User`s guide | 3Com 3C840 Network Router User Manual

840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
®
OfficeConnect™ Remote
840 SDSL Router User’s
Guide
Release 1.2.0
http://www.3com.com/
Part No. 10031396 Rev. AA
May 2000
840ug.book Page 2 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
3Com Corporation
5400 Bayfront Plaza
Santa Clara, California
95052-8145
Copyright © 1998, 3Com Corporation. All rights reserved. No part of this documentation may be reproduced
in any form or by any means or used to make any derivative work (such as translation, transformation, or
adaptation) without written permission from 3Com Corporation.
3Com Corporation reserves the right to revise this documentation and to make changes in content from time
to time without obligation on the part of 3Com Corporation to provide notification of such revision or change.
3Com Corporation provides this documentation without warranty, term, or condition of any kind, either
implied or expressed, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties, terms or conditions of
merchantability, satisfactory quality, and fitness for a particular purpose. 3Com may make improvements or
changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this documentation at any time.
If there is any software on removable media described in this documentation, it is furnished under a license
agreement included with the product as a separate document, in the hard copy documentation, or on the
removable media in a directory file named LICENSE.TXT or !LICENSE.TXT. If you are unable to locate a copy,
please contact 3Com and a copy will be provided to you.
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LEGEND
If you are a United States government agency, then this documentation and the software described herein are
provided to you subject to the following:
All technical data and computer software are commercial in nature and developed solely at private expense.
Software is delivered as “Commercial Computer Software” as defined in DFARS 252.227-7014 (June 1995) or
as a “commercial item” as defined in FAR 2.101(a) and as such is provided with only such rights as are
provided in 3Com’s standard commercial license for the Software. Technical data is provided with limited rights
only as provided in DFAR 252.227-7015 (Nov 1995) or FAR 52.227-14 (June 1987), whichever is applicable.
You agree not to remove or deface any portion of any legend provided on any licensed program or
documentation contained in, or delivered to you in conjunction with, this User Guide.
Portions of this documentation are reproduced in whole or in part with permission from (as appropriate).
Unless otherwise indicated, 3Com registered trademarks are registered in the United States and may or may not
be registered in other countries.
3Com, the 3Com logo, Boundary Routing, EtherDisk, EtherLink, EtherLink II, LANsentry, LinkBuilder, Net Age,
NETBuilder, NETBuilder II, OfficeConnect, Parallel Tasking, SmartAgent, SuperStack, TokenDisk, TokenLink,
Transcend, and ViewBuilder are registered trademarks of 3Com Corporation. ATMLink, AutoLink, CoreBuilder,
DynamicAccess, FDDILink, NetProbe, PACE and Total Control are trademarks of 3Com Corporation. 3ComFacts
is a service mark of 3Com Corporation.
Artisoft and LANtastic are registered trademarks of Artisoft, Inc. Banyan and VINES are registered trademarks
of Banyan Systems Incorporated. CompuServe is a registered trademark of CompuServe Interactive
Services, Inc. DEC and PATHWORKS are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Intel and
Pentium are registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. AIX, AT, IBM, NetView, and OS/2 are registered
trademarks and Warp is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Microsoft, MS-DOS,
Windows, and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Novell and NetWare are
registered trademarks of Novell, Inc. PictureTel is a registered trademark of PictureTel Corporation. UNIX is a
registered trademark of X/Open Company, Ltd. in the United States and other countries.
All other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are
associated.
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ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Introduction 1
How to Use This Guide 2
Conventions 2
Document Notation 3
Safety Information 4
Additional Safety Information
Year 2000 Compliance 5
5
1
OVERVIEW
Introduction 1 - 1
What Is the OfficeConnect Remote 840? 1 - 2
What is an SDSL Modem? 1 - 3
What is ATM? 1 - 3
What is Frame Relay? 1 - 3
What is a BRouter? 1 - 4
Routing vs. Bridging 1 - 4
MAC-Encapsulated Routing 1 - 4
What is a Remote Site? 1 - 5
What is RFC 1483 1 - 6
Benefits of Using RFC 1483 1 - 7
What is RFC 1490? 1 - 7
What is PPP? 1 - 7
Benefits of Using PPP 1 - 7
What is DHCP? 1 - 7
What is DNS? 1 - 8
What is Address Translation? 1 - 8
What is DHCP Smart Mode? 1 - 8
What Is Default Bridge Mode? 1 - 9
What is Unconfigured Mode? 1 - 9
Getting Started Quickly 1 - 9
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Panel Features 1 - 10
Front Panel 1 - 10
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Back Panel 1 - 11
Configuration Overview 1 - 13
General Configuration Steps 1 - 13
How to Manage the OfficeConnect Remote 840 1 - 14
Starting the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 1 - 15
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager Menus 1 - 15
Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 1 - 16
Document Notation 1 - 16
Online Help 1 - 17
Where to Find More Configuration Information 1 - 17
2
SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION
Performing System Administration Tasks
2-1
Controlling Login and Telnet Access 2 - 1
Adding a Login 2 - 2
Deleting a Login 2 - 2
Modifying the Date and Time
2-3
Restoring Factory Defaults 2 - 3
Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager to Restore Defaults
Using the Reset Button 2 - 4
Updating OfficeConnect Remote 840 Software 2 - 4
Controlling SNMP Access
2-4
Controlling TFTP Access
2-6
Assigning SNMP Trap Managers
2-7
Assigning Syslog Managers
2-8
2-4
3
REMOTE SITE MANAGEMENT
Introduction 3 - 1
Remote Site Overview
3-1
Managing a Remote Site Profile
3-2
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Adding a Remote Site Profile 3 - 2
Modifying a Remote Site Profile 3 - 3
Deleting a Remote Site Profile 3 - 3
Configuring Network Service Information (PPP / RFC 1483 / RFC 1490)
Frame Relay 3 - 5
Configuring ATM Information
3-6
ATM Modify Screen 3 - 6
Configuring Protocol Parameters 3 - 8
Monitoring Remote Site Connections 3 - 8
3-4
4
CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
Introduction 4 - 1
Overview 4 - 1
Enabling IP Routing 4 - 2
Configuring IP for the LAN 4 - 2
Adding a Local IP Network 4 - 3
Resetting Parameters 4 - 4
Modifying or Deleting an IP Network 4 - 4
Configuring IP RIP on the LAN 4 - 5
Local Site (LAN) RIP 4 - 5
Advanced RIP Modification Options 4 - 5
Resetting Parameters 4 - 6
Configuring IP for the Remote Site Connection 4 - 7
Configuring IP Parameters for the Remote Site 4 - 7
Configure the Remote Site IP Network Information 4 - 8
Configuring IP RIP on a Remote Site
4 - 10
Configuring IP Static and Framed Routes 4 - 11
Adding a Static IP Route to the LAN 4 - 11
Adding a Framed IP Route to a Remote Site
4 - 11
Using IP Address Validation 4 - 12
MAC-Encapsulated Routing 4 - 13
Monitoring 4 - 14
IP Testing (PING) 4 - 14
Option 1: OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager Ping to ISP or Remote Site Network
4 - 14
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Ping Responses 4 - 15
DNS Errors 4 - 15
Option 2: DOS Ping to ISP or Remote Site Network 4 - 16
Option 3: Internet Browser (Internet Access Only) 4 - 17
Advanced Troubleshooting 4 - 17
5
CONFIGURING BRIDGING
Introduction 5 - 1
Overview 5 - 1
Configuring Bridging for the LAN 5 - 3
Adding a Bridge Network 5 - 3
Modifying or Deleting a Bridge Network 5 - 4
Configuring Bridging for the Remote Site Connections 5 - 4
Enabling Bridging 5 - 5
Bridging IP Traffic 5 - 5
MAC-Encapsulated Routing 5 - 6
Bridge Firewall 5 - 7
Advanced Bridging Options 5 - 9
Default Bridge Mode 5 - 10
Default Bridge Mode Overview 5 - 10
Installing the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Using Default Bridge Mode
Monitoring Bridging 5 - 11
Viewing Bridge Network Status 5 - 11
Viewing Bridge Forwarding Table 5 - 11
Viewing Bridge Counters 5 - 11
Testing Bridging 5 - 11
5 - 11
6
NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION USING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Introduction 6 - 1
Selecting Address Translation
6-1
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Configuring the PAT Default Address 6 - 2
Configuring Static PAT Port Entries 6 - 3
Configuring NAT 6 - 4
Monitoring 6 - 5
7
CONFIGURING DHCP
Introduction 7 -1
DHCP Overview 7 -1
Configuring the DHCP Mode
Configuring the DHCP Server
Configuring the DHCP Relay
Monitoring DHCP 7 -4
DHCP Smart Mode Overview
7 -2
7 -3
7 -4
7 -4
8
CONFIGURING DNS
Introduction 8 - 1
DNS Overview 8 - 1
Configuring DNS 8 - 2
Configuring Remote DNS Servers 8 - 2
Configuring Static DNS Host Entries 8 - 4
9
CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
Introduction 9 - 1
Overview 9 - 1
Configuring IPX for the LAN 9 - 2
Adding a Local IPX Network
9-2
Modifying or Deleting an IPX Network
9-3
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Configuring IPX for Remote Sites Connection 9 - 3
Configure the Remote Site IPX Network Information 9 - 4
Configuring IPX Static and Framed Routes 9 - 5
Adding a Static IPX Route to the Local Site (LAN)
9-5
Adding a Framed IPX Route to a Remote Site (WAN) 9 - 6
Configuring IPX Static and Framed Services 9 - 7
Adding a Static IPX Service to a Local Site (LAN) 9 - 8
Adding a Framed IPX Service to a Remote Site (WAN) 9 - 9
Configuring IPX RIP and SAP 9 - 10
Local Site (LAN) RIP and SAP 9 - 10
Remote Site (WAN) RIP and SAP 9 - 11
IPX Routing Configuration to Support MAC-Encapsulated Routing
Monitoring IPX 9 - 12
IPX Testing 9 - 12
9 - 12
10
UPGRADING OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE FOR THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Introduction 10 - 1
Obtaining Updated OfficeConnect Remote 840 Software 10 - 1
OfficeConnect Remote 840 CD 10 - 2
Installing Operational Software to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Unit 10 - 2
Installing Software via OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 10 - 2
Installing Software via DOS 10 - 3
11
MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Introduction 11 - 1
Overview 11 - 1
Throughput Performance 11 - 1
Ethernet Interface 11 - 3
Interface Status 11 - 3
Ethernet Counters 11 - 4
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11 - 5
Interface Status 11 - 5
ATM Status 11 - 5
ATM Cell Status 11 - 5
SDSL Transceiver Status 11 - 6
Remote Site Connection 11 - 7
Connection Traffic/Error Counters 11 - 7
ATM Site Counters 11 - 7
Frame Relay VC Site Counters 11 - 8
Remote Site Status Table
11 - 8
IP
11 - 8
IP Networks 11 - 8
ARP Table 11 - 9
IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP Counters and Tables 11 - 10
DHCP 11 - 10
DHCP Lease Table 11 - 10
DHCP Counters 11 - 11
Address Translation 11 - 11
Table of Mapped Addresses 11 - 11
Table of Port Assignments 11 - 12
IPX 11 - 13
IPX Networks 11 - 13
IPX Routes 11 - 13
IPX Services 11 - 14
Bridge 11 - 14
Bridge Networks 11 - 14
Forwarding Table 11 - 15
Bridge Counters 11 - 15
Events Logs 11 - 15
Connection Event Log 11 - 16
Critical Events Log 11 - 16
12
CONFIGURING FILTERS
Introduction
12 - 1
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Filtering Overview 12 - 1
Filtering Capabilities 12 - 2
Filter Classes 12 - 2
Filter Types
12 - 2
Data Filters
12 - 2
Advertisement Filters 12 - 3
Generic Filters
12 - 3
Creating Filters Overview 12 - 4
Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 4
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager Filter Screens 12 - 6
Filter Screens 12 - 7
12 - 9
12 - 9
Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 12
Modifying an Existing Filter Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 13
Turning a Filter Off Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 13
13
TROUBLESHOOTING
Introduction 13 - 1
Troubleshooting Tools 13 - 1
Troubleshooting Tables 13 - 2
How to Use these Tables 13 - 2
LAN Connection Problems 13 - 3
IP Wizard and Web Browser Problems 13 - 3
WAN Connection Problems
13 - 6
General Network Connection Problems
13 - 7
IP Network Connection Problems 13 - 9
IPX Network Connection Problems 13 - 12
Bridge Connection Problems 13 - 13
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A
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Introduction A -1
Bridging and Routing Concepts A -1
Guidelines for Choosing Bridging or Routing
A -2
How Bridges Learn
A -2
Bridging Between Remote Sites A -3
Building a Larger Network
A -4
Multiple Paths Between Bridge LANs A -5
Network Topology A -6
Broadcast Storms A -6
Optimum Use of Resource A -6
Network Organization, Structure, and Physical Layout A -6
The Internet A -7
Routing IP A -7
Open Systems Interconnection Network Layer Model A -8
IP Routing
A -9
B
IP ADDRESSING
Introduction to IP Addressing
B-1
IP Addressing Basics B - 1
Address Classes B - 1
Subnetting
B-1
Reserved Addresses B - 2
Supernetting (Advanced TCP/IP) B - 3
Supernetting and the OfficeConnect Remote 840
IP Subnet Mask Address B - 5
IP Planning B - 5
Assigning IP Addresses and Subnetting B - 5
Single IP Address B - 6
Range of IP Addresses B - 6
IP Numbered and Unnumbered Links B - 7
B-4
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C
ADDRESS TRANSLATION TUTORIAL
Overview C -1
Network Address Translation (NAT) C -2
NAT Example C -2
Dynamic NAT C -3
Static NAT C -4
Port Address Translation (PAT)
C -4
PAT Example C -4
Dynamic PAT C -5
Static PAT C -5
Default PAT C -6
D
USING THE CLI GUIDE
Overview D -1
Accessing the CLI from the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager
D -1
E
CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Instructions for Internet Access E - 1
Step 1: Configuring Remote Site General Information E - 1
Step 2: Configuring the Remote Site ATM Parameters (ATM Only) E - 4
Step 3: Configuring the Remote Site IP Network Information E - 4
Instructions for Telecommuting / Remote Office Access E - 7
Step 1: Configuring Remote Site General Information E - 7
Step 2: Configuring the Remote Site ATM Parameters E - 9
Step 3: Configuring the Remote Site IP Network Information E - 10
Step 4: Configuring the Remote Site IPX Network Information E - 12
Step 5: Configuring a Local IPX Network E - 13
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Step 6: Configuring a Local Bridge Network
Using the Configuration Audit E - 13
Saving the Configuration E - 14
Testing the Configuration E - 14
E - 13
F
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
Online Technical Services F - 1
World Wide Web Site F - 1
Support from Your Network Supplier
Support from 3Com F - 2
Returning Products for Repair F - 2
F-1
3COM CORPORATION LIMITED WARRANTY
FCC CLASS B STATEMENT
FCC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
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ABOUT THIS GUIDE
Introduction
This guide describes the features and advanced configuration of the
OfficeConnectRemote 840 SDSL Router. The guide is intended for both
first-time and experienced computer network users who are using the
OfficeConnectRemote 840.
For information on the initial configuration of the unit, see the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL Router Installation Guide (included in
the box when your purchased your Router). That guide contains steps to
get the user started accessing the Internet or telecommuting to a remote
office.
This OfficeConnectRemote 840 SDSL Router User's Guide is intended to
be used for advanced configuration, presenting more detailed
information on the unit.
First-time users may want to read the tutorials in this Guide to help you
learn more about the networking technologies used by the
OfficeConnectRemote 840 SDSL Router.
The appendixes describe how to set up your router without using the
Setup Wizard.
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2
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
How to Use This
Guide
This table shows where to find specific information in this guide.
If you are looking for:
Turn to:
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Product Overview and
Configuration
Chapters 1, 2
Configuration of your Router (Remote Sites, IP Routing,
Bridging, NAT, DHCP, DNS, IPX Routing)
Chapter 3 – 9
Upgrading Software
Chapter 10
Monitoring Capabilities
Chapter 11
Configuring Filters
Chapter 12
Troubleshooting
Chapter 13
Information on the difference between Bridging and RoutingAppendix A
Information about IP Addressing
Appendix B
Information on Address Translation
Appendix C
Information on using the CLI Guide
Appendix D
Information on Configuration
Appendix E
Information on Technical Support
Appendix F
These and other user guides and release notes are available in Adobe
Acrobat Reader Portable Document Format (PDF) or HTML on the 3Com
World Wide Web site:
http://www.3com.com/ocr840
Conventions
Table 1 and Table 2 list conventions that are used throughout this guide.
Table 1 Notice Icons
Icon
Notice Type
Description
Information note
Information that describes important features or
instructions
Caution
Information that alerts you to potential loss of data or
potential damage to an application, system, or device
Warning
Information that alerts you to potential personal injury
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Document Notation
3
Table 2 Text Convention
Convention
Description
Screen displays This typeface represents information as it appears on the
screen.
Syntax
The word “syntax” means that you must evaluate the syntax
provided and then supply the appropriate values for the
placeholders that appear in angle brackets. Example:
To add a login user, use the following syntax:
Add user <name> password <password>
In this example, you must supply a user name for <name>
and a password for <password>.
Commands
The word “command” means that you must enter the
command exactly as shown and then press Return or Enter.
Commands appear in bold. Example:
To view the current login users, use the command:
list users
The words “enter”
and “type”
When you see the word “enter” in this guide, you must type
something, and then press Return or Enter. Do not press
Return or Enter when an instruction simply says “type.”
Keyboard key names
If you must press two or more keys simultaneously, the key
names are linked with a plus sign (+). Example:
Words in italics
Italics are used to:
Press Ctrl+Alt+Del
■
Emphasize a point.
■
Denote a new term at the place where it is defined in the
text.
■
Identify menu names, menu commands, and software
button names. Examples:
From the Help menu, select Contents.
Click OK.
Document Notation
References to specific OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager pages in this
document will use a specific notation to describe the location of a page
relative to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page. The
notation uses the' >' character to indicate that a sub-menu on a page
must be accessed.
For example, to monitor the IP ARP Table you would (starting from the
home page) access the Monitor menu. From the Monitor menu you
would access the Networks sub-menu. From the Networks sub-menu you
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4
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
would access the IP sub-menu. Finally, from the IP sub-menu, you would
access the ARP Table page. This is specified as Monitor > Networks > IP
> ARP Table.
When accessing a page that requires data entry, press the Help icon
displayed in the Main area to obtain information about the each data
field on the page.
Safety Information
When using the unit, observe the following safety information:
■
Retain this user guide for later use and pass it on to subsequent
owners/managers of the unit.
■
The power adapter supplied with the unit is fitted with a molded plug
for connection to a standard electrical mains system supply socket. If
this plug is not suitable for connection to your mains supply, contact
your reseller for advice. Do not attempt to connect to the mains
supply using an inappropriate mains adapter.
■
Protect the unit from sudden, transient increases and decreases in
electrical power by fitting an in-line surge suppressor or
uninterruptible power supply.
■
Products manufactured by 3Com are safe and without risk provided
they are installed, used, and maintained in good working order and in
accordance with their instructions and recommendations.
■
Should any of the following conditions occur, isolate the electricity
supply and refer to your 3Com reseller.
■
If the case or cover is not correctly fitted.
■
If the case is damaged.
■
If the unit begins to make an odd noise, smell or smoke.
■
If the unit shows signs of a distinct change in performance.
■
Never install telephone wires during a thunder storm, or install
telephone connection sockets in wet locations (unless the socket is
specifically designed for wet locations).
■
Do not touch uninstalled telephone wires or terminals unless the
telephone line has been disconnected at the network interface.
Always exercise caution when installing or modifying telephone lines.
■
Do not use a telephone that is connected to the unit to report a gas
leak in the vicinity of the leak.
840ug.book Page 5 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Year 2000 Compliance
5
■
Do not use a telephone that is connected to the unit (other than a
cordless type) during an electrical storm. There may be a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
■
Do not spill food or liquids on the unit. If the unit gets wet, isolate the
electrical supply and contact your 3Com reseller.
■
Do not push any objects into the openings of the unit. Doing so can
cause fire or electric shock by shorting out internal components.
■
Ensure nothing rests on the unit's system cables and that the cables
are not located where they can be stepped on and cause damage to
the unit.
■
Keep the unit away from radiators and heat sources. Allow 25mm (1
inch) around the unit or stack to provide adequate air circulation.
■
Install the unit in a clean area that is free from dust or extreme
temperatures.
■
The unit has been designed to be a free standing unit. Do not place
anything else on top of the unit's case.
■
Allow a clearance gap of at least a 150 mm from the rear panel of the
unit, to allow for cable access.
■
This unit contains a lithium battery which is attached to a microchip
on the printed circuit board. The defective battery must be disposed of
safely in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
Cette unité contient une pile au lithium attachée à une puce sur la
carte à circuit imprimé. Se débarrasser de la pile défectueuse en toute
sécurité conformément aux instructions du fabricant.
Additional Safety
Information
Year 2000
Compliance
See the printed installation guide for additional important safety
information.
For information on Year 2000 compliance and 3Com products, visit the
3Com Year 2000 web page:
http://www.3Com.com/products/yr2000.html
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6
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
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1
Introduction
OVERVIEW
This chapter provides an overview of the OfficeConnect Remote 840. It
contains the following sections:
■
“What Is the OfficeConnect Remote 840?”
■
“What is an SDSL Modem?”
■
“What is ATM?”
■
“What is Frame Relay?”
■
“What is a BRouter?”
■
“What is a Remote Site?”
■
“What is RFC 1483”
■
“What is RFC 1490?”
■
“What is PPP?”
■
“What is DHCP?”
■
“What is DNS?”
■
“What is Address Translation?”
■
“What is DHCP Smart Mode?”
■
“What Is Default Bridge Mode?”
■
“Getting Started Quickly”
■
“OfficeConnect Remote 840 Panel Features”
■
“Configuration Overview”
■
“How to Manage the OfficeConnect Remote 840”
■
“Starting the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager”
■
“Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager”
■
“Online Help”
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1-2
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
■
What Is the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840?
“Where to Find More Configuration Information”
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 is a stand-alone BRouter with data
interfaces to a Local Area Network (LAN) and a Wide Area Network
(WAN). The Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) port composes the
WAN interface, which can support Point-to-Point protocol (PPP), RFC
1483, or RFC 1490 connections. The LAN port is a twisted-pair Ethernet
10Base-T interface. Additionally, the OfficeConnect Remote 840 has a
standard serial interface console port.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 allows one or more networked
workstations to connect to other computers on a remote LAN. Once
connected, local users (a local branch office) can communicate with
remote computers (the main office) as if they were connected locally (see
the figure below). The OfficeConnect Remote 840 moves data back and
forth quickly, and accesses any program or file you would ordinarily use
on the network.
Local LAN
OfficeConnect Remote
840 SDSL Router
Edge
Router
Internet
Edge
Router
Remote
Office
HTML
Management
ATM
Frame Relay
Figure 1–1 Connection to Remote Networks
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can provide high-speed access to the
Internet.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 provides static and dynamic routing of
the Internet Protocol (IP) and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
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What is an SDSL Modem?
1-3
protocols as well as bridging, with support for learning bridge and
802.1d spanning tree functionality to eliminate loops. Other important
features include: Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), address translation, telnet, and packet
filtering. The web browser-based OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager
and the IP Wizard provide a user-friendly configuration interface.
To simplify the installation process, the OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be
initialized with pre-configured parameters using DIP switches located on
the back of the unit. There are three operational modes: DHCP Smart
Mode, Default Bridge Mode, and Unconfigured Mode.
What is an SDSL
Modem?
An SDSL modem is a device that transmits and receives data through
regular telephone lines at speeds that far exceed traditional analog
modem technology.
It allows your workstation to connect to a remote site using a network
protocol such as IP or IPX. The OfficeConnect Remote 840 contains one
SDSL modem port which is the WAN interface.
What is ATM?
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a modern networking technology
that provides support for a wide variety of services and applications. The
OfficeConnect Remote 840 provides support for ATM over SDSL.
ATM is based on the transfer of fixed-length cells containing a header
and an information field. The header is used to route the cells through
the ATM network backbone.
ATM defines connections by two main parameters, which are explained
later in this Guide:
What is Frame
Relay?
■
Virtual Path Identifier (VPI)
■
Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI).
Frame Relay is a framed-based technology that runs over HDLC (High
Level Data Link Control). Virtual Circuits are defined which connect the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 to up to 16 remote sites within a Frame Relay
Network. Each Virtual Circuit is identified by a Data Link Connection
Identifier (DLCI), which is included in the frame header.
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1-4
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
What is a BRouter?
Routing vs. Bridging
A BRouter is an interface between two networks, functioning as a router
and/or a bridge. A router finds the best route between networks and
provides network management capabilities. The OfficeConnect Remote
840 is a protocol independent router that does not rely on the
workstations on a LAN for routing information, such as the destination
location and best route.
Routers forward packets based on network-level addresses. Bridges
forward packets based on hardware-level, or media access control (MAC)
addresses. In other words, when a router receives a packet from one port,
it looks at the destination network level address (for example, the IP
address) to determine which port to forward the packet to. When a
bridge receives a packet from one port, it looks at the destination MAC
address to determine which port to forward the packet to.
In each case, the unit maintains either a forwarding table (bridges) or a
routing table (routers) that contains information about which port to use
to reach the destination address. These tables are for the most part
maintained automatically by the unit so the administrator does not have
to add or delete entries as the network topology changes.
An example illustrating the difference between bridges and routers would
be the case where both a bridge and a router have tables with 256
entries. Because the bridge forwards based on MAC address, it can know
about the location of 256 MAC addresses (physical machines such as
workstations, servers, etc.). The router can know about the location of
256 networks, where each network can contain many physical machines.
Bridges make forwarding decisions based on destination addresses, while
routers makes forwarding decisions based on networks to which
destination addresses belong. Therefore, routers are more efficient and
capable of handling more traffic.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 provides a Bridge Firewall function which
allows flexible configuration of simultaneous bridging and routing. For
more information on the Bridge Firewall, see Appendix A, “Bridging and
Routing”.
MAC-Encapsulated
Routing
MAC-Encapsulated Routing enables the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to
function as a router but to work in a bridged environment. When
enabled, the network level addresses are used for forwarding, but the
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What is a Remote Site?
1-5
MAC layer addresses are pre-pended in the ethernet header over the
Wide Area Connections. Address Resolution procedures (ARP), are used
to dynamically learn the MAC address of the remote router.
What is a Remote
Site?
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be configured to route IP or IPX,
and/or bridge other protocols between workstations on the Local Area
Network (LAN) and up to 16 remote locations over an ATM or Frame
Relay Wide Area Network (WAN). This is illustrated in the diagram below,
showing the local LAN simultaneously connected to a remote office and
the Internet.
Local LAN
OfficeConnect Remote
840 SDSL Router
Edge
Router
Internet
Edge
Router
Remote
Office
HTML
Management
ATM
Frame Relay
Figure 1–2 Connection to a Remote Internet Network
Data is transmitted to and from remote sites through ATM or Frame
Relay. With ATM, each VC has a configured Quality of Service (QOS) and
is identified by a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and a Virtual Channel
Identifier (VCI). With Frame Relay, each Virtual Circuit is identified by a
DLCI. Obtain these parameters from your Service Provider.
The data is framed in either PPP, RFC 1483 or RFC 1490 encapsulation,
which also is specified by your Service Provider.
The IP, IPX, and bridge protocols transmit over the ATM VCs. When a
remote site is configured to route IP, there will be a corresponding remote
network IP subnet address and (optionally) a local WAN interface address
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1-6
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
within the same subnet. When the local side of the WAN interface has an
assigned address, it is referred to as being "numbered." Otherwise, it is
referred to as "unnumbered."
For a more in-depth description of “numbered” versus “unnumbered”
interfaces, see Appendix B, “IP Addressing”.
When PPP is used, both the local and remote WAN addresses can by
dynamically learned. Otherwise, they must be specified. The diagram
below shows a OfficeConnect Remote 840 with 3 VCs and the
corresponding IP addresses.
When PPP is used, both the local and remote WAN addresses can by
dynamically learned. Otherwise, they must be specified. The diagram
below shows an OfficeConnect Remote 840 with 3 VCs and the
corresponding IP addresses.
Figure 1–3 Connection with Three Virtual Circuits (VCs)
What is RFC 1483
RFC 1483 is a protocol standard that describes two encapsulations
methods for carrying network interconnect (Bridging and Routing) traffic
over ATM AAL5.
RFC 1483 is a single-link interface between two packet-switching devices,
such as a bridge or router. An RFC 1483 link may be created between the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 and a remote router after they establish a
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What is RFC 1490?
1-7
connection. RFC 1483 is a conduit for multiple protocols such as IP and
IPX, which are encapsulated and passed across the communications
datalink.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 supports RFC 1483 and can establish a
RFC 1483 connection to other devices supporting RFC 1483.
Benefits of Using RFC
1483
RFC 1483 offers interoperability of multi-vendor equipment and
identification and aggregation of multiple protocol packets into one data
stream.
What is RFC 1490?
It is a protocol standard that describes an encapsulation method for
carrying network interconnect traffic over a Frame Relay backbone. It
covers aspects of both Bridging and Routing.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 supports RFC 1490 and can establish a
RFC 1490 connection to other devices supporting RFC 1490.
What is PPP?
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a WAN protocol. It is a single or
multi-link interface between two packet switching devices, such as a
bridge or router. A PPP link may be created between the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 and a remote router after they connect. PPP is an efficient
conduit for multiple protocols such as IP and IPX, which are encapsulated
across the communications datalink.
PPP provides built-in negotiation for addresses and connection
parameters, and it can route multiple protocols over a single link.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 supports PPP and can establish a PPP
connection to other devices supporting PPP.
Benefits of Using PPP
PPP offers interoperability of multi-vendor equipment, and support for
dynamic configuration between the connecting devices.
What is DHCP?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is designed to provide a
centralized approach to configuring IP addresses and parameters.
When a workstation is configured for automatic assignment of IP
addresses, it broadcasts a request on the LAN. The DHCP Server responds
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1-8
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
with an IP address for the workstation and the IP addresses of the default
router and Domain Name Server.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be configured to be a DHCP Server,
with a pool of up to 40 IP addresses.
What is DNS?
A Domain Name Server (DNS) provides an IP address to a host computer
for a given domain name. A DNS Proxy receives requests and attempts to
find an entry in its local tables, and if one is not found, forwards the
request to a remote DNS Server. The remote DNS Server can be learned
dynamically through PPP or can be statically assigned.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be configured as a DNS proxy. A
static local host entry of ocrdsl-3com.com is configured for the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 by default. Therefore, the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 can be easily accessed with a web browser, by typing in
ocrdsl-3com.com in the location or address field in the browser.
In unconfigured mode, ocrdsl-3com.com is not configured by default. In
this mode, you will have to configure a static host entry.
What is Address
Translation?
Address Translation allows private network addresses to be mapped into
public addresses. The OfficeConnect Remote 840 provides two methods
for mapping private, non-registered LAN IP addresses to the public
Internet address(es) used for a wide-area connection. The two methods
are:
■
Network Address Translation (NAT). NAT simply substitutes public IP
addresses for private IP addresses.
■
Port Address Translation (PAT). PAT allows sessions from multiple
private IP addresses to use a single public IP address.
NAT and PAT can be configured for each remote site.
What is DHCP
Smart Mode?
To simplify the installation process, the OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be
initialized with a set of pre-configured parameters. This operational mode
is referred to as DHCP Smart Mode. In DHCP Smart Mode, the unit will
automatically be assigned an IP address and will provide a pool of IP
addresses to be assigned to each workstation attached to the LAN. When
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What Is Default Bridge Mode?
1-9
you choose this boot option, you will set up your workstation(s) for
automatic IP address assignment.
What Is Default
Bridge Mode?
The second operational mode is Default Bridge Mode. This mode
preconfigures the unit to bridge all packets. The unit can be automatically
set up so that you will not be required to fill out any forms, use Setup
Wizard, or install any software from the CD unless you want to change
the configuration.
What is Unconfigured
Mode?
Unconfigured Mode allows you to set all configuration parameters
yourself. You can configure it using Command Line Interface (CLI) (see
the OfficeConnect Remote 840 CLI User’s Guide), or the Web-based
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager.
Getting Started
Quickly
The features described above can be utilized to make configuring the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 very easy.
■
Use DHCP Smart Mode to preconfigure a LAN IP address, the DHCP
pool of addresses, and the DNS information for the LAN workstations.
■
Use Default Bridge Mode to have the unit automatically bridge all
packets. No software installation is required.
■
Use PPP to allow the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to automatically
learn the WAN IP addresses and DNS information.
■
Use PAT to allow the workstations on the LAN to share a single IP
address when accessing the Internet or a remote office.
Use these features together and all you will need to do is enter
authentication and ATM information for your remote site IP connection.
Or:
■
Use Default Bridge Mode to have the unit automatically bridge all
packets. No software installation or configuration is required.
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1-10
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Panel
Features
Front Panel
All LED and status information can be found on the front panel of the
unit, while the power jack and ports are located on the back of the unit.
Below is a representation of the front panel of your unit:
Figure 1–4 OfficeConnect Remote 840 Front Panel
Table 1–1 LED definitions
LED
Status
Meaning
Alert
FLASHING RED
When software is initializing
Power
STEADY GREEN
When power is applied to the unit
SDSL Link Status
OFF
No signal detected
FLASHING ORANGE
The unit is attempting to acquire
synchronization with the CO equipment.
STEADY GREEN
Link is up.
FLASHING GREEN
When data is being sent over the link.
STEADY GREEN
When a client is connected to the
corresponding port on the hub.
LAN Status (4)
A table of LED operation is provided in Chapter 3 of the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 SDSL Router Installation Guide in the section “Installing
The OfficeConnect Remote 840.”
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OfficeConnect Remote 840 Panel Features
Back Panel
1-11
Below is a representation of the back panel of your SDSL router:
Figure 1–5 OfficeConnect Remote 840 Back Panel
■
Power Inlet — The power port attaches to an external, 15-volt DC
power supply included with the OfficeConnect Remote 840 package.
The other end of the power supply cable connects to a standard
electrical socket.
■
Console Port — The DB-9 terminal port connects the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 with your console. A straight-through serial cable is
supplied to make the connection.
■
Reset Button — To reset the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to factory
defaults, press this button while rebooting (unplugging and
replugging into an electrical outlet) the unit. You can reset the unit in
Unconfigured Mode, DHCP Smart Mode, or Default Bridge Mode.
(See the Installation Guide for more information on the different
modes.)
■
MDI/X Switch — Swaps the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) signal pairs
on Ethernet port 1. When MDI/X is "out" (not depressed), Port 1 is
pinned the same as the remaining 3 ports. In this mode, a PC's
Ethernet port or the cascade port on another hub can be connected to
any of the four ports on the unit. When MDI/X is pressed "in", then
Port 1 on the unit becomes a cascade hub port, for connection to a
non-cascade port on another hub. The MDI/X button must be "out"
to use Port 1 for connection to a PC.
■
Ethernet (LAN) Ports (4) — The shielded, 8-pin, RJ-45 Ethernet
(10Base-T) ports connect the OfficeConnect Remote 840 with the
LAN. A straight-through cable is supplied in the package to make this
connection. Switches on the back of the unit provide crossover to
allow a direct connection to a single workstation.
■
SDSL Modem Port — The 4-pin, RJ-11 line port connects your
OfficeConnect Remote 840 to the telephone company wall jack. An
RJ-11 modem cable is provided.
■
DIP (Dual Inline Package) Switches (4) — Switches 1 through 4 can
be turned on and off in certain combinations for different
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1-12
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
configurations. See the table below for information about which
switches to set for which configurations.
Table 1–2 DIP Switch Modes
DIP Switch
1
2
3
4
Mode
off off off on
Default Bridge Mode, Frame Relay, DLCI = 528, data
encapsulated over RFC 1483.
off off on off
Default Bridge Mode, Frame Relay, DLCI = 16, data
encapsulated over RFC 1490.
off on off off
DHCP Smart Mode
on off off on
Default Bridge Mode, ATM, One VC define as a bridge,
VPI/VCI = 0/38
off off off off
Unconfigured Mode
All other configurations: Unconfigured Mode
■
DHCP Smart Mode — (switch 2 on; all other switches off) This
setting simplifies the configuration process by setting up the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 as a DHCP and DNS server with a fixed IP
address. For more information, see Chapter 2 of the Installation
Guide.
■
Default Bridge Mode — There are several different settings for
Default Bridge Mode. The different settings control the WAN
operational mode; ATM or Frame Relay, and the VPI/VCI or DLCI
settings (see the table above). If you set the OfficeConnect Remote
840 to this mode and no configuration exists, the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 will automatically set up a bridge network on the
Ethernet and will create a VC profile that bridges using RFC 1483 or
RFC 1490 encapsulation with various VPI/VCI or DLCI values (see the
table above for details).
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Configuration Overview
Configuration
Overview
1-13
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 configuration is divided into three areas:
Local Site (LAN), Remote Site (WAN), and Global configuration. The
following shows the areas of configuration for each.
Local Site
IP
IPX
Bridging
Remote Site
Network Service
ATM
IP
IPX
Static WAN Routes
Bridging
Global
DHCP
DNS
Administrative
To successfully configure the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to route or
bridge a network, you should perform the following steps.
General
Configuration Steps
The following steps provide an outline to follow when configuring the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 to route or bridge. For detailed instructions
on first time installation and basic configuration, see the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 SDSL Router Install Guide.
Perform the following steps to configure the OfficeConnect Remote 840
to route or bridge a network:
1 Complete the appropriate Configuration Planning Form. A form is
provided in the box when you purchase your OfficeConnect Remote 840.
Copies of the forms are provided in the OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL
Router Install Guide for your convenience.
2 Install the OfficeConnect Remote 840 utilities from your OfficeConnect
Remote 840 CD. If necessary, install a web browser on your workstation
(Microsoft Internet Explorer 4 is included on the CD).
3 Connect to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 through either the web
browser or the CLI.
4 Configure the OfficeConnect Remote 840.
■
Ethernet Interface Protocols
■
IP, IPX, Bridging
■
Remote Sites
■
Global Parameters
■
Run the configuration audit.
■
Save the configuration.
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1-14
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
How to Manage the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
■
Test the network accessibility.
■
Ping a remote site
■
Check the routing tables on configured protocols
You can manage the OfficeConnect Remote 840 either through the
Command Line Interface (CLI) or through a web browser. If you choose to
manage the unit through CLI, see the OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL
Router CLI User's Guide, included on the CD shipped with your unit.
If you choose to use a web browser, you will use the web browser-based
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager. This user-friendly system is the
preferred method of management. The OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager uses the HTTP protocol via a web browser (such as Netscape
Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer) to allow you to easily setup and
manage the OfficeConnect Remote 840. In order for the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager to function correctly, you will need to use at least
Netscape Navigator 4.0 or Internet Explorer 3.02. Internet Explorer 4 is
provided on the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Installation CD.
You do not need to be connected to the Internet to use this method.
The main features of the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager are:
■
Complete configuration control.
■
Configuration Audit for detecting errors.
■
Troubleshooting and monitoring capabilities.
■
Capability to download software updates.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 must have an IP address and an
administrative login profile (username and password) in order to connect
to it with a browser. The IP address and administrative login profile are
automatically created when the unit is initially configured using the IP
Wizard or in DHCP Smart Mode or Default Bridge Mode, or the IP address
and administrative login profile can be created using the CLI.
See the OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL Router Installation Guide for
information about assigning an IP address and creating an administrative
login profile.
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Starting the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager
Starting the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
Manager
1-15
To access the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager, either enter the unit's
LAN IP address or DNS host name into the Location or Address field of
your web browser. When entering the IP address or DNS host name you
do not have to enter http:// (i.e., you can enter http://192.168.200.254 or
simply 192.168.200.254).
If you initially configured your unit with DHCP Smart Mode, your unit will
have an IP address of 192.168.200.254 and a DNS host name of
ocrdsl-3com.com.
When prompted to login to the unit, enter the administrative login name
and password. After successful authentication, you will access the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager "home page."
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
Manager Menus
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager is a hierarchical menu-based
interface. The highest level page in the hierarchy is the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager home page. The home page displays a list of five
menu choices:
■
Setup Wizard
■
Online Guide
■
Tools
■
Configuration
■
Monitor
Each of the 5 main menus contain sub-menus with more choices.
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1-16
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
Using the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
Manager
All OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager screens have three basic areas:
Header
Quick Link Area
Main Area
■
Header — Shows the title of the current page being accessed.
■
Quick Link Area — Indicates the position of the current page in the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager menu hierarchy and provides
links which allow quick access to the home page and the five menu
options. This allows you to quickly go from one menu area to another,
such as from Configuration to Monitor.
■
Main Area — Displays the current page containing configuration or
status information.
To access a particular OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager page follow
the links through the menu hierarchy in the Main area. You can use the
Quick Link area to quickly get back to the top of the menu hierarchy or to
one of the five menu options selections.
You can configure your web browser's link display options to customize
the colors of the Quick Links.
Document Notation
References to specific OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager pages in this
document will use a specific notation to describe the location of a page
relative to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page. The
notation uses the “>“ character to indicate that a sub-menu on a page
must be accessed.
For example, to monitor the IP ARP Table you would (starting from the
home page) access the Monitor menu. From the Monitor menu you
would access the Networks sub-menu. From the Networks sub-menu
you would access the IP sub-menu. Finally, from the IP sub-menu, you
would access the ARP Table page. This is specified as Monitor >
Networks > IP > ARP Table.
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Where to Find More Configuration Information
Online Help
1-17
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager provides two methods of
obtaining help.
■
The Online User's Guide. This guide contains detailed information
about configuring and using your OfficeConnect Remote 840. You
can access the Online User's Guide from the OfficeConnect Remote
840 Manager home page.
■
A detailed HTML help screen is available for each configuration page.
There is a Help button at the bottom of each page requiring manual
data entry or selection. The help text describes the valid values for
each data entry field that may be entered on the current screen.
The Online User’s Guide and HTML help screens are not part of the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 operational software. They must be installed
on each workstation where you will run your OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager browser. That is, if you have two workstations from which you
will run the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager, and if you want access
to the Online Guide and screen HTML help screens, you must run the CD
installation at both workstations.
Where to Find More
Configuration
Information
See the referenced chapters of this Guide to help you perform the
following tasks:
■
Administrative Tasks such as updating software or controlling login
access — “System Administration”
■
IP Routing Parameters — “Configuring IP Routing”
■
IPX Routing Parameters — “Configuring IPX Routing”
■
Bridging Parameters — “Configuring Bridging”
■
How to Monitor the OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL Router —
“Monitoring the OfficeConnect Remote 840”
■
Configuring the OfficeConnect Remote 840 either for accessing the
Internet or for Telecommuting / Remote Access – OfficeConnect
Remote 840 SDSL Router Install Guide, Chapter 3.
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1-18
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
2
Performing System
Administration
Tasks
Controlling Login
and Telnet Access
SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION
This section describes the details for performing the following System
Administration OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager tasks:
■
“Controlling Login and Telnet Access”
■
“Modifying the Date and Time”
■
“Restoring Factory Defaults”
■
“Updating OfficeConnect Remote 840 Software”
■
“Controlling SNMP Access”
■
“Controlling TFTP Access”
■
“Assigning SNMP Trap Managers”
■
“Assigning Syslog Managers”
This allows you to set up management access security. The configured
username and password combination allows web browser and Telnet
access. Connecting to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 with a web
browser allows you to configure and monitor your unit using the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager. Connecting using Telnet on a
workstation allows you to remotely manage the unit using CLI.
A default user name of root and password !root are provided by DHCP
Smart Mode and the IP Wizard during the initial installation. For secure
access, you should add a private login name and password and delete the
default name.
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2-2
CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION
Adding a Login
1 From the home page, select Configuration > Global > Administrator
> Login. Click Add. The following screen fields appear:
2 Enter the following fields:
■
User Name — Enter the login or Telnet username in this field.
■
Password — Enter the login or Telnet password in the field.
3 After the fields have been entered, click Submit. To clear the fields, click
Reset.
Deleting a Login
1 From the home page, select Configuration > Global > Administrator
> Login. Click Add. The following screen fields appear:
2 Select the login name to be deleted.
3 Click Delete.
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Modifying the Date and Time
Modifying the Date
and Time
2-3
This allows you to modify the system date and time.
1 From the home page, select Configuration > Global > Administrator
> Date and Time. The screen with the following fields appear:
2 Enter the date and time information, utilizing the correct formats as
shown next to the fields.
3 After the fields have been entered, click Submit. To clear the fields, click
Reset.
Restoring Factory
Defaults
Restoring the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to factory defaults causes all
configuration information to be deleted and the unit to be rebooted.
To check the boot mode, go to the Configuration > Global >
Administrator > System screen.
If you boot to the unconfigured state, you will need to run IP Wizard or
use CLI to reassign an IP address to your OfficeConnect Remote 840. If
you boot in DHCP Smart Mode, the IP address will be set to
192.168.200.254.
If you boot in Default Bridge Mode, you may not need an IP address
assigned to the unit. However, if you do want one, you must use
Command Line Interface. For detailed instructions on using CLI, please
see the OfficeConnect Remote 840 CLI User's Guide, printable or
viewable from the OCR840 CD.
You can set the switches before you restore the defaults to have the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 boot in the mode you wish. See Table 1–2,
DIP Switch Modes in Chapter 1 to select the mode you wish.
There are two ways to restore factory defaults:
■
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager.
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2-4
CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION
■
Using the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
Manager to Restore
Defaults
Reset button on the back of the unit.
1 Select Tools > Reboot.
2 Select the Delete all configuration and reboot device information
option.
3 Click Submit.
4 Wait one minute. Then, configure an IP address if DHCP Smart Mode is
not in use.
5 Open up the web browser and start the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager by entering the new IP address in the browser
location/address box.
Using the Reset
Button
1 Turn the OfficeConnect Remote 840 off by unplugging the unit.
2 At this time, set the DIP switches to their appropriate settings (DHCP
Smart Mode, Default Bridge Mode, or Unconfigured Mode). If you
select Unconfigured Mode, you can set one of the other modes later
using CLI or the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager.
3 While holding down the Reset button on the back panel, plug the
unit back in. You should hold down the reset button for at least five
seconds after plugging the unit back in. The unit takes about one
minute to come up and the Alert LED will flash until bootup is finished.
4 If DHCP Smart Mode is not in use, configure an IP address after the
unit comes up.
5 Open up the web browser and start the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager by entering the new IP address in the browser
location/address box.
Updating
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
Software
See “Upgrading Operational Software for the OfficeConnect Remote
840” in Chapter 10 for information on updating the operational and
system software.
Controlling SNMP
Access
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used for
managing routers and other network devices from a central station or
840ug.book Page 5 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Controlling SNMP Access
2-5
stations. These stations, the SNMP Managers, query the managed units
for configuration and monitoring information.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be managed by SNMP Managers in
read-only or read-write mode.
Using SNMP to manage the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is more
complicated than the preferred method of management, the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager.
SNMP access is provided by an SNMP community name and access mode.
To Download the Management Information Base (MIB) files, go to the
website, http://www.3com.com/support/ocr840/index.html, and click
the drop-down menu under software/MIB downloads.
To set up an SNMP community on the OfficeConnect Remote 840, follow
these instructions:
1 From the home page, select Configuration > Global > Administrator
> SNMP. Click Add and the following screen fields appear:
2 Enter the following fields:
■
Name — Enter the community name to be used as the access name.
■
Address — Enter the address of the SNMP server (e.g.,
192.168.200.52).
Specifying 0.0.0.0 allows any SNMP server access if they supply the
correct name.
■
Access — Check the box for Read Only or Read & Write. Read Only
allows only the user to view the screens.
3 After the fields have been entered, click Submit. To clear the fields, click
Reset.
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2-6
CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION
4 Repeat steps 1-3 for each management station which is a part of this
community.
Be careful to have the Access box checked the same for each new
member of the community.
The entire community will be given the access rights of the last member.
5 To alter previously set Access Rights, follow step 1 and select the
community from the community list and click Modify.
6 To delete a management station from a community, go to the home page
and, select Configuration > Global > Administrator > SNMP. Select
the community and management station from the lists and click Delete.
Controlling TFTP
Access
The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) provides a simple way to
transfer files from one machine to another. The OfficeConnect Remote
840 has a TFTP server that allows you to copy files to or from the unit. All
you have to do is set up TFTP access on the OfficeConnect Remote 840
and run a TFTP client program on a workstation. TFTP transfers files over
either the LAN or WAN interfaces.
To configure the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to provide TFTP access,
follow the instructions below:
1 From the home page, select Configuration > Global > Administrator
> TFTP. Click Add and the following fields appear:
2 Enter the address of the client workstation or select Any Client for
unrestricted client access.
3 After the fields have been entered, click Submit. To clear the fields, click
Reset.
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Assigning SNMP Trap Managers
Assigning SNMP
Trap Managers
2-7
An SNMP trap is an event that causes the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to
send an unsolicited message to a SNMP manager.
These events are generally critical events that indicate an operational
problem. (Critical events can also be viewed on the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager's Monitor > Events > Critical Event Log screen.)
To configure the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to send traps, follow these
instructions:
1 From the home page, select Configuration > Global > Administrator
> TRAP. Click Add and the following screen fields appear:
2 Enter the following fields:
■
Name — Enter the name of the SNMP Trap Manager.
■
Address — Enter the address of the SNMP Trap Manager (e.g.,
192.168.200.50).
Specifying 0.0.0.0 causes SNMP Traps to be broadcast.
3 After the fields have been entered, click Submit. To clear the fields, click
Reset.
To alter previously set fields, follow step 1 and select an SNMP Trap
Manager, then click Modify. To delete a server from your configuration,
select an SNMP Trap Manager from the TRAP screen and click Delete.
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2-8
CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION
Assigning Syslog
Managers
A Syslog manager is a workstation that accepts and saves informational
messages from a network device. The OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager can be configured to send log messages to a syslog manager as
follows:
1 From the home page, select Configuration > Global > Administrator
> Syslog. Click Add and the following screen fields appear:
2 Enter the following fields:
■
Syslog Host IP Address — Enter the address of the Syslog host.
■
System Level — Select one of the following levels: Critical, Unusual,
Common, Verbose, and Debug.
3 After you enter the fields, click Submit. To clear the fields, click Reset.
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3
Introduction
Remote Site
Overview
REMOTE SITE MANAGEMENT
This chapter provides an overview on managing remote site profiles using
the web browser based OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager. If you need
information on setting up or initially configuring the unit, see the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL Router Installation Guide. This section is
divided into the following parts:
■
“Remote Site Overview”
■
“Managing a Remote Site Profile”
■
“Configuring Network Service Information (PPP / RFC 1483 / RFC
1490)”
■
“Configuring ATM Information”
■
“Configuring Protocol Parameters”
■
“Monitoring Remote Site Connections”
To set up connections over the WAN, a remote site profile must be
created and edited for each remote location you want to connect to.
With this profile, you specify ATM virtual circuit or Frame Relay DLCI
information, protocols, and addresses that determine the method of
connection and communication to the remote site.
You first need to add a remote site profile, and then you modify the
profile to include WAN connection and network information.
The following list summarizes the necessary information.
■
WAN — Network Service (PPP / RFC 1483/RFC 1490) information, and
ATM Virtual Channel (VC) or Frame Relay (DLCI) information
■
IP — IP addresses, address translation tables, static routes, and RIP
usage.
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CHAPTER 3: REMOTE SITE MANAGEMENT
■
IPX — IPX network address information, static routes and services,
and RIP usage.
■
Bridging — Bridging (enable / disable) to the remote site.
If you need to connect to multiple remote sites such as the Internet and a
remote office, you should set up a remote site profile for each location.
Managing a
Remote Site Profile
Once created, remote site profiles can be enabled or disabled. When a
profile is enabled, the OfficeConnect Remote 840 reads the connection
parameters for the remote site from the profile and continuously
attempts to establish a connection to the remote site.
When a profile is disabled, the connection will be terminated and no
other data will be directed to the remote site.
Configuration changes to a remote site profile do not take effect until the
next time the profile is enabled. The OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager
automatically disables and re-enables the remote site profile when the
Modify button is pressed on the Remote Site menu page.
To disable or enable a profile manually, clear or check the Enable
Remote Site checkbox as appropriate.
Once you start modifying a Remote Site, you must click Modify before
you exit the Remote Site screens, or else the data you entered will be lost.
Also, remember to save your configuration before rebooting your
OfficeConnect Remote 840 so that your changes will be written to
permanent FLASH memory.
Adding a Remote Site
Profile
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page, select
Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN). Then click the Add button to
bring up the Remote Site General Add screen.
2 Enter the Remote Site Name. Enter a name to use to identify the remote
site profile. (Ex: ISP or CorpOffice)
3 Ensure that the Enable Remote Site box is checked if you want to the
connection to come up as soon as you finish the configuration.
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Managing a Remote Site Profile
3-3
4 Click Add. Then click Save Configuration on the sidebar to
permanently save the changes.
The Network Service (PPP and RFC 1483/ RFC 1490), ATM, and network
protocol (Bridging, IP, and IPX) information has not been configured yet.
To make a connection with the remote site you must configure the
Network Service, ATM, and at least one network protocol. (See
“Configuring Network Service Information (PPP / RFC 1483 / RFC 1490)”,
“Configuring ATM Information”, and “Configuring Protocol Parameters”
for details.)
Modifying a Remote
Site Profile
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page, select Configuration
> Remote Site (WAN).
2 Select the name of a remote site profile and click Modify. This brings up
the Remote Site General Modify screen.
3 Change configuration parameters as needed and use the Next button to
continue to the ATM, IP, IP Advanced, and IPX configuration screens.
For quick help on specific parameters, click the Help button located at
the bottom of each screen.
For more detailed help, go to the appropriate place in this guide (see
“Configuring ATM Information” and Configuring Other WAN
Parameters).
■
Click Modify on any screen to set all the Remote Site parameters.
■
Click Save Configuration on the sidebar to permanently save the
changes.
Deleting a Remote
Site Profile
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page, select Configuration
> Remote Site (WAN).
2 Select the name of a remote site profile and click Delete. This brings up
the Remote Site General Delete screen.
3 To delete the profile, click Delete. To return to the remote site profile
selection list, click Prev.
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CHAPTER 3: REMOTE SITE MANAGEMENT
Configuring
Network Service
Information (PPP /
RFC 1483 / RFC
1490)
A Network Service defines the data encapsulation and protocol
characteristics for the connection between two packet switching devices.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 supports PPP, RFC 1483 and RFC 1490
Network Services. The OfficeConnect Remote 840 and the remote site
must both use the same Network Service in order for a connection to be
established.
For PPP, the authentication name and password must be provided to
allow the connection to be established. The OfficeConnect Remote 840
supports both PAP and CHAP authentication.
The Network Service parameters can be configured on the Remote Sites
General screen.
1 Access this screen by going to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home
page. Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN), select a defined
remote site and click Modify.
2 This will access the Remote Sites General Modify Screen.
3 If your unit is using ATM, the Remote Sites General Modify Screen will
contain the following fields:
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Configuring Network Service Information (PPP / RFC 1483 / RFC 1490)
3-5
4 Select the network service to be either RFC 1483, or PPP.
If PPP, enter the Authentication Name and Authentication Password
provided to you. You can change the header compression from the
default of none to TCP/IP if you wish.
5 Click Next to proceed to the ATM Configuration screen.
Frame Relay
1 If your unit is using Frame Relay, the Remote Sites General Modify
screen will contain the following fields:
2 Enter a name to identify the remote site.
3 Select Network Service to either PPP over Frame Relay or RFC 1490.
If you select PPP over Frame Relay, enter the Authentication Name and
Authentication Password provided to you. You can change the header
compression from the default of None to TCP/IP if you wish.
4 Enter the DLCI.
5 Check the Enable Bridging and Enable MAC Encapsulated Routing
boxes according to your service provider’s directions.
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CHAPTER 3: REMOTE SITE MANAGEMENT
6 Check the Enable Remote Site box.
Configuring ATM
Information
The ATM parameters are supplied by your service provider. These
parameters consist of:
■
ATM VC information
■
ATM Category of Service parameters
ATM allows for permanent connections (PVCs) and switched connections
(SVCs). For a PVC, the required VC information parameters consist of the
Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI).
The VPI / VCI uniquely specify the path to the remote site and are placed
in the ATM cell header that is used to route each cell to the remote site.
Two remote site profiles with the same VPI and VCI cannot be active
simultaneously. You may encounter this situation if you want to log in to
the same remote site with different PPP authentication parameters. You
should disable all profiles using the same VPI / VCI and then enable the
one that should be active.
For SVCs, there is not a fixed VPI / VCI. Instead, a destination address is
used to set up a path through the ATM backbone network when the
connection is to be established. Currently, the SVC capability is disabled in
the OfficeConnect Remote 840.
ATM Category of Service parameters specify characteristics (also referred
to as traffic shaping) of data transmitted from the OfficeConnect Remote
840 to the remote site. They have no effect on data transmitted from the
remote site to the OfficeConnect Remote 840.
ATM Modify Screen
Go to Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN). Select a site from the list
and click Modify.
Click Next to proceed to the ATM Modify screen. The screen contains
the following fields:
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Configuring ATM Information
■
If PVC is selected, enter the VPI and VCI.
■
■
■
VPI — The Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) is part of the cell header for
the cells that are transferred over this connection.
VCI — The Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) is part of the cell header
for the cells that are transferred over this connection. If you are
configuring multiple VCs, enter the number of the respective VC in
this field.
If necessary, enter any Category of Service parameters that have been
provided to you.
■
■
■
■
3-7
UBR — Unspecified Bit Rate; no limit has been specified for the
rate for information flow.
VBR — Variable Bit Rate; a certain rate has been specified for the
flow of information.
CBR — Constant Bit Rate; a constant rate has been specified for
the flow of information.
Enter the cell rate transmission parameters, if applicable.
■
■
PCR — The Peak Cell Rate is the maximum amount of cells per
second transmitted over this connection. This is determined by the
minimum intercell spacing in seconds, which is the time interval
from the first bit of one cell to the first bit of the next cell.
SCR — The Sustainable Cell Rate, in cells/second. This is the rate at
which cells are transmitted over this connection. This is the
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3-8
CHAPTER 3: REMOTE SITE MANAGEMENT
maximum average rate or cells that are sent in bursts at a peak
rate.
■
BT — The Burst Tolerance (also referred to as Maximum Burst Size),
in cells/second. This is the maximum number of cells that can be
sent at the peak rate.
If no traffic shaping parameters have been provided you should choose
the default parameter of UBR with a PCR value of 0. The OfficeConnect
Remote 840 will attempt to use all of the upstream bandwidth when
transmitting data to the remote site.
Configuring
Protocol Parameters
Monitoring Remote
Site Connections
There are more WAN connection parameters that can be configured, such
as IP routing, IPX routing, Bridging, and Address Translation. Instructions
for configuring these parameters are located in:
■
“Configuring IP Routing”
■
“Configuring IPX Routing”
■
“Configuring Bridging”
■
“Network Address Translation Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840”
■
To determine which remote sites have been configured and to see a
summary of the remote site WAN parameters, access the Monitor >
Remote Sites > Remote Site Status screen.
■
To monitor packet counters for a specific remote site, access the
Monitor > Remote Sites > Remote Site Counters screen. (Remote
Site Counters are only applicable for active connections.)
■
To determine whether a remote site connection has been established
or to determine why a connection is not working properly, check the
connection event log. This log is accessed at Monitor > Events >
Connection Event Log.
■
To monitor throughput for all active remote sites, access the Monitor
> ATM Throughput screen.
For more information on these and other monitoring capabilities, see
Chapter 11, “Monitoring the OfficeConnect Remote 840”.
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4
Introduction
Overview
CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
This chapter contains information on configuring routing for IP protocol
using the OfficeConnect Remote 840. It is divided into the following
sections:
■
“Overview”
■
“Enabling IP Routing”
■
“Configuring IP for the LAN”
■
“Configuring IP RIP on the LAN”
■
“Configuring IP for the Remote Site Connection”
■
“Configuring IP RIP on a Remote Site”
■
“Configuring IP Static and Framed Routes”
■
“Using IP Address Validation”
■
“Monitoring”
■
“IP Testing (PING)”
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be configured as a router to forward
packets between the local LAN interface and one or more Remote Sites.
The router maintains a forwarding table. This table specifies which
interface to route an IP packet based on the destination IP address.
Entries in the forwarding table are either static or dynamic. Static entries
are based on the LAN's and Remote Site's subnet addresses and user
configured static routes. Dynamic entries are added when Routing
Information Protocol (RIP) is enabled and routes are learned from
neighboring routers.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 does not support OSPF (Open Shortest
Path First) protocol.
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CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
To configure IP routing, IP must be defined on both the LAN interface and
one or more remote sites. On the LAN, an IP network must exist and it
must have a specified IP address and subnet mask. On the remote sites, IP
routing needs to be enabled, and the remote router address, a remote
subnet mask and local WAN interface address need to be configured. The
remote site address configuration can be learned dynamically when the
remote site connection is established if the network service is PPP,
otherwise it has to be specified.
Enabling IP Routing
When the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is to be used for IP Routing,
forwarding must be enabled in the global IP setting.
Access the IP Screen through Configuration > Global > IP > IP
Settings. This screen contains the following fields:
Check the Forwarding box to enable the routing of IP packets.
In addition to Forwarding, the RIP check box is used to enable or disable
RIP for all Remote Sites and the local LAN. If RIP is globally disabled, it is
disabled for the local LAN and Remote Sites on the OfficeConnect
Remote 840. If RIP is globally enabled, it can be enabled or disabled on
the local LAN and for each Remote Site.
Configuring IP for
the LAN
To configure IP over the LAN, assign an IP network to the LAN port by
providing a name and a network address. After adding a network, you
can modify advanced parameters.
If you ran the IP Wizard or booted the unit in DHCP Smart Mode, an IP
network has already been added over the LAN port. Its name is IP and its
address is either entered from the IP Wizard or it is 192.168.200.254. You
can view or modify configuration parameters for this network (e.g.,
Enable RIP).
If you use this IP address for accessing the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager, be careful not to delete the network.
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Configuring IP for the LAN
4-3
For routing to take place across the OfficeConnect Remote 840, you also
have to set up a corresponding network over the WAN port (see
“Configuring IP for the Remote Site Connection”).
Use the Configuration > Local Site (LAN) > IP screen to define or
modify all IP networks over the LAN. Note that all IP networks defined
over the LAN only support Ethernet II framing.
Adding a Local IP
Network
You may add multiple IP networks over the Ethernet interface by
following these steps:
Select Configuration > Local Site (LAN) > IP.
Click Add. This brings up a screen containing the following fields:
Enter the following information:
■
Name — The name is limited to 32 characters. If you use any blank
spaces, surround the whole phrase with double quotes (e.g., “test site
x”).
■
LAN Address — Enter the address of the IP network in this format:
ddd.ddd.ddd.ddd where ddd is a value between 1--255.
■
LAN Mask — Enter the mask of the IP network in this format:
ddd.ddd.ddd.ddd where ddd is a value between 0--255.
By default, RIP is not enabled for this new IP network. If you wish to
enable RIP, proceed to the Modify portion of the following section.
Click Add when you have entered these fields. This returns to the IP
menu screen.
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CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
Resetting Parameters
Modifying or
Deleting an IP
Network
If you need to return to the original parameters for this screen, click
Reset before you click Add.
To modify information pertaining to an existing IP network, or to delete
that information from your configuration, follow these steps:
1 Proceed to the IP screen, following steps from the previous section.
2 Select an IP network you wish to modify or delete.
3 Click Modify/Delete.This brings up the IP Modify/Delete screen
containing the following fields:
4 Modify or delete the information about the selected IP network by
altering the fields and clicking the Modify/Delete button.
If you alter the address that your browser is using, the connection will be
lost. To reconnect, enter the new IP address in your browser's
address/location field. If you delete the address, you will also lose the
connection. You will not be able to reconnect until a new address is
assigned using either the IP Wizard, CLI, or by rebooting in DHCP Smart
Mode.
5 If you need to return to the original parameters for this screen, click
Reset before you click Modify.
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Configuring IP RIP on the LAN
Configuring IP RIP
on the LAN
Local Site (LAN) RIP
4-5
RIP is utilized as a means of communicating routing information between
routers. This is done to keep the routers updated on information.
The RIP options for the LAN can be accessed through Configuration >
Local Site > IP. Select a defined local site connection from the list and
click Modify/Delete, which accesses the IP Modify/Delete screen,
containing the following fields:
You can then select the RIP version to be either None, RIPV1, or RIPV2.
You can also modify the Advanced RIP parameters. You should not need
to change any of these parameters from the defaults, but you can if
necessary.
Advanced RIP
Modification Options
Select a local site connection from the list on the main IP screen, and click
Advanced.
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CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
This brings up a screen containing the following fields:
1 You may enter the following fields:
■
Broadcast Address - Check one of two options: All Ones or All Zeroes.
■
Max Reassembly - Enter the maximum value that your network cannot
exceed for this function.
2 Under the following two categories, you may customize your RIP:
■
Advanced RIP Policies - You may enable these options as necessary.
They control what is sent out or received concerning RIP.
3 Click Submit when the fields have been entered to save your
customizations.
Resetting Parameters
If you need to return to the original parameters for this screen, click
Reset before you click Add.
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Configuring IP for the Remote Site Connection
Configuring IP for
the Remote Site
Connection
4-7
To set up connections over the WAN, a remote site profile must be
created and edited for each remote location you want to connect to.
With this profile, you specify ATM virtual circuit information, protocols,
and addresses that determine the method of connection and
communication to that remote site.
You first need to add a remote site profile, then modify the profile to
include WAN connection and network information. The following list
summarizes the necessary information:
■
Frame Relay/ATM WAN — Network Service (PPP/RFC 1483/ RFC
1490) information, ATM VC information
■
IP — IP addresses, address translation tables, static routes, RIP usage
■
IPX — IPX network address information, static routes and services, RIP
usage
■
Bridging — Enable or disable bridging to the remote site
If you need to connect to multiple remote sites (i.e., the Internet and a
remote office) you should set up a remote site profile for each location.
Configuring IP
Parameters for the
Remote Site
The following steps illustrate how you configure the IP parameters of the
remote site profile.
These instructions assume you have already added a remote site profile. If
you need to add a remote site profile, select Add instead of Modify in
step 1.
1 Access this screen by going to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home
page. Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN), and click Modify.
This will access the Remote Sites General screen.
2 Continue clicking Next to advance through the ATM Modify screen to
the IP Modify screen.
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CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
Configure the
Remote Site IP
Network Information
The following steps illustrate how you configure the remote site IP
network information.
1 Complete the following entries:
Local WAN IP Address:
■
If you were provided a single IP address, select Specified and enter
that address.
■
If you are using PPP to dynamically assign an address, select Dynamic,
and the remote site on the WAN will assign a local WAN IP address to
the WAN port of your OfficeConnect Remote 840.
■
Otherwise, select Unnumbered, and there will be no IP address
assigned to the local WAN interface for this VC.
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Configuring IP for the Remote Site Connection
4-9
Remote WAN IP Address:
■
If you were provided a remote IP address and netmask, select
Specified and type in that address and netmask.
■
If the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is learning the remote IP address
from the remote site (PPP only), select Learn from Remote.
2 In order to have the remote site you are configuring as the default
gateway, check the Use Remote as Default Gateway checkbox.
3 If you are routing IP traffic to multiple remote sites, select one to be your
default gateway. Then check this box only in the profile for that remote
site.
4 Select from the pull-down menu to have the RIP set to Broadcast, Listen,
or Broadcast & Listen, and if one of these is chosen, set the RIP option to
RIPV1 or RIPV2.
If you are using address translation (PAT / NAT), you must set routing to
either Listen or None. This is because you have set up a private network
and therefore do not want to be broadcasting information to other
routers.
5 Ensure that Enable IP is checked (enabled) and click Modify.
You are now done configuring the basic IP information for the Remote
Site Connection.
Further Remote Site IP Configuration information is available in the
following sections:
■
Address Translation information is available in “Network Address
Translation Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840”.
■
Address Validation Information is available under “Using IP Address
Validation”.
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CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
Configuring IP RIP
on a Remote Site
Access the RIP options for the WAN through Configuration > Remote
Sites > IP.
1 Select a defined remote site connection from the list and click Modify.
Keep clicking Next until you advance to the IP Modify screen.
2 You can select the RIP version to be either Broadcast, Broadcast &
Listen, Listen or None. Broadcast refers to when routing information
packets are sent out to the network, and Listen refers to the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 receiving routing information packets from
remote sources.
If you are using address translation (PAT/NAT), you must set routing to
either Listen or None. This is because you have set up a private network
and therefore do not want to be broadcasting information to other
routers.
3 You can then choose between RIPV1 (version 1) or RIPV2 (version 2) for
your routing information protocol.
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Configuring IP Static and Framed Routes
Configuring IP
Static and Framed
Routes
4-11
A Static route is a configured route that will remain in the routing table
until deleted. Static routes differ from Dynamic routes in that Dynamic
routes are learned real-time via RIP.
A Framed route is much like a static route in that you manually configure
the route. The difference is that a static route is defined for the LAN while
a framed route is associated with a remote site. Also, while a static route
is active when the LAN is connected, a framed route is active only when
the connection to the associated remote site is active.
Only use static and framed routes for networks not learned using RIP.
Adding a Static IP
Route to the LAN
To add, modify, or delete an IP Static route to the LAN, follow these steps:
1 Select Configuration > Global > IP > Static Routes.
2 Click the Add button. This accesses a screen containing the following
fields:
3 Define the Route by entering the following fields: Destination (network),
Gateway (IP address), Netmask, and Metric. Click Submit. To clear the
fields, click Reset.
4 To delete a route from your configuration, select the route and click
Delete.
Adding a Framed IP
Route to a Remote
Site
To add, modify, or delete a Framed Route to a Remote Site, follow these
steps:
1 Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN).
2 Select the remote site to modify, and click Modify.
3 Continue clicking Next to advance through the ATM Modify and IP
Modify screens to the IP Advanced Modify screen.
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CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
4 Click Manage in the Framed Routes box.
5 Click Add to define the following parameters:
■
Gateway (address) — The address of the neighbor router.
■
IP Route
■
Mask — The IP address for the mask.
■
Metric — The maximum number of routers (1-15) through which the
data packets must travel before reaching their destination.
6 After you have entered the fields, click Submit.
7 Click Modify to change the fields, the Details button to view the fields,
and the Delete button to erase the parameters you have set.
Using IP Address
Validation
When IP Source Validation is enabled, the source address of all IP frames
received from a remote site will be validated. A source address is valid if
the OfficeConnect Remote 840 will route an IP frame destined to the
source address on the same interface it came in on.
You need to access the IP Advanced Modify screen, by selecting
Configuration > Remote Sites, selecting a remote site definition, and
click Modify. Then keep clicking Next to advance through the screens
until reaching the IP Advanced Modify screen, which contains the
following fields:
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Using IP Address Validation
4-13
Check or uncheck the IP Source Validation button to respectively
enable or disable the IP source validation.
MAC-Encapsulated
Routing
MAC-Encapsulated Routing combines routing and bridging so that
routing features (i.e., Address Translation, DNS Proxy, DHCP Server, etc.)
are available in a bridged environment.
There are no specific changes required in the IP routing configuration to
support MAC-Encapsulated Routing.
See “Configuring Bridging” for instructions on how to enable
MAC-Encapsulated Routing.
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CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
Monitoring
The OfficeConnect Remote 840's IP Routing Table is displayed by
accessing the following page: Monitor > Routes and Services > IP
Routes.
Global IP counters can be displayed through Monitor > Networks > IP >
IP Counters. This screen indicates the number of frames received and
forwarded or discarded.
The active IP interfaces are shown by accessing the following page:
Monitor > Networks > Network Status.
When a Remote Site has been successfully established and IP is
configured, an entry will be displayed with the Remote Site Name
followed by a '-ip' suffix. The screen display indicates the local LAN (with
name ip) and the Remote Site 'Internet' have active IP interfaces.
IP Testing (PING)
You can now run a PING to make sure the OfficeConnect Remote 840
can reach the remote router. You can run the PING by using the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager, from MS-DOS on a workstation, or
through the Internet.
Testing using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager will test the
connection from the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to the network.
The DOS PING will check the connection from your PC through the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL Router to the network.
Option 1:
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager
Ping to ISP or Remote
Site Network
Open the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager and select Tools > Ping.
Enter the address you wish to ping, whether it is the ISP or a remote site.
Click Submit.
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IP Testing (PING)
4-15
A Ping Response screen will appear, with the response from the ping. The
following responses may occur.
Ping Responses
■
<IPAddress> is alive
The PING was successful.
If a name was entered in the Ping page input field, the corresponding
IP address is displayed on the Response page.
■
PING: no route to host
A valid IP address or name was entered but the routing table does not
indicate how to reach the network that the IP address belongs to.
■
PING: host unreachable
This means that an ICMP response was received in response to the
PING, indicating that the PING failed because the IP address is
currently unreachable. This is indicative of a network problem. If the
router could not determine where to send the PING request, the PING:
no route to host error would have been generated. Since it was not,
the router sent the message either to the specific network to which
the IP address belongs or to a default gateway. If it was sent to the
specific network and the network was learned via RIP, there is
probably a temporary network problem. If the network is a static entry
in the routing table (entered by the user, for example), it may have
been entered incorrectly. If the network is not in the routing table and
the PING request went to a default gateway, then it may be that the
network is not supposed to be reachable so this is a reasonable result.
■
PING: timeout waiting for reply from <IP Address>.
The host network is probably reachable but there is no answer from
this IP Address. There are a couple of possible explanations for this.
The IP Address might not be assigned to any unit. The path from the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 to the unit is so slow that the PING
response did not get back in the allotted time frame. There may be a
temporary break in the path.
DNS Errors
■
Network Name: <name> could not be resolved.
■
Network Name: <name> could not be resolved due to a
problem interacting with the Name Server.
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CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
The name could not be resolved. Either no DNS server was located or
the server(s) did not have the name in the host table list. However, this
error will also appear if the user entered an IP address incorrectly such as 100.100.100.256 (an invalid IP address) so it is interpreted as a
name to be resolved by DNS.
■
Network Name: <name> could not be resolved due to a timeout
on the request.
No response was received from the DNS server to which the DNS
request was sent. This could be due to a network connection problem
or a very slow line.
Option 2: DOS Ping to
ISP or Remote Site
Network
From the a workstation on the local LAN, get to an MS-DOS prompt and
type ping <remote IP address> <Enter> where the remote IP address is
the address of a host on the remote network (Ex: ping 10.0.0.12). If no
address was provided, contact the ISP or the remote site administrator for
an IP address to ping.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 will call the ISP and send the PING
information. A reply from 10.0.0.12 indicates success
An example script of a failed ping is:
C:\ping 10.0.0.12
Pinging 10.0.0.12 with 32 bytes of data:
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
An example script of a successful ping is:
C:\ping 10.0.0.12
Pinging 10.0.0.12 with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 10.0.0.12 bytes=32 time=140ms TTL=240
Reply from 10.0.0.12 bytes=32 time=147ms TTL=240
Reply from 10.0.0.12 bytes=32 time=140ms TTL=240
Reply from 10.0.0.12 bytes=32 time=135ms TTL=240
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IP Testing (PING)
4-17
C:\_
It is not unusual for the first few attempts to time out. If you don't receive
a response the first time, try PINGing the router again. If you still don't
receive a response, the most likely cause is incorrect routing entries.
Option 3: Internet
Browser (Internet
Access Only)
If you are connecting to the Internet, start a web browser and enter an
address, such as http://www.3com.com. If the 3com web site home
page comes up, all is configured correctly and you are on your way!
Advanced
Troubleshooting
If the 3Com web site home page does not appear, the problem may be
incorrect DNS server addresses on your workstation.
For more detailed troubleshooting information, see “Troubleshooting”.
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4-18
CHAPTER 4: CONFIGURING IP ROUTING
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
5
Introduction
Overview
CONFIGURING BRIDGING
This chapter contains information on configuring bridging for the
OfficeConnect Remote 840. If you need more information on the
difference between Bridging and Routing, and which one is best for your
needs, see Appendix A,“Bridging and Routing”.
■
“Overview”
■
“Configuring Bridging for the LAN”
■
“Configuring Bridging for the Remote Site Connections”
■
“Bridging IP Traffic”
■
“MAC-Encapsulated Routing”
■
“Bridge Firewall”
■
“Advanced Bridging Options”
■
“Default Bridge Mode”
■
“Monitoring Bridging”
■
“Testing Bridging”
A bridge connects two or more LANs together at Layer 2 (data link) of
the ISO-OSI 7 layer model. A learning bridge links networks, but also
separates network traffic and forwards only the packets that need to be
forwarded based on Media Access Control (MAC) address.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be configured as a learning bridge.
Bridges separate traffic by examining the MAC addresses contained in
data packets. MAC addresses uniquely identify each machine attached to
a network segment. A data packet is not forwarded to another segment
if its destination MAC address resides on the same segment as its source.
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CHAPTER 5: CONFIGURING BRIDGING
To efficiently separate traffic, the bridge maintains a Bridge Forwarding
Table. The table contains a list of MAC addresses and their associated
network segments. The table is built dynamically from the source MAC
addresses of data packets passing through the bridge.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 bridge supports the Spanning Tree
Protocol (STP). This feature is used when two networks are joined by
two bridges forming a looped network. STP prevents data packets from
circling the two networks.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 provides a Bridge Firewall function which
allows flexible configuration of simultaneous bridging and routing. For
more information on the Bridge Firewall, see Appendix A,“Bridging and
Routing”.
A boot mode, Default Bridge Mode, can be activated. This automatically
configures the unit to bridge all packets (see “Default Bridge Mode”).
For more information on bridging, see Appendix A, “Bridging and
Routing”.
To set up bridging on the OfficeConnect Remote 840, you must:
■
“Configuring Bridging for the LAN”
■
“Configuring Bridging for the Remote Site Connections”
You may also want to:
■
Set up to bridge IP traffic.
■
Modify advanced bridging options.
■
Use default bridge mode.
If you are planning to use the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to bridge all
traffic, you may want to use the boot option Default Bridge Mode (see
“Default Bridge Mode”).
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Configuring Bridging for the LAN
Configuring
Bridging for the
LAN
5-3
To configure a protocol over the LAN, you need to assign a protocol
network to the LAN port by providing a name. After adding a network,
you can modify advanced parameters. The network's status appears in
the Monitor > Networks > Network Status table.
For bridging to take place across the OfficeConnect Remote 840, you also
have to enable bridging over the WAN port. See “Configuring Bridging
for the Remote Site Connections”.
Use the Local Site (LAN) > Bridge Configuration screen to define or
modify a bridged network over the LAN.
Only one bridged network can be added over the LAN.
Adding a Bridge
Network
You may add a bridged network over the Ethernet interface by following
these steps:
1 Select Configuration > Local Site (LAN) > Bridge.
2 Click Add. This accesses a screen containing the following fields.
3 Enter the following:
■
Name — Enter a name identifying the bridged network. The name is
limited to 32 characters.
4 Check the Enable Bridge box and click Add when the name has been
entered to save your field.
5 Check the Enable Spanning Tree box if you wish to enable spanning
tree, which is used to eliminate loops in a circular bridged network.
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5-4
CHAPTER 5: CONFIGURING BRIDGING
Modifying or
Deleting a Bridge
Network
To modify information pertaining to an existing Bridge network, or to
delete that information from your configuration, follow these steps:
1 Proceed to the Bridge screen, following steps 1 and 2 above.
2 Select the bridge network you wish to modify or delete.
3 Click Modify/Delete. This accesses a screen containing the following
fields:
4 You may uncheck the Enable Bridge or Enable Spanning Tree boxes if
you have previously checked them from this screen, or delete the
information about the selected Bridge network by clicking Delete.
5 To alter previously set fields, follow step 1 and select a Bridge network in
the list and click Modify. To delete a network from your configuration,
select a network and click Delete.
6 Click Modify after you have entered the field.
Configuring
Bridging for the
Remote Site
Connections
To set up a protocol over the WAN, a remote site profile must be created
and edited for each remote location you want to connect to. With this
profile, you specify virtual circuit (VPI, VCI) information, protocols, and
addresses that determine the method of connection and communication
to that remote site.
The steps you take to assign a network over the WAN are quite different
from those to assign a network over the LAN. First you add a remote site
profile, and then you modify the profile to enable bridging.
When the remote site connection is established, the bridge network will
come up over the WAN interface. The network and its status appears in
the Monitor > Network > Network Status table.
If you need to connect to multiple remote sites, such as two remote
offices, set up a remote site profile for each remote location.
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Bridging IP Traffic
5-5
For any routing to take place across the OfficeConnect Remote 840, you
also have to set up a corresponding network over the LAN. See
“Configuring Bridging for the LAN”.
Enabling Bridging
These instructions assume you have already added a remote site profile. If
you have not added one, select Add instead of Modify in step 1 and see
“Remote Site Management” for details on other parameters to
configure.
To enable bridging:
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page, select Configuration
> Remote Sites (WAN), select a remote site definition, and click
Modify. This accesses the Remote Sites General Modify screen,
containing the following fields:
2 Check the Enable Bridging box to enable bridging for this remote site.
Then click Modify.
Bridging IP Traffic
Unless you are using the boot option Default Bridge Mode, the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 is set up to route IP traffic by default. To
bridge IP traffic, you must turn off IP Forwarding in the router
configuration.
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CHAPTER 5: CONFIGURING BRIDGING
IP Forwarding refers to the routing of IP packets from one interface to
another. It does not affect communicating to the OfficeConnect Remote
840 itself. Even when IP Forwarding is disabled, you can perform
non-routing functions such as use the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager from a Web browser and use PING.
To bridge IP traffic:
1 Add the bridge network over the LAN (see the instructions above).
2 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page, select Configuration
> Global > IP > IP Settings. This brings up the IP Settings screen:
3 Turn off IP forwarding by unchecking the Forwarding check box.
4 Your browser will temporarily lose connection with the OfficeConnect
Remote 840. Wait a few seconds, click the browser's Stop button; then
click Reload.
MAC-Encapsulated
Routing
Because routers base their forwarding decision on network-level
addresses, packets that are routed over a WAN are transmitted without
MAC-layer addresses. Additionally, address resolution procedures that
can be used to determine the destination MAC address for a packet are
not required.
Conversely, packets that are bridged over a Wide Area Connection
include MAC-layer information. Address resolution procedures are
required.
MAC-Encapsulated Routing uses network-level addresses for forwarding
decisions but transmits MAC-layer addresses over the Wide Area
Connection. Additionally, address resolution procedures are used. To the
remote site, the packets appear as if they had been bridged.
This feature allows the routing features of the OfficeConnect Remote 840
(i.e., address translation, DHCP Server, DNS Proxy, etc.) to be employed in
a bridged environment.
MAC-Encapsulated Routing is specified on a remote site basis. When
MAC-Encapsulated Routing is enabled in a remote site profile, packets for
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Bridge Firewall
5-7
the routed protocols configured by the profile (i.e., IP and/or IPX) will be
sent using the appropriate bridged encapsulation. If the configured
Network Service is PPP, the packets will be encapsulated in BRCP.
MAC-Encapsulated Routing is configured on the Remote Sites General
screen.
To access the Remote Sites General screen:
1 Go to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page and select
Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN).
2 Select a defined remote site and click Modify. This will access the
Remote Sites General Modify screen, containing the following fields:
3 Check the Enable MAC Encapsulated Routing box to enable MAC
Encapsulated Routing for this remote site.
4 Click Modify to save the change.
Bridge Firewall
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be configured for simultaneous
bridging and routing. IP routing is configured if IP forwarding is enabled
(see “Enabling IP Routing” in Chapter 4.)
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5-8
CHAPTER 5: CONFIGURING BRIDGING
IPX routing is enabled if an IPX network is present over the Ethernet
interface (see “Configuring IPX for the LAN” in Chapter 9). Bridging is
enabled by adding a bridge network over the Ethernet interface (see
“Configuring Bridging for the LAN”). Routing and bridging are enabled
for each destination in its remote site profile.
When configured for simultaneous bridging and routing, packets
received from the LAN are first passed through the router for any
configured protocols. If the packet can not be routed, it is passed to the
bridge depending on the setting of the Bridge Firewall function. The
bridge firewall has three modes, which are configured on the Advanced
Bridging Options screen.
The three modes are:
1. Discard Routed Protocols (Discard):
This is the default mode. If a protocol is configured for routing, and a
packet for that protocol type is received from the LAN that is not
addressed to the MAC address of the OfficeConnect Remote 840, it is
discarded. Additionally, broadcasts (including ARPs) for the protocol
are not passed to the bridge.
2. Forward Unicast Packets Only (Unicast):
If a protocol is configured for routing, and a packet for that protocol
type is received from the LAN that is not addressed to the MAC
address of the OfficeConnect Remote 840, it is bridged. Additionally,
ARP broadcasts for IP addresses other than that of the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 are also bridged. Other broadcasts for the configured
protocol are not bridged.
3. Forward Broadcast/Unicast Packets (All):
Unicast packets for a configured protocol received from the LAN that
are not addressed to the MAC address of the OfficeConnect Remote
840 are bridged. Received broadcasts (e.g., DHCP) are bridged.
Packets received from the WAN do not pass through the Bridge Firewall.
Instead, packets received from the WAN are delivered to the router or
they are delivered to the router or bridging function based on their
encapsulation and on the state of the MAC-Encapsulated Routing
parameter in the remote site profile.
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Advanced Bridging Options
5-9
In general, a packet received in a routed encapsulation (i.e., IPCP or
routed RFC 1483 or RFC 1490) is delivered to the router. A packet
received in a bridged encapsulation is passed to the bridge. If
MAC-Encapsulated Routing is enabled, the received
(bridge-encapsulated) packets are delivered to the router.
Advanced Bridging
Options
The advanced bridging configuration options are located with the rest of
the Local Site configuration options. However, these advanced bridging
options function more as global parameters and therefore are applicable
to bridging over the WAN as well as the LAN.
Most users do not need to change these values from the defaults.
To alter advanced bridging configurations:
1 Go to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page and select
Configuration > Local Site > Bridge.
2 Click Advanced to access a screen containing the following field:
You may then enter the following fields:
■
Aging Time — Time (seconds) for aging out forwarding table
information.
■
Forward Delay — Time (seconds) to wait while learning forwarding
information before starting to bridge packets.
■
Spanning Tree Priority — Priority of this spanning tree node. This is
used for prioritizing the nodes when spanning tree is enabled (which
is determined on either the Bridge Add or Bridge Modify/Delete
screens).
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CHAPTER 5: CONFIGURING BRIDGING
If you need to return to the original parameters for this screen, click Reset
before you click Submit.
3 Click Submit when the fields have been entered to save your
customizations.
Default Bridge
Mode
Default Bridge Mode
Overview
Default Bridge Mode is designed for those who want to use their
OfficeConnect Remote 840 to function as a bridge automatically, with no
special configuration or software installation required. This mode
preconfigures the unit to bridge all packets.
In this mode, you will not be required to use Setup Wizard or install any
software from the CD unless you want to change the configuration (you
can install from the CD at any time).
There are several different settings for Default Bridge Mode. The different
settings control the WAN operational mode; ATM or Frame Relay, and the
VPI/VCI or DLCI settings.
If you set the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to this mode and no
configuration exists, the OfficeConnect Remote 840 will automatically set
up a bridge network on the Ethernet and will create a VC profile that
bridges using RFC 1483 or RFC 1490 encapsulation with various VPI/VCI
or DLCI values (see “DIP Switch Modes” table in Chapter 1 for details on
how to set your router switches to obtain the correct VPI/VCI values for
your configuration).
Your OfficeConnect Remote 840 was set in Unconfigured Mode (all
switches OFF) before shipping.
The following settings are preconfigured:
■
Bridge network on the LAN Interface
■
A remote site profile named “Bridge” is set up to bridge all traffic and
to use network service RFC 1483, one of several VPI/VCI values, and
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR).
■
Spanning Tree Disabled
■
Default Login root and password !root
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Monitoring Bridging
5-11
You will need to tell your service provider to use a connection on VPI / VCI
using RFC 1483 or RFC 1490 (bridged).
Boot options only affect the operation of a unit which does not presently
have any configuration settings (i.e., the unit is new, the reset button has
been clicked, or a delete configuration command has been executed
from the CLI or HTML interface). See “Restoring Factory Defaults” in
Chapter 2 for more information on how to reset configuration
parameters for your OfficeConnect Remote 840.
Installing the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Using
Default Bridge Mode
For more instructions on setting up your OfficeConnect Remote 840
using Default Bridge Mode, see the OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL
Router Install Guide that was included the box when you purchased your
SDSL router.
Monitoring
Bridging
Viewing Bridge
Network Status
Viewing Bridge
Forwarding Table
Viewing Bridge
Counters
Testing Bridging
You can view bridge network status from the Monitor > Networks >
Network Status screen. This lists the networks (WAN networks
incorporate the word “port” in the name) and shows you their states.
The Bridge Forwarding Table is displayed in the Monitor > Routes and
Services > Bridge Forwarding screen. In addition to listing the MAC
addresses, it provides counters for traffic passing through the bridge to
and from the addresses.
General bridge transmit and receive counters are located in the
Monitor > Networks > Bridge screen.
To test bridging:
■
Attempt to communicate with the remote location using any bridged
protocol. For example, if IP is bridged, try to PING across the WAN
connection.
■
If IPX is bridged, try to reach a remote server.
■
If NetBEUI is bridged, open the Windows 95 or 98 Network
Neighborhood to see remote Windows 95, 98, and NT machines.
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CHAPTER 5: CONFIGURING BRIDGING
If you have problems with bridging IP, check that IP Forwarding is disabled
on the Configuration > Global > IP > IP Settings screen. Also, be sure
that your LAN IP Addresses belong to the same IP network as the remote
site.
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6
Introduction
NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION
USING THE OFFICECONNECT
REMOTE 840
This chapter contains information on address translation using the
OfficeConnect Remote 840. It is comprised of the following sections:
■
“Selecting Address Translation”
■
“Configuring the PAT Default Address”
■
“Configuring Static PAT Port Entries”
■
“Configuring NAT”
■
“Monitoring”
Selecting Address
Translation
You must have a Remote Site Profile already defined to set up address
translation for this remote site.
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager “home page,” select
Configuration > Remote Sites > IP Advanced Modify.
2 Select the defined site profile and press the Modify button.
3 You will then need to advance through the screens by pressing the Next
button until you reach the IP Advanced Modify screen:
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CHAPTER 6: NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION USING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
4 Under Address Translation, select Port Address Translation (PAT),
Network Address Translation (NAT), or None (if you are not using
address translation).
If you selected PAT, you must enter the default IP address that will be
used. Next you will click either Static TCP or Static UDP to select the Port
Table type to be managed.
If you selected NAT, click either Dynamic or Static for the IP Address Table
to be managed.
Configuring the PAT
Default Address
When PAT is enabled, the default PAT address can be configured. This
field should be set to the private address of a workstation on the local
LAN. If a data packet is received on the WAN port and a port mapping
does not exist, the frame will be translated using the PAT default address.
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Configuring Static PAT Port Entries
6-3
Press the Modify button to set the address.
Configuring Static
PAT Port Entries
Press the Static Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or Static User
Data Protocol (UDP) button to access the static port tables.
■
Static TCP — Press this button to access the static PAT TCP table
(above). Using this table, you can map public TCP ports to private IP
address / TCP port pairs.
This is useful for controlling access to the LAN by remote users. For
example, an entry containing public TCP port 80, the IP address of a
web server on your LAN, and the private TCP port 80 allows controlled
access to the web server but not the rest of your LAN. (For a list of
assigned port numbers, see RFC-1700, Assigned Numbers document
which is available from the Internet.)
■
Static UDP — Press this button to access the static PAT UDP table
(above). Using this table, you can map public UDP ports to private IP
address / UDP port pairs. This is useful for controlling access to the
LAN by remote users. (For a list of assigned port numbers, see
RFC-1700, Assigned Numbers document which is available from the
Internet.)
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CHAPTER 6: NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION USING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
After Static Port Entries have been configured, return to the IP Advanced
Modify screen and press the Modify button for the changes to take
effect.
Configuring NAT
When NAT is configured, static mappings and/or dynamic pools of
addresses must be configured. Static assignments permanently map a
private address to a public address. Dynamic pools consist of a start IP
address, number of addresses in the pool, and a mask to be used for
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) messages if the public addresses are to
be advertised. Multiple pools can be assigned and static assignments may
exist within a pool range.
■
Dynamic — Press this button to Add, Delete, or Modify the fields in
the Dynamic NAT table:
■
Static — Press this button to Add, Delete, or Modify the fields in
the Static NAT table:
After Static Port Entries have been configured, return to the IP Advanced
Modify screen and press the Modify button for the changes to take
effect.
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Monitoring
Monitoring
6-5
If PAT is used, the active port mappings are shown in the Monitor >
Networks > NAT/PAT > Port Assignments screen. Only those
mappings for the specified Remote Site will be displayed. This screen
shows the active port mappings for both TCP and UDP connections. Each
entry consists of the public and the private ports, the remote address and
port number, and the value of the inactivity timer.
For both NAT and PAT, the active address mappings are shown in the
Monitor > Networks > NAT/PAT > Mapped Addresses screen. Only
those mapping for the specified Remote Site will be displayed. This screen
shows the active private addresses, the associated public address, and the
number of active TCP and UDP connections. When PAT is configured,
each entry will have the same public address.
For more information on these monitoring screens, see “Monitoring the
OfficeConnect Remote 840” in Chapter 11.
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CHAPTER 6: NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION USING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
7
Introduction
DHCP Overview
CONFIGURING DHCP
This chapter provides information on configuring the DHCP options for
the OfficeConnect Remote 840.
■
“DHCP Overview”
■
“Configuring the DHCP Mode”
■
“Configuring the DHCP Server”
■
“Configuring the DHCP Relay”
■
“Monitoring DHCP”
■
“DHCP Smart Mode Overview”
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is designed to provide a
centralized approach to configuring IP addresses and parameters.
When a workstation is configured for automatic assignment of IP
addresses, it broadcasts a request out on the LAN. The DHCP Server
responds with:
■
An IP address for the workstation.
■
The domain name.
■
The IP addresses of the default router, two DNS Servers, and two WINS
Servers.
The assignment of an IP address to the workstation is for a specified
period of time, referred to as the lease period. Before the lease is set to
expire, the workstation will send a request to the server to extend the
lease period. The server maintains a list of assigned IP addresses and the
duration period of leases. When a lease expires, the corresponding IP
address can be reassigned to another workstation.
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7-2
CHAPTER 7: CONFIGURING DHCP
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be configured to support up to 40
workstations on the local LAN. In addition, the OfficeConnect Remote
840 can be configured to be a DHCP Relay.
When enabled, the Relay will process the broadcast request from the
local workstation and send it to one or two remote DHCP servers. The
response from the remote DHCP servers is processed and forwarded to
the local workstation.
Configuring the
DHCP Mode
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 has three DHCP modes; Server, Relay,
and Disable. To configure the mode, select Configuration > Global >
DHCP from the home page. The following screen will be shown:
To configure the OfficeConnect Remote 840 as a Server, select Server >
Submit > Configure DHCP Server to proceed with Server specific
settings (see “Configuring the DHCP Server”).
To configure the OfficeConnect Remote 840 as a Relay, select Relay >
Submit > Configure DHCP Relay to proceed with Relay specific settings
(see “Configuring the DHCP Relay”).
Select the Disable button and press the submit button to disable the
OfficeConnect Remote 840's DHCP functionality.
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Configuring the DHCP Server
Configuring the
DHCP Server
7-3
The DHCP Server configuration screen contains the following fields:
The OfficeConnect Remote 840's local LAN IP address should be entered
in as the IP Default Router and also as the DNS Server if the DNS Proxy
functionality is enabled. (For information on DNS Proxy, see “DNS
Overview” in Chapter 8.) If you do not know the OfficeConnect Remote
840's local LAN address, refer to the Configuration > Local Site (LAN)
> IP screen.
The Hostname field is the base name assigned to the workstation. A
numeric suffix is appended to the base name and incremented after each
assignment. For example, if the Hostname unit is configured, the first
workstation will be assigned the Hostname unit01, the second
workstation will be assigned unit02 and so forth.
The IP address pool is defined by its the starting and ending IP address.
The pool is continuous and has a maximum range of 40. The subnet IP
mask entered should correspond with the local LAN's IP mask.
Remaining fields include the Default Lease period which is specified in
seconds and the WINS Server(s) addresses. If your network does not use a
WINS Server, enter in 0.0.0.0 to disable assignment of this parameter.
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CHAPTER 7: CONFIGURING DHCP
Configuring the
DHCP Relay
If you selected Relay on the main DHCP screen, press the Configure
DHCP Relay button. This screen contains the following fields:
Enter the IP Addresses of one or two remote DHCP servers and specify
the Max Hops (the maximum number of hops through other routers) to
reach them. Enable or disable the relay service to them as needed and
press the Submit button.
Monitoring DHCP
The OfficeConnect Remote 840's monitoring capability allows you to
display DHCP protocol counters and current lease information.
To display the DHCP protocol counters, access the Monitor > Networks
> DHCP > DHCP counters screen.
To display the OfficeConnect Remote 840's DHCP Server lease table,
access the Monitor > Networks > DHCP > DHCP leases screen.
DHCP Smart Mode
Overview
To simplify the installation/configuration process, the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 can be initialized with a set of pre-configured parameters.
When the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is first booted in the DHCP Smart
Mode, the following DHCP and DNS fields will be automatically
configured:
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DHCP Smart Mode Overview
7-5
IP LAN address: 192.168.200.254
DHCP
IP address start: 192.168.200.1
IP address end: 192.168.200.40
IP Mask: 255.255.255.0
IP Default Router: 192.168.200.254
Default Lease: 4800
WINS Servers: 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
DNS Servers: 192.168.200.254 0.0.0.0
DNS Static Host entry:
Domain Name: ocrdsl-3com.com
IP address: 192.168.200.254
If you choose DHCP Smart Mode, you should set up the workstations on
the OfficeConnect Remote 840’s LAN to automatically obtain their IP
address. This is the default setting in Windows 95.
If you have configured IP addresses manually on your LAN, you should
follow the procedure explained in the Workstation Configuration section
of Chapter 3 of the OfficeConnect Remote 810 Installation Guide to
allow each workstation to automatically learn the new addresses instead.
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7-6
CHAPTER 7: CONFIGURING DHCP
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
8
Introduction
DNS Overview
CONFIGURING DNS
This chapter provides information on configuring the DNS options for the
OfficeConnect Remote 840.
■
“DNS Overview”
■
“Configuring DNS”
■
“Configuring Remote DNS Servers”
■
“Configuring Static DNS Host Entries”
A Domain Name Server (DNS) provides an IP address to a host computer
for a given domain name. A DNS Proxy receives requests and attempts to
find an entry in its local tables, and if one is not found, forwards the
request to a remote server. The remote DNS Server can be learned
dynamically through PPP or it can be statically assigned.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840's DNS Proxy enables you to configure
remote DNS Servers for specific domains. For instance, assume you have
two remote sites configured, one to the Internet and the other to a
corporate site which has a domain name of 3com.com. Two DNS remote
servers can be configured, one which uses the corporate site for
3com.com and the other to use the Internet as the default.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840's DNS Proxy also enables you to
configure static host entries. The static table is checked first before the
DNS request is forwarded on to the remote server.
If the OfficeConnect Remote 840 was first booted in the DHCP Smart
Mode, an entry of ocrdsl-3com.com was added which maps to the
OfficeConnect Remote 840's local LAN IP address. This entry was added
to simplify access to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager.
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8-2
CHAPTER 8: CONFIGURING DNS
Configuring DNS
To access the DNS configuration screens, go to the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager and select Configuration > Global > DNS.
This screen contains the following fields:
1 To enable DNS services, check the Enable DNS box.
2 To specify the number of times the OfficeConnect Remote 840 will
attempt to reach a primary or secondary DNS server, enter the number in
the Number of Retries field.
3 To specify the amount of time to wait for a timeout when the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 attempts to reach a primary or secondary
DNS server, enter the number of seconds in the Timeout field.
4 Click Submit.
Configuring
Remote DNS
Servers
When the OfficeConnect Remote 840's DNS Proxy cannot find a domain
name in its local static entries, it will forward the request to one or two
remote servers. The remote DNS Server can be learned dynamically if the
remote site is configured for PPP, otherwise it must be specified. Up to
two servers may be specified per domain name.
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Configuring Remote DNS Servers
8-3
Multiple DNS remote server entries can be added. The server is chosen
based on the requested domain name. If a match is not found, the
default entry is chosen. The default entry has a domain name of '*'.
1 Select the DNS Server List button from the DNS page.
2 To add a new entry, click Add. The following screen appears:
3 Enter the domain name for the entry, enter * for the default.
If the remote site uses PPP, the DNS remote servers can be learned
dynamically.
4 Choose the remote site name from the selection box. Otherwise they
must be specified. Select Specify, and enter the IP addresses of servers.
5 Click Add.
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8-4
CHAPTER 8: CONFIGURING DNS
Configuring Static
DNS Host Entries
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can function as a DNS server.
1 If you want to configure any Static DNS Entries, select Static DNS Entries
and click Add.
2 Then enter the Domain Name and the Host IP Address of the machine
that has that domain name and click Add.
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9
Introduction
Overview
CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
This chapter provides an overview on configuring IPX routing for the
OfficeConnect Remote 840.
■
“Overview”
■
“Configuring IPX for the LAN”
■
“Configuring IPX for Remote Sites Connection”
■
“Configuring IPX Static and Framed Routes”
■
“Configuring IPX Static and Framed Services”
■
“Configuring IPX RIP and SAP”
■
“Monitoring IPX”
■
“IPX Testing”
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 can be configured as a router to forward
packets between the local LAN interface and one or more remote sites. A
forwarding table is maintained that specifies which interface to route an
IPX packet based on the destination IPX network number.
Entries into the forwarding table are either static or dynamic. Static
entries are based on the LAN's network number, the remote site WAN
interface number, and user configured static routes. Dynamic entries are
added when RIP is enabled and routes are learned from neighboring
routers.
To configure IPX routing, IPX must be defined on both the LAN interface
and one or more remote sites. On the LAN, an IPX network must exist
with a specified IPX network number. On the remote sites, IPX forwarding
needs to be enabled, and the WAN interface address need to be
configured. The WAN interface can be unnumbered (set to 0), numbered,
or dynamically learned (if PPP is used).
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9-2
CHAPTER 9: CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
Configuring IPX for
the LAN
To configure IPX over the LAN, assign an IPX network to the LAN port by
providing a name and a network address. After adding a network you
can modify advanced parameters.
In order for the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to route traffic, you also have
to set up a corresponding network over the WAN port. (See “Configuring
IPX for Remote Sites Connection”.)
Use the Configuration > Local Site (LAN) > IPX screen to define or
modify all IPX networks over the LAN. Note that each IPX network
defined over the LAN must support a different frame type.
Adding a Local IPX
Network
To add a Local IPX network:
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page, select Configuration
> Local Site (LAN) > IPX. Click Add. This brings up a screen with the
following fields:
2 Enter a name for the network, the IPX address of the network, and the
frame type of the network running on the LAN. Check the Enable IPX
box.
3 Click Add to add this defined IPX network.
For information of configuring the IPX RIP and SAP, see “Configuring IPX
RIP and SAP”.
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Configuring IPX for Remote Sites Connection
Modifying or
Deleting an IPX
Network
9-3
To modify information pertaining to an existing IPX network or to delete
that information from your configuration, follow these steps:
1 Proceed to the IPX screen, following steps from the previous section.
2 Select an IPX network you wish to modify or delete.
3 Click Modify/Delete.This brings up the IP Modify/Delete screen
containing the following fields:
4 You may enable or disable the selected IPX network by clicking Modify
or Delete.
5 Click Modify after you have entered your fields.
If you need to return to the original parameters for this screen, click the
Reset button before you click Modify.
Configuring IPX for
Remote Sites
Connection
To set up a protocol over the WAN, a remote site profile must be created
and edited for each remote location you want to connect to. With this
profile, you specify virtual circuit (VPI, VCI) information, protocols, and
addresses that determine the method of connection and communication
to that remote site.
The steps you take to assign a network over the WAN are quite different
from those to assign a network over the LAN. First you add a remote site
profile, then you modify the profile to include the WAN network
information, such as IPX addresses and IPX routing.
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9-4
CHAPTER 9: CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
If you need to connect to multiple remote sites (i.e., two remote offices)
you can set up a remote site profile for each remote location.
For any routing to take place across the OfficeConnect Remote 840, you
also have to set up a corresponding network over the LAN. See
“Configuring IPX for the LAN” for details.
The IPX configuration for the remote site begins at the IPX Modify
screen.
These instructions assume you have already added a remote site profile. If
you need to add a remote site profile, see “Remote Site Management” in
Chapter 3 for details on adding a remote site profile.
Configure the
Remote Site IPX
Network Information
1 Access this screen by going to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 “home
page.” Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN).
2 Select a profile and click Modify. This will access the Remote Sites
General Modify screen.
3 Continue clicking Next to advance through the ATM Modify, IP Modify,
and IP Advanced Modify screens.
4 Click Next to proceed to the IPX Modify screen.
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Configuring IPX Static and Framed Routes
9-5
5 Check the correct box in the IPX WAN Network Address box.
■
Select Unnumbered to use the IPX address that is assigned to the
Ethernet port,
OR
■
If the remote site's network administrator provided you with a WAN
IPX address, select Numbered Address. Enter the IPX address
assigned to the WAN port.
6 To automatically learn IPX RIPs and SAPs, set the IPX Routing option to
Both.
7 Check the Enable IPX checkbox.
8 Remember to save the configuration by clicking Save on the sidebar.
Configuring IPX
Static and Framed
Routes
A static route is a configured route that will remain in the routing table
until deleted. Static routes differ from dynamic routes in that dynamic
routes are learned from real-time via RIP or when new connections are
established.
A framed route is much like a static route in that you manually configure
the route. The difference is that a static route is defined for the LAN while
a framed route is associated with a remote site. Also, while a static route
is active when the LAN is connected, a framed route is active only when
the connection to the associated remote site is active.
Use static and framed routes only for networks not learned using RIP.
Adding a Static IPX
Route to the Local
Site (LAN)
To add, modify, or delete a static route to the LAN, follow these steps:
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page, select Configuration
> Global > IPX > IPX Static Routes.
2 Click Add. This accesses a screen containing the following fields:
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CHAPTER 9: CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
3 Define the Route by entering the following fields:
■
Network Address — The address of the network.
■
Gateway Network — The address of the router that joins the
networks.
■
Gateway Node Address — The hardware address of the gateway
node.
■
Metric — The number of routers (1-15) through which data packets
travel before reaching their destination.
■
Tick — A tick represents how far away the destination is for a data
packet (in seconds).
4 Click Submit. To clear the fields, click Reset.
5 To delete a route from your configuration, select the route and click
Delete.
Adding a Framed IPX
Route to a Remote
Site (WAN)
To add, modify, or delete a framed route to a Remote Site, follow these
steps:
1 Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN).
2 Select the remote site to modify, and click Modify.
3 Continue clicking Next to advance through the ATM Modify, IP Modify,
IP Advanced Modify screens to get to the IPX Modify screen.
4 Click Framed Routes.
5 Click Add to define the following parameters:
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Configuring IPX Static and Framed Services
9-7
■
IPX Network (address) — The IPX address of the network.
■
Metric — The number of routers (1-15) through which data packets
travel before reaching their destination.
■
Ticks — A tick represents how far away the destination is for a data
packet (in seconds).
6 After you have entered the fields, click Submit.
7 Click Modify to change the fields, the Details button to view the fields,
and the Delete button to erase the parameters you have set.
Configuring IPX
Static and Framed
Services
The services table contains IPX server names, the services they provide,
their network and node addresses, and their relative distances. Examples
of services include file servers and printers.
A static service entry will remain in the service table until deleted. Static
services differ from dynamic services in that dynamic services are learned
real-time via SAP packet exchange between routers.
A static service entry is a manually configured service accessible over the
LAN. A framed service is a manually configured service accessible from a
remote site. A framed service is active only when the connection to the
associated remote site is active.
Use static and framed services only for servers not learned using SAP.
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9-8
CHAPTER 9: CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
Adding a Static IPX
Service to a Local Site
(LAN)
To add a static IPX Service to a LAN:
1 Select Configuration > Global > IPX > IPX Services.
2 Click Add to define the following parameters of a static service:
■
Server Name — The name of the remote server.
■
Server Network Address — The network address of the remote
server.
■
Server Node Address — The node address of the remote server.
■
Gateway Network Address — The network node address of the
gateway.
■
Socket — The socket number on the server.
■
Metric — The number of routers (1-15) through which data packets
travel before reaching their destination. This value represents how far
the server is in hops through other routes. Metric is also referred to as
hop count.
■
Server Type — Select the type of server the framed service is
connected to.
3 After you have entered the fields, click Add.
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Configuring IPX Static and Framed Services
Adding a Framed IPX
Service to a Remote
Site (WAN)
9-9
To add, modify, or delete a framed service for a remote site:
1 Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN).
2 Select the remote site to modify, and click Modify.
3 Continue clicking Next to advance through the ATM Modify, IP Modify,
IP Advanced Modify screens to get to the IPX Modify screen.
4 Click Framed Services.
5 Click Add to define the following parameters:
■
Server Name — The name of the remote server.
■
Server Network Address — The network address of the remote
server.
■
Server Node Address — The node address of the remote server.
■
Socket — The socket number on the remote server.
■
Hops — The number of routers (1-15) the packets travel through
before reaching their destination server.
■
Server Type — You can either select the type of server the framed
service is connected to, or enter a hex value for the server type.
6 After you have entered the fields, click Submit.
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9-10
CHAPTER 9: CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
Configuring IPX RIP
and SAP
Local Site (LAN) RIP
and SAP
RIP is utilized as a means of communicating routing information between
routers. This is done to keep the routers updated on information. Service
Advertising Protocol (SAP) is a protocol used by IPX servers and routers to
exchange information about the location of servers.
IPX RIP and SAP parameters can be configured in the advanced IPX
options for the local site (LAN).
1 Select Configuration > Local Site > IPX.
2 Select the Local Site definition from the list and click Advanced to
access the IPX Advanced screen containing the following parameters:
■
Your network performance may be degraded if you set the IPX
maximum packet size to less than 500 bytes. It is not generally
recommended to modify the IPX maximum packet size.
■
Checking the SAP Nearest Replies box requests the nearest server
for routing information.
3 Enter the value for the LAN RIP and LAN SAP Age Multipliers. These
are values by which to multiply the corresponding update interval to
obtain the length of time (seconds) before aging out entries in either the
RIP or SAP database.
4 Enter the Update Intervals for the LAN RIP and LAN SAP. These are the
intervals (seconds) for how often the LAN should send out periodic RIP or
SAP updates.
5 Click Submit when the values on the screen have been correctly entered.
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Configuring IPX RIP and SAP
Remote Site (WAN)
RIP and SAP
9-11
IPX RIP and SAP parameters can be configured on the remote site IPX
Modify screen.
Access this screen by going to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home
page.
1 Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN), and click Modify. This
will access the Remote Sites General Modify Screen.
2 Continue clicking Next to advance through the ATM Modify, IP Modify,
and IP Advanced Modify screens.
3 Click Next to proceed to the IPX Modify screen.
4 Using the IPX Routing box, select the mode for RIP and SAP operation:
■
Broadcast — Send RIP and SAP packets.
■
Broadcast & Listen — Learn from RIP and SAP packets and send RIP
and SAP packets.
■
Listen — Learn from received RIP and SAP packets.
■
Respond Only — Only respond to received RIP and SAP packets.
■
None — Neither send nor receive RIP and SAP packets.
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9-12
CHAPTER 9: CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
IPX Routing
Configuration to
Support
MAC-Encapsulated
Routing
Monitoring IPX
Media Access Control (MAC)-Encapsulated Routing combines routing
and bridging so that routing features (i.e., Address Translation, DNS Proxy,
DHCP Server, etc.) are available in a bridged environment.
There are no specific changes required in the IPX routing configuration to
support MAC-Encapsulated Routing. See “Configuring Bridging” in
Chapter 5 for instructions on how to enable MAC-Encapsulated Routing.
■
To display the forwarding table:
Go to the Monitor > Routes and Services > IPX Routes screen.
■
To display the SAP table:
Go to the Monitor > Routes and Services > IPX Services screen.
■
To display the Global IPX counters:
Go to the Monitor > Networks > IPX > IPX Counters screen
(indicates the number of data packets received and forwarded or
discarded).
■
To display the IPX interfaces:
Go to the Monitor > Networks > Network Status screen. When a
remote site has been successfully established and IPX is configured, an
entry will be displayed with the Remote Site Name followed by an
“-ipx” suffix.
IPX Testing
If the IPX routing has been setup correctly and if the remote network is
functioning, you should be able to access remote Novell servers or
perform other IPX tasks.
If you have problems, you should check the Monitor > Routes and
Services > IPX Routes and IPX Services screens to see if the expected
routes and services have been learned via RIP and SAP.
If remote routes and services have not been learned, check the
Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN) > IPX screens and ensure that
IPX Routing is set to Listen or Listen and Broadcast.
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IPX Testing
9-13
For more information on these monitoring screens, see “Monitoring the
OfficeConnect Remote 840” in Chapter 11.
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9-14
CHAPTER 9: CONFIGURING IPX ROUTING
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10
Introduction
Obtaining Updated
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
Software
UPGRADING OPERATIONAL
SOFTWARE FOR THE
OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
This chapter details the updating of the OfficeConnect Remote 840
software. It is divided into the following sections:
■
“Obtaining Updated OfficeConnect Remote 840 Software”
■
“Installing Operational Software to the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Unit”
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 operational software is stored in the
unit's FLASH memory. In order to update the operational software, you
must first obtain and copy it to your PC's hard drive. You can then install
it into FLASH memory on the OfficeConnect Remote 840.
The method of obtaining the latest versions of the OfficeConnect Remote
840 Operational Software is either via the 3Com website,
www.3com.com/ocr840 or via the CD. Install the latest version
software from the website or the OfficeConnect Remote 840 CD. Type
show system, using the CLI interface, to verify the version software
installed on your OfficeConnect Remote 840.
If you have erased the operational software from your OfficeConnect
Remote 840, you will need to reinstall the software using a utility on your
CD. Follow the procedure described in “Installing Software via DOS”.
Once you obtain the OfficeConnect Remote 840 operational software,
there are two methods of installing the software into the FLASH memory.
■
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager Software Update (preferred
method).
■
DOS Update.
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CHAPTER 10: UPGRADING OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE FOR THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 CD
If you have obtained an updated OfficeConnect Remote 840 CD, or if
you have erased the copy of the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Operational
Software from your hard drive, you need to copy the operational
software from the CD to your hard drive.
1 Insert the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Installation CD in your PC's CD
drive.
2 Click Start > Run.
3 Type x:\setup.exe (where x is the letter of your CD drive) and click OK to
start the OfficeConnect Remote 840 software installation.
Follow the prompts on your screen to finish the software installation. In
addition to installing the OfficeConnect Remote 840 operational
software, this will also install the utilities, HTML help, and printable
documentation.
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 operational software (the *.nac file)
included on the CD is copied to your hard drive and not the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 unit. It is installed to C:\Program
Files\3Com\ocr840.
Installing
Operational
Software to the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Unit
Installing Software
via OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager
After you have obtained the operational software using one of the
described methods, it will reside on your computer's hard drive in a file
with an extension of '.nac' (a NAC file). You can install this software in
the FLASH memory of the OfficeConnect Remote 840 using one of the
following methods.
■
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager — This is the preferred method
of installing the operational software. Because the installation occurs
via the browser's file upload capability, it is the fastest and most
convenient method.
■
DOS Update — This method uses a DOS-based utility program to
install the new software using a serial connection between your PC
and the OfficeConnect Remote 840's console port. This method is
much slower than installing with the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager.
Installation of the operational software using the OfficeConnect Remote
840 Manager is a three-part process. First, the current software must be
erased from the FLASH memory of the OfficeConnect Remote 840. Once
the current software has been erased from the unit you will provide the
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Installing Operational Software to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Unit
10-3
browser with the pathname of the new NAC file. The browser will then
load this file into the unit's FLASH memory. Finally, you will reboot the
unit to allow the new operational software to become active.
The software update process does not change configuration of the
OfficeConnect Remote 840. However, since a reboot is needed at the end
of the process, you should make sure to save the current configuration.
Your browser must support RFC1867 File Upload. This requires Microsoft
Internet Explorer version 3.02 (with the file upload add-on installed) or
Netscape Navigator 3.0 or higher. You can install Internet Explorer 4 and
the file upload add-on from the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Installation
CD.
To update the software, go to Tools > Software Update from the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page. You will be guided
through the update process.
When browsing for the update file, select 'All files (*.*)' on the file type
pull-down menu.
Installing Software
via DOS
Your OfficeConnect Remote 840 Installation CD installs a DOS-based
utility program onto your hard drive. This utility program, PCSDL.EXE, is
invoked by a DOS-batch file, DL.BAT, which has also been installed to
your drive.
In order to use PCSDL to load code to your OfficeConnect Remote 840,
use the console port straight-through console cable (provided) between
your workstation's serial port and the unit's console port.
To update the software from DOS, perform the following:
1 Using a terminal application such as HyperTerminal to test the serial
connection, set up the terminal application with the following settings:
9600 baud, No stop bits, 8-bit characters, no parity
2 Press Enter on your workstation. If the terminal application displays the
OfficeConnect Remote 840> prompt, the serial connection is
operational.
3 Power off your OfficeConnect Remote 840.
4 Open a DOS window on your workstation.
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CHAPTER 10: UPGRADING OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE FOR THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
5 Change to the directory containing the new operational software. If you
obtained the software from the Installation CD or using Instant Update
the default directory is c:\Program Files\3Com\ocr840.
The DL.BAT batch file uses the Com 1 port by default. You can change
the port used by editing the DL.BAT file. The relevant lines of the file are
shown below.
REM
REM Edit the pcsdl command line -v parameter so that it includes
REM the REM version number of the NAC file. The version number of
REM the NAC file is part of the filename. The filename syntax is:
REM
REM vaxxyyzz where xx = major version number
REM yy = minor version number
REM zz = revision number
REM
REM Release 1.0.1 would have a filename of va010001.
REM
REM
REM Change the -p option on the pcsdl command line to use the
REM proper COM port.
pcsdl -p1 -r%BAUDRATE% -vNA1.0.5 -vSD0.1.1 -nSD%2 -nNA%2
6 Execute the batch file with the following command: dl 115 ms
7 When Establishing Communications... appears in your DOS window,
plug the OfficeConnect Remote 840 back into the outlet.
8 Wait for the download to complete.
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11
Introduction
MONITORING THE
OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
This chapter describes the details for performing the system monitoring
on the OfficeConnect Remote 840.
■
“Overview”
■
“Throughput Performance”
■
“Ethernet Interface”
■
“Interface Status”
■
“Remote Site Connection”
■
“IP”
■
“DHCP”
■
“Address Translation”
■
“IPX”
■
“Bridge”
■
“The following screen capture shows a successful connection to a
remote site named red using PPP network service. Critical Events Log”
Overview
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager provides a wide range of
monitor screens, including real-time throughput graphs, routing tables,
and interface and protocol counters. The screens help to troubleshoot
connection problems and are grouped by topic below.
Throughput
Performance
Real-time throughput graphs display both the transmit and receive ATM
throughput for up to four remote site connections. To access this screen,
go to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page and select
Monitor > ATM Throughput.
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CHAPTER 11: MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
The throughput is displayed as line graphs that move from left to right
across the screen. The color-coded list of remote site names to the right
of the graphs correspond to the colored lines on the graph. A maximum
of four remote sites are monitored simultaneously. Performance is
measured in kilobytes per second (Kbps), with samples taken every five
seconds. The maximum throughput for all remote site connections
combined is determined by the service provider when the SDSL link
comes up. This maximum can be calculated from the negotiated SDSL
baud and constellation rates (see ATM Interface section below.)
Because the SDSL link is shared by all remote site connections, the
throughput for a specific connection varies depending on the traffic of
the other connections. If one connection is using most of the bandwidth,
there is less available for the other connections. Throughput also depends
on the type of traffic on the connection. For example, downloading a text
file from the Internet may generate a very low volume of incoming traffic,
while receiving high resolution graphics display will cause the received
throughput to increase dramatically.
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Ethernet Interface
11-3
Figure 11–1 Throughput Graphs
Ethernet Interface
Interface Status
The Interface Status screen provides real-time information about the
interfaces. To bring up this screen, from the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager home page, select Monitor > Interface Status. Ethernet
interface information is displayed in the row containing the interface
name eth:1.
The Oper Status column indicates whether the interface link is
operationally up or down. If it is down, there may be a cabling problem.
The Admin Status is set to up by default. If the Admin Status is down,
then the interface has been disabled by a user and will not operate until it
is re-enabled. (Use CLI to enable or disable the operational state.)
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CHAPTER 11: MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Ethernet Counters
The Ethernet counters screen shows real-time counters based on data
packets that cross the Ethernet interface. Access this screen from the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page by selecting Monitor >
Ethernet.
The counters displayed include the number of bytes transmitted, bytes
received, and errors.
Error counters may not increment consistently. For example, rebooting
the device may generate a few interface errors as the hardware resets.
Errors that increase rapidly and consistently indicate a problem, either in
the LAN connection, a connected device, or the OfficeConnect Remote
840 hardware.
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11-5
Interface Status
ATM Status
The Interface Status screen provides real-time information about the
interfaces. To bring up this screen, from the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager home page, select Monitor > Interface Status. ATM interface
information is displayed in the row containing the interface name atm:1
or hdlc:1.
The Oper Status column indicates whether the interface link is
operationally up or down. If it is down, there may be a cabling problem.
The Admin Status is set to up by default. If this field says down, then
the interface has been disabled by a user and will not operate until it is
re-enabled. Use CLI to enable or disable the operational state.
ATM Cell Status
You can view real-time cell status from the ATM Status screen. To access
this screen from the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page,
select Monitor > ATM.
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CHAPTER 11: MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
The information includes Cell Delineation status, Data and Idle Cell
counters, and error detection, all of which are used to determine the
health of your ATM link. A few error counts are not unusual but errors
which increment consistently should be reported to your service provider.
SDSL Transceiver
Status
The transceiver status screen provides line information that can be useful
to the service provider when you experience line problems. Access this
information in the Monitor > SDSL > Transceiver Status screen.
When the line is up, the Link Status is "Link Up." Any other status should
be reported to the service provider. Other values may help the service
provider identify line problems.
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Remote Site Connection
11-7
Remote Site
Connection
Connection
Traffic/Error Counters
You can view remote site connection traffic and error counters. From the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page select Monitor >
Remote Sites > Remote Site Counters. Then select the remote site
name from the list and press the Show button.
The counters include the number of packets and bytes transmitted and
received and error counters. The error counters may increment
occasionally, and should be ignored unless they increment quickly and
consistently. Rapidly increasing errors should be reported to the service
provider
ATM Site Counters
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11-8
CHAPTER 11: MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Frame Relay VC Site
Counters
Remote Site Status
Table
To view a complete list of configured remote site profiles and their status,
access the Remote Site Status screen by selecting Monitor > Remote
Sites > Remote Site Status.
The status table includes the configured network service, VPI and VCI for
each remote site as well as the operational status of the profile.
IP
IP Networks
IP networks are created when you configure IP over the LAN and when a
remote site connection is configured to route IP traffic. To view the list of
IP networks and their status, bring up the Network Status screen. This
screen lists the status of all OfficeConnect Remote 840 IP, IPX, and Bridge
networks. To see this screen, go to the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager home page and select Monitor > Networks > Network
Status.
The network status table shows the network name, the protocol, the
interface over which the network runs (eth:1 for LAN, atm:1 or hdlc:1 for
WAN), how the network was created (static for LAN, dynamic for WAN)
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IP
11-9
and the network address assigned to the connection. IP and IPX WAN
network names incorporate the name of the remote site profile.
Below is an example of a network status table. IP Routing Table:
The IP routing table contains the list of all IP routes known by the
OfficeConnect Remote 840. To view the IP routing table, go to the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page and select Monitor >
Routes and Services > IP Routes.
Routes that were put in the table when a network came up have the
protocol type of LOCAL. STATIC routes are those that have been
configured statically. The protocol type of RIP indicates routes that were
learned from IP RIP information exchange with other routers. The
interface indicates whether the network is accessible from the LAN
(eth:1) or WAN (atm:1 or hdlc:1) interface.
ARP Table
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table displays the list of IP
addresses and their associated hardware addresses that have been
learned using ARP. The table is built dynamically. To view this table, go to
the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page and select Monitor
> Networks > IP > ARP Table.
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CHAPTER 11: MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP
Counters and Tables
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager provides various counters and
tables for the IP, TCP, UDP and ICMP protocols. To get to the counter and
table screens, go to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page
and select Monitor > Networks > IP. Select the desired counters from
the screen shown below:
DHCP
DHCP Lease Table
Workstations on the LAN 'lease' IP addresses from the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 when it is the DHCP Server.
You can view all of the currently outstanding leases by examining the
DHCP Lease Table. From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home
page select Monitor > Networks > DHCP > DHCP Leases.
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Address Translation 11-11
Each lease table entry lists the IP address and lease duration assigned to
each client hardware (MAC) address.
DHCP Counters
You can obtain detailed statistics and error counters for the DHCP
protocol. Access this screen from the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager home page by selecting Monitor > Networks > DHCP >
DHCP Counters.
Address Translation
Table of Mapped
Addresses
You can view the dynamic Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port
Address Translation (PAT) mapped address table. To access this table from
the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page, select Monitor >
Networks > NAT/PAT. Select the remote site profile whose address
translations you want to look at, and then select Mapped Addresses.
This table is created when the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is configured
to use address translation before routing IP packets to the remote
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CHAPTER 11: MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
location. The mapped addresses table keeps track of private-to-public
address mappings.
Table
of Port Assignments
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 address translation process also creates a
dynamic port assignment table when NAT or PAT is used. To access this
table from the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page, select
Monitor > Networks > NAT/PAT. Select the remote site profile whose
address translations you want to look at, and then select Port
Assignments.
This table is created when the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is configured
to use address translation before routing IP packets to the remote
location. The port address translation table keeps track of
private-to-public address and port mappings and shows the length of
time (seconds) before the translation expires.
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IPX 11-13
IPX
IPX Networks
IPX networks are created when you configure IPX over the LAN and when
a remote site connection is established that is configured to route IPX
traffic. To view the list of IPX networks and their status, bring up the
Network Status screen. This screen list the status of all OfficeConnect
Remote 840 IP, IPX, and Bridge networks. To see this screen, go to the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page and select Monitor >
Networks > Network Status.
The network status table shows the network name, the protocol, the
interface over which the network runs (eth:1 for LAN, atm:1 or hdlc:1 for
WAN), how the network was created (static for LAN, dynamic for WAN)
and the network address assigned to the connection. IP and IPX WAN
network names incorporate the name of the remote site profile.
An example of the network status table is provided below.
IPX Routes
The IPX routing table contains the list of all IPX routes known by the SDSL
router. To view the IPX routing table, from the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager home page, select Monitor > Routes and Services > IPX
Routes.
Routes that were put in the table when a network came up have the
protocol type of OTHER. STATIC routes are those that have been
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CHAPTER 11: MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
configured statically. The protocol type of RIP indicates routes that were
learned from IPX RIP information exchange with other routers.
IPX Services
The IPX services table contains the list of all IPX servers known to the
OfficeConnect Remote 840. To view the IPX services table, go to the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page and select Monitor >
Routes and Services > IPX Services.
The services table contains statically configured services as well as those
learned through SAP. If the server type is a well known type, it is displayed
in text, otherwise its hex value is displayed.
Name
NetSum
Node
Socket
Type
Prot
AM-STATION!
00000020
00:a0:c9:lf:cc:d3
0451
File Server
SAP
Metric
Z
ISC
00000020
00:a0:c9:lf:ce:d9
0555
67b
SAP
2
Bridge
Bridge Networks
Bridge networks are created when you configure bridging over the LAN
and when a remote site connection is established that is configured to
bridge traffic. To view the list of bridge networks and their status, bring
up the Network Status screen. This screen lists the status of all
OfficeConnect Remote 840 IP, IPX, and bridge networks. To see this
screen, from the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page, select
Monitor > Networks > Network Status.
The network status table shows the network name, the protocol, the
interface over which the network runs (eth:1 for LAN, atm:1 or hdlc:1
for WAN), how the network was created (static for LAN, dynamic for
WAN) and the network address assigned to the connection.
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Events Logs 11-15
The screen capture below provides an example of the network status
table.
Forwarding Table
The bridge forwarding table is used for forwarding packets and contains
the list of learned media access control (MAC) addresses. To access this
table, go to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page and select
Monitor > Routes and Services > Bridge Forwarding Table.
The table contains the learned MAC addresses and counters for data
traffic that has been received, forwarded or not forwarded (filtered), and
transmitted.
Bridge Counters
Events Logs
Bridge counters provide transmit and receive counts for the bridge
process. To view the counters table, from the OfficeConnect Remote 840
home page, select Monitor > Networks > Bridge.
The Office Connect Remote 840 router maintains logs of certain events.
These logs contains a running list of text messages generated during
connection to the WAN or whenever a critical event happens.
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CHAPTER 11: MONITORING THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Connection Event Log
The connection event log contains a text description of WAN interface
events. This includes cell delineation detection as well as the progress of
remote site connections. To access this log, from the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager home page, select Monitor > Events >
Connection Events.
The following screen capture shows a successful connection to a remote
site named red using PPP network service. Critical Events Log
Critical Events Log
The Critical Event Log contains a running list of text messages generated
by the OfficeConnect Remote 840 when a critical event occurs. To access
this log, from the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page, select
Monitor > Events > Critical Event Log. Critical events are rare and may
indicate an operational problem.
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12
Introduction
CONFIGURING FILTERS
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 provides an extensive set of data filtering
capabilities. For instance, filters can accept packets only from specific
addresses to provide added security, or filters can be added to reduce
network traffic and improve overall performance.
This chapter contains information on the filtering capabilities for your
OfficeConnect Remote 840. It is divided into the following sections:
Filtering Overview
■
“Filtering Overview”
■
“Filtering Capabilities”
■
“Creating Filters Overview”
■
“Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager”
■
“Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager”
Filters can provide added security by accepting packets only from specific
addresses or they can be added to reduce network traffic and improve
overall performance.
Packet filters control inter-network data transmission by accepting or
rejecting the passage of specific packets through network interfaces
based on packet header information. When data packets are received by
a network interface such as an Ethernet LAN or WAN port, a packet filter
analyzes packet header information against a set of rules you define. A
filter then lets the packet pass through or discards it.
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CHAPTER 12: CONFIGURING FILTERS
Filtering
Capabilities
Filter Classes
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 provides an extensive set of data filtering
capabilities. The OfficeConnect Remote 840 supports the following
filtering capabilities:
■
Input and output data filtering.
■
Source and destination address filtering.
■
Protocol filtering.
■
Source and destination port filtering. A packet filter can control what
services local or remote users can access.
■
Route filtering can filter source and destination addresses in packets
that exchange routing table information.
■
Established session filtering. A packet filter can permit users to
connect with a remote network without letting remote users have
access to the local network (or vice versa).
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 supports three filter classes:
■
Input data — filter packets as they enter.
■
Output data — filter packets as they exit.
■
Embedded bypass — for periodic router protocol packets (IP RIP, IPX
RIP and IPX SAP)
Each filter class can be identified further by the following types:
Filter Types
Data Filters
Filters can be classified by the following types:
■
Data filters — based on protocol-specific packet information.
■
Advertisement filters — based on broadcast packet information (IP
RIP, IPX RIP, and IPX SAP).
■
Generic filters — based on packet structure.
Data filters control network access based on the protocol, source /
destination address, and port designation (e.g., TCP and UDP port
designations) of the packet. The following table describes the data filters
supported.
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Filtering Capabilities
12-3
Table 12–1 Data Filters
Advertisement Filters
Filter
Action
IP
Controls network access based on the protocol and source/destination
address. IP filter rules allow filtering based on the source address,
destination address, protocol type, source port, and port designation of
the IP packet.
IPX
Controls network access based on the protocol and source/destination
network. IPX filter rules allow filtering based on the source network,
destination network, protocol type, source socket, destination socket,
source node, and node designation of the IPX packet.
Bridge
Controls network access based on the source and destination MAC
addresses.
Advertisement filters operate on network protocol packets that contain
varying information such as SAP or RIP. Filtering of these packets is
performed by the specific protocol process. The following table describes
the advertisement filters supported:
Table 12–2 Advertisement Filters
Generic Filters
Filter
Action
IP-RIP
Controls the content of IP Routing Information Protocol (RIP) packets that
are sent out or received on specific ports. The IP RIP filtering process
filters addresses from the RIP packet upon transmission, and does not
enter routes into the routing table upon receipt.
IPX-SAP
Controls the content of Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) packets that
are sent out or received on specific ports. The IPX-SAP filter rules allow
filtering on service type, server name, network address, node address,
and socket number fields of the service entry. The forwarding process
uses the filter information to prevent the service information from being
included in the SAP packet.
IPX-RIP
Controls the content IPX RIP packets that are sent out or received on
specific ports. The IPX RIP filtering process filters addresses from the RIP
packet upon transmission, and does not enter routes into the routing
table upon receipt.
Generic filters are protocol-independent and are specified by byte and
offset values in a packet. Packets are filtered by comparing each packet's
offset value and byte information with the values that you define in the
filter. The router will accept or reject the packet based on the result.
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CHAPTER 12: CONFIGURING FILTERS
Creating generic filters can be a complex task. Only experienced users
should employ generic filters, and strictly in cases where data and
advertising filters cannot provide the filtering capabilities that you require.
Creating Filters
Overview
Filters can be set one of two ways in the OfficeConnect Remote 840:
■
Using Command Line Interface (CLI). (See Appendix D for
instructions to access the CLI.)
■
Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager.
The more flexible way of setting filters is through the Command Line
Interface (CLI). Both data and advertisement filters can be set using CLI.
For more information on accessing CLI, refer to the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 SDSL Router CLI User's Guide.
If you want to set up filters using the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager, go to the “Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Filters Using the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager”section.
Creating Filters
Using the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
Manager
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager supports data filters only (not
advertisement filters). Data filters are used to remove packets from the
normal flow of data traffic. They can be applied to IP, IPX, and/or Bridge
traffic.
Filters affect only those protocols which are currently active in the
OfficeConnect Remote 840.
Therefore, if the unit is set up to Bridge only, only bridge filters have an
effect on the data traffic; IP and IPX filters have no effect even if IP or IPX
traffic is being bridged. Internally (for greater efficiency), filters are
examined when a data packet is being processed by the protocol, not as
the packet enters or exits the unit (even though when filters are set up, it
looks like they take effect at the interface level). For example, when IPX
traffic is bridged, it is processed by the bridge protocol in the unit, not by
the IPX protocol. Therefore, a filter on IPX traffic would have to be a
bridge filter in this example.
There are two sets of criteria used in determining whether a filter affects
a packet.
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Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager
12-5
The first is the direction/location of the packet. There are four static
direction/locations on which filters can be activated: incoming LAN traffic,
outgoing LAN traffic, incoming WAN traffic and outgoing WAN traffic.
Additionally, there are two for each Remote Site, traffic coming from and
going to each one.
The second criteria is whether the packet contains data that matches the
condition(s) in the filter. Conditions are defined based on protocol specific
information such as IP source address or IPX source socket number.
All filters are set up to discard packets (data filters). However, there are
two ways of specifying these actions: a “negative” and a “positive” way.
The negative action specifies that the packet or information is discarded if
the filter criteria met. The positive action specifies that the packet or
information is kept if the criteria is met. The positive way implies that all
packets or information not meeting the criteria are discarded. Either
method can be used for most filters. However, one or the other is almost
always more logical.
For example, imagine a small office with 20 workstations on the LAN. The
LAN is connected to a remote corporate office using an OfficeConnect
Remote 840. Two of the LAN workstations are used by contractors who
are not given access to the corporate office. To prevent traffic from the
two workstations from passing through the OfficeConnect Remote 840,
a filter is set up on the incoming/LAN direction/location. The most logical
filter is a “negative” filter that says “discard packet if IP source address is
equal to xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx or IP source address is equal to xxx.xxx.xxx.yyy”.
Of course you could write a “positive” filter which would say “forward
packet if IP source address is equal to <list of the 18 IP addresses that are
allowed to send traffic>”. However, you can see that the negative filter is
shorter (more efficient to apply) and easier to write and therefore the
better one to use.
Each direction/location can have up to fifteen filters. Each filter can have
up to six conditions. As you create the filter, you can select whether to
logically “and” or “or” conditions together. If you need a filter with more
than six conditions, you can create multiple filters that will be looked at
by the OfficeConnect Remote 840 as if they were one filter. The only
requirement is that the basic filter information (i.e., the protocol and the
action) must be the same in each of the filters. The filters will be “or”ed
together when they are merged internally.
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CHAPTER 12: CONFIGURING FILTERS
Example: To prevent seven individual PCs on the LAN from accessing a
remote site, create the following two filters:
Filter for Packets: Going to Remote Site Vienna
Filter Name: Block PCs 1-6 Protocol: IP Enabled: Yes
Discard Packet if IP Source Address is Equal to 192.168.200.41
or if IP Source Address is Equal to 192.168.200.50
or if IP Source Address is Equal to 192.168.200.66
or if IP Source Address is Equal to 192.168.200.42
or if IP Source Address is Equal to 192.168.200.88
or if IP Source Address is Equal to 192.168.200.90
Filter Name: Block PC 7 Protocol: IP Enabled: Yes
Discard Packet if IP Source Address is Equal to 192.168.200.102
The filters BLOCK PCs 1-6 and BLOCK PC 7 both use the IP protocol and
the same action, “Discard Packet if...”
Therefore, when they are applied, they are “or”ed together. The resultant
filtering is the same as you would get if you were allowed to create a
single filter that contained all seven conditions.
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager
Filter Screens
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager (HTML) filter screens provide an
easy to use menu system for specifying the direction/location of the
traffic to be checked and for creating and editing filter conditions. The
filter screens are set up to allow you to create sentences that describe the
filter action. For example, a filter that prevents IPX packets from Jan and
Bob's PCs from being sent to Remote Site Vienna would look something
like this:
Filter for Packets: Going to Remote Site Vienna
Filter Name: Block Jan and Bob
Discard Packet if IPX Source Node is Equal to 00-20-69-00-23-99
or if IPX Source Node is Equal to 00-20-69-11-45-88
The sentence is built up over a number of screens. Most filters can be
easily created by selecting from the provided condition sentences. Each
sentence has pull down boxes for selecting condition keywords (IP
Destination Address / IP Source Address, etc.) and condition operations (is
Equal to / is Not Equal to, etc.) Where appropriate, the additional
flexibility of generic filters is available. With generic filters, you specify an
offset into the packet and the hex value to compare the packet content
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Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager
12-7
to. This allows you to go beyond the bounds of the “canned” condition
sentences.
An overview and description of each filter screen is provided below:
You can get out of any screen by using the HTML side bar links. If you are
in the process of creating a new filter when you do this, and haven't yet
pressed the Save Filter button on the Filter Condition Summary
screen, the new filter information is lost.
Filter Screens
■
Filter Index
Index screen that allows you to either view the Filter Status or Filter
Create/ Modify screens.
■
Filter Status
Shows which direction/locations have filters.
■
Filter Create/Modify
Prompts you to select on which direction/location you are going to
setup or change a filter. Pressing the “Next” button brings up the
Filter Summary page.
■
Filter Summary
Shows you a summary of previously defined filters for this
direction/location and whether or not the filters are active.
Pressing the Create button brings up the Filter Action screen.
Selecting a filter name and pressing the Delete/Modify button brings
up the Filter Delete/Modify screen.
■
Filter Protocol
Prompts you to:
■
■
Provide a name for the filter (must be unique within this
direction/location as well as across all direction/locations). The
name may contain blanks but may not contain any of the following
characters: # ; | [ ] { }
Supply a name that can be up to 32 characters long. It is useful to
use the name field as a description field that summarizes the
purpose of the filter.
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CHAPTER 12: CONFIGURING FILTERS
■
■
■
■
Enable or disable the filter. (You may want to create a disabled
filter, then enable it when you are satisfied that the filter conditions
are complete.)
Select the protocol for the filter being added. The protocols are:
Basic IP, Advanced IP, Basic IPX, Advanced IPX, Basic Bridge, and
Advanced Bridge.
Pressing the Next button brings up the condition screen for the
selected protocol.
Condition Screens
These screens have a common structure but differ in content. The
common features include the condition number (1-6) of the condition
being created and, for condition numbers 2-6, the selection via radio
buttons for “And”ing and “Or”ing the condition to the previous
condition.
For condition number 1, the user is prompted to select the action of
the filter: “Discard Packet” or “Forward Packet”. Also common is the
Next button, which takes you to the Condition Summary screen.
Basic IP Condition has the following condition sentences to select
from:
Table 12–3 Basic IP Condition
Destination Address
Is Equal to
_____IP address
Source Address
Destination Network
Is Not Equal to
Is Equal to
_____IP address
Source Network
Is Not Equal to
_____(Mask)
Advanced IP Condition has the following condition sentences to select
from:
Table 12–4 Advanced IP Condition
Protocol Type
Destination Address
Is Equal to
____IP address
Source Address
Destination Network
Is Not Equal to
Is Equal to
_____IP address
Source Network
Is Not Equal to
Is Equal to
_____(Mask)
TCP
Is Not Equal to
UDP
ICMP
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Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager
TCP
Destination Port
is Equal to
_____
Source Port
is Not Equal to
(1 - 65536)
12-9
is Greater Than
is Greater Than or Equal to
is Less Than
UDP
Destination Port
is Less Than or Equal to
is Equal to
____
Source Port
is Not Equal to
(1 - 65536)
is Greater Than
is Greater Than or Equal to
is Less Than
Generic Byte
Filter
is Less Than or Equal to
Origin: IP Header / IP Data
____
Offset ____ (0- 1514 bytes)
(hex value**)
Length ____ (1-48 bytes)
Masked With ___ (0's or F's*)
is equal to
Basic IPX Condition has the following condition sentences to select
from:
Table 12–5 Basic IPX Condition
Destination Node
Is Equal to
_____IPX network address (1-FFFF)
Source Node
Destination Network
Is Not Equal to
Is Equal to
_____IPX node [MAC] address:
Source Network
Is Not Equal to
xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
Advanced IPX Condition has the following condition sentences to
select from:
Table 12–6 Advanced IPX Condition
Destination Node
Is Equal to
_____IP address
Source Node
Destination Network
Is Not Equal to
Is Equal to
_____IP address
Source Network
Is Not Equal to
_____(Mask)
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CHAPTER 12: CONFIGURING FILTERS
Destination Socket
is Equal to
_____
Source Socket
is Not Equal to
(1 - FFFF)
is Greater Than
is Greater Than or Equal to
is Less Than
Destination Port
is Less Than or Equal to
is Equal to
_____
Source Port
is Not Equal to
(1 - 65536)
is Greater Than
is Greater Than or Equal to
is Less Than
is Less Than or Equal to
Generic Byte Origin: IP Header / IP Data
Filter
Offset ____ (0- 1514 bytes)
_____
(hex value**)
Length ____ (1-48 bytes)
Masked With ___ (0's or F's*)
is equal to
*whose length is 2x Length field: two mask numbers for each byte)
** whose length is not greater than 2x Length field.
■
Condition Summary
This screen shows the filter conditions that have been created so far. It
allows you to select any undefined condition to add, or to select any
defined condition to delete (You can not modify a condition - you
must delete the condition then add a new one to make changes). You
do not have to add filters in consecutive order (that is, you can skip
condition numbers.) And you can delete conditions from the middle.
The conditions are used in the filter in order of smallest condition
number to greatest condition number and unused condition numbers
are simply ignored.
■
■
■
The Add button returns you to the appropriate filter condition
screen so you can define the next condition.
The Delete button returns you to this screen unless you have just
deleted the last condition, in which case you go to the
Delete Filter/Add Condition screen.
When you are finished defining conditions, press the Save Filter
button. This completes the filter and takes you to the Filter
Summary screen.
840ug.book Page 11 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12-11
■
Use the Cancel button to cancel any changes since the last time
you saved.
When you have a filter that contains “And”ed and “Or”ed conditions
together, the summary may display extra blank lines between conditions.
This is to help you understand exactly what the filter means.
Look at this filter (without the extra separator):
Discard packet if IP Destination Address is Equal to 30.0.0.1
and IP Protocol is Equal to TCP
or IP Protocol is Equal to UDP.
This can be misinterpreted to mean:
– discard any TCP packet whose destination address is 30.0.0.1
– and
– discard any UDP packet whose destination address is 30.0.0.1.
Now look at the filter with the extra separator:
Discard packet if IP Destination Address is Equal to 30.0.0.1
and IP Protocol is Equal to TCP
or IP Protocol is Equal to UDP.
It clarifies the meaning as:
– discard any TCP packet whose destination address is 30.0.0.1
– and
– discard all UDP packets
■
Delete Filter /Add Condition
You get to this screen after deleting the last condition in a filter. You
have the choice of deleting the filter or of adding a condition. To
delete it, press the Delete Filter button (which takes you to the Filter
Summary screen.) To add condition number 1, press the Add
Condition button to bring up the appropriate condition screen (i.e.
Basic IP, Advanced IP, etc.).
■
Filter Delete/Modify
You reach this screen from the Filter Summary screen if you wish to
modify an existing filter. This screen allows you to change the filter
name and it's enabled/disabled status. From this screen, select Delete
to delete the displayed filter and return to the Filter Summary
screen. Select Modify to save any changes you made on this screen to
the Filter Name or Enabled/Disabled status. Or select the Add/Delete
Conditions button to go to the Condition Summary screen, where
you can add or delete conditions as needed.
840ug.book Page 12 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
12-12
CHAPTER 12: CONFIGURING FILTERS
Step-by-Step Guide
to Creating Filters
Using the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
Manager
Filters can be tricky to define so spend time before accessing the screens
thinking about what you want the filter to do.
First determine which direction and location of the data path you want to
apply the filter to: for example, do you want to filter packets as they enter
from the Ethernet ports, or as they go to all of the Remote Sites, or as
they exit to go to a specific Remote Site?
Next, think about the desired results of the filtering, that is, which data
packets are to be removed from the traffic (ex: if bridging, perhaps all IPX
packets, or if routing IP, maybe all packets from a specific machine or
group of machines.)
For more information on designing filters, see “Filtering Overview”.
1 Go to Configuration > Global > Filters. Select Create/Modify Filters.
On the Create/Modify screen, select the direction/location of the data
traffic where the filter will be activated. Press the Next button to bring up
the Filter Summary screen for this direction/location.
2 On the Filter Summary screen, press the Create button to bring up the
Filter Action screen.
3 On the Filter Action screen, enter a name for the filter and select the
desired protocol. Then press the Next button to bring up the appropriate
protocol condition screen.
4 On the protocol condition screen, select the action of the filter (discard or
forward packet) and the first condition sentence for your filter.
5 Use the pull down boxes as needed to create your filter by selecting
keywords (such as IP Destination Address / IP Source Address) and
operations (is Equal to / is Not Equal to).
6 Then enter the value to be filtered against, that is, the IP address, Port
number, etc. that finishes the condition information needed for the filter.
Then press the Next button to see the Condition Summary screen.
From the Condition Summary screen, add more conditions as needed
by selecting a condition number and pressing the Add button. This takes
you back to the protocol condition screen.
This screen is the same as for the first condition except that now you can
choose to logically “And” or “Or” this new condition to the previous
condition.
840ug.book Page 13 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Filters Using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12-13
As before, select the condition sentence, choose the keyword and
operation and enter the filter value then press “Next” to see the
Condition Summary screen again.
7 When you are satisfied that this filter is complete, press Save Filter on
the Condition Summary screen. This causes the OfficeConnect Remote
840 to write the filter to file and activates the filter. You are returned to
the Filter Summary screen. Now you can add another filter if you want.
Modifying an Existing
Filter Using the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager
1 Go to Configuration > Global > Filters.
2 Select Create/Modify Filters. On the Create/Modify screen, select
the direction/location of the data traffic where the filter is activate.
3 Press the Next button to bring up the Filter Summary screen for this
direction/location.
4 To delete or modify the filter, select the filter from the pull down box
and press Delete/Modify. This brings up the Filter Delete/Modify
screen. You can delete the filter, modify the name, the enable/disable
status and/or edit the conditions from this screen.
Turning a Filter Off
Using the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager
1 Go to Configuration > Global > Filters.
2 Select Create/Modify Filters. On the Create/Modify screen, select
the direction/location of the data traffic where the filter is active.
3 Press the Next button to bring up the Filter Summary screen for this
direction/location.
4 To turn off an individual filter, select that filter in the pull down box
and press the Delete/Modify button. On the Filter Modify screen,
disable the filter by unchecking the Enable Filter checkbox and
pressing Modify. Return to the summary screen by pressing < Prev.
840ug.book Page 14 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
12-14
CHAPTER 12: CONFIGURING FILTERS
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
13
Introduction
Troubleshooting
Tools
TROUBLESHOOTING
This chapter contains information on the troubleshooting tools and the
troubleshooting areas for your OfficeConnect Remote 840. It is divided
into the following sections:
■
“Troubleshooting Tools”
■
“LAN Connection Problems”
■
“LAN Connection Problems”
■
“IP Wizard and Web Browser Problems”
■
“WAN Connection Problems”
■
“General Network Connection Problems”
■
“IP Network Connection Problems”
■
“IPX Network Connection Problems”
■
“Bridge Connection Problems”
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 has a number of features which can be
used to help troubleshoot problems. They are especially useful if the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 is not visible during the troubleshooting
session.
■
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager's Configuration Audit (Home >
Tools > Configuration Audit) — The audit provides information
about real and potential problems in the OfficeConnect Remote 840's
current configuration. You are advised to run the audit after each
configuration change.
■
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager's Monitor Features (Home >
Monitor) — This provides many windows into the current state of the
OfficeConnect Remote 840. Refer to “Monitoring the OfficeConnect
Remote 840”.
840ug.book Page 2 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
13-2
CHAPTER 13: TROUBLESHOOTING
■
CLI Traces — Tracing can be turned on for various OfficeConnect
Remote 840 software components using the CLI set facility command.
This feature is for advanced troubleshooting and should only be used
after all other methods for isolating the problem have been tried. You
may find the trace statements to be cryptic.
CLI traces are not accessible through the OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager. Refer to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL Router CLI User's
Guide for more information.
Troubleshooting
Tables
The troubleshooting tables are organized in a “bottom-up” fashion. The
hardware and line problems are listed first, then the higher level router
configuration problems are covered.
How to Use these
Tables
If you are having any type of connection problem, e.g., the workstations
on the local LAN cannot connect to the remote network, you should
work your way down the tables to eliminate any low-level problem
before working through the WAN connection problems.
840ug.book Page 3 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
LAN Connection Problems
LAN Connection
Problems
13-3
Symptom
Possible Causes
Corrective Action
The LAN LED is Off.
The OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager
Interface status
indicates Ethernet
interface is down.
The LAN cable is not
connected.
Check that one end of the LAN
cable is fully plugged into the LAN
port. Check that the other end is
fully plugged into the local LAN
connection.
The LAN cable has
been damaged.
Replace the cable with another LAN
cable.
The MDI/X switch on Press the switch in to connect to a
the back of the unit hub and out to connect to a
is set for connecting workstation.
Port 1 to a single
workstation but the
cable is connected to
a hub (or vice versa).
IP Wizard and Web
Browser Problems
Symptom
Possible Causes
The IP Wizard does not There is a LAN
find the OfficeConnect connection problem.
Remove 840 on the
local LAN.
The OfficeConnect
Remove 840 already
has an IP address.
Corrective Action
See “LAN Connection Problems”.
Only unconfigured OfficeConnect
Remote 840s are detected using the
IP Wizard. If your OfficeConnect
Remote 840 has a LAN IP address
already assigned, it will not appear
in the IP Wizard list.
840ug.book Page 4 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
13-4
CHAPTER 13: TROUBLESHOOTING
Symptom
Possible Causes
Corrective Action
The workstation does If the workstation is supposed to
not have an IP
learn its address from the
address.
OfficeConnect Remote 840, check
that the unit is set up in DHCP
Smart Mode. If not, set to DHCP
Smart Mode and reset.
If the workstation was booted
before the OfficeConnect Remote
840, reboot the workstation now. If
the workstation is supposed to have
a specified address, configure the
workstation and run IP Wizard
again.
Your Web browser
There is a LAN
does not find the
connection problem.
OfficeConnect Remote
840 using its LAN IP
address.
See “LAN Connection Problems”.
The OfficeConnect
Either:
Remote 840 and the
1 Set up a workstation to be on
workstation are
the same IP subnet as the
attached to the same
OfficeConnect Remote 840.
LAN, but not
Then connect and use the
assigned IP addresses
OfficeConnect Remote 840
from the same
Manager.
subnetwork.
2 Use CLI to add an IP network
over the Ethernet interface using
an IP address from the same
subnet as the workstation. Then
connect and use the
OfficeConnect Remote 840
Manager.
3 Use the factory reset button on
the back of the 840 to delete
the configuration. For an
unconfigured unit, use the IP
Wizard to reassign a new IP
address. For a unit using DHCP
Smart Mode, connect using the
IP Address 192.168.200.254.
The OfficeConnect
Remote 840 address
was entered
incorrectly when the
IP Wizard was used.
Use the factory reset button on the
back of the 840 to delete the
configuration. for an unconfigured
unit, use the IP Wizard to reassign a
new IP address. For a unit using
DHCP Smart Mode, connect using
the IP Address 192.168.200.254.
840ug.book Page 5 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
IP Wizard and Web Browser Problems
Symptom
Possible Causes
The Web browser does There is a problem
not find the
with the LAN
OfficeConnect Remote connection.
840 using its DNS
name (DHCP Smart
Mode in use).
13-5
Corrective Action
See “LAN Connection Problems”.
The workstation is on Set the workstation IP configuration
a different IP subnet to automatically learn its IP address
from the 840’s
from the 840.
subnet.
The DNS host
configuration has
been changed.
Connect to the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 using the unit’s IP
address, 192.168.200.254 and
correct the DNS information.
DHCP Smart Mode is Press the reset button on the back
not really in use.
of the 840 while rebooting to
delete the current configuration
and select DHCP Smart Mode.
Unable to log in to the You did not enter a
OfficeConnect Remote valid administration
840.
login name and
password.
Use the system default login name
root and password !root.
The unit has no login Do one of the following:
name or password
1 Use CLI to add an administration
defined.
login profile.
2 Restore the system default login
by deleting the current
configuration using the reset
button on the back of the unit. If
DHCP Smart Mode is used, the
default name root and
password !root are set for you.
If resetting to Unconfigured Mode,
run the IP Wizard to assign an IP
address and configure the default
login name and password.
840ug.book Page 6 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
13-6
CHAPTER 13: TROUBLESHOOTING
WAN Connection
Problems
Symptom
Possible Causes
SDSL LED is Off.
WAN (modem) cable
OfficeConnect Remote is not connected.
840 Manager Interface
Status indicates that
interface atm:1/hdlc:1
is down.
Corrective Action
Check that one end of the WAN
cable is fully plugged into the wall.
Check that the other end is fully
plugged into the SDSL port in the
back of the OfficeConnect Remote
840.
WAN cable has been Replace the cable with another DSL
damaged.
cable.
There is a problem at Contact your service provider.
the other end of the
SDSL connection that
causes the SDSL
negotiation to fail.
SDSL LED is Off or
goes On briefly then
turns Off.
SDSL link is down.
Contact your service provider.
OfficeConnect Remote SDSL link is down.
840 Manager ATM
status cell delineation
fails and no idle cells
are being received.
Contact your service provider.
There is a problem at Report the problem to your service
the central office
provider.
equipment (the other
end of the SDSL line)
such that no idle cells
are being transmitted
or there is a corrupt
line.
840ug.book Page 7 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
General Network Connection Problems
General Network
Connection
Problems
Symptom
Possible Cause
Correction Action
Remote network is
not responding (e.g.
to PINGs or the Web
browser connection
requests.)
LAN or WAN
connection problem.
1 See “LAN Connection
Problems” and “WAN
Connection Problems”.
13-7
2 Go to Monitor > Networks >
Network Status to view more
detailed problem, then take
corrective action.
Incorrect Virtual Circuit Check the VC information and
(VC) information has
correct as needed.
been entered. Use the
Monitor > ATM screen
to observe ATM error
counts. If the BadVPI or
VDI error count is
incrementing, the
problem may be an
incorrect VC identifier.
Network Service (RFC
1483 or PPP) on
OfficeConnect Remote
840 is incompatible
with that used on
remote site ATM
router.
RFC 1483 and PPP network service
run above ATM. If you select PPP
and RFC 1483 is running on the
remote site router, you will not be
able to successfully access the
remote network. Change the
network service to agree with the
remote router network service.
The remote site profile Enable the remote site profile.
may not be enabled.
Check the Monitor>
Remote Sites > Remote
Sites Configured to see
if the remote site status
is ENABLED.
840ug.book Page 8 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
13-8
CHAPTER 13: TROUBLESHOOTING
Symptom
Possible Cause
Correction Action
If your Network Service Enter the appropriate PPP
is PPP, the PPP
Username and Password in the
Authentication
remote site profile.
information may be
incorrect. Check
connection event log
(Monitor > Events >
Connection Event Log)
to see if the PPP
connection could not
be established due to a
PAP or CHAP
mismatch.
Remote network is
not responding (e.g.
to PINGs or the Web
browser connection
requests.)
Remote location may
be off-line.
The machine you are trying to
connect to may not be running or
may be busy processing other
requests. Try reaching another
remote machine.
The remote network
is responding intermittently or not at
all. Monitor > ATM
shows ATM cell
delineation
successful but Hec
sound is high.
There is a corrupt line
causing the ATM data
cells to fail the header
error test.
Contact the service provider for
verification. A lower speed
connection may solve the problem.
The remote network
is responding intermittently or not at
all. ATM cell
delineation achieved
but Monitor >
Remote Sites >
Remote Site
Counters shows that
many packets are
being received with
Bad CRC.
ATM cells are being
dropped by a device in
the path to the remote
site.
Contact your service provider.
840ug.book Page 9 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
IP Network Connection Problems
Symptom
Possible Cause
Accessing remote
The SDSL settings
information is slower indicate that a slower
than expected.
baud rate than
expected was
negotiated for the
downstream traffic.
13-9
Correction Action
Reset the SDSL link to cause
re-negotiation through one of the
following steps:
■
If the OfficeConnect Remote
840 is accessible, disconnect the
SDSL line for a few seconds.
■
Save the current configuration
and reboot.
If a faster connection was not
negotiated, contact your service
provider. They may able to check
the physical connection for excess
noise which may be the reason the
negotiated numbers are low.
IP Network
Connection
Problems
Symptom
Possible Cause
Remote IP network is LAN or WAN
not responding (ex., connection problem.
to PINGs or the web
browser connection
requests).
Corrective Action
See “LAN Connection Problems”,
“WAN Connection Problems”, and
“General Network Connection
Problems”.
IP Forwarding is turned
off.
From the OfficeConnect Remote
840 Manager home page, access
the Global > IP > IP Settings screen.
Ensure that IP Forwarding is
enabled.
PC or workstation does
not have the
OfficeConnect Remote
840 listed as a gateway.
Reconfigure the PC or workstation
to use the OfficeConnect Remote
840's IP LAN address as its
gateway.
840ug.book Page 10 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
13-10
CHAPTER 13: TROUBLESHOOTING
Symptom
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
Some remote sites use Wait 30 seconds and try to access
the RIP protocol to
remote site again.
advertise your IP
address to other
routers. It may take
more than 30 seconds
for the IP route to the
OfficeConnect Remote
840 to be propagated
throughout the remote
network.
IP routing table does
not show a route to the
remote network,
indicating a
configuration problem.
One of the following may solve the
problem:
Remote WAN IP addresses are
entered incorrectly. Check the
addresses and reconfigure as
needed.
RIP may be turned off. Set RIP to
Listen mode to automatically learn
routes to remote networks.
A static route (global config.) or
framed route (remote site config.)
is needed to reach the remote
network. Add the route and check
the IP routing table to confirm the
entry.
No default gateway has been
configured that would allow the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 to
automatically look for the remote
network. Enable the default IP
gateway option in the remote site
profile.
840ug.book Page 11 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
IP Network Connection Problems 13-11
Symptom
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
My video application
does not run when
Port Address
Translation (PAT) is
enabled.
Some video applications
using UDP streaming
have two connections,
a TCP connection for
control and a UDP
stream for data. The
TCP connection is
initiated from the
privately addressed
workstation but the
video stream may be
initiated from the
remote server. Because
a mapping does not
already exist for the
UDP data stream, the
data can not be
mapped to a private
address unless a static
PAT port has been
defined or the PAT
default address is
configured.
First verify the possible cause stated
above is actually the problem. Set
the Remote Site's PAT default
address to your workstation's LAN
address, then try to run your video
application again. If it works, check
to see if your video application
allows you to specify a static UDP
port. Microsoft NetShow allows
you to configure a static UDP port
in the Properties > Advanced
screen. After setting a static port
for the video application, you must
add a corresponding static port
entry on the OfficeConnect
Remote 840. Set your Remote Site
default PAT address to 0.0.0.0
before you try the static port.
If you cannot setup a static port on
the Video application, check to see
if the Video application allows you
to specify TCP rather than UDP.
TCP streams are typically initiated
from the private side.
If you still are unsuccessful, the
video application may be
embedding address and port
information within the data
portion of the frame. If this is the
case, consult your application
vendor for possible workarounds.
840ug.book Page 12 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
13-12
CHAPTER 13: TROUBLESHOOTING
IPX Network
Connection
Problems
Symptom
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
Remote IPX network
is not responding
(ex., can't find a
Novell server).
LAN or WAN
connection problem, or
a general configuration
problem.
See “LAN Connection Problems”,
“WAN Connection Problems”,
and “General Network
Connection Problems”.
IPX is not enabled over
both the LAN and the
WAN.
Check the Local Site > IPX and
Remote Site > IPX screens and
ensure that IPX is enabled on both
interfaces.
IPX routing table does
not show a route to the
remote network,
indicating a
configuration problem.
One of the following may solve the
problem:
Remote WAN IPX addresses are
entered incorrectly. Check the
addresses and reconfigure as
needed.
RIP may be turned off. Set RIP to
Listen mode to automatically learn
routes to remote networks.
A static route (global config.) or
framed route (remote site config.)
is needed to reach the remote
network. Add the route and check
the IPX routing table to confirm
the entry.
840ug.book Page 13 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Bridge Connection Problems 13-13
Bridge Connection
Problems
Symptom
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
Remote network is
not responding.
LAN or WAN
connection problem, or
a general configuration
problem.
See “LAN Connection Problems”,
“WAN Connection Problems”, and
“General Network Connection
Problems”.
Bridging is not enabled Check the Local Site > Bridge and
over both the LAN and Remote Site > Modify screens and
the WAN.
ensure that bridging is turned on
over both interfaces and that the
remote site is enabled.
The IP network is not
Check the Global > IP > IP Settings
responding because the screen and ensure that IP
OfficeConnect Remote Forwarding is disabled.
840 is trying to route IP
packets, instead of
bridging them.
The IP network is not
responding because the
LAN IP addresses are
assigned on a different
network than the
remote address.
When bridging IP, the local
network becomes part of the
remote network and must be
assigned addresses on the same
network or sub-net.
840ug.book Page 14 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
13-14
CHAPTER 13: TROUBLESHOOTING
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
A
Introduction
BRIDGING AND ROUTING
During the initial configuration of the OfficeConnect Remote 840, you
must decide whether to configure the unit as a bridge or as a router. If
you are unsure which option you should choose, this section will help you
decide.
Bridges and routers are used to connect networks together. The cost of
connecting networks together is generally proportional to the distance
over which the network extends and the amount of bandwidth required.
Large amounts of bandwidth can be provided easily within a LAN by
connecting different segments together with a local bridge. However, it
becomes impractical and expensive to extend this bandwidth over larger
distances, and it is, therefore, usual to interconnect local high-speed
networks using bridges or routers connecting over slower speed
terrestrial and satellite links.
In the following sections we describe the concepts behind bridging and
routing, and discuss the different ways in which LANs can be configured
and operated to optimize performance and minimize disruption of traffic
on each individual LAN.
Bridging and
Routing Concepts
A bridge connects one or more LANs together. It examines each data
frame received at a LAN port and forwards any frames that it assumes are
for a destination device not connected to that LAN port. The bridge is
able to do this by learning which devices are connected to each LAN port.
A router learns much more about the networks connected to it and is
able to be much more selective about the data it passes on to other
networks and to which network it transmits. By default routers reject or
filter data unless it matches predefined attributes (for example, specific
protocols or destination network addresses). In large interconnected
networks, a router selects the best route for data to travel.
840ug.book Page 2 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
A-2
APPENDIX A: BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Guidelines for
Choosing Bridging or
Routing
How Bridges Learn
The list below outlines some of the reasons you might choose to
configure the OfficeConnect Remote 840 as a bridge or a router. Read
through the rest of this section for more explanation and to help decide
which of the above conditions apply to your network.
■
A bridge is simpler to configure, but a router can provide more
security on a busy network and filter unwanted data transmissions
more effectively.
■
If your network consists of only one or two links between different
sites and is not heavily loaded, in most circumstances you can
configure your OfficeConnect Remote 840 units as bridges.
■
If your network structure is complicated and consists of a mixture of
leased-line and modem links, or if it uses several different protocols,
you may obtain better performance from the OfficeConnect Remote
840 units if you configure them as routers.
■
If you are connecting to a routed corporate network that is already
routing the IP protocol, or if you are using the OfficeConnect Remote
840 to connect to the Internet, you must configure the unit as a
router.
■
If you want to link networks that the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is
not routing, you must configure bridging. The OfficeConnect Remote
840 may serve as an IP router and a bridge simultaneously.
When a bridge is first powered on, it does not know the number or the
locations of stations that are connected to the LAN. To minimize the
amount of data passed over the bridge, it must learn the whereabouts
(address) of stations to ensure that it passes only the data that is
necessary to be passed over the bridge.
Like the envelope of a letter, the header of each frame of data
transmitted on the network has a From (source) address and a To
(destination) address. This ensures that data reaches its destination on the
LAN and that the receiving station can reply. The bridge reads every frame
of data received at the LAN port and extracts the source address of the
frame. From this information it builds an address table of stations it
knows to be on the LAN.
To decide if data should be passed over the bridge, the bridge examines
the destination address of the frame. If the address is already in its
840ug.book Page 3 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
How Bridges Learn
A-3
address table, the bridge knows the destination is on the LAN and
therefore discards or filters the frame.
If the destination address is not in the address table, the bridge transmits
the data across the bridge. It does this even if the destination device is on
the local LAN because it does not recognize the destination station as
local. However, if the destination device is on the local LAN, once it replies
to the original source station, its own source address is part of the data
frame and it is learned by the bridge and added to the address table.
By operating in this way, the amount of data forwarded by the bridge is
kept to a minimum. Traffic that is for devices on the attached LAN is rarely
forwarded over the bridge.
A bridge can be configured to forget or age a station's address after a
period of inactivity, a facility that is used to ensure that stations that are
no longer attached to the LAN, do not remain in the bridge's address
table, using up space that may be required for other station's addresses.
Some bridges allow address information to be manually configured into
the bridge, provided the automatic learning facility is turned off. This will
not normally prove necessary unless specific traffic filtering is required.
You can also configure a number of other features to improve the
performance and operation of the OfficeConnect Remote 840. These
include sophisticated filtering techniques so that only certain types of
frames, or those associated with particular work groups, are passed
between specific segments.
Bridging Between
Remote Sites
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 is able to send frames between LANs that
may be separated by considerable physical distances. It achieves this by
making use WAN links. WANs can be established by using either digital
leased lines, ISDN lines, or analog (modem) lines and are usually operated
by telephone companies or other service providers.
Figure A-1 shows two LAN segments, A and B, which are connected by a
pair of OfficeConnect Remote 840 units, 1 and 2. The type of link
between the two depends on the WAN services available at each of the
remote bridge locations, and the price the network administrator is
willing to pay for those services.
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APPENDIX A: BRIDGING AND ROUTING
Figure A–1 Simple Remote Bridging
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 uses RFC 1483 or PPP encapsulation to
connect with other OfficeConnect Remote 840 or third party devices.
Building a Larger
Network
Large networks of interconnected LANs can be established by using
multiple bridges as illustrated in Figure A-2.
The bridges build up their address tables. In Figure A-2, Bridge 1
examines packets from its WAN ports. If the destination unit is not
registered as being accessed via the bridge's LAN interface, the frame will
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How Bridges Learn
A-5
not be placed on LAN A. Therefore, frames passing between LAN B and
LANs C or D will not impact the overall performance of the LAN.
Figure A–2 Multiple Remote Bridge
Multiple Paths
Between Bridge LANs
With only a single physical path between LANs, the network is
susceptible to link and bridge failures. In the event of a failure, the
connection between any of the LANs upstream or downstream from the
point of failure will be broken. A more resilient network of
interconnected LANs can be established by providing more than one link
between any two of the LANs.
Normally, this network would soon encounter serious problems resulting
from a loop, around which frames could endlessly travel if precautions
aren't taken by the bridges. To prevent loops, you can enable the
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP).
When STP is enabled, the bridges send out frames to inquire if there are
other bridges on the network. By exchanging information, the bridges
block ports that cause the loops and ensure that there is only ever one
active path through the network. If one of the links or bridges fail, the
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APPENDIX A: BRIDGING AND ROUTING
other bridges detect this and reconfigure their ports so that there is once
again an active data path through the network.
Network Topology
If your network topology is star shaped, a combination of analog
modems and bridging is usually the most efficient and successful option.
Routing is a better solution if your network is a complex mix of WAN
interconnects and/or multiple protocols.
Broadcast Storms
Bridges are programmed to forward data packets automatically by
default while routers filter data packets by default. These attributes have
an impact on the overall flow of data across the network. Much has been
made of broadcast storms in connection with bridged networks, where
the broadcast signals from bridges propagate to fill all of the wide area
bandwidth, and bring the network down. Broadcast storms cannot be
attributed to installation of bridges or routers, but by poor protocol
implementation and network design. However the deployment of routers
can effectively firewall one logical network from another.
Optimum Use of
Resource
Bridged networks use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to provide network
resilience, by retaining redundant links on standby, in case the primary
link fails. This means that you are not making maximum use of available
resources.
Routing protocols make each node aware of the primary and alternate
routes available, ensuring that resources (particularly WAN links) are not
wasted.
Routers have been designed to provide the optimum route through the
network from the workstation through to the destination resource with
which the user wishes to communicate. In a very large network there
could be multiple paths available, and these could change as links go in
or out of service. These changes in network topology are handled by
routing protocols.
Network
Organization,
Structure, and
Physical Layout
Some organizations are structured into departments determined by the
physical layout of their work environment, so it is natural to divide the
corporate network into separate logical networks. Routing becomes the
obvious candidate for handling these individual LANs.
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Network Organization, Structure, and Physical Layout
The Internet
Routing IP
A-7
The protocol adopted by the Defense Data Network (DDN) for the
Internet, is based on obtaining and abiding by, a registered Internet
address range. This makes a router the ideal choice for accessing the
Internet. Unfortunately, new applicants are only likely to get a Class C
registered Internet address, preventing more than 254 connections on
one bridged IP LAN.
Running a bridged network allows workstations to communicate directly
between one another. A PC user wishing to communicate with a remote
network server is totally unaware of any intervening bridges. This is
known as transparent operation.
LAN 2
Bridge A
LAN 1
Bridge D
LAN 3
Figure A–3 Example Network
It is important to understand that in a bridged network the addressing
structure for IP relates to a single network. If the units above were bridges
and not routers, then an IP node on LAN A could, for example, have an
address 140.56.10.1, the node on LAN B an address of 140.56.10.2, and
the node on LAN C, an address of 140.56.10.3. All the nodes, therefore,
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APPENDIX A: BRIDGING AND ROUTING
are able to share the same Class B network address, regardless of their
location on the bridged network.
Figure A–4 Open Systems Interconnection Network Layer Model
Open Systems
Interconnection
Network Layer Model
A routing environment allows stations to communicate indirectly.
Following the example in under “Routing IP”, let us assume that a station
on LAN 1 wants to communicate with a network server on LAN 2. The
station on LAN 1, constructs a Layer 2 datalink header (see Figure directly
above), with the source station's hardware address, and also the
destination hardware address of the local router. To direct the packet to
its final network destination, the source station must complete the Layer
3 network header with the destination network address of LAN 2.
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IP Routing
A-9
Once the packet is received by the Router A, attached to LAN 1, it strips
off the network header (refer to Figure above) and examines the Layer 3
header information. It then reviews its routing tables in order to establish
where to forward the data packet. It is possible that the LAN 1 router has
multiple outgoing ports that would allow different transmission routes to
the destination network. In our example using Figure A-3, a packet could
go via Router D to get to Router B, or it could go more directly across a
single direct link between Router A and Router B.
Figure A–5 Data Packet Containing Hardware and Software Addresses
IP Routing
The local router contains, within its routing table, information that will
allow it to determine the best data transmission route. The type of
information the router uses to make these assessments is
protocol-dependent, and some communications protocols may employ a
range of routing algorithms, and accompanying routing protocols. In the
case of the TCP/IP protocol suite, the OfficeConnect Remote 840 utilizes
RIP. RIP is also known as a distance vector protocol.
Different protocols use different networking characteristics or metrics
when making routing decisions. The metric employed by RIP is a hop
count. A hop count is defined by the number of routing nodes there are
between the source and destination units. In our example, there are two
hops between LAN 1 and LAN 2 going via Routers A and B. If traffic was
directed via Routers A,D, and then B, this would be three hops.
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APPENDIX A: BRIDGING AND ROUTING
The algorithm will automatically select to forward the data packet via
Router A, as this route contains the least number of hop counts which
makes it the preferred direct route.
Every thirty seconds (by default), each IP router will advertise, via RIP
datagrams, to all other routers on the Internetwork, how many hops it
takes to reach all connected logical networks, based on the routers
network position and the state of its physical links.
It is also possible to assign what are known as static routes, which are
manually entered fixed routes. The network manager may be aware of
specific traffic patterns, or need to enforce a particular routing policy.
Static routes provide an option to force traffic through the network in a
particular way. The disadvantage with this approach is that routing
protocols dynamically update all the routers on the network with the
current network topology, enabling backup routes to be deployed. In a
static route situation, if the WAN links in that routing definition are down,
then traffic cannot be passed. Implementing a static route prohibits the
router from being able to offer alternative data paths.
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IP ADDRESSING
B
Introduction to IP
Addressing
This section contains a brief introduction to the IP addressing scheme for
administrators that are new to the IP protocol.
IP Addressing Basics
IP addresses are 32 bits long and generally written in what is called
dotted decimal notation: four decimal values separated by periods. For
example: 192.77.203.5.
Address Classes
In IP, the same 32 bits can be divided in a number of different ways to
indicate networks and sub-networks of different sizes. The IP Network is
identified by the number of bits in the network mask. The node addresses
are not physical addresses of your network interface cards, but arbitrary
numbers that are mapped to those physical addresses later. This allows
you to accommodate varying network structures from a small number of
network segments with huge numbers of nodes to large numbers of
networks with only a few nodes.
Subnetting
A large IP network can be subdivided into smaller subnetworks. This is
done using a subnet mask (in this text, often called netmask), which tells
a routing device how to further subdivide the Host ID portion of an IP
address.
A subnet mask is a 32-bit value which also can be written in dotted
decimal notation. It contains a number of bits set to 1 (indicating the
network portion of an address) followed by a number of bits set to 0
(indicating the host portion of an address).
For example, a netmask of 255.255.255.0 on a Class B network would
indicate that the network is divided into 254 sub-networks of 254 nodes
each (0 and 255 are reserved numbers). For example, 128.5.63.28 would
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APPENDIX B: IP ADDRESSING
be host 28 on subnetwork 63 of that network. The network itself would
be called 128.5.0.0 (Class B network number 5).
Notice that by using subnet masks, you can define a natural hierarchy in
which the addresses themselves indicate how a packet is to be routed.
However, all routing devices on an IP network must be using the same
subnetting scheme.
Also note that a subnet mask for a given network segment is not part of
the address and is not transmitted with every packet. It is simply a value
which is known to all the routing devices adjacent to that segment.
Subnets of Class C networks
Since Class C networks are by far the most common, we will take a closer
look at subnetting in a Class C network. Table B-1 is a listing of all
possible values for the last octet (byte) in a Class C subnet mask.
Table B–1 Class C Subnet Masks
Mask
Binary
Subnets
Hosts/Subnet
128
10000000
0
0
192
11000000
2
62
224
11100000
6
30
240
11110000
14
14
248
11111000
30
6
252
11111100
62
2
254
11111110
126
0
One important thing must be noticed about the address divisions created
by a subnet mask.
■
Reserved Addresses
RFC 950 requires that the first and last subnet created by a mask are
reserved. So, the number of usable subnets is always 2 less than the
number of divisions created. This makes 128 an unusable netmask
because it has no legal subnets! The first and last host address in each
subnet are also reserved (see Reserved Addresses below). This means
254 is also an unusable subnet mask because there are no legal host
addresses.
In most IP machines, setting all the bits in the host portion of an IP
address to 1 indicates a broadcast to all nodes on the network. In the
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IP Addressing Basics
B-3
Class B network described above, an address of 128.5.255.255 is a
broadcast address meaning the packet is destined for all nodes on the
entire Class B network. 128.5.63.255 would be a broadcast address
indicating that the packet is destined for all nodes on subnet 63 of that
Class B network.
However, one rare version of TCP/IP instead considers an address in which
the host bits are all set to 0 a broadcast address. On the OfficeConnect
Remote 840, you configure for this difference as part of the Advanced
Parameters in the IP LAN setup.
On networks with a “high” broadcast address, setting all bits to 0 simply
means “this host” or “this network” and is usually used only when a
node does not know its own network or node address (and is probably
requesting that information).
One other reserved address is 127.x.x.x. The contents of the last three
bytes are not important. This is a loopback address used for
troubleshooting. It allows you to verify that a device can send something
to itself. A packet with this address should never actually leave the
machine that originated it.
Supernetting
(Advanced TCP/IP)
Because Class B Internet addresses are in short supply, larger networks
are now usually granted a contiguous block of several Class C addresses.
Unfortunately, this creates very large routing tables since multiple Class C
routes have to be defined for each network containing more than 254
nodes. Larger routing tables mean more work for the routers and,
therefore, poorer performance.
Supernetting (Classless InterDomain Routing) is a technique that allows
each of these larger networks to be represented by a single routing table
entry.
To do this, supernet addressing does something very different from
traditional TCP/IP routing (which allows only one netmask per network).
In supernet routing, each supernet can be assigned its own netmask.
Supernetting is defined in RFC 1519.
Since supernet addressing is a fairly complex mechanism, the easiest way
to understand it is to walk through the setup process.
You must first select a netmask for each supernet. Each supernet must
have a netmask assigned to it. The netmask for an individual supernet
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APPENDIX B: IP ADDRESSING
can be, but does not have to be, the same as the netmask for any other
supernet.
As in subnetting, a netmask creates a division between the network
portion of an address and the host portion of an address. However, since
the network you are defining is larger than a Class C network, the
division you are creating is not in the fourth octet of the address. For this
example, we'll be creating supernets composed of fewer than 254 Class
C networks. So, their netmasks will actually be splitting up the third octet
in their IP addresses.
The number of zero bits in the third octet will actually dictate the number
of Class C networks in the supernet. Each zero bit makes the supernet
twice as large. So, a supernet composed of 8 Class C networks would
actually have 3 zeroes (8 = 23).
This would seem very limited since it restricts you to using groups that
nicely fit into a power of 2 (1, 2, 4, 8, 16...). However,
inconveniently-sized supernets can be accommodated because of a
simple fact: a netmask with more 1 bits will override a netmask with
fewer 1 bits.
This allows a smaller supernet to share the address space of a larger
supernet. If, for example, you had a supernet of size 6 and a supernet of
size 2, you could assign the larger supernet an 8 network address space
and assign the smaller supernet the portion of that address space that the
larger supernet was not using. Because the smaller supernet's netmask
has more 1 bits, packets whose address was part of its address space
would be routed to the smaller supernet even though the address is also
part of the address space dictated by the larger supernet's netmask.
You must select a range of addresses for each supernet. The range of
addresses in a supernet must fit exactly into a space that can be described
by its netmask. This means that the zero bits in the netmask must also
appear in the first address of the supernet block. For this to be true, the
third octet in the address must be an even multiple of the same power of
2 used to form the netmask. For example, if you had created a block of 8
networks, the third octet in the first address will be an even multiple of 8.
Supernetting and the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840
In order to define a supernet on the OfficeConnect Remote 840, you
must add the network address and its netmask. You have two options
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IP Addressing Basics
B-5
with OfficeConnect Remote 840. The first option permits you to set the
subnet via numerical (8-30 bits) designation. For example:
add ip network houston address 192.75.202.99/23
Secondly, you can specify a class designation: A, B, or C. You can also
leave the subnet value blank and let the OfficeConnect Remote 840
choose it for you. In this case, however, OfficeConnect Remote 840 will
specify a class setting based on the IP address. For example:
add ip network houston address 192.75.202.99/C
To avoid confusion when configuring an IP address and subnet mask for a
user, as opposed to a network, be aware that some user commands (e.g.:
set network user) offer the option of H for the subnet class designator.
This value can be used only when the station being identified is a host.
Networked nodes still require class or numeric (8-32 bits) subnets. For
example:
set vc same remote_ip_address 234.170.168.0/h
IP Subnet Mask
Address
Subnet masking is used to expand the number of networks due to the
32-bit limitation of an IP's address field. When assigned an address by the
NIC, the address can be further broken down to expand the single net
number to many more by using host bits.
IP Planning
If you are not very familiar with IP addressing, read the following sections
to gain a better understanding before assigning addresses.
Assigning IP
Addresses and
Subnetting
In IP, every “interface” typically gets an address. Interface, in this context,
tends to mean “IP port.” Your workstations each have one IP port--its
Ethernet adapter card, which is connected to an Ethernet hub by a
twisted-pair cable. The OfficeConnect Remote 840, however, has
multiple ports: one ethernet and one for each virtual circuit over the ATM
WAN interface. An OfficeConnect Remote 840's LAN (Ethernet) port
must be assigned an address, but assigning the WAN ports an address is
optional. Not providing a WAN IP address creates and unnumbered WAN
interface. This feature simplifies configuration but is not always available
because it must be used at both ends of the connection. For more
information on unnumbered interfaces see the last section in this
appendix, “IP Numbered and Unnumbered Links”.
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APPENDIX B: IP ADDRESSING
To route IP, the two networks to be linked by the OfficeConnect Remote
840 (local LAN and the ISP's or remote site's network) must be on
separate IP subnets. For example, all local LAN devices could be on subnet
192.168.1 and all devices in at the remote site could be on subnet
192.168.2. Put another way, all devices connected to the local LAN must
be assigned IP addresses that begin with 192.168.1, for example
192.168.1.1, and all devices on the remote LAN must be assigned
addresses that begin with 192.168.2, for example, 192.168.2.1.
Each IP address uniquely identifies a machine on an IP network.
Therefore, to avoid duplication, IP addresses are regulated and are
ultimately purchased from an organization (see the previous section). You
probably won't need to purchase your own IP addresses for your
home/office LAN. If you are connecting to the Internet, the ISP will
provide you with one or more addresses. If you are connecting to a
remote office, the network administrator should be able to provide you
with a subset of addresses from the set that were assigned to the remote
office.
Single IP Address
If you are provided with a single IP address, you'll use the OfficeConnect
Remote 840's Port Address Translation (PAT) feature. The IP address will
be assigned to the OfficeConnect Remote 840's local WAN interface.
PAT allows you to make up an IP network for your LAN, using IP addresses
of your own choosing. This network is hidden from the ISP or remote site
because all data traffic going out the OfficeConnect Remote 840's WAN
port will carry the assigned IP address. Since it is hidden, it does not
matter if the addresses you use are duplicated elsewhere. Using PAT, the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 keeps track of mapping the data packets to
their rightful owners, the workstations on the LAN.
For more information on PAT, see the “Address Translation Tutorial”.
Range of IP
Addresses
If you are provided with a range of IP addresses, it may be given to you in
the form of an IP address and netmask.
Example: We were given the IP address 2xx.xxx.188.176 with mask
255.255.255.248.
The first task is to understand our IP address range and decide which
addresses to assign to the workstations and which address to assign to
the OfficeConnect Remote 840. We take our first address,
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IP Addressing Basics
B-7
2xx.xxx.188.176, and the subnet mask, 255.255.255.248, together to
determine the number of addresses we had to work with.
First, we convert the last octet (the eight-bit decimal equivalent) of the IP
address (176) and the last octet of the subnet mask (248) to binary:
176
248
The 0s in the subnet mask define our address range, and their three
binary positions (23) yield eight addresses. The addresses that contain all
zeroes and all ones (2xx.xxx.188.176 and 2xx.xxx.188.183,
respectively--see the table below) are reserved as broadcast addresses and
cannot be used.
Also, we were told that 2xx.xxx.188.177 would be assigned to the
OfficeConnect Remote 840's LAN interface, so we can't assign it to any
other computer(s) on the LAN.
Table B-2 IP Addresses
IP Numbered and
Unnumbered Links
Last Octet (In
Binary)
Last Octet (In
Decimal)
Status
10110 000
176
Reserved - broadcast address
10110 001
177
To be assigned to OfficeConnect Remote 840
10110 010
178
Available
10110 011
179
Available
10110 100
180
Available
10110 101
181
Available
10110 110
182
Available
10110 111
183
Reserved - broadcast address
The OfficeConnect Remote 840 supports two types of IP addressing on
the Remote Site links: numbered and unnumbered. A numbered link
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APPENDIX B: IP ADDRESSING
exists when an IP address identifies the interface as belonging to a
specific IP network or subnet (See Figure B-1).
Figure B–1 Numbered WAN Interfaces
An unnumbered link exists when the IP address 0.0.0.0 is assigned and
indicates the interface does not belong to a specific network (see Figure
B-2).
Figure B-2 Unnumbered WAN Interfaces
The major advantage of using unnumbered links is that you save scarce IP
address space. Looking at Figure B-1, you can see that three IP networks
are in use, 128.111.11.x (LAN A), 206.222.22.x (WAN), and 213.133.33.x
(LAN B). The WAN network numbers are not needed when unnumbered
is used. If the unnumbered scheme is used at only one end of the WAN
link, a single IP address is saved. If it is used at both ends of the WAN link,
an entire IP subnet will be saved.
At first glance it seems that unnumbered addressing would cause
problems for routers. One expects each interface to be assigned an IP
address. When the router sends router-generated packets (such as RIP
packets or PINGs) the source IP address in the packet is typically the
address of the interface the packet goes out. There could also be a
concern about how to route packets to an unnumbered interface.
There are a few rules which take care of the problems. The Ethernet
interface cannot be unnumbered. The router adopts a “router id,” which
for the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is the IP address assigned to the
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IP Addressing Basics
B-9
Ethernet interface. This IP address is the source IP address for
router-generated packets going out unnumbered interfaces. The router's
routing tables and default gateway settings take care of getting the data
traffic to the correct remote destinations. Therefore, although you cannot
PING or TELNET to the WAN interface when unnumbered is in use, you
can PING or TELNET the router using the IP address of a numbered
interface.
Unnumbered does not mean unconfigured. An OfficeConnect Remote
840 with factory default configuration will not provide an unnumbered
link - you must configure the remote site local WAN IP address as
unnumbered (equal to 0.0.0.0).
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APPENDIX B: IP ADDRESSING
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C
Overview
ADDRESS TRANSLATION TUTORIAL
Public IP addresses are registered and can be used within a public
network, such as the Internet. Due to the limitation of IP version 4
address space and the growth of the Internet, public addresses are
becoming more scarce.
One solution to this problem is to use private addresses on small LANs
and to use Address Translation when accessing devices on the public
network. Address Translation changes a private address to a public
address at the gateway of a public network.
There are two types of address translation, Network Address Translation
and Port Address Translation:
■
■
“Network Address Translation (NAT)”
■
“NAT Example”
■
“Dynamic NAT”
■
“Static NAT”
“Port Address Translation (PAT)”
■
“PAT Example”
■
“Dynamic PAT”
■
“Static PAT”
■
“Default PAT”
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APPENDIX C: ADDRESS TRANSLATION TUTORIAL
Network Address
Translation (NAT)
With NAT, a pool of public addresses is configured and dynamically
mapped to a private workstation address when accesses are made
through the gateway to a public network. The public-to-private address
mapping remains active until the privately-addressed workstation stops
accessing the public network. The public address is then returned to the
available pool of addresses.
When NAT is configured, static mappings and/or dynamic pools of
addresses must be configured. Static assignments permanently map a
private address to a public address.
Dynamic pools consist of a start IP address, the number of addresses in
the pool, and a mask to be used for RIP messages if the public addresses
are to be advertised. Multiple pool and static assignments may exist
within a pool range.
NAT Example
Your remote site administrator or ISP provides a pool of addresses for
your local LAN.
If there are enough addresses for each machine and your OfficeConnect
Remote 840, you do not need to use NAT. Simply assign each machine an
address from the pool. If the number of machines is greater than the
number of available addresses, use NAT. As with PAT, you make up a
private IP network for the LAN and assign an IP address from that
network to each workstation and the OfficeConnect Remote 840 (LAN IP
address). RIP (if enabled) must be set to “listen only” so the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 will learn routing information from the WAN
but will not broadcast the private network information. Doing this
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Network Address Translation (NAT)
C-3
provides a firewall and hides the private local network from the outside
world.
Figure C–1 NAT Example
Dynamic NAT
When a local PC sends a packet destined for the WAN, the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 puts the private source IP address and an IP address from the
pool into an address translation table. A change is made in the data
packet: the private source IP address is replaced by the IP address from
the pool and sent to the WAN. When the reply returns, it contains the IP
address from the pool. This address is used to search the address
translation table for the original private IP address. The private IP address
is put into a reply packet and sent to the Ethernet.
When all the pool addresses are in use, any new requests are rejected and
the workstation on the LAN has to wait until one of the pool addresses is
free for use. To ensure that addresses are not held indefinitely, a timer is
associated with each table entry. An entry is freed after 5 minutes of
inactivity or if the session between the workstation and the remote site is
ended.
This method requires initiating incoming packets from the LAN. Packets
from the WAN are rejected unless they have an IP address number that is
in the pool and is currently in the address translation table.
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APPENDIX C: ADDRESS TRANSLATION TUTORIAL
Static NAT
Port Address
Translation (PAT)
Static NAT operates like Dynamic NAT except you may add entries to the
address translation table and indicate specific IP addresses from the pool
to map to specific private LAN IP addresses. This allows controlled access
by the outside world.
PAT is used when several privately addressed workstations share a single
public address. PAT uses the TCP and UDP port numbers to map multiple
private addresses to the single public address. For normal applications
such as web browsing and FTP transfers, PAT can be configured by just
enabling the feature. When accesses are originated from the private
addressed LAN, a mapping is established between the source port
number and the source private address. When the response is received on
the public addressed WAN port, the destination port is mapped back to
the private address.
Static PAT port mappings or the PAT default address need to be
configured when an application will initiate a TCP or UDP connection
from the public network. If a publicly accessible server resides on a
privately addressed LAN, static ports can be defined for the applications
they are running.
For example, TCP port 80 for a Web Server and TCP port 21 for a FTP
server can be statically assigned. The PAT default address can be used
with, or instead of, static port assignments, and is set to the private
address of a workstation on the local LAN.
If an incoming IP data packet is received on a WAN port and there is no
existing dynamic or static port mapping, the packet will be translated
using the PAT default address.
PAT Example
Your remote site administrator or ISP provides one address for the
OfficeConnect Remote 840's Local WAN IP address (In the example
above, 10.0.0.1). You make up a private IP network for the LAN and
assign an IP address from that network to each workstation and to the
OfficeConnect Remote 840 (LAN IP address).
RIP (if enabled) must be set to “listen only” so the OfficeConnect Remote
840 will learn routing information from the WAN but will not broadcast
the private network information.
840ug.book Page 5 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Port Address Translation (PAT)
C-5
Doing this provides a firewall and hides the private local network from
the outside world.
Figure C–2 PAT Example
Dynamic PAT
When a local PC sends a packet destined for the WAN, the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 puts its source IP address and a port number into an address
translation table. The port number is also placed into the data packet.
An additional change is made to the packet: the original (private) source
IP is replaced by the OfficeConnect Remote 840 WAN IP address. Then
the packet is sent to the WAN.
The reply will contain the OfficeConnect Remote 840 WAN IP address
and port number. The port number is used to search the address
translation table for the original private IP address.
The original IP address is then put in a reply and sent to the Ethernet.
This method requires initiating incoming packets from the LAN. Packets
from the WAN are rejected unless they currently have a port number in
the table.
Static PAT
Static PAT operates like Dynamic PAT except you may add entries to the
address translation table and specify which port numbers to map to
which private IP addresses. This allows controlled access by the outside
840ug.book Page 6 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
C-6
APPENDIX C: ADDRESS TRANSLATION TUTORIAL
world. You would select the port numbers based on the type of access
needed. For example, if you had a local WEB server, you would select the
IP address of your server and the port number 80, which is the UDP and
TCP port number used to indicate HTML traffic.
Default PAT
Default PAT operates like Dynamic PAT except you may specify a default
private IP address for all traffic whose port numbers are not in the address
translation table. However, this may remove the Firewall. With a default IP
address, all traffic initiated on the WAN and not sent to other private IP
addresses will go to this IP address. In Dynamic and Static PAT, traffic from
the LAN, not the WAN, determines the use of the address translation
table.
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
D
Overview
USING THE CLI GUIDE
The preferred method of configuring and managing the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 SDSL Router is the Web Browser based Remote 840
Manager. It also comes with a sophisticated Command Line Interface
(CLI).
A command line interface will require you to type in individual commands
on the screen. You can view and print the OfficeConnect Remote 840
SDSL Router CLI User's Guide (in pdf format) from the CD supplied with
your unit, or from the 3Com website
http://www.3com.com/support/ocr840/index.html under User
Documentation.
Accessing the CLI
from the
OfficeConnect
Remote 840 Manager
To use this feature, from the Home page, select the “Tools” link, then
select the new “Command Line Interface” link. On the next screen
select the “Start CLI” button. This starts a separate (not within the
browser) Telnet window that automatically Telnets to the IP address of the
OCR unit that the browser is using. The browser stays open, too. Telnet
asks the user to login before presenting the CLI prompt. The
login/password are the same as those used for accessing the HTML
screens with the browser.
840ug.book Page 2 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
D-2
APPENDIX D: USING THE CLI GUIDE
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
E
CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP
WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT
REMOTE 840
This chapter describes the details for performing the initial configuration
of a OfficeConnect Remote 840 when the unit has not been configured
or has been restored to factory defaults. This installation method does
not use the Setup Wizard. If you want to use Setup Wizard, please refer
to the printed Installation Guide that came with your OfficeConnect
Remote 840.
Instructions for
Internet Access
Step 1: Configuring
Remote Site General
Information
■
“Instructions for Internet Access”
■
“Instructions for Telecommuting / Remote Office Access”
■
“Using the Configuration Audit”
■
“Saving the Configuration”
■
“Testing the Configuration”
Before you configure your OfficeConnect Remote 840 for Internet
Access, make sure you have completed the appropriate Internet
Configuration Planning Form by entering information from your service
provider. (For your convenience, the forms have been reproduced in
Chapter 1 of the of the OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL Router Install
Guide.)
1 Add a remote site by going to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home
page. Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN) > Add.
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E-2
APPENDIX E: CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
If your unit is using Frame Relay, this will access the Remote Sites
General Add screen, containing the following fields:
■
Enter a name to identify the remote site.
■
Enter the Max Packet Size.
■
Set Network Service to PPP over Frame Relay or RFC 1490.
■
Enter the DLCI.
■
Check the Enable Bridging and Enable MAC Encapsulated
Routing boxes according to your service provider’s directions.
■
Check the Enable Remote Site box.
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Instructions for Internet Access
E-3
If your unit is using ATM, the Remote Sites General Add screen will
contain the following fields:
■
Enter a name to identify the remote site.
■
Set Network Service to PPP over Frame Relay or RFC 1483.
■
If PPP, enter the Authentication Name and Authentication
Password provided to you. You can change the header compression
from the default of none to TCP/IP if you wish.
■
Check Enable Bridging and Enable MAC Encapsulated Routing
boxes according to your service provider’s directions.
2 Click the Add button. This advances you to the ATM Modify screen.
840ug.book Page 4 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
E-4
APPENDIX E: CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Step 2: Configuring
the Remote Site ATM
Parameters (ATM
Only)
The ATM Modify screen is to be filled in with information from the
Configuration Planning Forms in Chapter 1 of the Installation Guide.
The screen contains the following fields:
1 Enter the information in these fields as contained in the Configuration
Planning Forms.
■
Enter the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and the Virtual Channel Identifier
(VCI) for the virtual channel you are configuring.
■
If necessary, enter any upstream Category of Service parameters
that may have been provided to you.
■
The default value of UBR with a Peak Cell Rate (PCR) of 0 will attempt
to use all available bandwidth when transmitting.
2 Press Next to continue on to the IP Modify Screen.
Step 3: Configuring
the Remote Site IP
Network Information
The IP Modify screen contains the following fields.
840ug.book Page 5 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Instructions for Internet Access
E-5
1 Configure the Local WAN IP Address:
■
If the ISP provided you with a single IP address, select Specified and
enter that address.
■
If you are using PPP to dynamically assign an address, select Dynamic,
and the remote site on the WAN will assign a local WAN IP address to
you.
■
Otherwise, select Unnumbered, and there will be no IP address
assigned to the VC connection.
■
Configure the Remote WAN IP Address:
■
If the ISP provided a remote IP address and netmask, select Specified
and type in that address and netmask.
■
If the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is learning the remote IP address
from the remote site (PPP only), select Learn From Remote.
■
In order to designate the remote site you are configuring as the
default gateway, check the Use Remote as Default Gateway
checkbox.(Only one remote site can be designated as the default
gateway.)
840ug.book Page 6 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
E-6
APPENDIX E: CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
■
If you want to run RIP, select from the pull-down menu to have the RIP
set to Broadcast, Listen, or Broadcast & Listen, and if one of these
is chosen, set the RIP option to RIPV1 or RIPV2.
■
Ensure that Enable IP is checked (enabled).
2 Press the Next button to proceed to the IP Advanced Modify screen. This
screen contains the following fields:
3 Check the Enable PAT button to use Port Address Translation (refer to
the Configuration Planning Table in Chapter 1 of the OfficeConnect
Remote 840 SDSL Router Install Guide to determine if PAT is to be
enabled).
You cannot use an unnumbered Local IP WAN Address and have PAT
enabled.
840ug.book Page 7 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Instructions for Telecommuting / Remote Office Access
E-7
4 Press the Modify button before leaving this screen to save the changes.
5 If you are also going to configure the router for Telecommuting / Remote
Office Access, continue to the next section. Otherwise, go to Using the
Configuration Audit.
Instructions for
Telecommuting /
Remote Office
Access
Step 1: Configuring
Remote Site General
Information
Before you configure your OfficeConnect Remote 840 to access a remote
office, make sure you have completed the Telecommuting/Remote Access
Planning Form from Chapter 1 of the Installation Guide by entering
information from your remote site network administrator.
Add a remote site by going to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home
page.
1 Add a remote site by going to the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home
page. Select Configuration > Remote Sites (WAN) > Add.
If your unit is using Frame Relay, this will access the Remote Sites General
Add screen, containing the following fields:
■
Enter a name to identify the remote site.
■
Set Network Service to PPP over Frame Relay or RFC 1490.
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E-8
APPENDIX E: CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
■
Enter the DLCI.
■
Check the Enable Bridging and/or Enable MAC Encapsulated
Routing boxes as needed.
If your unit is using ATM, the Remote Sites General Add screen will
contain the following fields:
■
Enter a name to identify the remote site.
■
Set Network Service to PPP over Frame Relay or RFC 1483.
■
If PPP, enter the Authentication Name and Authentication Password
provided to you. You can change the header compression from the
default of none to TCP/IP if you wish.
■
Check the Enable Bridging and/or Enable MAC Encapsulated
Routing boxes as needed.
2 Click the Add button. This advances you to the ATM Modify screen.
840ug.book Page 9 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Instructions for Telecommuting / Remote Office Access
Step 2: Configuring
the Remote Site ATM
Parameters
E-9
The ATM Modify screen shown below is to be filled in with information
from the Configuration Planning Table you completed in Chapter 1 of the
Installation Guide.
1 Enter the information in these fields as contained in the Configuration
Planning Table in Chapter 1 of the OfficeConnect Remote 840 SDSL
Router Install Guide.
2 2 Enter the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and the Virtual Channel Identifier
(VCI) for the virtual channel you are configuring.
3 If necessary, enter any upstream Category of Service parameters that may
have been provided to you.
The default value of UBR with a Peak Cell Rate (PCR) of 0 will attempt to
use all available bandwidth when transmitting.
4 Press Next to continue on to the IP Modify Screen.
840ug.book Page 10 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
E-10
APPENDIX E: CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Step 3: Configuring
the Remote Site IP
Network Information
1 If you are routing with IP, complete the entries on this screen.
Otherwise, press Next.
2 Local WAN IP Address:
■
If the remote site administrator provided you with a single IP address,
select Specified and enter that address.
■
If you are using PPP to assign a single IP address dynamically, select
Dynamic, and the remote site on the WAN will assign a local WAN IP
address to you.
■
Otherwise, select Unnumbered, and there will be no IP address
assigned to the VC connection.
3 Remote WAN IP Address:
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Instructions for Telecommuting / Remote Office Access
E-11
■
If the remote site administrator provided a remote IP address and
netmask, select Specified and type in that address and netmask.
■
If the OfficeConnect Remote 840 is learning the remote IP address
from the remote site (PPP only), select Learn From Remote.
■
In order to have the remote site you are configuring act as the default
gateway, check the Use Remote as Default Gateway checkbox.
(Only one remote site can be designated as the default gateway.)
■
If you want to run RIP, select from the pull-down menu to have the RIP
set to Broadcast, Listen, or Broadcast & Listen, and if one of these
is chosen, set the RIP option to RIPV1 or RIPV2.
■
Ensure that Enable IP is checked (enabled).
4 Press the Next button to proceed to the IP Advanced Modify screen
(shown below).
5 Check the Enable PAT button to use Port Address Translation. (See the
Configuration Planning Table in Chapter 1 of the Installation Guide to
determine if PAT is to be enabled.) If Network Address translation is
required, select NAT.
840ug.book Page 12 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
E-12
APPENDIX E: CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
You cannot use an unnumbered Local IP WAN Address and have PAT
enabled.
6 If you are routing IPX, press the Next button to proceed to the IPX
Modify screen. If you are not routing IPX, press Modify to complete
the remote site configuration.
Step 4: Configuring
the Remote Site IPX
Network Information
1 If you are routing IPX, complete the entries in this page. Otherwise,
press the Modify button to complete your remote site configuration,
and then press the Save Configuration button.
2 Select the option in the IPX WAN Network Address box.
■
Select Unnumbered or, if the remote site administrator provided an
IPX address for the WAN connection, select Numbered and then
enter the address.
■
To automatically learn IPX RIPs and SAPs, set the IPX Routing option
to Both.
3 Check the Enable IPX checkbox.
4 Press the Modify button to finish the configuration of the remote site.
840ug.book Page 13 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Using the Configuration Audit
E-13
5 5 Press the Save Configuration button on the sidebar to save the
settings you just entered.
Step 5: Configuring a
Local IPX Network
If you are setting up the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to route IPX, follow
these steps.
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page, select Configuration
> Local Site (LAN) > IPX > Add.
2 Enter a name for the network, the IPX address of the network, and the
frame type of the network running on the LAN.
3 Check the Enable IPX box.
4 Click the Add button to add this defined IPX network.
5 Press the Save Configuration button on the sidebar to save the settings
you just entered.
Step 6: Configuring a
Local Bridge Network
If you are setting up the OfficeConnect Remote 840 to bridge traffic,
follow these steps:
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page, select Configuration
> Local Site (LAN) > Bridge > Add.
2 Enter a name for the network and check the Enable Bridging box.
3 Click Add to add this defined bridge network.
If you plan to bridge IP packets instead of routing them, you need to
disable IP Forwarding. To do this:
1 From the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager home page, select Global
> IP > IP Settings.
2 Uncheck the IP Forwarding checkbox, and press the Submit button. At
this point, you will momentarily lose connectivity.
3 To re-establish the connection, press the Stop button on the Web
browser, and then press the Reload button.
Using the
Configuration
Audit
When you have finished the basic configuration, run the Configuration
Audit by visiting the OfficeConnect Remote 840 home page. Select Tools
> Configuration Audit.
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E-14
APPENDIX E: CONFIGURATION (NON-SETUP WIZARD) OF THE OFFICECONNECT REMOTE 840
Read the explanation of the audit topics and categories to help you
interpret the results of the audit by selecting the audit topics at the
bottom of the page. Notice that a link is provided at the bottom of each
audit topic's configuration page if changes are needed.
Saving the
Configuration
Pressing the Save Configuration on the sidebar (also within the Tools
menu) causes the current configuration of the unit to be saved to FLASH
memory. This means that this configuration will be reinstated after power
cycle or reboot.
Unless saved to FLASH, configuration changes remain in effect only until
the next reboot or power cycle.
Testing the
Configuration
After you finish your configuration, you will need to test the
configuration. See the chapter on Testing the Configuration in the
Installation Guide.
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
F
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
3Com provides easy access to technical support information through a
variety of services. This appendix describes these services.
Information contained in this appendix is correct at time of publication.
For the very latest, 3Com recommends that you access the
3Com Corporation World Wide Web site.
Online Technical
Services
3Com offers worldwide product support 24 hours a day, 7 days a week,
through the following online systems:
■
World Wide Web Site
World Wide Web site
Access the latest networking information on the 3Com Corporation
World Wide Web site by entering the URL into your Internet browser:
http://www.3com.com/
This service provides access to online support information such as technical
documentation and software library, as well as support options ranging
from technical education to maintenance and professional services.
A user name and password are not needed with Web browser software
such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.
Support from Your
Network Supplier
If additional assistance is required, contact your network supplier. Many
suppliers are authorized 3Com service partners who are qualified to
provide a variety of services, including network planning, installation,
hardware maintenance, application training, and support services.
When you contact your network supplier for assistance, have the
following information ready:
■
Product model name, part number, and serial number
840ug.book Page 2 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
F-2
APPENDIX F: TECHNICAL SUPPORT
■
A list of system hardware and software, including revision levels
■
Diagnostic error messages
■
Details about recent configuration changes, if applicable
If you are unable to contact your network supplier, see the following
section on how to contact 3Com.
Support from 3Com
If you are unable to obtain assistance from the 3Com online technical
resources or from your network supplier, 3Com offers technical telephone
support services. To find out more about your support options, please call
the 3Com technical telephone support phone number at the location
nearest you.
When you contact 3Com for assistance, have the following information
ready:
Returning Products
for Repair
■
Product model name, part number, and serial number
■
A list of system hardware and software, including revision levels
■
Diagnostic error messages
■
Details about recent configuration changes, if applicable
Before you send a product directly to 3Com for repair, you must first
obtain a Return Materials Authorization (RMA) number. Products sent to
3Com without RMA numbers will be returned to the sender unopened,
at the sender’s expense.
To obtain an RMA number, call or fax:
Country
Telephone Number
Fax Number
U.S.A. and Canada
1 800 NET 3Com
(1 800 638 3266)
1 408 326 7120
840ug.book Page 1 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Numbers
3Com
URL F - 1
A
adding
a bridge network 5 - 3
a framed IP route to a remote site 4 - 11
a local IP network 4 - 3
a login 2 - 2
a remote site profile 3 - 2
a static IP route to the LAN 4 - 11
framed IPX route to a remote site 9 - 6
framed IPX service to a remote site 9 - 9
local IPX network 9 - 2
static IPX route to the local site 9 - 5
static IPX service to a local site 9 - 8
address
classes B - 1
reserved B - 2
translation 11 - 11
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table 11 - 9
Address Translation, defined 1 - 8
advanced
bridging options 5 - 9
RIP modification options 4 - 5
advertisement filters 12 - 3
assigning
IP addresses and subnetting B - 5
syslog managers 2 - 8
ATM E - 3
cell status 11 - 5
defined 1 - 3
interface 11 - 5
interface status 11 - 5
site counters 11 - 7
B
back panel 1 - 11
bridge
connection problems 13 - 13
counters 11 - 15
firewall 5 - 7
bridges
bridging between remote sites A -3
how they learn A -2
bridging
between remote sites A -3
building a large network A -4
840ug.book Page 2 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
concepts A -1
guidelines A -2
IP traffic 5 - 5
multiple paths between LANs A -5
bridging and routing
broadcast storms A -6
Internet A -7
IP routing A -9
network topology A -6
network, organization, and physical layout A -6
Open Systems Interconnection Network Layer Model A -8
optimum use of resource A -6
routing IP A -7
broadcast storms A -6
BRouter, defined 1 - 4
building a large network A -4
C
Command Line Interface (CLI) Guide D -1
configuring
ATM information 3 - 6
DHCP mode 7 -2
DHCP relay 7 -4
DHCP Server 7 -3, 7 -4
DNS 8 - 2
IP for the LAN 4 - 2
IP for the remote site connection 4 - 7
IP parameters for the remote site 4 - 7
IP RIP on a remote site 4 - 10
IP RIP on the LAN 4 - 5
IP static and framed routes 4 - 11
IPX for remote site connections 9 - 3
IPX for the LAN 9 - 2
adding a local IPX network 9 - 2
deleting a local IPX network 9 - 3
modifying a local IPX network 9 - 3
IPX RIP and SAP 9 - 10
IPX static and framed routes 9 - 5
IPX static and framed services 9 - 7
NAT 6 - 4
network service information 3 - 4, 3 - 5
PAT default address 6 - 2
protocol parameters 3 - 8
remote DNS servers 8 - 2
remote site IP network information 4 - 8
static DNS host entries 8 - 4
static PAT port entries 6 - 3
configuring bridging
advanced bridging options 5 - 9
bridge firewall 5 - 7
bridging IP traffic 5 - 5
840ug.book Page 3 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Default Bridge Mode 5 - 10
for remote site connections 5 - 4
for the LAN 5 - 3
introduction 5 - 1
MAC-Encapsulated Routing 5 - 6
monitoring 5 - 11
testing 5 - 11
configuring bridging for the LAN
adding a bridge network 5 - 3
deleting a bridge network 5 - 4
modifying a bridge network 5 - 4
configuring IP RIP on the LAN
advanced RIP configuration options 4 - 5
local site (LAN) RIP 4 - 5
configuring IP routing
adding a local IP network 4 - 3
configuring IP for the remote site connection 4 - 7
configuring IP RIP on a remote site 4 - 10
configuring IP static and framed routes 4 - 11
deleting a local IP network 4 - 4
enabling 4 - 2
introduction 4 - 1
IP address
validation 4 - 12
IP RIP configuration on the LAN 4 - 5
IP testing (PING) 4 - 14
modifying a local IP network 4 - 4
monitoring 4 - 14
configuring IP static and framed routes
adding a framed IP route to a remote site 4 - 11
adding a static IP route to the LAN 4 - 11
configuring IPX RIP and SAP
local site (LAN) RIP and SAP 9 - 10
remote site RIP and SAP 9 - 11
configuring IPX static and framed routes
adding framed IPX route to a remote site 9 - 6
adding static IPX route to the local site 9 - 5
configuring IPX static and framed services
adding a framed IPX service to a remote site 9 - 9
adding a static IPX service to a local site 9 - 8
connection
event log 11 - 16
traffic/error counters 11 - 7
controlling
SNMP access 2 - 4
TFTP access 2 - 6
controlling login and Telnet access 2 - 1
adding a login 2 - 2
deleting a login 2 - 2
conventions 2
notice icons, About This Guide 2
text, About This Guide 3
counters
840ug.book Page 4 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
ATM site 11 - 7
bridge 11 - 15
connection traffic/error 11 - 7
DHCP 11 - 11
Ethernet interface 11 - 4
Frame Relay VC site 11 - 8
IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP 11 - 10
creating filters
overview 12 - 4
using OfficeConnect Remote 840 12 - 4
using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 12
Critical Event Log 11 - 16
D
data filters 12 - 2
Default Bridge Mode 5 - 10
installing OfficeConnect Remote 840 5 - 11
overview 5 - 10
Default Bridge Mode, defined 1 - 9
defaults, restoring 2 - 3
deleting
a bridge network 5 - 4
a local IP network 4 - 4
a login 2 - 2
a remote site profile 3 - 3
local IPX network 9 - 3
DIP switches 1 - 12
document notation 3, 1 - 16
Domain Name Server (DNS)
configuring 8 - 2
configuring remote servers 8 - 2
configuring static DNS host entries 8 - 4
overview 8 - 1
Domain Name Server (DNS), defined 1 - 8
dynamic
Network Address Translation C -3
Port Address Translation C -5
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 11 - 10
configuration 7 -2
counters 11 - 11
defined 1 - 7
lease table 11 - 10
monitoring 7 -4
overview 7 -1
relay configuration 7 -4
server configuration 7 -3
Smart Mode 7 -4
Smart Mode, defined 1 - 8
E
840ug.book Page 5 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
enabling
bridging for remote site connections 5 - 5
IP routing 4 - 2
Ethernet interface
counters 11 - 4
interface status 11 - 3
Ethernet performance 11 - 3
F
factory defaults, restoring 2 - 3
filtering
advertisement filters 12 - 3
capabilities 12 - 2
creating filters 12 - 4
creating filters using OfficeConnect Remote 840 12 - 4
creating filters using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 12
data filters 12 - 2
filter classes 12 - 2
filter types 12 - 2
generic filters 12 - 3
modifying filters using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 13
OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager filter screens 12 - 6
overview 12 - 1
turning a filter off using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 13
forwarding table 11 - 15
Frame Relay E - 2
defined 1 - 3
VC site counters 11 - 8
front panel 1 - 10
G
general network connection problems 13 - 7
generic filters 12 - 3
getting started quickly 1 - 9
H
how bridges learn A -2
how to use this guide 2
I
ICMP
tables 11 - 10
ICMP counters 11 - 10
installing upgraded software 10 - 2
via DOS 10 - 3
via OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 10 - 2
Internet A -7
840ug.book Page 6 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
IP
counters 11 - 10
network connection problems 13 - 9
networks 11 - 8
numbered and unnumbered links B - 7
planning B - 5
routing A -9
subnet mask address B - 5
tables 11 - 10
testing (PING) 4 - 14
Wizard problems 13 - 3
IP address
and subnetting B - 5
range of B - 6
reserved B - 2
single B - 6
validation 4 - 12
IP addressing basics
address classes B - 1
introduction B - 1
IP addresses and subnetting B - 5
IP numbered and unnumbered links B - 7
IP planning B - 5
IP subnet mask address B - 5
range of IP addresses B - 6
reserved addresses B - 2
single IP address B - 6
subnetting B - 1
subnetting and the OfficeConnect Remote 840 B - 4
supernetting (advanced TCP/IP) B - 3
IPX 11 - 13
network connection problems 13 - 12
networks 11 - 13
routes 11 - 13
services 11 - 14
testing 9 - 12
IPX routing
configuring for LAN 9 - 2
configuring IPX for remote site connections 9 - 3
configuring IPX RIP and SAP 9 - 10
configuring IPX static and framed routes 9 - 5
configuring IPX static and framed services 9 - 7
IPX testing 9 - 12
monitoring IPX 9 - 12
overview 9 - 1
support for MAC-Encapsulated Routing 9 - 12
L
LAN connection problems 13 - 3
local site (LAN)
RIP 4 - 5
840ug.book Page 7 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
RIP and SAP 9 - 10
M
MAC-Encapsulated Routing 1 - 4, 4 - 13, 5 - 6
managing
OfficeConnect Remote 840 1 - 14
remote site profile 3 - 2
mapped address table 11 - 11
menus for the OfficeConnect Remote 840 1 - 15
modifying
a bridge network 5 - 4
a local IP network 4 - 4
a remote site profile 3 - 3
date and time 2 - 3
filters using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 13
local IPX network 9 - 3
monitoring
bridge networks 11 - 14
bridging 5 - 11
DHCP 7 -4
IPX 9 - 12
OfficeConnect Remote 840 11 - 1
remote site connections 3 - 8
monitoring the OfficeConnect Remote 840
address translation 11 - 11
ATM interface 11 - 5
bridge 11 - 14
Critical Event Log 11 - 16
DHCP 11 - 10
Ethernet performance 11 - 3
IP networks 11 - 8
IPX 11 - 13
remote site connection 11 - 7
throughput performance 11 - 1
multiple paths between LANs A -5
N
network
organization A -6
supplier support F - 1
topology A -6
Network Address Translation C -2
dynamic C -3
example C -2
static C -4
network address translation
configuring NAT 6 - 4
configuring PAT default addresses 6 - 2
configuring static PAT port entries 6 - 3
selecting 6 - 1
840ug.book Page 8 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
O
Obtaining 10 - 1
obtaining
upgraded software 10 - 1
OfficeConnect Remote 840
back panel 1 - 11
CD 10 - 2
creating filters 12 - 12
defined 1 - 2
DIP switches 1 - 12
filter screens 12 - 6
front panel 1 - 10
installing in Default Bridge Mode 5 - 11
managing 1 - 14
menus 1 - 15
modifying filters 12 - 13
monitoring 11 - 1
panel features 1 - 10
starting 1 - 15
turning a filter off 12 - 13
using 1 - 16
online
help 1 - 17
technical services F - 1
Open Systems Interconnection Network Layer Model A -8
optimum use of resource A -6
P
physical layout A -6
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
benefits 1 - 7
defined 1 - 7
Port Address Translation C -4
default C -6
dynamic C -5
example C -4
static C -5
port assignment table 11 - 12
problems
bridge connection 13 - 13
general network connection 13 - 7
IP network connection 13 - 9
IP Wizard 13 - 3
IPX network connection 13 - 12
LAN connection 13 - 3
WAN connection 13 - 6
Web wizard 13 - 3
R
840ug.book Page 9 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
range of IP addresses B - 6
remote site
connection 11 - 7
defined 1 - 5
RIP and SAP 9 - 11
status table 11 - 8
remote site management
adding a remote site profile 3 - 2
configuring ATM information 3 - 6
configuring network service information (PPP / RFC 1483/RFC 1490) 3 - 4, 3 - 5
configuring protocol parameters 3 - 8
deleting a remote site profile 3 - 3
managing a profile 3 - 2
modifying a remote site profile 3 - 3
monitoring remote site connections 3 - 8
overview 3 - 1
remote site profile
adding 3 - 2
deleting 3 - 3
modifying 3 - 3
reserved addresses B - 2
Reset button 2 - 4
resource, optimum use A -6
restoring factory defaults 2 - 3
returning products for repair F - 2
RFC 1483
benefits 1 - 7
defined 1 - 6
RFC 1490, defined 1 - 7
routing
concepts A -1
guidelines A -2
IP A -7
vs. bridging 1 - 4
S
safety information 4
SDSL modem, defined 1 - 3
SDSL transceiver status 11 - 6
selecting address translation 6 - 1
single IP address B - 6
Smart Mode 7 -4
SNMP
access 2 - 4
trap managers 2 - 7
software, updating 2 - 4
starting OfficeConnect Remote 840 1 - 15
static
DNS host entries 8 - 4
Network Address Translation C -4
Port Address Translation C -5
840ug.book Page 10 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
storms A -6
structure A -6
subnetting B - 1
and the OfficeConnect Remote 840 B - 4
supernetting (advanced TCP/IP) B - 3
syslog managers 2 - 8
System Administration tasks 2 - 1
assigning SNMP trap managers 2 - 7
assigning syslog managers 2 - 8
controlling login and Telnet access 2 - 1
controlling SNMP access 2 - 4
controlling TFTP access 2 - 6
modifying the date and time 2 - 3
restoring factory defaults 2 - 3
updating software 2 - 4
T
table of
mapped addresses 11 - 11
port assignments 11 - 12
tables
IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP 11 - 10
TCP
counters 11 - 10
tables 11 - 10
technical support
3Com URL F - 1
network suppliers F - 1
product repair F - 2
testing bridging 5 - 11
TFTP access 2 - 6
throughput performance 11 - 1
topology A -6
trap managers 2 - 7
troubleshooting
bridge connection problems 13 - 13
general network connection problems 13 - 7
IP network connection problems 13 - 9
IP Wizard problems 13 - 3
IPX network connection problems 13 - 12
LAN connection problems 13 - 3
tables 13 - 2
tools 13 - 1
WAN connection problems 13 - 6
Web browser problems 13 - 3
turning a filter off using the OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 12 - 13
U
UDP
counters 11 - 10
840ug.book Page 11 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
tables 11 - 10
Unconfigured Mode, defined 1 - 9
updating software 2 - 4
upgrading software
installing 10 - 2
obtaining 10 - 1
OfficeConnect Remote 840 CD 10 - 2
via DOS 10 - 3
via OfficeConnect Remote 840 Manager 10 - 2
URL F - 1
using OfficeConnect Remote 840 1 - 16
W
WAN
connection problems 13 - 6
interface events 11 - 16
Web browser problems 13 - 3
World Wide Web (WWW) F - 1
Y
Year 2000 compliance 5
840ug.book Page 12 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
840ug.book Page 13 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
3Com Corporation LIMITED WARRANTY
This warranty applies to customers located in the United States, Australia, Canada (except Quebec), Ireland,
New Zealand, U.K., and other English language countries, and countries for which a translation into the local
language is not provided.
OFFICECONNECT Remote 840 SDSL Router
HARDWARE
3Com warrants this hardware product to be free from defects in workmanship and materials, under normal
use and service, for the following length of time from the date of purchase from 3Com or its authorized
reseller:
Five (5) years
3Com’s sole obligation under this express warranty shall be, at 3Com’s option and expense, to repair the
defective product or part, deliver to Customer an equivalent product or part to replace the defective item, or
if neither of the two foregoing options is reasonably available, 3Com may, in its sole discretion, refund to
Customer the purchase price paid for the defective product. All products that are replaced will become the
property of 3Com. Replacement products may be new or reconditioned. 3Com warrants any replaced or
repaired product or part for ninety (90) days from shipment, or the remainder of the initial warranty period,
whichever is longer.
SOFTWARE
3Com warrants that each software program licensed from it will perform in substantial conformance to its
program specifications, for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of purchase from 3Com or its
authorized reseller. 3Com warrants the media containing software against failure during the warranty
period. No updates are provided. 3Com's sole obligation under this express warranty shall be, at 3Com's
option and expense, to refund the purchase price paid by Customer for any defective software product, or to
replace any defective media with software which substantially conforms to applicable 3Com published
specifications. Customer assumes responsibility for the selection of the appropriate applications program and
associated reference materials. 3Com makes no warranty or representation that its software products will
meet Customer’s requirements or work in combination with any hardware or applications software products
provided by third parties, that the operation of the software products will be uninterrupted or error free, or
that all defects in the software products will be corrected. For any third party products listed in the 3Com
software product documentation or specifications as being compatible, 3Com will make reasonable efforts to
provide compatibility, except where the non-compatibility is caused by a "bug" or defect in the third party's
product or from use of the software product not in accordance with 3Com’s published specifications or user
manual.
THIS 3COM PRODUCT MAY INCLUDE OR BE BUNDLED WITH THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE, THE USE OF WHICH
IS GOVERNEND BY A SEPARATE END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT. THIS 3COM WARRANTY DOES NOT APPLY
TO SUCH THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE. FOR THE APPLICABLE WARRANTY, PLEASE REFER TO THE END USER
LICENSE AGREEMENT GOVERNING THE USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE.
YEAR 2000 WARRANTY
In addition to the Hardware Warranty and Software Warranty stated above, 3Com warrants that each
product sold or licensed to Customer on and after January 1, 1998 that is date sensitive will continue
performing properly with regard to such date data on and after January 1, 2000, provided that all other
products used by Customer in connection or combination with the 3Com product, including hardware,
software, and firmware, accurately exchange date data with the 3Com product, with the exception of those
products identified at 3Com’s Web site, http://www.3com.com/products/yr2000.html, as not meeting this
standard. If it appears that any product that is stated to meet this standard does not perform properly with
regard to such date data on and after January 1, 2000, and Customer notifies 3Com before the later of April
1, 2000, or ninety (90) days after purchase of the product from 3Com or its authorized reseller, 3Com shall,
at its option and expense, provide a software update which would effect the proper performance of such
product, repair such product, deliver to Customer an equivalent product to replace such product, or if none
of the foregoing is feasible, refund to Customer the purchase price paid for such product.
Any software update or replaced or repaired product will carry a Year 2000 Warranty for ninety (90) days
after purchase or until April 1, 2000, whichever is later.
OBTAINING WARRANTY
SERVICE
Customer must contact a 3Com Corporate Service Center or an Authorized 3Com Service Center within the
applicable warranty period to obtain warranty service authorization. Dated proof of purchase from 3Com or
its authorized reseller may be required. Products returned to 3Com's Corporate Service Center must be
pre-authorized by 3Com with a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number marked on the outside of the
package, and sent prepaid and packaged appropriately for safe shipment, and it is recommended that they
be insured or sent by a method that provides for tracking of the package. The repaired or replaced item will
be shipped to Customer, at 3Com's expense, not later than thirty (30) days after 3Com receives the defective
product.
3Com shall not be responsible for any software, firmware, information, or memory data of Customer
contained in, stored on, or integrated with any products returned to 3Com for repair, whether under
warranty or not.
840ug.book Page 14 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
Dead- or Defective-on-Arrival. In the event a product completely fails to function or exhibits a defect in
materials or workmanship within the first forty-eight (48) hours of installation but no later than thirty (30)
days after the date of purchase, and this is verified by 3Com, it will be considered dead- or
defective-on-arrival (DOA) and a replacement shall be provided by advance replacement. The replacement
product will normally be shipped not later than three (3) business days after 3Com’s verification of the DOA
product, but may be delayed due to export or import procedures. When an advance replacement is provided
and Customer fails to return the original product to 3Com within fifteen (15) days after shipment of the
replacement, 3Com will charge Customer for the replacement product, at list price.
Telephone Support. This OfficeConnect® or SuperStack® product comes with telephone technical support
for ninety (90) days. The ninety (90) day period begins on the date of Customer’s product purchase.
The telephone technical support is available from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., local time, Monday through Friday,
excluding local holidays. Telephone technical support is limited to the 3Com products designated above, and
may include assistance with installation, product specific configuration, and identification of equipment
problems. Please refer to the Technical Support appendix in the User’s Guide for telephone numbers.
Response to requests for telephone technical support will be in the form of a return call from a 3Com
representative by close of business the following business day.
To qualify for this ninety (90) days of telephone technical support, Customer must register on the 3Com Web
site at http://support.3com.com/index/htm, and provide the date of purchase, product number, and serial
number. 3Com reserves the right to modify or cancel this telephone support and software update offering at
any time, without advance notice. This offering is not available where prohibited or restricted by law.
WARRANTIES EXCLUSIVE
IF A 3COM PRODUCT DOES NOT OPERATE AS WARRANTED ABOVE, CUSTOMER'S SOLE REMEDY FOR
BREACH OF THAT WARRANTY SHALL BE REPAIR, REPLACEMENT, OR REFUND OF THE PURCHASE PRICE
PAID, AT 3COM'S OPTION. TO THE FULL EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW, THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES AND
REMEDIES ARE EXCLUSIVE AND ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, TERMS, OR CONDITIONS,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, EITHER IN FACT OR BY OPERATION OF LAW, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING
WARRANTIES, TERMS, OR CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
SATISFACTORY QUALITY, CORRESPONDENCE WITH DESCRIPTION, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT, ALL OF
WHICH ARE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMED. 3COM NEITHER ASSUMES NOR AUTHORIZES ANY OTHER PERSON TO
ASSUME FOR IT ANY OTHER LIABILITY IN CONNECTION WITH THE SALE, INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE OR
USE OF ITS PRODUCTS.
3COM SHALL NOT BE LIABLE UNDER THIS WARRANTY IF ITS TESTING AND EXAMINATION DISCLOSE THAT
THE ALLEGED DEFECT OR MALFUNCTION IN THE PRODUCT DOES NOT EXIST OR WAS CAUSED BY
CUSTOMER'S OR ANY THIRD PERSON'S MISUSE, NEGLECT, IMPROPER INSTALLATION OR TESTING,
UNAUTHORIZED ATTEMPTS TO OPEN, REPAIR OR MODIFY THE PRODUCT, OR ANY OTHER CAUSE BEYOND
THE RANGE OF THE INTENDED USE, OR BY ACCIDENT, FIRE, LIGHTNING, OTHER HAZARDS, OR ACTS OF
GOD.
LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
TO THE FULL EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW, 3COM ALSO EXCLUDES FOR ITSELF AND ITS SUPPLIERS ANY
LIABILITY, WHETHER BASED IN CONTRACT OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), FOR INCIDENTAL,
CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR FOR LOSS OF REVENUE OR
PROFITS, LOSS OF BUSINESS, LOSS OF INFORMATION OR DATA, OR OTHER FINANCIAL LOSS ARISING OUT
OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SALE, INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, USE, PERFORMANCE, FAILURE, OR
INTERRUPTION OF ITS PRODUCTS, EVEN IF 3COM OR ITS AUTHORIZED RESELLER HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, AND LIMITS ITS LIABILITY TO REPAIR, REPLACEMENT, OR REFUND OF THE
PURCHASE PRICE PAID, AT 3COM'S OPTION. THIS DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES WILL NOT BE
AFFECTED IF ANY REMEDY PROVIDED HEREIN SHALL FAIL OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE.
DISCLAIMER
Some countries, states, or provinces do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or the
limitation of incidental or consequential damages for certain products supplied to consumers, or the
limitation of liability for personal injury, so the above limitations and exclusions may be limited in their
application to you. When the implied warranties are not allowed to be excluded in their entirety, they will be
limited to the duration of the applicable written warranty. This warranty gives you specific legal rights which
may vary depending on local law.
GOVERNING LAW
This Limited Warranty shall be governed by the laws of the State of California, U.S.A. excluding its conflicts of
laws principles and excluding the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of
Goods.
3Com Corporation
5400 Bayfront Plaza
Santa Clara, CA 95054
(408) 326-5000
840ug.book Page 15 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
FCC CLASS B STATEMENT
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1 This device may not cause harmful interference, and
2 This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
WARNING: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules, and the Canadian Department of Communications Equipment
Standards entitled, “Digital Apparatus,” ICES-003. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception,
which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
■
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
■
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
■
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from the one which the receiver is connected to.
■
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
The user may find the following booklet prepared by the Federal Communications Commission helpful:
The Interference Handbook
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Stock No.
004-000-00345-4.
NOTE: In order to maintain compliance with the limits of a Class B digital device, 3Com requires that you use
quality interface cables when connecting to this device. Changes or modifications not expressly approved by
3Com could void the user’s authority to operate this equipment. Refer to the manual for specifications on
cabling types.
FCC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
We declare under our sole responsibility that the
Model:
3C840
Description:
OfficeConnect Remote 840
to which this declaration relates, is in conformity with the following standards or other normative documents:
■
ANSI C63.4-1992 Methods of Measurement
■
Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 15, subpart B
5.107 (e) Class B conducted limits
5.109 (g) Class B Radiated Emissions Limits
3Com Corporation, 5400 Bayfront Plaza, P.O. Box 58145, Santa Clara, CA 95052-8145
840ug.book Page 16 Friday, July 7, 2000 2:23 PM
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