ZyXEL Communications | NWA3160-N | User`s guide | ZyXEL Communications NWA3160-N User`s guide

NWA-3160 Series
IEEE 802.11a/b/g Business WLAN Access Point
IEEE 802.11b/g Business WLAN Access Point
IEEE WirelessN Business WLAN Access Point
User’s Guide
Version 3.60
03/2008
Edition 3
DEFAULT LOGIN
IP Address
http://192.168.1.2
Password
1234
www.zyxel.com
About This User's Guide
About This User's Guide
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for people who want to configure the ZyXEL Device using the web
configurator. You should have at least a basic knowledge of TCP/IP networking concepts and
topology.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It contains
information on setting up your network and configuring for Internet access.
• Supporting Disk
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• ZyXEL Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for additional support documentation and product
certifications.
User Guide Feedback
Help us help you. Send all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for
improvement to the following address, or use e-mail instead. Thank you!
The Technical Writing Team,
ZyXEL Communications Corp.,
6 Innovation Road II,
Science-Based Industrial Park,
Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan.
E-mail: techwriters@zyxel.com.tw
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
3
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notes
These are how warnings and notes are shown in this User’s Guide.
1
"
Warnings tell you about things that could harm you or your device.
Notes tell you other important information (for example, other things you may
need to configure or helpful tips) or recommendations.
Syntax Conventions
• The NWA-3160, NWA-3163 or NWA-3165 may be referred to as the “ZyXEL Device”,
the “device” or the “system” in this User’s Guide.
• Product labels, screen names, field labels and field choices are all in bold font.
• A key stroke is denoted by square brackets and uppercase text, for example, [ENTER]
means the “enter” or “return” key on your keyboard.
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters and then press the [ENTER] key.
“Select” or “choose” means for you to use one of the predefined choices.
• A right angle bracket ( > ) within a screen name denotes a mouse click. For example,
Maintenance > Log > Log Setting means you first click Maintenance in the navigation
panel, then the Log sub menu and finally the Log Setting tab to get to that screen.
• Units of measurement may denote the “metric” value or the “scientific” value. For
example, “k” for kilo may denote “1000” or “1024”, “M” for mega may denote “1000000”
or “1048576” and so on.
• “e.g.,” is a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” means “that is” or “in other words”.
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ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Document Conventions
Icons Used in Figures
Figures in this User’s Guide may use the following generic icons. The ZyXEL Device icon is
not an exact representation of your device.
ZyXEL Device
Computer
Notebook computer
Server
DSLAM
Firewall
Telephone
Switch
Router
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Safety Warnings
Safety Warnings
1
For your safety, be sure to read and follow all warning notices and instructions.
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
• ONLY qualified service personnel should service or disassemble this device.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
• Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
• Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device.
• Connect the power adaptor or cord to the right supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in
North America or 230V AC in Europe).
• Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the
product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor or cord.
• Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause
electrocution.
• If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the power outlet.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a
new one.
• Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a
remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
• Antenna Warning! This device meets ETSI and FCC certification requirements when
using the included antenna(s). Only use the included antenna(s).
• If you wall mount your device, make sure that no electrical lines, gas or water pipes will
be damaged.
• The PoE (Power over Ethernet) devices that supply or receive power and their connected
Ethernet cables must all be completely indoors.
This product is recyclable. Dispose of it properly.
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ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Safety Warnings
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Safety Warnings
8
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 31
Introducing the ZyXEL Device ................................................................................................... 33
Introducing the Web Configurator .............................................................................................. 43
Tutorial ....................................................................................................................................... 47
Status Screens .......................................................................................................................... 75
Management Mode .................................................................................................................... 79
AP Controller Mode (NWA-3160 Only) ...................................................................................... 83
The Web Configurator ........................................................................................................... 97
System Screens ........................................................................................................................ 99
Wireless Configuration ............................................................................................................ 105
Wireless Security Configuration .............................................................................................. 123
MBSSID and SSID .................................................................................................................. 139
Other Wireless Configuration .................................................................................................. 147
IP Screen ................................................................................................................................. 157
Rogue AP ................................................................................................................................ 159
Remote Management Screens ................................................................................................ 165
Internal RADIUS Server .......................................................................................................... 177
Certificates ............................................................................................................................... 183
Log Screens ............................................................................................................................ 201
VLAN ....................................................................................................................................... 209
Maintenance ............................................................................................................................ 227
SMT, Troubleshooting and Specifications ......................................................................... 235
Introducing the SMT ................................................................................................................ 237
General Setup ......................................................................................................................... 243
LAN Setup ............................................................................................................................... 245
SNMP Configuration ................................................................................................................ 247
System Password .................................................................................................................... 249
System Information and Diagnosis .......................................................................................... 251
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance ........................................................................ 257
System Maintenance and Information ..................................................................................... 263
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................... 271
Product Specifications ............................................................................................................. 277
Appendices and Index ......................................................................................................... 285
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Contents Overview
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ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About This User's Guide .......................................................................................................... 3
Document Conventions............................................................................................................ 4
Safety Warnings........................................................................................................................ 6
Contents Overview ................................................................................................................... 9
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................... 11
List of Figures ......................................................................................................................... 21
List of Tables........................................................................................................................... 27
Part I: Introduction................................................................................. 31
Chapter 1
Introducing the ZyXEL Device ............................................................................................... 33
1.1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device ............................................................................................ 33
1.2 Applications for the ZyXEL Device ...................................................................................... 33
1.2.1 Access Point .............................................................................................................. 34
1.2.2 Bridge / Repeater (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) ................................................ 34
1.2.3 AP + Bridge (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) ......................................................... 35
1.2.4 MBSSID ..................................................................................................................... 36
1.2.5 Pre-Configured SSID Profiles .................................................................................... 37
1.3 CAPWAP (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) ...................................................................... 38
1.4 Ways to Manage the ZyXEL Device .................................................................................... 38
1.5 Good Habits for Managing the ZyXEL Device ..................................................................... 38
1.6 Hardware Connections ........................................................................................................ 39
1.6.1 Antennas .................................................................................................................... 39
1.7 LEDs .................................................................................................................................... 39
Chapter 2
Introducing the Web Configurator ........................................................................................ 43
2.1 Accessing the Web Configurator ......................................................................................... 43
2.2 Resetting the ZyXEL Device ................................................................................................ 44
2.2.1 Methods of Restoring Factory-Defaults ...................................................................... 45
2.3 Navigating the Web Configurator ......................................................................................... 45
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Table of Contents
Chapter 3
Tutorial ..................................................................................................................................... 47
3.1 How to Configure the Wireless LAN .................................................................................... 47
3.1.1 Choosing the Wireless Mode ..................................................................................... 47
3.1.2 Wireless LAN Configuration Overview ....................................................................... 48
3.1.3 Further Reading ......................................................................................................... 50
3.2 How to Configure Multiple Wireless Networks ..................................................................... 50
3.2.1 Change the Operating Mode ...................................................................................... 51
3.2.2 Configure the VoIP Network ....................................................................................... 53
3.2.2.1 Set Up Security for the VoIP Profile ................................................54
3.2.2.2 Activate the VoIP Profile ..................................................................56
3.2.3 Configure the Guest Network ..................................................................................... 56
3.2.3.1 Set Up Security for the Guest Profile ..............................................57
3.2.3.2 Set up Layer 2 Isolation ..................................................................58
3.2.3.3 Activate the Guest Profile ................................................................59
3.2.4 Testing the Wireless Networks ................................................................................... 59
3.3 How to Set Up and Use Rogue AP Detection ..................................................................... 60
3.3.1 Set Up and Save a Friendly AP list ............................................................................ 62
3.3.2 Activate Periodic Rogue AP Detection ....................................................................... 64
3.3.3 Set Up E-mail Logs .................................................................................................... 65
3.3.4 Configure Your Other Access Points .......................................................................... 66
3.3.5 Test the Setup ............................................................................................................ 66
3.4 Using Multiple MAC Filters and L-2 Isolation Profiles .......................................................... 67
3.4.1 Scenario ..................................................................................................................... 67
3.4.2 Your Requirements ..................................................................................................... 67
3.4.3 Setup .......................................................................................................................... 68
3.4.4 Configure the SERVER_1 Network ............................................................................ 68
3.4.5 Configure the SERVER_2 Network ............................................................................ 71
3.4.6 Checking your Settings and Testing the Configuration .............................................. 72
3.4.6.1 Checking Settings ...........................................................................72
3.4.6.2 Testing the Configuration ................................................................72
Chapter 4
Status Screens ........................................................................................................................ 75
4.1 The Status Screen ............................................................................................................... 75
Chapter 5
Management Mode.................................................................................................................. 79
5.1 About CAPWAP ................................................................................................................... 79
5.1.1 CAPWAP Discovery and Management ...................................................................... 79
5.1.2 CAPWAP and DHCP .................................................................................................. 80
5.1.3 CAPWAP and IP Subnets .......................................................................................... 80
5.1.4 Notes on CAPWAP .................................................................................................... 81
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5.2 The Management Mode Screen .......................................................................................... 81
Chapter 6
AP Controller Mode (NWA-3160 Only) .................................................................................. 83
6.1 Status Screen ...................................................................................................................... 83
6.1.1 The AP List Status Screen ......................................................................................... 84
6.1.2 The AP Statistics Screen ............................................................................................ 85
6.1.3 The AP Association List Screen ................................................................................. 86
6.1.4 The SSID Information Screen .................................................................................... 86
6.2 Navigation Bar ..................................................................................................................... 87
6.3 The Controller Screens ........................................................................................................ 88
6.3.1 The AP Lists Screen .................................................................................................. 88
6.3.2 The AP Lists Edit Screen ........................................................................................... 90
6.3.3 The Configuration Screen .......................................................................................... 91
6.4 The Profile Edit Screens ...................................................................................................... 92
6.4.1 The Radio Profile Screen ........................................................................................... 92
6.5 The Radio Profile Edit Screen ............................................................................................. 93
Part II: The Web Configurator ............................................................... 97
Chapter 7
System Screens ...................................................................................................................... 99
7.1 System Overview ................................................................................................................. 99
7.2 Configuring General Setup .................................................................................................. 99
7.3 Administrator Authentication on RADIUS .......................................................................... 100
7.3.1 Configuring the Password ........................................................................................ 100
7.4 Configuring Time Setting .................................................................................................. 102
7.5 Pre-defined NTP Time Servers List ................................................................................... 104
Chapter 8
Wireless Configuration.........................................................................................................105
8.1 Wireless LAN Overview ..................................................................................................... 105
8.1.1 BSS .......................................................................................................................... 105
8.1.2 ESS .......................................................................................................................... 106
8.2 Wireless LAN Basics ......................................................................................................... 106
8.3 Quality of Service .............................................................................................................. 107
8.3.1 WMM QoS ................................................................................................................ 107
8.3.1.1 WMM QoS Priorities ......................................................................107
8.3.2 ATC .......................................................................................................................... 107
8.3.3 ATC+WMM ............................................................................................................... 108
8.3.3.1 ATC+WMM from LAN to WLAN ....................................................108
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Table of Contents
8.3.3.2 ATC+WMM from WLAN to LAN ....................................................109
8.3.4 Type Of Service (ToS) .............................................................................................. 109
8.3.4.1 DiffServ ..........................................................................................109
8.3.4.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ........................................................109
8.3.5 ToS (Type of Service) and WMM QoS ......................................................................110
8.4 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) ............................................................................................110
8.4.1 Rapid STP .................................................................................................................110
8.4.2 STP Terminology .......................................................................................................111
8.4.3 How STP Works ........................................................................................................111
8.4.4 STP Port States .........................................................................................................112
8.5 DFS ....................................................................................................................................112
8.6 Wireless Screen Overview .................................................................................................112
8.7 Configuring Wireless Settings ............................................................................................113
8.7.1 Access Point Mode: NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 ......................................................113
8.7.2 Access Point Mode: NWA-3165 ................................................................................114
8.7.3 Bridge/Repeater Mode (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) .......................................116
8.7.4 AP+Bridge Mode (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) ............................................... 120
8.7.5 MBSSID Mode ......................................................................................................... 121
Chapter 9
Wireless Security Configuration ......................................................................................... 123
9.1 Wireless Security Overview ............................................................................................... 123
9.1.1 Encryption ................................................................................................................ 123
9.1.2 Restricted Access .................................................................................................... 123
9.1.3 Hide Identity ............................................................................................................. 123
9.1.4 WEP Encryption ....................................................................................................... 123
9.2 802.1x Overview ................................................................................................................ 124
9.3 EAP Authentication Overview ............................................................................................ 124
9.4 Introduction to WPA ........................................................................................................... 124
9.4.1 User Authentication ................................................................................................. 125
9.4.2 Encryption ............................................................................................................... 125
9.4.3 WPA(2)-PSK Application Example ........................................................................... 125
9.5 WPA(2) with External RADIUS Application Example ......................................................... 126
9.6 Security Modes .................................................................................................................. 127
9.7 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants ...................................................................................... 128
9.8 Wireless Security Effectiveness ......................................................................................... 128
9.9 Configuring Security .......................................................................................................... 128
9.9.1 Security: WEP .......................................................................................................... 129
9.9.2 Security: 802.1x Only ............................................................................................... 130
9.9.3 Security: 802.1x Static 64-bit, 802.1x Static 128-bit ................................................. 131
9.9.4 Security: WPA .......................................................................................................... 133
9.9.5 Security: WPA2 or WPA2-MIX .................................................................................. 133
9.9.6 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA2-PSK-MIX .................................................. 135
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Table of Contents
9.10 Introduction to RADIUS ................................................................................................... 136
9.11 Configuring RADIUS ........................................................................................................ 136
Chapter 10
MBSSID and SSID ................................................................................................................. 139
10.1 Wireless LAN Infrastructures ........................................................................................... 139
10.1.1 MBSSID ................................................................................................................. 139
10.1.2 Notes on Multiple BSS ........................................................................................... 139
10.1.3 Multiple BSS Example ............................................................................................ 139
10.1.4 Multiple BSS with VLAN Example .......................................................................... 139
10.1.5 Configuring Multiple BSSs ..................................................................................... 140
10.2 SSID ................................................................................................................................ 142
10.2.1 The SSID Screen ................................................................................................... 142
10.2.2 Configuring SSID ................................................................................................... 143
Chapter 11
Other Wireless Configuration .............................................................................................. 147
11.1 Layer-2 Isolation Introduction ........................................................................................... 147
11.2 The Layer-2 Isolation Screen ........................................................................................... 148
11.3 Configuring Layer-2 Isolation ........................................................................................... 149
11.3.1 Layer-2 Isolation Examples .................................................................................... 150
11.3.1.1 Layer-2 Isolation Example 1 ........................................................151
11.3.1.2 Layer-2 Isolation Example 2 ........................................................151
11.4 The MAC Filter Screen .................................................................................................... 152
11.4.1 Configuring MAC Filtering ...................................................................................... 153
11.5 Configuring Roaming ....................................................................................................... 154
11.5.1 Requirements for Roaming .................................................................................... 155
Chapter 12
IP Screen................................................................................................................................ 157
12.1 Factory Ethernet Defaults ................................................................................................ 157
12.2 TCP/IP Parameters ......................................................................................................... 157
12.2.1 WAN IP Address Assignment ................................................................................. 157
12.3 Configuring IP Settings .................................................................................................... 158
Chapter 13
Rogue AP............................................................................................................................... 159
13.1 Rogue AP Introduction .................................................................................................... 159
13.2 Rogue AP Examples ....................................................................................................... 159
13.2.1 “Honeypot” Attack .................................................................................................. 160
13.3 Configuring Rogue AP Detection (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) .............................. 161
13.3.1 Rogue AP: Configuration ....................................................................................... 162
13.3.2 Rogue AP: Friendly AP .......................................................................................... 162
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Table of Contents
13.3.3 Rogue AP List ........................................................................................................ 163
Chapter 14
Remote Management Screens............................................................................................. 165
14.1 Remote Management Overview ...................................................................................... 165
14.1.1 Remote Management Limitations .......................................................................... 165
14.1.2 System Timeout .................................................................................................... 165
14.2 Configuring Telnet ............................................................................................................ 166
14.3 Configuring FTP .............................................................................................................. 167
14.4 Configuring WWW ........................................................................................................... 168
14.5 SNMP .............................................................................................................................. 169
14.5.1 Supported MIBs ..................................................................................................... 170
14.5.2 SNMP Traps ........................................................................................................... 171
14.6 SNMP Trap Interface Index ............................................................................................. 171
14.6.1 SNMP v3 and Security ........................................................................................... 172
14.6.2 Configuring SNMP ................................................................................................. 172
14.6.2.1 The SNMPv3 User Profile Screen (NWA-3165 Only) .................174
Chapter 15
Internal RADIUS Server ........................................................................................................ 177
15.1 Internal RADIUS Overview .............................................................................................. 177
15.2 Internal RADIUS Server Setting ...................................................................................... 177
15.3 Trusted AP Overview ....................................................................................................... 179
15.4 Configuring Trusted AP ................................................................................................... 180
15.5 Configuring Trusted Users ............................................................................................... 181
Chapter 16
Certificates ............................................................................................................................ 183
16.1 Certificates Overview ....................................................................................................... 183
16.1.1 Advantages of Certificates ..................................................................................... 184
16.2 Self-signed Certificates .................................................................................................... 184
16.3 Verifying a Certificate ....................................................................................................... 184
16.3.1 Checking the Fingerprint of a Certificate on Your Computer .................................. 184
16.4 Configuration Summary ................................................................................................... 185
16.5 My Certificates ................................................................................................................. 185
16.6 Certificate File Formats .................................................................................................... 187
16.7 Importing a Certificate ..................................................................................................... 188
16.8 Creating a Certificate ....................................................................................................... 189
16.9 My Certificate Details ....................................................................................................... 191
16.10 Trusted CAs ................................................................................................................... 194
16.11 Importing a Trusted CA’s Certificate .............................................................................. 195
16.12 Trusted CA Certificate Details ....................................................................................... 196
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Table of Contents
Chapter 17
Log Screens .......................................................................................................................... 201
17.1 Configuring View Log ....................................................................................................... 201
17.2 Configuring Log Settings ................................................................................................. 202
17.3 Example Log Messages .................................................................................................. 204
17.4 Log Commands ............................................................................................................... 206
17.4.1 Configuring What You Want the ZyXEL Device to Log .......................................... 206
17.4.2 Displaying Logs ...................................................................................................... 206
17.5 Log Command Example .................................................................................................. 207
Chapter 18
VLAN ...................................................................................................................................... 209
18.1 VLAN ............................................................................................................................... 209
18.1.1 Management VLAN ID ........................................................................................... 209
18.1.2 VLAN Tagging ........................................................................................................ 209
18.2 Configuring VLAN ............................................................................................................ 210
18.2.1 Wireless VLAN ....................................................................................................... 210
18.2.2 RADIUS VLAN ....................................................................................................... 212
18.2.3 Configuring Management VLAN Example ............................................................. 213
18.2.4 Configuring Microsoft’s IAS Server Example ......................................................... 216
18.2.4.1 Configuring VLAN Groups ...........................................................216
18.2.4.2 Configuring Remote Access Policies ..........................................217
18.2.5 Second Rx VLAN ID Example ................................................................................ 224
18.2.5.1 Second Rx VLAN Setup Example ...............................................224
Chapter 19
Maintenance .......................................................................................................................... 227
19.1 Maintenance Overview .................................................................................................... 227
19.2 System Status Screen (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) ............................................... 227
19.2.1 System Statistics .................................................................................................... 228
19.3 Association List ................................................................................................................ 228
19.4 Channel Usage (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) ......................................................... 229
19.5 F/W Upload Screen ......................................................................................................... 230
19.6 Configuration Screen ....................................................................................................... 232
19.6.1 Backup Configuration ............................................................................................. 232
19.6.2 Restore Configuration ........................................................................................... 233
19.6.3 Back to Factory Defaults ........................................................................................ 234
19.7 Restart Screen ................................................................................................................. 234
Part III: SMT, Troubleshooting and Specifications............................ 235
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Table of Contents
Chapter 20
Introducing the SMT ............................................................................................................. 237
20.1 Introduction to the SMT ................................................................................................... 237
20.2 Accessing the SMT via the Console Port ........................................................................ 237
20.2.1 Initial Screen .......................................................................................................... 237
20.2.2 Entering the Password ........................................................................................... 238
20.3 Connect to your ZyXEL Device Using Telnet ................................................................... 239
20.4 Changing the System Password ..................................................................................... 239
20.5 SMT Menu Overview Example ........................................................................................ 240
20.6 Navigating the SMT Interface .......................................................................................... 240
20.6.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary ............................................... 242
Chapter 21
General Setup........................................................................................................................ 243
21.1 General Setup ................................................................................................................. 243
21.1.1 Procedure To Configure Menu 1 ............................................................................ 243
Chapter 22
LAN Setup.............................................................................................................................. 245
22.1 LAN Setup ....................................................................................................................... 245
22.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup .................................................................................................... 245
Chapter 23
SNMP Configuration ............................................................................................................. 247
23.1 SNMP Configuration ........................................................................................................ 247
Chapter 24
System Password ................................................................................................................. 249
24.1 System Password ............................................................................................................ 249
Chapter 25
System Information and Diagnosis..................................................................................... 251
25.1 System Status .................................................................................................................. 251
25.2 System Information .......................................................................................................... 253
25.2.1 System Information ................................................................................................ 253
25.2.2 Console Port Speed ............................................................................................... 254
25.3 Log and Trace .................................................................................................................. 254
25.3.1 Viewing Error Log ................................................................................................... 254
25.4 Diagnostic ........................................................................................................................ 255
Chapter 26
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance .................................................................. 257
26.1 Filename Conventions ..................................................................................................... 257
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Table of Contents
26.2 Backup Configuration ...................................................................................................... 258
26.2.1 Using the FTP command from the DOS Prompt .................................................... 258
26.2.2 Backup Configuration Using TFTP ......................................................................... 259
26.2.3 Example: TFTP Command ..................................................................................... 260
26.3 Restore Configuration ..................................................................................................... 260
26.3.1 Using the FTP command from the DOS Prompt Example ..................................... 260
26.3.2 TFTP File Upload ................................................................................................... 261
26.3.3 Example: TFTP Command ..................................................................................... 262
Chapter 27
System Maintenance and Information ................................................................................ 263
27.1 Command Interpreter Mode ............................................................................................ 263
27.1.1 Command Syntax ................................................................................................... 264
27.1.2 Command Usage ................................................................................................... 264
27.1.3 Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection .......................................................... 264
27.1.3.1 Configuring Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection: Example ..
264
27.2 Time and Date Setting ..................................................................................................... 265
27.2.1 Resetting the Time ................................................................................................. 266
27.3 Remote Management Setup ............................................................................................ 266
27.3.1 Telnet ...................................................................................................................... 266
27.3.2 FTP ........................................................................................................................ 267
27.3.3 Web ........................................................................................................................ 267
27.3.4 Remote Management Setup .................................................................................. 267
27.3.5 Remote Management Limitations .......................................................................... 269
27.4 System Timeout ............................................................................................................... 269
Chapter 28
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 271
28.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ...................................................................... 271
28.2 ZyXEL Device Access and Login .................................................................................... 272
28.3 Internet Access ................................................................................................................ 274
28.4 Wireless Router/AP Troubleshooting ............................................................................... 275
Chapter 29
Product Specifications ......................................................................................................... 277
Part IV: Appendices and Index ........................................................... 285
Appendix A Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address............................................................ 287
Appendix B Wireless LANs .................................................................................................. 299
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Table of Contents
Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ...................................... 313
Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting ........................................................................... 319
Appendix E Text File Based Auto Configuration................................................................... 327
Appendix F Legal Information .............................................................................................. 335
Appendix G Customer Support ............................................................................................ 339
Index....................................................................................................................................... 345
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ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 1 Access Point Application .......................................................................................................... 34
Figure 2 Bridge Application .................................................................................................................... 35
Figure 3 Repeater Application ................................................................................................................ 35
Figure 4 AP+Bridge Application ............................................................................................................. 36
Figure 5 Multiple BSSs ........................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 6 Main Antenna ........................................................................................................................... 39
Figure 7 LEDs ......................................................................................................................................... 40
Figure 8 Change Password Screen ........................................................................................................ 44
Figure 9 Replace Certificate Screen ....................................................................................................... 44
Figure 10 The Status Screen of the Web Configurator ........................................................................... 45
Figure 11 Configuring Wireless LAN ...................................................................................................... 49
Figure 12 Tutorial: Example MBSSID Setup .......................................................................................... 51
Figure 13 Tutorial: Wireless LAN: Before ............................................................................................... 52
Figure 14 Tutorial: Wireless LAN: Change Mode ................................................................................... 52
Figure 15 Tutorial: WIRELESS > SSID .................................................................................................. 53
Figure 16 Tutorial: VoIP SSID Profile Edit .............................................................................................. 54
Figure 17 Tutorial: VoIP Security ............................................................................................................ 55
Figure 18 Tutorial: VoIP Security Profile Edit .......................................................................................... 55
Figure 19 Tutorial: VoIP Security: Updated ............................................................................................ 56
Figure 20 Tutorial: Activate VoIP Profile ................................................................................................. 56
Figure 21 Tutorial: Guest Edit ................................................................................................................. 57
Figure 22 Tutorial: Guest Security Profile Edit ........................................................................................ 57
Figure 23 Tutorial: Guest Security: Updated .......................................................................................... 58
Figure 24 Tutorial: Layer 2 Isolation ....................................................................................................... 58
Figure 25 Tutorial: Layer 2 Isolation Profile ............................................................................................ 59
Figure 26 Tutorial: Activate Guest Profile ............................................................................................... 59
Figure 27 Tutorial: Wireless Network Example ....................................................................................... 61
Figure 28 Tutorial: Friendly AP (Before Data Entry) ............................................................................... 62
Figure 29 Tutorial: Friendly AP (After Data Entry) ................................................................................. 63
Figure 30 Tutorial: Configuration ............................................................................................................ 63
Figure 31 Tutorial: Warning .................................................................................................................... 64
Figure 32 Tutorial: Save Friendly AP list ................................................................................................ 64
Figure 33 Tutorial: Periodic Rogue AP Detection .................................................................................. 64
Figure 34 Tutorial: Log Settings .............................................................................................................. 65
Figure 35 Tutorial: Example Network ..................................................................................................... 67
Figure 36 Tutorial: SSID Profile .............................................................................................................. 69
Figure 37 Tutorial: SSID Edit .................................................................................................................. 70
Figure 38 Tutorial: Layer-2 Isolation Edit ................................................................................................ 70
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
21
List of Figures
Figure 39 Tutorial: MAC Filter Edit (SERVER_1) ................................................................................... 71
Figure 40 Tutorial: SSID Profiles Activated ............................................................................................ 72
Figure 41 Tutorial: SSID Tab Correct Settings ........................................................................................ 72
Figure 42 The Status Screen .................................................................................................................. 76
Figure 43 CAPWAP Network Example ................................................................................................... 79
Figure 44 CAPWAP and DHCP Option 43 ............................................................................................. 80
Figure 45 The Management Mode Screen ............................................................................................. 81
Figure 46 AP Controller: the Status Screen ............................................................................................ 83
Figure 47 AP List Status ......................................................................................................................... 84
Figure 48 AP Statistics ........................................................................................................................... 85
Figure 49 AP Association List ................................................................................................................. 86
Figure 50 SSID Information .................................................................................................................... 87
Figure 51 AP Controller: Links ................................................................................................................ 87
Figure 52 The Controller > AP Lists Screen ........................................................................................... 89
Figure 53 The Controller > AP Lists > Edit Screen ................................................................................. 90
Figure 54 The Controller > Configuration Screen ................................................................................... 91
Figure 55 The Profile Edit > Radio Screen ............................................................................................. 92
Figure 56 The Profile Edit > Radio > Edit Screen ................................................................................... 93
Figure 57 System > General .................................................................................................................. 99
Figure 58 SYSTEM > Password. .......................................................................................................... 101
Figure 59 SYSTEM > Time Setting ...................................................................................................... 102
Figure 60 Basic Service set .................................................................................................................. 105
Figure 61 Extended Service Set ........................................................................................................... 106
Figure 62 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field .................................................................................... 109
Figure 63 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163) ............................................................113
Figure 64 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3165) .....................................................................................115
Figure 65 Bridging Example ..................................................................................................................117
Figure 66 Bridge Loop: Two Bridges Connected to Hub .......................................................................117
Figure 67 Bridge Loop: Bridge Connected to Wired LAN ......................................................................118
Figure 68 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) ..............................................118
Figure 69 Wireless: AP+Bridge ............................................................................................................ 121
Figure 70 EAP Authentication .............................................................................................................. 124
Figure 71 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication ................................................................................................. 126
Figure 72 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example ......................................................................... 127
Figure 73 Wireless > Security ............................................................................................................... 129
Figure 74 WIRELESS > Security: WEP ................................................................................................ 130
Figure 75 Security: 802.1x Only .......................................................................................................... 131
Figure 76 Security: 802.1x Static 64-bit, 802.1x Static 128-bit ............................................................ 132
Figure 77 Security: WPA ..................................................................................................................... 133
Figure 78 Security:WPA2 or WPA2-MIX ............................................................................................... 134
Figure 79 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX ........................................................... 135
Figure 80 RADIUS ................................................................................................................................ 136
Figure 81 Multiple BSS with VLAN Example ........................................................................................ 140
22
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
List of Figures
Figure 82 Wireless: Multiple BSS ......................................................................................................... 140
Figure 83 SSID ..................................................................................................................................... 143
Figure 84 Configuring SSID .................................................................................................................. 144
Figure 85 Layer-2 Isolation Application ................................................................................................ 148
Figure 86 WIRELESS > Layer 2 Isolation ............................................................................................ 149
Figure 87 WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation Configuration Screen ......................................................... 150
Figure 88 Layer-2 Isolation Example Configuration ............................................................................. 151
Figure 89 Layer-2 Isolation Example 1 ................................................................................................. 151
Figure 90 Layer-2 Isolation Example 2 ................................................................................................. 152
Figure 91 WIRELESS > MAC Filter ...................................................................................................... 152
Figure 92 MAC Address Filter .............................................................................................................. 153
Figure 93 Roaming Example ................................................................................................................ 155
Figure 94 Roaming ............................................................................................................................... 156
Figure 95 IP Setup ................................................................................................................................ 158
Figure 96 Rogue AP: Example ............................................................................................................ 160
Figure 97 “Honeypot” Attack ................................................................................................................. 161
Figure 98 ROGUE AP > Configuration ................................................................................................. 162
Figure 99 ROGUE AP > Friendly AP .................................................................................................... 163
Figure 100 ROGUE AP > Rogue AP .................................................................................................... 164
Figure 101 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network ......................................................................... 166
Figure 102 Remote Management: Telnet ............................................................................................. 166
Figure 103 Remote Management: FTP ................................................................................................ 167
Figure 104 Remote Management: WWW ............................................................................................. 168
Figure 105 SNMP Management Model ................................................................................................ 170
Figure 106 Remote Management: SNMP ............................................................................................ 173
Figure 107 Remote Management: SNMPv3 User Profile ..................................................................... 174
Figure 108 Internal RADIUS Server Setting Screen ............................................................................. 178
Figure 109 Trusted AP Overview .......................................................................................................... 180
Figure 110 Trusted AP Screen ............................................................................................................. 181
Figure 111 Trusted Users Screen ......................................................................................................... 182
Figure 112 Certificates on Your Computer ............................................................................................ 184
Figure 113 Certificate Details ............................................................................................................... 185
Figure 114 My Certificates .................................................................................................................... 186
Figure 115 My Certificate Import .......................................................................................................... 188
Figure 116 My Certificate Create .......................................................................................................... 189
Figure 117 My Certificate Details .......................................................................................................... 192
Figure 118 Trusted CAs ........................................................................................................................ 194
Figure 119 Trusted CA Import .............................................................................................................. 196
Figure 120 Trusted CA Details ............................................................................................................. 197
Figure 121 View Log ............................................................................................................................. 201
Figure 122 Log Settings ....................................................................................................................... 203
Figure 123 WIRELESS VLAN ...............................................................................................................211
Figure 124 RADIUS VLAN ................................................................................................................... 212
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
23
List of Figures
Figure 125 Management VLAN Configuration Example ....................................................................... 214
Figure 126 VLAN-Aware Switch - Static VLAN ..................................................................................... 214
Figure 127 VLAN-Aware Switch ........................................................................................................... 214
Figure 128 VLAN-Aware Switch - VLAN Status .................................................................................... 215
Figure 129 VLAN Setup ........................................................................................................................ 215
Figure 130 New Global Security Group ............................................................................................... 217
Figure 131 Add Group Members ......................................................................................................... 217
Figure 132 New Remote Access Policy for VLAN Group .................................................................... 218
Figure 133 Specifying Windows-Group Condition ................................................................................ 218
Figure 134 Adding VLAN Group .......................................................................................................... 219
Figure 135 Granting Permissions and User Profile Screens ............................................................... 219
Figure 136 Authentication Tab Settings ................................................................................................ 220
Figure 137 Encryption Tab Settings ..................................................................................................... 220
Figure 138 Connection Attributes Screen ............................................................................................ 221
Figure 139 RADIUS Attribute Screen .................................................................................................. 221
Figure 140 802 Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Medium-Type .................................................................. 222
Figure 141 VLAN ID Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID .......................................................... 222
Figure 142 VLAN Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Type ............................................................................ 223
Figure 143 Completed Advanced Tab .................................................................................................. 223
Figure 144 Second Rx VLAN ID Example ............................................................................................ 224
Figure 145 Configuring SSID: Second Rx VLAN ID Example .............................................................. 225
Figure 146 System Status .................................................................................................................... 227
Figure 147 System Status: Show Statistics .......................................................................................... 228
Figure 148 Association List .................................................................................................................. 229
Figure 149 Channel Usage ................................................................................................................... 229
Figure 150 Firmware Upload ................................................................................................................ 230
Figure 151 Firmware Upload In Process .............................................................................................. 231
Figure 152 Network Temporarily Disconnected .................................................................................... 231
Figure 153 Firmware Upload Error ....................................................................................................... 232
Figure 154 Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 232
Figure 155 Configuration Upload Successful ....................................................................................... 233
Figure 156 Network Temporarily Disconnected .................................................................................... 233
Figure 157 Configuration Upload Error ................................................................................................. 234
Figure 158 Reset Warning Message .................................................................................................... 234
Figure 159 Restart Screen ................................................................................................................... 234
Figure 160 Initial Screen ....................................................................................................................... 238
Figure 161 Password Screen .............................................................................................................. 239
Figure 162 Login Screen ...................................................................................................................... 239
Figure 163 Menu 23 System Password ................................................................................................ 240
Figure 164 SMT Main Menu ................................................................................................................. 242
Figure 165 Menu 1 General Setup ....................................................................................................... 243
Figure 166 Menu 3 LAN Setup ............................................................................................................ 245
Figure 167 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP Setup ..................................................................................................... 245
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ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
List of Figures
Figure 168 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration ............................................................................................ 247
Figure 169 Menu 23 System Password ................................................................................................ 249
Figure 170 Menu 24 System Maintenance ........................................................................................... 251
Figure 171 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status ............................................................................ 252
Figure 172 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed .................................................. 253
Figure 173 Menu 24.2.1 System Information: Information ................................................................... 253
Figure 174 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance: Change Console Port Speed ..................................... 254
Figure 175 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance: Log and Trace ............................................................... 255
Figure 176 Sample Error and Information Messages ........................................................................... 255
Figure 177 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance: Diagnostic ..................................................................... 255
Figure 178 FTP Session Example ........................................................................................................ 259
Figure 179 FTP Session Example ........................................................................................................ 261
Figure 180 Menu 24 System Maintenance ........................................................................................... 263
Figure 181 Valid CI Commands ............................................................................................................ 264
Figure 182 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting ................................................ 265
Figure 183 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network ......................................................................... 267
Figure 184 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control ........................................................................ 268
Figure 185 Wall-mounting Example ...................................................................................................... 281
Figure 186 Masonry Plug and M4 Tap Screw ....................................................................................... 281
Figure 187 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration ...................................................................... 288
Figure 188 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address .......................................................... 289
Figure 189 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration .............................................. 290
Figure 190 Windows XP: Start Menu .................................................................................................... 291
Figure 191 Windows XP: Control Panel ............................................................................................... 291
Figure 192 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties ......................................... 292
Figure 193 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties ............................................................... 292
Figure 194 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Settings .......................................................................... 293
Figure 195 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties .......................................................... 294
Figure 196 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu .......................................................................................... 295
Figure 197 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP ................................................................................................. 295
Figure 198 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu ............................................................................................ 296
Figure 199 Macintosh OS X: Network .................................................................................................. 297
Figure 200 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network ......................................................... 299
Figure 201 Basic Service Set ............................................................................................................... 300
Figure 202 Infrastructure WLAN ........................................................................................................... 301
Figure 203 RTS/CTS ............................................................................................................................ 302
Figure 204 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example ....................................................................... 309
Figure 205 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication ............................................................................................... 310
Figure 206 Pop-up Blocker ................................................................................................................... 313
Figure 207 Internet Options: Privacy .................................................................................................... 314
Figure 208 Internet Options: Privacy .................................................................................................... 315
Figure 209 Pop-up Blocker Settings ..................................................................................................... 315
Figure 210 Internet Options: Security ................................................................................................... 316
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
25
List of Figures
Figure 211 Security Settings - Java Scripting ....................................................................................... 317
Figure 212 Security Settings - Java ...................................................................................................... 317
Figure 213 Java (Sun) .......................................................................................................................... 318
Figure 214 Network Number and Host ID ............................................................................................ 320
Figure 215 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting ............................................................................ 322
Figure 216 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting ............................................................................... 323
Figure 217 Text File Based Auto Configuration .................................................................................... 327
Figure 218 Configuration File Format ................................................................................................... 329
Figure 219 WEP Configuration File Example ....................................................................................... 330
Figure 220 802.1X Configuration File Example .................................................................................... 331
Figure 221 WPA-PSK Configuration File Example ............................................................................... 331
Figure 222 WPA Configuration File Example ....................................................................................... 332
Figure 223 Wlan Configuration File Example ....................................................................................... 333
26
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
List of Tables
List of Tables
Table 1 Models Covered ........................................................................................................................ 33
Table 2 LEDs ......................................................................................................................................... 40
Table 3 Tutorial: Example Information ................................................................................................... 51
Table 4 Tutorial: Rogue AP Example Information .................................................................................. 61
Table 5 Tutorial: Friendly AP Information ............................................................................................... 62
Table 6 Tutorial: SSID Profile Security Settings ..................................................................................... 68
Table 7 Tutorial: Example Network MAC Addresses ............................................................................. 68
Table 8 Tutorial: Example User MAC Addresses ................................................................................... 68
Table 9 Tutorial: SERVER_2 Network Information ................................................................................ 71
Table 10 The Status Screen .................................................................................................................. 76
Table 11 The Management Mode Screen .............................................................................................. 81
Table 12 AP Controller: the Status Screen ............................................................................................ 84
Table 13 AP List Status .......................................................................................................................... 85
Table 14 AP Statistics ............................................................................................................................ 85
Table 15 AP Association List ................................................................................................................. 86
Table 16 AP Association List ................................................................................................................. 87
Table 17 Navigation Bar Labels ............................................................................................................. 87
Table 18 The Controller > AP Lists Screen ............................................................................................ 89
Table 19 The Controller > AP Lists > Edit Screen ................................................................................. 90
Table 20 The Controller > Configuration Screen ................................................................................... 91
Table 21 The Profile Edit > Radio Screen .............................................................................................. 92
Table 22 The Profile Edit > Radio > Edit Screen ................................................................................... 94
Table 23 System > General ................................................................................................................... 99
Table 24 Password .............................................................................................................................. 101
Table 25 SYSTEM > Time Setting ....................................................................................................... 103
Table 26 Default Time Servers ............................................................................................................ 104
Table 27 WMM QoS Priorities ............................................................................................................. 107
Table 28 Typical Packet Sizes ............................................................................................................. 108
Table 29 Automatic Traffic Classifier Priorities .................................................................................... 108
Table 30 ATC + WMM Priority Assignment (LAN to WLAN) ................................................................ 109
Table 31 ATC + WMM Priority Assignment (WLAN to LAN) ................................................................ 109
Table 32 ToS and IEEE 802.1d to WMM QoS Priority Level Mapping .................................................110
Table 33 STP Path Costs .....................................................................................................................111
Table 34 STP Port States .....................................................................................................................112
Table 35 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163) ............................................................113
Table 36 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3165) ......................................................................................115
Table 37 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only) ..............................................119
Table 38 Security Modes ..................................................................................................................... 127
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
27
List of Tables
Table 39 Wireless Security Levels ....................................................................................................... 128
Table 40 WIRELESS > Security .......................................................................................................... 129
Table 41 Security: WEP ....................................................................................................................... 130
Table 42 Security: 802.1x Only ............................................................................................................ 131
Table 43 Security: 802.1x Static 64-bit, 802.1x Static 128-bit .............................................................. 132
Table 44 Security: WPA ....................................................................................................................... 133
Table 45 Security: WPA2 or WPA2-MIX .............................................................................................. 134
Table 46 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX ........................................................... 135
Table 47 RADIUS ................................................................................................................................ 136
Table 48 Wireless: Multiple BSS .......................................................................................................... 141
Table 49 SSID ...................................................................................................................................... 143
Table 50 Configuring SSID .................................................................................................................. 144
Table 51 WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation ............................................................................................. 149
Table 52 WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation Configuration ...................................................................... 150
Table 53 WIRELESS > MAC Filter ...................................................................................................... 153
Table 54 MAC Address Filter ............................................................................................................... 154
Table 55 Private IP Address Ranges ................................................................................................... 157
Table 56 IP Setup ................................................................................................................................ 158
Table 57 ROGUE AP > Configuration .................................................................................................. 162
Table 58 ROGUE AP > Friendly AP .................................................................................................... 163
Table 59 ROGUE AP > Rogue AP ....................................................................................................... 164
Table 60 Remote Management Overview ........................................................................................... 165
Table 61 Remote Management: Telnet ................................................................................................ 166
Table 62 Remote Management: FTP ................................................................................................... 167
Table 63 Remote Management: WWW ............................................................................................... 168
Table 64 SNMP Traps .......................................................................................................................... 171
Table 65 SNMP Interface Index to Physical and Virtual Port Mapping ................................................ 171
Table 66 Remote Management: SNMP ............................................................................................... 173
Table 67 Remote Management: SNMP User Profile ........................................................................... 175
Table 68 Internal RADIUS Server Setting Screen Setting ................................................................... 178
Table 69 Trusted AP ............................................................................................................................ 181
Table 70 Trusted Users ........................................................................................................................ 182
Table 71 My Certificates ...................................................................................................................... 186
Table 72 My Certificate Import ............................................................................................................. 188
Table 73 My Certificate Create ............................................................................................................ 189
Table 74 My Certificate Details ............................................................................................................ 192
Table 75 Trusted CAs .......................................................................................................................... 195
Table 76 Trusted CA Import ................................................................................................................. 196
Table 77 Trusted CA Details ................................................................................................................ 197
Table 78 View Log ............................................................................................................................... 201
Table 79 Log Settings .......................................................................................................................... 203
Table 80 System Maintenance Logs .................................................................................................... 204
Table 81 ICMP Notes ........................................................................................................................... 205
28
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
List of Tables
Table 82 Sys log .................................................................................................................................. 206
Table 83 Log Categories and Available Settings ................................................................................. 206
Table 84 WIRELESS VLAN ..................................................................................................................211
Table 85 RADIUS VLAN ...................................................................................................................... 213
Table 86 Standard RADIUS Attributes ................................................................................................. 216
Table 87 System Status ....................................................................................................................... 227
Table 88 System Status: Show Statistics ............................................................................................. 228
Table 89 Association List ..................................................................................................................... 229
Table 90 Channel Usage ..................................................................................................................... 230
Table 91 Firmware Upload ................................................................................................................... 230
Table 92 Restore Configuration ........................................................................................................... 233
Table 93 SMT Menus Overview ........................................................................................................... 240
Table 94 Main Menu Commands ......................................................................................................... 241
Table 95 Main Menu Summary ............................................................................................................ 242
Table 96 Menu 1 General Setup .......................................................................................................... 243
Table 97 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP Setup ........................................................................................................ 246
Table 98 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration .............................................................................................. 247
Table 99 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status .............................................................................. 252
Table 100 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information ................................................................. 253
Table 101 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance Menu: Diagnostic ............................................................ 256
Table 102 Filename Conventions ........................................................................................................ 258
Table 103 General Commands for Third Party FTP Clients ................................................................ 259
Table 104 General Commands for Third Party TFTP Clients .............................................................. 260
Table 105 Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection Commands ................................................... 264
Table 106 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting ..................................................................... 265
Table 107 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control ......................................................................... 268
Table 108 Hardware Specifications ..................................................................................................... 277
Table 109 Firmware Specifications ...................................................................................................... 279
Table 110 North American Plug Standards .......................................................................................... 281
Table 111 European Plug Standards .................................................................................................... 282
Table 112 United Kingdom Plug Standards ......................................................................................... 282
Table 113 Australia and New Zealand Plug Standards ........................................................................ 282
Table 114 Power over Ethernet Injector Specifications ....................................................................... 282
Table 115 Power over Ethernet Injector RJ-45 Port Pin Assignments ................................................. 282
Table 116 IEEE 802.11g ...................................................................................................................... 303
Table 117 Wireless Security Levels ..................................................................................................... 304
Table 118 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types .......................................................................... 307
Table 119 Wireless Security Relational Matrix ..................................................................................... 310
Table 120 Subnet Masks ..................................................................................................................... 320
Table 121 Subnet Masks ..................................................................................................................... 321
Table 122 Maximum Host Numbers .................................................................................................... 321
Table 123 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation ....................................................................................... 321
Table 124 Subnet 1 .............................................................................................................................. 323
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
29
List of Tables
Table 125 Subnet 2 .............................................................................................................................. 324
Table 126 Subnet 3 .............................................................................................................................. 324
Table 127 Subnet 4 .............................................................................................................................. 324
Table 128 Eight Subnets ...................................................................................................................... 324
Table 129 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning ............................................................................ 325
Table 130 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning ............................................................................ 325
Table 131 Auto Configuration by DHCP .............................................................................................. 328
Table 132 Manual Configuration .......................................................................................................... 328
Table 133 Configuration via SNMP ...................................................................................................... 328
Table 134 Displaying the File Version .................................................................................................. 329
Table 135 Displaying the File Version .................................................................................................. 329
Table 136 Displaying the Auto Configuration Status ............................................................................ 330
30
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
P ART I
Introduction
Introducing the ZyXEL Device (33)
Introducing the Web Configurator (43)
Tutorial (47)
Status Screens (75)
Management Mode (79)
AP Controller Mode (NWA-3160 Only) (83)
31
32
CHAPTER
1
Introducing the ZyXEL Device
This chapter introduces the main applications and features of the ZyXEL Device. It also
introduces the ways you can manage the ZyXEL Device.
1.1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
Your ZyXEL Device extends the range of your existing wired network without additional
wiring, providing easy network access to mobile users.
It is highly versatile, supporting multiple BSSIDs simultaneously (eight in the NWA-3160 and
NWA-3163, four in the NWA-3165). The Quality of Service (QoS) features allow you to
prioritize time-sensitive or highly important applications such as VoIP.
Multiple security profiles allow you to easily assign different types of security to groups of
users. The ZyXEL Device controls network access with MAC address filtering, rogue AP
detection (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only), layer 2 isolation and an internal authentication
server. It also provides a high level of network traffic security, supporting IEEE 802.1x, Wi-Fi
Protected Access (WPA), WPA2 and WEP data encryption.
Your ZyXEL Device is easy to install, configure and use. The embedded Web-based
configurator enables simple, straightforward management and maintenance.
See the Quick Start Guide for instructions on how to make hardware connections.
At the time of writing, this User’s Guide covers the following models.
Table 1 Models Covered
NWA-3160: IEEE 802.11a/b/g Business WLAN Access Point
NWA-3163: IEEE 802.11b/g Business WLAN Access Point
NWA-3165: WirelessN Business WLAN Access Point
1.2 Applications for the ZyXEL Device
The ZyXEL Device can be configured to use the following WLAN operating modes
1
2
3
4
AP
Bridge/Repeater (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only)
AP+Bridge (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only)
MBSSID
Applications for each operating mode are shown below.
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
33
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
"
A different channel should be configured for each WLAN interface to reduce the
effects of radio interference.
1.2.1 Access Point
The ZyXEL Device is an ideal access solution for wireless Internet connection. A typical
Internet access application for your ZyXEL Device is shown as follows. Stations A, B and C
can access the wired network through the ZyXEL Devices.
Figure 1 Access Point Application
1.2.2 Bridge / Repeater (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
The ZyXEL Device can act as a wireless network bridge and establish wireless links with
other APs. In the figure below, the two ZyXEL Devices (A and B) are connected to
independent wired networks and have a bridge connection (A can communicate with B) at the
same time. A ZyXEL Device in repeater mode (C) has no Ethernet connection. When the
ZyXEL Device is in bridge mode, you should enable STP to prevent bridge loops.
When the ZyXEL Device is in Bridge / Repeater mode, security between APs (the Wireless
Distribution System or WDS) is independent of the security between the wireless stations and
the AP. If you do not enable WDS security, traffic between APs is not encrypted. When WDS
security is enabled, both APs must use the same pre-shared key. See Section 8.7.3 on page 116
for more details.
Once the security settings of peer sides match one another, the connection between devices is
made.
At the time of writing, WDS security is compatible with other ZyXEL access points only.
Refer to your other access point’s documentation for details.
34
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
Figure 2 Bridge Application
Figure 3 Repeater Application
1.2.3 AP + Bridge (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
In AP+Bridge mode, the ZyXEL Device supports both AP and bridge connection at the same
time.
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
35
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
In the figure below, A and B use X as an AP to access the wired network, while X and Y
communicate in bridge mode.
When the ZyXEL Device is in AP + Bridge mode, security between APs (the Wireless
Distribution System or WDS) is independent of the security between the wireless stations and
the AP. If you do not enable WDS security, traffic between APs is not encrypted. When WDS
security is enabled, both APs must use the same pre-shared key. See Section 8.7.4 on page 120
for more details.
Unless specified, the term “security settings” refers to the traffic between the wireless stations
and the ZyXEL Device.
Figure 4 AP+Bridge Application
1.2.4 MBSSID
A BSS (Basic Service Set) is the set of devices forming a single wireless network (usually an
access point and one or more wireless clients). An SSID (Service Set IDentifier) is the name of
a BSS. In MBSSID (Multiple BSS) mode, the ZyXEL Device provides multiple virtual APs,
each forming its own BSS and using its own individual SSID profile.
You can configure up to sixteen SSID profiles, and have up to eight active at any one time.
You can assign different wireless and security settings to each SSID profile. This allows you
to compartmentalize groups of users, set varying access privileges, and prioritize network
traffic to and from certain BSSs.
To the wireless clients in the network, each SSID appears to be a different access point. As in
any wireless network, clients can associate only with the SSIDs for which they have the
correct security settings.
36
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
For example, you might want to set up a wireless network in your office where Internet
telephony (Voice over IP, or VoIP) users have priority. You also want a regular wireless
network for standard users, as well as a ‘guest’ wireless network for visitors. In the following
figure, VoIP_SSID users have Quality of Service (QoS) priority, SSID03 is the wireless
network for standard users, and Guest_SSID is the wireless network for guest users. In this
example, the guest user is forbidden access to the wired LAN behind the AP and can access
only the Internet.
Figure 5 Multiple BSSs
1.2.5 Pre-Configured SSID Profiles
The ZyXEL Device has two pre-configured SSID profiles.
1 VoIP_SSID. This profile is intended for use by wireless clients requiring the highest
QoS (Quality of Service) level for VoIP (Voice over IP) telephony and other
applications requiring low latency. The QoS level of this profile is not user-configurable.
See Chapter 8 on page 105 for more information on QoS.
2 Guest_SSID. This profile is intended for use by visitors and others who require access
to certain resources on the network (an Internet gateway or a network printer, for
example) but must not have access to the rest of the network. Layer 2 isolation is enabled
(see Section 11.1 on page 147), and QoS is set to NONE. Intra-BSS traffic blocking is
also enabled (see Section 8.1.1 on page 105). These fields are all user-configurable.
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
37
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
1.3 CAPWAP (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
CAPWAP allows a single access point (the AP controller) to manage up to eight other access
points (the managed APs). The managed APs receive all their configuration information from
the AP controller. This includes radio configuration (such as the wireless channel to use,
permitted data rates, and so on), security profile and SSID profile information. The managed
APs’ web configurators are disabled, and are managed entirely by the AP controller.
At the time of writing, the NWA-3160 is the only ZyXEL AP model that can be a CAPWAP
controller.
At the time of writing, the following ZyXEL AP models can be CAPWAP managed APs:
• NWA-3160
• NWA-3163
• NWA-3500
1.4 Ways to Manage the ZyXEL Device
Use any of the following methods to manage the ZyXEL Device.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the ZyXEL Device
using a (supported) web browser.
• Command Line Interface. Line commands are mostly used for troubleshooting by service
engineers.
• SMT (NWA-3165 only). System Management Terminal is a text-based configuration
menu that you can use to configure your device. Use Telnet to access the SMT.
• FTP for firmware upgrades and configuration backup and restore.
• SNMP. The device can be monitored by an SNMP manager. See the SNMP chapter in this
User’s Guide.
1.5 Good Habits for Managing the ZyXEL Device
Do the following things regularly to make the ZyXEL Device more secure and to manage it
more effectively.
• Change the password often. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of
different types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an
earlier working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even
crashes. If you forget your password, you will have to reset the ZyXEL Device to its
factory default settings. If you backed up an earlier configuration file, you won’t have to
totally re-configure the ZyXEL Device; you can simply restore your last configuration.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
1.6 Hardware Connections
See your Quick Start Guide for information on making hardware connections.
1.6.1 Antennas
The ZyXEL Device has two antennas. When you are looking at the ZyXEL Device from the
front, the main antenna is on the left. The main antenna can both transmit and receive. If you
have only one antenna, attach it to the connector on the left of the ZyXEL Device.
Figure 6 Main Antenna
1.7 LEDs
"
The figures and screens shown in this User’s Guide are from the NWA-3160
(unless otherwise stated). Your device may differ in minor ways.
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
39
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
Figure 7 LEDs
Table 2 LEDs
LABEL
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
Off
Either
• The ZyXEL Device is in Access Point or MBSSID
mode and is functioning normally.
or
• The ZyXEL Device is in AP+Bridge or Bridge/
Repeater mode and has not established a Wireless
Distribution System (WDS) connection.
Green
On
(NWA-3160
and NWA-3163
only)
The ZyXEL Device is in AP+Bridge or Bridge/Repeater
mode, and has successfully established a Wireless
Distribution System (WDS) connection.
Green
On
The wireless LAN is active.
Blinking
The wireless LAN is active, and transmitting or
receiving data.
WDS
(NWA-3160
and NWA3163 only)
WLAN
Off
40
The wireless LAN is not active.
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
Table 2 LEDs (continued)
LABEL
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
ETHERNET
Green
On
The ZyXEL Device has a 10 Mbps Ethernet
connection.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device has a 10 Mbps Ethernet connection
and is sending or receiving data.
On
The ZyXEL Device has a 100 Mbps Ethernet
connection.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device has a 100 Mbps Ethernet
connection and is sending/receiving data.
Off
The ZyXEL Device does not have an Ethernet
connection.
On
The ZyXEL Device is receiving power and functioning
properly.
Off
The ZyXEL Device is not receiving power.
Blinking
Either
• If the LED blinks during the boot up process, the
system is starting up.
or
• If the LED blinks after the boot up process, the
system has failed.
Off
The ZyXEL Device successfully boots up.
Yellow
POWER/SYS
Green
Red
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
41
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
42
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
CHAPTER
2
Introducing the Web
Configurator
This chapter describes how to access the ZyXEL Device’s web configurator and provides an
overview of its screens.
"
When your ZyXEL Device is in (CAPWAP) Managed AP mode (NWA-3160 and
NWA-3163 only) the Web Configurator is not available. The ZyXEL Device can
be managed only through the controller AP’s web configurator.
2.1 Accessing the Web Configurator
1 Make sure your hardware is properly connected and prepare your computer or computer
network to connect to the ZyXEL Device (refer to the Quick Start Guide).
2 Launch your web browser.
3 Type "192.168.1.2" as the URL (default).
4 Type "1234" (default) as the password and click Login. In some versions, the default
password appears automatically - if this is the case, click Login.
5 You should see a screen asking you to change your password (highly recommended) as
shown next. Type a new password (and retype it to confirm) then click Apply.
Alternatively, click Ignore.
"
If you do not change the password, the following screen appears every time
you login.
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43
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
Figure 8 Change Password Screen
6 Click Apply in the Replace Certificate screen to create a certificate using your ZyXEL
Device’s MAC address that will be specific to this device.
Figure 9 Replace Certificate Screen
You should now see the Status screen. See Chapter 2 on page 43 for details about the Status
screen.
"
The management session automatically times out when the time period set in
the Administrator Inactivity Timer field expires (default five minutes). Simply
log back into the ZyXEL Device if this happens.
2.2 Resetting the ZyXEL Device
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need to use the
RESET button. This replaces the current configuration file with the factory-default
configuration file. This means that you will lose all the settings you previously configured.
The password will be reset to 1234.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
2.2.1 Methods of Restoring Factory-Defaults
You can erase the current configuration and restore factory defaults in three ways:
Use the RESET button to upload the default configuration file. Hold this button in for about
10 seconds (the lights will begin to blink). Use this method for cases when the password or IP
address of the ZyXEL Device is not known.
Use the web configurator to restore defaults (refer to Chapter 19 on page 227).
Transfer the configuration file to your ZyXEL Device using FTP. See the section on SMT
configuration for more information.
2.3 Navigating the Web Configurator
The following summarizes how to navigate the web configurator from the Status screen.
Click LOGOUT at any time to exit the web configurator.
Check the status bar at the bottom of the screen when you click Apply or OK to verify that the
configuration has been updated.
Figure 10 The Status Screen of the Web Configurator
Click the links on the left of the screen to configure advanced features such as MGNT MODE
(NWA-3160 and NWA-3165 only: AP Controller (NWA-3160 only), Standalone AP,
Managed AP), SYSTEM (General Setup, Password and Time Zone), WIRELESS (Wireless,
SSID, Security, RADIUS, Layer-2 Isolation, MAC Filter), IP, ROGUE AP (NWA-3160 and
NWA-3163 only - Configuration, Friendly AP, Rogue AP), REMOTE MGNT (Telnet, FTP,
WWW and SNMP), AUTH. SERVER (Setting, Trusted AP, Trusted Users),
CERTIFICATES (My Certificates, Trusted CAs), LOGS (View Logs and Log Settings) and
VLAN (Wireless VLAN and RADIUS VLAN).
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45
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
Click MAINTENANCE to view information about your ZyXEL Device or upgrade
configuration and firmware files. Maintenance features include Status (Statistics),
Association List, Channel Usage (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only), F/W (firmware)
Upload, Configuration (Backup, Restore and Default) and Restart.
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CHAPTER
3
Tutorial
This chapter first provides an overview of how to configure the wireless LAN on your ZyXEL
Device, and then gives step-by-step guidelines showing how to configure your ZyXEL Device
for some example scenarios.
3.1 How to Configure the Wireless LAN
This section shows how to choose which wireless operating mode you should use on the
ZyXEL Device, and the steps you should take to set up the wireless LAN in each wireless
mode. See Section 3.1.3 on page 50 for links to more information on each step.
"
This section describes how to use the ZyXEL Device in standalone mode. For
information on using the ZyXEL Device in a CAPWAP network, see Chapter 5
on page 79 and Chapter 6 on page 83.
3.1.1 Choosing the Wireless Mode
• Use Access Point operating mode if you want to allow wireless clients to access your
wired network, all using the same security and Quality of Service (QoS) settings. See
Section 1.2.1 on page 34 for details.
• Use Bridge/Repeater operating mode (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only) if you want to
use the ZyXEL Device to communicate with other access points. See Section 1.2.2 on
page 34 for details.
The ZyXEL Device is a bridge when other APs access your wired Ethernet network
through the ZyXEL Device.
The ZyXEL Device is a repeater when it has no Ethernet connection and allows other APs
to communicate with one another through the ZyXEL Device.
• Use AP+Bridge operating mode (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only) if you want to use the
ZyXEL Device as an access point (see above) while also communicating with other access
points. See Section 1.2.3 on page 35 for details.
• Use MBSSID operating mode if you want to use the ZyXEL Device as an access point
with some groups of users having different security or QoS settings from other groups of
users. See Section 1.2.4 on page 36 for details.
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Chapter 3 Tutorial
3.1.2 Wireless LAN Configuration Overview
The following figure shows the steps you should take to configure the wireless settings
according to the operating mode you select. Use the Web Configurator to set up your ZyXEL
Device’s wireless network (see your Quick Start Guide for information on setting up your
ZyXEL Device and accessing the Web Configurator).
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Figure 11 Configuring Wireless LAN
Select Operating Mode
Access Point
Mode.
Select 802.11
Mode and
Channel ID.
Select SSID
Profile.
Configure SSID Profile.
Bridge /
Repeater Mode.
(NWA-3160 and
NWA-3163 only).
Select 802.11
Mode and
Channel ID.
Configure
WDS Security.
AP + Bridge
Mode.
(NWA-3160 and
NWA-3163 only).
Select 802.11 Mode
and Channel ID.
MBSSID
Mode.
Select 802.11
Mode and
Channel ID.
Select SSID
Profiles.
Configure WDS Security.
Configure each
SSID Profile.
Select SSID Profile.
Edit Security Profile.
Configure RADIUS
authentication (optional).
Configure
SSID Profile.
Edit Security Profile.
Configure internal AUTH.
SERVER (optional).
Configure Layer 2
Isolation (optional).
Configure MAC Filter
(optional).
Configure each
Security Profile.
Configure RADIUS
authentication
(optional).
Configure RADIUS
authentication (optional).
Configure internal
AUTH. SERVER
(optional).
Configure internal AUTH.
SERVER (optional).
Configure Layer 2
Isolation (optional).
Configure Layer 2
Isolation (optional).
Configure MAC Filter
(optional).
Configure MAC Filter
(optional).
Check your settings and test.
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3.1.3 Further Reading
Use these links to find more information on the steps:
• Choosing 802.11 Mode: see Section 8.7.1 on page 113.
• Choosing a wireless Channel ID: see Section 8.7.1 on page 113.
• Selecting and configuring SSID profile(s): see Section 8.7.1 on page 113 and Section
10.2.1 on page 142.
• Configuring and activating WDS Security (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only): see
Section 8.7.3 on page 116.
• Editing Security Profile(s): see Section 9.9 on page 128.
• Configuring an external RADIUS server: see Section 9.11 on page 136.
• Configuring and activating the internal AUTH. SERVER: see Section 9.4.1 on page 125
and Chapter 15 on page 177.
• Configuring Layer 2 Isolation: see Section 11.3 on page 149.
• Configuring MAC Filtering: see Section 11.4 on page 152.
3.2 How to Configure Multiple Wireless Networks
In this example, you have been using your ZyXEL Device as an access point for your office
network (See your Quick Start Guide for information on how to set up your ZyXEL Device in
Access Point mode). Now your network is expanding and you want to make use of the
MBSSID feature (see Section 10.1 on page 139) to provide multiple wireless networks. Each
wireless network will cater for a different type of user.
You want to make three wireless networks: one standard office wireless network with all the
same settings you already have, another wireless network with high Quality of Service (QoS)
settings for Voice over IP users, and a guest network that allows visitors to your office to
access only the Internet and the network printer.
To do this, you will take the following steps:
1 Change the operating mode from Access Point to MBSSID and reactivate the standard
network.
2 Configure a wireless network for Voice over IP users.
3 Configure a wireless network for guests to your office.
The following figure shows the multiple networks you want to set up. Your ZyXEL Device is
marked Z, the main network router is marked A, and your network printer is marked B.
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Figure 12 Tutorial: Example MBSSID Setup
The standard network (SSID04) has access to all resources. The VoIP network (VoIP_SSID)
has access to all resources and a high Quality of Service (QoS) setting (see Chapter 8 on page
105 for information on QoS). The guest network (Guest_SSID) has access to the Internet and
the network printer only, and a low QoS setting.
To configure these settings, you need to know the MAC (Media Access Control) addresses of
the devices you want to allow users of the guest network to access. The following table shows
the addresses used in this example.
Table 3 Tutorial: Example Information
Network router (A) MAC address
00:AA:00:AA:00:AA
Network printer (B) MAC address
AA:00:AA:00:AA:00
3.2.1 Change the Operating Mode
Log in to the ZyXEL Device (see Section 2.1 on page 43). Click WIRELESS > Wireless. The
Wireless screen appears. In this example, the ZyXEL Device is using Access Point operating
mode, and is currently set to use the SSID04 profile.
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51
Chapter 3 Tutorial
Figure 13 Tutorial: Wireless LAN: Before
Select MBSSID from the Operating Mode drop-down list box. The screen displays as
follows.
Figure 14 Tutorial: Wireless LAN: Change Mode
This Select SSID Profile table allows you to activate or deactivate SSID profiles. Your
wireless network was previously using the SSID04 profile, so select SSID04 in one of the
Profile list boxes (number 3 in this example).
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Select the Index box for the entry and click Apply to activate the profile. Your standard
wireless network (SSID04) is now accessible to your wireless clients as before. You do not
need to configure anything else for your standard network.
3.2.2 Configure the VoIP Network
Next, click WIRELESS > SSID. The following screen displays. Note that the SSID04 SSID
profile (the standard network) is using the security01 security profile. You cannot change this
security profile without changing the standard network’s parameters, so when you set up
security for the VoIP_SSID and Guest_SSID profiles you will need to set different security
profiles.
Figure 15 Tutorial: WIRELESS > SSID
The Voice over IP (VoIP) network will use the pre-configured SSID profile, so select
VoIP_SSID’s radio button and click Edit. The following screen displays.
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Figure 16 Tutorial: VoIP SSID Profile Edit
• Choose a new SSID for the VoIP network. In this example, enter VOIP_SSID_Example.
Note that although the SSID changes, the SSID profile name (VoIP_SSID) remains the
same as before.
• Select Enable from the Hide Name (SSID) list box. You want only authorized company
employees to use this network, so there is no need to broadcast the SSID to wireless
clients scanning the area.
• The standard network (SSID04) is currently using the security01 profile, so use a
different profile for the VoIP network. If you used the security01 profile, anyone who
could access the standard network could access the VoIP wireless network. Select
security02 from the Security field.
• Leave all the other fields at their defaults and click Apply.
3.2.2.1 Set Up Security for the VoIP Profile
Now you need to configure the security settings to use on the VoIP wireless network. Click the
Security tab.
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Chapter 3 Tutorial
Figure 17 Tutorial: VoIP Security
You already chose to use the security02 profile for this network, so select the radio button for
security02 and click Edit. The following screen appears.
Figure 18 Tutorial: VoIP Security Profile Edit
• Change the Name field to “VoIP_Security” to make it easier to remember and identify.
• In this example, you do not have a RADIUS server for authentication, so select WPA2PSK in the Security Mode field. WPA2-PSK provides strong security that anyone with a
compatible wireless client can use, once they know the pre-shared key (PSK). Enter the
PSK you want to use in your network in the Pre Shared Key field. In this example, the
PSK is “ThisismyWPA2-PSKpre-sharedkey”.
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• Click Apply. The WIRELESS > Security screen displays. Ensure that the Profile Name
for entry 2 displays “VoIP_Security” and that the Security Mode is WPA2-PSK.
Figure 19 Tutorial: VoIP Security: Updated
3.2.2.2 Activate the VoIP Profile
You need to activate the VoIP_SSID profile before it can be used. Click the Wireless tab. In
the Select SSID Profile table, select the VoIP_SSID profile and click Apply.
Figure 20 Tutorial: Activate VoIP Profile
Your VoIP wireless network is now ready to use. Any traffic using the VoIP_SSID profile
will be given the highest priority across the wireless network.
3.2.3 Configure the Guest Network
When you are setting up the wireless network for guests to your office, your primary concern
is to keep your network secure while allowing access to certain resources (such as a network
printer, or the Internet). For this reason, the pre-configured Guest_SSID profile has layer-2
isolation and intra-BSS traffic blocking enabled by default. “Layer-2 isolation” means that a
client accessing the network via the Guest_SSID profile can access only certain pre-defined
devices on the network (see Section 11.1 on page 147), and “intra-BSS traffic blocking”
means that the client cannot access other clients on the same wireless network (see Section
8.1.1 on page 105).
Click WIRELESS > SSID. Select Guest_SSID’s entry in the list and click Edit. The
following screen appears.
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Figure 21 Tutorial: Guest Edit
• Choose a new SSID for the guest network. In this example, enter Guest_SSID_Example.
Note that although the SSID changes, the SSID profile name (Guest_SSID) remains the
same as before.
• Select Disable from the Hide Name (SSID) list box. This makes it easier for guests to
configure their own computers’ wireless clients to your network’s settings.
• The standard network (SSID04) is already using the security01 profile, and the VoIP
network is using the security02 profile (renamed VoIP_Security) so select the security03
profile from the Security field.
• Leave all the other fields at their defaults and click Apply.
3.2.3.1 Set Up Security for the Guest Profile
Now you need to configure the security settings to use on the guest wireless network. Click the
Security tab.
You already chose to use the security03 profile for this network, so select security03’s entry
in the list and click Edit. The following screen appears.
Figure 22 Tutorial: Guest Security Profile Edit
• Change the Name field to “Guest_Security” to make it easier to remember and identify.
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Chapter 3 Tutorial
• Select WPA-PSK in the Security Mode field. WPA-PSK provides strong security that is
supported by most wireless clients. Even though your Guest_SSID clients do not have
access to sensitive information on the network, you should not leave the network without
security. An attacker could still cause damage to the network or intercept unsecured
communications.
• Enter the PSK you want to use in your network in the Pre Shared Key field. In this
example, the PSK is “ThisismyGuestWPApre-sharedkey”.
• Click Apply. The WIRELESS > Security screen displays. Ensure that the Profile Name
for entry 3 displays “Guest_Security” and that the Security Mode is WPA-PSK.
Figure 23 Tutorial: Guest Security: Updated
3.2.3.2 Set up Layer 2 Isolation
Configure layer 2 isolation to control the specific devices you want the users on your guest
network to access. Click WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation. The following screen appears.
Figure 24 Tutorial: Layer 2 Isolation
The Guest_SSID network uses the l2isolation01 profile by default, so select its entry and click
Edit. The following screen displays.
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Figure 25 Tutorial: Layer 2 Isolation Profile
Enter the MAC addresses of the two network devices you want users on the guest network to
be able to access: the main network router (00:AA:00:AA:00:AA) and the network printer
(AA:00:AA:00:AA:00). Click Apply.
3.2.3.3 Activate the Guest Profile
You need to activate the Guest_SSID profile before it can be used. Click the Wireless tab. In
the Select SSID Profile table, select the check box for the Guest_SSID profile and click
Apply.
Figure 26 Tutorial: Activate Guest Profile
Your Guest wireless network is now ready to use.
3.2.4 Testing the Wireless Networks
To make sure that the three networks are correctly configured, do the following.
• On a computer with a wireless client, scan for access points. You should see the
Guest_SSID network, but not the VoIP_SSID network. If you can see the VoIP_SSID
network, go to its SSID Edit screen and make sure Hide Name (SSID) is set to Enable.
Whether or not you see the standard network’s SSID (SSID04) depends on whether “hide
SSID” is enabled.
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• Try to access each network using the correct security settings, and then using incorrect
security settings, such as the WPA-PSK for another active network. If the behavior is
different from expected (for example, if you can access the VoIP wireless network using
the security settings for the Guest_SSID wireless network) check that the SSID profile is
set to use the correct security profile, and that the settings of the security profile are
correct.
• Access the Guest_SSID network and try to access other resources than those specified in
the Layer 2 Isolation (l2isolation01) profile screen.
You can use the ping utility to do this. Click Start > Run... and enter “cmd” in the Open:
field. Click OK. At the c:\> prompt, enter “ping 192.168.1.10” (substitute the IP address
of a real device on your network that is not on the layer 2 isolation list). If you receive a
reply, check the settings in the WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation > Edit screen, and
ensure that the correct layer 2 isolation profile is enabled in the Guest_SSID profile
screen.
3.3 How to Set Up and Use Rogue AP Detection
This example shows you how to configure the rogue AP detection feature on the ZyXEL
Device.
"
This feature is available on the NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only.
A rogue AP is a wireless access point operating in a network’s coverage area that is not a
sanctioned part of that network. The example also shows how to set the ZyXEL Device to send
out e-mail alerts whenever it detects a rogue wireless access point. See Chapter 13 on page 159
for background information on the rogue AP function and security considerations.
In this example, you want to ensure that your company’s data is not accessible to an attacker
gaining entry to your wireless network through a rogue AP.
Your wireless network operates in an office building. It consists of four access points (all
ZyXEL Devices) and a variable number of wireless clients. You also know that the coffee
shop on the ground floor has a wireless network consisting of a single access point, which can
be detected and accessed from your floor of the building. There are no other static wireless
networks in your coverage area.
The following diagram shows the wireless networks in your area. Your access points are
marked A, B, C and D. You also have a network mail/file server, marked E, and a computer,
marked F, connected to the wired network. The coffee shop’s access point is marked 1.
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Figure 27 Tutorial: Wireless Network Example
In the figure, the solid circle represents the range of your wireless network, and the dashed
circle represents the extent of the coffee shop’s wireless network. Note that the two networks
overlap. This means that one or more of your APs can detect the AP (1) in the other wireless
network.
When configuring the rogue AP feature on your ZyXEL Devices in this example, you will
need to use the information in the following table. You need the IP addresses of your APs to
access their Web configurators, and you need the MAC address of each AP to configure the
friendly AP list. You need the IP address of the mail server to set up e-mail alerts.
Table 4 Tutorial: Rogue AP Example Information
DEVICE
IP ADDRESS
MAC ADDRESS
Access Point A
192.168.1.1
00:AA:00:AA:00:AA
Access Point B
192.168.1.2
AA:00:AA:00:AA:00
Access Point C
192.168.1.3
A0:0A:A0:0A:A0:0A
Access Point D
192.168.1.4
0A:A0:0A:A0:0A:A0
File / Mail Server E
192.168.1.25
N/A
Access Point 1
UNKNOWN
AF:AF:AF:FA:FA:FA
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"
The ZyXEL Device can detect the MAC addresses of APs automatically.
However, it is more secure to obtain the correct MAC addresses from another
source and add them to the friendly AP list manually. For example, an
attacker’s AP mimicking the correct SSID could be placed on the friendly AP list
by accident, if selected from the list of auto-detected APs. In this example you
have spoken to the coffee shop’s owner, who has told you the correct MAC
address of his AP.
In this example, you will do the following things.
1
2
3
4
5
Set up and save a friendly AP list.
Activate periodic Rogue AP Detection.
Set up e-mail alerts.
Configure your other access points.
Test the setup.
3.3.1 Set Up and Save a Friendly AP list
Take the following steps to set up and save a list of access points you want to allow in your
network’s coverage area.
1 On a computer connected to the wired network (F in the previous figure), open your
Internet browser and enter the URL of access point A (192.168.1.1). Login to the Web
configurator and click ROGUE AP > Friendly AP. The following screen displays.
Figure 28 Tutorial: Friendly AP (Before Data Entry)
2 Fill in the MAC Address and Description fields as in the following table. Click Add
after you enter the details of each AP to include it in the list.
Table 5 Tutorial: Friendly AP Information
62
MAC ADDRESS
DESCRIPTION
00:AA:00:AA:00:AA
My Access Point _A_
AA:00:AA:00:AA:00
My Access Point _B_
A0:0A:A0:0A:A0:0A
My Access Point _C_
0A:A0:0A:A0:0A:A0
My Access Point _D_
AF:AF:AF:FA:FA:FA
Coffee Shop Access Point _1_
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"
You can add APs that are not part of your network to the friendly AP list, as
long as you know that they do not pose a threat to your network’s security.
The Friendly AP screen now appears as follows.
Figure 29 Tutorial: Friendly AP (After Data Entry)
3 Next, you will save the list of friendly APs in order to provide a backup and upload it to
your other access points.
Click the Configuration tab.The following screen appears.
Figure 30 Tutorial: Configuration
4 Click Export. If a window similar to the following appears, click Save.
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Figure 31 Tutorial: Warning
5 Save the friendly AP list somewhere it can be accessed by all the other access points on
the network. In this example, save it on the network file server (E in Figure 27 on page
61). The default filename is “Flist”.
Figure 32 Tutorial: Save Friendly AP list
3.3.2 Activate Periodic Rogue AP Detection
Take the following steps to activate rogue AP detection on the first of your ZyXEL Devices.
1 In the ROGUE AP > Configuration screen, select Yes from the Activate Rogue AP
Period Detection field.
Figure 33 Tutorial: Periodic Rogue AP Detection
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2 In the Period (min.) field, enter how often you want the ZyXEL Device to scan for
rogue APs. You can have the ZyXEL Device scan anywhere from once every ten
minutes to once every hour. In this example, enter “10”.
3 Click Apply.
3.3.3 Set Up E-mail Logs
In this section, you will configure the first of your four APs to send a log message to your email inbox whenever a rogue AP is discovered in your wireless network’s coverage area.
1 Click LOGS > Log Settings. The following screen appears.
Figure 34 Tutorial: Log Settings
• In this example, your mail server’s IP address is 192.168.1.25. Enter this IP address in the
Mail Server field.
• Enter a subject line for the alert e-mails in the Mail Subject field. Choose a subject that is
eye-catching and identifies the access point - in this example,
“ALERT_Access_Point_A”.
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• Enter the email address to which you want alerts to be sent (myname@myfirm.com, in
this example).
• In the Send Immediate Alert section, select the events you want to trigger immediate emails. Ensure that Rogue AP is selected.
• Click Apply.
3.3.4 Configure Your Other Access Points
Access point A is now configured to do the following.
• Scan for access points in its coverage area every ten minutes.
• Recognize friendly access points from a list.
• Send immediate alerts to your email account if it detects an access point not on the list.
Now you need to configure the other wireless access points on your network to do the same
things.
For each access point, take the following steps.
1 From a computer on the wired network, enter the access point’s IP address and login to
its Web configurator. See Table 4 on page 61 for the example IP addresses.
2 Import the friendly AP list. Click ROGUE AP > Configuration > Browse.... Find the
“Flist” file where you previously saved it on the network and click Open.
3 Click Import. Check the ROGUE AP > Friendly AP screen to ensure that the friendly
AP list has been correctly uploaded.
4 Activate periodic rogue AP detection. See Section 3.3.2 on page 64.
5 Set up e-mail logs as in Section 3.3.3 on page 65, but change the Mail Subject field so
you can tell which AP the alerts come from (“ALERT_Access_Point_B”, etc.)
3.3.5 Test the Setup
Next, test your setup to ensure it is correctly configured.
• Log into each AP’s Web configurator and click ROGUE AP > Rogue AP. Click Refresh.
If any of the MAC addresses from Table 5 on page 62 appear in the list, the friendly AP
function may be incorrectly configured - check the ROGUE AP > Friendly AP screen.
If any entries appear in the rogue AP list that are not in Table 5 on page 62, write down the
AP’s MAC address for future reference and check your e-mail inbox. If you have received
a rogue AP alert, email alerts are correctly configured on that ZyXEL Device.
• If you have another access point that is not used in your network, make a note of its MAC
address and set it up next to each of your ZyXEL Devices in turn while the network is
running.
Either wait for at least ten minutes (to ensure the ZyXEL Device performs a scan in that
time) or login to the ZyXEL Device’s Web configurator and click ROGUE AP > Rogue
AP > Refresh to have the ZyXEL Device perform a scan immediately.
• Check the ROGUE AP > Rogue AP screen. You should see an entry in the list with
the same MAC address as your “rogue” AP.
• Check the LOGS > View Logs screen. You should see a Rogue AP Detection entry
in red text, including the MAC address of your “rogue” AP.
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• Check your e-mail. You should have received at least one e-mail alert (your other
ZyXEL Devices may also have sent alerts, depending on their proximity and the
output power of your “rogue” AP).
3.4 Using Multiple MAC Filters and L-2 Isolation Profiles
This example shows you how to allow certain users to access only specific parts of your
network. You can do this by using multiple MAC filters and layer-2 isolation profiles.
3.4.1 Scenario
In this example, you run a company network in which certain employees must wirelessly
access secure file servers containing valuable proprietary data.
You have two secure servers (1 and 2 in the following figure). Wireless user “Alice” (A) needs
to access server 1 (but should not access server 2) and wireless user “Bob” (B) needs to access
server 2 (but should not access server 1). Your ZyXEL Device is marked Z. C is a workstation
on your wired network, D is your main network switch, and E is the security gateway you use
to connect to the Internet.
Figure 35 Tutorial: Example Network
3.4.2 Your Requirements
1 You want to set up a wireless network to allow only Alice to access Server 1 and the
Internet.
2 You want to set up a second wireless network to allow only Bob to access Server 2 and
the Internet.
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3.4.3 Setup
In this example, you have already set up the ZyXEL Device in MBSSID mode (see Chapter 10
on page 139). It uses two SSID profiles simultaneously. You have configured each SSID
profile as shown in the following table.
Table 6 Tutorial: SSID Profile Security Settings
SSID Profile Name
SERVER_1
SERVER_2
SSID_S1
SSID_S2
Security Profile security03:
WPA2-PSK
Hide SSID
Security Profile security04:
WPA2-PSK
Hide SSID
Enabled
Enabled
SSID
Security
Intra-BSS traffic
blocking
Each SSID profile already uses a different pre-shared key.
In this example, you will configure access limitations for each SSID profile. To do this, you
will take the following steps.
1 Configure the SERVER_1 network’s SSID profile to use specific MAC filter and layer2 isolation profiles.
2 Configure the SERVER_1 network’s MAC filter profile.
3 Configure the SERVER_1 network’s layer-2 isolation profile.
4 Repeat steps 1 ~ 3 for the SERVER_2 network.
5 Check your settings and test the configuration.
To configure layer-2 isolation, you need to know the MAC addresses of the devices on your
network, which are as follows.
Table 7 Tutorial: Example Network MAC Addresses
DEVICE
LABEL
MAC ADDRESS
ZyXEL Device
Z
BB:AA:99:88:77:66
Secure Server 1
1
AA:99:88:77:66:55
Secure Server 2
2
99:88:77:66:55:44
Workstation
C
88:77:66:55:44:33
Switch
D
77:66:55:44:33:22
Security gateway
E
66:55:44:33:22:11
To configure MAC filtering, you need to know the MAC addresses of the devices Alice and
Bob use to connect to the network, which are as follows.
Table 8 Tutorial: Example User MAC Addresses
USER
MAC ADDRESS
Alice
11:22:33:44:55:66
Bob
22:33:44:55:66:77
3.4.4 Configure the SERVER_1 Network
First, you will set up the SERVER_1 network which allows Alice to access secure server 1 via
the network switch.
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You will configure the MAC filter to restrict access to Alice alone, and then configure layer-2
isolation to allow her to access only the network router, the file server and the Internet security
gateway.
Take the following steps to configure the SERVER_1 network.
1 Log into the ZyXEL Device’s Web Configurator and click WIRELESS > SSID. The
following screen displays, showing the SSID profiles you already configured.
Figure 36 Tutorial: SSID Profile
2 Select SERVER_1’s entry and click Edit. The following screen displays.
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Figure 37 Tutorial: SSID Edit
Select l2Isolation03 in the L2 Isolation field, and select macfilter03 in the MAC
Filtering field. Click Apply.
3 Click the Layer-2 Isolation tab. When the Layer-2 Isolation screen appears, select
L2Isolation03’s entry and click Edit. The following screen displays.
Figure 38 Tutorial: Layer-2 Isolation Edit
Enter the network router’s MAC Address and add a Description (“NET_ROUTER” in
this case) in Set 1’s entry.
Enter server 1’s MAC Address and add a Description (“SERVER_1” in this case) in
Set 2’s entry.
Change the Profile Name to “L-2-ISO_SERVER_1” and click Apply. You have
restricted users on the SERVER_1 network to access only the devices with the MAC
addresses you entered.
4 Click the MAC Filter tab. When the MAC Filter screen appears, select macfilter03’s
entry and click Edit.
Enter the MAC address of the device Alice uses to connect to the network in Set 1’s
MAC Address field and enter her name in the Description field, as shown in the
following figure. Change the Profile Name to “MacFilter_SERVER_1”. Select Allow
Association from the Filter Action field and click Apply.
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Figure 39 Tutorial: MAC Filter Edit (SERVER_1)
You have restricted access to the SERVER_1 network to only the networking device whose
MAC address you entered. The SERVER_1 network is now configured.
3.4.5 Configure the SERVER_2 Network
Next, you will configure the SERVER_2 network that allows Bob to access secure server 2
and the Internet.
To do this, repeat the procedure in Section 3.4.4 on page 68, substituting the following
information.
Table 9 Tutorial: SERVER_2 Network Information
SSID Screen
Index
4
Profile Name
SERVER_2
SSID Edit (SERVER_2) Screen
L2 Isolation
L2Isolation04
MAC Filtering
macfilter04
Layer-2 Isolation (L2Isolation04) Screen
Profile Name
L-2-ISO_SERVER-2
Set 1
MAC Address: 77:66:55:44:33:22
Description: NET_ROUTER
Set 2
MAC Address: 99:88:77:66:55:44
Description: SERVER_2
Set 3
MAC Address: 66:55:44:33:22:11
Description: GATEWAY
MAC Filter (macfilter04) Edit Screen
Profile Name
MacFilter_SERVER_2
Set 1
MAC Address: 22:33:44:55:66:77
Description: Bob
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3.4.6 Checking your Settings and Testing the Configuration
Use the following sections to ensure that your wireless networks are set up correctly.
3.4.6.1 Checking Settings
Take the following steps to check that the ZyXEL Device is using the correct SSIDs, MAC
filters and layer-2 isolation profiles.
1 Click WIRELESS > Wireless. Check that the Operating Mode is MBSSID and that
the correct SSID profiles are selected and activated, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 40 Tutorial: SSID Profiles Activated
2 Next, click the SSID tab. Check that each configured SSID profile uses the correct
Security, Layer-2 Isolation and MAC Filter profiles, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 41 Tutorial: SSID Tab Correct Settings
V
If the settings are not as shown, follow the steps in the relevant section of this
tutorial again.
3.4.6.2 Testing the Configuration
Before you allow employees to use the network, you need to thoroughly test whether the setup
behaves as it should. Take the following steps to do this.
1 Test the SERVER_1 network.
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• Using Alice’s computer and wireless client, and the correct security settings, do the
following.
Attempt to access Server 1. You should be able to do so.
Attempt to access the Internet. You should be able to do so.
Attempt to access Server 2. You should be unable to do so. If you can do so, layer-2
isolation is misconfigured.
• Using Alice’s computer and wireless client, and incorrect security settings, attempt to
associate with the SERVER_1 network. You should be unable to do so. If you can do
so, security is misconfigured.
• Using another computer and wireless client, but with the correct security settings,
attempt to associate with the SERVER_1 network. You should be unable to do so. If
you can do so, MAC filtering is misconfigured.
2 Test the SERVER_2 network.
• Using Bob’s computer and wireless client, and the correct security settings, do the
following.
Attempt to access Server 2. You should be able to do so.
Attempt to access the Internet. You should be able to do so.
Attempt to access Server 1. You should be unable to do so. If you can do so, layer-2
isolation is misconfigured.
• Using Bob’s computer and wireless client, and incorrect security settings, attempt to
associate with the SERVER_2 network. You should be unable to do so. If you can do
so, security is misconfigured.
• Using another computer and wireless client, but with the correct security settings,
attempt to associate with the SERVER_2 network. You should be unable to do so. If
you can do so, MAC filtering is misconfigured.
If you cannot do something that you should be able to do, check the settings as described in
Section 3.4.6.1 on page 72, and in the individual Security, layer-2 isolation and MAC filter
profiles for the relevant network. If this does not help, see the Troubleshooting chapter in this
User’s Guide.
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CHAPTER
4
Status Screens
The Status screen displays when you log into the ZyXEL Device, or click STATUS in the
navigation menu.
Use the Status screens to look at the current status of the device, system resources, interfaces
and SSID status. The Status screen also provides detailed information about associated
wireless clients, channel usage, logs and detected rogue APs.
"
"
Fields in this screen may differ depending on the ZyXEL Device model you are
using.
These screens display differently when the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller
mode (see Section 6.1 on page 83). At the time of writing, AP controller mode is
available on the NWA-3160 only).
4.1 The Status Screen
Click Status. The following screen displays.
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Figure 42 The Status Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 The Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Automatic Refresh
Interval
Enter how often you want the ZyXEL Device to update this screen.
Refresh
Click this to update this screen immediately.
System Information
76
System Name
This field displays the ZyXEL Device system name. It is used for
identification. You can change this in the System > General screen’s
System Name field.
Model
This field displays the ZyXEL Device’s exact model name.
Firmware Version
This field displays the current version of the firmware inside the device. It
also shows the date the firmware version was created. You can change the
firmware version by uploading new firmware in Maintenance > F/W
Upload.
System Up Time
This field displays the elapsed time since the ZyXEL Device was turned on.
Current Date Time
This field displays the date and time configured on the ZyXEL Device. You
can change this in the System > Time Setting screen.
WLAN Operating
Mode
This field displays the current operating mode of the first wireless module
(AP, Bridge / Repeater, AP + Bridge or MBSSID). You can change the
operating mode in the Wireless > Wireless screen.
Management VLAN
This field displays the management VLAN ID if VLAN is active, or
Disabled if it is not active. You can enable or disable VLAN, or change the
management VLAN ID, in the VLAN > Wireless VLAN screen.
IP
This field displays the current IP address of the ZyXEL Device on the
network.
LAN MAC
This displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the ZyXEL
Device on the LAN. Every network device has a unique MAC address
which identifies it across the network.
WLAN MAC
This displays the MAC address of the wireless module.
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Table 10 The Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Resources
Flash
This field displays the amount of the ZyXEL Device’s flash memory
currently in use. The flash memory is used to store firmware and SSID
profiles.
Memory
This field displays what percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s volatile memory
is currently in use. The higher the memory usage, the more likely the
ZyXEL Device is to slow down. Some memory is required just to start the
ZyXEL Device and to run the web configurator.
CPU
This field displays what percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s processing
ability is currently being used. The higher the CPU usage, the more likely
the ZyXEL Device is to slow down.
WLAN Associations
This field displays the number of wireless clients currently associated with
the wireless module. Each wireless module supports up to 128 concurrent
associations.
Interface Status
Interface
This column displays each interface of the ZyXEL Device.
Status
This field indicates whether or not the ZyXEL Device is using the interface.
For each interface, this field displays Up when the ZyXEL Device is using
the interface and Down when the ZyXEL Device is not using the interface.
For the NWA-3160 and NWA-3163, this also displays the wireless channel
number(s).
Channel (NWA-3165
Only)
For the WLAN interface, this field displays the ZyXEL Device’s active
wireless channel number(s).
Rate
For the LAN port this displays the port speed and duplex setting.
For the WLAN interface, it displays the downstream and upstream
transmission rate or N/A if the interface is not in use.
SSID Status
SSID
This field displays the SSID(s) currently used by the wireless module.
BSSID
This field displays the MAC address of the wireless adaptor.
Security
This field displays the type of wireless security used by each SSID.
VLAN
This field displays the VLAN ID of each SSID in use, or Disabled if the
SSID does not use VLAN.
System Status
Show Statistics
Click this link to view port status and packet specific statistics. See Section
19.2.1 on page 228.
Association List
Click this to see a list of wireless clients currently associated to each of the
ZyXEL Device’s wireless modules. See Section 19.3 on page 228.
Channel Usage
(NWA-3160 and
NWA-3163 only)
Click this to see which wireless channels are currently in use in the local
area. See Section 19.4 on page 229.
Logs
Click this to see a list of logs produced by the ZyXEL Device. See Section
17.1 on page 201.
Rogue AP List
(NWA-3160 and
NWA-3163 only)
Click this to see a list of unauthorized access points in the local area. See
Section 13.3.3 on page 163.
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5
Management Mode
This chapter discusses the MGNT MODE (Management Mode) screen (NWA-3160 and
NWA-3163 only). This screen determines whether the ZyXEL Device is used in its default,
standalone mode, or as part of a CAPWAP (Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access
Points) network.
5.1 About CAPWAP
The NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 support CAPWAP (Control And Provisioning of Wireless
Access Points). This is ZyXEL’s implementation of the IETF’s (Internet Engineering Task
Force) CAPWAP protocol (RFC 4118).
The CAPWAP dataflow is protected by DTLS (Datagram Transport Layer Security).
The following figure illustrates a CAPWAP wireless network. You (U) configure the AP
controller (C), which then automatically updates the configurations of the managed APs (M1
~ M4).
Figure 43 CAPWAP Network Example
U
DHCP SERVER
C
M1
M2
M3
M4
5.1.1 CAPWAP Discovery and Management
The link between CAPWAP-enabled access points proceeds as follows:
1 An AP in managed AP mode joins a wired network (receives a dynamic IP address).
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2 The AP sends out a management request, looking for an AP in CAPWAP AP controller
mode.
3 If there is an AP controller on the network, it receives the management request. If the AP
controller is in Manual mode (see Section 6.3.3 on page 91) it adds the details of the AP
to its Unmanaged Access Points list (see Section 6.3.1 on page 88), and you decide
which available APs to manage. If the AP is in Always Accept mode, it automatically
adds the AP to its Managed Access Points list and provides the managed AP with
default configuration information, as well as securely transmitting the DTLS (Datagram
Transport Layer Security) pre-shared key. The managed AP is ready for association with
wireless clients.
5.1.2 CAPWAP and DHCP
CAPWAP managed APs must be DHCP clients, supplied with an IP address by a DHCP
server on your network.
Furthermore, the AP controller must have a static IP address; it cannot be a DHCP client.
5.1.3 CAPWAP and IP Subnets
By default, CAPWAP works only between devices with IP addresses in the same subnet (see
the appendices for information on IP addresses and subnetting).
However, you can configure CAPWAP to operate between devices with IP addresses in
different subnets by doing the following.
• Activate DHCP option 43 on your network’s DHCP server.
• Configure DHCP option 43 with the IP address of the CAPWAP AP controller on your
network.
DHCP Option 43 allows the CAPWAP management request (from the AP in managed AP
mode) to reach the AP controller in a different subnet, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 44 CAPWAP and DHCP Option 43
SUBNET 1
SUBNET 2
DHCP
SERVER
+ OPTION 43
CAPWAP
TRAFFIC
AP
CONTROLLER
(STATIC IP)
MANAGED
AP
(DYNAMIC
IP)
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5.1.4 Notes on CAPWAP
This section lists some additional features of ZyXEL’s implementation of the CAPWAP
protocol.
• When the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode and uses its internal RADIUS server
(see Chapter 15 on page 177), managed APs also use the ZyXEL Device’s authentication
server to authenticate wireless clients.
• Only one AP controller can exist in any single broadcast domain.
• If a managed AP’s link to the AP controller is broken, the managed AP continues to use
the wireless settings with which it was last provided.
5.2 The Management Mode Screen
Use this screen to configure the ZyXEL Device as a CAPWAP controller (NWA-3160 only)
or managed AP, or to use it in its default standalone mode.
Click MGNT MODE in the ZyXEL Device’s navigation menu. The following screen
displays.
"
Not all ZyXEL Device models display all the labels in this screen.
Figure 45 The Management Mode Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 The Management Mode Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
AP Controller
Select this to use the ZyXEL Device to manage up to eight other
compatible ZyXEL access points on your network.
Standalone AP
Select this to manage the ZyXEL Device using its own web configurator,
neither managing nor managed by other devices.
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Table 11 The Management Mode Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Managed AP
Select this to have the ZyXEL Device managed by another ZyXEL Device
on your network.
When you do this, the ZyXEL Device can be configured ONLY by the
management AP.
If you do not have an AP controller on your network and want to return the
ZyXEL Device to standalone mode, you must use its physical RESET
button. All settings are returned to their default values.
Note: When you set the ZyXEL Device to Managed AP
mode, it becomes a DHCP client. To discover its
new IP address, check the DHCP server on your
network. If your network has no DHCP server, the
ZyXEL Device’s IP address remains the same. You
can also check the Controller > AP Lists screen of
the AP controller on your network.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Note: If you change the mode in this screen, the ZyXEL
Device restarts. Wait a short while before you
attempt to log in again. If you changed the mode to
Managed AP, you cannot log in as the web
configurator is disabled; you must manage the
ZyXEL Device through the management AP on
your network.
Reset
82
Click this to return this screen to its previously-saved settings.
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6
AP Controller Mode (NWA-3160
Only)
When the ZyXEL Device is an AP controller, it can manage other access points. You
configure settings for the AP controller and the managed access points in the AP controller,
which then sends the configuration details to the managed APs.
The ZyXEL Device can manage compatible access points only (see Section 1.3 on page 38 for
a list of compatible access points). AP controller mode is part of the ZyXEL CAPWAP
implementation.
Use the Management Mode screen to set your ZyXEL Device to AP controller mode (see
Section 5.2 on page 81).
6.1 Status Screen
When the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode, the Status screen acquires some new
fields in the System Information, AP Status, WLAN Association and System Status
sections. The System Status links take you to screens that provide information on the access
points managed by the ZyXEL Device.
Click Status. The following screen displays.
Figure 46 AP Controller: the Status Screen
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The following table describes the new labels in this screen.
Table 12 AP Controller: the Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Registration Type
This field displays how the managed APs are registered with the ZyXEL
Device.
• Manual displays if you add unmanaged APs to the ZyXEL Device’s list
of managed APs manually.
• Always Accept displays if the ZyXEL Device automatically manages
any CAPWAP-enabled AP that transmits a management request over
the network.
Management Mode
When the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode, this displays Controller.
On-line
This field displays the number of access points, managed by the ZyXEL
Device, that are currently active.
Off-line
This field displays the number of access points, managed by the ZyXEL
Device, that are not currently active (turned off or otherwise unreachable
on the network).
Un-managed
This field displays the number of access points on the network that are not
managed by the ZyXEL Device, but are transmitting CAPWAP
management requests.
802.11a
This field displays the number of wireless clients associated with APs
managed by the ZyXEL Device (including the ZyXEL Device itself) using
IEEE 802.1a.
802.11b/g
This field displays the number of wireless clients associated with APs
managed by the ZyXEL Device (including the ZyXEL Device itself) using
IEEE 802.1b or IEEE 802.11g.
AP List
Click this to see a list of the APs managed by the ZyXEL Device. See
Section 6.1.1 on page 84.
AP Statistics
Click this to see packet statistics related to each of the APs managed by
the ZyXEL Device. See Section 6.1.2 on page 85.
Association List
Click this to see information about each of the wireless clients connected
to APs managed by the ZyXEL Device. See Section 6.1.3 on page 86.
SSID Information
Click this to see details of the security settings used by each SSID (Service
Set IDentifier), and the number of wireless clients associated with each
SSID. See Section 6.1.4 on page 86.
6.1.1 The AP List Status Screen
Use this screen to see a list of the APs managed by the ZyXEL Device. When the ZyXEL
Device is in AP controller mode, click AP List in the Status screen. The following screen
displays.
Figure 47 AP List Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 AP List Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
AP Description
This is the description of the managed AP (either generated automatically,
or entered by you).
Model
This is the managed AP’s model number.
Radio MAC
This is the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the managed AP’s
wireles adapter.
802.11 Mode
This displays the IEEE 802.11 wireless mode the managed AP is currently
using.
Channel ID
This displays the wireless channel number the managed AP is currently
using.
SSID List
This displays the SSID (Service Set IDentifier) that the managed AP is
currently using.
VLAN
This displays the VLAN ID (Virtual LAN IDentifier) assigned to this
managed AP.
Stations
This displays the number of wireless clients currently associated with the
managed AP.
6.1.2 The AP Statistics Screen
Use this screen to statistics relating to the APs managed by the ZyXEL Device. When the
ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode, click AP Statistics in the Status screen. The
following screen displays.
Figure 48 AP Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 AP Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
AP Description
This is the description of the managed AP (either generated automatically,
or entered by you).
802.11 Mode
This displays the IEEE 802.11 wireless mode the managed AP is currently
using.
Channel ID
This displays the wireless channel number the managed AP is currently
using.
Rx PKT
This displays the number of packets transmitted by the managed AP.
Tx PKT
This displays the number of packets received by the managed AP.
Retry Count
This displays the number of times a managed AP tries to resend packets.
FCS Error Count
This displays the number of Frame Check Sequence errors experienced
by the managed AP.
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Table 14 AP Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Automatic Refresh
Interval
Select the frequency with which the ZyXEL Device updates this screen.
Refresh
Click this to update this screen immediately.
6.1.3 The AP Association List Screen
Use this screen to see information about the wireless clients associated to the APs managed by
the ZyXEL Device. When the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode, click Association List
in the Status screen. The following screen displays.
Figure 49 AP Association List
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 AP Association List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the associated client’s index number.
MAC
This displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the associated
wireless client.
Associated AP
This displays the description of the managed access point to which the
wireless client is associated.
SSID
This displays the SSID (Service Set Identifier) with which the wireless
client is associated.
Security Mode
This displays the type of security used by SSID to which the wireless client
is associated.
Association Time
This displays the length of time that the wireless client has been
associated with the managed AP.
Signal Lvl.
This displays the RSSI (Received Signal Strength Intensity) of the link
between the wireless client and the managed AP with which it is
associated.
Automatic Refresh
Interval
Select the frequency with which ZyXEL Device updates this screen.
Refresh
Click this to update this screen immediately.
6.1.4 The SSID Information Screen
Use this screen to see the security settings used by each wireless network controlled by the AP
controller, and the number of wireless clients associated with each network. Each network is
identified by its SSID (Service Set IDentifier), which is the name of the network.
The information that displays does not differentiate by access point. Your network may have
several APs using the same SSID. This screen displays the number of wireless clients using
the SSID regardless of which AP they are associated with.
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When the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode, click SSID Information in the Status
screen. The following screen displays.
Figure 50 SSID Information
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 AP Association List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSID
This displays the SSID (Service Set IDentifier) that identifies your wireless
network. Each AP may use a different SSID (or different multiple SSIDs).
Security Mode
This displays the type of security used by the wireless network. A
network’s security settings are the same regardless of the AP on which it is
running.
Stations
This displays the number of wireless clients using the wireless network.
6.2 Navigation Bar
When the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode, the navigation bar on the left of the web
configurator screen is different from standalone mode.
Figure 51 AP Controller: Links
These links configure
all CAPWAP-managed
access points.
These links configure
only the AP controller.
The following table describes the labels in the navigation bar.
Table 17 Navigation Bar Labels
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
STATUS
Click this to go to the Status screen (see Section 4.1 on page 75).
MGNT MODE
Click this to go to the Management Mode screen (see Section 5.2 on page
81).
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Table 17 Navigation Bar Labels
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
CONTROLLER
Click this to go to the Controller screens (see Section 6.3 on page 88).
PROFILE EDIT
Click this to go to the Profile Edit screens (see Section 6.4 on page 92).
ROGUE AP
Click this to go to the Rogue AP screens (see Section 13.3 on page 161).
VLAN
Click this to go to the VLAN screens (see Section 18.2 on page 210).
SYSTEM
Click this to go to the System screens (see Section 19.2 on page 227).
IP
Click this to go to the IP screen (see Section 12.3 on page 158).
REMOTE MGNT
Click this to go to the Remote Management screens (see Chapter 14 on
page 165).
AUTH. SERVER
Click this to go to the Authentication Server screens (see Section 15.1 on
page 177).
CERTIFICATES
Click this to go to the Certificates screens (see Chapter 16 on page 183).
LOGS
Click this to go to the Logs screens (see Chapter 17 on page 201).
MAINTENANCE
Click this to go to the Maintenance screens (see Chapter 19 on page 227).
LOGOUT
Click this to log out of the ZyXEL Device.
6.3 The Controller Screens
This section discusses the Controller screens that display when the ZyXEL Device is in AP
controller mode (NWA-3160 only).
6.3.1 The AP Lists Screen
When the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode, click CONTROLLER > AP Lists. The
following screen displays.
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Figure 52 The Controller > AP Lists Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 The Controller > AP Lists Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Managed Access Points List
This section lists the access points currently controlled by the ZyXEL
Device. This always includes the ZyXEL Device itself.
Index
This is the index number of the AP.
Select
Choose the AP whose Description you want to edit or delete, or
whose radio profile you want to change.
IP
This is the IP address of the AP.
MAC Address
This is the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the AP.
Model
This is the model number of the AP.
Description
This is the description you enter for the AP.
Status
This displays whether the AP is currently active.
• Red: the AP is not active.
• Green: the AP is active.
• Yellow: the AP is upgrading its firmware.
Edit
Choose an AP using the Select field, then click this to change the
AP’s Description, or the radio profile it uses. The AP Lists Edit
screen displays (see Section 6.3.2 on page 90).
Delete
Choose an AP using the Select field, then click this to remove the
AP from the Managed AP list. You cannot remove the ZyXEL
Device itself from the list.
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Table 18 The Controller > AP Lists Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Unmanaged Access Points List
This section lists the CAPWAP-enabled access points in the area
that are in managed AP mode, but are not currently controlled by the
ZyXEL Device.
Index
This is the index number of the unmanaged AP.
Select
Choose the unmanaged AP to have managed by the ZyXEL Device
and click Add.
IP
This is the IP address of the unmanaged AP.
MAC Address
This is the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the unmanaged
AP.
Model
This is the model number of the unmanaged AP.
Description
This is the description you enter for the unmanaged AP.
Add
Click this to add an unmanaged AP to the Managed Access Points
list.
Automatic Refresh Interval
Enter how often you want the ZyXEL Device to update this screen.
Refresh
Click this to update this screen immediately.
6.3.2 The AP Lists Edit Screen
Use this screen to change the description or radio profile of an AP managed by the ZyXEL
Device. Click Edit in the CONTROLLER > AP Lists screen. The following screen displays.
Figure 53 The Controller > AP Lists > Edit Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 The Controller > AP Lists > Edit Screen
90
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Model
This is the model number of the managed AP.
MAC Address
This is the MAC (Media Access Control) address of the managed AP.
Description
Enter a short description of this access point (up to 32 English keyboard
characters).
WLAN1 Radio Profile
Select the radio profile you want to use for this AP. Configure radio profiles
in the Profile Edit > Radio screen.
Select Disable if you do not want to use a radio profile. The AP’s radio is
not active when you select Disable.
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Table 19 The Controller > AP Lists > Edit Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WLAN2 Radio Profile
This field displays only if the managed AP has dual radios.
Select the second radio profile you want to use for this AP. Configure radio
profiles in the Profile Edit > Radio screen.
Select Disable if you do not want to use a second radio profile. The AP’s
radio is not active when you select Disable.
Apply
Click this to save the changes in this screen.
Reset
Click this to return the fields in this screen to their previously-saved values.
6.3.3 The Configuration Screen
Use this screen to control the way in which the ZyXEL Device accepts new APs to manage.
You can also configure the pre-shared key (PSK) that is use to secure the data transmitted
between the ZyXEL Device and the APs it manages.
When the ZyXEL Device is in AP controller mode, click CONTROLLER > Configuration.
The following screen displays.
Figure 54 The Controller > Configuration Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 The Controller > Configuration Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Pre-Shared Key
This is the security key used to encrypt communications between
the ZyXEL Device and its managed APs. This key is used to encrypt
DTLS (Datagram Transport Layer Security) transmissions. Enter
8~32 English keyboard characters.
The proprietary AutoPSK protocol transfers the DTLS key from the
ZyXEL Device to the manages AP automatically.
Registration Type
This controls whether the ZyXEL Device manages all CAPWAPenabled APs that transmit management request packets, or requires
the user to select which such APs to manage.
• Select Manual to choose which APs to manage (select the APs
you want to manage in the Controller > AP Lists screen).
• Select Always Accept to manage any AP on your network that
transmits a CAPWAP request for management.
Apply
Click this to save the changes in this screen.
Reset
Click this to return the fields in this screen to their previously-saved
values.
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6.4 The Profile Edit Screens
This section describes the Profile Edit screens, which are available only in AP controller
mode (NWA-3160 only).
The following Profile Edit screens are identical to those available in standalone mode:
•
•
•
•
•
The Profile Edit > SSID screen (see Section 10.2.1 on page 142).
The Profile Edit > Security screen (see Section 9.9 on page 128).
The Profile Edit > RADIUS screen (see Section 9.11 on page 136).
The Profile Edit > Layer-2 Isolation screen (see Section 11.2 on page 148).
The Profile Edit > MAC Filter screen (see Section 11.4 on page 152).
6.4.1 The Radio Profile Screen
Use this screen to configure radio profiles. Radio profiles contain information about an access
point’s wireless settings, and can be applied to APs managed by the ZyXEL Device.
In AP Controller mode (NWA-3160 only) click Profile Edit > Radio. The following screen
displays.
Figure 55 The Profile Edit > Radio Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 The Profile Edit > Radio Screen
92
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of each radio profile.
Profile Name
This field displays the identification name of each radio profile on the
ZyXEL Device.
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Table 21 The Profile Edit > Radio Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
802.11 Mode
This field displays the IEEE 802.11 wireless mode the radio profile
uses.
Channel ID
This field displays the wireless channel the radio profile uses.
Edit
Click the radio button next to the profile you want to configure and
click Edit to go to the radio profile configuration screen.
6.5 The Radio Profile Edit Screen
Use this screen to configure a specific radio profile. In the Profile Edit > Radio screen, select
a profile and click Edit. The following screen displays.
Figure 56 The Profile Edit > Radio > Edit Screen
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 The Profile Edit > Radio > Edit Screen
94
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a name identifying this profile.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices
to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices
to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11b+g to allow both IEEE802.11b and IEEE802.11g compliant
WLAN devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device. The transmission rate
of your ZyXEL Device might be reduced.
Select 802.11a (NWA-3160 only) to allow only IEEE 802.11a compliant
WLAN devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Super Mode
Select this to improve data throughput on the WLAN by enabling fast frame
and packet bursting.
Choose Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
To manually set the ZyXEL Device to use a channel, select a channel from
the drop-down list box.
To have the ZyXEL Device automatically select a channel, click Automatic
Select instead.
RTS/CTS Threshold
(Request To Send) The threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS
handshake. Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the
RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum
MSDU (MAC service data unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake.
Setting this attribute to its smallest value (256) turns on the RTS/CTS
handshake. Enter a value between 256 and 2346.
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for
directed messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent.
Enter an even number between 256 and 2346.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyXEL Device in this field. If there is a high
density of APs in an area, decrease the output power of the ZyXEL Device
to reduce interference with other APs. Select one of the following
100%(Full Power), 50%, 25%, 12.5% or Minimum. See the product
specifications for more information on your ZyXEL Device’s output power.
Rates Configuration
This section controls the data rates permitted for clients of an AP using this
radio profile.
For each Rate, select an option from the Configuration list. The options
are:
• Basic (1~11 Mbps only): Clients can always connect to the access
point at this speed.
• Optional: Clients can connect to the access point at this speed, when
permitted to do so by the AP.
• Disabled: Clients cannot connect to the access point at this speed.
Select SSID Profile
Use this section to choose the SSID profile or profiles you want access
points using this radio profile to use. Each AP can use multiple SSID
profiles simultaneously.
Configure SSID profiles in the Profile Edit > SSID screens.
Index
This is the SSID profile’s index number.
Active
Select this to use the SSID profile selected in the Profile field.
Profile
Select the profile you want to use. Ensure that you also select the Active
box.
Enable Antenna
Diversity
Select this to have access points using this radio profile use antenna
diversity, where available. Antenna diversity uses multiple antennas to
reduce signal interference.
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Table 22 The Profile Edit > Radio > Edit Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Reset
Click this to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
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P ART II
The Web
Configurator
System Screens (99)
Wireless Configuration (105)
Wireless Security Configuration (123)
MBSSID and SSID (139)
Other Wireless Configuration (147)
IP Screen (157)
Rogue AP (159)
Remote Management Screens (165)
Internal RADIUS Server (177)
Certificates (183)
Log Screens (201)
VLAN (209)
Maintenance (227)
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CHAPTER
7
System Screens
7.1 System Overview
This section provides information on general system setup.
7.2 Configuring General Setup
Click SYSTEM > General.
Figure 57 System > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 System > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General Setup
System Name
Type a descriptive name to identify the ZyXEL Device in the Ethernet network.
This name can be up to 30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not
allowed, but dashes "-" and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
This is not a required field. Leave this field blank or enter the domain name
here if you know it.
Administrator
Inactivity Timer
Type how many minutes a management session (either via the web
configurator or SMT) can be left idle before the session times out.
The default is 5 minutes. After it times out you have to log in with your
password again. Very long idle timeouts may have security risks.
A value of "0" means a management session never times out, no matter how
long it has been left idle (not recommended).
System DNS Servers
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Table 23 System > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
First DNS Server
Second DNS Server
Third DNS Server
Select From DHCP if your DHCP server dynamically assigns DNS server
information (and the ZyXEL Device's Ethernet IP address). The field to the
right displays the (read-only) DNS server IP address that the DHCP assigns.
Select User-Defined if you have the IP address of a DNS server. Enter the
DNS server's IP address in the field to the right. If you chose User-Defined,
but leave the IP address set to 0.0.0.0, User-Defined changes to None after
you click Apply. If you set a second choice to User-Defined, and enter the
same IP address, the second User-Defined changes to None after you click
Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. If you do not
configure a DNS server, you must know the IP address of a machine in order
to access it.
The default setting is None.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.3 Administrator Authentication on RADIUS
The administrator authentication on RADIUS feature lets a (external or internal) RADIUS
server authenticate management logins to the ZyXEL Device. This is useful if you need to
regularly change a password that you use to manage several ZyXEL Devices.
Activate administrator authentication on RADIUS in the SYSTEM > Password screen and
configure the same user name, password and RADIUS server information on each ZyXEL
Device. Then, whenever you want to change the password, just change it on the RADIUS
server.
7.3.1 Configuring the Password
It is strongly recommended that you change your ZyXEL Device’s password. Click SYSTEM
> Password. The screen appears as shown.
If you forget your ZyXEL Device’s password (or IP address), you will need to reset the
device. See the section on resetting the ZyXEL Device for details
"
100
Regardless of how you configure this screen, you still use the local system
password to log in via the console port (not available on all models).
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Chapter 7 System Screens
Figure 58 SYSTEM > Password.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 Password
LABEL
DESCRIPTIONS
Enable Admin at Local Select this check box to have the device authenticate management logins to
the device.
Use old setting
Select this to have the ZyXEL Device use the local management password
already configured on the device (“1234” is the default).
Use new setting
Select this if you want to change the local management password.
Old Password
Type in your existing system password (“1234” is the default password).
New Password
Type your new system password (up to 31 characters). Note that as you type
a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you type.
Retype to Confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation.
Enable Admin on
RADIUS
Select this (and configure the other fields in this section) to have a RADIUS
server authenticate management logins to the ZyXEL Device.
Use old setting
Select this to have a RADIUS server authenticate management logins to the
ZyXEL Device using the RADIUS username and password already configured
on the device.
Use new setting
Select this if you want to change the RADIUS username and password the
ZyXEL Device uses to authenticate management logon.
User Name
Enter the username for this user account. This name can be up to 31 ASCII
characters long, including spaces.
Password
Type a password (up to 31 ASCII characters) for this user profile. Note that as
you type a password, the screen displays a (*) for each character you type.
Spaces are allowed.
Note: If you are using PEAP authentication, this password
field is limited to 14 ASCII characters in length.
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Table 24 Password
LABEL
RADIUS
DESCRIPTIONS
Select the RADIUS server profile of the RADIUS server that is to authenticate
management logins to the ZyXEL Device.
The ZyXEL Device tests the user name and password against the RADIUS
server when you apply your settings.
• The user name and password must already be configured in the RADIUS
server.
• You must already have a RADIUS profile configured for the RADIUS
server (see Section 9.11 on page 136).
• The server must be set to Active in the profile.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.4 Configuring Time Setting
To change your ZyXEL Device’s time and date, click SYSTEM > Time Setting. The screen
appears as shown. Use this screen to configure the ZyXEL Device’s time based on your local
time zone.
Figure 59 SYSTEM > Time Setting
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 25 SYSTEM > Time Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Time
This field displays the time of your ZyXEL Device.
Each time you reload this page, the ZyXEL Device synchronizes the time
with the time server (if configured).
Current Date
This field displays the last updated date from the time server.
Manual
Select this radio button to enter the time and date manually. If you configure
a new time and date, time zone and daylight saving at the same time, the
time zone and daylight saving will affect the new time and date you entered.
New Time (hh:mm:ss)
This field displays the last updated time from the time server or the last time
configured manually.
When you set Time and Date Setup to Manual, enter the new time in this
field and then click Apply.
New Date (yyyy:mm:dd) This field displays the last updated date from the time server or the last date
configured manually.
When you set Time and Date Setup to Manual, enter the new date in this
field and then click Apply.
Get from Time Server
Select this radio button to have the ZyXEL Device get the time and date from
the time server you specify below.
Auto
Select this to have the ZyXEL Device use the predefined list of time servers.
User Defined Time
Server Address
Enter the IP address or URL of your time server. Check with your ISP/
network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Time Zone
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference
between your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Savings
Select this option if you use daylight savings time. Daylight saving is a period
from late spring to early fall when many countries set their clocks ahead of
normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected
Yes in the Daylight Saving field. The hr field uses the 24 hour format. Here
are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second
Sunday of March. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight
Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United States you would select
Second, Sunday, March and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of
March. All of the time zones in the European Union start using Daylight
Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European
Union you would select Mar., Last, Sun. The time you type in the hr field
depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would type “02”
because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected
Yes in the Daylight Saving field. The hr field uses the 24 hour format. Here
are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of
November. Each time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving
Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United States you would select First,
Sunday, November and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of
October. All of the time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight
Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European
Union you would select Oct., Last, Sun. The time you type in the hr field
depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would type 02
because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
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Table 25 SYSTEM > Time Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.5 Pre-defined NTP Time Servers List
When you turn on the ZyXEL Device for the first time, the date and time start at 2000-01-01
00:00:00. When you select Auto in the SYSTEM > Time Setting screen, the ZyXEL Device
then attempts to synchronize with one of the following pre-defined list of NTP time servers.
The ZyXEL Device continues to use the following pre-defined list of NTP time servers if you
do not specify a time server or it cannot synchronize with the time server you specified.
Table 26 Default Time Servers
ntp1.cs.wisc.edu
ntp1.gbg.netnod.se
ntp2.cs.wisc.edu
tock.usno.navy.mil
ntp3.cs.wisc.edu
ntp.cs.strath.ac.uk
ntp1.sp.se
time1.stupi.se
tick.stdtime.gov.tw
tock.stdtime.gov.tw
time.stdtime.gov.tw
When the ZyXEL Device uses the pre-defined list of NTP time servers, it randomly selects
one server and tries to synchronize with it. If the synchronization fails, then the ZyXEL
Device goes through the rest of the list in order from the first one tried until either it is
successful or all the pre-defined NTP time servers have been tried.
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CHAPTER
8
Wireless Configuration
This chapter discusses how to configure the ZyXEL Device’s Wireless screens.
8.1 Wireless LAN Overview
This section introduces the wireless LAN (WLAN) and some basic scenarios.
8.1.1 BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless stations or
between a wireless station and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS traffic
blocking is disabled, wireless station A and B can access the wired network and communicate
with each other. When Intra-BSS traffic blocking is enabled, wireless station A and B can still
access the wired network but cannot communicate with each other.
Figure 60 Basic Service set
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Chapter 8 Wireless Configuration
8.1.2 ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each containing an
access point, with each access point connected together by a wired network. This wired
connection between APs is called a Distribution System (DS). An ESSID (ESS IDentification)
uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and their associated wireless stations within
the same ESS must have the same ESSID in order to communicate.
Figure 61 Extended Service Set
8.2 Wireless LAN Basics
See the Wireless LANs Appendix for information on the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
106
Wireless LAN Topologies
Channel
RTS/CTS
Fragmentation Threshold
IEEE 802.1x
RADIUS
Types of Authentication
WPA
Security Parameters Summary
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Chapter 8 Wireless Configuration
8.3 Quality of Service
This section discusses the Quality of Service (QoS) features available on the ZyXEL Device.
8.3.1 WMM QoS
WMM (Wi-Fi MultiMedia) QoS (Quality of Service) ensures quality of service in wireless
networks. It controls WLAN transmission priority on packets to be transmitted over the
wireless network.
WMM QoS prioritizes wireless traffic according to the delivery requirements of the individual
and applications. WMM QoS is a part of the IEEE 802.11e QoS enhancement to certified WiFi wireless networks.
On APs without WMM QoS, all traffic streams are given the same access priority to the
wireless network. If the introduction of another traffic stream creates a data transmission
demand that exceeds the current network capacity, then the new traffic stream reduces the
throughput of the other traffic streams.
The ZyXEL Device uses WMM QoS to prioritize traffic streams according to the IEEE 802.1q
or DSCP information in each packet’s header. The ZyXEL Device automatically determines
the priority to use for an individual traffic stream. This prevents reductions in data
transmission for applications that are sensitive to latency and jitter (variations in delay).
8.3.1.1 WMM QoS Priorities
The following table describes the WMM QoS priority levels that the ZyXEL Device uses.
Table 27 WMM QoS Priorities
PRIORITY LEVEL
DESCRIPTION
voice
(WMM_VOICE)
Typically used for traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter. Use this priority
to reduce latency for improved voice quality.
video
(WMM_VIDEO)
Typically used for traffic which has some tolerance for jitter but needs to be
prioritized over other data traffic.
best effort
(WMM_BEST_EFFORT)
Typically used for traffic from applications or devices that lack QoS
capabilities. Use best effort priority for traffic that is less sensitive to latency,
but is affected by long delays, such as Internet surfing.
background
(WMM_BACKGROUND)
This is typically used for non-critical traffic such as bulk transfers and print
jobs that are allowed but that should not affect other applications and users.
Use background priority for applications that do not have strict latency and
throughput requirements.
8.3.2 ATC
Automatic Traffic Classifier (ATC) is a bandwidth management tool that prioritizes data
packets sent across the network. ATC assigns each packet a priority and then queues the
packet accordingly. Packets assigned a high priority are processed more quickly than those
with low priority if there is congestion, allowing time-sensitive applications to flow more
smoothly. Time-sensitive applications include both those that require a low level of latency
and a low level of jitter such as Voice over IP or Internet gaming, and those for which jitter
alone is a problem such as Internet radio or streaming video.
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ATC assigns priority based on packet size, since time-sensitive applications such as Internet
telephony (Voice over IP or VoIP) tend to have smaller packet sizes than non-time sensitive
applications such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol). The following table shows some common
applications, their time sensitivity, and their typical data packet sizes. Note that the figures
given are merely examples - sizes may differ according to application and circumstances.
Table 28 Typical Packet Sizes
APPLICATION
TIME
SENSITIVITY
TYPICAL PACKET SIZE
(BYTES)
Voice over IP (SIP)
High
< 250
Online Gaming
High
60 ~ 90
Web browsing (http)
Medium
300 ~ 600
FTP
Low
1500
When ATC is activated, the device sends traffic with smaller packets before traffic with larger
packets if the network is congested.
ATC assigns priority to packets as shown in the following table.
Table 29 Automatic Traffic Classifier Priorities
PACKET SIZE (BYTES)
ATC PRIORITY
1 ~ 250
ATC_High
250 ~ 1100
ATC_Medium
1100 +
ATC_Low
You should activate ATC on the ZyXEL Device if your wireless network includes networking
devices that do not support WMM QoS, or if you want to prioritize traffic but do not want to
configure WMM QoS settings.
8.3.3 ATC+WMM
The ZyXEL Device can use a mapping mechanism to use both ATC and WMM QoS. The
ATC+WMM function prioritizes all packets transmitted onto the wireless network using
WMM QoS, and prioritizes all packets transmitted onto the wired network using ATC. See
Section 10.2.2 on page 143 for details of how to configure ATC+WMM.
Use the ATC+WMM function if you want to do the following:
• enable WMM QoS on your wireless network and automatically assign a WMM priority to
packets that do not already have one (see Section 8.3.3.1 on page 108).
• automatically prioritize all packets going from your wireless network to the wired network
(see Section 8.3.3.2 on page 109).
8.3.3.1 ATC+WMM from LAN to WLAN
ATC+WMM from LAN (the wired Local Area Network) to WLAN (the Wireless Local Area
Network) allows WMM prioritization of packets that do not already have WMM QoS
priorities assigned. The ZyXEL Device automatically classifies data packets using ATC and
then assigns WMM priorities based on that ATC classification.
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The following table shows how priorities are assigned for packets coming from the LAN to the
WLAN.
Table 30 ATC + WMM Priority Assignment (LAN to WLAN)
PACKET SIZE (BYTES)
ATC VALUE
WMM VALUE
1 ~ 250
ATC_High
WMM_VIDEO
250 ~ 1100
ATC_Medium
WMM_BEST_EFFORT
1100 +
ATC_Low
WMM_BACKGROUND
8.3.3.2 ATC+WMM from WLAN to LAN
ATC+WMM from WLAN to LAN automatically prioritizes (assigns an ATC value to) all
packets coming from the WLAN. Packets are assigned an ATC value based on their WMM
value, not their size.
The following table shows how priorities are assigned for packets coming from the WLAN to
the LAN when using ATC+WMM.
Table 31 ATC + WMM Priority Assignment (WLAN to LAN)
WMM VALUE
ATC VALUE
WMM_VOICE
ATC_High
WMM_VIDEO
ATC_High
WMM_BEST_EFFORT
ATC_Medium
WMM_BACKGROUND
ATC_Low
NONE
ATC_Medium
8.3.4 Type Of Service (ToS)
Network traffic can be classified by setting the ToS (Type Of Service) values at the data
source (for example, at the ZyXEL Device) so a server can decide the best method of delivery,
that is the least cost, fastest route and so on.
8.3.4.1 DiffServ
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific perhop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application
types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the
level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to
handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate
paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to
request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
8.3.4.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service
(TOS) field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field
which can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
Figure 62 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP
(6-bit)
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(2-bit)
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DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that nonDiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each
packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic
can be marked for different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated
according to the DSCP values and the configured policies.
8.3.5 ToS (Type of Service) and WMM QoS
The DSCP value of outgoing packets is between 0 and 255. 0 is the default priority. WMM
QoS checks the DSCP value in the header of data packets. It gives the traffic a priority
according to this number.
In order to control which priority level is given to traffic, the device sending the traffic must
set the DSCP value in the header. If the DSCP value is not specified, then the traffic is treated
as best-effort. This means the wireless clients and the devices with which they are
communicating must both set the DSCP value in order to make the best use of WMM QoS. A
Voice over IP (VoIP) device for example may allow you to define the DSCP value.
The following table lists which WMM QoS priority level the ZyXEL Device uses for specific
DSCP values.
Table 32 ToS and IEEE 802.1d to WMM QoS Priority Level Mapping
DSCP VALUE
WMM QOS PRIORITY LEVEL
224, 192
voice
160, 128
video
96, 0
A
64, 32
besteffort
background
A. The ZyXEL Device also uses best effort for any DSCP value for which
another WMM QoS priority is not specified (255, 158 or 37 for example).
8.4 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. It allows a bridge to interact with other STP-compliant bridges in your network to
ensure that only one route exists between any two stations on the network.
8.4.1 Rapid STP
The ZyXEL Device uses IEEE 802.1w RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) that allow faster
convergence of the spanning tree (while also being backwards compatible with STP-only
aware bridges). Using RSTP topology change information does not have to propagate to the
root bridge and unwanted learned addresses are flushed from the filtering database. In RSTP,
the port states are Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
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8.4.2 STP Terminology
The root bridge is the base of the spanning tree; it is the bridge with the lowest identifier value
(MAC address).
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame onto a LAN through that port. It is assigned
according to the speed of the link to which a port is attached. The slower the media, the higher
the cost - see the following table.
Table 33 STP Path Costs
LINK SPEED
RECOMMENDED
VALUE
RECOMMENDED
RANGE
ALLOWED
RANGE
Path Cost
4Mbps
250
100 to 1000
1 to 65535
Path Cost
10Mbps
100
50 to 600
1 to 65535
Path Cost
16Mbps
62
40 to 400
1 to 65535
Path Cost
100Mbps
19
10 to 60
1 to 65535
Path Cost
1Gbps
4
3 to 10
1 to 65535
Path Cost
10Gbps
2
1 to 5
1 to 65535
On each bridge, the root port is the port through which this bridge communicates with the root.
It is the port on this switch with the lowest path cost to the root (the root path cost). If there is
no root port, then this bridge has been accepted as the root bridge of the spanning tree network.
For each LAN segment, a designated bridge is selected. This bridge has the lowest cost to the
root among the bridges connected to the LAN.
8.4.3 How STP Works
After a bridge determines the lowest cost-spanning tree with STP, it enables the root port and
the ports that are the designated ports for connected LANs, and disables all other ports that
participate in STP. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between enabled ports,
eliminating any possible network loops.
STP-aware bridges exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the
bridged LAN topology changes, a new spanning tree is constructed.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs
(Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello
BPDU after a predefined interval (Max Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the root
bridge is down. This bridge then initiates negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the
network to re-establish a valid network topology.
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8.4.4 STP Port States
STP assigns five port states (see next table) to eliminate packet looping. A bridge port is not
allowed to go directly from blocking state to forwarding state so as to eliminate transient
loops.
Table 34 STP Port States
PORT STATES
DESCRIPTIONS
Disabled
STP is disabled (default).
Blocking
Only configuration and management BPDUs are received and processed.
Listening
All BPDUs are received and processed.
Learning
All BPDUs are received and processed. Information frames are submitted to the
learning process but not forwarded.
Forwarding
All BPDUs are received and processed. All information frames are received and
forwarded.
8.5 DFS
When you choose 802.11a in Access Point mode (NWA-3160 only), the ZyXEL Device uses
DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) to give you a wider choice of wireless channels.
DFS allows you to use channels in the frequency range normally reserved for radar systems.
Radar uses radio signals to detect the location of objects for military, meteorological or air
traffic control purposes. As long as your ZyXEL Device detects no radar activity on the
channel you select, you can use the channel to communicate. However, a wireless LAN
operating on the same frequency as an active radar system could disrupt the radar system.
Therefore, if the ZyXEL Device detects radar activity on the channel you select, it
automatically instructs the wireless clients to move to another channel, then resumes
communications on the new channel.
8.6 Wireless Screen Overview
The following is a list of the wireless screens you can configure on the ZyXEL Device.
1 Configure the ZyXEL Device to operate in AP, Bridge/Repeater, AP+Bridge or
MBSSID mode in the Wireless screen (Bridge/Repeater and AP+Bridge modes are
available on the NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only). You can also select an SSID Profile
in the Wireless screen.
2 Use the SSID screens to view and edit SSID profiles.
3 Use the Security screen to configure wireless profiles.
4 Use the RADIUS screen to configure RADIUS authentication and accounting settings.
5 Use the Layer-2 Isolation screen to prevent wireless clients associated with your
ZyXEL Device from communicating with other wireless clients, APs, computers or
routers in a network.
6 Use the MAC Filter screen to allow or restrict access to your wireless network based on
a client’s MAC address.
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8.7 Configuring Wireless Settings
Click WIRELESS > Wireless. The screen varies depending upon the operating mode you
select.
8.7.1 Access Point Mode: NWA-3160 and NWA-3163
This section describes the Access Point mode screen for the NWA-3160 and NWA-3163. For
the NWA-3165, see Section 8.7.2 on page 114.
Select Access Point as the Operating Mode to display the screen shown next.
Figure 63 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163)
The following table describes the general wireless LAN labels in this screen.
Table 35 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Operating Mode
Select Access Point from the drop-down list.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11b+g to allow both IEEE802.11b and IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device. The transmission rate of your ZyXEL
Device might be reduced.
Select 802.11a (NWA-3160 only) to allow only IEEE 802.11a compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Super Mode
Select this to improve data throughput on the WLAN by enabling fast frame and
packet bursting.
Choose
Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
To manually set the ZyXEL Device to use a channel, select a channel from the
drop-down list box.
Click MAINTENANCE and then the Channel Usage tab to open the Channel
Usage screen to make sure the channel is not already used by another AP or
independent peer-to-peer wireless network.
To have the ZyXEL Device automatically select a channel, click Scan instead.
Scan
Click this button to have the ZyXEL Device automatically scan for and select the
channel with the least interference.
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Table 35 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RTS/CTS
Threshold
(Request To Send) The threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS
handshake. Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS
handshake. Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC
service data unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to its
smallest value (256) turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between 256
and 2346.
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter an even
number between 256 and 2346.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyXEL Device in this field. If there is a high density of
APs in an area, decrease the output power of the ZyXEL Device to reduce
interference with other APs. Select one of the following 100%(Full Power), 50%,
25%, 12.5% or Minimum. See the product specifications for more information on
your ZyXEL Device’s output power.
SSID Profile
The SSID (Service Set IDentifier) identifies the Service Set with which a wireless
station is associated. Wireless stations associating to the access point (AP) must
have the same SSID. Select an SSID Profile from the drop-down list box.
Configure SSID profiles in the SSID screen (see Section 10.2 on page 142 for
information on configuring SSID).
Note: If you are configuring the ZyXEL Device from a computer
connected to the wireless LAN and you change the
ZyXEL Device’s SSID or security settings, you will lose
your wireless connection when you press Apply to
confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of
your computer to match the ZyXEL Device’s new
settings.
Enable
Spanning Tree
Control (STP)
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between
switches, bridges or routers. It allows a bridge to interact with other (R)STP compliant bridges in your network to ensure that only one path exists between any
two stations on the network. Select this to activate STP on the ZyXEL Device.
Enable
Roaming
Roaming allows wireless stations to switch from one access point to another as
they move from one coverage area to another. Select this to enable roaming on the
ZyXEL Device if you have two or more ZyXEL Devices on the same subnet.
Note: All APs on the same subnet and the wireless stations
must have the same SSID to allow roaming.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.7.2 Access Point Mode: NWA-3165
This section describes the Access Point mode screen for the NWA-3165. For the NWA-3160
and NWA-3163, see Section 8.7.1 on page 113.
Select Access Point as the Operating Mode to display the screen shown next.
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Figure 64 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3165)
The following table describes the general wireless LAN labels in this screen.
Table 36 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3165)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Operating Mode
Select Access Point from the drop-down list.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b/g to allow both IEEE802.11b and IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device. The transmission rate of your ZyXEL
Device might be reduced.
Select 802.11n/g to allow both IEEE802.11n and IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Channel Width
This field is available only when 802.11n/g is selected as the 802.11 Mode.
Select whether the ZyXEL Device uses a wireless channel bandwidth of 20 or 40
MHz. A standard 20MHz channel offers transfer speeds of up to 150Mbps whereas
a 40MHz channel uses two standard channels and offers speeds of up to 300Mbps.
However, not all devices support 40MHz channels. Select 20MHz to use regular
20MHz channels, or select 20/40 MHz to allow the ZyXEL Device to adjust the
channel bandwidth depending on network conditions.
Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
To manually set the ZyXEL Device to use a channel, select a channel from the
drop-down list box.
Short GI
This field is available only when 802.11n/g is selected as the 802.11 Mode. Select
Enable to use the Short GI (Guard Interval). The guard interval is the gap
introduced between data transmission from users in order to reduce interference.
Reducing the GI increases data transfer rates but also increases interference.
Increasing the GI reduces data transfer rates but also reduces interference.
A-MPDU
Aggregation
This field is available only when 802.11n/g is selected as the 802.11 Mode. Select
Enable to allow the grouping of several A-MSDUs (Aggregate MAC Service Data
Units) into one large A-MPDU (Aggregate MAC Protocol Data Unit). This function
allows faster data transfer rates.
RTS/CTS
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS (Request To Send / Clear
To Send) handshake. Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the
RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU
(MAC service data unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this
attribute to its smallest value (256) turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value
between 256 and 2346.
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Table 36 Wireless: Access Point (NWA-3165)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter an even
number between 256 and 2346.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyXEL Device in this field. If there is a high density of
APs in an area, decrease the output power of the ZyXEL Device to reduce
interference with other APs. Select one of the following 100%(Full Power), 50%,
25%, 12.5% or Minimum. See the product specifications for more information on
your ZyXEL Device’s output power.
SSID Profile
The SSID (Service Set IDentifier) identifies the Service Set with which a wireless
station is associated. Wireless stations associating to the access point (AP) must
have the same SSID. Select an SSID Profile from the drop-down list box.
Configure SSID profiles in the SSID screen (see Section 10.2 on page 142 for
information on configuring SSID).
Note: If you are configuring the ZyXEL Device from a computer
connected to the wireless LAN and you change the
ZyXEL Device’s SSID or security settings, you will lose
your wireless connection when you press Apply to
confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of
your computer to match the ZyXEL Device’s new
settings.
Enable
Breathing LED
Select this box to disable the WLAN LED (light). Clear this box to enable the WLAN
LED.
Enable
Roaming
Roaming allows wireless stations to switch from one access point to another as
they move from one coverage area to another. Select this to enable roaming on the
ZyXEL Device if you have two or more ZyXEL Devices on the same subnet.
Note: All APs on the same subnet and the wireless stations
must have the same SSID to allow roaming.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.7.3 Bridge/Repeater Mode (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
The ZyXEL Device can act as a wireless network bridge and establish wireless links with
other APs. You need to know the MAC address of the peer device, which also must be in
bridge mode.
The ZyXEL Device can establish up to five wireless links with other APs.
In the example below, when both ZyXEL Devices are in Bridge/Repeater mode, they form a
WDS (Wireless Distribution System) allowing the computers in LAN 1 to connect to the
computers in LAN 2.
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Figure 65 Bridging Example
Be careful to avoid bridge loops when you enable bridging in the ZyXEL Device. Bridge loops
cause broadcast traffic to circle the network endlessly, resulting in possible throughput
degradation and disruption of communications. The following examples show two network
topologies that can lead to this problem:
• If two or more ZyXEL Devices (in bridge mode) are connected to the same hub.
Figure 66 Bridge Loop: Two Bridges Connected to Hub
• If your ZyXEL Device (in bridge mode) is connected to a wired LAN while
communicating with another wireless bridge that is also connected to the same wired
LAN.
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Figure 67 Bridge Loop: Bridge Connected to Wired LAN
To prevent bridge loops, ensure that you enable STP in the Wireless screen or your ZyXEL
Device is not set to bridge mode while connected to both wired and wireless segments of the
same LAN.
To have the ZyXEL Device act as a wireless bridge only, click WIRELESS > Wireless and
select Bridge/Repeater as the Operating Mode.
Figure 68 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
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The following table describes the bridge labels in this screen.
Table 37 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
LABEL
DESCRIPTIONS
Operating Mode
Select Bridge/Repeater in this field.
802.11 mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11b+g to allow both IEEE802.11b and IEEE802.11g compliant
WLAN devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device. The transmission rate of
your ZyXEL Device might be reduced.
Select 802.11a (NWA-3160 only) to allow only IEEE 802.11a compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Choose Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
To manually set the ZyXEL Device to use a channel, select a channel from the
drop-down list box.
NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only: click MAINTENANCE and then the Channel
Usage tab to open the Channel Usage screen to make sure the channel is not
already used by another AP or independent peer-to-peer wireless network.
To have the ZyXEL Device automatically select a channel, click Scan instead.
RTS/CTS Threshold
(Request To Send) The threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS
handshake. Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/
CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU
(MAC service data unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this
attribute to zero turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between 256
and 2346.
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter an
even number between 256 and 2346.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyXEL Device in this field. If there is a high density
of APs in an area, decrease the output power of the ZyXEL Device to reduce
interference with other APs. Select from 100% (Full Power), 50%, 25%, 12.5%
and Minimum. See the product specifications for more information on your
ZyXEL Device’s output power.
Enable WDS Security Select this to turn on security for the ZyXEL Device’s Wireless Distribution
System (WDS). A Wireless Distribution System is a wireless connection
between two or more APs. If you do not select the check box, traffic between
APs is not encrypted.
Note: WDS security is independent of the security settings
between the ZyXEL Device and any wireless clients.
When you enable WDS security, also do the following:
• Select the type of security you want to use (TKIP or AES) to secure traffic
on your WDS.
• Enter a pre-shared key in the PSK field for each access point in your WDS.
Each access point can use a different pre-shared key.
• Configure WDS security and the relevant PSK in each of your other access
point(s).
Note: Other APs must use the same encryption method to
enable WDS security.
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Table 37 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
LABEL
DESCRIPTIONS
TKIP (ZyAIR Series
Compatible)
Select this to enable Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) security on your
WDS. This option is compatible with other ZyXEL access points including that
support WDS security. Use this if the other access points on your network
support WDS security but do not have an AES option.
Note: Check your other AP’s documentation to make sure it
supports WDS security.
Note: At the time of writing, this option is compatible with
other ZyXEL NWA Series and G-3000/G-3000H access
points only.
AES
Select this to enable Advanced Encryption System (AES) security on your
WDS. AES provides superior security to TKIP. Use AES if the other access
points on your network support it for the WDS.
Note: At the time of writing, this option is compatible with
other ZyXEL NWA-3160 access points only.
#
This is the index number of the bridge connection.
Active
Select the check box to enable the bridge connection. Otherwise, clear the
check box to disable it.
Remote Bridge MAC
Address
Type the MAC address of the peer device in a valid MAC address format, that
is, six hexadecimal character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
PSK
Type a pre-shared key (PSK) from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters
(including spaces and symbols). You must also set the peer device to use the
same pre-shared key. Each peer device can use a different pre-shared key.
See Table 35 on page 113 for information on the other labels in this screen.
8.7.4 AP+Bridge Mode (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
Select AP+Bridge as the Operating Mode in the WIRELESS > Wireless screen to have the
ZyXEL Device function as a bridge and access point simultaneously. See the section on
applications for more information.
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Figure 69 Wireless: AP+Bridge
See the tables describing the fields in the Access Point and Bridge/Repeater operating modes
for descriptions of the fields in this screen.
8.7.5 MBSSID Mode
Select MBSSID as the Operating Mode. Refer to Chapter 10 on page 139 for configuration
instructions and detailed information. See Chapter 9 on page 123 for details on the security
settings.
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CHAPTER
9
Wireless Security Configuration
This chapter describes how to use the Security and RADIUS screens to configure wireless
security on your ZyXEL Device.
9.1 Wireless Security Overview
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication between wireless
stations, access points and the wired network.
Wireless security methods available on the ZyXEL Device are data encryption, wireless client
authentication, restricting access by MAC address and hiding the ZyXEL Device’s identity.
9.1.1 Encryption
• Use WPA(2) security if you have WPA(2)-aware wireless clients. WPA(2) uses either an
external RADIUS server or the internal authentication server. WPA has user
authentication and improved data encryption over WEP.
• Use WPA(2)-PSK if you have WPA(2)-aware wireless clients but no RADIUS server, or
do not want to use the internal authentication server.
• If you don’t have WPA(2)-aware wireless clients, then use WEP key encrypting. A higher
bit key offers better security. You can manually enter 64-bit, 128-bit or 152-bit WEP keys.
9.1.2 Restricted Access
The MAC Filter screen allows you to configure the AP to give exclusive access to devices
(Allow Association) or exclude them from accessing the AP (Deny Association).
9.1.3 Hide Identity
If you hide the SSID, then the ZyXEL Device cannot be seen when a wireless client scans for
local APs. The trade-off for the extra security of “hiding” the ZyXEL Device may be
inconvenience for some valid WLAN clients.
9.1.4 WEP Encryption
WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the access
points to keep network communications private. It encrypts unicast and multicast
communications in a network. Both the wireless stations and the access points must use the
same WEP key.
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Your ZyXEL Device allows you to configure up to four 64-bit, 128-bit or 152-bit WEP keys
but only one key can be enabled at any one time.
9.2 802.1x Overview
The IEEE 802.1x standard outlines enhanced security methods for both the authentication of
wireless stations and encryption key management. Authentication can be done using a
RADIUS server.
9.3 EAP Authentication Overview
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on top of the
IEEE802.1x transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of user authentication. By
using EAP to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, the access point helps a
wireless station and a RADIUS server perform authentication.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server or the AP. The ZyXEL
Device supports EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-MD5 and PEAP with RADIUS. Refer to the
Types of EAP Authentication appendix for descriptions on the common types.
The following figure shows an overview of authentication when you specify a RADIUS server
on your access point.
Figure 70 EAP Authentication
The details below provide a general description of how IEEE 802.1x EAP authentication
works. For an example list of EAP-MD5 authentication steps, see the IEEE 802.1x appendix.
1 The wireless station sends a “start” message to the ZyXEL Device.
2 The ZyXEL Device sends a “request identity” message to the wireless station for
identity information.
3 The wireless station replies with identity information, including username and password.
4 The RADIUS server checks the user information against its user profile database and
determines whether or not to authenticate the wireless station.
9.4 Introduction to WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. Key differences
between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data encryption.
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9.4.1 User Authentication
WPA applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate
wireless clients using a RADIUS database. See later in this chapter and the appendices for
more information on IEEE 802.1x, RADIUS, EAP and PEAP.
If you don’t have a RADIUS server you should use WPA-PSK (WPA -Pre-Shared Key) that
only requires a single (identical) password entered into each access point, wireless gateway
and wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a client will be granted access to a
WLAN.
9.4.2 Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), Message
Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and
distributed by the authentication server. It includes a per-packet key mixing function, a
Message Integrity Check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with
sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism.
TKIP regularly changes and rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is
never used twice. The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP
that then sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to
dynamically generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is
wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients. This all happens in the
background automatically.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data
packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function
in which the receiver and the transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do
not match, it is assumed that the data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity
checking mechanism (MIC), TKIP makes it much more difficult to decode data on a Wi-Fi
network than WEP, making it difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only difference
between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific
credentials. The common-password approach makes WPA-PSK susceptible to brute-force
password-guessing attacks but it’s still an improvement over WEP as it employs an easier-touse, consistent, single, alphanumeric password.
9.4.3 WPA(2)-PSK Application Example
A WPA(2)-PSK application looks as follows.
1 First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared Key
(PSK) must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters (including spaces and
symbols).
2 The AP checks each wireless client's password and allows it to join the network only if
the password matches.
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3 The AP derives and distributes key information to the wireless clients. The key itself is
not sent over the network, but is derived from the PSK and information exchanged
between the AP and the client.
4 The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP or AES encryption process to encrypt data
exchanged between them.
Figure 71 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication
9.5 WPA(2) with External RADIUS Application Example
You need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number (default is 1812), and the
RADIUS shared secret. A WPA(2) application example with an external RADIUS server
looks as follows. “A” is the RADIUS server. “DS” is the distribution system.
1 The AP passes the wireless client’s authentication request to the RADIUS server.
2 The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and grants
or denies network access accordingly.
3 The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then
sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically
generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly
communicated between the AP and the wireless clients.
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Figure 72 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
9.6 Security Modes
The following table describes the security modes you can configure.
Table 38 Security Modes
SECURITY MODE
DESCRIPTION
None
Select this to have no data encryption.
WEP
Select this to use WEP encryption.
802.1x-Only
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with no data encryption.
802.1x-Static64
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a static 64bit WEP key and an
authentication server.
802.1x-Static128
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a static 128bit WEP key and
an authentication server.
WPA
Select this to use WPA.
WPA-PSK
Select this to use WPA with a pre-shared key.
WPA2
Select this to use WPA2.
WPA2-MIX
Select this to use either WPA2 or WPA depending on which security mode
the wireless client uses.
WPA2-PSK
Select this to use WPA2 with a pre-shared key.
WPA2-PSK-MIX
Select this to use either WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK, depending on which
security mode the wireless client uses.
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9.7 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system instructing the
wireless client how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most widely available supplicant is
the WPA patch for Windows XP, Funk Software's Odyssey client, and Meetinghouse Data
Communications' AEGIS client.
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows XP's builtin "Zero Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows XP to use it.
9.8 Wireless Security Effectiveness
The following figure shows the relative effectiveness of these wireless security methods
available on your ZyXEL Device. EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is used for
authentication and utilizes static WEP key exchange. It requires interaction with a RADIUS
(Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) server either on the WAN or your LAN to
provide authentication service for wireless stations.
Table 39 Wireless Security Levels
SECURITY
LEVEL
SECURITY TYPE
Least
Secure
Unique SSID (Default)
Unique SSID with Hide SSID Enabled
MAC Address Filtering
WEP Encryption
IEEE802.1x EAP with RADIUS Server Authentication
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
Most Secure
WPA2
If you do not enable any wireless security on your ZyXEL Device, your network is accessible
to any wireless networking device within range.
9.9 Configuring Security
"
The following screens are configurable only in Access Point, AP+Bridge and
MBSSID operating modes only.
Use the Security screen to create secure profiles. A security profile is a group of configuration
settings which can be assigned to an SSID profile in the SSID configuration screen.
You can configure up to 16 security profiles.
To change your ZyXEL Device’s wireless security settings, click WIRELESS > Security.
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Figure 73 Wireless > Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 WIRELESS > Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the security profile.
Profile Name
This field displays a name given to a security profile in the Security
configuration screen.
Security Mode
This field displays the security mode this security profile uses.
Edit
Select an entry from the list and click Edit to configure security settings for that
profile.
The next screen varies according to the Security Mode you select.
9.9.1 Security: WEP
Select WEP in the Security Mode field to display the following screen.
"
If you use WEP in IEEE 802.11n/g mode (NWA-3165 only) the data rate will not
exceed 54Mbps. To attain a faster data rate, use a different security type, such
as WPA(2) or WPA(2)-PSK.
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Figure 74 WIRELESS > Security: WEP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 Security: WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose WEP in this field.
WEP Encryption
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points
without any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP or 152-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Authentication
Method
Select Auto, Open System or Shared Key from the drop-down list box.
The default setting is Auto.
ASCII
Select this option to enter ASCII characters as the WEP keys.
Hex
Select this option to enter hexadecimal characters as the WEP keys.
The preceding “0x” is entered automatically.
Key 1 to
Key 4
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the ZyXEL Device and the wireless
stations must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 152-bit WEP, then enter 16 ASCII characters or 32 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
You must configure all four keys, but only one key can be activated at any one
time. The default key is key 1.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.9.2 Security: 802.1x Only
Select 802.1x-Only in the Security Mode field to display the following screen.
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Figure 75 Security: 802.1x Only
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Security: 802.1x Only
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose 802.1x Only in this field.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes). Alternatively, enter “0” to turn reauthentication off.
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a
RADIUS server, the reauthentication timer on the
RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The ZyXEL Device automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired
network after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the user
name and password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.9.3 Security: 802.1x Static 64-bit, 802.1x Static 128-bit
Select 802.1x Static 64 or 802.1x Static 128 in the Security Mode field to display the
following screen.
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Figure 76 Security: 802.1x Static 64-bit, 802.1x Static 128-bit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 Security: 802.1x Static 64-bit, 802.1x Static 128-bit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose 802.1x Static 64 or 802.1x Static 128 in this field.
ASCII
Select this option to enter ASCII characters as the WEP keys.
Hex
Select this option to enter hexadecimal characters as the WEP keys.The
preceding “0x” is entered automatically.
Key 1 to Key 4
If you chose 802.1x Static 64, then enter any 5 characters (ASCII string) or 10
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key.
If you chose 802.1x Static 128-bit, then enter 13 characters (ASCII string) or 26
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each key.
There are four data encryption keys to secure your data from eavesdropping by
unauthorized wireless users. The values for the keys must be set up exactly the
same on the access points as they are on the wireless stations.
The preceding “0x” is entered automatically. You must configure all four keys, but
only one key can be activated at any one time. The default key is key 1.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes). Alternatively, enter “0” to turn reauthentication off.
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a
RADIUS server, the reauthentication timer on the
RADIUS server has priority.
132
Idle Timeout
The ZyXEL Device automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired
network after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the user
name and password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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9.9.4 Security: WPA
Select WPA in the Security Mode field to display the following screen.
Figure 77 Security: WPA
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Security: WPA
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose WPA in this field.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes). Alternatively, enter “0” to turn reauthentication off.
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a
RADIUS server, the reauthentication timer on the
RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The ZyXEL Device automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired
network after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the user
name and password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP sends a new group key
out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of automatically
changing the group key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPA-PSK mode.
The ZyXEL Device default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.9.5 Security: WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
Select WPA2 or WPA2-MIX in the Security Mode field to display the following screen.
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Figure 78 Security:WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed
Table 45 Security: WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
LABEL
DESCRIPTIONS
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose WPA2 or WPA2-MIX in this field.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes). Alternatively, enter “0” to turn reauthentication off.
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a
RADIUS server, the reauthentication timer on the
RADIUS server has priority.
134
Idle Timeout
The ZyXEL Device automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired
network after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the
username and password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP sends a new group key
out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of automatically
changing the group key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPA-PSK mode.
The ZyXEL Device‘s default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
PMK Cache
When a wireless client moves from one AP’s coverage area to another, it performs
an authentication procedure (exchanging security information) with the new AP.
Instead of re-authenticating a client each time it returns to the AP’s coverage area,
which can cause delays to time-sensitive applications, the AP and the client can
store (or “cache”) and use information about their previous authentication. Select
Enable to allow PMK caching, or Disable to switch this feature off.
PreAuthentication
Pre-authentication allows a wireless client to perform authentication with a
different AP from the one to which it is currently connected, before moving into the
new AP’s coverage area. This speeds up roaming. Select Enable to allow preauthentication, or Disable to switch it off.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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9.9.6 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA2-PSK-MIX
Select WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX in the Security Mode field to display
the following screen.
Figure 79 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed
Table 46 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX in this field.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only
difference between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password,
instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols).
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes). Alternatively, enter “0” to turn reauthentication off.
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a
RADIUS server, the reauthentication timer on the
RADIUS server has priority.
Idle Timeout
The ZyXEL Device automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired
network after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the
username and password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP sends a new group key
out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of automatically
changing the group key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPA-PSK mode.
The ZyXEL Device’s default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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9.10 Introduction to RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-sever model that supports authentication and accounting, where
the access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server
handles the following tasks, among others:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
The ZyXEL Device is equipped with an internal RADIUS server. See Section 15.1 on page
177 for more details.
9.11 Configuring RADIUS
Use RADIUS if you want to authenticate wireless users using the internal authentication
server (see Section 15.1 on page 177) or an external server.
You can configure up to four RADIUS server profiles. Each profile also has one backup
authentication server and a backup accounting server. These profiles can be assigned to an
SSID profile in the SSID configuration screen
To set up your ZyXEL Device’s RADIUS server settings, click WIRELESS > RADIUS. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 80 RADIUS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 RADIUS
136
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
Select the RADIUS profile you want to configure from the drop-down list box.
Profile Name
Type a name for the RADIUS profile associated with the Index number above.
Primary
Configure the fields below to set up user authentication and accounting.
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Table 47 RADIUS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Backup
If the ZyXEL Device cannot communicate with the Primary accounting server,
you can have the ZyXEL Device use a Backup RADIUS server. Make sure
the Active check boxes are selected if you want to use backup servers.
The ZyXEL Device will attempt to communicate three times before using the
Backup servers. Requests can be issued from the client interface to use the
backup server. The length of time for each authentication is decided by the
wireless client or based on the configuration of the ReAuthentication Timer
field in the Security screen.
RADIUS Option
Internal
Select this check box to use the ZyXEL Device’s internal authentication
server. The Active, RADIUS Server IP Address, RADIUS Server Port and
Share Secret fields are not available when you use the internal authentication
server.
External
Select this check box to use an external authentication server. The ZyXEL
Device does not use the internal authentication server when this check box is
enabled.
Active
Select the check box to enable user authentication through an external
authentication server. This check box is not available when you select
Internal.
RADIUS Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal
notation. This field is not available when you select Internal.
RADIUS Server Port
Enter the port number of the external authentication server. The default port
number is 1812. You need not change this value unless your network
administrator instructs you to do so. This field is not available when you select
Internal.
Share Secret
Enter a password (up to 128 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external authentication server and the ZyXEL Device.
The key must be the same on the external authentication server and your
ZyXEL Device. The key is not sent over the network. This field is not available
when you select Internal.
Active
Select the check box to enable user accounting through an external
authentication server.
Accounting Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
Accounting Server
Port
Enter the port number of the external accounting server. The default port
number is 1813. You need not change this value unless your network
administrator instructs you to do so with additional information.
Share Secret
Enter a password (up to 128 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external accounting server and the ZyXEL Device. The
key must be the same on the external accounting server and your ZyXEL
Device. The key is not sent over the network.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
10
MBSSID and SSID
This chapter describes how to configure and use your ZyXEL Device’s MBSSID mode and
configure SSID profiles.
10.1 Wireless LAN Infrastructures
See the Wireless LAN chapter for some basic WLAN scenarios and terminology.
10.1.1 MBSSID
Traditionally, you needed to use different APs to configure different Basic Service Sets
(BSSs). As well as the cost of buying extra APs, there was also the possibility of channel
interference. The ZyXEL Device’s MBSSID (Multiple Basic Service Set IDentifier) function
allows you to use one access point to provide several BSSs simultaneously. You can then
assign varying levels of privilege to different SSIDs.
Wireless stations can use different BSSIDs to associate with the same AP.
10.1.2 Notes on Multiple BSS
• There is a maximum number of BSSs allowed on one AP simultaneously.
On the NWA-3160 and NWA-3163, a maximum of eight simultaneous BSSs are allowed.
On the NWA-3165, a maximum of four simultaneous BSSs are allowed.
• You must use different WEP keys for different BSSs. If two stations have different
BSSIDs (they are in different BSSs), but have the same WEP keys, they may hear each
other’s communications (but not communicate with each other).
• MBSSID should not replace but rather be used in conjunction with 802.1x security.
10.1.3 Multiple BSS Example
Refer to the applications section for more information.
10.1.4 Multiple BSS with VLAN Example
In this example, VLAN 1 includes the computers in BSS1 and LAN 1. Computers in BSS2
and LAN 2 belong to VLAN 2. Users in BSS1 are limited to accessing the resources on LAN
1 and similarly users in BSS2 may only access resources on LAN 2. VLAN 2 is the
management VLAN.
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The switch adds PVID (Port VLAN IDentity) tags to incoming frames that don’t already have
tags (on switch ports where PVID is enabled).
Figure 81 Multiple BSS with VLAN Example
10.1.5 Configuring Multiple BSSs
Click WIRELESS > Wireless and select MBSSID in the Operating Mode drop-down list
box to display the screen as shown.
Figure 82 Wireless: Multiple BSS
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 48 Wireless: Multiple BSS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Operating Mode
Select MBSSID in this field to display the screen as shown
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11b+g to allow both IEEE802.11b and IEEE802.11g compliant
WLAN devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device. The transmission rate of
your ZyXEL Device might be reduced.
Select 802.11a (NWA-3160 only) to allow only IEEE 802.11a compliant
WLAN devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Super Mode
Select this to improve data throughput on the WLAN by enabling fast frame
and packet bursting.
Choose Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region. To
manually set the ZyXEL Device to use a channel, select a channel from the
drop-down list box.
NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only: click MAINTENANCE and then the Channel
Usage tab to open the Channel Usage screen to make sure the channel is
not already used by another AP or independent peer-to-peer wireless
network. To have the ZyXEL Device automatically select a channel, click
Scan instead.
Scan
Click this button to have the ZyXEL Device automatically select the wireless
channel with the lowest interference.
RTS/CTS Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS handshake. Data with
a frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS handshake.
Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC service data
unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to its lowest
value (256) turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between 256
and 2346.
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter an
even number between 256 and 2346.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyXEL Device in this field. If there is a high
density of APs in an area, decrease the output power to reduce interference
with other APs. Select one of the following 100%(Full Power), 50%, 25%,
12.5% or Minimum. See the product specifications for more information on
your ZyXEL Device’s output power.
Select SSID Profile
An SSID profile is the set of parameters relating to one of the ZyXEL Device’s
BSSs. The SSID (Service Set IDentifier) identifies the Service Set with which
a wireless station is associated. Wireless stations associating with the access
point (AP) must have the same SSID.
Note: If you are configuring the ZyXEL Device from a
computer connected to the wireless LAN and you
change the ZyXEL Device’s SSID or security
settings, you will lose your wireless connection
when you press Apply to confirm. You must then
change the wireless settings of your computer to
match the ZyXEL Device’s new settings.
Index
Select the check box to activate an SSID profile.
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Table 48 Wireless: Multiple BSS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile
Select the profile(s) of the SSIDs you want to use in your wireless network.
You can have up to eight BSSs running on the ZyXEL Device simultaneously,
one of which is always the pre-configured VoIP_SSID profile and another of
which is always the pre-configured Guest_SSID profile.
Configure SSID profiles in the SSID screen.
Enable Spanning Tree
Control (STP)
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between
switches, bridges or routers. It allows a bridge to interact with other (R)STP compliant bridges in your network to ensure that only one path exists between
any two stations on the network. Select the check box to activate STP on the
ZyXEL Device.
Roaming Active
Roaming allows wireless stations to switch from one access point to another
as they move from one coverage area to another. Select this checkbox to
enable roaming on the ZyXEL Device if you have two or more ZyXEL Devices
on the same subnet.
Note: All APs on the same subnet and the wireless stations
must have the same SSID to allow roaming.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
10.2 SSID
When the ZyXEL Device is set to Access Point, AP+Bridge (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163
only) or MBSSID mode, you need to choose the SSID profile(s) you want to use in your
wireless network (see Section 8.6 on page 112 for more information on operating modes).
Use the WIRELESS > SSID screen to see information about the SSID profiles on the ZyXEL
Device, and use the WIRELESS > SSID > Edit screen to configure the SSID profiles.
10.2.1 The SSID Screen
Click WIRELESS > SSID to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 83 SSID
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 SSID
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of each SSID profile.
Profile Name
This field displays the identification name of each SSID profile on the ZyXEL
Device.
SSID
This field displays the name of the wireless profile on the network. When a
wireless client scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that is
broadcast and seen in the wireless client utility.
Security
This field indicates which security profile is currently associated with each
SSID profile. See Section 9.9 on page 128 for more information.
RADIUS
This field displays which RADIUS profile is currently associated with each
SSID profile, if you have a RADIUS server configured.
QoS
This field displays the Quality of Service setting for this profile or NONE if QoS
is not configured on a profile.
Layer 2 Isolation
This field displays which layer 2 isolation profile is currently associated with
each SSID profile, or Disable if Layer 2 Isolation is not configured on an SSID
profile.
MAC Filter
This field displays which MAC filter profile is currently associated with each
SSID profile, or Disable if MAC filtering is not configured on an SSID profile.
Edit
Click the radio button next to the profile you want to configure and click Edit to
go to the SSID configuration screen.
10.2.2 Configuring SSID
Each SSID profile references the settings configured in the following screens:
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•
•
•
•
WIRELESS > Security (one of the security profiles).
WIRELESS > RADIUS (one of the RADIUS profiles).
WIRELESS > MAC Filter (the MAC filter list, if activated in the SSID profile).
WIRELESS > Layer 2 Isolation (the layer 2 isolation list, if activated in the SSID
profile).
• Also, use the VLAN screen to set up wireless VLANs based on SSID.
Configure the fields in the above screens to use the settings in an SSID profile.
Select an SSID profile in the WIRELESS > SSID screen and click Edit to display the
following screen.
Figure 84 Configuring SSID
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 Configuring SSID
144
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a name identifying this profile.
SSID
When a wireless client scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that
is broadcast and seen in the wireless client utility.
Hide Name (SSID)
Select Disable if you want the ZyXEL Device to broadcast this SSID (a
wireless client scanning for an AP will find this SSID). Alternatively, select
Enable to have the ZyXEL Device hide this SSID (a wireless client scanning
for an AP will not find this SSID).
Security
Select a security profile to use with this SSID profile. See Section 9.9 on page
128 for more information.
RADIUS
Select a RADIUS profile from the drop-down list box, if you have a RADIUS
server configured. If you do not need to use RADIUS authentication, ignore
this field. See Section 9.11 on page 136 for more information.
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Table 50 Configuring SSID
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
QoS
Select the Quality of Service priority for this BSS’s traffic.
• In the pre-configured VoIP_SSID profile, the QoS setting is VoIP. This is
not user-configurable. The VoIP setting is available only on the
VoIP_SSID profile, and provides the highest level of QoS.
• If you select WMM from the QoS list, the priority of a data packet depends
on the packet’s IEEE 802.1q or DSCP header. See Section 8.3.1 on page
107 for more information on WMM and WMM priorities. If a packet has no
WMM value assigned to it, it is assigned the default priority.
• If you select ATC from the QoS list, the ZyXEL Device automatically
assigns priority based on packet size. See Section 8.3.2 on page 107 for
more information on ATC.
• If you select ATC+WMM from the QoS list, the ZyXEL Device uses WMM
on the wireless network and ATC on the wired network. See Section 8.3.3
on page 108 for more information on ATC+WMM.
• If you select WMM_VOICE, WMM_VIDEO, WMM_BEST_EFFORT or
WMM_BACKGROUND, the ZyXEL Device applies that QoS setting to all
of that SSID’s traffic.
• If you select NONE, the ZyXEL Device applies no priority to traffic on this
SSID.
Note: When you configure an SSID profile’s QoS settings,
the ZyXEL Device applies the same QoS setting to all
of the profile’s traffic.
Layer-2 Isolation
Select a layer 2 isolation profile from the drop-down list box. If you do not
want to use layer 2 isolation on this profile, select Disable. See Section 11.1
on page 147 for more information.
Intra-BSS Traffic
blocking
Select Enable from the drop-down list box to prevent wireless clients in this
profile’s BSS from communicating with one another.
MAC Filtering
Select a MAC filter profile from the drop-down list box. If you do not want to
use MAC filtering on this profile, select Disable. See Section 11.4 on page
152 for more information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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11
Other Wireless Configuration
This chapter describes how to configure the Layer-2 Isolation and MAC Filter screens on
your ZyXEL Device.
11.1 Layer-2 Isolation Introduction
Layer-2 isolation is used to prevent wireless clients associated with your ZyXEL Device from
communicating with other wireless clients, APs, computers or routers in a network.
In the following example, layer-2 isolation is enabled on the ZyXEL Device (Z, in the figure)
to allow a guest wireless client (A) to access the main network router (B). The router provides
access to the Internet (C) and the network printer (D) while preventing the client from
accessing other computers and servers on the network. The client can communicate with other
wireless clients only if Intra-BSS Traffic blocking is disabled.
"
Intra-BSS Traffic Blocking is activated when you enable layer-2 isolation.
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Figure 85 Layer-2 Isolation Application
MAC addresses that are not listed in the Allow devices with these MAC addresses table are
blocked from communicating with the ZyXEL Device’s wireless clients except for broadcast
packets. Layer-2 isolation does not check the traffic between wireless clients that are
associated with the same AP. Intra-BSS Traffic allows wireless clients associated with the
same AP to communicate with each other.
11.2 The Layer-2 Isolation Screen
Click WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation. The screen appears as shown next.
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Figure 86 WIRELESS > Layer 2 Isolation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the profile.
Profile Name
This field displays the name given to a layer-2 isolation profile in the Layer-2
Isolation Configuration screen.
Edit
Select an entry from the list and click Edit to configure settings for that profile.
11.3 Configuring Layer-2 Isolation
To configure layer-2 isolation, click WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation > Edit. The screen
appears as shown.
"
If layer-2 isolation is enabled, you need to know the MAC address of each
wireless client, AP, computer or router that you want to allow to communicate
with the ZyXEL Device's wireless clients.
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Figure 87 WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation Configuration Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 WIRELESS > Layer-2 Isolation Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Type a name to identify this layer-2 isolation profile.
Allow devices with
these MAC
addresses
These are the MAC address of a wireless client, AP, computer or router. A
wireless client associated with the ZyXEL Device can communicate with another
wireless client, AP, computer or router only if the MAC addresses of those devices
are listed in this table.
Set
This is the index number of the MAC address.
MAC Address
Type the MAC addresses of the wireless client, AP, computer or router that you
want to allow the associated wireless clients to have access to in these address
fields. Type the MAC address in a valid MAC address format (six hexadecimal
character pairs, for example 12:34:56:78:9a:bc).
Description
Type a name to identify this device.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
11.3.1 Layer-2 Isolation Examples
The following section shows you example layer-2 isolation configurations on the ZyXEL
Device (A).
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"
When configuring, remember to select the correct layer-2 isolation profile in the
WIRELESS > SSID > Edit screen of the relevant SSID profile.
Figure 88 Layer-2 Isolation Example Configuration
00:00:c5:00:00:66
00:00:c5:00:00:cc
11.3.1.1 Layer-2 Isolation Example 1
In the following example wireless clients 1 and 2 can communicate with file server C, but not
access point B or wireless client 3.
• Enter C’s MAC address in the MAC Address field, and enter “File Server C” in the
Description field.
Figure 89 Layer-2 Isolation Example 1
11.3.1.2 Layer-2 Isolation Example 2
In the following example wireless clients 1 and 2 can communicate with access point B and
file server C but not wireless client 3.
• Enter the server’s and your ZyXEL Device’s MAC addresses in the MAC Address fields.
Enter “File Server C” in C’s Description field, and enter “Access Point B” in B’s
Description field.
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Figure 90 Layer-2 Isolation Example 2
11.4 The MAC Filter Screen
The MAC filter function allows you to configure the ZyXEL Device to give exclusive access
to devices (Allow Association) or exclude devices from accessing the ZyXEL Device (Deny
Association).
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address
is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC address of each device to configure MAC
filtering on the ZyXEL Device.
The MAC filter profile is a user-configured list of MAC addresses. Each SSID profile can
reference one MAC filter profile. The ZyXEL Device provides 16 MAC Filter profiles, each
of which can hold up to 32 MAC addresses.
Click WIRELESS > MAC Filter. The screen displays as shown.
Figure 91 WIRELESS > MAC Filter
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 WIRELESS > MAC Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the profile.
Profile Name
This field displays the name given to a MAC filter profile in the MAC Filter
Configuration screen.
Edit
Select an entry from the list and click Edit to configure settings for that profile.
11.4.1 Configuring MAC Filtering
To change your ZyXEL Device’s MAC filter settings, click WIRELESS > MAC Filter >
Edit. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 92 MAC Address Filter
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 MAC Address Filter
"
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Type a name to identify this profile.
Filter Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC address filter
table.
Select Deny Association to block access to the router. MAC addresses not
listed will be allowed to access the router.
Select Allow Association to permit access to the router. MAC addresses not
listed will be denied access to the router.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the wireless
station to be allowed or denied access to the ZyXEL Device.
Description
Type a name to identify this wireless station.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
To activate MAC filtering on an SSID profile, select the correct filter from the
Enable MAC Filtering drop-down list box in the WIRELESS > SSID > Edit screen
and click Apply.
11.5 Configuring Roaming
A wireless station is a device with an IEEE 802.11a/b/g compliant wireless interface. An
access point (AP) acts as a bridge between the wireless and wired networks. An AP creates its
own wireless coverage area. A wireless station can associate with a particular access point
only if it is within the access point’s coverage area.
In a network environment with multiple access points, wireless stations are able to switch from
one access point to another as they move between the coverage areas. This is known as
roaming. As the wireless station moves from place to place, it is responsible for choosing the
most appropriate access point depending on the signal strength, network utilization or other
factors.
The roaming feature on the access points allows the access points to relay information about
the wireless stations to each other. When a wireless station moves from a coverage area to
another, it scans and uses the channel of a new access point, which then informs the other
access points on the LAN about the change. An example is shown in Figure 93 on page 155.
With roaming, a wireless LAN mobile user enjoys a continuous connection to the wired
network through an access point while moving around the wireless LAN.
Enable roaming to exchange the latest bridge information of all wireless stations between APs
when a wireless station moves between coverage areas. Wireless stations can still associate
with other APs even if you disable roaming. Enabling roaming ensures correct traffic
forwarding (bridge tables are updated) and maximum AP efficiency. The AP deletes records
of wireless stations that associate with other APs (Non-ZyXEL APs may not be able to
perform this). 802.1x authentication information is not exchanged (at the time of writing).
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Figure 93 Roaming Example
The steps below describe the roaming process.
1 Wireless station Y moves from the coverage area of access point AP 1 to that of access
point AP 2.
2 Wireless station Y scans and detects the signal of access point AP 2.
3 Wireless station Y sends an association request to access point AP 2.
4 Access point AP 2 acknowledges the presence of wireless station Y and relays this
information to access point AP 1 through the wired LAN.
5 Access point AP 1 updates the new position of wireless station Y.
11.5.1 Requirements for Roaming
The following requirements must be met in order for wireless stations to roam between the
coverage areas.
1 All the access points must be on the same subnet and configured with the same ESSID.
2 If IEEE 802.1x user authentication is enabled and to be done locally on the access point,
the new access point must have the user profile for the wireless station.
3 The adjacent access points should use different radio channels when their coverage areas
overlap.
4 All access points must use the same port number to relay roaming information.
5 The access points must be connected to the Ethernet and be able to get IP addresses from
a DHCP server if using dynamic IP address assignment.
To enable roaming on your ZyXEL Device, click WIRELESS > Wireless. The screen
appears as shown.
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Figure 94 Roaming
Select the Roaming Active check box and click Apply.
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12
IP Screen
This chapter discusses how to configure IP settings on the ZyXEL Device.
12.1 Factory Ethernet Defaults
The Ethernet parameters of the ZyXEL Device are preset in the factory with the following
values:
1 IP address of 192.168.1.2
2 Subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
These parameters should work for the majority of installations.
12.2 TCP/IP Parameters
12.2.1 WAN IP Address Assignment
Every computer on the Internet must have a unique IP address. If your networks are isolated
from the Internet (only between your two branch offices, for instance) you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks.
Table 55 Private IP Address Ranges
10.0.0.0
-
10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0
-
172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0
-
192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or have it assigned by a private
network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the
ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if
you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network administrator for
the appropriate IP addresses.
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"
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address
assignment, please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets
and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
12.3 Configuring IP Settings
Click IP to display the screen shown next.
Figure 95 IP Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 56 IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address Assignment
Get automatically from
DHCP
Select this option if your ZyXEL Device is using a dynamically assigned IP
address from a DHCP server each time.
Note: You must know the IP address assigned to the
ZyXEL Device (by the DHCP server) to access the
ZyXEL Device again.
Use fixed IP address
Select this option if your ZyXEL Device is using a static IP address. When
you select this option, fill in the fields below.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your ZyXEL Device in dotted decimal notation.
Note: If you change the ZyXEL Device's IP address, you
must use the new IP address if you want to access
the web configurator again.
158
IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask.
Gateway IP Address
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor
of your ZyXEL Device that will forward the packet to the destination. On the
LAN, the gateway must be a router on the same segment as your ZyXEL
Device; over the WAN, the gateway must be the IP address of one of the
remote nodes.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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13
Rogue AP
This chapter discusses rogue wireless access points (APs) and how to configure the ZyXEL
Device’s rogue AP detection feature.
"
Rogue AP detection features are available on the NWA-3160 and NWA-3163
only.
13.1 Rogue AP Introduction
A rogue AP is a wireless access point operating in a network’s coverage area that is not a
sanctioned part of that network. Rogue APs are not under the control of the network’s
administrators, and can open up holes in a network’s security. Attackers can take advantage of
a rogue AP’s weaker (or non-existent) security to gain access to the network, or set up their
own rogue APs in order to capture information from wireless clients. If a scan reveals a rogue
AP, you can use commercially-available software to physically locate it.
Note that it is not necessary for a network to have a legitimate wireless LAN component for
rogue APs to open the network to an attacker. In this case, any AP detected can be classified as
rogue.
13.2 Rogue AP Examples
In the following example, a corporate network’s security is compromised by a rogue AP (R)
set up by an employee at his workstation in order to allow him to connect his notebook
computer wirelessly (A). The company’s legitimate wireless network (the dashed ellipse B) is
well-secured, but the rogue AP uses inferior security that is easily broken by an attacker (X)
running readily available encryption-cracking software. In this example, the attacker now has
access to the company network, including sensitive data stored on the file server (C).
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Figure 96 Rogue AP: Example
13.2.1 “Honeypot” Attack
Rogue APs need not be connected to the legitimate network to pose a severe security threat. In
the following example, an attacker (X) is stationed in a vehicle outside a company building,
using a rogue access point equipped with a powerful antenna. By mimicking a legitimate
(company network) AP, the attacker tries to capture usernames, passwords, and other sensitive
information from unsuspecting clients (A and B) who attempt to connect. This is known as a
“honeypot” attack.
If a rogue AP in this scenario has sufficient power and is broadcasting the correct SSID
(Service Set IDentifier) clients have no way of knowing that they are not associating with a
legitimate company AP. The attacker can forward network traffic from associated clients to a
legitimate AP, creating the impression of normal service. This is a variety of “man-in-themiddle” attack.
This scenario can also be part of a wireless denial of service (DoS) attack, in which associated
wireless clients are deprived of network access. Other opportunities for the attacker include
the introduction of malware (malicious software) into the network.
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Figure 97 “Honeypot” Attack
13.3 Configuring Rogue AP Detection (NWA-3160 and NWA3163 Only)
You can configure the ZyXEL Device to detect rogue IEEE 802.11a (5 GHz - NWA-3160
only) and IEEE 802.11b/g/n (2.4 GHz) APs.
"
Rogue AP detection is not available on the NWA-3165.
If you have more than one AP in your wireless network, you must also configure the list of
“friendly” APs. Friendly APs are the other wireless access points in your network, as well as
any others that you know are not a threat (those from neighboring networks, for example). It is
recommended that you export (save) your list of friendly APs often, especially if you have a
network with a large number of access points.
You can choose to scan for rogue APs manually, or to have the ZyXEL Device scan
automatically at pre-defined intervals.
You can also set the ZyXEL Device to email you immediately when a rogue AP is detected
(see Chapter 17 on page 201 for information on how to set up email logs).
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13.3.1 Rogue AP: Configuration
Click ROGUE AP > Configuration. The following screen appears.
Figure 98 ROGUE AP > Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 ROGUE AP > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Rogue AP
Period Detection
Select Yes to turn rogue AP detection on. You must also enter a time value
in the Period field.
Select No to turn rogue AP detection off.
Period (minutes)
Enter the period you want the ZyXEL Device to wait between scanning for
rogue APs (between 10 and 60 minutes). You must also select Yes in the
Active Rogue AP Period Detection field.
Friendly AP List
Export
Click this button to save the current list of friendly APs’ MAC addresses and
descriptions (as displayed in the ROGUE AP > Friendly AP screen) to your
computer.
File Path
Enter the location of a previously-saved friendly AP list to upload to the
ZyXEL Device. Alternatively, click the Browse button to locate a list.
Browse
Click this button to locate a previously-saved list of friendly APs to upload to
the ZyXEL Device.
Import
Click this button to upload the previously-saved list of friendly APs displayed
in the File Path field to the ZyXEL Device.
Apply
Click Apply to save your settings.
Reset
Click Reset to return all fields in this screen to their previously-saved
values.
13.3.2 Rogue AP: Friendly AP
The friendly AP list displays details of all the access points in your area that you know are not
a threat. If you have more than one AP in your network, you need to configure this list to
include your other APs. If your wireless network overlaps with that of a neighbor (for
example) you should also add these APs to the list, as they do not compromise your own
network’s security. If you do not add them to the friendly AP list, these access points will
appear in the Rogue AP list each time the ZyXEL Device scans.
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Figure 99 ROGUE AP > Friendly AP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 ROGUE AP > Friendly AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add Friendly AP
Use this section to manually add a wireless access point to the list. You
must know the device’s MAC address.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of the AP you wish to add to the list.
Description
Enter a short, explanatory description identifying the AP with a maximum of
32 alphanumeric characters. Spaces, underscores (_) and dashes (-) are
allowed.
Add
Click this button to include the AP in the list.
Friendly AP List
This is the list of safe wireless access points you have already configured.
#
This is the index number of the AP’s entry in the list.
MAC Address
This field displays the Media Access Control (MAC) address of the AP. All
wireless devices have a MAC address that uniquely identifies them.
SSID
This field displays the Service Set IDentifier (also known as the network
name) of the AP.
Channel
This field displays the wireless channel the AP is currently using.
Security
This field displays the type of wireless encryption the AP is currently using.
Description
This is the description you entered when adding the AP to the list.
Delete
Click this button to remove an AP’s entry from the list.
13.3.3 Rogue AP List
This list displays details of all IEEE 802.11a (NWA-3160 only) and IEEE 802.11b/g/n
wireless access points within the ZyXEL Device’s coverage area, except for the ZyXEL
Device itself and the access points included in the friendly AP list (see Section 13.3.2 on page
162).
You can set how often you want the ZyXEL Device to scan for rogue APs in the ROGUE AP
> Configuration screen (see Section 13.3.1 on page 162).
Click ROGUE AP > Rogue AP. The following screen displays.
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Figure 100 ROGUE AP > Rogue AP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 ROGUE AP > Rogue AP
164
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rogue AP List
This displays details of access points in the ZyXEL Device’s coverage area
that are not listed in the friendly AP list (see Section 13.3.2 on page 162)
Refresh
Click this button to have the ZyXEL Device scan for rogue APs.
#
This is the index number of the AP’s entry in the list.
Active
Use this check box to select the APs you want to move to the friendly AP list
(see Section 13.3.2 on page 162)
MAC Address
This field displays the Media Access Control (MAC) address of the AP. All
wireless devices have a MAC address that uniquely identifies them.
SSID
This field displays the Service Set IDentifier (also known as the network
name) of the AP.
Channel
This field displays the wireless channel the AP is currently using.
Security
This field displays the type of wireless encryption the AP is currently using.
Description
If you want to move the AP’s entry to the friendly AP list, enter a short,
explanatory description identifying the AP before you click Add to Friendly
AP List. A maximum of 32 alphanumeric characters are allowed in this field.
Spaces, underscores (_) and dashes (-) are allowed.
Add to Friendly AP List
If you know that the AP described in an entry is not a threat, select the
Active check box, enter a short description in the Description field and
click this button to add the entry to the friendly AP list (see Section 13.3.2 on
page 162). When the ZyXEL Device next scans for rogue APs, the selected
AP does not appear in the rogue AP list.
Reset
Click Reset to return all fields in this screen to their default values.
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14
Remote Management Screens
This chapter provides information on the Remote Management screens.
14.1 Remote Management Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which of
the ZyXEL Device’s interfaces (if any) from which computers.
You may manage your ZyXEL Device from a remote location via:
Table 60 Remote Management Overview
•
WLAN
•
ALL (LAN and WLAN)
•
LAN only
•
Neither (Disable).
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server
Access field.
You may only have one remote management session running at a time. The ZyXEL Device
automatically disconnects a remote management session of lower priority when another
remote management session of higher priority starts. The priorities for the different types of
remote management sessions are as follows.
1 Telnet
2 HTTP
14.1.1 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WLAN will not work when:
1 You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
2 The IP address in the Secured Client IP field does not match the client IP address. If it
does not match, the ZyXEL Device will disconnect the session immediately.
3 There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
14.1.2 System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds).
The ZyXEL Device automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for
longer than this timeout period. The management session does not time out when a statistics
screen is polling. You can change the timeout period in the System screen
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14.2 Configuring Telnet
You can configure your ZyXEL Device for remote Telnet access as shown next. The
administrator uses Telnet from a computer on a remote network to access the ZyXEL Device.
Figure 101 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network
Click the REMOTE MGNT > TELNET. The following screen displays.
Figure 102 Remote Management: Telnet
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 Remote Management: Telnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TELNET
166
Server Port
You can change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server
Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyXEL Device
using Telnet.
Secured
Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
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Table 61 Remote Management: Telnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSH
Server
Certificate
Select the certificate whose corresponding private key is to be used to identify the
ZyXEL Device for SSH connections. You must have certificates already configured
in the Certificates > My Certificates screen.
Server Port
You can change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server
Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyXEL Device
using SSH.
Secured
Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.3 Configuring FTP
You can upload and download the ZyXEL Device’s firmware and configuration files using
FTP, please see the chapter on firmware and configuration file maintenance for details. To use
this feature, your computer must have an FTP client.
To change your ZyXEL Device’s FTP settings, click REMOTE MGNT > FTP. The screen
appears as shown.
Figure 103 Remote Management: FTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 62 Remote Management: FTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyXEL Device
using this service.
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Table 62 Remote Management: FTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.4 Configuring WWW
To change your ZyXEL Device’s World Wide Web settings, click REMOTE MGNT >
WWW.
Figure 104 Remote Management: WWW
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 63 Remote Management: WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WWW
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyXEL Device
using this service.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
HTTPS
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Table 63 Remote Management: WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Certificate
Select the Server Certificate that the ZyXEL Device will use to identify itself. The
ZyXEL Device is the SSL server and must always authenticate itself to the SSL
client (the computer which requests the HTTPS connection with the ZyXEL
Device).
Authenticate
Select Authenticate Client Certificates (optional) to require the SSL client to
Client Certificates authenticate itself with the ZyXEL Device by sending the ZyXEL Device a
certificate. To do that the SSL client must have a CA-signed certificate from a CA
that has been imported as a trusted CA on the ZyXEL Device (see the appendix on
importing certificates for details).
Server Port
The HTTPS proxy server listens on port 443 by default. If you change the HTTPS
proxy server port to a different number on the ZyXEL Device, for example 8443,
then you must notify people who need to access the ZyXEL Device web
configurator to use "https://ZyXEL Device IP Address:8443" as the URL.
Server Access
Select a ZyXEL Device interface from Server Access on which incoming HTTPS
access is allowed.
You can allow only secure web configurator access by setting the HTTP Server
Access field to Disable and setting the HTTPS Server Access field to an
interface(s).
Secured Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.5 SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a protocol used for exchanging
management information between network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP
protocol suite. Your ZyXEL Device supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a
manager station to manage and monitor the ZyXEL Device through the network. The ZyXEL
Device supports SNMP version one (SNMPv1), and version two (SNMPv2c). The NWA3165 alone also supports version 3 (SNMPv3), at the time of writing. The next figure
illustrates an SNMP management operation.
"
SNMP is available only if TCP/IP is configured.
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Figure 105 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main types of component: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the ZyXEL
Device). An agent translates the local management information from the managed device into
a form compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network
administrators perform network management functions. It executes applications that control
and monitor managed devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a device. Examples of variables include such as number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection
of managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of
accessing these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol
operations:
• Get - Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
• GetNext - Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list
within an agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table
from an agent, it initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
• Set - Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
• Trap - Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
14.5.1 Supported MIBs
The ZyXEL Device supports MIB II that is defined in RFC-1213 and RFC-1215 as well as the
proprietary ZyXEL private MIB. The purpose of the MIBs is to let administrators collect
statistical data and monitor status and performance.
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14.5.2 SNMP Traps
The ZyXEL Device can send the following traps to the SNMP manager.
Table 64 SNMP Traps
OBJECT IDENTIFIER #
(OID)
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
Generic Traps
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
This trap is sent after booting (power on). This
trap is defined in RFC-1215.
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
This trap is sent after booting (software
reboot). This trap is defined in RFC-1215.
linkDown
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is
down.
linkUp
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is up.
authenticationFailure
(defined in RFC-1215)
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
The device sends this trap when it receives
any SNMP get or set requirements with the
wrong community (password).
Note: snmpEnableAuthenTraps, OID
1.3.6.1.2.1.11.30 (defined in RFC 1214 and
RFC 1907) must be enabled on in order for
the device to send authenticationFailure traps.
Use a MIB browser to enable or disable
snmpEnableAuthenTraps.
Traps defined in the
ZyXEL Private MIB.
whyReboot
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.13.0.1 This trap is sent with the reason for restarting
before the system reboots (warm start).
"System reboot by user!" is added for an
intentional reboot (for example, download new
files, CI command "sys reboot").
If the system reboots because of fatal errors, a
code for the error is listed.
pwTFTPStatus
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.9.2.3.3.
1
This trap is sent to indicate the status and
result of a TFTP client session that has ended.
14.6 SNMP Trap Interface Index
Some traps include an SNMP interface index. The following table maps the SNMP interface
indexes to the ZyXEL Device’s physical and virtual ports.
Table 65 SNMP Interface Index to Physical and Virtual Port Mapping
TYPE
INTERFACE
PORT
Physical
enet0
Wireless LAN adaptor WLAN1
enet1
Ethernet port (LAN)
enet2
Wireless LAN adaptor WLAN2
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Table 65 SNMP Interface Index to Physical and Virtual Port Mapping
TYPE
INTERFACE
PORT
Virtual
enet3 ~ enet9
WLAN1 in MBSSID mode
enet10 ~ enet16
WLAN2 in MBSSID mode
enet17 ~ enet21
WLAN1 in WDS mode
(NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only)
enet22 ~ enet26
WLAN2 in WDS mode
(NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only)
14.6.1 SNMP v3 and Security
SNMP v3 enhances security for SNMP management. SNMP managers can be required to
authenticate with agents before conducting SNMP management sessions.
Security can be further enhanced by encrypting the SNMP messages sent from the managers.
Encryption protects the contents of the SNMP messages. When the contents of the SNMP
messages are encrypted, only the intended recipients can read them.
"
At the time of writing, only the NWA-3165 supports SNMP v3.
14.6.2 Configuring SNMP
To change your ZyXEL Device’s SNMP settings, click REMOTE MGNT > SNMP. The
screen appears as shown.
"
172
Not all features are available in all models.
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Figure 106 Remote Management: SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 66 Remote Management: SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SNMP Configuration
Get Community
Enter the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get and
GetNext requests from the management station. The default is public and
allows all requests.
Set Community
Enter the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set requests
from the management station. The default is public and allows all requests.
Trap Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
SNMP Version
Select the SNMP version for the ZyXEL Device. The SNMP version on the
ZyXEL Device must match the version on the SNMP manager. Choose SNMP
version 1 (SNMPv1), SNMP version 2 (SNMPv2) or SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3;
NWA-3165 only).
Trap Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the
SNMP manager. The default is “public” and allows all requests.
This field is available only when SNMPv1 or SNMPv2 is selected in the SNMP
Version field.
User Profile
(NWA-3165 Only)
This field is available only when you select SNMPv3 in the SNMP Version field.
When sending SNMP v3 traps (messages sent independently by the SNMP
agent) the agent must authenticate the SNMP manager. If the SNMP manager
does not provide the correct security details, the agent does not send the traps.
The ZyXEL Device has two SNMP version 3 login accounts, User and Admin.
Each account has different security settings. You can use either account’s
security settings for authenticating SNMP traps.
Select User to have the ZyXEL Device use the User account’s security settings,
or select Admin to have the ZyXEL Device use the Admin account’s security
settings.
Use the Configure SNNMPv3 User Profile link to set up each account’s
security settings.
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Table 66 Remote Management: SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configure SNMPv3
User Profile
(NWA-3165 Only)
Click this to go to the SNMPv3 User Profile screen, where you can configure
administration and user login details.
SNMP
Service Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you
must use the same port number in order to use that service for remote
management.
Service Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyXEL Device
using this service.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify
to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.6.2.1 The SNMPv3 User Profile Screen (NWA-3165 Only)
Use this screen to set up the details of SNMPv3 users. Click Configure SNMPv3 User
Profile in the REMOTE MGNT > SNMP screen. The following screen displays.
Figure 107 Remote Management: SNMPv3 User Profile
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 67 Remote Management: SNMP User Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable
SNMPv3Admin
Select this box to activate the SNMPv3 administration account. The SNMPv3
administrator can issue Get and Set commands to the ZyXEL Device.
User Name
Enter a username for the SNMPv3 administrator. Only SNMP commands
carrying this username are allowed to administer the ZyXEL Device.
Password
Enter a password for the SNMPv3 administrator. Only SNMP commands
carrying this password are allowed to administer the ZyXEL Device.
Confirm
Password
Re-enter the Password.
Access Type
For the administrator, this is always Set. SNMP Set commands allow the
administrator to make configuration changes.
Authentication
Protocol
Select an authentication algorithm. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure
Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate SNMP data. SHA
authentication is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is slower.
Privacy Protocol
Specify the encryption method for SNMP communication with this user. You can
choose one of the following:
• DES - Data Encryption Standard is a widely used (but breakable) method of
data encryption. It applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
• AES - Advanced Encryption Standard is another method for data encryption
that also uses a secret key. AES applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of
data.
• None - no encryption is used.
Enable
SNMPv3User
Select this box to activate the SNMPv3 user account. The SNMPv3 user can
issue GET commands to the ZyXEL Device.
User Name
Enter a username for the SNMPv3 user. Only SNMP commands carrying this
username are allowed to get details about the ZyXEL Device.
Password
Enter a password for the SNMPv3 administrator. Only SNMP commands
carrying this password are allowed to get details about the ZyXEL Device.
Confirm
Password
Re-enter the Password.
Access Type
For the administrator, this is always Get. SNMP Get commands allow the user
to make see configuration details about the ZyXEL Device.
Authentication
Protocol
Select an authentication algorithm. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure
Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate SNMP data. SHA
authentication is generally considered stronger than MD5, but is slower.
Privacy Protocol
Specify the encryption method for SNMP communication with this user. You can
choose one of the following:
• DES - Data Encryption Standard is a widely used (but breakable) method of
data encryption. It applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
• AES - Advanced Encryption Standard is another method for data encryption
that also uses a secret key. AES applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of
data.
• None - no encryption is used.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
15
Internal RADIUS Server
The ZyXEL Device can use its internal RADIUS server to authenticate wireless clients. It can
also serve as a RADIUS server to authenticate other APs and their wireless clients. For more
background information on RADIUS, see Section 9.10 on page 136.
15.1 Internal RADIUS Overview
The ZyXEL Device has a built-in RADIUS server that can authenticate wireless clients or
other trusted APs.
The ZyXEL Device can function as an AP and as a RADIUS server at the same time.
PEAP (Protected EAP) and MD5 authentication is implemented on the internal RADIUS
server using simple username and password methods over a secure TLS connection. See the
appendices for more information on the types of EAP authentication and the internal RADIUS
authentication method used in your ZyXEL Device.
• Use the AUTH. SERVER > Setting screen to turn the ZyAIR’s internal RADIUS server
off or on and to view information about the ZyXEL Device’s certificates.
• Use the AUTH. SERVER > Trusted AP screen to specify APs as trusted. Trusted APs
can use the ZyAIR’s internal RADIUS server to authenticate wireless clients.
• Use the AUTH. SERVER > Trusted Users screen to configure a list of wireless client
user names and passwords for the ZyAIR to authenticate.
15.2 Internal RADIUS Server Setting
The AUTH. SERVER > Setting screen displays information about certificates. The
certificates are used by wireless clients to authenticate the RADIUS server. Information
matching the certificate is held on the wireless client’s utility. A password and user name on
the utility must match the Trusted Users list so that the RADIUS server can be authenticated.
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Chapter 15 Internal RADIUS Server
"
The internal RADIUS server does not support domain accounts (DOMAIN/user).
When you configure your Windows XP SP2 Wireless Zero Configuration PEAP/
MS-CHAPv2 settings, deselect the Use Windows logon name and password
check box. When authentication begins, a pop-up dialog box requests you to
type a Name, Password and Domain of the RADIUS server. Specify a name and
password only, do not specify a domain.
Click AUTH. SERVER > Setting. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 108 Internal RADIUS Server Setting Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 Internal RADIUS Server Setting Screen Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the Active check box to have the ZyXEL Device use its internal RADIUS
server to authenticate wireless clients or other APs.
Index
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are listed in
alphabetical order. Use the CERTIFICATES screens to manage certificates. The
internal RADIUS server uses one of the certificates listed in this screen to
authenticate each wireless client. The exact certificate used depends on the
certificate information configured on the wireless client.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is recommended that
you give each certificate a unique name.
auto_generated_self_signed_cert is the factory default certificate common to all
ZyXEL Devices that use certificates.
Note: It is recommended that you replace the factory default
certificate with one that uses your ZyXEL Device's MAC
address. Do this when you first log in to the ZyXEL
Device or in the CERTIFICATES > My Certificates
screen.
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Table 68 Internal RADIUS Server Setting Screen Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
This field displays what kind of certificate this is.
REQ represents a certification request and is not yet a valid certificate. Send a
certification request to a certification authority, which then issues a certificate. Use
the My Certificate Import screen to import the certificate and replace the request.
SELF represents a self-signed certificate.
*SELF represents the default self-signed certificate, which the ZyXEL Device uses
to sign imported trusted remote host certificates.
CERT represents a certificate issued by a certification authority.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the
same information as in the Subject field.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or
has already expired.
Apply
Click Apply to have the ZyXEL Device use certificates to authenticate wireless
clients.
Reset
Click Reset to start configuring this screen afresh.
15.3 Trusted AP Overview
A trusted AP is an AP that uses the ZyXEL Device’s internal RADIUS server to authenticate
its wireless clients. Each wireless client must have a user name and password configured in the
AUTH. SERVER > Trusted Users screen.
The following figure shows how this is done in two phases.
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Figure 109 Trusted AP Overview
ZyXEL RADIUS Server
Trusted APs
Wireless clients
1 Configure an IP address and shared secret in the Trusted AP database to authenticate an
AP as a trusted AP.
2 Configure wireless client user names and passwords in the Trusted Users database to
use a trusted AP as a relay between the ZyXEL Device’s internal RADIUS server and
the wireless clients. The wireless clients can then be authenticated by the ZyXEL
Device’s internal RADIUS server.
15.4 Configuring Trusted AP
To specify trusted APs, click the AUTH SERVER link under ADVANCED and then the
Trusted AP tab. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 110 Trusted AP Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 69 Trusted AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This field displays the trusted AP index number.
Active
Select this check box to have the ZyXEL Device use the IP Address and Shared
Secret to authenticate a trusted AP.
IP Address
Type the IP address of the trusted AP in dotted decimal notation.
Shared Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters, no spaces) as the key for
encrypting communications between the AP and the ZyXEL Device. The key is not
sent over the network. This key must be the same on the AP and the ZyXEL Device.
Both the ZyXEL Device’s IP address and this shared secret must also be configured
in the “external RADIUS” server fields of the trusted AP.
Note: The first trusted AP fields are for the ZyXEL Device itself.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.5 Configuring Trusted Users
A trusted user entry consists of a wireless client user name and password. To configure trusted
user entries, click AUTH SERVER > Trusted Users. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 111 Trusted Users Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 Trusted Users
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This field displays the trusted user index number.
Active
Select this check box to have the ZyAIR authenticate wireless clients with the same
user name and password activated on their wireless utilities.
User Name
Enter the user name for this user account. This name can be up to 31 alphanumeric
characters long, including spaces. The wireless client’s utility must use this name as
its login name.
Password
Type a password (up to 31 ASCII characters) for this user profile. Note that as you
type a password, the screen displays a (*) for each character you type.
The password on the wireless client’s utility must be the same as this password.
Note: If you are using PEAP authentication, this password field
is limited to 14 ASCII characters in length.
182
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER
16
Certificates
This chapter gives background information about public-key certificates and explains how to
use them.
16.1 Certificates Overview
The ZyXEL Device can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to authenticate users.
Certificates are based on public-private key pairs. A certificate contains the certificate owner’s
identity and public key. Certificates provide a way to exchange public keys for use in
authentication.
A Certification Authority (CA) issues certificates and guarantees the identity of each
certificate owner. There are commercial certification authorities like CyberTrust or VeriSign
and government certification authorities. You can use the ZyXEL Device to generate
certification requests that contain identifying information and public keys and then send the
certification requests to a certification authority.
In public-key encryption and decryption, each host has two keys. One key is public and can be
made openly available; the other key is private and must be kept secure. Public-key encryption
in general works as follows.
1 Tim wants to send a private message to Jenny. Tim generates a public key pair. What is
encrypted with one key can only be decrypted using the other.
2 Tim keeps the private key and makes the public key openly available.
3 Tim uses his private key to encrypt the message and sends it to Jenny.
4 Jenny receives the message and uses Tim’s public key to decrypt it.
5 Additionally, Jenny uses her own private key to encrypt a message and Tim uses Jenny’s
public key to decrypt the message.
The ZyXEL Device uses certificates based on public-key cryptology to authenticate users
attempting to establish a connection, not to encrypt the data that you send after establishing a
connection. The method used to secure the data that you send through an established
connection depends on the type of connection. For example, a VPN tunnel might use the triple
DES encryption algorithm.
The certification authority uses its private key to sign certificates. Anyone can then use the
certification authority’s public key to verify the certificates.
A certification path is the hierarchy of certification authority certificates that validate a
certificate. The ZyXEL Device does not trust a certificate if any certificate on its path has
expired or been revoked.
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Certification authorities maintain directory servers with databases of valid and revoked
certificates. A directory of certificates that have been revoked before the scheduled expiration
is called a CRL (Certificate Revocation List). The ZyXEL Device can check a peer’s
certificate against a directory server’s list of revoked certificates. The framework of servers,
software, procedures and policies that handles keys is called PKI (public-key infrastructure).
16.1.1 Advantages of Certificates
Certificates offer the following benefits.
• The ZyXEL Device only has to store the certificates of the certification authorities that
you decide to trust, no matter how many devices you need to authenticate.
• Key distribution is simple and very secure since you can freely distribute public keys and
you never need to transmit private keys.
16.2 Self-signed Certificates
You can have the ZyXEL Device act as a certification authority and sign its own certificates.
16.3 Verifying a Certificate
Before you import a trusted CA certificate into the ZyXEL Device, you should verify that you
have the actual certificate. This is especially important since the ZyXEL Device also trusts any
valid certificate signed by any of the imported trusted CA certificates.
16.3.1 Checking the Fingerprint of a Certificate on Your Computer
A certificate’s fingerprints are message digests calculated using the MD5 or SHA1 algorithms.
The following procedure describes how to check a certificate’s fingerprint to verify that you
have the actual certificate.
1 Browse to where you have the certificate saved on your computer.
2 Make sure that the certificate has a “.cer” or “.crt” file name extension.
Figure 112 Certificates on Your Computer
3 Double-click the certificate’s icon to open the Certificate window. Click the Details tab
and scroll down to the Thumbprint Algorithm and Thumbprint fields.
184
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Figure 113 Certificate Details
4 Use a secure method to verify that the certificate owner has the same information in the
Thumbprint Algorithm and Thumbprint fields. The secure method may vary
according to your situation. Possible examples would be over the telephone or through
an HTTPS connection.
16.4 Configuration Summary
This section summarizes how to manage certificates.
• Use the My Certificate screens to generate and export self-signed certificates or
certification requests and import the ZyXEL Devices’ CA-signed certificates.
• Use the Trusted CA screens to save CA certificates to the ZyXEL Device.
16.5 My Certificates
Click CERTIFICATES > My Certificates to open the ZyXEL Device’s summary list of
certificates and certification requests. Certificates display in black and certification requests
display in gray. See the following figure.
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Figure 114 My Certificates
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 71 My Certificates
186
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s PKI storage space that is
currently in use. When you are using 80% or less of the storage space, the bar is
green. When the amount of space used is over 80%, the bar is red. When the bar
is red, you should consider deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before
adding more certificates.
Replace
This button displays when the ZyXEL Device has the factory default certificate.
The factory default certificate is common to all ZyXEL Devices that use
certificates. ZyXEL recommends that you use this button to replace the factory
default certificate with one that uses your ZyXEL Device's MAC address.
#
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are listed in
alphabetical order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is recommended that
you give each certificate a unique name.
Type
This field displays what kind of certificate this is.
REQ represents a certification request and is not yet a valid certificate. Send a
certification request to a certification authority, which then issues a certificate. Use
the My Certificate Import screen to import the certificate and replace the request.
SELF represents a self-signed certificate.
*SELF represents the default self-signed certificate, which the ZyXEL Device uses
to sign imported trusted remote host certificates.
CERT represents a certificate issued by a certification authority.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the
same information as in the Subject field.
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Table 71 My Certificates (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or
has already expired.
Details
Click the details icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate.
Click the delete icon to remove the certificate. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate.
You cannot delete a certificate that one or more features is configured to use.
Do the following to delete a certificate that shows *SELF in the Type field.
1. Make sure that no other features, such as HTTPS, VPN, SSH are configured to
use the *SELF certificate.
2. Click the details icon next to another self-signed certificate (see the description
on the Create button if you need to create a self-signed certificate).
3. Select the Default self-signed certificate which signs the imported remote
host certificates check box.
4. Click Apply to save the changes and return to the My Certificates screen.
5. The certificate that originally showed *SELF displays SELF and you can delete
it now.
Note that subsequent certificates move up by one when you take this action
Create
Click Create to go to the screen where you can have the ZyXEL Device generate
a certificate or a certification request.
Import
Click Import to open a screen where you can save the certificate that you have
enrolled from a certification authority from your computer to the ZyXEL Device.
Delete
Click Delete to delete an existing certificate. A window display asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate. Note that subsequent certificates
move up by one when you take this action.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the current validity status of the certificates.
16.6 Certificate File Formats
The certification authority certificate that you want to import has to be in one of these file
formats:
• Binary X.509: This is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the formats for X.509
certificates.
• PEM (Base-64) encoded X.509: This Privacy Enhanced Mail format uses 64 ASCII
characters to convert a binary X.509 certificate into a printable form.
• Binary PKCS#7: This is a standard that defines the general syntax for data (including
digital signatures) that may be encrypted. The ZyXEL Device currently allows the
importation of a PKS#7 file that contains a single certificate.
• PEM (Base-64) encoded PKCS#7: This Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) format uses 64
ASCII characters to convert a binary PKCS#7 certificate into a printable form.
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16.7 Importing a Certificate
Click CERTIFICATES > My Certificates and then Import to open the My Certificate
Import screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to save an existing certificate to the
ZyXEL Device.
"
"
"
You can import only a certificate that matches a corresponding certification
request that was generated by the ZyXEL Device.
The certificate you import replaces the corresponding request in the My
Certificates screen.
You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import it.
Figure 115 My Certificate Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 72 My Certificate Import
188
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Browse
Click Browse to find the certificate file you want to upload.
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Table 72 My Certificate Import
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
16.8 Creating a Certificate
Click CERTIFICATES > My Certificates and then Create to open the My Certificate
Create screen. Use this screen to have the ZyXEL Device create a self-signed certificate,
enroll a certificate with a certification authority or generate a certification request, see the
following figure.
Figure 116 My Certificate Create
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 73 My Certificate Create
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Name
Type up to 31 ASCII characters (not including spaces) to identify this
certificate.
Subject Information
Use these fields to record information that identifies the owner of the
certificate. You do not have to fill in every field, although the Common Name
is mandatory. The certification authority may add fields (such as a serial
number) to the subject information when it issues a certificate. It is
recommended that each certificate have unique subject information.
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Table 73 My Certificate Create (continued)
190
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Common Name
Select a radio button to identify the certificate’s owner by IP address, domain
name or e-mail address. Type the IP address (in dotted decimal notation),
domain name or e-mail address in the field provided. The domain name or email address can be up to 31 ASCII characters. The domain name or e-mail
address is for identification purposes only and can be any string.
Organizational Unit
Type up to 127 characters to identify the organizational unit or department to
which the certificate owner belongs. You may use any character, including
spaces, but the ZyXEL Device drops trailing spaces.
Organization
Type up to 127 characters to identify the company or group to which the
certificate owner belongs. You may use any character, including spaces, but
the ZyXEL Device drops trailing spaces.
Country
Type up to 127 characters to identify the nation where the certificate owner is
located. You may use any character, including spaces, but the ZyXEL Device
drops trailing spaces.
Key Length
Select a number from the drop-down list box to determine how many bits the
key should use (512 to 2048). The longer the key, the more secure it is. A
longer key also uses more PKI storage space.
Enrollment Options
These radio buttons deal with how and when the certificate is to be generated.
Create a self-signed
certificate
Select Create a self-signed certificate to have the ZyXEL Device generate
the certificate and act as the Certification Authority (CA) itself. This way you do
not need to apply to a certification authority for certificates.
Create a certification
request and save it
locally for later
manual enrollment
Select Create a certification request and save it locally for later manual
enrollment to have the ZyXEL Device generate and store a request for a
certificate. Use the My Certificate Details screen to view the certification
request and copy it to send to the certification authority.
Copy the certification request from the My Certificate Details screen (Section
16.9 on page 191) and then send it to the certification authority.
Create a certification
request and enroll for
a certificate
immediately online
Select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online to have the ZyXEL Device generate a request for a
certificate and apply to a certification authority for a certificate.
You must have the certification authority’s certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen.
When you select this option, you must select the certification authority’s
enrollment protocol and the certification authority’s certificate from the dropdown list boxes and enter the certification authority’s server address. You also
need to fill in the Reference Number and Key if the certification authority
requires them.
Enrollment Protocol
Select the certification authority’s enrollment protocol from the drop-down list
box.
Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) is a TCP-based enrollment
protocol that was developed by VeriSign and Cisco.
Certificate Management Protocol (CMP) is a TCP-based enrollment
protocol that was developed by the Public Key Infrastructure X.509 working
group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and is specified in RFC
2510.
CA Server Address
Enter the IP address (or URL) of the certification authority server.
CA Certificate
Select the certification authority’s certificate from the CA Certificate dropdown list box.
You must have the certification authority’s certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen. Click Trusted CAs to go to the Trusted CAs screen
where you can view (and manage) the ZyXEL Device's list of certificates of
trusted certification authorities.
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Table 73 My Certificate Create (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Request
Authentication
When you select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online, the certification authority may want you to include a
reference number and key to identify you when you send a certification
request. Fill in both the Reference Number and the Key fields if your
certification authority uses CMP enrollment protocol. Just fill in the Key field if
your certification authority uses the SECP enrollment protocol.
Key
Type the key that the certification authority gave you.
Apply
Click Apply to begin certificate or certification request generation.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
After you click Apply in the My Certificate Create screen, you see a screen that tells you the
ZyXEL Device is generating the self-signed certificate or certification request.
After the ZyXEL Device successfully enrolls a certificate or generates a certification request
or a self-signed certificate, you see a screen with a Return button that takes you back to the
My Certificates screen.
If you configured the My Certificate Create screen to have the ZyXEL Device enroll a
certificate and the certificate enrollment is not successful, you see a screen with a Return
button that takes you back to the My Certificate Create screen. Click Return and check your
information in the My Certificate Create screen. Make sure that the certification authority
information is correct and that your Internet connection is working properly if you want the
ZyXEL Device to enroll a certificate online.
16.9 My Certificate Details
Click CERTIFICATES > My Certificates to open the My Certificates screen (Figure 114
on page 186). Click the details button to open the My Certificate Details screen. You can use
this screen to view in-depth certificate information and change the certificate’s name. In the
case of a self-signed certificate, you can set it to be the one that the ZyXEL Device uses to sign
the trusted remote host certificates that you import to the ZyXEL Device.
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Chapter 16 Certificates
Figure 117 My Certificate Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 My Certificate Details
192
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want to change
the name, type up to 31 characters to identify this certificate. You may use any
character (not including spaces).
Property
Default self-signed
certificate which
signs the imported
remote host
certificates.
Select this check box to have the ZyXEL Device use this certificate to sign the
trusted remote host certificates that you import to the ZyXEL Device. This check
box is only available with self-signed certificates.
If this check box is already selected, you cannot clear it in this screen, you must
select this check box in another self-signed certificate’s details screen. This
automatically clears the check box in the details screen of the certificate that
was previously set to sign the imported trusted remote host certificates.
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Table 74 My Certificate Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Path
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the hierarchy of
certification authorities that validate the certificate (and the certificate itself).
If the issuing certification authority is one that you have imported as a trusted
certification authority, it may be the only certification authority in the list (along
with the certificate itself). If the certificate is a self-signed certificate, the
certificate itself is the only one in the list. The ZyXEL Device does not trust the
certificate and displays “Not trusted” in this field if any certificate on the path has
expired or been revoked.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the certification path.
Certificate
Information
These read-only fields display detailed information about the certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed means that the
certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a certification authority). “X.509”
means that this certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority or generated by the ZyXEL Device.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and Country
(C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing
certification authority, such as Common Name, Organizational Unit,
Organization and Country.
With self-signed certificates, this is the same as the Subject Name field.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the certificate. The
ZyXEL Device uses rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key encryption
algorithm and the SHA1 hash algorithm). Some certification authorities may use
ras-pkcs1-md5 (RSA public-private key encryption algorithm and the MD5 hash
algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not
yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire
or has already expired.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the ZyXEL Device uses RSA encryption) and the length of
the key set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name (DNS)
or e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path.
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyXEL Device calculated using
the MD5 algorithm.
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Table 74 My Certificate Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyXEL Device calculated using
the SHA1 algorithm.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters to convert the
binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste a certification request into a certification authority’s web
page, an e-mail that you send to the certification authority or a text editor and
save the file on a management computer for later manual enrollment.
You can copy and paste a certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste a certificate into a text editor and save the
file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Export
Click this button and then Save in the File Download screen. The Save As
screen opens, browse to the location that you want to use and click Save.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes. You can only change the name, except in the
case of a self-signed certificate, which you can also set to be the default selfsigned certificate that signs the imported trusted remote host certificates.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
16.10 Trusted CAs
Click CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen. This screen
displays a summary list of certificates of the certification authorities that you have set the
ZyXEL Device to accept as trusted. The ZyXEL Device accepts any valid certificate signed by
a certification authority on this list as being trustworthy; thus you do not need to import any
certificate that is signed by one of these certification authorities. See the following figure.
Figure 118 Trusted CAs
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 Trusted CAs
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s PKI storage space that is
currently in use. When you are using 80% or less of the storage space, the bar is
green. When the amount of space used is over 80%, the bar is red. When the bar
is red, you should consider deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before
adding more certificates.
#
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are listed in
alphabetical order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the
same information as in the Subject field.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or
has already expired.
CRL Issuer
This field displays Yes if the certification authority issues Certificate Revocation
Lists for the certificates that it has issued and you have selected the Issues
certificate revocation lists (CRL) check box in the certificate’s details screen to
have the ZyXEL Device check the CRL before trusting any certificates issued by
the certification authority. Otherwise the field displays “No”.
Details
Click Details to view in-depth information about the certification authority’s
certificate, change the certificate’s name and set whether or not you want the
ZyXEL Device to check a certification authority’s list of revoked certificates before
trusting a certificate issued by the certification authority.
Import
Click Import to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a certification
authority that you trust, from your computer to the ZyXEL Device.
Delete
Click Delete to delete an existing certificate. A window display asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate. Note that subsequent certificates
move up by one when you take this action.
Refresh
Click this button to display the current validity status of the certificates.
16.11 Importing a Trusted CA’s Certificate
Click CERTIFICATES >Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen and then click
Import to open the Trusted CA Import screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to save
a trusted certification authority’s certificate to the ZyXEL Device, see the following figure.
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Chapter 16 Certificates
"
You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import the certificate.
Figure 119 Trusted CA Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 Trusted CA Import
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Browse
Click Browse to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the Trusted CAs screen.
16.12 Trusted CA Certificate Details
Click CERTIFICATES > Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen. Click the details
icon to open the Trusted CA Details screen. Use this screen to view in-depth information
about the certification authority’s certificate, change the certificate’s name and set whether or
not you want the ZyXEL Device to check a certification authority’s list of revoked certificates
before trusting a certificate issued by the certification authority.
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Figure 120 Trusted CA Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 Trusted CA Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want to change
the name, type up to 31 characters to identify this key certificate. You may use
any character (not including spaces).
Property
Check incoming
certificates issued
by this CA against a
CRL
Select this check box to have the ZyXEL Device check incoming certificates that
are issued by this certification authority against a Certificate Revocation List
(CRL).
Clear this check box to have the ZyXEL Device not check incoming certificates
that are issued by this certification authority against a Certificate Revocation List
(CRL).
Certificate Path
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the end entity’s
certificate and a list of certification authority certificates that shows the hierarchy
of certification authorities that validate the end entity’s certificate. If the issuing
certification authority is one that you have imported as a trusted certification
authority, it may be the only certification authority in the list (along with the end
entity’s own certificate). The ZyXEL Device does not trust the end entity’s
certificate and displays “Not trusted” in this field if any certificate on the path has
expired or been revoked.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the certification path.
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Table 77 Trusted CA Details (continued)
198
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate
Information
These read-only fields display detailed information about the certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed means that the
certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a certification authority). X.509
means that this certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and Country
(C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing
certification authority, such as Common Name, Organizational Unit,
Organization and Country.
With self-signed certificates, this is the same information as in the Subject
Name field.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the certificate.
Some certification authorities use rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key
encryption algorithm and the SHA1 hash algorithm). Other certification
authorities may use ras-pkcs1-md5 (RSA public-private key encryption
algorithm and the MD5 hash algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not
yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire
or has already expired.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the ZyXEL Device uses RSA encryption) and the length of
the key set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate’s owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name (DNS)
or e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path.
CRL Distribution
Points
This field displays how many directory servers with Lists of revoked certificates
the issuing certification authority of this certificate makes available. This field
also displays the domain names or IP addresses of the servers.
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyXEL Device calculated using
the MD5 algorithm. You cannot use this value to verify that this is the remote
host’s actual certificate because the ZyXEL Device has signed the certificate;
thus causing this value to be different from that of the remote host’s actual
certificate. See Section 16.3 on page 184 for how to verify a remote host’s
certificate before you import it into the ZyXEL Device.
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Chapter 16 Certificates
Table 77 Trusted CA Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyXEL Device calculated using
the SHA1 algorithm. You cannot use this value to verify that this is the remote
host’s actual certificate because the ZyXEL Device has signed the certificate;
thus causing this value to be different from that of the remote host’s actual
certificate. See Section 16.3 on page 184 for how to verify a remote host’s
certificate before you import it into the ZyXEL Device.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters to convert the
binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste the certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste the certificate into a text editor and save
the file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Export
Click this button and then Save in the File Download screen. The Save As
screen opens, browse to the location that you want to use and click Save.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes. You can only change the name and/or set
whether or not you want the ZyXEL Device to check the CRL that the
certification authority issues before trusting a certificate issued by the
certification authority.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the Trusted CAs screen.
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CHAPTER
17
Log Screens
This chapter contains information about configuring general log settings and viewing the
ZyXEL Device’s logs.
17.1 Configuring View Log
The web configurator allows you to look at all of the ZyXEL Device’s logs in one location.
Click LOGS > View Log. Use the View Log screen to see the logs for the categories that you
selected in the Log Settings screen (see Figure 122 on page 203). Options include logs about
system maintenance, system errors and access control.
You can view logs and alert messages in this page. Once the log entries are all used, the log
will wrap around and the old logs will be deleted.
Click a column heading to sort the entries. A triangle indicates the direction of the sort order.
Figure 121 View Log
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 View Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Display
Select a log category from the drop down list box to display logs within the
selected category. To view all logs, select All Logs.
The number of categories shown in the drop down list box depends on the
selection in the Log Settings page.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Message
This field states the reason for the log.
Source
This field lists the source IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet.
Destination
This field lists the destination IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet.
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Table 78 View Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Notes
This field displays additional information about the log entry.
Email Log Now
Click Email Log Now to send the log screen to the e-mail address specified in
the Log Settings page.
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the log screen.
Clear Log
Click Clear Log to clear all the logs.
17.2 Configuring Log Settings
To change your ZyXEL Device’s log settings, click LOGS > Log Settings. The screen
appears as shown.
Use the Log Settings screen to configure to where and when the ZyXEL Device is to send the
logs and which logs and/or immediate alerts it is to send.
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. Some categories such as System
Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You may differentiate them by their color in the View
Log screen. Alerts are displayed in red and logs are displayed in black.
"
"
202
Not all fields are available on all models.
When the ZyXEL Device is in CAPWAP AP controller mode, log messages from
managed APs are relayed to the ZyXEL Device. The ZyXEL Device’s settings in
this screen determine whether events on the managed APs are logged or not.
At the time of writing, AP controller mode is available on the NWA-3160 only.
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Chapter 17 Log Screens
Figure 122 Log Settings
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 79 Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Address Info
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail
addresses specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert messages
will not be sent via e-mail.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the log e-mail message
that the ZyXEL Device sends.
Send Log to
Logs are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left
blank, logs will not be sent via e-mail.
Send Alerts to
Enter the e-mail address where the alert messages will be sent. If this field is
left blank, alert messages will not be sent via e-mail.
SMTP Authentication
If you use SMTP authentication, the mail receiver should be the owner of the
SMTP account.
User Name
If your e-mail account requires SMTP authentication, enter the username
here.
Password
Enter the password associated with the above username.
Syslog Logging
Syslog logging sends a log to an external syslog server used to store logs.
Active
Click Active to enable syslog logging.
Syslog Server IP
Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the
selected categories of logs.
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Table 79 Log Settings
LABEL
Log Facility
DESCRIPTION
Select a location from the drop down list box. The log facility allows you to log
the messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Send Log
Log Schedule
This drop-down menu is used to configure the frequency of log messages
being sent as E-mail:
• Daily
• Weekly
• Hourly
• When Log is Full
• None.
If the Weekly or the Daily option is selected, specify a time of day when the
E-mail should be sent. If the Weekly option is selected, then also specify
which day of the week the E-mail should be sent. If the When Log is Full
option is selected, an alert is sent when the log fills up. If you select None, no
log messages are sent.
Day for Sending
Log
This field is only available when you select Weekly in the Log Schedule field.
Use the drop down list box to select which day of the week to send the logs.
Time for Sending
Log
Enter the time of the day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals 11:00
pm) to send the logs.
Clear log after
sending mail
Select the check box to clear all logs after logs and alert messages are sent
via e-mail.
Log
Select the categories of logs that you want to record.
Send Immediate
Alert
Select the categories of alerts for which you want the ZyXEL Device to
immediately send e-mail alerts.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to reconfigure all the fields in this screen.
17.3 Example Log Messages
This section provides descriptions of some example log messages.
Table 80 System Maintenance Logs
204
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Time calibration is
successful
The router has adjusted its time based on information from the time
server.
Time calibration failed
The router failed to get information from the time server.
DHCP client gets %s
A DHCP client got a new IP address from the DHCP server.
DHCP client IP expired
A DHCP client's IP address has expired.
DHCP server assigns %s
The DHCP server assigned an IP address to a client.
SMT Login Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router's SMT interface.
SMT Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router's SMT interface.
WEB Login Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator interface.
WEB Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator
interface.
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Table 80 System Maintenance Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
TELNET Login
Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router via telnet.
TELNET Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router via telnet.
FTP Login Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router via FTP.
FTP Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router via FTP.
Table 81 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
Echo Reply
0
0
Echo reply message
Destination Unreachable
3
0
Net unreachable
1
Host unreachable
2
Protocol unreachable
3
Port unreachable
4
A packet that needed fragmentation was dropped because it was set to Don't
Fragment (DF)
5
Source route failed
Source Quench
4
0
A gateway may discard internet datagrams if it does not have the buffer space
needed to queue the datagrams for output to the next network on the route to the
destination network.
Redirect
5
0
Redirect datagrams for the Network
1
Redirect datagrams for the Host
2
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Network
3
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host
Echo
8
0
Echo message
Time Exceeded
11
0
Time to live exceeded in transit
1
Fragment reassembly time exceeded
Parameter Problem
12
0
Pointer indicates the error
Timestamp
13
0
Timestamp request message
Timestamp Reply
14
0
Timestamp reply message
Information Request
15
0
Information request message
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Table 81 ICMP Notes (continued)
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
Information Reply
16
0
Information reply message
Table 82 Sys log
LOG MESSAGE
Mon dd hr:mm:ss hostname
src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="<msg>" note="<note>"
DESCRIPTION
This message is sent by the "RAS" when this syslog is
generated. The messages and notes are defined in this
appendix’s other charts.
17.4 Log Commands
Go to the command interpreter interface (the Command Interpreter appendix explains how to access and
use the commands).
17.4.1 Configuring What You Want the ZyXEL Device to Log
Use the sys logs load command to load the log setting buffer that allows you to configure which logs
the ZyXEL Device is to record.
Use sys logs category followed by a log category and a parameter to decide what to record
Table 83 Log Categories and Available Settings
LOG CATEGORIES
AVAILABLE PARAMETERS
error
0, 1, 2, 3
mten
0, 1
Use 0 to not record logs for that category, 1 to record only logs for that category, 2 to record only
alerts for that category, and 3 to record both logs and alerts for that category.
Use the sys logs save command to store the settings in the ZyXEL Device (you must do this in order
to record logs).
17.4.2 Displaying Logs
Use the sys logs display command to show all of the logs in the ZyXEL Device’s log.
Use the sys logs category display command to show the log settings for all of the log categories.
Use the sys logs display [log category] command to show the logs in an individual ZyXEL
Device log category.
Use the sys logs clear command to erase all of the ZyXEL Device’s logs.
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17.5 Log Command Example
This example shows how to set the ZyXEL Device to record the error logs and alerts and then
view the results.
ras>
ras>
ras>
ras>
sys
sys
sys
sys
logs
logs
logs
logs
load
category error 3
save
display access
#.
time
source
0 | 11/11/2002 15:10:12 | 172.22.3.80:137
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|
destination
172.22.255.255:137
|
notes
ACCESS
message
BLOCK
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CHAPTER
18
VLAN
This chapter discusses how to configure VLAN on the ZyXEL Device.
18.1 VLAN
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into
multiple logical networks. Stations on a logical network can belong to one or more groups.
Only stations within the same group can talk to each other.
18.1.1 Management VLAN ID
The Management VLAN ID identifies the “management VLAN”. A device must be a member
of this “management VLAN” in order to access and manage the ZyXEL Device. If a device is
not a member of this VLAN, then that device cannot manage the ZyXEL Device.
"
If no devices are in the management VLAN, then you will be able to access the
ZyXEL Device only through the console port (not through the network).
18.1.2 VLAN Tagging
The ZyXEL Device supports IEEE 802.1q VLAN tagging. Tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag
(VLAN ID) in the MAC header of a frame to identify VLAN membership. The ZyXEL
Device can identify VLAN tags for incoming Ethernet frames and add VLAN tags to outgoing
Ethernet frames.
"
You must connect the ZyXEL Device to a VLAN-aware device that is a member
of the management VLAN in order to perform management. See the Configuring
Management VLAN example BEFORE you configure the VLAN screens.
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18.2 Configuring VLAN
The ZyXEL Device allows you to configure VLAN based on SSID profile (wireless VLAN),
and / or based on your RADIUS server (RADIUS VLAN).
• When you use wireless VLAN, the ZyXEL Device tags all packets from an SSID with the
VLAN ID you set in the Wireless VLAN screen.
• When you use RADIUS VLAN, your RADIUS server assigns VLAN IDs to a user or user
group’s traffic based on the configuration in the RADIUS VLAN screen.
• When you use wireless VLAN and RADIUS VLAN together, the ZyXEL Device first
tries to assign VLAN IDs based on RADIUS VLAN configuration. If a client’s user name
does not match an entry in the RADIUS VLAN screen, the ZyXEL Device assigns a
VLAN ID based on the settings in the Wireless VLAN screen. See Section 18.2.4 on page
216 for more information.
"
To use RADIUS VLAN, you must first select Enable VIRTUAL LAN and configure
the Management VLAN ID in the VLAN > WIRELESS VLAN screen.
18.2.1 Wireless VLAN
Click VLAN > WIRELESS VLAN. The following screen appears.
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Figure 123 WIRELESS VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen
Table 84 WIRELESS VLAN
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Enable VIRTUAL LAN
Select this box to enable VLAN tagging.
Management VLAN ID
Enter a number from 1 to 4094 to define this VLAN group. At least
one device in your network must belong to this VLAN group in order
to manage the ZyXEL Device.
Note: Mail and FTP servers must have the same
management VLAN ID to communicate with
the ZyXEL Device.
See Section 18.2.3 on page 213 for more information.
VLAN Mapping Table
Use this table to have the ZyXEL Device assign VLAN tags to
packets from wireless clients based on the SSID they use to
connect to the ZyXEL Device.
Index
This is the index number of the SSID profile.
Name
This is the name of the SSID profile.
SSID
This is the SSID the profile uses.
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Table 84 WIRELESS VLAN
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
VLAN ID
Enter a VLAN ID number from 1 to 4094. Packets coming from the
WLAN using this SSID profile are tagged with the VLAN ID number
by the ZyXEL Device. Different SSID profiles can use the same or
different VLAN IDs. This allows you to split wireless stations into
groups using similar VLAN IDs.
Second Rx VLAN ID
Enter a number from 1 to 4094, but different from the VLAN ID.
Traffic received from the LAN that is tagged with this VLAN ID is
sent to all SSIDs with this VLAN ID configured in the VLAN ID or
Second Rx VLAN ID fields. See Section 18.2.5 on page 224 for
more information.
Apply
Click this to save your changes to the ZyXEL Device.
Reset
Click this to return this screen to its last-saved settings.
18.2.2 RADIUS VLAN
Click VLAN > RADIUS VLAN. The following screen appears.
Figure 124 RADIUS VLAN
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 85 RADIUS VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Block station if
RADIUS server assign
VLAN name error
Select this to have the ZyXEL Device forbid access to wireless clients when
the VLAN attributes sent from the RADIUS server do not match a configured
Name field.
When you select this check box, only users with names configured in this
screen can access the network through the ZyXEL Device.
VLAN Mapping Table
Use this table to map names to VLAN IDs so that the RADIUS server can
assign each user or user group a mapped VLAN ID. See your RADIUS server
documentation for more information on configuring VLAN ID attributes.
See Section 18.2.4 on page 216 for more information.
Index
Select a check box to enable the VLAN mapping profile.
ID
Type a VLAN ID. Incoming traffic from the WLAN is authorized and assigned
a VLAN ID before it is sent to the LAN.
Name
Type a name to have the ZyXEL Device check for specific VLAN attributes on
incoming messages from the RADIUS server. Access-accept packets sent by
the RADIUS server contain VLAN related attributes. The configured Name
fields are checked against these attributes. If a configured Name field
matches these attributes, the corresponding VLAN ID is added to packets
sent from this user to the LAN.
If the VLAN-related attributes sent by the RADIUS server do not match a
configured Name field, a wireless station is assigned the wireless VLAN ID
associated with its SSID (unless the Block station if RADIUS server assign
VLAN error! check box is selected).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the ZyXEL Device.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
18.2.3 Configuring Management VLAN Example
This section shows you how to create a VLAN on an Ethernet switch.
By default, the port on the ZyXEL Device is a member of the management VLAN (VLAN ID
1). The following procedure shows you how to configure a tagged VLAN.
"
Use the out-of-band management port or console port to configure the switch if
you misconfigure the management VLAN and lock yourself out from performing
in-band management.
On an Ethernet switch, create a VLAN that has the same management VLAN ID as the
ZyXEL Device. The following figure has the ZyXEL Device connected to port 2 of the switch
and your computer connected to port 1. The management VLAN ID is ten.
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Figure 125 Management VLAN Configuration Example
Perform the following steps in the switch web configurator:
1
2
3
4
5
Click VLAN under Advanced Application.
Click Static VLAN.
Select the ACTIVE check box.
Type a Name for the VLAN ID.
Type a VLAN Group ID. This should be the same as the management VLAN ID on the
ZyXEL Device.
6 Enable Tx Tagging on the port which you want to connect to the ZyXEL Device.
Disable Tx Tagging on the port you are using to connect to your computer.
7 Under Control, select Fixed to set the port as a member of the VLAN.
Figure 126 VLAN-Aware Switch - Static VLAN
8 Click Apply. The following screen displays.
Figure 127 VLAN-Aware Switch
9 Click VLAN Status to display the following screen.
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Figure 128 VLAN-Aware Switch - VLAN Status
Follow the instructions in the Quick Start Guide to set up your ZyXEL Device for
configuration. The ZyXEL Device should be connected to the VLAN-aware switch. In the
above example, the switch is using port 1 to connect to your computer and port 2 to connect to
the ZyXEL Device: Figure 125 on page 214.
1 In the ZyXEL Device web configurator click VLAN to open the VLAN setup screen.
2 Select the Enable VLAN Tagging check box and type a Management VLAN ID (10 in
this example) in the field provided.
3 Click Apply.
Figure 129 VLAN Setup
4 The ZyXEL Device attempts to connect with a VLAN-aware device. You can now
access and mange the ZyXEL Device though the Ethernet switch.
"
If you do not connect the ZyXEL Device to a correctly configured VLAN-aware
device, you will lock yourself out of the ZyXEL Device. If this happens, you
must reset the ZyXEL Device to access it again.
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18.2.4 Configuring Microsoft’s IAS Server Example
Dynamic VLAN assignment can be used with the ZyXEL Device. Dynamic VLAN
assignment allows network administrators to assign a specific VLAN (configured on the
ZyXEL Device) to an individual’s Windows User Account. When a wireless station is
successfully authenticated to the network, it is automatically placed into it’s respective VLAN.
ZyXEL uses the following standard RADIUS attributes returned from Microsoft’s IAS
RADIUS service to place the wireless station into the correct VLAN:
Table 86 Standard RADIUS Attributes
ATTRIBUTE NAME
TYPE
VALUE
Tunnel-Type
064
13 (decimal) – VLAN
Tunnel-Medium-Type
065
6 (decimal) – 802
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID 081
<vlan-name> (string) – either the Name you enter in the ZyXEL
Device’s VLAN > RADIUS VLAN screen or the number. See
Figure 141 on page 222.
The following occurs under Dynamic VLAN Assignment:
1 When you configure your wireless credentials, the ZyXEL Device sends the information
to the IAS server using RADIUS protocol.
2 Authentication by the RADIUS server is successful.
3 The RADIUS server sends three attributes related to this feature.
4 The ZyXEL Device compares these attributes with the VLAN screen mapping table.
4a If the Name, for example “VLAN 20” is found, the mapped VLAN ID is used.
4b If the Name is not found in the mapping table, the string in the Tunnel-PrivateGroup-ID attribute is considered as a number ID format, for example 2493. The
range of the number ID (Name:string) is between 1 and 4094.
4c If a or b are not matched, the ZyXEL Device uses the VLAN ID configured in the
WIRELESS VLAN screen and the wireless station. This VLAN ID is independent
and hence different to the ID in the VLAN screen.
18.2.4.1 Configuring VLAN Groups
To configure a VLAN group you must first define the VLAN Groups on the Active Directory
server and assign the user accounts to each VLAN Group.
1 Using the Active Directory Users and Computers administrative tool, create the VLAN
Groups that will be used for each VLAN ID. One VLAN Group must be created for each
VLAN defined on the ZyXEL Device. The VLAN Groups must be created as Global/
Security groups.
• Type a name for the VLAN Group that describes the VLAN Group’s function.
• Select the Global Group scope parameter check box.
• Select the Security Group type parameter check box.
• Click OK.
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Figure 130 New Global Security Group
2 In VLAN Group ID Properties, click the Members tab.
• The IAS uses group memberships to determine which user accounts belong to which
VLAN groups. Click the Add button and configure the VLAN group details.
3 Repeat the previous step to add each VLAN group required.
Figure 131 Add Group Members
18.2.4.2 Configuring Remote Access Policies
Once the VLAN Groups have been created, the IAS Remote Access Policy needs to be
defined. This allows the IAS to compare the user account being authenticated against the
group memberships of each VLAN Group.
1 Using the Remote Access Policy option on the Internet Authentication Service
management interface, create a new VLAN Policy for each VLAN Group defined in the
previous section. The order of the remote access policies is important. The most specific
policies should be placed at the top of the policy list and the most general at the bottom.
For example, if the Day-And-Time Restriction policy is still present, it should be moved
to the bottom or deleted to allow the VLAN Group policies to take precedence.
• Right click Remote Access Policy and select New Remote Access Policy.
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• Enter a Policy friendly name that describes the policy. Each Remote Access Policy will
be matched to one VLAN Group. An example may be, Allow - VLAN 10 Policy.
• Click Next.
Figure 132 New Remote Access Policy for VLAN Group
2 The Conditions window displays. Select Add to add a condition for this policy to act on.
3 In the Select Attribute screen, click Windows-Groups and the Add button.
Figure 133 Specifying Windows-Group Condition
4 The Select Groups window displays. Select a remote access policy and click the Add
button. The policy is added to the field below. Only one VLAN Group should be
associated with each policy.
5 Click OK and Next in the next few screens to accept the group value.
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Figure 134 Adding VLAN Group
6 When the Permissions options screen displays, select Grant remote access
permission.
• Click Next to grant access based on group membership.
• Click the Edit Profile button.
Figure 135 Granting Permissions and User Profile Screens
7 The Edit Dial-in Profile screen displays. Click the Authentication tab and select the
Extensible Authentication Protocol check box.
• Select an EAP type depending on your authentication needs from the drop-down list box.
• Clear the check boxes for all other authentication types listed below the drop-down list
box.
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Figure 136 Authentication Tab Settings
8 Click the Encryption tab. Select the Strongest encryption option. This step is not
required for EAP-MD5, but is performed as a safeguard.
Figure 137 Encryption Tab Settings
9 Click the IP tab and select the Client may request an IP address check box for DHCP
support.
10 Click the Advanced tab. The current default parameters returned to the ZyXEL Device
should be Service-Type and Framed-Protocol.
• Click the Add button to add an additional three RADIUS VLAN attributes required for
802.1X Dynamic VLAN Assignment.
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Figure 138 Connection Attributes Screen
11 The RADIUS Attribute screen displays. From the list, three RADIUS attributes will be
added:
• Tunnel-Medium-Type
• Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID
• Tunnel-Type
• Click the Add button
• Select Tunnel-Medium-Type
• Click the Add button.
Figure 139 RADIUS Attribute Screen
12 The Enumerable Attribute Information screen displays. Select the 802 value from the
Attribute value drop-down list box.
• Click OK.
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Figure 140 802 Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Medium-Type
13 Return to the RADIUS Attribute Screen shown as Figure 139 on page 221.
• Select Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID.
• Click Add.
14 The Attribute Information screen displays.
• In the Enter the attribute value in: field select String and type a number in the range 1
to 4094 or a Name for this policy. This Name should match a name in the VLAN mapping
table on the ZyXEL Device. Wireless stations belonging to the VLAN Group specified in
this policy will be given a VLAN ID specified in the ZyXEL Device VLAN table.
• Click OK.
Figure 141 VLAN ID Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID
15 Return to the RADIUS Attribute Screen shown as Figure 139 on page 221.
• Select Tunnel-Type.
• Click Add.
16 The Enumerable Attribute Information screen displays.
• Select Virtual LANs (VLAN) from the attribute value drop-down list box.
• Click OK.
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Figure 142 VLAN Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Type
17 Return to the RADIUS Attribute Screen shown as Figure 139 on page 221.
• Click the Close button.
• The completed Advanced tab configuration should resemble the following screen.
Figure 143 Completed Advanced Tab
"
Repeat the Configuring Remote Access Policies procedure for each VLAN
Group defined in the Active Directory. Remember to place the most general
Remote Access Policies at the bottom of the list and the most specific at the
top of the list.
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18.2.5 Second Rx VLAN ID Example
In this example, the ZyXEL Device is configured to tag packets from SSID01 with VLAN ID
1 and tag packets from SSID02 with VLAN ID 2. VLAN 1 and VLAN 2 have access to a
server, S, and the Internet, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 144 Second Rx VLAN ID Example
Packets sent from the server S back to the switch are tagged with a VLAN ID (incoming
VLAN ID). These incoming VLAN packets are forwarded to the ZyXEL Device. The ZyXEL
Device compares the VLAN ID in the packet header with each SSID’s configured VLAN ID
and second Rx VLAN ID settings.
In this example, SSID01’s second Rx VLAN ID is set to 2. All incoming packets tagged with
VLAN ID 2 are forwarded to SSID02, and also to SSID01. However, SSID02 has no second
Rx VLAN ID configured, and the ZyXEL Device forwards only packets tagged with VLAN
ID 2 to it.
18.2.5.1 Second Rx VLAN Setup Example
The following steps show you how to setup a second Rx VLAN ID on the ZyXEL Device.
1 Log into the Web Configurator.
2 Click VLAN > Wireless VLAN.
3 If VLAN is not already enabled, click Enable Virtual LAN and set up the
Management VLAN ID (see Section 18.2.3 on page 213).
"
If no devices are in the management VLAN, then no one will be able to access
the ZyXEL Device and you will have to restore the default configuration file.
4 Select the SSID profile you want to configure (SSID03 in this example), and enter the
VLAN ID number (between 1 and 4094).
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5 Enter a Second Rx VLAN ID. The following screen shows SSID03 tagged with a
VLAN ID of 3 and a Second Rx VLAN ID of 4.
Figure 145 Configuring SSID: Second Rx VLAN ID Example
6 Click Apply to save these settings. Outgoing packets from clients in SSID03 are tagged
with a VLAN ID of 3, and incoming packets with a VLAN ID of 3 or 4 are forwarded to
SSID03.
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CHAPTER
19
Maintenance
This chapter displays system information such as ZyNOS firmware, port IP addresses and port
traffic statistics.
19.1 Maintenance Overview
The maintenance screens can help you view system information, upload new firmware,
manage configuration and restart your ZyXEL Device.
19.2 System Status Screen (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
Click MAINTENANCE to open the System Status screen, where you can see information
about your ZyXEL Device. Note that the labels in this screen are READ-ONLY and are meant
to be used for diagnostic purposes.
Figure 146 System Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 87 System Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
This is the System Name you can configure in the SYSTEM > General
screen. It is for identification purposes
ZyNOS Firmware
Version
This is the ZyNOS Firmware version and date created. ZyNOS is ZyXEL's
proprietary Network Operating System design.
IP Address
This is the Ethernet port IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This is the Ethernet port subnet mask.
DHCP
This is the Ethernet port DHCP role - Client or None.
Show Statistics
Click Show Statistics to see router performance statistics such as number of
packets sent and number of packets received for each port.
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19.2.1 System Statistics
Click Maintenance > Show Statistics. Read-only information here includes port status,
packet specific statistics and bridge link status. Also provided are "system up time" and "poll
interval(s)". The Poll Interval field is configurable. The fields in this screen vary according to
the current wireless mode.
Figure 147 System Status: Show Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 88 System Status: Show Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the Ethernet port (LAN) or wireless LAN.
Status
This shows the port speed and duplex setting if you are using Ethernet
encapsulation for the Ethernet port. Ethernet port connections can be in halfduplex or full-duplex mode. Full-duplex refers to a device's ability to send and
receive simultaneously, while half-duplex indicates that traffic can flow in only
one direction at a time. The Ethernet port must use the same speed or duplex
mode setting as the peer Ethernet port in order to connect.
This shows the transmission speed only for the wireless adaptors.
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets on this port.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets on this port.
Collisions
This is the number of collisions on this port.
Tx B/s
This shows the transmission speed in bytes per second on this port.
Rx B/s
This shows the reception speed in bytes per second on this port.
Up Time
This is total amount of time the line has been up.
Poll Interval(s)
Enter the time interval for refreshing statistics.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered above.
Stop
Click this button to stop refreshing statistics.
19.3 Association List
View the wireless stations that are currently associated with the ZyXEL Device in the
Association List screen.
Click MAINTENANCE > Association List to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 148 Association List
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 89 Association List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Stations
Index
This is the index number of an associated wireless station.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address of an associated wireless station.
Association Time
This field displays the time a wireless station first associated with the ZyXEL
Device.
SSID
This field displays the SSID to which the wireless station is associated.
Signal
This field displays the RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) of the
wireless connection.
Refresh
Click Refresh to reload the screen.
19.4 Channel Usage (NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 Only)
The Channel Usage screen shows whether a channel is used by another wireless network or
not. If a channel is being used, you should select a channel removed from it by five channels to
completely avoid overlap.
Click MAINTENANCE > Channel Usage to display the screen shown next.
Wait a moment while the ZyXEL Device compiles the information.
Figure 149 Channel Usage
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 90 Channel Usage
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSID
This is the Service Set IDentification name of the AP in an Infrastructure
wireless network or wireless station in an Ad-Hoc wireless network. For our
purposes, we define an Infrastructure network as a wireless network that uses
an AP and an Ad-Hoc network (also known as Independent Basic Service Set
(IBSS)) as one that doesn’t. See the chapter on wireless configuration for more
information on basic service sets (BSS) and extended service sets (ESS).
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address of the AP in an Infrastructure wireless
network. It is randomly generated (so ignore it) in an Ad-Hoc wireless network.
Channel
This is the index number of the channel currently used by the associated AP in
an Infrastructure wireless network or wireless station in an Ad-Hoc wireless
network.
Signal
This field displays the strength of the AP’s signal. If you must choose a channel
that’s currently in use, choose one with low signal strength for minimum
interference.
Network Mode
“Network mode” in this screen refers to your wireless LAN infrastructure (refer
to the Wireless LAN chapter) and security setup.
Refresh
Click Refresh to reload the screen.
19.5 F/W Upload Screen
Find firmware at www.zyxel.com in a file that (usually) uses the system model name with a
"*.bin" extension, for example "NWA-3160.bin". The upload process uses HTTP (Hypertext
Transfer Protocol) and may take up to two minutes. After a successful upload, the system will
reboot. See the Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance chapter for upgrading firmware
using FTP/TFTP commands.
Click MAINTENANCE > F/W Upload. Follow the instructions in this screen to upload
firmware to your ZyXEL Device.
Figure 150 Firmware Upload
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 91 Firmware Upload
230
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ...
to find it.
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Table 91 Firmware Upload
1
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two
minutes.
Do not turn off the ZyXEL Device while firmware upload is in progress!
After you see the Firmware Upload in Process screen, wait two minutes before logging into
the ZyXEL Device again.
Figure 151 Firmware Upload In Process
The ZyXEL Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network
disconnect. In some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 152 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the System Status
screen.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to go back to
the F/W Upload screen.
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Figure 153 Firmware Upload Error
19.6 Configuration Screen
See Chapter 26 on page 257 for information on how to transfer configuration files using FTP/
TFTP commands.
Click MAINTENANCE > Configuration. Information related to factory defaults, backup
configuration, and restoring configuration appears as shown next.
Figure 154 Configuration
19.6.1 Backup Configuration
Backup configuration allows you to back up (save) the ZyXEL Device’s current configuration
to a file on your computer. Once your ZyXEL Device is configured and functioning properly,
it is highly recommended that you back up your configuration file before making
configuration changes. The backup configuration file will be useful in case you need to return
to your previous settings.
Click Backup to save the ZyXEL Device’s current configuration to your computer.
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19.6.2 Restore Configuration
Restore configuration allows you to upload a new or previously saved configuration file from
your computer to your ZyXEL Device.
Table 92 Restore Configuration
1
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ...
to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process.
Do not turn off the ZyXEL Device while configuration file upload is in progress.
After you see a “restore configuration successful” screen, you must then wait one minute
before logging into the ZyXEL Device again.
Figure 155 Configuration Upload Successful
The ZyXEL Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network
disconnect. In some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 156 Network Temporarily Disconnected
If you uploaded the default configuration file you may need to change the IP address of your
computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default ZyXEL Device IP address
(192.168.1.2). See your Quick Start Guide for details on how to set up your computer’s IP
address.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to go back to
the Configuration screen.
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Figure 157 Configuration Upload Error
19.6.3 Back to Factory Defaults
Pressing the Reset button in this section clears all user-entered configuration information and
returns the ZyXEL Device to its factory defaults as shown on the screen. The following
warning screen will appear.
Figure 158 Reset Warning Message
You can also press the RESET button to reset your ZyXEL Device to its factory default
settings. Refer to Section 2.2 on page 44 for more information.
19.7 Restart Screen
System restart allows you to reboot the ZyXEL Device without turning the power off.
Click MAINTENANCE > Restart. Click Restart to have the ZyXEL Device reboot. This
does not affect the ZyXEL Device's configuration.
Figure 159 Restart Screen
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P ART III
SMT,
Troubleshooting
and Specifications
Introducing the SMT (237)
General Setup (243)
LAN Setup (245)
SNMP Configuration (247)
System Password (249)
System Information and Diagnosis (251)
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance (257)
System Maintenance and Information (263)
Troubleshooting (271)
Product Specifications (277)
235
236
CHAPTER
20
Introducing the SMT
This chapter describes how to access the SMT and provides an overview of its menus.
"
At the time of writing, only the NWA-3165 provides an SMT.
20.1 Introduction to the SMT
The ZyXEL Device’s SMT (System Management Terminal) is a menu-driven interface that
you can access from a terminal emulator through the console port or over a telnet connection.
This chapter shows you how to access the SMT (System Management Terminal) menus, how
to navigate the SMT and how to configure SMT menus.
20.2 Accessing the SMT via the Console Port
Use the console port to configure the ZyXEL Device via SMT menus. Connect the PS/2
connector of the console cable to the console port of the ZyXEL Device and the other end to a
serial port (COM1, COM2 or other COM port) on your computer.
When configuring using the console port, you need a computer equipped with
communications software configured to the following parameters:
• VT100 terminal emulation.
• 9600 Baud.
• No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, flow control set to none.
20.2.1 Initial Screen
When you turn on your ZyXEL Device, it performs several internal tests.
After the tests, the ZyXEL Device asks you to press [ENTER] to continue, as shown next.
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Chapter 20 Introducing the SMT
Figure 160 Initial Screen
Bootbase Version: V1.05 | 03/23/2007 11:39:53
RAM:Size = 32 Mbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 32608K OK
DRAM Test SUCCESS !
FLASH: AMD 32M
ZyNOS Version: V3.60(AAL.0)b1 | 04/13/2007 19:40:56
Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.
..........................................................
..
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2008 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
initialize ch =0, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =1, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =2, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =3, ethernet address: 06:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =4, ethernet address: 0A:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =5, ethernet address: 0E:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =6, ethernet address: 12:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =7, ethernet address: 16:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =8, ethernet address: 1A:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =9, ethernet address: 1E:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =10, ethernet address: 06:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =11, ethernet address: 0A:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =12, ethernet address: 0E:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =13, ethernet address: 12:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =14, ethernet address: 16:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =15, ethernet address: 1A:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =16, ethernet address: 1E:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =17, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =18, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =19, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =20, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =21, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A8
initialize ch =22, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =23, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =24, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =25, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A9
initialize ch =26, ethernet address: 00:13:49:DF:42:A9
Press ENTER to continue...
20.2.2 Entering the Password
The login screen appears after you press [ENTER], prompting you to enter the password, as
shown below.
For your first login, enter the default password “1234”. As you type the password, the screen
displays an “X” for each character you type.
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"
Whether or not you use administrator authentication on RADIUS, you still use
the local system password to log in via the console port.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes after you log in, your
ZyXEL Device will automatically log you out and display a blank screen. If you see a blank
screen, press [ENTER] to bring up the login screen again.
Figure 161 Password Screen
Enter Password : XXXX
20.3 Connect to your ZyXEL Device Using Telnet
The following procedure details how to telnet into your ZyXEL Device.
1 In Windows, click Start (usually in the bottom left corner), Run and then type “telnet
192.168.1.2” (the default IP address) and click OK.
2 For your first login, enter the default password “1234”. As you type the password, the
screen displays an asterisk “*” for each character you type.
Figure 162 Login Screen
Password : xxxx
3 After entering the password you will see the main menu.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes (default timeout period)
after you log in, your ZyXEL Device will automatically log you out. You will then have to
telnet into the ZyXEL Device again. You can use the web configurator or the CI commands to
change the inactivity time out period.
20.4 Changing the System Password
Change the ZyXEL Device’s default password by following the steps shown next.
1 From the main menu, enter “23” to display Menu 23 – System Password.
2 Type your existing system password in the Old Password field, and press [ENTER].
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Chapter 20 Introducing the SMT
Figure 163 Menu 23 System Password
Menu 23 – System Password
Old Password= ****
New Password= ?
Retype to confirm= ?
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
3 Type your new system password in the New Password field (up to 30 characters), and
press [ENTER].
4 Re-type your new system password in the Retype to confirm field for confirmation and
press [ENTER].
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk “*” for each character you
type.
20.5 SMT Menu Overview Example
The following table gives you an overview of your ZyXEL Device’s various SMT menus.
Table 93 SMT Menus Overview
MENUS
SUB MENUS
1 General Setup
3 LAN Setup
3.2 TCP/IP Setup
22 SNMP Configuration
(NWA-3160 and NWA3163 only)
23 System Password
24 System Maintenance 24.1 System Status
24.2 System Information and
Console Port Speed
24.2.1 System Information
24.2.2 Console Port Speed
24.3 Log and Trace
24.4 Diagnostic
24.8 Command Interpreter Mode
24.10 Time and Date Setting
24.11 Remote Management Setup
20.6 Navigating the SMT Interface
The SMT (System Management Terminal) is the interface that you use to configure your
ZyXEL Device.
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Several operations that you should be familiar with before you attempt to modify the
configuration are listed in the table below.
Table 94 Main Menu Commands
OPERATION
KEYSTROKE
DESCRIPTION
Move down to
another menu
[ENTER]
To move forward to a submenu, type in the number of the
desired submenu and press [ENTER].
Move up to a
previous menu
[ESC]
Press [ESC] to move back to the previous menu.
Move to a “hidden”
menu
Press [SPACE
BAR] to change No
to Yes then press
[ENTER].
Fields beginning with “Edit” lead to hidden menus and
have a default setting of No. Press [SPACE BAR] once to
change No to Yes, then press [ENTER] to go to the
“hidden” menu.
Move the cursor
[ENTER] or [UP]/
[DOWN] arrow
keys.
Within a menu, press [ENTER] to move to the next field.
You can also use the [UP]/[DOWN] arrow keys to move to
the previous and the next field, respectively.
Entering
information
Type in or press
[SPACE BAR], then
press [ENTER].
You need to fill in two types of fields. The first requires you
to type in the appropriate information. The second allows
you to cycle through the available choices by pressing
[SPACE BAR].
Required fields
<?> or ChangeMe
All fields with the symbol <?> must be filled in order to be
able to save the new configuration.
All fields with ChangeMe must not be left blank in order to
be able to save the new configuration.
N/A fields
<N/A>
Some of the fields in the SMT will show a <N/A>. This
symbol refers to an option that is Not Applicable.
Save your
configuration
[ENTER]
Save your configuration by pressing [ENTER] at the
message “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel”.
Saving the data on the screen will take you, in most cases
to the previous menu.
Exit the SMT
Type “99”, then
press [ENTER].
Type 99 at the main menu prompt and press [ENTER] to
exit the SMT interface.
After you enter the password, the SMT displays the main menu, as shown next.
"
Not all fields are available in all models.
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Chapter 20 Introducing the SMT
Figure 164 SMT Main Menu
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2008 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
NWA-3160 Main Menu
Getting Started
1. General Setup
3. LAN Setup
Advanced Management
22. SNMP Configuration
23. System Security
24. System Maintenance
99. Exit
Enter Menu Selection Number:
20.6.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary
Table 95 Main Menu Summary
#
MENU TITLE
DESCRIPTION
1
General Setup
Use this menu to set up your general information.
3
LAN Setup
Use this menu to set up your LAN and WLAN connection.
22
SNMP Configuration
Use this menu to set up SNMP related parameters (NWA-3160 and NWA3163 only).
23
System Password
Use this menu to change your password.
24
System Maintenance
This menu provides system status, diagnostics, software upload, etc.
99
Exit
Use this to exit the SMT.
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CHAPTER
21
General Setup
The chapter shows you the information on general setup.
21.1 General Setup
Menu 1 – General Setup contains administrative and system-related information (shown
next). The System Name field is for identification purposes.
The Domain Name entry is what is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN. While you
must enter the host name (System Name) on each individual computer, the domain name can
be assigned from the ZyXEL Device via DHCP.
21.1.1 Procedure To Configure Menu 1
Enter “1” in the Main Menu to open Menu 1 – General Setup as shown next.
Figure 165 Menu 1 General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup
System Name= NWA-Series
Domain Name=
First System DNS Server= None
IP Address= N/A
Second System DNS Server= None
IP Address= N/A
Third System DNS Server= None
IP Address= N/A
Fill in the required fields. Refer to the following table for more information about these fields.
Table 96 Menu 1 General Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name can be up
to 30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but dashes “-”
and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
This is not a required field. Leave this field blank or enter the domain name
here if you know it.
First/Second/Third
System DNS Server
Press [SPACE BAR] to select From DHCP, User Defined or None and press
[ENTER].
These fields are not available on all models.
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Chapter 21 General Setup
Table 96 Menu 1 General Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. This field is available when you
select User-Defined in the field above.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER
22
LAN Setup
This chapter shows you how to configure the LAN on your ZyXEL Device.
22.1 LAN Setup
This section describes how to configure the Ethernet using Menu 3 – LAN Setup. From the
main menu, enter “3” to display menu 3.
Figure 166 Menu 3 LAN Setup
Menu 3 - LAN Setup
2. TCP/IP Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Detailed explanation about the LAN Setup menu is given in the next chapter.
22.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup
Use menu 3.2 to configure your ZyXEL Device for TCP/IP.
To edit menu 3.2, enter “3” from the main menu to display Menu 3-LAN Setup. When menu
3 appears, type “2” and press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.2-TCP/IP Setup, as shown next:
Figure 167 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP Setup
IP Address Assignment= Static
IP Address= 192.168.1.2
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
Gateway IP Address= 0.0.0.0
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Follow the instructions in the following table on how to configure the fields in this menu.
Table 97 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Assignment
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Dynamic to have the ZyXEL
Device obtain an IP address from a DHCP server. You must know the IP address
assigned to the ZyXEL Device (by the DHCP server) to access the ZyXEL Device
again.
Select Static to give the ZyXEL Device a fixed, unique IP address. Enter a subnet
mask appropriate to your network and the gateway IP address if applicable.
IP Address
Enter the (LAN) IP address of your ZyXEL Device in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask
Your ZyXEL Device will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP
address that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet
mask computed by the ZyXEL Device.
Gateway IP
Address
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your
ZyXEL Device that will forward the packet to the destination. On the LAN, the
gateway must be a router on the same network segment as your ZyXEL Device.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER
23
SNMP Configuration
This chapter explains SNMP Configuration menu 22. See the web configurator chapter on
SNMP for background information.
"
This menu is available in the NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 only.
23.1 SNMP Configuration
To configure SNMP, select option 22 from the main menu to open Menu 22 – SNMP
Configuration as shown next. The “community” for Get, Set and Trap fields is SNMP
terminology for password.
Figure 168 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
Menu 22 - SNMP Configuration
SNMP:
Get Community= public
Set Community= public
Trusted Host= 0.0.0.0
Trap:
Community= public
Destination= 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the SNMP configuration parameters.
Table 98 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
SNMP:
Get Community
Type the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get- and
GetNext requests from the management station.
Set Community
Type the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from
the management station.
Trusted Host
If you enter a trusted host, your ZyXEL Device will only respond to SNMP
messages from this address. A blank (default) field means your ZyXEL Device will
respond to all SNMP messages it receives, regardless of source.
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Table 98 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Trap:
Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the SNMP
manager.
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
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CHAPTER
24
System Password
This chapter describes how to configure the ZyXEL Device’s system password.
24.1 System Password
You can configure the system password in this menu. Refer to Section 20.4 on page 239.
Figure 169 Menu 23 System Password
Menu 23 – System Password
Old Password= ?
New Password= ?
Retype to confirm= ?
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
You should change the default password. If you forget your password you have to restore the
default configuration file. Refer to Section 2.2 on page 44.
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Chapter 24 System Password
250
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CHAPTER
25
System Information and
Diagnosis
This chapter covers the information and diagnostic tools in SMT menus 24.1 to 24.4.
These tools include updates on system status, port status, log and trace capabilities and
upgrades for the system software. This chapter describes how to use these tools in detail.
Type “24” in the main menu and press [ENTER] to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance, as
shown in the following figure.
Figure 170 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
8.
Command Interpreter Mode
10. Time and Date Setting
11. Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
25.1 System Status
The first selection, System Status gives you information on the status and statistics of the
ports, as shown next. System Status is a tool that can be used to monitor your ZyXEL Device.
Specifically, it gives you information on your Ethernet and Wireless LAN status, and the
number of packets sent and received.
To get to System Status, type “24” to go to Menu 24 – System Maintenance. From this
menu, type “1”. There are two commands in Menu 24.1 – System Maintenance – Status.
Entering 9 resets the counters; pressing [ESC] takes you back to the previous screen.
The following table describes the fields present in Menu 24.1 – System Maintenance –
Status which are read-only and meant for diagnostic purposes.
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Figure 171 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status
Port
Status
Ethernet 100M/Full
WLAN1
54M
WLAN2
Down
Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance - Status
00:15:06
Sat. Jan. 01, 2000
TxPkts
761
515
0
Rx B/s
192
0
0
Port
Ethernet Address
Ethernet 00:19:CB:1C:08:2A
WLAN1
00:19:CB:1C:08:2A
WLAN2
00:00:00:00:00:00
RxPkts
366
0
0
Cols
0
0
0
IP Address
192.168.1.2
Tx B/s
305
64
0
IP Mask
255.255.255.0
Up Time
0:15:01
0:15:04
0:00:00
DHCP
None
System up Time:
0:15:09
ZyNOS F/W Version: V3.60(AAL.0)b1 | 04/13/2007
Name: NWA-Series
Press Command:
COMMANDS: 9-Reset Counters
ESC-Exit
The following table describes the fields present in this menu.
Table 99 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the port type. Port types are: Ethernet, WLAN1 and WLAN2. WLAN2 is not
supported.
Status
This shows the status of the remote node.
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets to this remote node.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets from this remote node.
Cols
This is the number of collisions on this connection.
Tx B/s
This shows the transmission rate in bytes per second.
Rx B/s
This shows the receiving rate in bytes per second.
Up Time
This is the time this channel has been connected to the current remote node.
Ethernet Address
This shows the MAC address of the port.
IP Address
This shows the IP address of the network device connected to the port.
IP Mask
This shows the subnet mask of the network device connected to the port.
DHCP
This shows the DHCP setting (None or Client) for the port.
System Up Time
This is the time the ZyXEL Device is up and running from the last reboot.
ZyNOS F/W Version
Refers to the ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) system firmware version. ZyNOS
is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Name
This displays the device name.
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25.2 System Information
To get to the System Information:
1 Enter “24” to display Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 Enter “2” to display Menu 24.2 – System Information and Console Port Speed.
3 From this menu you have two choices as shown in the next figure:
Figure 172 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2 - System Information and Console Port Speed
1. System Information
2. Console Port Speed
Please enter selection:
"
The ZyXEL Device also has an internal console port for support personnel only.
Do not open the ZyXEL Device as it will void your warranty.
25.2.1 System Information
Enter “1” in menu 24.2 to display the screen shown next.
Figure 173 Menu 24.2.1 System Information: Information
Menu 24.2.1 - System Maintenance - Information
Name: NWA-Series
Routing: BRIDGE
ZyNOS F/W Version: V3.60(AAL.0)b1 | 04/13/2007
Country Code:
LAN
Ethernet Address: 00:19:CB:1C:08:2A
IP Address: 192.168.1.2
IP Mask: 255.255.255.0
DHCP: None
Press ESC or RETURN to Exit:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 100 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Name
Displays the system name of your ZyXEL Device. This information can be
changed in Menu 1 – General Setup.
Routing
Refers to the routing protocol used.
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Table 100 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
ZyNOS F/W Version
Refers to the ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) system firmware
version. ZyNOS is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications
Corporation.
Country Code
Refers to the country code of the firmware.
LAN
Ethernet Address
Refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) of your ZyXEL Device.
IP Address
This is the IP address of the ZyXEL Device in dotted decimal notation.
IP Mask
This shows the subnet mask of the ZyXEL Device.
DHCP
This field shows the DHCP setting of the ZyXEL Device.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
25.2.2 Console Port Speed
You can set up different port speeds for the console port through Menu 24.2.2 – System
Maintenance – Console Port Speed. Your ZyXEL Device supports 9600 (default), 19200,
38400, 57600 and 115200 bps console port speeds. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to
select the desired speed in menu 24.2.2, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 174 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance: Change Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2.2 – System Maintenance – Change Console Port Speed
Console Port Speed: 9600
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
After you changed your ZyXEL Device’s console port speed, you must also make the same
change to the console port speed parameter of your communication software.
25.3 Log and Trace
Your ZyXEL Device provides error logs and trace records that are stored locally.
25.3.1 Viewing Error Log
The first place you should look for clues when something goes wrong is the error log. Follow
the procedures to view the local error/trace log:
1 Type “24” in the main menu to display Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 From menu 24, type “3” to display Menu 24.3 – System Maintenance – Log and
Trace.
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Figure 175 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance: Log and Trace
Menu 24.3 - System Maintenance - Log and Trace
1. View Error Log
Please enter selection:
3 Enter 1 from Menu 24.3 – System Maintenance – Log and Trace and press [ENTER]
twice to display the error log in the system.
After the ZyXEL Device finishes displaying the error log, you will have the option to clear it.
Samples of typical error and information messages are presented in the next figure.
Figure 176 Sample Error and Information Messages
55 Sat Jan 1 00:00:00 2000 PP05 ERROR Wireless LAN init fail, code=-1
56 Sat Jan 1 00:00:01 2000 PP07 INFO LAN promiscuous mode <1>
57 Sat Jan 1 00:00:01 2000 PINI INFO Last errorlog repeat 1 Times
58 Sat Jan 1 00:00:01 2000 PINI INFO main: init completed
59 Sat Jan 1 00:00:02 2000 PP05 -WARN SNMP TRAP 3: link up
60 Sat Jan 1 00:00:30 2000 PSSV -WARN SNMP TRAP 0: cold start
61 Sat Jan 1 00:01:38 2000 PINI INFO SMT Session Begin
62 Sat Jan 1 00:06:44 2000 PINI INFO SMT Session End
63 Sat Jan 1 00:11:13 2000 PINI INFO SMT Session Begin
Clear Error Log (y/n):
25.4 Diagnostic
The diagnostic facility allows you to test the different aspects of your ZyXEL Device to
determine if it is working properly. Menu 24.4 allows you to choose among various types of
diagnostic tests to evaluate your system, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 177 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance: Diagnostic
Menu 24.4 - System Maintenance - Diagnostic
TCP/IP
1. Ping Host
2. DHCP Release
3. DHCP Renewal
System
11. Reboot System
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Host IP Address= N/A
Follow the procedure next to display this menu:
1 From the main menu, type “24” to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 From this menu, type “4” to open Menu 24.4 – System Maintenance – Diagnostic.
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The following table describes the diagnostic tests available in menu 24.4 for your ZyXEL
Device and the connections.
Table 101 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance Menu: Diagnostic
256
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Ping Host
Ping the host to see if the links and TCP/IP protocol on both systems are
working.
DHCP Release
Release the IP address assigned by the DHCP server.
DHCP Renewal
Get a new IP address from the DHCP server.
Reboot System
Reboot the ZyXEL Device.
Host IP Address
If you typed “1” to Ping Host, now type the address of the computer you want to
ping.
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
CHAPTER
26
Firmware and Configuration File
Maintenance
This chapter tells you how to backup and restore your configuration file as well as upload new
firmware and configuration files using the SMT screens.
26.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (often called the romfile or rom-0) contains the factory default settings
in the menus such as password and TCP/IP Setup, etc. It arrives from ZyXEL with a rom
filename extension. Once you have customized the ZyXEL Device's settings, they can be
saved back to your computer under a filename of your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the
system firmware and has a “bin” filename extension. With many FTP and TFTP clients, the
filenames are similar to those seen next.
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file " firmware.bin" to the
ZyXEL Device.
ftp> get rom-0 config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to the computer file config.cfg.
If your [T]FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the
source, you will need to rename them as the ZyXEL Device only recognizes “rom-0” and
“ras”. Be sure you keep unaltered copies of both files for later use.
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The following table is a summary. Please note that the internal filename refers to the filename
on the ZyXEL Device and the external filename refers to the filename not on the ZyXEL
Device, that is, on your computer, local network or FTP site and so the name (but not the
extension) will vary. After uploading new firmware see the ZyNOS F/W Version field in
Menu 24.2.1 – System Maintenance – Information to confirm that you have uploaded the
correct firmware version.
Table 102 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL
NAME
EXTERNAL
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Configuration File
Rom-0
*.rom
This is the configuration filename on the ZyXEL
Device. Uploading the rom-0 file replaces the entire
ROM file system, including your ZyXEL Device
configurations, system-related data (including the
default password), the error log and the trace log.
Firmware
Ras
*.bin
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS firmware
on the ZyXEL Device.
26.2 Backup Configuration
Backup is highly recommended once your ZyXEL Device is functioning properly. FTP is the
preferred method, although TFTP can also be used.
Please note that the terms “download” and “upload” are relative to the computer. Download
means to transfer from the ZyXEL Device to the computer, while upload means from your
computer to the ZyXEL Device.
26.2.1 Using the FTP command from the DOS Prompt
1
2
3
4
5
6
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Enter “open” and the IP address of your ZyXEL Device.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Enter “root” and your SMT password as requested. The default is 1234.
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
Use “get” to transfer files from the ZyXEL Device to the computer, for example, “get
rom-0 config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the ZyXEL Device to your
computer and renames it “config.rom”. See earlier in this chapter for more information
on filename conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the FTP prompt.
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Figure 178 FTP Session Example
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-0 zyxel.rom
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 327680 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds
297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in third party FTP
clients.
Table 103 General Commands for Third Party FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server
for anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or service
administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode.
Initial Remote
Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
26.2.2 Backup Configuration Using TFTP
The ZyXEL Device supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the configuration file
using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over
WAN as well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To backup the
configuration file, follow the procedure shown next:
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the ZyXEL Device and log in. Because
TFTP does not have any security checks, the ZyXEL Device records the IP address of
the telnet client and accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter command “sys stdio 0” to disable the SMT timeout, so the TFTP transfer will not
be interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute SMT timeout
(default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the ZyXEL Device. Set the
transfer mode to binary before starting data transfer.
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5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the ZyXEL
Device and the computer. The file name for the configuration file is rom-0 (rom-zero,
not capital o).
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the SMT in CI mode before and during the
TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the ZyXEL
Device to the computer and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
26.2.3 Example: TFTP Command
The following is an example TFTP command:
TFTP [-i] host get rom-0 config.rom
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the ZyXEL Device IP address, “get” transfers the file source on the ZyXEL Device
(rom-0 name of the configuration file on the ZyXEL Device) to the file destination on the
computer and renames it config.rom.
The following table describes some of the fields that you may see in third party TFTP clients.
Table 104 General Commands for Third Party TFTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host
Enter the IP address of the ZyXEL Device. 192.168.1.2 is the ZyXEL Device’s
default IP address when shipped.
Send/Fetch
Use “Send” to upload the file to the ZyXEL Device and “Fetch” to back up the
file on your computer.
Local File
Enter the path and name of the firmware file (*.bin extension) or configuration
file (*.rom extension) on your computer.
Remote File
This is the filename on the ZyXEL Device. The filename for the firmware is
“ras” and for the configuration file, is “rom-0”.
Binary
Transfer the file in binary mode.
Abort
Stop transfer of the file.
26.3 Restore Configuration
You can restore the configuration via FTP or TFTP to your ZyXEL Device. The preferred
method is FTP. Note that this function erases the current configuration before restoring the
previous backup configuration; please do not attempt to restore unless you have a backup
configuration stored on disk. To restore configuration using FTP or TFTP is the same as
uploading the configuration file, please refer to the following sections on FTP and TFTP file
transfer for more details. The ZyXEL Device restarts automatically after the file transfer is
complete.
26.3.1 Using the FTP command from the DOS Prompt Example
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open” and the IP address of your ZyXEL Device.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
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4 Enter “root” and your SMT password as requested. The default is 1234.
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use “put” to transfer files from the computer to the ZyXEL Device for example “put
firmware.bin ras” transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the ZyXEL
Device and renames it “ras”. Similarly “put config.rom rom-0” transfers the
configuration file on your computer (config.rom) to the ZyXEL Device and renames it
“rom-0”. Likewise “get rom-0 config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the ZyXEL
Device to your computer and renames it “config.rom.” See earlier in this chapter for
more information on filename conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the FTP prompt.
Figure 179 FTP Session Example
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 327680 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds
297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
More commands that you may find in third party FTP clients are listed earlier in this chapter.
26.3.2 TFTP File Upload
The ZyXEL Device also supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the configuration
file using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over
WAN as well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To transfer the firmware
and the configuration file, follow the procedure shown next:
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the ZyXEL Device and log in. Because
TFTP does not have any security checks, the ZyXEL Device records the IP address of
the telnet client and accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter the command “sys stdio 0” to disable the SMT timeout, so the TFTP transfer will
not be interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute SMT timeout
(default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the ZyXEL Device. Set the
transfer mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the ZyXEL
Device and the computer. The file name for the firmware is “ras” and the configuration
file is “rom-0” (rom-zero, not capital o).
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Note that the telnet connection must be active and the SMT in CI mode before and during the
TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the ZyXEL
Device to the computer, “put” the other way around, and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
26.3.3 Example: TFTP Command
The following is an example TFTP command:
TFTP [-i] host put firmware.bin ras
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the ZyXEL Device’s IP address, “put” transfers the file source on the computer
(firmware.bin – name of the firmware on the computer) to the file destination on the remote
host (ras - name of the firmware on the ZyXEL Device).
Commands that you may see in third party TFTP clients are listed earlier in this chapter.
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CHAPTER
27
System Maintenance and
Information
This chapter leads you through SMT menus 24.8 and 24.10.
27.1 Command Interpreter Mode
The Command Interpreter (CI) is a part of the main system firmware. The CI provides much of
the same functionality as the SMT, while adding some low-level setup and diagnostic
functions. Enter the CI from the SMT by selecting menu 24.8. See the included disk or the
zyxel.com web site for more detailed information on CI commands. Enter 8 from Menu 24 –
System Maintenance. A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or ? at the
command prompt. Type “exit” to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
1
Use of undocumented commands or misconfiguration can damage the unit and
possibly render it unusable.
Figure 180 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
8.
Command Interpreter Mode
10. Time and Date Setting
11. Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
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"
Not all commands are available in all models.
Figure 181 Valid CI Commands
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2008 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
NWA-3160> help or ?
Valid commands are:
sys
exit
ether
wlan
ip
bridge
bm
certificates
radius
8021x
radserv
wcfg
rogueAP
NWA-3160>
27.1.1 Command Syntax
•
•
•
•
•
The command keywords are in courier new font.
Enter the command keywords exactly as shown, do not abbreviate.
The required fields in a command are enclosed in angle brackets <>.
The optional fields in a command are enclosed in square brackets [].
The |symbol means or.
For example,
sys filter netbios config <type> <on|off>
means that you must specify the type of netbios filter and whether to turn it on or off.
27.1.2 Command Usage
A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or ? at the command prompt. Always
type the full command. Type exit to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
27.1.3 Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection
The following describes the commands for enabling, disabling and configuring the brute-force
password guessing protection mechanism for the password.
Table 105 Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
sys pwderrtm
This command displays the brute-force guessing password protection settings.
sys pwderrtm 0
This command turns off the password’s protection from brute-force guessing. The
brute-force password guessing protection is turned off by default.
sys pwderrtm N
This command sets the password protection to block all access attempts for N (a
number from 1 to 60) minutes after the third time an incorrect password is entered.
27.1.3.1 Configuring Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection: Example
sys pwderrtm 5
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This command sets the password protection to block all access attempts for five minutes after
the third time an incorrect password is entered.
27.2 Time and Date Setting
The ZyXEL Device keeps track of the time and date. There is also a software mechanism to
set the time manually or get the current time and date from an external server when you turn
on your ZyXEL Device. Menu 24.10 allows you to update the time and date settings of your
ZyXEL Device. The updated time is then displayed in the ZyXEL Device error logs.
1 Select menu 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 Then enter 10 to go to Menu 24.10 – System Maintenance – Time and Date Setting to
update the time and date settings of your ZyXEL Device as shown in the following
screen.
Figure 182 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
Menu 24.10 - System Maintenance - Time and Date Setting
Time Protocol= Manual
Time Server Address= N/A
Current Time:
New Time (hh:mm:ss):
00 : 33 : 03
00 : 32 : 51
Current Date:
New Date (yyyy-mm-dd):
2000 - 01 - 01
2000 - 01 - 01
Time Zone= GMT
Daylight Saving= No
Start Date (mm-nth-week-hr):
End Date (mm-nth-week-hr):
Jan. - 1st
Jan. - 1st
- Sun.(02)
- Sun.(02)
- 00
- 00
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 106 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Time Protocol
Enter the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on
the ZyXEL Device. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have
to check with your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a
protocol that works. The main differences between them are the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
Manual. The default, enter the time manually.
Time Server Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your time server. Check with your
ISP/network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Current Time
This field displays an updated time only when you reenter this menu.
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Table 106 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
New Time
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format.
Current Date
This field displays an updated date only when you re-enter this menu.
New Date
Enter the new date in year, month and day format.
Time Zone
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to set the time difference between
your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Saving
If you use daylight savings time, then choose Yes.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected
Yes in the Daylight Saving field. The hr field uses the 24 hour format. Here
are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second
Sunday of March. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight
Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United States you would select
Second, Sunday, March and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of
March. All of the time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving
Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union
you would select Mar., Last, Sun. The time you type in the hr field depends
on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would type 02 because
Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected
Yes in the Daylight Saving field. The hr field uses the 24 hour format. Here
are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of
November. Each time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving
Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United States you would select First,
Sunday, November and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of
October. All of the time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight
Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European
Union you would select Oct., Last, Sun. The time you type in the hr field
depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would type 02
because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
Once you have filled in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to
Cancel” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
27.2.1 Resetting the Time
The ZyXEL Device resets the time in three instances:
1 On leaving menu 24.10 after making changes.
2 When the ZyXEL Device starts up, if there is a timeserver configured in menu 24.10.
3 24-hour intervals after starting.
27.3 Remote Management Setup
27.3.1 Telnet
You can configure your ZyXEL Device for remote Telnet access as shown next.
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Figure 183 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network
27.3.2 FTP
You can upload and download ZyXEL Device firmware and configuration files using FTP. To
use this feature, your computer must have an FTP client.
27.3.3 Web
You can use the ZyXEL Device’s embedded web configurator for configuration and file
management. See the online help for details.
27.3.4 Remote Management Setup
Remote management setup is for managing Telnet, FTP and Web services. You can customize
the service port, access interface and the secured client IP address to enhance security and
flexibility.
You can manage your ZyXEL Device from a remote location via:
Internet (WLAN only), the LAN only, All (LAN and WLAN) or Disable (neither).
"
If you enable remote management of a service, but have applied a filter to block
the service, then you will not be able to remotely manage the service.
Enter “11” from menu 24, to display Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control (shown
next)
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Figure 184 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control
TELNET Server:
FTP Server:
SSH Server
HTTPS Server:
HTTP Server:
SNMP Service:
DNS Service:
Port = 23
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 21
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Certificate = auto_generated_self-signed-cert
Port = 22
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Certificate = auto_generated_self_signed_cert
Authenticate Client Certificates = No
Port = 443
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 80
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 161
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 53
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 107 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
TELNET Server:
FTP Server:
SSH Server:
HTTPS Server:
HTTP Server:
SNMP Service:
DNS Service:
Each of these read-only labels denotes a server or service that you may use to
remotely manage the ZyXEL Device.
Port
This field shows the port number for the remote management service. You can
change the port number for a service if needed, but you must use the same
port number to use that service for remote management.
Access
Select the access interface (if any) by pressing the [SPACE BAR]. Choices
are: LAN only, WAN only, All or Disable. The default is LAN only.
Secured Client IP
The default 0.0.0.0 allows any client to use this service to remotely manage
the ZyXEL Device. Enter an IP address to restrict access to a client with a
matching IP address.
Certificate
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. The ZyXEL Device
has an automatically generated self signed certificate by default. The factory
default certificate is common to all ZyXEL Device’s that use certificates. You
can replace the certificate when you log into the ZyXEL Device (see Chapter 2
on page 43) or you can use the Certificates configuration screen (see Chapter
16 on page 183).
Authenticate Client
Certificates
Select Yes by pressing [SPACE BAR]. The internal RADIUS server uses one
of the certificates listed in the My Certificates screen to authenticate each
wireless client. The exact certificate used depends on the certificate
information configured on the wireless client.
Once you have filled in this menu, press [ENTER] to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
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27.3.5 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
1 You have disabled that service in menu 24.11.
2 The IP address in the Secured Client IP field (menu 24.11) does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the ZyXEL Device will disconnect the session
immediately.
3 There is already another remote management session of the same type (Telnet, FTP or
Web) running. You may only have one remote management session of the same type
running at one time.
4 There is a web remote management session running with a Telnet session. A Telnet
session will be disconnected if you begin a web session; it will not begin if there already
is a web session.
27.4 System Timeout
There is a system timeout of five minutes (300 seconds) for Telnet/web/FTP connections.
Your ZyXEL Device will automatically log you out if you do nothing in this timeout period,
except when it is continuously updating the status in menu 24.1 or when sys stdio has
been changed on the command line.
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CHAPTER
28
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential
problems are divided into the following categories.
•
•
•
•
Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
ZyXEL Device Access and Login
Internet Access
Wireless Router/AP Troubleshooting
28.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
V
The ZyXEL Device does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1 Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the ZyXEL Device.
2 Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the ZyXEL Device and plugged in
to an appropriate power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
3 Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the ZyXEL Device.
4 If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
V
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
2
3
4
5
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 1.7 on page 39.
Check the hardware connections. See the Quick Start Guide.
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor to the ZyXEL Device.
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
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28.2 ZyXEL Device Access and Login
V
I forgot the IP address for the ZyXEL Device.
1 The default IP address is 192.168.1.2.
2 If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, you might get the IP address of the
ZyXEL Device by looking up the IP address of the default gateway for your computer.
To do this in most Windows computers, click Start > Run, enter “cmd”, and then enter
“ipconfig”. The IP address of the Default Gateway might be the IP address of the
ZyXEL Device (it depends on the network), so enter this IP address in your Internet
browser.
3 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 2.2
on page 44.
V
I forgot the password.
1 The default password is 1234.
2 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 2.2
on page 44.
V
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1 Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is 192.168.1.2.
• If you changed the IP address (Section 12.3 on page 158), use the new IP address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting
suggestions for I forgot the IP address for the ZyXEL Device.
2 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.7 on page 39.
3 Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScripts
and Java enabled. See Section 28.1 on page 271.
4 Make sure your computer is in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device. (If you know that
there are routers between your computer and the ZyXEL Device, skip this step.)
• If there is no DHCP server on your network, make sure your computer’s IP address is
in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device.
5 Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the ZyXEL Device with the
default IP address. See your Quick Start Guide.
6 If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the
advanced suggestions.
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Advanced Suggestions
• Try to access the ZyXEL Device using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access
the ZyXEL Device, check the remote management settings to find out why the ZyXEL
Device does not respond to HTTP.
• If your computer is connected to the WAN port or is connected wirelessly, use a computer
that is connected to a LAN/ETHERNET port.
V
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the ZyXEL Device.
1 Make sure you have entered the user name and password correctly. The default password
is 1234. This fields are case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2 You cannot log in to the web configurator while someone is using the SMT or Telnet to
access the ZyXEL Device. Log out of the ZyXEL Device in the other session, or ask the
person who is logged in to log out.
3 Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the ZyXEL Device.
4 If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 2.2
on page 44.
V
I cannot access the SMT.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
V
I cannot access the ZyXEL Device via the console port.
1 Check to see if the ZyXEL Device is connected to your computer's console port.
2 Check to see if the communications program is configured correctly. The
communications software should be configured as follows:
VT100 terminal emulation.
9,600 bps is the default speed on leaving the factory. Try other speeds in case the speed
has been changed.
No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, data flow set to none.
V
I cannot use FTP to upload / download the configuration file. / I cannot use FTP
to upload new firmware.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
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28.3 Internet Access
V
I cannot access the Internet.
1 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 28.1 on page 271.
2 Make sure you entered your ISP account information correctly. These fields are casesensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
3 If you are trying to access the Internet wirelessly, make sure the wireless settings on the
wireless client are the same as the settings on the AP.
4 Disconnect all the cables from your device, and follow the directions in the Quick Start
Guide again.
5 If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
V
I cannot access the Internet anymore. I had access to the Internet (with the
ZyXEL Device), but my Internet connection is not available anymore.
1 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.7 on page 39.
2 Reboot the ZyXEL Device.
3 If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
V
The Internet connection is slow or intermittent.
1 There might be a lot of traffic on the network. Look at the LEDs, and check Section 1.7
on page 39. If the ZyXEL Device is sending or receiving a lot of information, try closing
some programs that use the Internet, especially peer-to-peer applications.
2 Check the signal strength. If the signal is weak, try moving the ZyXEL Device closer to
the AP (if possible), and look around to see if there are any devices that might be
interfering with the wireless network (microwaves, other wireless networks, and so on).
3 Reboot the ZyXEL Device.
4 If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the
advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Check the settings for QoS. If it is disabled, you might consider activating it. If it is
enabled, you might consider raising or lowering the priority for some applications.
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28.4 Wireless Router/AP Troubleshooting
V
I cannot access the ZyXEL Device or ping any computer from the WLAN.
1 Make sure the wireless LAN is enabled on the ZyXEL Device
2 Make sure the wireless adapter on the wireless station is working properly.
3 Make sure the wireless adapter (installed on your computer) is IEEE 802.11 compatible
and supports the same wireless standard as the ZyXEL Device.
4 Make sure your computer (with a wireless adapter installed) is within the transmission
range of the ZyXEL Device.
5 Check that both the ZyXEL Device and your wireless station are using the same wireless
and wireless security settings.
6 Make sure traffic between the WLAN and the LAN is not blocked by the firewall on the
ZyXEL Device.
7 Make sure you allow the ZyXEL Device to be remotely accessed through the WLAN
interface. Check your remote management settings.
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CHAPTER
29
Product Specifications
The following tables summarize the ZyXEL Device’s hardware and firmware features.
Table 108 Hardware Specifications
SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
Dimensions
190x 135 x 40 mm
Weight
NWA-3160: 420g
NWA-3163: 420g
NWA-3165: 392g
Power
12V DC, 1.5 A max. (There is no tolerance for the DC input voltage.)
Ethernet Ports
Auto-negotiating: 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps in either half-duplex or full-duplex
mode.
Auto-crossover: Use either crossover or straight-through Ethernet cables.
Power over Ethernet
(PoE)
IEEE 802.3af compliant.
Console Port
One MIL-C-5015 style RS-232 console port
(PS/2 connector; Mini Din 6-pin)
Antenna Specifications
NWA-3160: Two 2dBi Dual Band (2.4 GHz/5 GHz) attachable dipole
antennas.
NWA-3163: Two 3dBi 2.4GHz attachable dipole antennas.
NWA-3165: Three 1.8dBi embedded dipole antennas
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Table 108 Hardware Specifications
SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
Output Power
NWA-3160:
IEEE 802.11b/g
54Mbps: 16dBm
24Mbps: 17dBm
6Mbps: 18dBm
11Mpbs: 18dBm
IEEE 802.11a
54Mbps: 12dBm
24Mbps: 12dBm
6Mbps: 14dBm
11Mpbs: 14dBm
NWA-3163:
IEEE 802.11b/g
54Mbps: 20dBm
24Mbps: 21dBm
11Mpbs: 23dBm
6Mbps: 23dBm
NWA-3165:
IEEE 802.11b
Using single antenna: 13dBm
Using three antennas: 17dBm
IEEE 802.11g
Using single antenna: 12dBm
Using three antennas: 16dBm
Error Vector Magnitude (EVM): < -25dBm
IEEE 802.11n: HT20
Using single antenna: 11dBm
Using three antennas: 15dBm
Error Vector Magnitude (EVM): < -28dBm
IEEE 802.11n: HT40
Using single antenna: 7 dBm
Using three antennas: 11 dBm
Error Vector Magnitude (EVM): < -28dBm
Operating Environment
Temperature: 5º C ~ 50º C
Humidity: 10% ~ 90% RH
Storage Environment
Temperature: -25º C ~ 60º C
Humidity: 5% ~ 95% RH
Distance between the
centers of the holes (for
wall mounting) on the
device’s back.
125 mm
Recommended type of
M4 Tap Screw (included), see Figure 186 on page 281.
screws for wall-mounting
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Table 108 Hardware Specifications
SPECIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
Approvals
EMC:
FCC Class B,
CE-EMC Class B,
C-Tick Class B,
Safety:
CSA International,
CE EN60950-1
Plenum Rating
The ZyXEL Device’s housing is treated with fire-retardant chemicals. In the
event of fire, plenum-rated materials burn more slowly and produce less
smoke than non-plenum-rated materials, decreasing the quantity of toxic or
asphyxiating material produced.
Table 109 Firmware Specifications
Default IP Address
192.168.1.2
Default Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
Default Password
1234
Wireless LAN Standards
NWA-3160: IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g
NWA-3163: IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g
NWA-3165:IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11n
Wireless security
WEP, WPA(2), WPA(2)-PSK, 802.1x
Layer 2 isolation
Prevents wireless clients associated with your ZyXEL Device from
communicating with other wireless clients, APs, computers or routers in
a network.
Multiple BSSID (MBSSID)
MBSSID mode allows the ZyXEL Device to operate up to 8 different
wireless networks (BSSs) simultaneously, each with independentlyconfigurable wireless and security settings.
Rogue AP detection (NWA3160 and NWA-3163 only)
Rogue AP detection detects and logs unknown access points (APs)
operating in the area.
Internal RADIUS server
PEAP, 32-entry Trusted AP list, 128-entry Trusted Users list.
VLAN
802.1Q VLAN tagging.
STP (Spanning Tree
Protocol) / RSTP (Rapid
STP)
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links
between switches, bridges or routers. It allows a bridge to interact with
other (R)STP-compliant bridges in your network to ensure that only one
path exists between any two stations on the network.
WMM QoS
WMM (Wi-Fi MultiMedia) QoS (Quality of Service) allows you to prioritize
wireless traffic.
Certificates
The ZyXEL Device can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to
authenticate users. Certificates are based on public-private key pairs.
Certificates provide a way to exchange public keys for use in
authentication.
SSL Passthrough
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) uses a public key to encrypt data that's
transmitted over an SSL connection. Both Netscape Navigator and
Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to
obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers. By
convention, URLs that require an SSL connection start with “https”
instead of “http”. The ZyXEL Device allows SSL connections to take
place through the ZyXEL Device.
MAC Address Filter
Your ZyXEL Device checks the MAC address of the wireless station
against a list of allowed or denied MAC addresses.
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Table 109 Firmware Specifications
Wireless Association List
With the wireless association list, you can see the list of the wireless
stations that are currently using the ZyXEL Device to access your wired
network.
Logging and Tracing
Built-in message logging and packet tracing.
Embedded FTP and TFTP
Servers
The embedded FTP and TFTP servers enable fast firmware upgrades
as well as configuration file backups and restoration.
Auto Configuration
Administrators can use text configuration files to configure the wireless
LAN settings for multiple APs. The AP can automatically get a
configuration file from a TFTP server at start up or after renewing DHCP
client information.
SNMP
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a protocol used for
exchanging management information between network devices. SNMP
is a member of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Your ZyXEL Device supports
SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manger station to manage and
monitor the ZyXEL Device through the network. The ZyXEL Device
supports SNMP version one (SNMPv1) and version two c (SNMPv2c).
The NWA-3165 also supports version 3 (SNMPv3).
DFS (NWA-3160 only)
DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) allows a wider choice of 802.11a
wireless channels.
CAPWAP (Control and
Provisioning of Wireless
Access Points - NWA-3160
and NWA-3163 only)
The NWA-3160 and NWA-3163 support CAPWAP, allowing multiple
APs to be configured and managed by a single AP controller. At the time
of writing, only the NWA-3160 can be an AP controller.
Wall-mounting Instructions
Complete the following steps to hang your ZyXEL Device on a wall.
"
See Table 108 on page 277 for the size of screws to use and how far apart to
place them.
1 Select a position free of obstructions on a sturdy wall.
2 Drill two holes for the screws.
1
Be careful to avoid damaging pipes or cables located inside the wall when
drilling holes for the screws.
3 Do not insert the screws all the way into the wall. Leave a small gap of about 0.5 cm
between the heads of the screws and the wall.
4 Make sure the screws are snugly fastened to the wall. They need to hold the weight of
the ZyXEL Device with the connection cables.
5 Align the holes on the back of the ZyXEL Device with the screws on the wall. Hang the
ZyXEL Device on the screws.
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Figure 185 Wall-mounting Example
The following are dimensions of an M4 tap screw and masonry plug used for wall mounting.
All measurements are in millimeters (mm).
Figure 186 Masonry Plug and M4 Tap Screw
Power Adaptor Specifications
Table 110 North American Plug Standards
AC Power Adaptor Model
ADS6818-1812-W 1215
Input Power
100~240 Volts AC, 50~60 Hz, 0.5 A
Output Power
12 Volts DC, 1.5A, 18W
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Table 110 North American Plug Standards
Power Consumption
6 W Max
Safety Standards
UL, CUL (UL60950 Third Edition, CSA C22.2 No.
60950)
Table 111 European Plug Standards
AC Power Adaptor Model
ADS6818-1812-B 1215
Input Power
100~240 Volts AC, 50~60 Hz, 0.5 A
Output Power
12 Volts DC, 1.5 A, 18 W
Power Consumption
6 W Max
Safety Standards
TUV-GS, CE (EN 60950)
Table 112 United Kingdom Plug Standards
AC Power Adaptor Model
ADS6818-1812-D 1215
Input Power
100~240 Volts AC, 50~60 Hz,0.5 A
Output Power
12 Volts DC, 1.5 A, 18 W
Power Consumption
6 W Max
Safety Standards
TUV-GS (BS EN 60950)
Table 113 Australia and New Zealand Plug Standards
AC Power Adaptor Model
ADS6818-1812-A 1215
Input Power
100~240 Volts AC, 50~60 Hz, 0.5 A
Output Power
12 Volts DC, 1.5 A, 18 W
Power Consumption
6 W Max
Safety Standards
DOFT (AS/NZS 60950, AS/NZSB 3112:1-2)
Power over Ethernet (PoE) Specifications
You can use a power over Ethernet injector to power this device. The injector must comply to IEEE
802.3af.
Table 114 Power over Ethernet Injector Specifications
Power Output
15.4 Watts maximum
Power Current
400 mA maximum
Table 115 Power over Ethernet Injector RJ-45 Port Pin Assignments
PIN NO
282
RJ-45 SIGNAL
ASSIGNMENT
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Table 115 Power over Ethernet Injector RJ-45 Port Pin Assignments
12345678
1
Output Transmit Data +
2
Output Transmit Data -
3
Receive Data +
4
Power +
5
Power +
6
Receive Data -
7
Power -
8
Power -
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P ART IV
Appendices and
Index
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address (263)
Wireless LANs (299)
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions (313)
IP Addresses and Subnetting (319)
Text File Based Auto Configuration (327)
Legal Information (335)
Customer Support (339)
Index (345)
285
286
APPENDIX
A
Setting up Your Computer’s IP
Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems and all
versions of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need to install and use TCP/
IP on your computer. Windows 3.1 requires the purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application
package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS
7 and later operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP settings in order
to "communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make sure that
your computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device’s
LAN port.
Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open the Network
window
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Appendix A Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
Figure 187 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components. You need a
network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1 In the Network window, click Add.
2 Select Adapter and then click Add.
3 Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
1
2
3
4
In the Network window, click Add.
Select Protocol and then click Add.
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1
2
3
4
Click Add.
Select Client and then click Add.
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then click
OK.
5 Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
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Configuring
1 In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP entry
and click Properties
2 Click the IP Address tab.
• If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type your
information into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 188 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
3 Click the DNS Configuration tab.
• If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
• If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the information in
the fields below (you may not need to fill them all in).
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Figure 189 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
4 Click the Gateway tab.
• If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously installed gateways.
• If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field and click Add.
5 Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6 Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7 Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start and then Run.
2 In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP Configuration
window.
3 Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet mask
and default gateway.
Windows 2000/NT/XP
1 For Windows XP, click start, Control Panel. In Windows 2000/NT, click Start,
Settings, Control Panel.
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Figure 190 Windows XP: Start Menu
2 For Windows XP, click Network Connections. For Windows 2000/NT, click Network
and Dial-up Connections.
Figure 191 Windows XP: Control Panel
3 Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
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Figure 192 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
4 Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and click
Properties.
Figure 193 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in
Windows XP).
• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address and fill in the IP
address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields. Click Advanced.
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Figure 194 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Settings
6 If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed gateways
in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in Subnet
mask, and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add in
Default gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in Gateway.
To manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission hops), clear the
Automatic metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
• Click OK when finished.
7 In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in Windows
XP):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your DNS
server IP address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS server
addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and Alternate DNS server
fields.
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If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the DNS
tab to order them.
Figure 195 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9 Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.
10 Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2 In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can
also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and
then click the Support tab.
Macintosh OS 8/9
1 Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/IP
Control Panel.
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Figure 196 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
2 Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
Figure 197 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the Configure: list.
4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
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• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your ZyXEL Device in the Router address box.
5 Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6 Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7 Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
Macintosh OS X
1 Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System Preferences
window.
Figure 198 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2 Click Network in the icon bar.
• Select Automatic from the Location list.
• Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
• Click the TCP/IP tab.
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
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Figure 199 Macintosh OS X: Network
4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your ZyXEL Device in the Router address box.
5 Click Apply Now and close the window.
6 Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
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APPENDIX
B
Wireless LANs
Wireless LAN Topologies
This section discusses ad-hoc and infrastructure wireless LAN topologies.
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects a set of
computers with wireless adapters (A, B, C). Any time two or more wireless adapters are within
range of each other, they can set up an independent network, which is commonly referred to as
an ad-hoc network or Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). The following diagram shows an
example of notebook computers using wireless adapters to form an ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Figure 200 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless clients or
between a wireless client and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless clients in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is enabled,
wireless client A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other. When
Intra-BSS is disabled, wireless client A and B can still access the wired network but cannot
communicate with each other.
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Figure 201 Basic Service Set
ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each containing an
access point, with each access point connected together by a wired network. This wired
connection between APs is called a Distribution System (DS).
This type of wireless LAN topology is called an Infrastructure WLAN. The Access Points not
only provide communication with the wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic
in the immediate neighborhood.
An ESSID (ESS IDentification) uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and their
associated wireless clients within the same ESS must have the same ESSID in order to
communicate.
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Figure 202 Infrastructure WLAN
Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless devices. Channels
available depend on your geographical area. You may have a choice of channels (for your
region) so you should use a different channel than an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce
interference. Interference occurs when radio signals from different access points overlap
causing interference and degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap, your AP
should be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an adjacent AP is using.
For example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent AP is using channel 1, then you
need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access point, but are not
within range of each other. The following figure illustrates a hidden node. Both stations (STA)
are within range of the access point (AP) or wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other,
so they cannot "hear" each other, that is they do not know if the channel is currently being
used. Therefore, they are considered hidden from each other.
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Figure 203 RTS/CTS
When station A sends data to the AP, it might not know that the station B is already using the
channel. If these two stations send data at the same time, collisions may occur when both sets
of data arrive at the AP at the same time, resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS defines the
biggest size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432 bytes), the station
that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS (Request To Send) message to the AP
for permission to send it. The AP then responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all
other stations within its range to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and
confirms with the requesting station the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP without the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on your network
and the "cost" of resending large frames is more than the extra network overhead involved in
the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see next), then the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will
be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
"
Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256 and 2432
bytes) that can be sent in the wireless network before the AP will fragment the packet into
smaller data frames.
A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to interference
while you should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or networks that are prone to
interference.
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If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see previously)
you set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as
data frames will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Preamble Type
Preamble is used to signal that data is coming to the receiver. Short and Long refer to the
length of the synchronization field in a packet.
Short preamble increases performance as less time sending preamble means more time for
sending data. All IEEE 802.11b/g compliant wireless adapters support long preamble, but not
all support short preamble.
Select Long preamble if you are unsure what preamble mode the wireless adapters support,
and to provide more reliable communications in busy wireless networks.
Select Short preamble if you are sure the wireless adapters support it, and to provide more
efficient communications.
Select Dynamic to have the AP automatically use short preamble when wireless adapters
support it, otherwise the AP uses long preamble.
"
The AP and the wireless adapters MUST use the same preamble mode in order
to communicate.
IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN
IEEE 802.11g is fully compatible with the IEEE 802.11b standard. This means an IEEE
802.11b adapter can interface directly with an IEEE 802.11g access point (and vice versa) at
11 Mbps or lower depending on range. IEEE 802.11g has several intermediate rate steps
between the maximum and minimum data rates. The IEEE 802.11g data rate and modulation
are as follows:
Table 116 IEEE 802.11g
DATA RATE (MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
6/9/12/18/24/36/48/54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Wireless Security Overview
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication between wireless
clients, access points and the wired network.
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Wireless security methods available on the ZyXEL Device are data encryption, wireless client
authentication, restricting access by device MAC address and hiding the ZyXEL Device
identity.
The following figure shows the relative effectiveness of these wireless security methods
available on your ZyXEL Device.
Table 117 Wireless Security Levels
SECURITY
LEVEL
SECURITY TYPE
Least
Secure
Unique SSID (Default)
Unique SSID with Hide SSID Enabled
MAC Address Filtering
WEP Encryption
IEEE802.1x EAP with RADIUS Server Authentication
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
Most Secure
"
WPA2
You must enable the same wireless security settings on the ZyXEL Device and
on all wireless clients that you want to associate with it.
IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of IEEE 802.11 to
support extended authentication as well as providing additional accounting and control
features. It is supported by Windows XP and a number of network devices. Some advantages
of IEEE 802.1x are:
• User based identification that allows for roaming.
• Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138, 2139) for
centralized user profile and accounting management on a network RADIUS server.
• Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows additional
authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access point or the wireless
clients.
RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication, authorization and
accounting. The access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS
server handles the following tasks:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Authorization
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Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are connected
to the network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your AP acts as a message relay between the
wireless client and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access. The
access point sends a proper response from the user and then sends another Access-Request
message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user accounting:
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a shared
secret key, which is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over the network. In
addition to the shared key, password information exchanged is also encrypted to protect the
network from unauthorized access.
Types of EAP Authentication
This section discusses some popular authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS,
PEAP and LEAP. Your wireless LAN device may not support all authentication types.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on top of the
IEEE 802.1x transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of user authentication. By
using EAP to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, an access point helps a
wireless station and a RADIUS server perform authentication.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server and an intermediary AP(s)
that supports IEEE 802.1x. .
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For EAP-TLS authentication type, you must first have a wired connection to the network and
obtain the certificate(s) from a certificate authority (CA). A certificate (also called digital IDs)
can be used to authenticate users and a CA issues certificates and guarantees the identity of
each certificate owner.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The authentication server
sends a challenge to the wireless client. The wireless client ‘proves’ that it knows the password
by encrypting the password with the challenge and sends back the information. Password is
not sent in plain text.
However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication server needs to
get the plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus someone other than the
authentication server may access the password file. In addition, it is possible to impersonate an
authentication server as MD5 authentication method does not perform mutual authentication.
Finally, MD5 authentication method does not support data encryption with dynamic session
key. You must configure WEP encryption keys for data encryption.
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless clients for
mutual authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client. After validating the
identity of the server, the client sends a different certificate to the server. The exchange of
certificates is done in the open before a secured tunnel is created. This makes user identity
vulnerable to passive attacks. A digital certificate is an electronic ID card that authenticates the
sender’s identity. However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a Certificate Authority (CA) to
handle certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the
server-side authentications to establish a secure connection. Client authentication is then done
by sending username and password through the secure connection, thus client identity is
protected. For client authentication, EAP-TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy
authentication methods such as PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure connection,
then use simple username and password methods through the secured connection to
authenticate the clients, thus hiding client identity. However, PEAP only supports EAP
methods, such as EAP-MD5, EAP-MSCHAPv2 and EAP-GTC (EAP-Generic Token Card),
for client authentication. EAP-GTC is implemented only by Cisco.
LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of IEEE
802.1x.
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Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key expires when
the wireless connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication times out. A new WEP key
is generated each time reauthentication is performed.
If this feature is enabled, it is not necessary to configure a default encryption key in the
Wireless screen. You may still configure and store keys here, but they will not be used while
Dynamic WEP is enabled.
"
EAP-MD5 cannot be used with Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP) use
dynamic keys for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate environments, but for
public deployment, a simple user name and password pair is more practical. The following
table is a comparison of the features of authentication types.
Table 118 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual Authentication
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key Exchange
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Integrity
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Deployment Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Client Identity Protection
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
WPA and WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA2 (IEEE
802.11i) is a wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption, authentication and
key management than WPA.
Key differences between WPA or WPA2 and WEP are improved data encryption and user
authentication.
If both an AP and the wireless clients support WPA2 and you have an external RADIUS
server, use WPA2 for stronger data encryption. If you don't have an external RADIUS server,
you should use WPA2-PSK (WPA2-Pre-Shared Key) that only requires a single (identical)
password entered into each access point, wireless gateway and wireless client. As long as the
passwords match, a wireless client will be granted access to a WLAN.
If the AP or the wireless clients do not support WPA2, just use WPA or WPA-PSK depending
on whether you have an external RADIUS server or not.
Select WEP only when the AP and/or wireless clients do not support WPA or WPA2. WEP is
less secure than WPA or WPA2.
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Encryption
Both WPA and WPA2 improve data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
(TKIP), Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x. WPA and WPA2 use Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter mode with Cipher block chaining Message
authentication code Protocol (CCMP) to offer stronger encryption than TKIP.
TKIP uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and distributed by the authentication
server. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a block cipher that uses a 256-bit
mathematical algorithm called Rijndael. They both include a per-packet key mixing function,
a Message Integrity Check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with
sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism.
WPA and WPA2 regularly change and rotate the encryption keys so that the same encryption
key is never used twice.
The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then sets up
a key hierarchy and management system, using the PMK to dynamically generate unique data
encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated between the AP
and the wireless clients. This all happens in the background automatically.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data
packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function
in which the receiver and the transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do
not match, it is assumed that the data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity
checking mechanism (MIC), with TKIP and AES it is more difficult to decrypt data on a Wi-Fi
network than WEP and difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the same. The only
difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of
user-specific credentials. The common-password approach makes WPA(2)-PSK susceptible to
brute-force password-guessing attacks but it’s still an improvement over WEP as it employs a
consistent, single, alphanumeric password to derive a PMK which is used to generate unique
temporal encryption keys. This prevent all wireless devices sharing the same encryption keys.
(a weakness of WEP)
User Authentication
WPA and WPA2 apply IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to
authenticate wireless clients using an external RADIUS database. WPA2 reduces the number
of key exchange messages from six to four (CCMP 4-way handshake) and shortens the time
required to connect to a network. Other WPA2 authentication features that are different from
WPA include key caching and pre-authentication. These two features are optional and may not
be supported in all wireless devices.
Key caching allows a wireless client to store the PMK it derived through a successful
authentication with an AP. The wireless client uses the PMK when it tries to connect to the
same AP and does not need to go with the authentication process again.
Pre-authentication enables fast roaming by allowing the wireless client (already connecting to
an AP) to perform IEEE 802.1x authentication with another AP before connecting to it.
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Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system instructing the
wireless client how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most widely available supplicant is
the WPA patch for Windows XP, Funk Software's Odyssey client.
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows XP's builtin "Zero Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows XP to use it.
WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
You need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number (default is 1812), and the
RADIUS shared secret. A WPA(2) application example with an external RADIUS server
looks as follows. "A" is the RADIUS server. "DS" is the distribution system.
1 The AP passes the wireless client's authentication request to the RADIUS server.
2 The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and grants
or denies network access accordingly.
3 The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then
sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically
generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly
communicated between the AP and the wireless clients.
Figure 204 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
WPA(2)-PSK Application Example
A WPA(2)-PSK application looks as follows.
1 First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared Key
(PSK) must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters or 64 hexadecimal characters
(including spaces and symbols).
2 The AP checks each wireless client's password and (only) allows it to join the network if
the password matches.
3 The AP and wireless clients use the pre-shared key to generate a common PMK
(Pairwise Master Key).
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4 The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP or AES encryption process to encrypt data
exchanged between them.
Figure 205 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication
Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for each
Authentication Method/ key management protocol type. MAC address filters are not
dependent on how you configure these security features.
Table 119 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
AUTHENTICATION
ENCRYPTIO
METHOD/ KEY
MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL N METHOD
ENTER
MANUAL KEY
IEEE 802.1X
Open
No
Disable
None
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Open
Shared
WEP
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
WPA
TKIP/AES
No
Enable
WPA-PSK
TKIP/AES
Yes
Disable
WPA2
TKIP/AES
No
Enable
WPA2-PSK
TKIP/AES
Yes
Disable
Antenna Overview
An antenna couples RF signals onto air. A transmitter within a wireless device sends an RF
signal to the antenna, which propagates the signal through the air. The antenna also operates in
reverse by capturing RF signals from the air.
Positioning the antennas properly increases the range and coverage area of a wireless LAN.
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Antenna Characteristics
Frequency
An antenna in the frequency of 2.4GHz (IEEE 802.11b) or 5GHz(IEEE 802.11a) is needed to
communicate efficiently in a wireless LAN.
Radiation Pattern
A radiation pattern is a diagram that allows you to visualize the shape of the antenna’s
coverage area.
Antenna Gain
Antenna gain, measured in dB (decibel), is the increase in coverage within the RF beam width.
Higher antenna gain improves the range of the signal for better communications.
For an indoor site, each 1 dB increase in antenna gain results in a range increase of
approximately 2.5%. For an unobstructed outdoor site, each 1dB increase in gain results in a
range increase of approximately 5%. Actual results may vary depending on the network
environment.
Antenna gain is sometimes specified in dBi, which is how much the antenna increases the
signal power compared to using an isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna is a theoretical
perfect antenna that sends out radio signals equally well in all directions. dBi represents the
true gain that the antenna provides.
Types of Antennas for WLAN
There are two types of antennas used for wireless LAN applications.
• Omni-directional antennas send the RF signal out in all directions on a horizontal plane.
The coverage area is torus-shaped (like a donut) which makes these antennas ideal for a
room environment. With a wide coverage area, it is possible to make circular overlapping
coverage areas with multiple access points.
• Directional antennas concentrate the RF signal in a beam, like a flashlight does with the
light from its bulb. The angle of the beam determines the width of the coverage pattern.
Angles typically range from 20 degrees (very directional) to 120 degrees (less directional).
Directional antennas are ideal for hallways and outdoor point-to-point applications.
Positioning Antennas
In general, antennas should be mounted as high as practically possible and free of
obstructions. In point-to–point application, position both antennas at the same height and in a
direct line of sight to each other to attain the best performance.
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Appendix B Wireless LANs
For omni-directional antennas mounted on a table, desk, and so on, point the antenna up. For
omni-directional antennas mounted on a wall or ceiling, point the antenna down. For a single
AP application, place omni-directional antennas as close to the center of the coverage area as
possible.
For directional antennas, point the antenna in the direction of the desired coverage area.
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APPENDIX
C
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts
and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
"
Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2) or
allow pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP address.
Disable pop-up Blockers
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off Pop-up
Blocker.
Figure 206 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in the
Privacy tab.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
2 Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen. This
disables any web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
Figure 207 Internet Options: Privacy
3 Click Apply to save this setting.
Enable pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the following
steps.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
2 Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 208 Internet Options: Privacy
3 Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have blocked)
with the prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.167.1.
4 Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
Figure 209 Pop-up Blocker Settings
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
5 Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
6 Click Apply to save this setting.
JavaScripts
If pages of the web configurator do not display properly in Internet Explorer, check that
JavaScripts are allowed.
1 In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Figure 210 Internet Options: Security
2
3
4
5
6
316
Click the Custom Level... button.
Scroll down to Scripting.
Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
Click OK to close the window.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 211 Security Settings - Java Scripting
Java Permissions
1
2
3
4
5
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Click the Custom Level... button.
Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 212 Security Settings - Java
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
JAVA (Sun)
1 From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced tab.
2 Make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
3 Click OK to close the window.
Figure 213 Java (Sun)
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APPENDIX
D
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses and subnet masks.
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also
use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
One part of the IP address is the network number, and the other part is the host ID. In the same
way that houses on a street share a common street name, the hosts on a network share a
common network number. Similarly, as each house has its own house number, each host on
the network has its own unique identifying number - the host ID. Routers use the network
number to send packets to the correct network, while the host ID determines to which host on
the network the packets are delivered.
Structure
An IP address is made up of four parts, written in dotted decimal notation (for example,
192.168.1.1). Each of these four parts is known as an octet. An octet is an eight-digit binary
number (for example 11000000, which is 192 in decimal notation).
Therefore, each octet has a possible range of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or 0 to 255 in
decimal.
The following figure shows an example IP address in which the first three octets (192.168.1)
are the network number, and the fourth octet (16) is the host ID.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Figure 214 Network Number and Host ID
How much of the IP address is the network number and how much is the host ID varies
according to the subnet mask.
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits
are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). The term “subnet” is short for “subnetwork”.
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the corresponding bit in the
IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet mask is “0” then the
corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host ID.
The following example shows a subnet mask identifying the network number (in bold text)
and host ID of an IP address (192.168.1.2 in decimal).
Table 120 Subnet Masks
1ST
OCTET:
(192)
2ND
OCTET:
(168)
3RD
OCTET:
(1)
4TH OCTET
(2)
IP Address (Binary)
11000000
10101000
00000001
00000010
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
Network Number
11000000
10101000
00000001
Host ID
00000010
By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from
the leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of
32 bits.
Subnet masks can be referred to by the size of the network number part (the bits with a “1”
value). For example, an “8-bit mask” means that the first 8 bits of the mask are ones and the
remaining 24 bits are zeroes.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The following
examples show the binary and decimal notation for 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit and 29-bit subnet
masks.
Table 121 Subnet Masks
BINARY
DECIMAL
1ST
OCTET
2ND
OCTET
3RD
OCTET
4TH OCTET
8-bit mask
11111111
00000000
00000000
00000000
255.0.0.0
16-bit mask
11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
255.255.0.0
24-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
255.255.255.0
29-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
11111000
255.255.255.248
Network Size
The size of the network number determines the maximum number of possible hosts you can
have on your network. The larger the number of network number bits, the smaller the number
of remaining host ID bits.
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network (192.168.1.0 with a
24-bit subnet mask, for example). An IP address with host IDs of all ones is the broadcast
address for that network (192.168.1.255 with a 24-bit subnet mask, for example).
As these two IP addresses cannot be used for individual hosts, calculate the maximum number
of possible hosts in a network as follows:
Table 122 Maximum Host Numbers
SUBNET MASK
HOST ID SIZE
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HOSTS
8 bits
255.0.0.0
24 bits
224
16 bits
255.255.0.0
16 bits
216 – 2
65534
24 bits
255.255.255.0
8 bits
28 – 2
254
3 bits
23
6
29 bits
255.255.255.248
–2
16777214
–2
Notation
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing
a “/” followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with subnet mask
255.255.255.128.
The following table shows some possible subnet masks using both notations.
Table 123 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
0
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
128
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 123 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation (continued)
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
192
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
224
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
240
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
248
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
252
Subnetting
You can use subnetting to divide one network into multiple sub-networks. In the following
example a network administrator creates two sub-networks to isolate a group of servers from
the rest of the company network for security reasons.
In this example, the company network address is 192.168.1.0. The first three octets of the
address (192.168.1) are the network number, and the remaining octet is the host ID, allowing a
maximum of 28 – 2 or 254 possible hosts.
The following figure shows the company network before subnetting.
Figure 215 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting
You can “borrow” one of the host ID bits to divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate
sub-networks. The subnet mask is now 25 bits (255.255.255.128 or /25).
The “borrowed” host ID bit can have a value of either 0 or 1, allowing two subnets;
192.168.1.0 /25 and 192.168.1.128 /25.
The following figure shows the company network after subnetting. There are now two subnetworks, A and B.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Figure 216 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting
In a 25-bit subnet the host ID has 7 bits, so each sub-network has a maximum of 27 – 2 or 126
possible hosts (a host ID of all zeroes is the subnet’s address itself, all ones is the subnet’s
broadcast address).
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is subnet A itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is its broadcast address. Therefore, the lowest IP address that can be assigned
to an actual host for subnet A is 192.168.1.1 and the highest is 192.168.1.126.
Similarly, the host ID range for subnet B is 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The previous example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a 24-bit address into two
subnets. Similarly, to divide a 24-bit address into four subnets, you need to “borrow” two host
ID bits to give four possible combinations (00, 01, 10 and 11). The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192.
Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26 - 2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (a host ID of all
zeroes is the subnet itself, all ones is the subnet’s broadcast address).
Table 124 Subnet 1
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address (Decimal)
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 125 Subnet 2
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 126 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Table 127 Subnet 4
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example: Eight Subnets
Similarly, use a 27-bit mask to create eight subnets (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and
111).
The following table shows IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 128 Eight Subnets
324
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 128 Eight Subnets (continued)
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
Subnet Planning
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 24-bit network
number.
Table 129 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 16-bit network
number.
Table 130 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 130 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning (continued)
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
Configuring IP Addresses
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this
block of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you
are told otherwise. You must also enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the ZyXEL
Device.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address for your ZyXEL Device
that is easy to remember (for instance, 192.168.1.1) but make sure that no other device on your
network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your ZyXEL Device
will compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You
don't need to change the subnet mask computed by the ZyXEL Device unless you are
instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from
the Internet (running only between two branch offices, for example) you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks:
• 10.0.0.0 — 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP, or it can be assigned from a
private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an
ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other
hand, if you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network
administrator for the appropriate IP addresses.
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address; always follow the
guidelines above. For more information on address assignment, please refer to RFC 1597,
Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP
Address Space.
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APPENDIX
E
Text File Based Auto
Configuration
This chapter describes how administrators can use text configuration files to configure the
wireless LAN settings for multiple APs.
Text File Based Auto Configuration Overview
You can use plain text configuration files to configure the wireless LAN settings on multiple
APs. The AP can automatically get a configuration file from a TFTP server at startup or after
renewing DHCP client information.
Figure 217 Text File Based Auto Configuration
Use one of the following methods to give the AP the IP address of the TFTP server where you
store the configuration files and the name of the configuration file that it should download.
You can have a different configuration file for each AP. You can also have multiple APs use
the same configuration file.
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Appendix E Text File Based Auto Configuration
"
If adjacent APs use the same configuration file, you should leave out the
channel setting since they could interfere with each other’s wireless traffic.
Auto Configuration by DHCP
A DHCP response can use options 66 and 67 to assign a TFTP server IP address and a
filename. If the AP is configured as a DHCP client, these settings can be used to perform auto
configuration.
Table 131 Auto Configuration by DHCP
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
wcfg autocfg dhcp [enable |
disable]
Turn configuration of TFTP server IP address and
filename through DHCP on or off.
If this feature is enabled and the DHCP response provides a TFTP server IP address and a
filename, the AP will try to download the file from the specified TFTP server. The AP then
uses the file to configure wireless LAN settings.
"
Not all DHCP servers allow you to specify options 66 and 67.
Manual Configuration
Use the following command to manually configure a TFTP server IP address and a file name
for the AP to use for auto provisioning whenever the AP starts up. See Section 27.1 on page
263 for how to access the Command Interpreter (CI).
Table 132 Manual Configuration
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
wcfg autocfg server [IP]
[filename]
Specify the TFTP server IP address and file name from
which the AP is to download a configuration file whenever
the AP starts up.
Configuration Via SNMP
You can configure and trigger the auto configuration remotely via SNMP.
Use the following procedure to have the AP download the configuration file.
Table 133 Configuration via SNMP
328
STEPS
MIB VARIABLE
VALUE
Step 1
pwTftpServer
Set the IP address of the TFTP server.
Step 2
pwTftpFileName
Set the file name, for example, g3000hcfg.txt.
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Appendix E Text File Based Auto Configuration
Table 133 Configuration via SNMP
STEPS
MIB VARIABLE
VALUE
Step 3
pwTftpFileType
Set to 3 (text configuration file).
Step 4
pwTftpOpCommand
Set to 2 (download).
Verifying Your Configuration File Upload Via SNMP
You can use SNMP management software to display the configuration file version currently
on the device by using the following MIB.
Table 134 Displaying the File Version
ITEM
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
pwCfgVersion
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.9.1.2
This displays the current configuration file version.
Troubleshooting Via SNMP
If you have any difficulties with the configuration file upload, you can try using the following
MIB 10 to 20 seconds after using SNMP to have the AP download the configuration file.
Table 135 Displaying the File Version
ITEM
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
pwTftpOpStatus
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.9.1.6
This displays the current operating status of the TFTP
client.
Configuration File Format
The text based configuration file must use the following format.
Figure 218 Configuration File Format
!#ZYXEL PROWLAN
!#VERSION 12
wcfg security 1 xxx
wcfg security save
wcfg ssid 1 xxx
wcfg ssid save
The first line must be !#ZYXEL PROWLAN.
The second line must specify the file version. The AP compares the file version with the
version of the last configuration file that it downloaded. If the version of the downloaded file is
the same or smaller (older), the AP ignores the file. If the version of the downloaded file is
larger (newer), the AP uses the file.
Configuration File Rules
You can only use the wlan and wcfg commands in the configuration file. The AP ignores
other ZyNOS commands but continues to check the next command.
The AP ignores any improperly formatted commands and continues to check the next line.
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Appendix E Text File Based Auto Configuration
If there are any errors while processing the configuration file, the AP generates a message with
the line number and reason for the first error (subsequent errors during the processing of an
individual configuration file are not recorded). You can use SNMP management software to
display the message by using the following MIB.
Table 136 Displaying the Auto Configuration Status
ITEM
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
pwAutoCfgMessage
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.9.1.9
Auto configuration status message string
The commands will be executed line by line just like if you entered them in a console or Telnet
CI session. Be careful to ensure the integrity of the whole AP configuration. If there are
existing settings in the AP, the newly loaded configuration file will either coexist with the
previous settings or replace them.
You can zip each configuration file. You must use the store compression method and a .zip file
extension. When zipping a configuration file, you can also add password protection using the
same password that you use to log into the AP.
Wcfg Command Configuration File Examples
These example configuration files use the wcfg command to configure security and SSID
profiles.
Figure 219 WEP Configuration File Example
!#ZYXEL PROWLAN
!#VERSION 11
wcfg security 1 name Test-wep
wcfg security 1 security wep
wcfg security 1 wep keysize 64 ascii
wcfg security 1 wep key1 abcde
wcfg security 1 wep key2 bcdef
wcfg security 1 wep key3 cdefg
wcfg security 1 wep key4 defgh
wcfg security 1 wep keyindex 1
wcfg security save
wcfg ssid 1 name ssid-wep
wcfg ssid 1 security Test-wep
wcfg ssid 1 l2iolation disable
wcfg ssid 1 macfilter disable
wcfg ssid save
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Appendix E Text File Based Auto Configuration
Figure 220 802.1X Configuration File Example
!#ZYXEL PROWLAN
!#VERSION 12
wcfg security 2 name Test-8021x
wcfg security 2 mode 8021x-static128
wcfg security 2 wep key1 abcdefghijklm
wcfg security 2 wep key2 bcdefghijklmn
wcfg security 2 wep keyindex 1
wcfg security 2 reauthtime 1800
wcfg security 2 idletime 3600
wcfg security save
wcfg radius 2 name radius-rd
wcfg radius 2 primary 172.23.3.4 1812 1234 enable
wcfg radius 2 backup 172.23.3.5 1812 1234 enable
wcfg radius save
wcfg ssid 2 name ssid-8021x
wcfg ssid 2 security Test-8021x
wcfg ssid 2 radius radius-rd
wcfg ssid 2 qos 4
wcfg ssid 2 l2isolation disable
wcfg ssid 2 macfilter disable
wcfg ssid save
Figure 221 WPA-PSK Configuration File Example
!#ZYXEL PROWLAN
!#VERSION 13
wcfg security 3 name Test-wpapsk
wcfg security 3 mode wpapsk
wcfg security 3 passphrase qwertyuiop
wcfg security 3 reauthtime 1800
wcfg security 3 idletime 3600
wcfg security 3 groupkeytime 1800
wcfg security save
wcfg ssid 3 name ssid-wpapsk
wcfg ssid 3 security Test-wpapsk
wcfg ssid 3 qos 4
wcfg ssid 3 l2siolation disable
wcfg ssid 3 macfilter disable
wcfg ssid save
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
331
Appendix E Text File Based Auto Configuration
Figure 222 WPA Configuration File Example
!#ZYXEL PROWLAN
!#VERSION 14
wcfg security 4 name Test-wpa
wcfg security 4 mode wpa
wcfg security 4 reauthtime 1800
wcfg security 4 idletime 3600
wcfg security 4 groupkeytime 1800
wcfg security save
wcfg radius 4 name radius-rd1
wcfg radius 4 primary 172.0.20.38 1812 20 enable
wcfg radius 4 backup 172.0.20.39 1812 20 enable
wcfg radius save
wcfg ssid 4 name ssid-wpa
wcfg ssid 4 security Test-wpa
wcfg ssid 4 qos 4
wcfg ssid 4 l2isolation disable
wcfg ssid 4 macfilter disable
wcfg ssid save
Wlan Command Configuration File Example
This example configuration file uses the wlan command to configure the AP to use the
security and SSID profiles from the wcfg command configuration file examples and general
wireless settings. You could actually combine all of this chapter’s example configuration files
into a single configuration file. Remember that the commands are applied in order. So for
example, you would place the commands that create security and SSID profiles before the
commands that tell the AP to use those profiles.
332
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Appendix E Text File Based Auto Configuration
Figure 223 Wlan Configuration File Example
!#ZYXEL PROWLAN
!#VERSION 15
wcfg ssid 1 name ssid-wep
wcfg ssid 1 security Test-wep
wcfg ssid 2 name ssid-8021x
wcfg ssid 2 security Test-8021x
wcfg ssid 2 radius radius-rd
wcfg ssid 3 name ssid-wpapsk
wcfg ssid 3 security Test-wpapsk
wcfg ssid 4 name ssid-wpa2psk
wcfg ssid 4 security Test-wpa2psk
wcfg ssid save
!line starting with '!' is comment
!change to channel 8
wlan chid 8
!change operating mode -> AP mode,
!then select ssid-wep as running WLAN profile
wlan opmode 0
wlan ssidprofile ssid-wep
!change operating mode -> MBSSID mode,
!then select ssid-wpapsk, ssid-wpa2psk as running WLAN profiles
wlan opmode 3
wlan ssidprofile ssid-wpapsk ssid-wpa2psk
! set output power level to 50%
wlan output power 2
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
333
Appendix E Text File Based Auto Configuration
334
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
APPENDIX
F
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or
software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the
patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products
described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL
Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for
identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
The device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operations.
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This device generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with
the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is
no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
335
Appendix F Legal Information
If this device does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be
determined by turning the device off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
1 Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2 Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
3 Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
4 Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement
• This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna
or transmitter.
• For operation within 5.15 ~ 5.25GHz frequency range, it is restricted to indoor
environment.
• IEEE 802.11b or 802.11g operation of this product in the U.S.A. is firmware-limited to
channels 1 through 11.
• To comply with FCC RF exposure compliance requirements, a separation distance of at
least 20 cm must be maintained between the antenna of this device and all persons.
注意 !
依據
低功率電波輻射性電機管理辦法
第十二條 經型式認證合格之低功率射頻電機,非經許可,公司、商號或使用
者均不得擅自變更頻率、加大功率或變更原設計之特性及功能。
第十四條 低功率射頻電機之使用不得影響飛航安全及干擾合法通信;經發現
有干擾現象時,應立即停用,並改善至無干擾時方得繼續使用。
前項合法通信,指依電信規定作業之無線電信。低功率射頻電機須忍
受合法通信或工業、科學及醫療用電波輻射性電機設備之干擾。
在 5250MHz~5350MHz 頻帶內操作之無線資訊傳輸設備,限於室內使用。
本機限在不干擾合法電臺與不受被干擾保障條件下於室內使用。
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This device has been designed for the WLAN 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz networks throughout the EC
region and Switzerland, with restrictions in France.
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
336
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Appendix F Legal Information
Viewing Certifications
1 Go to http://www.zyxel.com.
2 Select your product on the ZyXEL home page to go to that product's page.
3 Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects
in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During
the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure
due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the
defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever
extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent
product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty
shall not apply if the product has been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act
of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the
purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any
implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return
Material Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is
recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of
purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of
ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products
will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This warranty
gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to
country.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information
at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
337
Appendix F Legal Information
338
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
APPENDIX
G
Customer Support
In the event of problems that cannot be solved by using this manual, you should contact your
vendor. If you cannot contact your vendor, then contact a ZyXEL office for the region in
which you bought the device. Regional offices are listed below (see also http://
www.zyxel.com/web/contact_us.php). Please have the following information ready when you
contact an office.
Required Information
•
•
•
•
Product model and serial number.
Warranty Information.
Date that you received your device.
Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
“+” is the (prefix) number you dial to make an international telephone call.
Corporate Headquarters (Worldwide)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.tw
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.tw
Telephone: +886-3-578-3942
Fax: +886-3-578-2439
Web: www.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Corp., 6 Innovation Road II, Science Park,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
China - ZyXEL Communications (Beijing) Corp.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: cso.zycn@zyxel.cn
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.cn
Telephone: +86-010-82800646
Fax: +86-010-82800587
Address: 902, Unit B, Horizon Building, No.6, Zhichun Str, Haidian District, Beijing
Web: http://www.zyxel.cn
China - ZyXEL Communications (Shanghai) Corp.
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: cso.zycn@zyxel.cn
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.cn
Telephone: +86-021-61199055
Fax: +86-021-52069033
[Document Title]
339
Appendix G Customer Support
• Address: 1005F, ShengGao International Tower, No.137 XianXia Rd., Shanghai
• Web: http://www.zyxel.cn
Costa Rica
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: soporte@zyxel.co.cr
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.cr
Telephone: +506-2017878
Fax: +506-2015098
Web: www.zyxel.co.cr
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Costa Rica, Plaza Roble Escazú, Etapa El Patio, Tercer Piso, San
José, Costa Rica
Czech Republic
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@cz.zyxel.com
Telephone: +420-241-091-350
Fax: +420-241-091-359
Web: www.zyxel.cz
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, Czech s.r.o., Modranská 621, 143 01 Praha 4 Modrany, Ceská Republika
Denmark
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.dk
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.dk
Telephone: +45-39-55-07-00
Fax: +45-39-55-07-07
Web: www.zyxel.dk
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Columbusvej, 2860 Soeborg, Denmark
Finland
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.fi
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.fi
Telephone: +358-9-4780-8411
Fax: +358-9-4780-8448
Web: www.zyxel.fi
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Oy, Malminkaari 10, 00700 Helsinki, Finland
France
•
•
•
•
•
340
E-mail: info@zyxel.fr
Telephone: +33-4-72-52-97-97
Fax: +33-4-72-52-19-20
Web: www.zyxel.fr
Regular Mail: ZyXEL France, 1 rue des Vergers, Bat. 1 / C, 69760 Limonest, France
[Document Title]
Appendix G Customer Support
Germany
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.de
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.de
Telephone: +49-2405-6909-69
Fax: +49-2405-6909-99
Web: www.zyxel.de
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH., Adenauerstr. 20/A2 D-52146, Wuerselen,
Germany
Hungary
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.hu
Sales E-mail: info@zyxel.hu
Telephone: +36-1-3361649
Fax: +36-1-3259100
Web: www.zyxel.hu
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Hungary, 48, Zoldlomb Str., H-1025, Budapest, Hungary
India
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.in
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.in
Telephone: +91-11-30888144 to +91-11-30888153
Fax: +91-11-30888149, +91-11-26810715
Web: http://www.zyxel.in
Regular Mail: India - ZyXEL Technology India Pvt Ltd., II-Floor, F2/9 Okhla Phase -1,
New Delhi 110020, India
Japan
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.jp
Sales E-mail: zyp@zyxel.co.jp
Telephone: +81-3-6847-3700
Fax: +81-3-6847-3705
Web: www.zyxel.co.jp
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Japan, 3F, Office T&U, 1-10-10 Higashi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku,
Tokyo 141-0022, Japan
Kazakhstan
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support: http://zyxel.kz/support
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.kz
Telephone: +7-3272-590-698
Fax: +7-3272-590-689
Web: www.zyxel.kz
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Kazakhstan, 43 Dostyk Ave., Office 414, Dostyk Business Centre,
050010 Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
[Document Title]
341
Appendix G Customer Support
Malaysia
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.my
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.my
Telephone: +603-8076-9933
Fax: +603-8076-9833
Web: http://www.zyxel.com.my
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Malaysia Sdn Bhd., 1-02 & 1-03, Jalan Kenari 17F, Bandar
Puchong Jaya, 47100 Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
North America
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com
Support Telephone: +1-800-978-7222
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com
Sales Telephone: +1-714-632-0882
Fax: +1-714-632-0858
Web: www.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Inc., 1130 N. Miller St., Anaheim, CA 928062001, U.S.A.
Norway
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.no
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.no
Telephone: +47-22-80-61-80
Fax: +47-22-80-61-81
Web: www.zyxel.no
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Nils Hansens vei 13, 0667 Oslo, Norway
Poland
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@pl.zyxel.com
Telephone: +48-22-333 8250
Fax: +48-22-333 8251
Web: www.pl.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, ul. Okrzei 1A, 03-715 Warszawa, Poland
Russia
•
•
•
•
•
•
342
Support: http://zyxel.ru/support
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.ru
Telephone: +7-095-542-89-29
Fax: +7-095-542-89-25
Web: www.zyxel.ru
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Russia, Ostrovityanova 37a Str., Moscow 117279, Russia
[Document Title]
Appendix G Customer Support
Singapore
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.sg
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.sg
Telephone: +65-6899-6678
Fax: +65-6899-8887
Web: http://www.zyxel.com.sg
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Singapore Pte Ltd., No. 2 International Business Park, The Strategy
#03-28, Singapore 609930
Spain
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.es
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.es
Telephone: +34-902-195-420
Fax: +34-913-005-345
Web: www.zyxel.es
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, Arte, 21 5ª planta, 28033 Madrid, Spain
Sweden
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.se
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.se
Telephone: +46-31-744-7700
Fax: +46-31-744-7701
Web: www.zyxel.se
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Sjöporten 4, 41764 Göteborg, Sweden
Taiwan
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.tw
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.tw
Telephone: +886-2-27399889
Fax: +886-2-27353220
Web: http://www.zyxel.com.tw
Address: Room B, 21F., No.333, Sec. 2, Dunhua S. Rd., Da-an District, Taipei
Thailand
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.th
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.th
Telephone: +662-831-5315
Fax: +662-831-5395
Web: http://www.zyxel.co.th
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Thailand Co., Ltd., 1/1 Moo 2, Ratchaphruk Road, Bangrak-Noi,
Muang, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
[Document Title]
343
Appendix G Customer Support
Turkey
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: cso@zyxel.com.tr
Telephone: +90 212 222 55 22
Fax: +90-212-220-2526
Web: http:www.zyxel.com.tr
Address: Kaptanpasa Mahallesi Piyalepasa Bulvari Ortadogu Plaza N:14/13 K:6
Okmeydani/Sisli Istanbul/Turkey
Ukraine
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@ua.zyxel.com
Sales E-mail: sales@ua.zyxel.com
Telephone: +380-44-247-69-78
Fax: +380-44-494-49-32
Web: www.ua.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Ukraine, 13, Pimonenko Str., Kiev 04050, Ukraine
United Kingdom
•
•
•
•
•
•
344
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.uk
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.uk
Telephone: +44-1344-303044, 0845 122 0301 (UK only)
Fax: +44-1344-303034
Web: www.zyxel.co.uk
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications UK Ltd., 11 The Courtyard, Eastern Road,
Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2XB, United Kingdom (UK)
[Document Title]
Index
Index
A
C
access 34
access point 34
access privileges 36
address assignment 157
address filtering 33
administrator authentication on RADIUS 100
Advanced Encryption Standard
See AES.
AES 308
alternative subnet mask notation 321
antenna 277
directional 311
gain 311
omni-directional 311
AP 33, 34, 35, 159, 301
AP controller 83
AP+Bridge 33, 35
applications 33
Access Point 34
AP/Bridge 36
Bridge/Repeater 34
MBSSID 36
ATC 107, 145
ATC+WMM 145
ATM 107
authentication server 33
auto configuration 327
auto configuration status 330
CA 306
CAPWAP 79, 83
Certificate Authority
See CA.
certificates 178
thumbprint algorithms 184
thumbprints 184
verifying fingerprints 184
certifications 335
notices 336
viewing 337
channel 34, 301
interference 301
CI commands 264
Class of Service (CoS) 109
collision 252
command interface 38
command interpreter 263
community 247
configuration 33
configuration file
examples 330
format 329
configuration file rules 329
contact information 339
Control and Providioning of Wireless Access Points
See CAPWAP
copyright 335
CoS 109
CPU load 252
CTS (Clear to Send) 302
customer support 339
B
backup 232
Basic Service Set 105
see BSS
bridge 34, 35
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) 111
Bridge/Repeater 33, 34
BSS 36, 105, 299
BSSID 33
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
D
default 234
DFS 112
DHCP 254
diagnostic 255
diagnostic tools 251
Differentiated Services 109
345
Index
DiffServ 109
DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) 109
DiffServ Code Points 109
DiffServ marking rule 110
disclaimer 335
Distribution System 106
DS field 109
DSCPs 109
Dynamic Frequency Selection 112
dynamic WEP key exchange 307
H
E
IANA 326
IBSS 299
IEEE 802.11g 303
IEEE 802.1x 33
in-band management 213
Independent Basic Service Set 230
see IBSS
initial screen 237
initialization vector (IV) 308
installation 33
interference 34
internal authentication server 33
Internet access 245
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
See IANA
Internet security gateway 33
Internet telephony 37
IP address 157, 158, 246, 254, 256, 279
IPSec VPN capability 279
isolation 33
EAP 123, 124
EAP authentication 305
encryption 36, 125, 308
error log 254
error/information messages
sample 255
ESS 106, 300
ESS IDentification 106
ESSID 275
Extended Service Set 106
see ESS
Extended Service Set IDentification 114, 116, 141
F
FCC interference statement 335
file version 329
filename conventions 257
filtering 33
firmware file
maintenance 230
flow control 237
fragmentation threshold 302
friendly AP list 162
FTP 38, 165, 167, 269
restrictions 165, 269
hidden menus 241
hidden node 301
honeypot attack 160
host 101
humidity 278
I
L
layer-2 isolation 33, 37
LEDs 39
link type 252
log and trace 255
log descriptions 204
login screen 238
logs 201
G
general setup 99, 243
guest SSID 37
346
M
MAC address 33, 152
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Index
MAC address filter action 154
MAC filter 37, 123, 152
MAC filtering 279
MAC service data unit 94, 114, 115, 119, 141
main menu 241
maintenance 33
management 33
management AP 83
Management Information Base (MIB) 170
management VLAN 213
managing the device
good habits 38
using FTP. See FTP.
using Telnet. See command interface.
using the command interface. See command
interface.
max age 111
MBSSID 33, 36
Message Integrity Check (MIC) 308
mobile access 33
mode 33
models covered 33
MSDU 94, 114, 115, 119, 141
N
NAT 326
network 33
network access 33
network bridge 34
network traffic 33
O
operating mode 33
out-of-band management 213
P
packets 252
Pairwise Master Key (PMK) 308, 309
password 100, 238, 239, 247, 279
path cost 111
Per-Hop Behavior 109
PHB (Per-Hop Behavior) 110
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
ping 256
PoE 282
power specification 277
power specifications 282
preamble mode 303
pre-configured profiles 37
priorities 107
prioritization 33
private IP address 157
product registration 337
PSK 308
Q
QoS 33, 145
Quick Start Guide 43
R
radio 34
RADIUS 304
message types 305
messages 305
shared secret key 305
rapid STP 110
RAS 254
rate
receiving 252
transmission 252
reauthentication time 131, 132, 133, 134, 135
registration
product 337
related documentation 3
remote management limitations 165, 269
remote management setup 267
remote node 252
repeater 34
required fields 241
restore 233
restore configuration 260
RF interference 34
roaming 154
requirements 155
rogue AP 33, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163
rogue AP list 163
root bridge 111
RTS (Request To Send) 302
347
Index
348
threshold 301, 302
RTS/CTS handshake 94, 114, 115, 119, 141
system name 99
system timeout 165, 269
S
T
safety warnings 6
screws 280
security 34
security profiles 33
server 33
Service Set 114, 116, 141
Service Set Identifier
see SSID
SMT 240
SMT menu overview 240
SNMP 169, 280
community 247
configuration 247
manager 170
MIBs 170
traps 171
trusted host 247
version 3 and security 172
Spanning Tree Protocol 110
specifications 282
SSID 36
hide SSID 123
SSID profile 143
pre-configured 37
SSID profiles 36, 37
STP 110
STP - how it works 111
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) 279
STP path costs 111
STP port states 112
STP terminology 111
subnet 319
subnet mask 246, 254, 279, 320
subnetting 322
syntax conventions 4
system
console port speed 254
diagnostic 255
log and trace 254
system information 253
system status 251
time and date 265
system information 253
system information & diagnosis 251
system maintenance 251, 253, 259, 261, 263, 265
tagged VLAN example 213
TCP/IP 256, 267
telnet 166, 266
telnet configuration 266, 267
telnet under NAT 267
temperature 278
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) 308
terminal emulation 237
text file based auto configuration 280, 327
TFTP
restrictions 269
TFTP file transfer 261
TFTP restrictions 165
time and date setting 265
time setting 102
time zone 266
time-sensitive 33
ToS 109
trace records 254
trademarks 335
traffic security 33
Type of Service 109
U
use 33
user authentication 125
V
Virtual Local Area Network 209
VLAN 209
VoIP 33, 37, 145
VoIP SSID 37
VT100 237
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
Index
W
warranty 337
note 337
wcfg command 330
WDS 34, 36, 116
web 168
web configurator 33, 43, 45
WEP 33
WEP encryption 123, 130
Wi-Fi Multimedia QoS 107
Wi-Fi Protected Access 33, 307
wired network 33, 34
wireless channel 275
wireless client WPA supplicants 128, 309
Wireless Distribution System (WDS) 36
wireless Internet connection 34
wireless LAN 275
wireless security 36, 123, 275, 303
WLAN
interference 301
security parameters 310
WLAN interface 34
WMM 145
WPA 33, 124, 307
key caching 308
pre-authentication 308
user authentication 308
vs WPA-PSK 308
wireless client supplicant 309
with RADIUS application example 309
WPA with RADIUS application 126
WPA2 33, 307
user authentication 308
vs WPA2-PSK 308
wireless client supplicant 309
with RADIUS application example 309
WPA2-Pre-Shared Key 307
WPA2-PSK 307, 308
application example 309
WPA-PSK 307, 308
application example 309
Z
ZyNOS 258
ZyNOS F/W version 258
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
349
Index
350
ZyXEL NWA-3160 Series User’s Guide
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