X10 RF Receiver

X10 RF Receiver
X10 RF Receiver
Please review the "X10 RF Transmission Theory.htm" document for a complete discussion of
the X10 RF Transmission Theory.
The X-10 RF frequency can be one of three possible frequencies:
1. 310 MHz - "A" - North America
2. 418 MHz - "U" - Britain and Europe
3. 433.92 MHz - "E" - Europe
Except for the difference in carrier frequencies, the RF protocol that X-10 uses for standard (i.e.
non-security) X-10 RF devices is identical to the original NEC IR protocol which is widely used
for IR remote controls. The data envelope for a typical NEC code is pictured below.
Figure 1: NEC IR
Each code starts with a 9 msec burst of carrier followed by a 4.5 msec silence. This leader is
necessary to set the ACG in the RF receivers which dynamically adapt to signal strength. After
the leader, there are 32 bits with binary 1 represented by 2.25 msec between rising edges and
binary 0 represented by 1.125 msec between rising edges. The rising edge of the 33rd and final
pulse marks the end of the last bit and is followed by a silence of approximately 40 msec. Most
X-10 RF transmitters send a minimum of five copies of the code separated by 40 msec silences
although some can send single bursts.
Instead of address and data bytes, X-10 sends two bytes of data with each byte followed
immediately by its bitwise complement for error checking. Within each byte, bit7 is received
first and bit0 last. In the pictured code above, in the order received, the first byte is 0110-0000,
the second is 1001-1111, the third is 0000-0000, and the fourth is 1111-1111. After testing for
bitwise complementarity, the two data bytes are 0110-0000 and 0000-0000 or 0x60 and 0x00.
Since the illustration was taken from an explanation of IR codes, these represent a device and
button for an IR code. If these were X-10 RF codes the bytes would be two data bytes as
detailed in the CM17A protocol (see below) and would represent "A1 ON".
The overall time to send one code, including the approximate 40 msec silence, is about 108
msec. Timings will vary from one transmitter to another but are repeatable for a specific
transmitter. It appears, from articles on the 'net, that other people have seen a range from 95
msec to 116 msec for various transmitters and that standard X-10 transceivers can tolerate timing
variations of 30-35% from nominal.
So much for the specification. It's now time to start verifying the data. Figure 2 below shows
that the X-10 RF Transmitter HR12A transmits six groups of the command code separated by 40
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Page 1 of 12
msec of silence. I'm not sure what the last 'burst' represents and I haven't been able to find out
any thing about it.
Figure 2: A1ON 6 Copies
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Page 2 of 12
Figure 3 shows a single X-10 command code. This is the same command code shown in Figure
2. The length of the command code is approximately 68 msec which correlates with the
specification value of 9.0 + 4.5 + 27 + 27 = 67.5 msec.
Figure 3: A1ON Total Time
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Page 3 of 12
Expanding the X-10 command code even further to see the leader, Figure 4, again confirms that
the leader consists of a 9 msec carrier followed by 4.5 msec of silence before the first data bit
appears.
Figure 4: A1ON Leader
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Page 4 of 12
Continuing on, Figures 5 and 6 show that the time values for a 0 bit (1.16 msec) and 1 bit (2.24
msec) also match the specification.
Figure 5: A1ON First Bit
Figure 6: A1ON Second Bit
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Page 5 of 12
To decode the RF input, I'll use an interrupt and a 16-bit timer. One of the requirements that I'm
hoping for is to read the timer value on each interrupt and then restart the timer.
The timer increments every instruction cycle (Fosc / 4). Assume a clock frequency of 4 MHz.
When divided by 4, this gives a working frequency of 1 MHz. Each bit of a 16-bit timer
represents 1 usec. This gives a maximum count of 65356 usec or 65.356 msec. Since the largest
time I need to detect is >= 40 msec this should work OK.
There are four times that need to be detected:
1. 40 msec gap between commands.
40,000 ticks
2. 13.5 msec header.
13,500 ticks
3. 1.125 msec for a 'zero' bit.
1,125 ticks
4. 2.25 msec for a 'one' bit.
2,250 ticks
When you add in a fudge factor or +/- 30% to the timing, the values become:
1. 40,000 +/- 30%
28,000 to 52,000 ticks
2. 13,500 +/- 30%
9,450 to 17,550 ticks
3. 1,125 +/- 30%
787 to 1,463 ticks
4. 2,250 +/- 30%
1,575 to 2,925 ticks
As a note, for the 40 msec time I only need to compare to the bottom limit (28,000) or to see if a
rollover occurred.
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Page 6 of 12
CM17A Protocol
Bright and Dim transmissions.
To brighten or dim a lamp, it is necessary to send consecutive signals (each equivalent to a 5%
dim or brighten) until the desired level is attained.
Data Table
X-10
Command
A1 ON
A1 OFF
A2 ON
A2 OFF
A3 ON
A3 OFF
A4 ON
A4 OFF
A5 ON
A5 OFF
A6 ON
A6 OFF
A7 ON
A7 OFF
A8 ON
A8 OFF
A9 ON
A9 OFF
A10 ON
A10 OFF
A11 ON
A11 OFF
A12 ON
A12 OFF
A13 ON
A13 OFF
A14 ON
A14 OFF
A15 ON
A15 OFF
A16 ON
A16 OFF
A BRIGHT 005
A DIM 005
C1 ON
C1 OFF
C2 ON
C2 OFF
C3 ON
C3 OFF
C4 ON
C4 OFF
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Bit
76543210
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100000
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100100
01100000
01100000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
Bit
76543210
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
X-10
Command
B1 ON
B1 OFF
B2 ON
B2 OFF
B3 ON
B3 OFF
B4 ON
B4 OFF
B5 ON
B5 OFF
B6 ON
B6 OFF
B7 ON
B7 OFF
B8 ON
B8 OFF
B9 ON
B9 OFF
B10 ON
B10 OFF
B11 ON
B11 OFF
B12 ON
B12 OFF
B13 ON
B13 OFF
B14 ON
B14 OFF
B15 ON
B15 OFF
B16 ON
B16 OFF
B BRIGHT 005
B DIM 005
D1 ON
D1 OFF
D2 ON
D2 OFF
D3 ON
D3 OFF
D4 ON
D4 OFF
Bit
76543210
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110000
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110100
01110000
01110000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
Bit
76543210
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
Page 7 of 12
X-10
Command
C5 ON
C5 OFF
C6 ON
C6 OFF
C7 ON
C7 OFF
C8 ON
C8 OFF
C9 ON
C9 OFF
C10 ON
C10 OFF
C11 ON
C11 OFF
C12 ON
C12 OFF
C13 ON
C13 OFF
C14 ON
C14 OFF
C15 ON
C15 OFF
C16 ON
C16 OFF
C BRIGHT 005
C DIM 005
E1 ON
E1 OFF
E2 ON
E2 OFF
E3 ON
E3 OFF
E4 ON
E4 OFF
E5 ON
E5 OFF
E6 ON
E6 OFF
E7 ON
E7 OFF
E8 ON
E8 OFF
E9 ON
E9 OFF
E10 ON
E10 OFF
E11 ON
E11 OFF
E12 ON
E12 OFF
E13 ON
E13 OFF
E14 ON
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Bit
76543210
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000000
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000100
01000000
01000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000000
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
Bit
76543210
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
X-10
Command
D5 ON
D5 OFF
D6 ON
D6 OFF
D7 ON
D7 OFF
D8 ON
D8 OFF
D9 ON
D9 OFF
D10 ON
D10 OFF
D11 ON
D11 OFF
D12 ON
D12 OFF
D13 ON
D13 OFF
D14 ON
D14 OFF
D15 ON
D15 OFF
D16 ON
D16 OFF
D BRIGHT 005
D DIM 005
F1 ON
F1 OFF
F2 ON
F2 OFF
F3 ON
F3 OFF
F4 ON
F4 OFF
F5 ON
F5 OFF
F6 ON
F6 OFF
F7 ON
F7 OFF
F8 ON
F8 OFF
F9 ON
F9 OFF
F10 ON
F10 OFF
F11 ON
F11 OFF
F12 ON
F12 OFF
F13 ON
F13 OFF
F14 ON
Bit
76543210
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010000
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010100
01010000
01010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010000
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
Bit
76543210
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
Page 8 of 12
X-10
Command
E14 OFF
E15 ON
E15 OFF
E16 ON
E16 OFF
E BRIGHT 005
E DIM 005
G1 ON
G1 OFF
G2 ON
G2 OFF
G3 ON
G3 OFF
G4 ON
G4 OFF
G5 ON
G5 OFF
G6 ON
G6 OFF
G7 ON
G7 OFF
G8 ON
G8 OFF
G9 ON
G9 OFF
G10 ON
G10 OFF
G11 ON
G11 OFF
G12 ON
G12 OFF
G13 ON
G13 OFF
G14 ON
G14 OFF
G15 ON
G15 OFF
G16 ON
G16 OFF
G BRIGHT 005
G DIM 005
I1 ON
I1 OFF
I2 ON
I2 OFF
I3 ON
I3 OFF
I4 ON
I4 OFF
I5 ON
I5 OFF
I6 ON
I6 OFF
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Bit
76543210
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000100
10000000
10000000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100000
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100100
10100000
10100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
Bit
76543210
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
X-10
Command
F14 OFF
F15 ON
F15 OFF
F16 ON
F16 OFF
F BRIGHT 005
F DIM 005
H1 ON
H1 OFF
H2 ON
H2 OFF
H3 ON
H3 OFF
H4 ON
H4 OFF
H5 ON
H5 OFF
H6 ON
H6 OFF
H7 ON
H7 OFF
H8 ON
H8 OFF
H9 ON
H9 OFF
H10 ON
H10 OFF
H11 ON
H11 OFF
H12 ON
H12 OFF
H13 ON
H13 OFF
H14 ON
H14 OFF
H15 ON
H15 OFF
H16 ON
H16 OFF
H BRIGHT 005
H DIM 005
J1 ON
J1 OFF
J2 ON
J2 OFF
J3 ON
J3 OFF
J4 ON
J4 OFF
J5 ON
J5 OFF
J6 ON
J6 OFF
Bit
76543210
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010100
10010000
10010000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110000
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110100
10110000
10110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
Bit
76543210
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
Page 9 of 12
X-10
Command
I7 ON
I7 OFF
I8 ON
I8 OFF
I9 ON
I9 OFF
I10 ON
I10 OFF
I11 ON
I11 OFF
I12 ON
I12 OFF
I13 ON
I13 OFF
I14 ON
I14 OFF
I15 ON
I15 OFF
I16 ON
I16 OFF
I BRIGHT 005
I DIM 005
K1 ON
K1 OFF
K2 ON
K2 OFF
K3 ON
K3 OFF
K4 ON
K4 OFF
K5 ON
K5 OFF
K6 ON
K6 OFF
K7 ON
K7 OFF
K8 ON
K8 OFF
K9 ON
K9 OFF
K10 ON
K10 OFF
K11 ON
K11 OFF
K12 ON
K12 OFF
K13 ON
K13 OFF
K14 ON
K14 OFF
K15 ON
K15 OFF
K16 ON
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Bit
76543210
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100000
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100100
11100000
11100000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000000
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
11000100
Bit
76543210
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
X-10
Command
J7 ON
J7 OFF
J8 ON
J8 OFF
J9 ON
J9 OFF
J10 ON
J10 OFF
J11 ON
J11 OFF
J12 ON
J12 OFF
J13 ON
J13 OFF
J14 ON
J14 OFF
J15 ON
J15 OFF
J16 ON
J16 OFF
J BRIGHT 005
J DIM 005
L1 ON
L1 OFF
L2 ON
L2 OFF
L3 ON
L3 OFF
L4 ON
L4 OFF
L5 ON
L5 OFF
L6 ON
L6 OFF
L7 ON
L7 OFF
L8 ON
L8 OFF
L9 ON
L9 OFF
L10 ON
L10 OFF
L11 ON
L11 OFF
L12 ON
L12 OFF
L13 ON
L13 OFF
L14 ON
L14 OFF
L15 ON
L15 OFF
L16 ON
Bit
76543210
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110000
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110100
11110000
11110000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010000
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
11010100
Bit
76543210
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
Page 10 of 12
X-10
Command
K16 OFF
K BRIGHT 005
K DIM 005
M1 ON
M1 OFF
M2 ON
M2 OFF
M3 ON
M3 OFF
M4 ON
M4 OFF
M5 ON
M5 OFF
M6 ON
M6 OFF
M7 ON
M7 OFF
M8 ON
M8 OFF
M9 ON
M9 OFF
M10 ON
M10 OFF
M11 ON
M11 OFF
M12 ON
M12 OFF
M13 ON
M13 OFF
M14 ON
M14 OFF
M15 ON
M15 OFF
M16 ON
M16 OFF
M BRIGHT 005
M DIM 005
O1 ON
O1 OFF
O2 ON
O2 OFF
O3 ON
O3 OFF
O4 ON
O4 OFF
O5 ON
O5 OFF
O6 ON
O6 OFF
O7 ON
O7 OFF
O8 ON
O8 OFF
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Bit
76543210
11000100
11000000
11000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000100
00000000
00000000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
00100000
Bit
76543210
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
X-10
Command
L16 OFF
L BRIGHT 005
L DIM 005
N1 ON
N1 OFF
N2 ON
N2 OFF
N3 ON
N3 OFF
N4 ON
N4 OFF
N5 ON
N5 OFF
N6 ON
N6 OFF
N7 ON
N7 OFF
N8 ON
N8 OFF
N9 ON
N9 OFF
N10 ON
N10 OFF
N11 ON
N11 OFF
N12 ON
N12 OFF
N13 ON
N13 OFF
N14 ON
N14 OFF
N15 ON
N15 OFF
N16 ON
N16 OFF
N BRIGHT 005
N DIM 005
P1 ON
P1 OFF
P2 ON
P2 OFF
P3 ON
P3 OFF
P4 ON
P4 OFF
P5 ON
P5 OFF
P6 ON
P6 OFF
P7 ON
P7 OFF
P8 ON
P8 OFF
Bit
76543210
11010100
11010000
11010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010000
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010100
00010000
00010000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
00110000
Bit
76543210
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
Page 11 of 12
X-10
Command
O9 ON
O9 OFF
O10 ON
O10 OFF
O11 ON
O11 OFF
O12 ON
O12 OFF
O13 ON
O13 OFF
O14 ON
O14 OFF
O15 ON
O15 OFF
O16 ON
O16 OFF
O BRIGHT 005
O DIM 005
X10 RF Receiver.doc
Bit
76543210
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100100
00100000
00100000
Bit
76543210
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
X-10
Command
P9 ON
P9 OFF
P10 ON
P10 OFF
P11 ON
P11 OFF
P12 ON
P12 OFF
P13 ON
P13 OFF
P14 ON
P14 OFF
P15 ON
P15 OFF
P16 ON
P16 OFF
P BRIGHT 005
P DIM 005
Bit
76543210
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110100
00110000
00110000
Bit
76543210
00000000
00100000
00010000
00110000
00001000
00101000
00011000
00111000
01000000
01100000
01010000
01110000
01001000
01101000
01011000
01111000
10001000
10011000
Page 12 of 12
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