, 2400, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 or 115K. Always the RS-232 uses 8 bit data, 1
stop bit and no parity.
F3: INTEN
- Selects the intensity of the LCD display. Select a value using the rotary input knob.
Valid numeric values are from 1 to 31. The value is kept in the nonvolatile memory, after
a 20 seconds time-out.
F4: POWER
- (Power-on default) Selects the power-on default setting. Select a value using the data
keys or the rotary input knob. The selection is effective after a 20s time-out period.
Select zero (0) to have the pulse generator power on with the factory default settings.
Select 99 to have the pulse generator power-on with the settings it had at the last poweroff. Select any other value in the range from 1 to 98 to have the pulse generator power-on
with the settings that you have saved with SETUPS STORE in the range 1 to 98.
Power-On Menu
3.7 ON Key
Use these key to control the main output signal. A build-in LED lights when the output is active.
3.8 Cursor Movement Keys
Use these keys to move the cursor (when visible) either left or right. They are used in conjunction with the
rotary input knob to set the step size of the rotary input knob.
3.9 Rotary Input Knob
Use this knob to increase and decrease numeric values or to scroll through a list. The cursor indicates the loworder position of the displayed value which changes when you rotate the knob (for straight numeric entries
only). For other types of data, the whole value changes when you rotate the knob.
3.10 Power-On Settings
At power-on, the pulse generator performs a diagnostic self-test procedure to check itself for errors.
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When the pulse generator finishes the diagnostic self-test routine, it enters the local state (LOGS) and
assumes power-on default settings if the POWER-ON setting is at 0. You can program the pulse generator for
any settings you want at power on, as described earlier in this section.
The factory default settings are:
Power-on Default Settings
Key Function
PERIOD
WIDTH
DELAY
DPDELAY
HILVL
LOLVL
MODE
N-BURST
SLOPE
TLVL
TRIG SOURCE
INT TRG RATE
OUTPUT
PULSE MODE
MODULATION
RISE
FALL
3.11
Comments
Pulse period
Pulse width
Pulse delay from Sync out
Delay between pulses in double pulse mode
Pulse high level
Pulse low level
Pulse mode
Waves per burst
Positive external trigger slope
External trigger level
Trigger source
Internal trigger rate
Output disabled
Normal single pulse output
Modulation execution
Pulse rise time
Pulse fall time
500 ns
200 ns
0 ns
5 us
2.5 V
-2.5 V
CONT
2
POS
1V
MAN
1 ms
OFF
Normal
OFF
5 ns
5 ns
Displaying Errors
At power-on, the pulse generator performs a diagnostic routine to check itself for problems. If the diagnostic
routine finds an error, an error message is displayed. The pulse generator also displays error messages when
front-panel settings are either invalid or may produce unexpected results.
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Error messages for SEFRAM 4451
Message Text
Cause
Setting conflict
Trig rate short
Empty location
Calibration Error
LCA load error
Output overload
Verify unit calibration
Can't have this parameter set with other parameters.
Internal trigger rate too short for pulse or burst.
Attempt to restore a non existent setting.
An error when performing unit calibration – for service personnel only.
Internal hardware error, must re-power the unit
An excessive loading of the output stage
At power-on the unit checks for valid calibration data. Need to calibrate the
Incorrect entry
Width too high
Set other level
Save to Flash failed
Out of range
A incorrect value entry or syntax error
The width value is too high for the pulse period selected
When the pulse amplitude is >10Vp-p, need to change the other pulse level
When saving the instrument settings. Need to save again the setting.
Attempt to set a value out of instrument limits or in conflict with other pulse
parameters.
unit.
3.12 Pulse Definitions
The figures illustrate the various pulse parameter definitions.
Pulse HIGH LEVEL corresponds to the most positive level of the pulse. Pulse LOW LEVEL corresponds
to the most negative level of the pulse. Pulse AMPLITUDE is defined as the difference between the HIGH
LEVEL and LOW LEVEL values.
Transition time (LEADING or TRAILING EDGE) is the interval required for the pulse to go from 10% to
90% of the selected amplitude or vice versa.
The way in which the instrument defines pulse parameters makes a distinction between the selected pulse,
which assumes the fastest transition times and the actual pulse output. The values specified for WIDTH,
PERIOD, and DELAY are defined with reference to the point at which the selected pulse reaches 50% of the
amplitude during the leading and trailing edges at the fastest transition time.
WIDTH is the time interval between the 50% points of the leading and trailing edges. If the selected
leading and trailing edge transition times are equal, the time interval between the 50% points is the same as
that between the first and third corners.
PERIOD is the time between the 50% points on the rising edges of two consecutive trigger outputs.
DELAY is the time between the 50% points on the rising edge of the TRIG OUTPUT pulse and the 50%
point of the leading edge of the output pulse (at fastest transition time).
When VARIABLE TRANSITION TIMES are selected, the time interval between the 50% points of the
actual pulse depends on both the WIDTH and TRANSITION TIME settings. A trailing edge slower or faster
than the leading edge respectively lengthens or shortens the 50% interval. In effect, the pulse edges pivot
about the first and third corners while the interval between these corners remains fixed for a given width
setting.
As long as the leading and trailing edge times are equal, the selected width and the actual width are the
same.
In the SINGLE or DOUBLE pulse mode the instrument defines PERIOD as the time between the 50%
points on the leading edges of two consecutive trigger outputs. DELAY, in double pulse mode, is the time
between the leading edges of the first and second pulse using as a reference point 50% amplitude with fastest
transition times.
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SETTLING TIME is the interval required for the pulse level to enter and remain in the specified level
ACCURACY RANGE, measured from the 90% AMPLITUDE point.
3.13
Pulse Parameter Limitations
The following formulas express the limits on Period, Width, and Delay.
Single Pulse per Period Modes
(Un-delayed, Delayed, Counted Burst with single pulse mode)
[Period - (Width + Delay)] must be > 10 ns
0.99 * Period must be > (Width + Delay)
Pulse max
Pulse min
Width max
Width min
Delay max
Delay min
= 10.00 s
= (Width + Delay + 10 ns), but not less than 20 ns
= [(Period * 0.99) - Delay – 10 ns], but not more than 9.89999 s
= 10 ns
= [(Period * 0.99) - Width – 10 ns], but not more than 9.89998 s
=0
Single Pulse Transition Time Restrictions
Width must be > 1.3 * Leading Edge
(Period - Width) must be > 1.3 * Trailing Edge
Double Pulse per Period Modes
(Paired Pulse and Counted Burst with Paired pulses)
Delay must be > Width
0.99 * Delay must be > (Width + 10 ns)
Pulse max
Pulse min
Width max
Width min
Delay max
Delay min
= 10.00 s
= (Width + Delay + 10 ns), but not less than 40 ns
= [(0.99 * Delay) – 10 ns], but not > 4.85000 s
= 10 ns
= [(Period * 0.99) - Width –10 ns], but not > 9.80000 s
= (Width + 10 ns)
Double Pulse Transition Time Restrictions
Width must be > 1.3 * Leading Edge
(Delay - Width) must be > 1.3 * Trailing Edge
[Period - (Delay + Width)] must be > (1.3 * Trailing Edge)
Internal Trigger Burst Mode
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(0.99 * Trig Rate) must be > (Period * Burst Count)
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Section 4
Programming
4.1
OVERVIEW
This section provides detailed information on programming the SEFRAM 4451 via the IEEE
488 bus (GPIB - General Purpose Interface Bus). The SEFRAM 4451 is programmable over the
IEEE 488 bus, and its message protocol is compatible with IEEE 488.2. The device command
set is compatible with the SCPI 1992.0 standard. The SCPI standard does not cover all the
needs of the SEFRAM 4451, and so the standard has been added where necessary.
The command syntax as defined by the IEEE 488.2 and SCPI standards is briefly explained in
the following sections. Users who have experience programming GPIB instruments may skip
these paragraphs, and go directly to where the individual command syntax is given. Users
wishing to gain further insight should consult the standards.
4.2
DEVICE STATE
The device may be in one of the four possible states described below. The transition between
states is defined by IEEE 488.
4.2.1
Local State (LOCS)
In the LOCS the device may be operated from the front panel only. Its settings may be queried
over the GPIB, but not changed. Commands that do not affect the signal being output by the
instrument are accepted.
4.2.2
Local with Lockout State (LWLS)
In the LWLS the device may be operated from the front panel only. Its settings may be queried
over the GPIB, but not changed. Commands that do not affect the signal being output by the
instrument are accepted. The difference between the LOCS and the LWLS is that from the
LWLS the device may enter the Remote With Lockout State.
4.2.3
Remote State (REMS)
In the REMS the device may be operated from the GPIB. Actuating any front panel key will
cause the device state to revert to the LOCS.
4.2.4
Remote with Lockout State (RWLS)
In the RWLS the device is operable only from the GPIB. Front panel operation may be returned
by either sending an appropriate IEEE 488 command, or by cycling the device power.
4.3
INTERFACE FUNCTION SUBSETS
The following interface function subsets are implemented in the SEFRAM 4451:
SH1, AH1, T6, L4, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT1, E2, C0
4.4
DEVICE ADDRESS
The GPIB address of the device may be set to any value from 0 to 31. The address may be
changed from the front panel, using the numeric keypad or the rotary encoder, or via the GPIB
itself using the command:
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:ADDRess
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SEFRAM 4451
Setting the device to address 31 puts it in the 'off-bus' state. In this state it will not respond to
messages on the GPIB. If the device is in the REMS when set to address 31, an internal 'returnto-local' command will be given, setting the device to the LOCS. If the device is in the RWLS,
the 'return-to-local' command is ignored, and the device remains in the RWLS.
The only way to then re-establish communication with the device over the GPIB is to cycle the
power, and to then change the address to that required from the front panel.
4.5
MESSAGE EXCHANGE PROTOCOL
The device decodes messages using the Message Exchange Protocol (MEP) defined in IEEE
488.2. The following functions implemented in the MEP must be considered.
4.5.1
The Input Buffer
The device has a 128-byte long cyclic input buffer. Decoding of remote messages is begun as
soon as the input buffer is not empty, that is, as soon as the controller has sent at least one byte
to the device. Should the input buffer be filled up by the controller faster than the device can
remove the bytes and decode them, the bus handshake is not completed until room has been
made for more bytes in the buffer. This prevents a fast controller from overrunning the device
with data.
If the user has sent part of a Program Message, but not the Program Message Terminator, and
he wishes to abort the message decoding and execution, the Device Clear command may be
sent, or front panel operation resumed (in REMS only).
4.5.2
The Output Queue
The device has a 100-byte long output queue in which it stores response messages for the
controller to read. If at the time a response message is formatted and the queue contains
previously formatted response messages, such that there is not enough place in the queue for the
new message, the device will put off putting the message in the queue until there is place for it.
The Status Byte MAV bit indicates when set that part or all of a response message is ready to be
read.
4.5.3
Response Messages
The device sends a Response Message in response to a valid query. All queries return a single
Response Message Unit, and all query responses are generated at the time the query is parsed.
4.5.4
Coupled Commands
Coupled Commands are either commands whose execution validity depends on the value of
other parameters, or commands whose execution changes the value of another parameter. The
execution of commands designated as being coupled is deferred until all other commands in the
same Program Message have been executed. The coupled commands are then grouped together
according to their functionality, and executed as a group. All parameters of the SEFRAM 4451
are coupled.
4.6
INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION
The *IDN? common query is used to read the instrument's identification string. The string
returned has the following format:
SEFRAM 4451,0,V1.0
4.7
INSTRUMENT RESET
The *RST common command effects an instrument reset to the factory default power up state.
4.8
SELF TEST
The *TST common query causes the device to perform a self-test. This self-test consists of
checking the status of the pulse generator's period, pulse and output cards.
4.9 COMMAND SYNTAX
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4.9.1
SEFRAM 4451
General Command Structure
The device commands are generally defined by the SCPI standard, with the exception of those
instrument functions for which SCPI commands do not as yet exist.
The Common Commands and Queries are defined by IEEE 488.2. The command syntax, i.e.
how a command is structured, is defined by IEEE 488.2.
4.9.2
The Program Message
A Program Message is defined as a string containing one or more Program Message Units, each
of which is an instrument command or query. Program Message Units are separated from each
other by the Program Message Unit Separator. The Program Message is terminated by the
Program Message Terminator.
The Program Message Unit Separator consists of a semicolon (';'), optionally preceded and/or
followed by white-space characters. A white-space character is defined as the ASCII characters
in the ranges 00H-09H, and 0BH-20H. This range includes the ASCII control characters and the
space, but excludes the Linefeed character.
The Program Message Terminator consists of optional white-space characters, followed by one
of three options:
Linefeed (LF) character (ASCII 0A);
GPIB EOI bus line being set true on the last byte of the message;
LF being sent with EOI true.
The Program Message Unit can be divided into three sections as follows.
4.9.2.1 Program Message Header
The Program Header represents the operation to be performed, and consists of ASCII character
mnemonics. Two types of Program Headers are used in the SEFRAM 4451: Instrument-control
headers and Common Command and Query headers. A Program Header may consist of more
than one mnemonic, in which case the mnemonics are separated from each other by the colon
(':'). For instrument control commands, the mnemonics are specified by the SCPI standard, and
indicate the tree structure of the command set. The first mnemonic indicates the subsystem
being controlled. Common Command and Query Program Headers consist of a single
mnemonic prefixed by an asterisk ('*').
The mnemonics consist of upper- or lower-case alpha characters. Mnemonics may be written in
either the long form, in which the entire mnemonic is written out, or the short form, in which
only a specified portion of the mnemonic is written out. Some mnemonics have only one form
due to their short length. Where a command is described, the portion appearing in upper case is
the short form. Only the short form or the long form may be used.
Example: The command to set the period to 1 microsecond may be written in the following
ways:
SOURCE:PULSE:PERIOD 1US
SOUR:PULS:PER 1US
SOURCE:PULSE:PERIOD 1US
Some mnemonics in a specified Program Header may be optional. This is indicated in the
command description by the mnemonic being enclosed in square brackets ([...]).
This means it is not necessary to write the mnemonic into the Program Header: it is a default
condition. The 'SOURCE' mnemonic, for example, is optional. Not specifying it will cause the
device to search for the mnemonics in the Program Header under the Source Subsystem. For
example, the period may be set by the command:
:PULS:PER 1US
4.9.2.2 Program Message Header Separator
The Program Header Separator is used to separate the program header from the program data. It
consists of one or more white-space characters, denoted as <ws>. Typically, it is a space.
4.9.2.3 Program Message Data
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The Program Data represent the values of the parameters being set, for example, the '1US' in the
above examples. Different forms of program data are accepted, depending on the command.
The Program Data types used in the SEFRAM 4451 are as follows:
1.
Character program data – This form of data is comprised of a mnemonic made up of
lower - or upper-case alpha characters. As with Program Header mnemonics, some
Character Data mnemonics have short and long forms. Only the short or the long form
may be used.
2.
Boolean data – Boolean data indicate that the parameter can take one of two states, ON
or OFF. The parameter may be character type ON or OFF or numeric. A numeric value is
rounded to an integer. A non-zero result is interpreted as 1 (ON), and a zero result as 0
(OFF). Queries return the values 0 or 1.
3.
NRf – This is a decimal numeric data type, where
NR1 indicates an integer number,
NR2 indicates a fixed-point real number, and
NR3 indicates a floating-point real number.
All parameters that have associated units accept a suffix, which may be specified using
upper - or lower-case characters. When the suffix is not specified, the numeric value is
accepted in the default units, which are Hertz for frequency, Seconds for time, and Volts
for voltage. To set the period to 1 microsecond we can send one of the following
commands:
:PULS:PER 1E-6 or :PULS:PER 1000NS
The special forms of character data accepted as numbers as defined by SCPI are NOT
accepted by the SEFRAM 4451.
There are two types of Program Message Units: Command Message Units and Query
Message Units. A Query differs from a Command in that the Program Header is
terminated with a question mark ('?'). For example, the period might be queried with the
following query:
:PULS:PER?
Not all Program Message units have query forms, such as STATUS:PRESET, and some
Program Message Units might have only the query form, such as SYSTEM:VERSION?.
The SEFRAM 4451 puts the response to the query into the output queue, from where it
may be read by the controller. The Status Byte MAV bit is set to indicate to the controller
that a response is ready to be read.
4.9.3
SCPI Command Structure
SCPI commands are based on a hierarchical structure. This allows the same instrument-control
header to be used several times for different purposes, providing that the mnemonic occurs in a
unique position in the hierarchy. Each level in the hierarchy is defined as a node. Mnemonics in
the different levels are separated from each other by a colon (':'). The first Program Message
Unit, or command, in a Program Message is always referenced to the root node. Subsequent
commands are referenced to the same level as the previous command.
A Program Message Unit having a colon as its first character causes the reference to return to
the root. This process is defined by IEEE 488, section A.1.1. Consider the following examples:
1.
The following command may be used to set the high and low levels of the pulse. Note
that the LOW command is referenced to the command preceding it. The LOW mnemonic
resides at the same node as the HIGH command.
SOURCE:VOLTAGE:HIGH 5V;LOW 2V
2.
This command sets the frequency and the high level. The FREQUENCY and
VOLTAGE mnemonics are at the same level.
SOURCE:FREQUENCY 2KHZ;VOLTAGE:HIGH 4V
3.
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When Program Message Units describe different subsystems, a colon prefix must be used
to reset the command reference to the root. Here the frequency and the output state are
set.
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SOURCE:FREQUENCY 3KHZ;:OUTPUT:STATE ON
Common Commands may be inserted in the Program Message without affecting the
instrument-control command reference. For example,
SOURCE:VOLTAGE:HIGH 4V;*ESE 255;LOW 2V
4.10 STATUS REPORTING
The instrument is capable of reporting status events and errors to the controller, using the IEEE
488.1 Service Request function and the IEEE 488.2 Status Reporting structure.
4.10.1
The Status Byte
Status summary information is communicated from the device to the controller using the Status
Byte (STB). The STB is composed of single-bit summary-messages, each summary message
summarizing an overlying Status Data Structure. By examining the content of the STB, the
controller gains some information concerning the instrument's status. The STB bits are defined
as follows:
Bit 0:
Unused
Bit 1:
Unused
Bit 2:
Error/event queue summary message (EVQ). This bit is set if the queue is not
empty.
Bit 3:
Questionable Status summary message. This bit is not used by the SEFRAM
4451.
Bit 4:
Message Available (MAV) summary message. This bit is set whenever all or
part of a message is available for the controller to read. The controller may be
ready to read the response message before it is available, in which case it can
either wait until this bit is set, or it can start to read. In the second case, the
controller time-out must be set so that the read action will not be aborted before
the message has been read.
Bit 5:
Event Status Bit (ESB) summary message. This bit is set to indicate that one or
more of the enabled standard events have occurred.
Bit 6:
Request Service (RQS). This bit is set when the device is actively requesting
service.
Bit 7:
Operation Status summary message. No Operation Status events are defined in
the SEFRAM 4451, and so this bit is never set.
The STB is read by the controller during a serial poll. If the RQS bit was set, it is then cleared.
The STB may also be read by the *STB? common query.
4.10.2
Service Request Enabling
Service request enabling allows the user to select which Status Byte summary messages may
cause the device to actively request service. This is achieved using the Service Request Enable
Register, which is an 8-bit register whose bits correspond to those of the STB. The RQS bit in
the STB is set when a bit in the STB is set, and its corresponding bit in the service request
enable register is set.
The service request enable register is set using the *SRE common command, and read using the
*SRE? common query.
4.10.3
Standard Event Status Register
The Standard Event Status Register (SESR) is defined by IEEE 488.2. It is implemented in the
SEFRAM 4451 as a byte, whose bits have the following definitions:
Bit 0:
Bit 1:
Bit 2:
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Operation Complete (OPC). This bit is set in response to the *OPC common
command being executed.
Request Control (RQC). Not implemented in the PG.
Query Error (QYE). This bit is set when either the controller is attempting to
read data from the device when none is available, or when data prepared for the
controller to read has been lost.
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Bit 3:
Device-Specific Error (DDE). This bit is set to indicate that a device operation
did not execute due to some device condition.
Bit 4:
Execution Error (EXE). This bit is set when the device could not execute a
command, due to the command being outside of it's capabilities. For example, a
parameter being out of range.
Bit 5:
Command Error (CME). This bit is set to indicate an error in the command
syntax.
Bit 6:
User Request (URQ). This bit is not used by the SEFRAM 4451.
Bit 7:
Power On (PON). This bit is set when the device is powered on.
The SESR is queried using the *ESR? common query.
The SESR is paired with an enable register, the Standard Event Status Enable Register
(SESER). This register enables one or more events in the SESR to be reflected in the Status
Byte ESB summary message bit. The bits of the SESER correspond to those of the SESR.
Setting a bit in the SESER enables the corresponding event to set the ESB bit when it occurs.
The SESER is set with the *ESE common command and queried with the *ESE? command
query.
4.10.4
The Error Queue
The error queue is used to store codes of errors detected in the device. It is implemented as a
cyclic buffer of length 10. When the error queue is not empty, bit EVQ in the Status Byte is set.
The error queue is read with either one of the following two queries:
:SYSTEM:ERROR?
:STATUS:QUEUE:NEXT?
The first error in the queue is returned, and the queue is advanced.
4.10.5 Error Codes
The negative error codes are defined by SCPI. Positive codes are specific to the PG. The error
message is returned in the following form:
<error number>,"<error description>"
A table of error numbers and their descriptions is presented here.
No error reported
0
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4.10.5.1 Command Errors
A command error is in the range -199 to -100, and indicates that a syntax error was detected.
This includes the case of an unrecognized header. The occurrence of a command error causes
the CME bit (bit 5) of the Standard Event Status Register to be set.
Code
-100
-101
-102
-103
-104
-105
-108
-109
-110
-111
-112
-113
-114
-120
-121
-123
-124
-128
-131
-134
-138
-140
-141
-144
-148
-158
-168
-178
Description
Command Error
Invalid character
Syntax error
Invalid separator
Data type error
GET not allowed
Parameter not allowed – More parameters than allowed were received
Missing parameter – Fewer parameters than necessary were received
Command header error
Header separator error
Program mnemonic too long – The mnemonic must contain no less than 12 characters
Undefined header
Header suffix out of range
Numeric data error
Invalid character in number
Exponent too large – IEEE 488.2 specifies maximum of 32000
Too many digits – IEEE 488.2 specifies maximum of 255 digits in mantissa.
Numeric data not allowed – A different data type was expected
Invalid suffix
Suffix too long – A maximum of 12 characters are allowed in a suffix
Suffix not allowed
Character data error
Invalid character data – Incorrect character data were received
Character data too long – Character data may contain no more than 12 characters
Character data not allowed
String data not allowed
Block data not allowed
Expression data not allowed
4.10.5.2 Execution Errors
An execution error indicates that the device could not execute a syntactically correct command,
either since the data were out of the instrument's range, or due to a device condition. The EXE
bit (bit 4) of the Standard Event Status Register is set on occurrence of an execution error.
Code
-200
-201
-211
-221
-222
Description
Execution error
Invalid while in local – An attempt was made to change an instrument setting while the
instrument was in the LOCAL state
Trigger ignored – The GET or *TRG common command was ignored due to the device
not being in the correct state to execute the trigger
Settings conflict – The parameter is out of range due to the current instrument state
Data out of range – The parameter exceeds the absolute limits
4.10.5.3 Device-Specific Errors
An error specific to the device occurred. The DDE bit (bit 3) of the Standard Event Status
Register is set.
Code
-315
-330
-350
Description
Configuration memory lost – Device memory has been lost. Check the back-up battery
Self-test failed
Queue overflow – Error codes have been lost due to more than 10 errors being reported
without being read
4.10.5.4 Query Errors
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A query error indicates that the output queue control has detected a problem. This could occur if
either an attempt was made to read data from the instrument if none was available, or when data
were lost. Data could be lost when a query causes data to be formatted for the controller to be
read, and the controller sends more commands without reading the data.
Code
-410
-420
-430
-440
Description
Query INTERRUPTED – Data were sent before the entire response of a previous query
was read
Query UNTERMINATED – An attempt was made to read a response before the
complete program message meant to generate that response was sent
Query DEADLOCKED – The input buffer and output queue are full, and the controller is
attempting to send more data. In this case the output queue and input buffers will be
cleared. Parsing will resume after the END message is detected
Query UNTERMINATED after indefinite response – A query was received in the same
program message after a query requiring an indefinite response was formatted.
Essentially this means that the *IDN? common query and the :ARB:DATA? query
should not be followed by more query messages in the same program message
4.10.5.5 System Events
System events have positive valued codes. They are not defined by SCPI, but are specific to the
PG.
Code
401
402
Description
Power on
Operation complete – The *OPC command as been executed
4.11 IEEE 488.2 COMMON COMMANDS AND QUERIES
4.11.1 System Data Commands
The identification query command, *IDN?, enables unique identification of the device over the
GPIB. It returns a string with four fields:
Manufacturer name
Model name
Serial number (0 if not relevant)
Version number
4.11.2 Internal Operation Commands
4.11.2.1 *RST - Reset Command
The Reset command resets the device and returns it to the factory default power-up state.
Command Type: Common Command
Syntax: *RST
4.11.2.2 *TST? - Self-Test Query
The self-test query causes an internal self-test to be performed. This test consists of checking
the status of the period, pulse and output cards.
Command Type Common Query
Syntax *TST?
Response
M4451 A00
ASCII 0 if test passes
ASCII 1 if test fails
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4.11.3 Synchronization Commands
4.11.3.1 *OPC - Operation Complete Command
The operation complete command causes the device to generate the operation complete message
in the Standard Event Status Register, on completion of the selected device operation.
Command Type: Common Command
Syntax: *OPC
Examples:
PULS:PER 1US;*OPC
The *OPC command (and the *OPC? query described below) find use mainly when commands
having relatively long execution times are executed, although all SEFRAM 4451 commands
execute without any appreciable delay.
4.11.3.2 *OPC? - Operation Complete Query
The operation complete query places an ASCII character 1 in the output queue on completion of
the selected device operation.
Command Type: Common Query
Syntax: *OPC?
Response:
ASCII character 1
Example:
PULS:PER 1US;*OPC?
4.11.3.3 *WAI - Wait-to-Continue Command
This command is intended for use with overlapped commands. No commands in the SEFRAM
4451 are overlapped, and so this command has no effect.
Command Type: Common Command
Syntax *WAI
4.11.4 Status and Event Commands
4.11.4.1 *CLS - Clear Status
The clear status command clears the SESR and Error Queue status data structures.
COMMAND TYPE:
Common Command
Syntax:: *CLS
4.11.4.2 *ESE - Standard Event Status Enable
This command is used to set the value of the Standard Event Status Enable Register.
COMMAND TYPE:
Common Command or Query
COMMON COMMAND
Syntax: *ESE<ws><NRf>
Arguments:
Type:
Range:
Examples:
NRf
0 to 255. Non integer arguments are rounded before execution.
*ESE 48 (Enables the CME and EXE bits)
*ESE 255 (Enables all standard events)
QUERY
Syntax: *ESE?
Response:
<NR1>
4.11.4.3 *ESR? - Standard Event Status Register Query
This query is used to read the value of the Standard Event Status Register. Reading the register
clears it.
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COMMAND TYPE:
Common Command or Query
Syntax: *ESR?
Response:
<NR1>
4.11.4.4 *PSC - Power-On Status Clear Command
This command is used to control the automatic power-on clearing of certain status functions.
COMMAND TYPE:
Common Command or Query
COMMON COMMAND
Syntax : *PSC<ws><Boolean>
Arguments:
Type:
Examples:
Boolean
*PSC ON or *PSC 1
*PSC OFF or *PSC 0
QUERY
Syntax: *PSC?
Response:
ASCII 0 for OFF
ASCII 1 for ON
When set to ON (1), the Service Request Enable Register and the Standard Event Status Enable
Register are cleared on power-on.
4.11.4.5 *SRE - Service Request Enable Command
This command sets the Service Request Enable Register bits.
COMMAND TYPE:
Common Command or Query
COMMON COMMAND
Syntax: *SRE<ws><NRf>
Arguments:
Type:
Range:
Examples:
NRf
0 to 255. Non integer arguments are rounded before execution.
The value of bit 6 is ignored, and is set always to zero.
*SRE 48 (Enables reporting of ESB and MAV events)
QUERY
Syntax: *SRE?
Response:
f)
<NR1>
STB? - Status byte query
This query is used to read the value of the Status Byte.
COMMAND TYPE:
Common Query
Syntax : *STB?
Response:
<NR1>
The value of the Status Byte read with the *STB? query may differ from that read with the
Serial Poll. Bit 6 of the STB will be set as long as a reason for requesting service exists, while
bit 6 of the STB as read by the Serial Poll is cleared by the Serial Poll.
4.11.5 Device Trigger Commands
*TRG - Trigger command
This command is analogous to the IEEE 488.1 Group Execute Trigger interface message, and
has the same effect. It is used to trigger the device to output a wave, and is accepted only when
the trigger mode is set to Trigger, Gate or Burst, and the trigger source is set to BUS.
Command Type: Common Command
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Syntax: *TRG
4.11.6 Stored Settings Commands
4.11.6.1 *RCL - Recall Instrument State
This command is used to restore the state of the device to that stored in the specified memory
location.
COMMAND TYPE:
Common Command
Syntax: *RCL<ws><NRf>
Arguments:
Type:
Range:
Example:
<NRf>
0 to 99. Non integer values are rounded before execution
*RCL 0 (Recall default state)
*RCL 99
4.11.6.2 *SAV - Save Instrument State
This command is used to store the current instrument state in the specified memory location.
COMMAND TYPE:
Common Command
Syntax: *SAV<ws><NRf>
Arguments:
Type:
Range:
Example:
<NRf>
1 to 98. Non integer values are rounded before execution
*SAV 25
Stored setting location 0 stores the factory defaults, and is a read-only location. Location 99
stores a copy of the current instrument setting, and it, too, is read-only.
4.12 INSTRUMENT CONTROL COMMANDS
Instrument control commands are grouped into logical subsystems according to the SCPI
instrument model. The commands are comprised of mnemonics indicating the subsystem to
which the command belongs, and the hierarchy within that subsystem. When the command is
to be referred to the Root node, it should be prefixed with a colon (:). Mnemonics appearing in
square brackets [...] are optional. The '|' character is used to denote a choice of specifications.
The '<ws>' is used to denote a white space character.
4.12.1
SOURce Subsystem
The Source Subsystem controls the frequency, voltage and pulse characteristics. The command
structure is as follows:
:SOURce
:FREQuency
[:CW|FIXed] <NRf>
:VOLTage
[:LEVel]
M4451 A00
[:IMMediate]
HIGH <NRf>
LOW <NRf>
PREDefined TTL|CMOS|ECL|USER
PHIGh <NRf>
PLOW <NRf>
:LIMit
HIGH <NRf>
LOW <NRf>
:PULSe
:PERiod <NRf>
:WIDTh <NRf>
:DELay <NRf>
:DCYCle <NRf>
:HOLD WIDTh|DCYCle
:EWIDth <Boolean>
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:DOUBle
[:STATe] <Boolean>
:DELay <NRf>
:TRANsition
[:LEADing] <NRf>
:TRAiling <NRf>
:AUTO <Boolean>|ONCE
:POLarity NORMal|COMPlement|INVerted
4.12.1.1 Frequency
The frequency command controls the frequency of the pulse in the continuous trigger mode. It
is the inverse of the period.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:FREQuency[:CW|FIXed]<ws><frequency>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
NRf
MHz, kHz, Hz (default)
0.1Hz to 50MHz
To the resolution of the range.
:FREQ 5KHZ
:FREQ 5E3
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:FREQuency[:CW|:FIXed]?
Examples:
:FREQ?
Response:
NR3
CONSIDERATIONS: FIXed is an alias for CW.
4.12.1.2 High Voltage Level
This command is used to set the high level of the pulse.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:HIGH<ws><high level>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
NRf
MV, V (default)
-9.5V to +10V
To 10mV
VOLT:HIGH 4V
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:HIGH?
Examples:
:VOLT:HIGH?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
1)
The high level must be greater than the low level.
2)
The difference between the levels must conform to 0.5V ≤ difference ≤ 10V
3)
The high level may not exceed the high limit.
4.12.1.3 Low Voltage Level
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This command is used to set the low level of the pulse.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:LOW<ws><low level>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
NRf
MV, V (default)
-10V to +9.5V
To 10mV
:VOLT:LOW 4V
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage:[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:LOW?
Examples:
:VOLT:LOW?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
1)
The high level must be greater than the low level.
2)
The difference between the levels must conform to 0.5V ≤ difference ≤ 10V
3)
The low level may not be less than the low limit.
4.12.1.4 Predefined High Voltage Level
This command is used to set the predefined high level of the pulse. The pulse will be set when
the predefined USER levels are invoked to this high level.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:PHIGH<ws>
<predef high level>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Example:
NRf
MV, V (default)
-9.5V to +10V
To 10mV
:VOLT:PHIGH 4V
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:PHIGH?
Example:
:VOLT:PHIGH?
Response:
NRf
4.12.1.5 Predefined Low Voltage Level
This command is used to set the predefined low level of the pulse. The pulse will be set when
the predefined USER levels are invoked to this low level.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:PLOW<ws>
<predef low level>[units]
Arguments:
M4451 A00
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
NRf
MV, V (default)
-10V to +9.5V
To 10mV
Examples:
:VOLT:PLOW 4V
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QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:PLOW?
Examples:
:VOLT:PLOW?
Response:
NRf
4.12.1.6 Predefined Voltage Levels
This command is used to set the pulse voltage levels to predefined values. Four predefined
values are available as follows:
CMOS:
TTL:
ECL:
USER:
High level 5V; Low level 0V
High level 2.4V; Low level 0.4V
High level –0.8V; Low level –1.8V
User-defined levels, as set using the PHIGH and PLOW commands
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting only
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:PREDefined<ws><option>
Arguments:
Type:
Options:
Examples:
Character
CMOS, TTL, ECL, USER
:VOLT:PRED ECL
4.12.1.7 High Voltage Limit
This command is used to set the high limit of the pulse.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage:LIMit:HIGH<ws><high limit>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
NRf
MV, V (default)
-9.5V to +10V
To 10mV
Examples:
:VOLT:LIM:HIGH 4V
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage:LIMit:HIGH?
Examples:
:VOLT:LIM:HIGH?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
The high limit cannot be set to less than the high level.
4.12.1.8 Low Voltage Limit
This command is used to set the low limit of the pulse.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage:LIMit:LOW<ws><low limit>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
M4451 A00
NRf
MV, V (default)
–10V to +9.5V
To 10mV
VOLT:LIM:LOW 4V
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QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:VOLTage:LIMit:LOW?
Examples:
:VOLT:LIM:LOW?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
The low limit cannot be set greater than the low level.
4.12.1.9 Pulse Period
This command is used to set or query the period of the pulse.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:PERiod<ws><period>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
NRf
Units:
S (seconds), MS (milliseconds), US (microseconds), NS
nanoseconds
Range:
20NS to 10S
Rounding: To current resolution
Examples: :PULS:PER 1US
:PULS:PER 400E-6
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:PERiod?
Examples:
:PULS:PER?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
The allowed range of the period will be determined by the values of the width, delay, and
transition times.
4.12.1.10 Pulse Width
This command is used to set or query the value of the pulse width. If the duty cycle is ON when
the width command is sent, it is then set to OFF, and changes in the period will no longer affect
the width.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:WIDTh<ws><width>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
NRf
Units:
S (seconds), MS (milliseconds), US (microseconds), NS
nanoseconds
Range:
10NS to 9.89999S
Rounding: To current resolution
Examples: :PULS:WIDT 25NS
:PULS:WIDT 200E-9
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:WIDTh?
Examples:
:PULS:WIDT?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
M4451 A00
The allowed range of the width will be determined by the values of the period, delay, and
transition times.
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4.12.1.11 Pulse Delay
This command is used to set the delay from the trigger signal to the start of the pulse in single
pulse mode. Although there exists a separate command for the double pulse delay, both
commands affect the same delay, and so this command will also determine the time between the
two pulses in the double pulse mode.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:DELay<ws><delay>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
NRf
Units:
S (seconds), MS (milliseconds), US (microseconds), NS
nanoseconds
Range:
0NS to 9.80000S
Rounding: To current resolution
Examples: :PULS:DELay 25NS
:PULS:DEL 200E-9
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:DELay?
Examples:
:PULS:DEL?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
The allowed range of the delay will be determined by the values of the period, width, and
transition times.
4.12.1.12 Pulse Duty Cycle
This command is used to set the duty cycle of the pulse. Once the duty cycle has been set it is
considered to be ON, and then changes in the period will automatically cause changes in the
width, such that the duty cycle is kept constant. The duty cycle is set OFF by either setting the
pulse width, or by the PULSE:HOLD WIDTH command. Querying the duty cycle when it is off
will return the value zero (0).
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:DCYCle<ws><duty>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
NRf
None
1% to 99%
To 0.1%
:PULS:DCYC 25
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:DCYCle?
Examples:
:PULS:DCYC?
4.12.1.13 Pulse Hold
This command is used to determine whether the width or the duty cycle are to be held constant
when the period is changed. The duty cycle is termed to be ON when changes in the period
cause changes in the width, such that the duty cycle remains constant. This state is achieved by
specifying the DCYCle parameter in the HOLD command. The duty cycle is set OFF by
specifying the WIDTH parameter, and then changes in the period will not affect the width.
When setting the duty cycle OFF, the last value is remembered, which is the value the duty
cycle takes when it is next set ON.
COMMAND TYPE:
M4451 A00
Setting or Query
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SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:HOLD<ws><option>
Arguments:
Type:
Options:
Examples:
Character
WIDTh, DCYCle
:PULS:HOLD WIDTh
:PULS:HOLD DCYC
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:HOLD?
Examples:
:PULS:HOLD?
Response:
WIDT | DCYC
4.12.1.14 External Width
This command is used to enable or disable the external width function. When enabled (ON),
this function causes an externally applied pulse to be generated with the same width, but with
transition times and output levels as specified by the instrument. When the external width is
enabled, the pulse parameter period, width, delay and duty cycle may not be specified. Doing so
will cause error 221 to be returned. Also, the double pulse mode may not be enabled while the
external width is enabled.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:EWIDth<ws><Boolean>
Arguments:
Type:
Boolean
Examples:
:PULS:EWID ON
:PULS:EWID OFF
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:EWIDth?
Examples:
:PULS:EWID?
Response:
0|1
4.12.1.15 Double Pulse State
This command is used to enable or disable the double pulse mode. In this mode, two pulses are
generated per period. The first pulse is generated at the time of the signal trigger, and the
second pulse is generated after a programmable delay. This delay is set by either the
:PULSE:DELAY or the :PULSE:DOUBLE:DELAY command.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:DOUBle[:STATe]<ws><Boolean>
Arguments:
Type:
Boolean
Examples:
:PULS:DOUB ON
:PULS:DOUB:STAT OFF
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:DOUBle[STATe]?
Examples:
:PULS:DOUB?
Response:
0|1
4.12.1.16 Double Pulse Delay
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This command is used to set the delay of the second pulse, from the time of the trigger, in the
double pulse mode. It has exactly the same effect as the :PULSE:DELAY command, and is
included in the command set for compatibility purposes.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:DOUBle:DELay<ws><delay>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
NRf
Units:
S (seconds), MS (milliseconds), US (microseconds), NS
nanoseconds
Range:
0NS to 9.80000S
Rounding: To current resolution
Examples: :PULS:DOUB:DELay 150NS
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:DOUBle:DELay?
Examples:
:PULS:DOUB:DEL?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
The allowed range of the delay will be determined by the values of the period, width, and
transition times.
4.12.1.17 Leading Edge Time
This command is used to set the value of the leading edge time. If the edge-tracking feature is
ON, changing the leading edge will cause the same change in the trailing edge. Refer to 2.1.19
for the tracking control command.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:TRANsition[:LEADing]<ws><lead time>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
NRf
Units:
S (seconds), MS (milliseconds), US (microseconds), NS
nanoseconds
Range:
5NS to 10MS
Rounding: To current resolution
Examples: :PULS:TRAN:LEAD 50NS
:PULS:TRAN 85NS
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:TRANsition[:LEADing]?
Examples:
:PULS:TRAN:LEAD?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
The allowed value of the leading edge time is limited by the values of the period, width
and delay. In addition, the ratio between the transition times is limited to a maximum of
20:1, and both transition times must be in one of the following ranges:
5ns to 100ns
50ns to 1 us
500ns to 10us
5us to 100us
50us to 1ms
500us to 10ms
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4.12.1.18 Trailing Edge Time
This command is used to set the value of the trailing edge time. If the edge-tracking feature is
ON, changing the trailing edge will cause the same change in the leading edge. Refer to 2.1.19
for the tracking control command.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:TRANsition[:TRAiling]<ws><trail time>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
NRf
Units:
S (seconds), MS (milliseconds), US (microseconds), NS
nanoseconds
Range:
5NS to 10MS
Rounding: To current resolution
Examples: :PULS:TRAN:TRA 50NS
:PULS:TRAN:TRAiling 85NS
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:TRANsition[:TRAiling]?
Examples:
:PULS:TRAN:TRA?
Response:
NRf
CONSIDERATIONS:
The allowed value of the trailing edge time is limited by the values of the period, width
and delay. In addition, the ratio between the transition times is limited to a maximum of
20:1, and both transition times must be in one of the following ranges:
5ns to 100ns
50ns to 1 us
500ns to 10us
5us to 100us
50us to 1ms
500us to 10ms
4.12.1.19 Transition Time Tracking
The SEFRAM 4451 enables the transition times to be either independent of each other, or to
track each other. With tracking set to ON, setting one of the transition times will cause the other
transition time to be set to the same value. When the tracking is off, each transition time is set
independently of the other. In addition to the tracking being set ON or OFF, the transition times
can be made equal to each other using the ONCE parameter. In this case a single-shot tracking
is effected. When going from tracking OFF to ON, the trailing edge is made to follow the
leading edge.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:TRANsition:TRAiling:AUTO<ws><Option>
Arguments:
Type:
Examples:
Boolean or Character
:PULS:TRAN:TRA:AUTO OFF
:PULS:TRAN:TRA:AUTO ONCE
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:TRANsition:TRAiling:AUTO?
Examples:
:PULS:TRAN:TRA:AUTO?
Response:
0|1
4.12.1.20 Pulse Polarity
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This command is used to control the polarity of the pulse, which may be normal or
complemented. The COMPement and INVerted parameters are aliases: either may be used.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:POLarity<ws><Option>
Arguments:
Type:
Options:
Character
NORMal – Normal polarity
COMPlement – complemeted
INVerted – complemeted
Examples: :PULS:POL NORM
:PULS:POL INVerted
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:POLarity?
Examples:
:PULS:POL?
Response:
NORM | COMP
4.12.1.21 Enhanced Accuracy
This command is used to stay compatible with old MODEL 550. It does nothing on SEFRAM
4451.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:EACCuracy<ws><Boolean>
Arguments:
Type:
Examples:
Boolean
:PULS:EACC ON
QUERY
Syntax: [:SOURce]:PULSe:EACCuracy?
4.12.2
Examples:
:PULS:EACC?
Response:
0|1
OUTPut Subsystem
The Output Subsystem controls characteristics of the source’s output. The OUTPut command
controls whether the output is ON or OFF.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: [:OUTPut]:STATe<ws><Boolean>
Arguments:
Type:
Examples:
Boolean
:OUTP:STAT ON
:OUTP OFF
QUERY
Syntax: :OUTPut[:STATe]?
Response:
0|1
4.12.3 Trigger Subsystem
The Trigger Subsystem is used to control the waveform triggering. It is not all SCPI
compatible. The command structure is as follows:
:TRIGger
:MODE CONTinuous | TRIGger | GATE | BURSt
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:BURSt <NRf>
:SOURce <MANual> | INTernal | EXTernal | BUS
:TIMer <NRf>
:LEVel <NRf>
:DELay <NRf>
:SLOPe POSitive | NEGative
4.12.3.1 Trigger Mode
This command is used to set the trigger mode. It is not a standard SCPI command.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :TRIGger:MODE<ws><option>
Arguments:
Type:
Options:
Character
CONTinuous
TRIGger
GATE
BURSt
:TRIG:MODE CONT
:TRIG:MODE BURS
Examples:
QUERY
Syntax: :TRIGger:MODE?
Response:
CONT | TRIG | GATE | BURS
4.12.3.2 Trigger Source
This command is used to select the trigger source, for use in the Trigger, Gate and Burst trigger
modes.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :TRIGger:SOURce<ws><option>
Arguments:
Type:
Options:
Examples:
Character
MANual – Front panel MAN key
BUS – GPIB trigger (GET or *TRG)
INTernal – Internal trigger
EXTernal – External trigger
:TRIG:SOUR BUS
:TRIG:SOUR INT
QUERY
Syntax: :TRIGger:SOURce?
Response:
MAN | BUS | INT | EXT
4.12.3.3 Burst Count
Used to set the number of cycles to be output in the BURST mode. It is not a standard SCPI
command.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :TRIGger:BURSt<ws><value>
Arguments:
Type:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
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NRf
2 to 999999
To integer value
:TRIG:BURS 100
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QUERY
Syntax: :TRIGger:BURSt?
Response:
NRf
Examples:
:TRIG:BURSt?
4.12.3.4 Internal Trigger Rate
Sets the rate of the internal trigger.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :TRIGger:TIMer<ws><value>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
NRf
Units:
S (seconds), MS (milliseconds), US (microseconds), NS
nanoseconds
Range:
100NS to 99.99S
Rounding: To current resolution
Examples: :TRIG:TIM 10E-6
:TRIG:TIM 500US
QUERY
Syntax: :TRIGger:TIMer?
Examples:
:TRIG:TIM?
Response:
NR3
4.12.3.5 External Trigger Level
Used to control the trigger level of the external trigger.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :TRIGger:LEVel<ws><trigger level>[units]
Arguments:
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
NRf
V, mV
–10V to +10V with 10mV resolution; 0V allowed
10mV
:TRIG:LEV 5.56
QUERY
Syntax: :TRIGger:LEVel?
Examples:
:TRIG:LEV?
Response:
NR3
4.12.3.6 Trigger Slope
This command is used to set the external trigger slope on which to trigger.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :TRIGger:SLOPe<ws>POSitive « NEGative
Arguments:
Type:
Options:
Examples:
Character
POSitive
NEGative
:TRIG:SLOP POS
:TRIG:SLOP NEG
QUERY
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Syntax: :TRIGger:SLOPe?
Examples:
:TRIG:SLOP?
Response:
POS | NEG
4.12.4 Status Subsystem
This subsystem controls the SCPI-defined status reporting structures, which are the
QUEStionable and OPERation status registers, and the error/event queue. The QUEStionable
and OPERation status registers are mandated by SCPI, and so are implemented, but are not used
by the hardware. No status is ever reported through them, and they are not detailed in this
manual. The following shows the STATus structure used:
:STATus
:PRESet
:QUEue
[:NEXT]?
4.12.4.1 Status Preset
This command is used to set certain status values to defined values.
The OPERation and QUEStionable enable registers are cleared.
The Positive transition filters are set to 32767.
The Negative transition filters are set to 0.
Since the Questionable and Operation status registers are not used in the SEFRAM 4451, the
PRESet command has no real effect.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting only
SETTING
Syntax: :STATus:PRESet
4.12.4.2 Error Queue Read
This query returns the first entry in the error queue and removes that entry from the queue. Its
function is identical to that of the :SYSTem:ERRor? query.
COMMAND TYPE:
Query only
QUERY
Syntax: :STATus:QUEue[:NEXT]?
Response:
<error number>,
“<error description>“
4.12.5 System Subsystem
The SYSTem subsystem collects the functions that are not related to instrument performance.
The functions implemented in the SEFRAM 4451 are security, GPIB address changing, error
queue reading, SCPI version reading, and power-on buffer setting (not SCPI-defined). The
command structure is as follows:
:SYSTem
:COMMunicate
:GPIB
:ADDRess <numeric value>
:ERRor?
:VERSion?
:SECurity
[STATe] <Boolean>
:POBuffer <numeric value>
4.12.5.1 GPIB Address Change
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This command is used to set the GPIB address. Setting the address to 31 puts the instrument in
an 'off-bus' state, in which it does not take part in communication over the GPIB.
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Communication with the instrument can be resumed only by setting the address to a suitable
value from the front panel.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:ADDRess<ws><address>
Arguments:
Type:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
NRf
0 to 31
To integer value
:SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 20
QUERY
Syntax: :SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:ADDRess?
Examples:
:TRIG:SLOP?
Response:
<address> in NR1 format
4.12.5.2 Error Queue Reading
This query returns the first entry in the error queue, and removes that entry from the queue. It's
function is identical to that of the :STATus:QUEue:NEXT? query.
COMMAND TYPE:
Query only
QUERY
Syntax: :SYSTem:ERRor?
Response:
<error number>,
“<error description>“
4.12.5.3 SCPI Version
This query is used to read the SCPI version to which the instrument complies.
COMMAND TYPE:
Query only
QUERY
Syntax: :SYSTem:VERSion?
Response:
1992.0 (NR2 format)
4.12.5.4 Security
This command enables the instrument memory to be cleared. The stored settings are cleared
when the Security state is changed from ON to OFF, and the instrument state is returned to the
factory power-on default.
COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :SYSTem:SECurity[:STATe]<ws><boolean>
Arguments:
Type:
Examples:
Boolean
:SYST:SEC ON
:SYST:SEC OFF
QUERY
Syntax: :SYSTem:SECurity[:STATe]?
Response:
0|1
4.12.5.5 Power-on Buffer
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This command is used to set the Power On Buffer setting. The instrument will power-on with
the setting stored in that buffer. Setting the value to 99 will result in the instrument powering up
in the state it was in before it was powered down.
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COMMAND TYPE:
Setting or Query
SETTING
Syntax: :SYSTem:POBuffer<ws><buffer>
Arguments:
Type:
Range:
Rounding:
Examples:
Numeric
0 to 99
To integer value
:SYST:POB 99
QUERY
Syntax: :SYSTem:POBuffer? [<ws>MINimum | MAXimum]
Response:
Power-on buffer in NR1 format.
4.13 IEEE 488.1 INTERFACE MESSAGES
4.13.1 GET - Group Execute Trigger
The GET is used by the SEFRAM 4451 as a trigger when it is in either the TRIGGER, GATE
or BURST modes, with the trigger source set to BUS. It has the same effect as the *TRG
common command.
4.13.2 DCL - Device Clear
In response to the DCL, the PG does the following:
a)
Clears the input buffer and the output queue.
b)
Resets the Message Processing Functions.
4.13.3 SDC - Selected Device Clear
The response is as for the DCL message, when device is addressed to listen.
4.13.4 LLO - Local Lockout
Sending LLO when device is addressed to listen and controller is asserting the REN line will
put the device into "Remote with Lock out" state, locking out the front panel.
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4.14 SCPI COMMAND TREE
4.14.1 Root Node
Root
[:SOURce]
:OUTPut
:TRIGger
:STATus
:SYSTem
4.14.2 SOURce Subsystem
[:SOURce]
:VOLTage
:FREQuency
:PULSe
[:CW FIXed]
:LIMit
[:LEVel]
<NRf>
[IMMediate]
:HIGH
:LOW
:PHIGh
:PLOW
:PREDefined
<NRf>
<NRf>
<NRf>
<NRf>
TTL | CMOS | ECL | USER
:HIGH
:LOW
<NRf>
<NRf>
:PERiod
:DELay
:EACCuracy
:POLarity
<NRf>
<NRf>
<Boolean>
NORMal | COMPLement | INVerted
:WIDTh
:EWIDth
:HOLD
<NRf>
<Boolean>
WIDTh | DCYCle
:DOUBle
:TRANsition
[:STATe
:DELay
[:LEADing]
:TRAiling
<Boolean>
<NRf>
<NRf>
<NRf>
:AUTO
<Boolean> | ONCE
4.14.3 OUTPut Subsystem
:OUTPut
[:STATe]
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4.14.4 TRIGger Subsystem
:TRIGger
:BURSt
:TIMer
:LEVel
:SLOPe
<NRf>
<NRf>
<NRF>
POS | NEG
:MODE
:SOURce
CONT | TRIG | GATE | BURS
INT | EXT | MAN | BUS
4.14.5 STATus Subsystem
:STATus
:OPERation
:PRESet
:QUEue
[:NEXT]?
[:EVENt]? :CONDition? :ENABle :PTRansition :NTRansition
<NRf>
<NRf>
<NRf>
:OPERation
[:EVENt]? :CONDition? :ENABle :PTRansition :NTRansition
<NRf>
4.14.6 SYSTem Subsystem
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<NRf>
<NRf>
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:SYSTem
:COMMunicate
:GPIB
:ADDRess
:ERRor?
:SECurity
[:STATe]?
ON | OFF
<NRf>
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:POBuffer
<NRf>
:VERSion?
Operating Manual
4.15
SEFRAM 4451
RS-232 Programming
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4.15.1 General
The INSTALLATION section of this manual describes the RS-232-C connection for the instrument. Be
sure that you have the Remote Mode set to RS-232 and correctly set the baud rate.
EIA standard RS-232-C specifies the electrical characteristics and pin out of a serial communication
standard for connecting "data terminal equipment" (DTE) to "data communication equipment" (DCE).
Data terminal equipment is usually devices such as terminals, computers, or printers that are the final
destination for data. Data communication equipment, on the other hand, is usually a modem or other device
that converts the data to another form and passes it through. The instrument can be configured only as a
DCE, so in most cases it can be connected with a straight-through cable to a computer, but would require
special cabling to connect to another DCE device.
The baud rate is the bit rate during the transmission of a word in bits per second. Different devices use
many baud rates, but the baud rates of the two devices that are connected must be the same. The instrument
can be set to different baud rates ranging from 1200 to 115,000 as described in Section 3, Operating
Instructions.
Data signals over the RS-232-C use a voltage of +3V to +25V to represent a zero (called a space) and a
voltage of -3V to -25V to represent a one (called a mark). Handshake and control lines use +3V to +25V to
indicate a true condition and -3V to -25V to indicate a false condition.
When no data is being transmitted, the idle state of the data lines will be the mark state. To transmit a byte,
the transmitting device first sends a start bit to synchronize the receiver.
4.15.2 RS-232-C Operation
The RS-232-C standard is not very specific about many of the handshaking signals and it is therefore
usually necessary to refer to the manuals for both of the devices being connected to determine the exact pin
out, signal definition, and signal direction for the devices.
The serial interface implements the same SCPI command set as the GPIB interface. The instrument is
programmed by sending ASCII coded characters to the instrument.
When the instrument is in the remote mode remote command input has priority over any front panel
control. Therefore, as long as the serial interface is continuously supplied with data, the keyboard will
appear to be inoperative to the user.
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Section 5
Performance Check Procedure
5.1
Introduction
This section contains the test procedures required to check the electrical performance as listed in the
SPECIFICATIONS section of this manual (1.4).
The checkout procedure is recommended for preliminary incoming inspection and operational control.
5.2
Test Equipment
The following table lists the equipment necessary to perform the performance tests. Any equivalent
equipment may be substituted for the recommended model.
Chapter 4
INSTRUMENT REQUIRED PERFORMANCE
Termination
Termination
Oscilloscope
Universal Counter
5.3
RECOMMENDED MODEL
Feedthrough 50Ω 1%
Feedthrough 50Ω 0.1%
400MHz dual channel
200MHz, dual channel
Electrical Checkout
This electrical checkout procedure verifies the SEFRAM 4451 Programmable Pulse Generator operation.
Connect the generator main output to the scope input. Use a 50Ω termination and RG58 cable. Set the
instrument as follows:
POWER
PERIOD
WIDTH
HIGH LEVEL
LOW LEVEL
MODE
OUTPUT
PULSE
ON
500ns
100ns
2.5V
-2.5V
CONTINUOUS
ON
SINGLE
Observe a pulse waveform with a 5V peak to peak amplitude symmetrical around zero. Change the period,
width and levels and check for proper display on the scope.
5.4
Performance Tests
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The following tests are intended to verify that the SEFRAM 4451 operates properly and meets its
specifications. Perform the tests after a warm-up period of 30 minutes, at 25°C + 5°C ambient temperature.
These tests may be used for periodic inspection and after repair. If the instrument does not meet its
specification, please contact the SEFRAM service center.
Period Accuracy Test
SPECIFICATION
-
± 0.01%.
PROCEDURE
-
Connect the instrument SYNC OUT to the
counter input, set to measure period.
CHECK
-
The period measured by the counter is within
specification.
SPECIFICATION
-
±(0.5% of setting +500ps)
PROCEDURE
-
Connect the instrument OUTPUT to the
counter input. Select output levels of 2.5V
and -2.5V and set the counter to Width,
50Ω termination, + slope and Auto trigger
mode.
CHECK
-
The width measured by the counter is within
specification.
SPECIFICATION
-
±(0.5% of setting +500 ps)
PROCEDURE
-
Connect the instrument SYNC OUT to input A
of the counter and the OUTPUT to input B.
Set the counter to TIME A-B mode, 50Ω
termination, + slope and 0V trigger level.
Select delay times on the SEFRAM 4451.
CHECK
-
The delay time measured by the counter is
within specification.
Width Accuracy Test
Delay Accuracy Test
Transition Times Accuracy Test
SPECIFICATION
-
±5% of setting +2ns from 5ns to 100ms
PROCEDURE
-
Connect the instrument OUTPUT to the oscilloscope
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input with a 50Ω termination. Select leading and
trailing times.
CHECK
-
The Rise and Fall times measured between 10% and
90% points are within specification.
SPECIFICATION
-
± (1% of setting +10mV)
into 50Ω.
PROCEDURE
-
Connect the instrument OUTPUT to the oscilloscope
input with a 50Ω termination. Change the high and low
levels to obtain different signal amplitudes.
Select a period of 100us.
CHECK
-
The signal amplitude measured is within specification.
SPECIFICATION
-
± 0.01% from 100ns to 100s.
PROCEDURE
-
Connect the instrument SYNC OUT to the counter
input A, set to measure period in Auto Trig mode.
Select INT TRIGGER mode on SEFRAM 4451 and change
the rate to different values.
CHECK
-
The trigger rate measured by the counter is within
specification.
Amplitude Accuracy Test
Internal Trigger Accuracy Test
GPIB Capability
Connect the SEFRAM 4451 generator to a controller. Each side of this connection must be fitted with a
proper IEEE-488 interface. Operate the instrument via the GPIB bus and change setting as desired. This
procedure assumes that the operator has some experience in programming the controller and is familiar with
the GPIB standard.
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To contac us :
SEFRAM Instruments et Systèmes
32, rue E. MARTEL BP55
F 42009 – SAINT-ETIENNE cedex 2
France
Tel : 0825 56 50 50 (0,15€TTC/mn)
Fax : 04 77 57 23 23
E-mail : sales@sefram.fr
Web : www.sefram.fr
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DECLARATION OF CE CONFORMITY
according to EEC directives and NF EN 45014 norm
DECLARATION DE CONFORMITE CE
suivant directives CEE et norme NF EN 45014
SEFRAM INSTRUMENTS & SYSTEMES
32, rue Edouard MARTEL
42100 SAINT-ETIENNE ( FRANCE)
Declares, that the below mentioned product complies with :
Déclare que le produit désigné ci-après est conforme à :
The European low voltage directive 73/23/EEC :
NF EN 61010-1 Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use.
La directive Européenne basse tension CEE 73/23 :
NF EN 61010-1Règles de sécurité pour les appareils électriques de mesurage, de régulation et de laboratoire.
The European EMC directive 89/336/EEC, amended by 93/68/EEC :
Emission standard EN 50081-1.
Immunity standard EN 50082-1.
La directive Européenne CEM CEE 89/336, amendée par CEE 93/68 :
En émission selon NF EN 50081-1.
En immunité selon NF EN 50082-1.
Pollution degree Degré de pollution : 2
Product name Désignation :
Model Type :
PULSE GENERATOR Générateur d’impulsionss
4451
Compliance was demonstrated in listed laboratory and record in test report number
La conformité à été démontrée dans un laboratoire reconnu et enregistrée dans le rapport numéro
SAINT-ETIENNE the :
Aug, 20 2008
M4451 A00
Name/Position :
T. TAGLIARINO / Quality Manager
71
RC 4451
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